Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.
The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.
Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.
Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.
The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).
Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.
A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.
Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.
A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.
The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.
A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.
Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.
A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.
A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.
A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (1/59)

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

Dual effects of prolonged ACTH stimulation on 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide-induced adrenocortical lesions in rats. (2/59)

The effects of a long-acting synthetic ACTH on 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide (4HAQO)-induced adrenocortical lesions were investigated in female rats. A total of 140 6-week-old rats were divided into 4 equal groups, given a single s.c. injection of 7 mg/kg 4HAQO or vehicle, followed by repeated sc administration of the synthetic ACTH or no further treatment. Subgroups of 10 rats in each group were sequentially sacrificed at weeks 20, 30, and 40. Adenomas and adenomatous nodules developed in the adrenal cortex of animals receiving 4HAQO and the chronic ACTH stimulation. Both lesions were located in the deeper zones of the adrenal cortex adjacent to the medulla and were composed of large-sized, clear-type cells. From week 20, middle zone, cortical cystic degeneration, which mimics the age-associated degenerative change named adrenal peliosis, was frequently observed in the adrenal glands of animals treated with 4HAQO alone. Its development was inhibited by ACTH. In the control animals, peliotic changes occurred at low incidence and only at the termination of experiment. These results indicate that long-term stimulation of ACTH promotes the development of adrenocortical tumors but suppresses the occurrence of adrenal peliosis in rats treated with 4HAQO.  (+info)

Lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin together with increased body temperature and higher mCPP-induced cortisol responses in men with pedophilia. (3/59)

There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin concentrations and a higher body temperature than normal volunteers. The mCPP-induced cortisol responses were significantly greater in pedophiles than in normal volunteers. In normal volunteers, mCPP-induced a hyperthermic response, whereas in pedophiles no such response was observed. mCPP induced different behavioral responses in pedophiles than in normal men. In pedophiles, but not in normal men, mCPP increased the sensations "feeling dizzy, " "restless," and "strange" and decreased the sensation "feeling hungry". The results suggest that there are several serotonergic disturbances in pedophiles. It is hypothesized that the results are compatible with a decreased activity of the serotonergic presynaptic neuron and a 5-HT2 postsynaptic receptor hyperresponsivity.  (+info)

Structure-activity relationships for ulcerogenic and adrenocorticolytic effects of alkyl nitriles, amines, and thiols. (4/59)

In rats, a single administration of acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) produces a rapidly occurring bilateral adrenal apoplexy. Structure-activity studies have shown that a close derivative, propionitrile (ethyl cyanide), causes duodenal ulcer without markedly affecting the adrenal glands. Prolonging the two-carbon chain of propionitrile by a methyl group (n-butyronitrile) enhances, replacing the methyl by bromide or nitrile decreases, while substitution by an amino group abolistes the ulcerogenic potency and variably affects the adrenocorticolytic action. On assaying a large number of nonnitrile compounds as well for ulcerogenic effect, such as thiols and amines, this effect was found to be related to a two-carbon structure bearing electronegative radicals on one or both ends of the chain.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization of human peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and PKA regulatory subunit type 1A (PRKAR1A)-associated protein PAP7, and studies in PRKAR1A mutant cells and tissues. (5/59)

A mouse protein that interacts with the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIalpha (PRKAR1A), named PBR and PKA-associated protein 7 (PAP7), was identified and shown to be involved in hormone-induced steroid biosynthesis. We report the identification of the human PAP7 gene, its expression pattern, genomic structure, and chromosomal mapping to 1q32-1q41. Human PAP7 is a 60-kDa protein highly homologous to the rodent protein. PAP7 is widely present in human tissues and highly expressed in seminal vesicles, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, renal cortex, enteric epithelium, muscles, myocardium and in steroidogenic tissues, including the gonads and adrenal cortex. These tissues are also targets of Carney complex (CNC), a multiple neoplasia syndrome caused by germline inactivating PRKAR1A mutations (PRKAR1A-mut) and associated with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and increased steroid synthesis. PAP7 and PRKAR1A expression were studied in PPNAD and in lymphoblasts from patients bearing PRKAR1A-mut. Like PRKAR1A, PAP7 was decreased in CNC lymphocytes and PPNAD nodules, but not in the surrounding cortex. These studies showed that, like in the mouse, human PAP7 is highly expressed in steroidogenic tissues, where it follows the pattern of PRKAR1A expression, suggesting that it participates in PRKAR1A-mediated tumorigenesis and hypercortisolism.  (+info)

Allgrove or 4 "A" syndrome: an autosomal recessive syndrome causing multisystem neurological disease. (6/59)

Allgrove's or "4 A" syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition with alacrima, achalasia, autonomic disturbance, and ACTH insensitivity among other features. Recent studies have identified mutations in the AAAS, a candidate gene on chromosome 12q13 in such patients. Manifestations in adult patients are rarely reported. The syndrome usually presents during the first decade of life with dysphagia or severe (occasionally fatal) hypoglycaemic or hypotensive attacks, related to adrenocortical insufficiency. Onset of adrenal insufficiency or other features may be delayed to adulthood. In contrast with paediatric patients, adult patients with Allgrove's syndrome may present with multisystem neurological disease; the childhood history of achalasia or alacrima may be overlooked. The authors describe two families with two affected siblings and a further unrelated patient with typical clinical features of Allgrove's syndrome, who exhibit signs of multisystem neurological disease including hyperreflexia, muscle wasting, dysarthria, ataxia, optic atrophy, and intellectual impairment. None of the cases have developed adrenal insufficiency but all have progressive neurological disability. Autonomic dysfunction was a significant cause of morbidity in two cases. The three index cases represent the longest described follow up of Allgrove's syndrome into adulthood. It is speculated that they represent a subgroup of patients who follow an often undiagnosed chronic neurological course. Recognition of the syndrome presenting in adult life permits treatment of unrecognised autonomic dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency and dysphagia, and appropriate genetic advice.  (+info)

Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adrenocortical adenomas with unique histological features. (7/59)

Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas rarely occurs. We present a case of Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adenomas. Both adenomas had distinct cell compositions, and were compared with emphasis on immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical analysis for cytochrome P450(11beta) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD). A 37 year-old female was diagnosed with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome based on physical findings and hormonal evaluation. High-resolution CT scan showed bilateral adrenocortical adenomas and atrophied glands. 131I-methylnorcholesterol incorporation into both glands suggested both adenomas were functional. Clinical diagnosis prior to surgery was ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to functioning bilateral adenomas. The left adrenal gland was totally resected, while the right one was partially resected by laparoscopic approach. Both adenomas were black on cut sections, and were comparatively evaluated by immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical analysis for P450(11beta) and 3betaSD. The left adenoma was 1.6 cm in diameter and had a complex cellular composition and enzyme expression similar to that of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), while the right adenoma was 1.8 cm in diameter with compact cells typical of a solitary cortisol-producing adenoma. Adjacent bilateral adrenal cortex showed marked atrophy, but contained several micronodules. Serum cortisol levels, both at basal and after a low dodexamethasone, normalized thirteen months after surgery. In conclusion, the present case of Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal adenomas demonstrated for the first time the simultaneous occurrence of two distinct adenomas, an ordinary cortisol-producing adenoma and a PPNAD-like adenoma. Further case reports of multiple adrenal adenomas should be well-analyzed to clarify whether the results from this case represent a new subgroup of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome.  (+info)

Aldosteronism associated with adrenal cortical adenoma. (8/59)

An electrolyte-regulating corticoid has been identified and given the name aldosterone. This hormone may be produced in amounts above normal in adrenal cortical tumors in hyperplastic adrenal glands and in normal appearing adrenal glands. Overproduction of aldosterone is accompanied by certain characteristic clinical manifestations which should suggest the diagnosis. The diagnosis may be supported by examinations available in most well equipped clinical laboratories. Bioassay of aldosterone in the urine and estimation of exchangeable body sodium and potassium, using radioactive salts, are necessary for confirmation of the diagnosis.Since the description of this salt-retaining hormone by Simpson and Tait and the discovery of its chemical structure by Reichstein in 1954, reports of 14 cases have been published. Surgical removal of the offending tissue gives spectacular relief from the very distressing symptoms.  (+info)

Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is a rare cause of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushings syndrome. We report an uncommon primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease case presenting with a unilateral adrenocortical nodule and provide a brief overview of the existing literature. A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Department with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushings syndrome. Its cause was initially considered a left adrenocortical adenoma based on computer tomography imaging. The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy and histological examination revealed pigmented micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Evaluation for the presence of Carney complex was negative. Six months later recurrence of hypercortisolism was documented and a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed further establishing the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. After a nine-year follow-up there is no evidence of residual disease. Even
Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism characterized by (a) resistance to suppression by dexamethasone and abolition of the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion, and (b) distinctive, bilateral, histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of normal zonation and atrophy of the extranodular cortex. PPNAD can be associated with a variety of other manifestations, such as myxomas of the skin, heart, breast and other sites, psammomatous melanotic swannomas involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS), lentigines and blue nevi of the skin and mucosae, growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, testicular Sertoli cell tumors, and possibly other neoplasms (adrenocortical and thyroid follicular carcinoma, and ovarian cysts). These associations constitute a distinct clinical syndrome, Carney complex, a genetic syndrome. At ...
Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism characterized by (a) resistance to suppression by dexamethasone and abolition of the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion, and (b) distinctive, bilateral, histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of normal zonation and atrophy of the extranodular cortex. PPNAD can be associated with a variety of other manifestations, such as myxomas of the skin, heart, breast and other sites, psammomatous melanotic swannomas involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS), lentigines and blue nevi of the skin and mucosae, growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, testicular Sertoli cell tumors, and possibly other neoplasms (adrenocortical and thyroid follicular carcinoma, and ovarian cysts). These associations constitute a distinct clinical syndrome, Carney complex, a genetic syndrome. At ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Operative management of Cushing Syndrome secondary to micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. AU - Powell, Anathea C.. AU - Stratakis, Constantine A.. AU - Patronas, Nicholas J.. AU - Steinberg, Seth M.. AU - Batista, Dalia. AU - Alexander, H. Richard. AU - Pingpank, James F.. AU - Keil, Meg. AU - Bartlett, David L.. AU - Libutti, Steven K.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Background: We reviewed our experience with micronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH), its pigmented variant primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), and the association with Carneys complex (CNC) to better characterize these disorders. Methods: This retrospective study analyzes clinical data and operative reports of 34 patients identified with MAH and/or PPNAD who underwent resection between 1969 and 2006 at the Clinical Research Center, an inpatient research hospital at the National Institutes of Health. Symptoms and anthropometric and biochemical data were used to evaluate effect of resection. ...
Carney complex and its subsets LAMB syndrome and NAME syndrome are autosomal dominant conditions comprising myxomas of the heart and skin, hyperpigmentation of the skin (lentiginosis), and endocrine overactivity. It is distinct from Carneys triad. Approximately 7% of all cardiac myxomas are associated with Carney complex. The spotty skin pigmentation and lentigines occur most commonly on the face, especially on the lips, eyelids, conjunctiva and oral mucosa. Cardiac myxomas may lead to embolic strokes and heart failure and may present with fever, joint pain, shortness of breath, diastolic rumble and tumor plop. Myxomas may also occur outside the heart, usually in the skin and breast. Endocrine tumors may manifest as disorders such as Cushing syndrome. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushings syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The LAMB acronym refers to lentigines, atrial myxomas, and blue nevi. NAME refers to nevi, ...
Carney complex (CNC) is a rare multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation of the skin and mucosa in association with various non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). A 20-year-old woman was referred for suspected Cushing syndrome. She had signs of cortisol excess as well as skin lentigines on physical examination. Biochemical investigation was suggestive of corticotropin (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome. Unenhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen did not reveal an obvious adrenal mass. She subsequently underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and histopathology was consistent with PPNAD. Genetic testing revealed a novel frameshift pathogenic variant c.488delC/p.Thr163MetfsX2 (ClinVar Variation ID: 424516) in the PRKAR1A gene, consistent with clinical suspicion for CNC. Evaluation for other clinical features of the complex was unrevealing. We present a case of PPNAD-associated Cushing syndrome ...
Carney complex (CNC) is a rare multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation of the skin and mucosa in association with various non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). A 20-year-old woman was referred for suspected Cushing syndrome. She had signs of cortisol excess as well as skin lentigines on physical examination. Biochemical investigation was suggestive of corticotropin (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome. Unenhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen did not reveal an obvious adrenal mass. She subsequently underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and histopathology was consistent with PPNAD. Genetic testing revealed a novel frameshift pathogenic variant c.488delC/p.Thr163MetfsX2 (ClinVar Variation ID: 424516) in the PRKAR1A gene, consistent with clinical suspicion for CNC. Evaluation for other clinical features of the complex was unrevealing. We present a case of PPNAD-associated Cushing syndrome ...
Introduction: We present a rare variety of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushings syndrome known as primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Clinical Picture: The patient initially underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for what was thought to be a left adrenal adenoma. Outcome: Partial resolution of symptoms and demonstrable persistent hypercortisolism after surgery prompted further evaluation with findings leading to the diagnosis of Carney complex. A review of the adrenal histology was consistent with PPNAD. Conclusion: This entity of PPNAD, which has rarely been reported in Asians, forms part of the Carney complex. The diagnosis may not be simple and straightforward, as illustrated in this patient ...
The spotty skin pigmentation and lentigines occur most commonly on the face, especially on the lips, eyelids, conjunctiva and oral mucosa.[3] Cardiac myxomas may lead to embolic strokes and heart failure[4] and may present with fever, joint pain, shortness of breath, diastolic rumble and tumor plop. Myxomas may also occur outside the heart, usually in the skin and breast. Endocrine tumors may manifest as disorders such as Cushing syndrome. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushings syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The LAMB acronym refers to lentigines, atrial myxomas, and blue nevi.[1] NAME refers to nevi, atrial myxoma, myxoid neurofibromas, and ephelides.[1] Testicular cancer, particularly Sertoli cell type, is associated with Carney syndrome.[5] Thyroid and pancreas cancer may also occur.[6][7] Although J Aidan Carney also described Carneys triad it is entirely different.[8] ...
Genetic variants in components of the protein kinase A (PKA) enzyme have been associated with various defects and neoplasms in the context of Carney complex (CNC) and in isolated cases, such as in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas (CPAs), and various cancers. PRKAR1A mutations have been found in subjects with impaired cAMP-dependent signaling and skeletal defects; bone tumors also develop in both humans and mice with PKA abnormalities. We studied the PRKACB gene in 148 subjects with PPNAD and related disorders, who did not have other PKA-related defects and identified two subjects with possibly pathogenic PRKACB gene variants and unusual bone and endocrine phenotypes. The first presented with bone and other abnormalities and carried a de novo c.858_860GAA (p.K286del) variant. The second subject carried the c.899C,T (p.T300M or p.T347M in another isoform) variant and had a PPNAD-like phenotype. Both variants are highly conserved in the ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Hypertension and adrenal cortex disease. A review of 100 autopsied cases. by Ricarda Ludwig
Assessment of cytologic evaluation of preputial epithelial cells as a diagnostic test for detection of adrenocortical disease in castrated ferrets
Learn more about Adrenocortical Disease in ferrets in this informative article from The Center for Bird and Exotic Medicine in Bothell, WA.
We report two interesting cases of CS in a pair of adolescent age-group brothers, due to ACTH-independent PPNAD, as a part of the CC. PPNAD is the most common cause of CS in the adolescent age group, with > 50% of the cases having CC, characterised by a mutation in PRKAR1A (protein kinase type 1-alpha regulatory subunit) [2]. Although genetic testing could not be done, both the patients fulfilled the clinical criteria for CC; the two major criteria which were satisfied were - the presence of spotty skin pigmentation, and PPNAD, while the presence of positive family history in a first-degree relative fulfilled the supplemental criteria [3]. Both the cases exhibited certain peculiarities typical of PPNAD, while few features were atypical. Both of them had a florid clinical presentation with severe stunting and various features of protein catabolism, whereas PPNAD is usually associated with a milder presentation. This could probably be attributed to the long duration of the cortisol burden in both ...
PIK3C2B (phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 beta), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
View Notes - Bacterial Recombination from MCB 2000 at University of Florida. BACTERIAL RECOMBINATION Purposes A. Vaccine production (subunit type) B. Production of proteins (growth hormone) C.
Centers of Excellence Curated by expert editors: a single source educational forum with lectures, literature and conference information. ...
Centers of Excellence Curated by expert editors: a single source educational forum with lectures, literature and conference information. ...
This is a ferret that is suffering from adrenal disease. Adrenal disease is a general term for any condition where one or multiple tumorous growths on the adrenal gland negatively affect the balance of hormone creation in the ferrets body. It can be treated through surgery or with a drug called Lupron, which helps stop the excess production of hormones caused by the tumor.
DefinitionExogenous Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome that occurs in people taking glucocorticoid (also called corticosteroid) hormones.
Cushing syndrome is caused by prolonged exposure to elevated levels of either endogenous glucocorticoids or exogenous glucocorticoids. This article focuses on endogenous Cushing syndrome.
Cushing - MedHelps Cushing Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Cushing. Find Cushing information, treatments for Cushing and Cushing symptoms.
Synonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency. 1 synonym for Claude Bernard: Bernard. What are synonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency?
A very rare case of congenital adrenocortical insufficiency accompanied with ventricular septal defect, is presented. Surgical treatment together with glucocorticoid replacement therapy was performed. The patient, a 4-month-old girl with congenital adrenocortical insufficiency, had been treated with a long-term adrenocortical hormones replacement. Surgical treatment for ventricular septal defect was applied in order to reduce the risk of heart failure. The administration dose of glucocorticoid was determined according to the body surface area and chronologic change of serum cortisol. Following the surgical treatment, and with adequate glucocorticoid replacement, the patient showed a good clinical outcome. In conclusion, we showed a beneficial treatment protocol with adequate glucocorticoid replacement in open heart surgery for a case of congenital adrenocortical insufficiency ...
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands fail to release adequate amounts of these hormones to meet physiologic needs, despite release of ACTH from the pituitary. Infiltrati... more
The differential for bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands is relatively limited: adrenal hyperplasia micronodular adrenal hyperplasia macronodular adrenal hyperplasia adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplas...
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX ...
Cushing syndrome symptoms consist of weight gain, acne and hypertension, due to excessive levels of cortisol, which is the stress hormone in the body. Learn more, about Cushing syndrome treatment, causes, risk factors and typical signs.
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 2 alpha - Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase family. Detailed annotation on the structure, function, physiology, pharmacology and clinical relevance of drug targets.
Cushing syndrome, first described by Harvey in 1912, refers to signs and symptoms caused by excess free plasma glucocorticoids. Excess glucocorticoids can be from increased endogenous production or prolonged exposure to exogenous use of glucocorticoid products.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Atrogin-1 Pathway Activation in Cushing Syndrome Cardiomyopathy. AU - Frustaci, Andrea. AU - Letizia, Claudio. AU - Verardo, Romina. AU - Grande, Claudia. AU - Calvieri, Camilla. AU - Russo, Matteo Antonio. AU - Chimenti, Cristina. PY - 2016/1/5. Y1 - 2016/1/5. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84952900679&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84952900679&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.10.040. DO - 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.10.040. M3 - Article. C2 - 26764074. AN - SCOPUS:84952900679. VL - 67. SP - 116. EP - 117. JO - Journal of the American College of Cardiology. JF - Journal of the American College of Cardiology. SN - 0735-1097. IS - 1. ER - ...
PRKAR2A_ENST00000296446 Gene, Drug Resistance, Tissue Distribution, Mutation Distribution, Variants, PRKAR2A_ENST00000296446 Genome Browser, PRKAR2A_ENST00000296446 References
Plasmid pDONR223-PRKAR1B from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert PRKAR1B and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Begin Again, director John Carneys bigger, slicker followup to Once, hits many of the same notes, but to more discordant effect ...
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1 Answer (question resolved) - Posted in: adrenocortical insufficiency, hydrocortisone - Answer: Side effects of hydrocortisone Less serious side ...
Abstract Salinas, Carlo E., Mercedes Villena, Carlos E. Blanco, and Dino A. Giusssani. Adrenocortical suppression in highland chick embryos is restored during incubation at sea level. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:79-87, 2011.-By combining the chick embryo model with incubation at high altitude, this study tested the hypothesis that development at high altitude is related to a fetal origin of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary suppression and that hypoxia is the mechanism underlying the relationship. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at altitude with oxygen supplementation. At day 20 of incubation, embryonic blood was taken for measurement of plasma corticotropin, corticosterone, and Po2. Following biometry, the adrenal glands were collected and frozen for measurement of catecholamine content. Development of chick embryos at high altitude led to pronounced adrenocortical ...
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Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency is most frequently caused by long-term corticosteroid administration, which leads to a hypothalamic-pituitary suppression and thus, inadequate ACTH production. After discontinuation of treatment, this type of adrenocortical insufficiency is reversible. In addition, neoplasms or inflammatory processes of hypothalamus and pituitary gland will also cause secondary insufficiency. ...
Background: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive hematological neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy. Therefore, a need for more, and more realistic, animal models remains. Lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in mice deficient for the prkar1a gene coding for the regulatory subunit type 1A of protein kinase A (PKA), but nothing is known about the role of type II PKA regulatory subunits in hematologic malignancies.. Methods: Mice deficient for the Prkar1a and Prkar2a alleles were previously reported (Kirschner et al, 2005 και Burton et al, 1997) and were kept on a mixed genetic background (C57BL/129Sv). Mice were crossed to create prkar2a+/- and prkar2a-/-. Mice were phenotyped at the ages of 3-6-9-12-18 months or when they exhibited signs of advanced disease. Tissues were collected for histological and molecular analysis.. Results: Unexpectedly, mice ...
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Thyroid cancer survival rates are 84 percent for 10 years or more if diagnosed early. Early diagnosis is crucial therefore and spotting the unusual signs could be a matter of life and death. A sign your thyroid cancer has advanced includes Cushing syndrome. What is it? What is Cushing syndrome? C...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
Patients with a mild form of Cushing syndrome, a metabolic disorder caused by adrenal tumors, demonstrate substantial clinical improvement after adrenalectomy.
Indexed peer-reviewed biomedical periodical of Staff Society of Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, India, with free access to full-text since 1990.
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Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by a variety of hamartomatous lesions in various organs. Various organ …
Im turning 29 and currently batteling my 3rd Pituitary Adenome, I had surgery 3 months ago but my cortisol levels are not dropping but actually climbing. Which means that the next step will be radiation therapy. What will be chanches be to conceive after the radiation and will my kidneys still be strong enough to go through pregnancy since a nurse told me recently that cushings also causes damage to the kidneys. Kind regards. Michelle de Villiers ...
1997 fick jag möjligheten att se Faith No More live. Minns att någon hivade upp en oöppnad ölburk på scenen som landade strax intill Mike. Hans svar blev att med full kraft kasta ut den i publiken på måfå. Träffade en kille som stod framför mig mitt i magtrakten. Förutom denna lilla incident var det en magisk konsert. ...
Designing for the future of healthcare. Cushing Terrell is recognized for foresight and expertise in healthcare design. We assist clients in navigating the complexities of an ever-changing industry while supporting their ability to provide patient-centered care to the people and communities they serve. Ranked among the Top 100 Design Firms for Healthcare in the U.S. by Modern Healthcare Magazine every year since 2003, we reimagine healing environments, providing inspirational design that emphasizes sustainability and embodies wellness.. Our integrated planning process brings together healthcare strategy, facility planning, and financial expertise. Cushing Terrell offers design solutions for hospitals and healthcare clients that are patient-focused and centered on Lean principles of circulation, flow, comfort, and efficiency.. ...
The Adrenal Cortex in Internal Medicine 1967 Cyril Astley Clarke, Prevention of Rh-Haemolytic Disease 1968 Anthony Clifford ... Cope, C. L. (1966). "The adrenal cortex in internal medicine. I". BMJ. 2 (5518): 847-853. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5518.847. PMC ... 1831-1832 Thomas Watson 1833-1834 Francis Hawkins, On Some Diseases of the Heart 1835 Francis Bisset Hawkins On Some Diseases ... On Some Diseases of the Heart 1829-1830 John Elliotson, Recent Improvements in the Art of Distinguishing the various Diseases ...
"Adrenal Cortex". Merck Veterinary Manual. 2008. Retrieved 26 January 2011. "Addison's Disease (Hypoadrenocorticism) in Dogs". ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. The adrenal outer layer, or cortex, has three layers; each produces a ... Bilateral destruction of the adrenal cortex by neoplasia (e.g. lymphosarcoma), granulomatous disease, or arterial thrombosis ... "Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison's Disease". National Endocrine and Metabolic Diseases Information Service. Archived from the ...
It occurs when the adrenal cortex produces insufficient glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid hormones. It affects ... also known as Addison's disease) is an inherited disease in Bearded Collies, although the mechanism of inheritance is not known ... Morbidity in the two studies is not easily compared, however; the UK report grouped diseases, while the USA/Canada report ... Leading causes of death among Beardies in the UK are old age (26%), cancer (19%), cerebrovascular disease (9%), and chronic ...
Excessive ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce high levels of cortisol, producing the disease state. While all ... In adrenal Cushing's, excess cortisol is produced by adrenal gland tumors, hyperplastic adrenal glands, or adrenal glands with ... that affects the adrenal glands. This etiology is called ectopic or paraneoplastic Cushing's disease and is seen in diseases ... Cortisol is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland from a region called the zona fasciculata in response to ACTH. Elevated ...
It is most significantly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells and adrenal gland and cortex tissue. Michael S. Brown and ... Disruption of LDL-R can lead to higher LDL-cholesterol as well as increasing the risk of related diseases. Individuals with ... July 2014). "Loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, triglycerides, and coronary disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... Disruptive mutations were 13 times more common in individuals with early-onset myocardial infarction or coronary artery disease ...
Cushing's disease - Physiopathology of hyperplasia of adrenal cortex due to increased circulating level of ACTH ( ... adrenocorticotropic hormone). Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Inherited disorder of gland (adrenal). Endometrial hyperplasia ... "Cushing disease". MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia. National Library of Medicine, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services ... Focal epithelial hyperplasia (also known as Heck's disease) - This is a wart-like growth in the mucous tissues of the mouth or ...
The Nobel Committee bestowed the award for the trio's "discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their ... Hench started his career at Mayo Clinic in 1923, working in the Department of Rheumatic Diseases. In 1926, he became the head ... During this same time, biochemist Edward Calvin Kendall has isolated several steroids from the adrenal gland cortex. After ... "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects." As of the 2010 ...
Addison's disease is a disorder of the adrenal cortex which results in decreased hormonal production. Addison's disease, even ... Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made within 5 to 13 years."(Blanchet C, Luton JP. 2002)"This disease should be diagnostically ... and radiologically and histopathologically as Crohn's disease". The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 13 (2): 136-140. ... Lyme disease is known as the "great imitator", as it may present as a variety of psychiatric or neurologic disorders including ...
In Type 3, autoimmune thyroiditis and another endocrine autoimmune disease are present, but the adrenal cortex is not involved ... v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Autoimmune diseases, Endocrine diseases, ... Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS) occur when more than one autoimmune disease occurs in endocrine glands. These ... Syndromes, All stub articles, Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disease stubs). ...
Addison's disease is a disorder of the adrenal cortex which results in decreased hormonal production. Addison's disease, even ... Gastrointestinal diseases, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, peptic ulcer, eosinophilic esophagitis or non-celiac gluten ... It has been documented that some people with celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease who are not ... neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, neurotoxicity such as lead exposure, bacterial infection such as Lyme ...
Addison's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the adrenal cortex such that it is unable to efficiently secrete ... The immune system specifically targets the cells of the adrenal cortex and destroys them, but Addison's disease can also be ... the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland. These ... The glucocorticoid family of hormones is synthesized in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona fasciculata. ...
Protein kinase A has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ... Mutations in the PRKACA gene that promote abnormal enzyme activity have been linked to disease of the adrenal gland. Several ... It has been speculated that abnormally high levels of PKA phosphorylation contributes to heart disease. This affects excitation ... Defective regulation of PKA holoenzyme activity has been linked to the progression of cardiovascular disease, certain endocrine ...
Haymaker that Cushing's disease is caused by hyper function of the adrenal cortex. Anderson also worked with Joseph Abraham ... She then moved to the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (NIAMD) at the National Institute of Health where ... while continuing her research on hormone related diseases. Most notably she discovered with her husband Webb E. ...
With Julius M. Rogoff he studied the functions of the adrenal medulla and cortex, including the epinephrine output and the ... usefulness of cortex extracts to treat Addison's disease. They discovered that the adrenal cortex was indispensable to the life ... Stewart published a series of papers on "The liberation of epinephrin from the adrenals" in the Journal of Pharmacology and ...
The white matter of the brain, the Leydig cells of the testes and the adrenal cortex are the most severely affected systems. ... Adrenal gland disorders, Rare diseases, Fatty-acid metabolism disorders, Peroxisomal disorders, X-linked recessive disorders). ... The most severely affected tissues are the myelin in the central nervous system, the adrenal cortex, and the Leydig cells in ... Hormone replacement is standard for ALD patients demonstrating adrenal insufficiency. Adrenal insufficiency does not resolve ...
... on Nucleic Acids and Subcellular Elements of the Adrenal Cortex. The Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology, 2(2), 115 ... Diseases of the Chest, 33(4), 347. Fiala, A., Fiala, S., Sproul, E.E. (1956) The Action of Corticotropin (ACTH) ...
... of the gene occurs in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer disease patients and overexpression has been observed in adrenal gland ... of the novel adrenocorticotropin-responsive gene selective Alzheimer's disease indicator-1 in the normal adrenal cortex and in ... 2006). "Neuronal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells: changes in the expression of the Alzheimer's disease-related ... 2007). "The association study between DHCR24 polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease". Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet ...
Addison's disease is characterized adrenal insufficiency, which is defined as the underproduction of glucocorticoids by the ... adrenal cortex. If the corticotropes underproduce ACTH this can result in secondary adrenal insufficiency, causing the adrenal ... ACTH released from the corticotropes binds to G protein-coupled receptors in the adrenal cortex, where it stimulates the ... Adrenocorticotropin hormone stimulates the adrenal cortex to release glucocorticoids and plays an important role in the stress ...
... and is used to evaluate adrenal cortex function, bone marrow performance, and in neoplastic disease to stimulate the immune ... menstrual cycle and disease flares. Etiocholanolone is produced from 5β-dihydrotestosterone, with 3α,5β-androstanediol as an ...
By blocking the calcium signal on adrenal cortex cells, they directly reduce aldosterone production, which correlates to lower ... This can help ameliorate symptoms of ischaemic heart disease such as angina pectoris. Reducing the force of contraction of the ... and cardiac muscle and for regulating aldosterone and cortisol secretion in endocrine cells of the adrenal cortex. In the heart ... N-type, L-type, and T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels are present in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal gland, ...
... as a result of deficient amounts of hormones being produced from the adrenal cortex. Due to this, dark pigmentation may be ... Many different diseases can cause melanin pigmented lesions in the mouth through Increase in the number of melanocytes or ... Most diseases are treated with the relevant medications which leads to a gradual decrease in oral melanosis. For example, ... With regards to oral melanosis caused by systemic diseases, the most important thing to do is to refer the patient to their GMP ...
It is possible not to see any symptoms of the disease until the adrenal cortex is 90% dysfunctional. Addison's can occur when ... This list of dog diseases is a selection of diseases and other conditions found in the dog. Some of these diseases are unique ... The disease in dogs is usually nodular skin lesions of the head and trunk. Aspergillosis* is a fungal disease that in dogs is ... It is most commonly caused by destruction of adrenal tissue, probably by autoimmune disease. Signs include increased drinking ...
... parathyroid cells and adrenal cortex cells. Shortage of organ donors make artificial cells key players in alternative therapies ... In treatment of genetic diseases, gene therapy aims to insert, alter or remove genes within an afflicted individual's cells. ... Enzyme therapy is being actively studied for genetic metabolic diseases where an enzyme is over-expressed, under-expressed, ... So far, clinical trials using artificial liver systems and hepatocyte transplantation in end-stage liver diseases have shown ...
Additionally, hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex is infrequent. The role of ACTH is, therefore, still poorly understood. PPID ... Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), or equine Cushing's disease, is an endocrine disease affecting the pituitary ... Horses with early disease may produce a false-negative result. In these horses, the thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation ... Unlike the human and canine forms of Cushing's disease, which most commonly affect the pars distalis region of the pituitary ...
Addison's disease) when adrenal gland production of cortisol is chronically deficient. In Cushing's disease a pituitary tumor ... This increases the bioavailability of cholesterol in the cells of the adrenal cortex. The long term actions of ACTH include ... leading to secondary adrenal insufficiency (a form of hypocorticism) Addison's disease, the primary adrenal insufficiency ( ... hypopituitarism) or tertiary adrenal insufficiency (disease of the hypothalamus, with a decrease in the release of ...
... synthesis in the adrenal cortex, and its steroidal structure (see structure below). Glucocorticoids are part of the feedback ... They are therefore used in medicine to treat diseases caused by an overactive immune system, such as allergies, asthma, ... as both are mimics of hormones produced by the adrenal cortex), but is often used as a synonym for "glucocorticoid". ... Glucocorticoids are chiefly produced in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex, whereas mineralocorticoids are synthesized ...
... inhibiting angiotensin II formation diminishes angiotensin II-mediated aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex, leading ... Serum levels are decreased in renal disease, obstructive pulmonary disease, and hypothyroidism. The angiotensin converting ... Elevated levels of ACE are also found in sarcoidosis, and are used in diagnosing and monitoring this disease. Elevated levels ... ACE's effect on Alzheimer's disease is still highly debated. Alzheimer patients usually show higher ACE levels in their brain. ...
... swelling of the adrenal cortex, atrophy of the thymus, gastric and duodenal ulcers). This, paired with his observation that ... ISBN 978-0-920393-14-7. Healing the Gerson Way, Defeating Cancer and Other Chronic Diseases, New Edition. Charlotte Gerson with ... New York: McGraw-Hill, 1956, ISBN 978-0070562127 Selye, H. (Oct 7, 1955). "Stress and disease". Science. 122 (3171): 625-631. ... the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) system, was also first described by Selye. Selye has acknowledged the ...
MeSH C19.053.098.265 - adrenal cortex neoplasms MeSH C19.053.098.265.500 - adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.098.265.750 - ... disease MeSH C19.874.283.605.500 - Graves' ophthalmopathy MeSH C19.874.283.802 - lingual goiter MeSH C19.874.397.370 - Graves' ... adrenal cortex neoplasms MeSH C19.053.347.500.500 - adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.053.347.500.750 - adrenocortical carcinoma ... adrenal cortex neoplasms MeSH C19.344.078.265.500 - adrenocortical adenoma MeSH C19.344.078.265.750 - adrenocortical carcinoma ...
... in regulating steroid hormone synthesis in the adrenal cortex, regulation of adrenal steroidogenic capacity in disease states, ... of Psychology). His Ph.D. thesis research on the "Mechanism of electron transport to cytochrome P-450 in adrenal cortex ... Rapoport R, Sklan D, Hanukoglu I (10 March 1995). "Electron leakage from the adrenal cortex mitochondrial P450scc and P450c11 ... including the adrenal cortex, and the reproductive organs. The first step of steroidogenesis is dependent on the transfer of ...
Smaller amounts of estradiol are also produced by the adrenal cortex, and, in men, by the testes.[medical citation needed] ... Preedy VR (2 December 2011). Handbook of Growth and Growth Monitoring in Health and Disease. Springer Science & Business Media ... "Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 1 (42): 42. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-1-42. PMC 1634840. PMID 17062147.. ... The source of these estrogens is the placenta, which aromatizes prohormones produced in the fetal adrenal gland. ...
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center «Roussy Levy syndrome» (en anglès). GARD/NIH. Diseases, 2017, Feb 2, pàgs: 7 [ ... Somatosensory Cortex Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and Associative Sensory Stimulation of Peripheral Nerves ... Schober A, Parlato R, Huber K, Kinscherf R, et al «Cell Loss and Autophagy in the Extra-Adrenal Chromaffin Organ of Zuckerkandl ... Choi, BO; Kim, SB; Kanwal, S; Hyun, YS; et al «MPZ mutation in an early-onset Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1B family by ...
Gilchrist, W. (1851). A Practical Treatise on the Treatment of the Diseases of the Elephant, Camel & Horned Cattle: with ... Camels' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio.[37] Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much ... "Morphometric analysis of heart, kidneys and adrenal glands in dromedary camel calves (PDF Download Available)". ResearchGate. ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11 (9): 1456-7. doi:10.3201/eid1109.050081. PMC 3310619. PMID 16229781.. ...
The International Classification of Diseases classifies substance dependence as a mental and behavioural disorder.[6] Within ... Koob and Kreek have hypothesized that during drug use, CRF activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) and ... medial pre-frontal cortex, VTA, caudate, and putamen, but not the medial preoptic nucleus. Next, the induction of c-Fos, a ... Cognitive-behavioral therapy treats addiction as a behavior rather than a disease, and so is subsequently curable, or rather, ...
Chronic disease[edit]. A link has been suggested between chronic stress and cardiovascular disease.[42] Stress appears to play ... The ANS receives inputs from the medulla, hypothalamus, limbic system, prefrontal cortex, midbrain and monoamine nuclei.[38] ... This secretion is made up of glucocorticoids, including cortisol, which are steroid hormones that the adrenal gland releases, ... linked diseases and diseases involving hyper activation of the immune system. One model proposed to account for this suggests a ...
ACTH - Stimulates the synthesis and release of cortisol (zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal glands) ... "Malfunction of GPCR [G Protein-Coupled Receptor] signaling pathways are involved in many diseases, such as diabetes, blindness ... ADH (Vasopressin/AVP) - Induces the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids (Zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex); Induces ... Angiotensin II - Induces Aldosterone synthesis and release (zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex in kidney) ...
... and adrenal cortex. The lining of the blood vessels are also severely affected, which lead the lesions in this region to ... "Emerging Infectious Diseases. 8 (4): 341-6. doi:10.3201/eid0804.010228. PMC 2730235. PMID 11971764.. ... Myofibers are the site of viral replication within cells.[5] The disease may or may not be accompanied with the signs and ... PCR has become available to diagnose CPV2, and can be used later in the disease when potentially less virus is being shed in ...
As demonstrated by the effect of the trophic hormone ACTH on adrenal cortex cells, the expression of the mitochondrial genes ... Increased mtDNA damage is a feature of several neurodegenerative diseases. The brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease ... Bonda DJ, Wang X, Lee HG, Smith MA, Perry G, Zhu X (April 2014). "Neuronal failure in Alzheimer's disease: a view through the ... These diseases do not follow mitochondrial inheritance patterns, but instead follow Mendelian inheritance patterns. Recently a ...
... and may be involved in various diseases. However, LECT2's relationships to these diseases requires much further study before ... They may have histological evidence of LECT2 amyloid deposition in the liver, lung, spleen, kidney, and adrenal glands of ... Kidney biopsy shows the presence of LECT2-based amyloid predominantly in the renal cortex interstitium, glomeruli, and ... It has been suggested that individuals with the disease have an increase in LECT2 production and/or a decrease in LECT2 ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormones bind to ACTH receptors on the cells within the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex, causing a ... Schrier, Robert W (1999). Atlas of Diseases of the Kidney. Philadelphia, PA: Blackwell Science. pp. Volume 3. Bray, George A ( ... They are typically found inside the adrenal medulla, but can also be present right outside the adrenal medulla in tissue. ... Under normal conditions, adrenal hormone receptors, type I and type II, mediate the storage of carbohydrates and fats during ...
All mGluRs except mGluR6 are thought to exist in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. It is thought that mGluRs play a role ... The same drug has been shown to interfere in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, with chronic oral administration of this ... Also, some researchers have suggested that activation of mGluR4 could be used as a treatment for Parkinson's disease. Most ... They are found in pre- and postsynaptic neurons in synapses of the hippocampus, cerebellum, and the cerebral cortex, as well as ...
The most common are adenomas of the pituitary and adenomas/adenocarcinomas of the adrenal cortex in both sexes, mammary gland ... Knockout rat disease models for Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, hypertension, and diabetes, using zinc-finger ... There were even significant variations in the incidences of adrenal medulla tumors among rats from the same source raised in ... Knockout rats can mimic human diseases, and are important tools for studying gene function and for drug discovery and ...
Szent-Györgyi, Albert (1929). Observations on the functions of peroxidase systems and the chemistry of the adrenal cortex. Jisc ... 3649 [December 4, 1964]. 1278-1279.) On Oxidation, Fermentation, Vitamins, Health, and Disease (1940) Bioenergetics (1957) ... His research involved isolating an organic acid, which he then called "hexuronic acid", from adrenal gland tissue. He accepted ...
... with particulate guanylate cyclase from adrenal cortex". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 345 (1): 64-70. doi: ... Stark CJ, Atreya CD (April 2005). "Molecular advances in the cell biology of SARS-CoV and current disease prevention strategies ...
Fifteenth Conference on the Adrenal Cortex (Adrenal 2012) League City, Texas June 19 - 22, 2012. 371 (1-2): 114-23. doi:10.1016 ... Cai M, Hruby VJ (2016). "The Melanocortin Receptor System: A Target for Multiple Degenerative Diseases". Current Protein & ... ACTH receptor is primarily found in the zona fasciculata of the human adrenal cortex. Binding of the receptor by ACTH ... Gallo-Payet N (May 2016). "60 YEARS OF POMC: Adrenal and extra-adrenal functions of ACTH". Journal of Molecular Endocrinology. ...
DPDR may be associated with dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the area of the brain involved in the " ... There is converging evidence that the prefrontal cortex may inhibit neural circuits that normally form the basis of emotional ... Several studies have shown that patients with peripheral vestibular disease are also more likely to have dissociative symptoms ... A PET scan found functional abnormalities in the visual, auditory, and somatosensory cortex, as well as in areas responsible ...
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD)) and clinical depression. Certain antidepressant medications act to raise ... Since the noradrenaline transporter is responsible for most of the dopamine clearance in the prefrontal cortex, SNRIs block ... Norepinephrine transporters are confined to the neurons of the sympathetic system, and those innervating the adrenal medulla, ... NET SNPs and possible associations with various diseases are an area of focus for many research projects. There is evidence ...
... s' kidneys have a 1:4 cortex to medulla ratio. Thus, the medullary part of a camel's kidney occupies twice as much area as ... A 2005 report issued jointly by the Saudi Ministry of Health and the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ... Microscopic evaluation of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of one-humped camel calves (Camelus dromedarius) using semi ... Gilchrist, W. (1851). A Practical Treatise on the Treatment of the Diseases of the Elephant, Camel & Horned Cattle: with ...
"Canavan Disease, DNA Analysis - Tests - GTR - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2021-03-31. "Canavan Disease Information ... August 2007). "N-acetylaspartic acid promotes oxidative stress in cerebral cortex of rats". International Journal of ... "Neurologic complications of disorders of the adrenal glands". In Biller, José; Ferro, José M. (eds.). Handbook of Clinical ... "Aspartoacylase Deficiency (Canavan Disease) , The Online Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease , OMMBID , McGraw- ...
LeVay compares homosexuality to the disease sickle cell anemia, arguing that it may have persisted through a similar genetic ... and that most of his previous research had been on the visual areas of the cerebral cortex. ... notably that concerning women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Though noting that LeVay acknowledged the limitations of his ...
The jury, however, decided that James Marshall had a pre-existing bowel disease. Several trials over inflammatory bowel disease ... A possible biological basis for the case reports of depression involves decreased metabolism in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) ... the hormone regulatory centre of the brain and part of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, a key part of the body's stress ... The drug is associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-ulcerative colitis, but not Crohn's disease. There are also ...
... adrenal axis and inflammatory markers that may predict some health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and ... On the other hand, for the reward system linked to the social experience, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) seems to ... A stressful event can be a life-threatening event (e.g., a disease, encountering a dangerous wild-animal) or a social-life ... Concerning the threat response system, it has been observed that the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), the anterior ...
These harmful traits range from increased risk of disease, such as cardiovascular disease, to premature death. However, this ... Beisson J, Sonneborn TM (February 1965). "Cytoplasmic inheritance of the organization of the cell cortex in Paramecium aurelia ... Glucocorticoid receptor expression plays a vital role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity. Additionally, animal ... Furthermore, the increased rates of metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and other increased risk factors to the health ...
Psychology portal Adrenal insufficiency Attachment theory Blunted affect Borderline personality disorder Complex post-traumatic ... This is manifested biologically by deficits[clarification needed] in the frontal cortices of the brain. Possible manifestations ... Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment. 14: 1329-1337. doi:10.2147/NDT.S164807. PMC 5973442. PMID 29872300. Reimherr FW, ...
... is a protein which is only expressed in the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex and is primarily ... Lenders JW, Williams TA, Reincke M, Gomez-Sanchez CE (January 2018). "DIAGNOSIS OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: 18-Oxocortisol and 18- ... "The product of the CYP11B2 gene is required for aldosterone biosynthesis in the human adrenal cortex". Molecular Endocrinology ... Slight SH, Joseph J, Ganjam VK, Weber KT (June 1999). "Extra-adrenal mineralocorticoids and cardiovascular tissue". Journal of ...
It is located at the center of the gland, being surrounded by the adrenal cortex. It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland ... "Diseases of the adrenal medulla". Acta Physiologica. 192 (2): 325-335. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1716.2007.01809.x. PMC 2576282. PMID ... The adrenal medulla (Latin: medulla glandulae suprarenalis) is part of the adrenal gland. ... Rather than releasing a neurotransmitter, the cells of the adrenal medulla secrete hormones. The adrenal medulla is the ...
... is a condition where there is an overexpression of products of the adrenal cortex. When cortisol ... Adrenal gland disorders, All stub articles, Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic disease stubs). ... "Growth in disorders of adrenal hyperfunction". Pediatric endocrinology reviews: PER. 1 Suppl 3: 484-489. ISSN 1565-4753. ...
DHEA-S itself originates almost exclusively from the adrenal cortex, with 95 to 100% being secreted from the adrenal cortex in ... explain the positive association between decreased circulating DHEA levels with age and age-related neurodegenerative diseases ... It is derived mostly from the adrenal cortex, with only about 10% being secreted from the gonads. Approximately 50 to 70% of ... This occurs naturally in the adrenal cortex and during first-pass metabolism in the liver and intestines when exogenous DHEA is ...

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