Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAdrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Autopsy: Postmortem examination of the body.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic: Symptom complex due to ACTH production by non-pituitary neoplasms.Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion: A disease of the PITUITARY GLAND characterized by the excess amount of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secreted. This leads to hypersecretion of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) by the ADRENAL GLANDS resulting in CUSHING SYNDROME.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: A pituitary adenoma which secretes ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN, leading to CUSHING DISEASE.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Schizophrenia, Childhood: An obsolete concept, historically used for childhood mental disorders thought to be a form of schizophrenia. It was in earlier versions of DSM but is now included within the broad concept of PERVASIVE DEVELOPMENT DISORDERS.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).

Relationships between environmental organochlorine contaminant residues, plasma corticosterone concentrations, and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in Great Lakes herring gull embryos. (1/59)

Experiments were conducted to survey and detect differences in plasma corticosterone concentrations and intermediary metabolic enzyme activities in herring gull (Larus argentatus) embryos environmentally exposed to organochlorine contaminants in ovo. Unincubated fertile herring gull eggs were collected from an Atlantic coast control site and various Great Lakes sites in 1997 and artificially incubated in the laboratory. Liver and/or kidney tissues from approximately half of the late-stage embryos were analyzed for the activities of various intermediary metabolic enzymes known to be regulated, at least in part, by corticosteroids. Basal plasma corticosterone concentrations were determined for the remaining embryos. Yolk sacs were collected from each embryo and a subset was analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Regression analysis of individual yolk sac organochlorine residue concentrations, or 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQs), with individual basal plasma corticosterone concentrations indicated statistically significant inverse relationships for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), non-ortho PCBs, and TEQs. Similarly, inverse relationships were observed for the activities of two intermediary metabolic enzymes (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzyme) when regressed against PCDDs/PCDFs. Overall, these data suggest that current levels of organochlorine contamination may be affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis and associated intermediary metabolic pathways in environmentally exposed herring gull embryos in the Great Lakes.  (+info)

Dual effects of prolonged ACTH stimulation on 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide-induced adrenocortical lesions in rats. (2/59)

The effects of a long-acting synthetic ACTH on 4-hydroxyaminoquinoline 1-oxide (4HAQO)-induced adrenocortical lesions were investigated in female rats. A total of 140 6-week-old rats were divided into 4 equal groups, given a single s.c. injection of 7 mg/kg 4HAQO or vehicle, followed by repeated sc administration of the synthetic ACTH or no further treatment. Subgroups of 10 rats in each group were sequentially sacrificed at weeks 20, 30, and 40. Adenomas and adenomatous nodules developed in the adrenal cortex of animals receiving 4HAQO and the chronic ACTH stimulation. Both lesions were located in the deeper zones of the adrenal cortex adjacent to the medulla and were composed of large-sized, clear-type cells. From week 20, middle zone, cortical cystic degeneration, which mimics the age-associated degenerative change named adrenal peliosis, was frequently observed in the adrenal glands of animals treated with 4HAQO alone. Its development was inhibited by ACTH. In the control animals, peliotic changes occurred at low incidence and only at the termination of experiment. These results indicate that long-term stimulation of ACTH promotes the development of adrenocortical tumors but suppresses the occurrence of adrenal peliosis in rats treated with 4HAQO.  (+info)

Lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin together with increased body temperature and higher mCPP-induced cortisol responses in men with pedophilia. (3/59)

There is some evidence that hormonal and serotonergic alterations may play a role in the pathophysiology of paraphilias. The aims of the present study were to examine: 1) baseline plasma cortisol, plasma prolactin, and body temperature; and 2) cortisol, prolactin, body temperature, as well as behavioral responses to meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP) and placebo in pedophiles and normal men. Pedophiles showed significantly lower baseline plasma cortisol and prolactin concentrations and a higher body temperature than normal volunteers. The mCPP-induced cortisol responses were significantly greater in pedophiles than in normal volunteers. In normal volunteers, mCPP-induced a hyperthermic response, whereas in pedophiles no such response was observed. mCPP induced different behavioral responses in pedophiles than in normal men. In pedophiles, but not in normal men, mCPP increased the sensations "feeling dizzy, " "restless," and "strange" and decreased the sensation "feeling hungry". The results suggest that there are several serotonergic disturbances in pedophiles. It is hypothesized that the results are compatible with a decreased activity of the serotonergic presynaptic neuron and a 5-HT2 postsynaptic receptor hyperresponsivity.  (+info)

Structure-activity relationships for ulcerogenic and adrenocorticolytic effects of alkyl nitriles, amines, and thiols. (4/59)

In rats, a single administration of acrylonitrile (vinyl cyanide) produces a rapidly occurring bilateral adrenal apoplexy. Structure-activity studies have shown that a close derivative, propionitrile (ethyl cyanide), causes duodenal ulcer without markedly affecting the adrenal glands. Prolonging the two-carbon chain of propionitrile by a methyl group (n-butyronitrile) enhances, replacing the methyl by bromide or nitrile decreases, while substitution by an amino group abolistes the ulcerogenic potency and variably affects the adrenocorticolytic action. On assaying a large number of nonnitrile compounds as well for ulcerogenic effect, such as thiols and amines, this effect was found to be related to a two-carbon structure bearing electronegative radicals on one or both ends of the chain.  (+info)

Molecular cloning, chromosomal localization of human peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor and PKA regulatory subunit type 1A (PRKAR1A)-associated protein PAP7, and studies in PRKAR1A mutant cells and tissues. (5/59)

A mouse protein that interacts with the peripheral-type benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) regulatory subunit RIalpha (PRKAR1A), named PBR and PKA-associated protein 7 (PAP7), was identified and shown to be involved in hormone-induced steroid biosynthesis. We report the identification of the human PAP7 gene, its expression pattern, genomic structure, and chromosomal mapping to 1q32-1q41. Human PAP7 is a 60-kDa protein highly homologous to the rodent protein. PAP7 is widely present in human tissues and highly expressed in seminal vesicles, pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, renal cortex, enteric epithelium, muscles, myocardium and in steroidogenic tissues, including the gonads and adrenal cortex. These tissues are also targets of Carney complex (CNC), a multiple neoplasia syndrome caused by germline inactivating PRKAR1A mutations (PRKAR1A-mut) and associated with primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) and increased steroid synthesis. PAP7 and PRKAR1A expression were studied in PPNAD and in lymphoblasts from patients bearing PRKAR1A-mut. Like PRKAR1A, PAP7 was decreased in CNC lymphocytes and PPNAD nodules, but not in the surrounding cortex. These studies showed that, like in the mouse, human PAP7 is highly expressed in steroidogenic tissues, where it follows the pattern of PRKAR1A expression, suggesting that it participates in PRKAR1A-mediated tumorigenesis and hypercortisolism.  (+info)

Allgrove or 4 "A" syndrome: an autosomal recessive syndrome causing multisystem neurological disease. (6/59)

Allgrove's or "4 A" syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive condition with alacrima, achalasia, autonomic disturbance, and ACTH insensitivity among other features. Recent studies have identified mutations in the AAAS, a candidate gene on chromosome 12q13 in such patients. Manifestations in adult patients are rarely reported. The syndrome usually presents during the first decade of life with dysphagia or severe (occasionally fatal) hypoglycaemic or hypotensive attacks, related to adrenocortical insufficiency. Onset of adrenal insufficiency or other features may be delayed to adulthood. In contrast with paediatric patients, adult patients with Allgrove's syndrome may present with multisystem neurological disease; the childhood history of achalasia or alacrima may be overlooked. The authors describe two families with two affected siblings and a further unrelated patient with typical clinical features of Allgrove's syndrome, who exhibit signs of multisystem neurological disease including hyperreflexia, muscle wasting, dysarthria, ataxia, optic atrophy, and intellectual impairment. None of the cases have developed adrenal insufficiency but all have progressive neurological disability. Autonomic dysfunction was a significant cause of morbidity in two cases. The three index cases represent the longest described follow up of Allgrove's syndrome into adulthood. It is speculated that they represent a subgroup of patients who follow an often undiagnosed chronic neurological course. Recognition of the syndrome presenting in adult life permits treatment of unrecognised autonomic dysfunction, adrenal insufficiency and dysphagia, and appropriate genetic advice.  (+info)

Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adrenocortical adenomas with unique histological features. (7/59)

Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas rarely occurs. We present a case of Cushing's syndrome due to bilateral adenomas. Both adenomas had distinct cell compositions, and were compared with emphasis on immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical analysis for cytochrome P450(11beta) and 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD). A 37 year-old female was diagnosed with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome based on physical findings and hormonal evaluation. High-resolution CT scan showed bilateral adrenocortical adenomas and atrophied glands. 131I-methylnorcholesterol incorporation into both glands suggested both adenomas were functional. Clinical diagnosis prior to surgery was ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome due to functioning bilateral adenomas. The left adrenal gland was totally resected, while the right one was partially resected by laparoscopic approach. Both adenomas were black on cut sections, and were comparatively evaluated by immunohistochemical and enzyme histochemical analysis for P450(11beta) and 3betaSD. The left adenoma was 1.6 cm in diameter and had a complex cellular composition and enzyme expression similar to that of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), while the right adenoma was 1.8 cm in diameter with compact cells typical of a solitary cortisol-producing adenoma. Adjacent bilateral adrenal cortex showed marked atrophy, but contained several micronodules. Serum cortisol levels, both at basal and after a low dodexamethasone, normalized thirteen months after surgery. In conclusion, the present case of Cushing's syndrome with bilateral adrenal adenomas demonstrated for the first time the simultaneous occurrence of two distinct adenomas, an ordinary cortisol-producing adenoma and a PPNAD-like adenoma. Further case reports of multiple adrenal adenomas should be well-analyzed to clarify whether the results from this case represent a new subgroup of ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome.  (+info)

Aldosteronism associated with adrenal cortical adenoma. (8/59)

An electrolyte-regulating corticoid has been identified and given the name aldosterone. This hormone may be produced in amounts above normal in adrenal cortical tumors in hyperplastic adrenal glands and in normal appearing adrenal glands. Overproduction of aldosterone is accompanied by certain characteristic clinical manifestations which should suggest the diagnosis. The diagnosis may be supported by examinations available in most well equipped clinical laboratories. Bioassay of aldosterone in the urine and estimation of exchangeable body sodium and potassium, using radioactive salts, are necessary for confirmation of the diagnosis.Since the description of this salt-retaining hormone by Simpson and Tait and the discovery of its chemical structure by Reichstein in 1954, reports of 14 cases have been published. Surgical removal of the offending tissue gives spectacular relief from the very distressing symptoms.  (+info)

Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease is a rare cause of adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushings syndrome. We report an uncommon primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease case presenting with a unilateral adrenocortical nodule and provide a brief overview of the existing literature. A 27-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our Department with adrenocorticotropic hormone-independent Cushings syndrome. Its cause was initially considered a left adrenocortical adenoma based on computer tomography imaging. The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy and histological examination revealed pigmented micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. Evaluation for the presence of Carney complex was negative. Six months later recurrence of hypercortisolism was documented and a right laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed further establishing the diagnosis of primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease. After a nine-year follow-up there is no evidence of residual disease. Even
Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism characterized by (a) resistance to suppression by dexamethasone and abolition of the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion, and (b) distinctive, bilateral, histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of normal zonation and atrophy of the extranodular cortex. PPNAD can be associated with a variety of other manifestations, such as myxomas of the skin, heart, breast and other sites, psammomatous melanotic swannomas involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS), lentigines and blue nevi of the skin and mucosae, growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, testicular Sertoli cell tumors, and possibly other neoplasms (adrenocortical and thyroid follicular carcinoma, and ovarian cysts). These associations constitute a distinct clinical syndrome, Carney complex, a genetic syndrome. At ...
Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) is a pituitary-independent, primary adrenal form of hypercortisolism characterized by (a) resistance to suppression by dexamethasone and abolition of the normal diurnal rhythm of cortisol secretion, and (b) distinctive, bilateral, histopathologic changes of the adrenal glands, such as the formation of variably sized, pigmented nodular adenomas, loss of normal zonation and atrophy of the extranodular cortex. PPNAD can be associated with a variety of other manifestations, such as myxomas of the skin, heart, breast and other sites, psammomatous melanotic swannomas involving the peripheral nervous system (PNS), lentigines and blue nevi of the skin and mucosae, growth hormone (GH)-producing adenomas of the pituitary, testicular Sertoli cell tumors, and possibly other neoplasms (adrenocortical and thyroid follicular carcinoma, and ovarian cysts). These associations constitute a distinct clinical syndrome, Carney complex, a genetic syndrome. At ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Operative management of Cushing Syndrome secondary to micronodular adrenal hyperplasia. AU - Powell, Anathea C.. AU - Stratakis, Constantine A.. AU - Patronas, Nicholas J.. AU - Steinberg, Seth M.. AU - Batista, Dalia. AU - Alexander, H. Richard. AU - Pingpank, James F.. AU - Keil, Meg. AU - Bartlett, David L.. AU - Libutti, Steven K.. PY - 2008/6/1. Y1 - 2008/6/1. N2 - Background: We reviewed our experience with micronodular adrenal hyperplasia (MAH), its pigmented variant primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), and the association with Carneys complex (CNC) to better characterize these disorders. Methods: This retrospective study analyzes clinical data and operative reports of 34 patients identified with MAH and/or PPNAD who underwent resection between 1969 and 2006 at the Clinical Research Center, an inpatient research hospital at the National Institutes of Health. Symptoms and anthropometric and biochemical data were used to evaluate effect of resection. ...
Carney complex and its subsets LAMB syndrome and NAME syndrome are autosomal dominant conditions comprising myxomas of the heart and skin, hyperpigmentation of the skin (lentiginosis), and endocrine overactivity. It is distinct from Carneys triad. Approximately 7% of all cardiac myxomas are associated with Carney complex. The spotty skin pigmentation and lentigines occur most commonly on the face, especially on the lips, eyelids, conjunctiva and oral mucosa. Cardiac myxomas may lead to embolic strokes and heart failure and may present with fever, joint pain, shortness of breath, diastolic rumble and tumor plop. Myxomas may also occur outside the heart, usually in the skin and breast. Endocrine tumors may manifest as disorders such as Cushing syndrome. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushings syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The LAMB acronym refers to lentigines, atrial myxomas, and blue nevi. NAME refers to nevi, ...
Carney complex (CNC) is a rare multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation of the skin and mucosa in association with various non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). A 20-year-old woman was referred for suspected Cushing syndrome. She had signs of cortisol excess as well as skin lentigines on physical examination. Biochemical investigation was suggestive of corticotropin (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome. Unenhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen did not reveal an obvious adrenal mass. She subsequently underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and histopathology was consistent with PPNAD. Genetic testing revealed a novel frameshift pathogenic variant c.488delC/p.Thr163MetfsX2 (ClinVar Variation ID: 424516) in the PRKAR1A gene, consistent with clinical suspicion for CNC. Evaluation for other clinical features of the complex was unrevealing. We present a case of PPNAD-associated Cushing syndrome ...
Carney complex (CNC) is a rare multiple neoplasia syndrome characterized by spotty pigmentation of the skin and mucosa in association with various non-endocrine and endocrine tumors, including primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). A 20-year-old woman was referred for suspected Cushing syndrome. She had signs of cortisol excess as well as skin lentigines on physical examination. Biochemical investigation was suggestive of corticotropin (ACTH)-independent Cushing syndrome. Unenhanced computed tomography scan of the abdomen did not reveal an obvious adrenal mass. She subsequently underwent bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy, and histopathology was consistent with PPNAD. Genetic testing revealed a novel frameshift pathogenic variant c.488delC/p.Thr163MetfsX2 (ClinVar Variation ID: 424516) in the PRKAR1A gene, consistent with clinical suspicion for CNC. Evaluation for other clinical features of the complex was unrevealing. We present a case of PPNAD-associated Cushing syndrome ...
Introduction: We present a rare variety of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-independent Cushings syndrome known as primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). Clinical Picture: The patient initially underwent unilateral adrenalectomy for what was thought to be a left adrenal adenoma. Outcome: Partial resolution of symptoms and demonstrable persistent hypercortisolism after surgery prompted further evaluation with findings leading to the diagnosis of Carney complex. A review of the adrenal histology was consistent with PPNAD. Conclusion: This entity of PPNAD, which has rarely been reported in Asians, forms part of the Carney complex. The diagnosis may not be simple and straightforward, as illustrated in this patient ...
The spotty skin pigmentation and lentigines occur most commonly on the face, especially on the lips, eyelids, conjunctiva and oral mucosa.[3] Cardiac myxomas may lead to embolic strokes and heart failure[4] and may present with fever, joint pain, shortness of breath, diastolic rumble and tumor plop. Myxomas may also occur outside the heart, usually in the skin and breast. Endocrine tumors may manifest as disorders such as Cushing syndrome. The most common endocrine gland manifestation is an ACTH-independent Cushings syndrome due to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD). The LAMB acronym refers to lentigines, atrial myxomas, and blue nevi.[1] NAME refers to nevi, atrial myxoma, myxoid neurofibromas, and ephelides.[1] Testicular cancer, particularly Sertoli cell type, is associated with Carney syndrome.[5] Thyroid and pancreas cancer may also occur.[6][7] Although J Aidan Carney also described Carneys triad it is entirely different.[8] ...
Genetic variants in components of the protein kinase A (PKA) enzyme have been associated with various defects and neoplasms in the context of Carney complex (CNC) and in isolated cases, such as in primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD), cortisol-producing adrenal adenomas (CPAs), and various cancers. PRKAR1A mutations have been found in subjects with impaired cAMP-dependent signaling and skeletal defects; bone tumors also develop in both humans and mice with PKA abnormalities. We studied the PRKACB gene in 148 subjects with PPNAD and related disorders, who did not have other PKA-related defects and identified two subjects with possibly pathogenic PRKACB gene variants and unusual bone and endocrine phenotypes. The first presented with bone and other abnormalities and carried a de novo c.858_860GAA (p.K286del) variant. The second subject carried the c.899C,T (p.T300M or p.T347M in another isoform) variant and had a PPNAD-like phenotype. Both variants are highly conserved in the ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Hypertension and adrenal cortex disease. A review of 100 autopsied cases. by Ricarda Ludwig
Learn more about Adrenocortical Disease in ferrets in this informative article from The Center for Bird and Exotic Medicine in Bothell, WA.
... , Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
View Notes - Bacterial Recombination from MCB 2000 at University of Florida. BACTERIAL RECOMBINATION Purposes A. Vaccine production (subunit type) B. Production of proteins (growth hormone) C.
Centers of Excellence Curated by expert editors: a single source educational forum with lectures, literature and conference information. ...
Centers of Excellence Curated by expert editors: a single source educational forum with lectures, literature and conference information. ...
This is a ferret that is suffering from adrenal disease. Adrenal disease is a general term for any condition where one or multiple tumorous growths on the adrenal gland negatively affect the balance of hormone creation in the ferrets body. It can be treated through surgery or with a drug called Lupron, which helps stop the excess production of hormones caused by the tumor.
DefinitionExogenous Cushing syndrome is a form of Cushing syndrome that occurs in people taking glucocorticoid (also called corticosteroid) hormones.
Cushing - MedHelps Cushing Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for Cushing. Find Cushing information, treatments for Cushing and Cushing symptoms.
Synonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency. 1 synonym for Claude Bernard: Bernard. What are synonyms for acute adrenocortical insufficiency?
A very rare case of congenital adrenocortical insufficiency accompanied with ventricular septal defect, is presented. Surgical treatment together with glucocorticoid replacement therapy was performed. The patient, a 4-month-old girl with congenital adrenocortical insufficiency, had been treated with a long-term adrenocortical hormones replacement. Surgical treatment for ventricular septal defect was applied in order to reduce the risk of heart failure. The administration dose of glucocorticoid was determined according to the body surface area and chronologic change of serum cortisol. Following the surgical treatment, and with adequate glucocorticoid replacement, the patient showed a good clinical outcome. In conclusion, we showed a beneficial treatment protocol with adequate glucocorticoid replacement in open heart surgery for a case of congenital adrenocortical insufficiency ...
Primary adrenocortical insufficiency occurs when the adrenal glands fail to release adequate amounts of these hormones to meet physiologic needs, despite release of ACTH from the pituitary. Infiltrati... more
The differential for bilaterally enlarged adrenal glands is relatively limited: adrenal hyperplasia micronodular adrenal hyperplasia macronodular adrenal hyperplasia adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-independent macronodular adrenocortical hyperplas...
A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX ...
Cushing syndrome symptoms consist of weight gain, acne and hypertension, due to excessive levels of cortisol, which is the stress hormone in the body. Learn more, about Cushing syndrome treatment, causes, risk factors and typical signs.
PRKAR2A_ENST00000296446 Gene, Drug Resistance, Tissue Distribution, Mutation Distribution, Variants, PRKAR2A_ENST00000296446 Genome Browser, PRKAR2A_ENST00000296446 References
Plasmid pDONR223-PRKAR1B from Dr. William Hahns lab contains the insert PRKAR1B and is published in Nature. 2010 Nov 24. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Looking for online definition of secondary adrenocortical insufficiency in the Medical Dictionary? secondary adrenocortical insufficiency explanation free. What is secondary adrenocortical insufficiency? Meaning of secondary adrenocortical insufficiency medical term. What does secondary adrenocortical insufficiency mean?
Acute adrenocortical insufficiency definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
1 Answer (question resolved) - Posted in: adrenocortical insufficiency, hydrocortisone - Answer: Side effects of hydrocortisone Less serious side ...
Abstract Salinas, Carlo E., Mercedes Villena, Carlos E. Blanco, and Dino A. Giusssani. Adrenocortical suppression in highland chick embryos is restored during incubation at sea level. High Alt. Med. Biol. 12:79-87, 2011.-By combining the chick embryo model with incubation at high altitude, this study tested the hypothesis that development at high altitude is related to a fetal origin of adrenocortical but not adrenomedullary suppression and that hypoxia is the mechanism underlying the relationship. Fertilized eggs from sea-level or high altitude hens were incubated at sea level or high altitude. Fertilized eggs from sea-level hens were also incubated at altitude with oxygen supplementation. At day 20 of incubation, embryonic blood was taken for measurement of plasma corticotropin, corticosterone, and Po2. Following biometry, the adrenal glands were collected and frozen for measurement of catecholamine content. Development of chick embryos at high altitude led to pronounced adrenocortical ...
How to Use It Brewers yeast is often taken as a powder, or as tablets or capsules. High-quality brewers yeast powder or flakes contain as much as 60 mcg of chromium per tablespoon (15 grams). When doctors recommend brewers yeast, they will often suggest 1-2 tablespoons (15-30 grams) of this high-potency bulk product...
Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency is most frequently caused by long-term corticosteroid administration, which leads to a hypothalamic-pituitary suppression and thus, inadequate ACTH production. After discontinuation of treatment, this type of adrenocortical insufficiency is reversible. In addition, neoplasms or inflammatory processes of hypothalamus and pituitary gland will also cause secondary insufficiency. ...
Background: Histiocytic sarcoma (HS) is an aggressive hematological neoplasm that responds poorly to therapy. The molecular etiology and pathology of this disease remain unclear, hampering the development of an effective therapy. Therefore, a need for more, and more realistic, animal models remains. Lymphoproliferative disorders have been reported in mice deficient for the prkar1a gene coding for the regulatory subunit type 1A of protein kinase A (PKA), but nothing is known about the role of type II PKA regulatory subunits in hematologic malignancies.. Methods: Mice deficient for the Prkar1a and Prkar2a alleles were previously reported (Kirschner et al, 2005 και Burton et al, 1997) and were kept on a mixed genetic background (C57BL/129Sv). Mice were crossed to create prkar2a+/- and prkar2a-/-. Mice were phenotyped at the ages of 3-6-9-12-18 months or when they exhibited signs of advanced disease. Tissues were collected for histological and molecular analysis.. Results: Unexpectedly, mice ...
Looking for Brewers Yeast 500 Mg 500 Tabs (3)? Buy it at Rs.6,762 from Rediff Shopping today! FREE Shipping EMI Options available for Brewers Yeast 500 Mg 500 Tabs (3) & other Health & Fitness.
Where to buy AniMed Pure Brewers Yeast online at cheap price, we would like to tell you that this is the price comparison site that checks millions of products especially AniMed Pure Brewers Yeast to make sure you get the best price. Please hurry up, the price may be changed without notice!!! ...
Learn more about Brewers Yeast uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Brewers Yeast
Compare prices and save on Twinlab Brewers Yeast! You can shop with confidence - the best deal on Brewers Yeast by Twinlab is here at PricePlow!
Shop the best NOW Foods Brewers Yeast 1 lb (454 g) Pwdr products at Swanson Health Products. Trusted since 1969, we offer trusted quality and great value on NOW Foods Brewers Yeast 1 lb (454 g) Pwdr products.
London E, Nesterova M, Sinaii N, Szarek E, Chanturiya T, Mastroyannis SA, Gavrilova O, Stratakis CA: Differentially regulated protein kinase A (PKA) activity in adipose tissue and liver is associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance in mice that lack PKA regulatory subunit type IIα. Endocrinology; 2014 Sep;155(9):3397-408 ...
Patients with a mild form of Cushing syndrome, a metabolic disorder caused by adrenal tumors, demonstrate substantial clinical improvement after adrenalectomy.
Indexed peer-reviewed biomedical periodical of Staff Society of Seth GS Medical College and KEM Hospital, India, with free access to full-text since 1990.
CNC Routers - CNC Plasma Cutters - CNC Manufacturer - CNC Tooling - CNC Router Machines. Techno CNC Systems sells CNC Routers, CNC Plasma cutters and CNC Equipment. We focus on manufacturing new CNC routers or used CNC router machines for all production types. We manufacture CNC Routers for wood, CNC routers for plastics, CNC routers for metals and CNC routers for cabinetry. We offer affordable and quality CNC routers for woodworking shops, cabinet shops, theatres, general fabrication, sign shops and more.
All Larry Carney Events on Friday, October 11, 2019 | Radiology and medical imaging professional network for building relationships in clinical practice, educa…
Read More: John Carney To Direct Sing Street With Music From Bono & The Edge, Mark Romanek Sees The Visitors & More John Carney has a certain affinity for musicals, as evidenced by his Oscar-w...
Share your medication, wellness, weight loss or disease stories. Search our drug database and user posts on thousands of drugs, diseases and other conditions
Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by a variety of hamartomatous lesions in various organs. Various organ …
1997 fick jag möjligheten att se Faith No More live. Minns att någon hivade upp en oöppnad ölburk på scenen som landade strax intill Mike. Hans svar blev att med full kraft kasta ut den i publiken på måfå. Träffade en kille som stod framför mig mitt i magtrakten. Förutom denna lilla incident var det en magisk konsert. ...
Designing for the future of healthcare. Cushing Terrell is recognized for foresight and expertise in healthcare design. We assist clients in navigating the complexities of an ever-changing industry while supporting their ability to provide patient-centered care to the people and communities they serve. Ranked among the "Top 100 Design Firms for Healthcare in the U.S." by Modern Healthcare Magazine every year since 2003, we reimagine healing environments, providing inspirational design that emphasizes sustainability and embodies wellness.. Our integrated planning process brings together healthcare strategy, facility planning, and financial expertise. Cushing Terrell offers design solutions for hospitals and healthcare clients that are patient-focused and centered on Lean principles of circulation, flow, comfort, and efficiency.. ...
Looking for online definition of adrenocortical hyperplasia in the Medical Dictionary? adrenocortical hyperplasia explanation free. What is adrenocortical hyperplasia? Meaning of adrenocortical hyperplasia medical term. What does adrenocortical hyperplasia mean?
The Adrenal Cortex in Internal Medicine 1967 Cyril Astley Clarke, Prevention of Rh-Haemolytic Disease 1968 Anthony Clifford ... Cope, C. L. (1966). "The adrenal cortex in internal medicine. I". BMJ. 2 (5518): 847-853. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5518.847. PMC ... 1831-1832 Thomas Watson 1833-1834 Francis Hawkins, On Some Diseases of the Heart 1835 Francis Bisset Hawkins On Some Diseases ... On Some Diseases of the Heart 1829-1830 John Elliotson, Recent Improvements in the Art of Distinguishing the various Diseases ...
"Selective increases in adrenal steroidogenic capacity during acute respiratory disease in infants". Eur J Endocrinol. 133 (5): ... Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones. Mineralocorticoids[edit]. Main article: ... The adrenal cortex comprises three main zones, or layers that are regulated by distinct hormones as noted below. This anatomic ...
Addison's disease is characterized by insufficient production of glucocorticoid and/or mineralocortoid in the adrenal cortex ( ... Addison's disease. Addison's disease is (as of 20 August 2007) the illness most commonly reported to the Poodle Health Registry ... juvenile renal disease, hip dysplasia, and cancer. Standard Poodles are also susceptible to some health issues usually too ... are Addison's disease, gastric dilatation volvulus, thyroid issues (hyperthyroid and hypothyroid), tracheal collapse, epilepsy ...
Cushing's disease - Physiopathology of hyperplasia of adrenal cortex due to increased circulating level of ACTH ( ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia - Inherited disorder of gland (adrenal).[19]. *Endometrial hyperplasia - Hyperproliferation of ... Evans, Colby Craig; High, Whitney A. (2011-10-01). Skin Diseases in the Elderly: A Color Handbook. CRC Press. ISBN ... "Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2015-05-30.. ...
It is most significantly expressed in bronchial epithelial cells and adrenal gland and cortex tissue. Michael S. Brown and ... The LDLR gene also contains one of 27 SNPs associated with increased risk of coronary artery disease. The LDLR gene resides on ... July 2014). "Loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, triglycerides, and coronary disease". The New England Journal of Medicine. ... and a genetic disease". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 81 (9): 2826-30. doi: ...
Rapoport R, Sklan D, Hanukoglu I (March 1995). "Electron leakage from the adrenal cortex mitochondrial P450scc and P450c11 ... Helmberg A (August 1993). "Twin genes and endocrine disease: CYP21 and CYP11B genes". Acta Endocrinol. 129 (2): 97-108. doi: ... "Mechanism of corticotropin and cAMP induction of mitochondrial cytochrome P450 system enzymes in adrenal cortex cells" (PDF). J ... to the mitochondrial inner membrane and is involved in the conversion of 11-deoxycortisol to cortisol in the adrenal cortex. ...
In Type 3, autoimmune thyroiditis and another endocrine autoimmune disease are present, but the adrenal cortex is not involved ... Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes (APS) occur when more than one autoimmune disease occurs in endocrine glands. These ...
Addison's disease is characterized by insufficient production of glucocorticoid and/or mineralocortoid in the adrenal cortex ( ... In a UK survey, the most common causes of death were cancer (30%), old age (18%), GDV (6%), and cardiac disease (5%). Miniature ... Addison's disease is (as of 20 August 2007) the illness most commonly reported to the Poodle Health Registry. The number of ... juvenile renal disease, hip dysplasia, and cancer. Standard Poodles are also susceptible to some health issues usually too ...
Addison's Disease is a disorder of the adrenal cortex which results in decreased hormonal production. Addison's disease, even ... Gastrointestinal diseases, such as celiac disease, Crohn's disease, peptic ulcer, eosinophilic esophagitis or non-celiac gluten ... It has been documented that some people with celiac disease, irritable bowel syndrome or inflammatory bowel disease who are not ... neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease, neurotoxicity such as lead exposure, bacterial infection such as Lyme ...
Excessive ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to produce high levels of cortisol, producing the disease state. Cushing's disease ... In adrenal Cushing's, excess cortisol is produced by adrenal gland tumors, hyperplastic adrenal glands, or adrenal glands with ... that affects the adrenal glands. This etiology is called ectopic or paraneoplastic Cushing's disease and is seen in diseases ... Cortisol is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland from a region called the zona fasciculata in response to ACTH. Elevated ...
The Nobel Committee bestowed the award for the trio's "discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their ... Hench started his career at Mayo Clinic in 1923, working in the Department of Rheumatic Diseases. In 1926, he became the head ... During this same time, biochemist Edward Calvin Kendall has isolated several steroids from the adrenal gland cortex. After ... "for their discoveries relating to the hormones of the adrenal cortex, their structure and biological effects." As of the 2010 ...
Most notably she discovered with Webb E. Haymaker that Cushing's disease is caused by hyper function of the Adrenal cortex. ... She then moved to the National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases (NIAMD) at the National Institute of Health where ... while continuing her research on hormone related diseases. ...
Addison's disease is an autoimmune disorder that affects the adrenal cortex such that it is unable to efficiently secrete ... The immune system specifically targets the cells of the adrenal cortex and destroys them, but Addison's disease can also be ... the adrenocortical hormones are hormones produced by the adrenal cortex, the outer region of the adrenal gland. These ... The glucocorticoid family of hormones is synthesized in the middle layer of the adrenal cortex known as the zona fasciculata. ...
Pottenger was a pioneer in using crude extracts of adrenal cortex as supplements to treat allergic states and exhaustion. In ... By the end of the third generation the cats had developed degenerative diseases very early in life and some were born blind and ... Pottenger used donated laboratory cats to test the potency of the adrenal extract hormones he was making. The adrenal glands of ... By the end of the first generation the cats started to develop degenerative diseases and became quite lazy.[citation needed]*By ...
Addison's disease is a disorder of the adrenal cortex which results in decreased hormonal production. Addison's disease, even ... Diagnosis of Crohn's disease was made within 5 to 13 years."(Blanchet C, Luton JP. 2002)"This disease should be diagnostically ... and radiologically and histopathologically as Crohn's disease". The Canadian journal of infectious diseases = Journal canadien ... Lyme disease is known as the "great imitator", as it may present as a variety of psychiatric or neurologic disorders including ...
Protein kinase A has been implicated in a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ... Mutations in the PRKACA gene that promote abnormal enzyme activity have been linked to disease of the adrenal gland. Several ... It has been speculated that abnormally high levels of PKA phosphorylation contributes to heart disease. This affects excitation ... Defective regulation of PKA holoenzyme activity has been linked to the progression of cardiovascular disease, certain endocrine ...
Bilateral destruction of the adrenal cortex by neoplasia (e.g. lymphosarcoma), granulomatous disease, or arterial thrombosis ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. The adrenal outer layer, or cortex, has three layers; each produces a ... It is possible not to see any signs of the disease until 90% of the adrenal cortex is no longer functioning. If hyponatremia ( ... All layers of the adrenal gland stop functioning; the problem is with the adrenal gland. This causes a deficiency of both ...
... on Nucleic Acids and Subcellular Elements of the Adrenal Cortex. The Journal of Biophysical and Biochemical Cytology, 2(2), 115 ... Diseases of the Chest, 33(4), 347. Fiala, A., Fiala, S., Sproul, E.E. (1956) The Action of Corticotropin (ACTH) ...
... and is used to evaluate adrenal cortex function, bone marrow performance, and in neoplastic disease to stimulate the immune ...
... of the gene occurs in the temporal cortex of Alzheimer disease patients and overexpression has been observed in adrenal gland ... of the novel adrenocorticotropin-responsive gene selective Alzheimer's disease indicator-1 in the normal adrenal cortex and in ... 2006). "Neuronal differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells: changes in the expression of the Alzheimer's disease-related ... 2007). "The association study between DHCR24 polymorphisms and Alzheimer's disease". Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet ...
... zona glomerulosa cells of the adrenal cortex, renal tubules, and postganglionic sympathetic nerve terminals.[23] Dopamine ... In disease[edit]. Dysfunction of dopaminergic neurotransmission in the CNS has been implicated in a variety of neuropsychiatric ... Fuxe K, Manger P, Genedani S, Agnati L (2006). "The nigrostriatal DA pathway and Parkinson's disease". J. Neural Transm. Suppl ... Hurley MJ, Jenner P (2006). "What has been learnt from study of dopamine receptors in Parkinson's disease?". Pharmacol. Ther. ...
In addition, mitotane has direct and selective cytotoxic effects on the adrenal cortex, via an unknown mechanism, and thereby ... Its main use is in those patients who have persistent disease despite surgical resection, those who are not surgical candidates ... Mitotane is an inhibitor of the adrenal cortex. It acts as an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, ... Mitotane is also used to treat Cushing's disease (pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome) in dogs. The medication is used in ...
Naftalan stimulates the production of hormones in the adrenal cortex, has an antibacterial and sun-protective effect. It also ... Still's disease; Small chorea; Effects of cerebral palsy; Allergic skin diseases Tonsillitis; Pharyngitis; Laryngitis; Rhinitis ... vibrational diseases; Extra-articular diseases of soft tissues and motor support apparatus: busits, tendovaginitis; ... More than 70 diseases are treated with naftalan. Lubrication can be local (the substance is applied to separate parts of the ...
By blocking the calcium signal on adrenal cortex cells, they directly reduce aldosterone production, which correlates to lower ... This can help ameliorate symptoms of ischaemic heart disease such as angina pectoris. Reducing the force of contraction of the ... and cardiac muscle and for regulating aldosterone and cortisol secretion in endocrine cells of the adrenal cortex. In the heart ... N-type, L-type, and T-type voltage-dependent calcium channels are present in the zona glomerulosa of the human adrenal, and ...
Additionally, hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex is infrequent. The role of ACTH is, therefore, still poorly understood. PPID ... Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID), or equine Cushing's disease, is an endocrine disease affecting the pituitary ... Horses with early disease may produce a false-negative result. In these horses, the thyrotropin-releasing hormone stimulation ... Unlike the human and canine forms of Cushing's disease, which most commonly affect the pars distalis region of the pituitary ...
Infectious diseasesEdit. Imaging infections with molecular imaging technologies can improve diagnosis and treatment follow-up. ... 2006). "D2/D3 dopamine receptor binding with F-18fallypride in thalamus and cortex of patients with schizophrenia". ... "Imaging of adrenal incidentalomas with PET using (11)C-metomidate and (18)F-FDG". J. Nucl. Med. 45 (6): 972-9. PMID 15181132 ... Cardiology, atherosclerosis and vascular disease study: In clinical cardiology, FDG-PET can identify so-called "hibernating ...
... especially because adrenal imaging can be misleading mimicking other adrenocortical diseases. Bilateral laparoscopic ... After a nine-year follow-up there is no evidence of residual disease. Even though primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical ... We report an uncommon primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease case presenting with a unilateral adrenocortical nodule ... The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy and histological examination revealed pigmented micronodular adrenal ...
ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE(ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE*) JOHN JOSEPH WEBSTER, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE(ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE*). Ann Intern Med. 1950;33:854-864. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-33-4 ... This paper reports our experience in the treatment of liver disease using a new therapy: extract of adrenal cortex. ... Liver transplantation in adults with liver disease due to common variable immunodeficiency leads to early recurrent disease and ...
Adrenal Crisis vs Addison Disease. Addison disease is one type of primary adrenal cortex insufficiency. It is a chronic ... The problem in Addison disease lies in the cortex of the adrenal gland. This portion of the adrenal gland produces three types ... Addison disease is the primary type.. Secondary. In secondary adrenocortical insufficiency, the cortex of the adrenal gland is ... In Addison disease the adrenal cortex is destroyed or dysfunctional where it cannot produce sufficient amounts of the ...
Hypertension and adrenal cortex disease. A review of 100 autopsied cases. by Ricarda Ludwig ... Hypertension and adrenal cortex disease. A review of 100 autopsied cases.. *. Ricarda Ludwig ... article{Ludwig1970HypertensionAA, title={Hypertension and adrenal cortex disease. A review of 100 autopsied cases.}, author={ ...
Learn about how endocrinologists classify adrenal cancer by stages, as well as adrenal cancer treatments. ... also called adrenal cortical carcinoma, is cancer that develops in the adrenal glands. ... Home » Endocrine Disorders » Adrenal Disorders » Adrenal Cancer. Diseases of the Adrenal Cortex: Adrenal Cancer. Treatments for ... Treatment for Adrenal Cortical Carcinoma. Adrenal carcinoma may be curable if treated at an early stage. Radical surgical ...
Learn about the history of this disease, along with the symptoms, diagnosis, and treatments for Cushings s ... which is caused by excess production of the hormone cortisol by the adrenal cortex. ... This page is about cortisol overproduction by the adrenal cortex.. Causes of Cushings Syndrome. Testing for Cushings Syndrome ... The adrenal gland has a center gland (medulla) that produces adrenaline and an outer gland (the cortex) that produces several ...
Cushing disease is a condition in which the pituitary gland releases too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). The pituitary ... The adrenal cortex. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. ... Cushing disease is caused by a tumor or excess growth (hyperplasia) of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is located just ... Untreated, Cushing disease can cause severe illness, even death. Removal of the tumor may lead to full recovery, but the tumor ...
Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Grant support. *P60-AR-47784/AR/NIAMS NIH HHS/United States ... and disease activity and damage as measured by the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and the Systemic Lupus International ... Difference in disease features between childhood-onset and adult-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.. Brunner HI1, Gladman DD, ... On average, the children had more-active disease than did the adults at the time of diagnosis and during followup. There was a ...
Adrenal Cortex Hormones/adverse effects. *Female. *Humans. *Lung Diseases, Obstructive/complications*. *Lung Diseases, ... Extrapulmonary effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.. Gross NJ1.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicine, ... Although airflow obstruction is the most obvious and most studied manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD ... mortality of this disease. We review here the literature on skeletal muscle dysfunction, osteoporosis, and weight loss in COPD ...
Disease. Pathologic Processes. Adrenocortical Hyperfunction. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adrenal Cortex ... Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Epinephrine. Racepinephrine. Epinephryl borate. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists. Adrenergic Agonists. ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Cushing's Syndrome Hyperadrenalism Adenoma of the Adrenal Gland ... metabolic syndrome, hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure, rheumatic disease, hematologic disease. * ...
Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Epinephrine. ... MedlinePlus related topics: Adrenal Gland Cancer Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Adenoma of the Adrenal ... The inclusion criteria were all hormonally active adrenal lesions, detection of increases in size in , 4 cm adrenal tumors on ... Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Large Adrenal Tumors.. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. *Adrenal Cortex Diseases. *Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. *Growth Hormone Deficiency ... mild recurrent disease.ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AI = adrenal insufficiency CD = Cushing disease CDDT = coupled ... Rapid assessment of adrenal function is critical following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushings disease (CD) in order to ... Cushings disease [CD]), 10% are due to adrenal lesions, and the remaining 10% are secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion. For ...
Heart Diseases. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Cardiovascular Diseases. Adrenal Gland Diseases. Endocrine System Diseases. ... Condition or disease Intervention/treatment Phase Neoplasms Heart Diseases Adrenal Cortex Diseases Behavioral: Case management ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms. Neoplasms by Site. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. Adrenal Gland Diseases. ... Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms. Disease Progression. Disease Attributes. Pathologic Processes. Adenocarcinoma. Carcinoma. Neoplasms, ... Optimal Methods of Disease Progression and Survival Analysis in Children and Adults Patients With Adrenocortical Cancer (ACC). ... Over the last 20+ years in the CCR we have seen patients with ACC in different stages of their disease receiving various types ...
Adrenal Gland Neoplasms. *Adrenal Cortex Diseases. *Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. *Growth Hormone Deficiency ... mild recurrent disease.ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone AI = adrenal insufficiency CD = Cushing disease CDDT = coupled ... Rapid assessment of adrenal function is critical following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) for Cushings disease (CD) in order to ... Comorbidities (cardio-cerebrovascular disease, sleep apnea, metabolic derangement, neoplasms, and bone/joint disease) should be ...
aldosteronism with hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex. *Bartter disease. *Bartters syndrome. *juxtaglomerular hyperplasia with ... Catalog of Genes and Diseases from OMIM. *BARTTER SYNDROME, TYPE 1, ANTENATAL ...
Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use * Adult * Autoimmune Diseases / complications * Autoimmune Diseases / genetics* ... More generally, we observed that genes that cause monogenic haploinsufficient diseases were substantially enriched for TFs and ... These findings reveal a previously unrecognized feature of SE architecture in Mendelian diseases of immunity: heterozygous ... Single-nucleotide variants in the BACH2 locus are associated with several autoimmune diseases, but BACH2 mutations that cause ...
VV appears to be safe in patients with juvenile rheumatic diseases receiving methotrexate, as long as continuous prospective ... Adrenal Cortex Hormones / adverse effects* * Arthritis, Juvenile / drug therapy * Arthritis, Juvenile / immunology* ... No worsening of clinical parameters and no flares of juvenile rheumatic diseases or changes in doses of medications used were ... Conclusion: VV appears to be safe in patients with juvenile rheumatic diseases receiving methotrexate, as long as continuous ...
Chemical compound and disease context of Adrenal Cortex. *We studied six human adrenal carcinomas and normal adrenal cortex ... Disease relevance of Adrenal Cortex. *Idiopathic Addisons disease is characterised by a progressive failure in the synthesis ... The increase in adrenal weight with EGF administration was due to hypertrophy of definitive zone cells of the adrenal cortex, ... in the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex [31].. *Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion from the anterior pituitary gland ...
3. Addisons Disease. 4. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. 5. Ascites. 6. Bamforth syndrome. 7. Bartter Syndrome type 4. 8. Bartter ... Bone disease (2907 causes) *Bone disorder *more symptoms...» Broaden Your Search: Remove a Symptom. *REMOVE Calcaneal bone ... Home , Symptoms , Diseases , Diagnosis , Videos , Tools , Forum , About Us , Terms of Use , Privacy Policy , Site Map , ...
1. Adrenal Cortex Diseases. 2. Adrenal medulla neoplasm. 3. Adult Panic-Anxiety Syndrome. 4. Alcohol abuse. 5. Alcoholism. 6. ... Crohns disease. 19. Cushing syndrome, familial. 20. Cushings disease. 21. Cushings syndrome. 22. Cyanide poisoning. 23. ... Pregnancy disease *Pregnancy disorder *more symptoms...» Broaden Your Search: Remove a Symptom. *REMOVE Abdominal cramps during ... Home , Symptoms , Diseases , Diagnosis , Videos , Tools , Forum , About Us , Terms of Use , Privacy Policy , Site Map , ...
Anterior pituitary responsiveness in central Cushing disease and in Cushing syndrome caused by adrenal cortex tumors, as well ... Anterior pituitary responsiveness in central Cushing disease and in Cushing syndrome caused by adrenal cortex tumors, as well ... Anterior pituitary responsiveness in central Cushing disease and in Cushing syndrome caused by adrenal cortex tumors, as well ... whereas serum total T4 levels were higher in obesity than in patients with hypercorticism either caused by pituitary or adrenal ...
Corticosteroids, also called adrenal cortex hormones, are steroids mainly produced by the adrenal cortex. ... Infectious diseases. Corticosteroids are beneficial in treated selected infections[5] References. *↑ National Library of ... the outermost layer of the adrenal gland) of the adrenal cortex.[4] The naturally occurring mineralocorticoids include ... Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Retrieved on 2007-11-27. *↑ Rhen T, Cidlowski JA (2005). "Antiinflammatory action of glucocorticoids-- ...
The adrenal cortex. In: Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, eds. Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 13th ed. ... Pituitary Cushing disease; ACTH-secreting adenoma. Causes. Cushing disease is caused by a tumor or excess growth (hyperplasia) ... Untreated, Cushing disease can cause severe illness, even death. Removal of the tumor may lead to full recovery, but the tumor ... With Cushing disease, the pituitary gland releases too much ACTH. ACTH stimulates production and release of cortisol, a stress ...
Conditions: Cushing Syndrome, Endocrine System and Syndromes, Adrenal Insufficiency and Addison Disease, Thyroid Diseases ... ACTH is a pituitary messenger; it tells the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol. If there is insufficient ACTH, due to pituitary ... Nelson Syndrome: may result when both adrenal glands are removed as part of the treatment for Cushing disease; a pituitary ... Adrenal Insufficiency (Addisons Disease). Available online at http://pituitary.org/knowledge-base/disorders/adrenal- ...
  • Adrenal medullae normally secrete 80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine. (medscape.com)
  • It is the innermost part of the adrenal gland, consisting of cells that secrete epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), and a small amount of dopamine in response to stimulation by sympathetic preganglionic neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • The entire gland is enclosed in a tough connective tissue capsule from which trabeculae extend into the cortex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Abstract The aims of this study were to identify whether tissue renin is regulated by a negative-feedback mechanism produced by locally generated angiotensin (Ang II) in the adrenal cortex and to detect the pathway of Ang II modulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the present study, we used this experimental approach to investigate the feedback mechanisms that regulate the tissue RAS within the adrenal cortex. (ahajournals.org)
  • 17 18 Although in vitro studies suggest that locally generated Ang II may influence the formation of renin in the adrenal tissue, 19 20 there is no evidence that such a mechanism is operating in vivo. (ahajournals.org)
  • In most cases, no underlying cause can be pinpointed, although it often appears to involve an autoimmune disorder (an attack upon healthy tissue by the body's defenses against disease). (healthcommunities.com)
  • Anticoagulant therap y with medications such as warfarin or heparin can occasionally result in adrenal hemorrhage, leading to destruction of adrenal tissue. (healthcommunities.com)
  • However, this is an ongoing debate that exact cut-off value of tumor size for LA. The aim of this study was to assess whether the size of the adrenal tumor affects preoperative and postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing laparoscopic transperitoneal adrenalectomy as well as to evaluate the learning curve. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Proactive therapeutic concentration monitoring of infliximab may improve outcomes for patients with inflammatory bowel disease: results from a pilot observational study. (curehunter.com)
  • Extrapulmonary effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. (nih.gov)
  • Although airflow obstruction is the most obvious and most studied manifestation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it should not be overlooked that COPD, particularly in its later stages, is associated with many extrapulmonary features that contribute to the morbidity, reduced quality of life, and, possibly, mortality of this disease. (nih.gov)
  • Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus consists of a benign chronic disease, however featuring a malignant potential for vulvar squamous cell carcinoma. (usp.br)
  • Type 1 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there is a high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. (stlukes-stl.com)
  • Prolonged exposure to non-chemical stressors of both a psychological and physical nature (i.e., chronic stress) as well as to various pollutants can play an etiological role in disease including cardiovascular disease (CVD). (cdc.gov)
  • Frequently accompanied by severe and chronic morbidity, autoimmune diseases are also leading causes of death all around world. (frontiersin.org)
  • Osteoporosis is a chronic disease characterised by a reduced bone mineral density (BMD) induced by an imbalance in osteoblastic and osteoclastic bone formation and resorption. (bmj.com)
  • Therefore, a better understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic renal disease is mandatory to develop strategies to prevent the progression of renal disease or even to restore renal function by inducing regression ( 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • This article highlights some of the more recent molecular insights into the complexity of the RAAS and its role in chronic renal disease. (asnjournals.org)
  • Those who are at risk of this disease are those who have chronic thyroiditis, Graves' disease, hypopituitarism, type I diabetes, and vertigo in their medical histories. (amazonaws.com)
  • Single-nucleotide variants in the BACH2 locus are associated with several autoimmune diseases, but BACH2 mutations that cause Mendelian monogenic primary immunodeficiency have not previously been identified. (nih.gov)
  • While individuals with this disease generally display increased central adiposity and elevated circulating free fatty acid (FFA) levels, these conditions are likely to be a consequence of insulin resistance, rather than the primary cause. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Regardless of the primary entity, progression of renal disease is characterized by pathomorphologic changes that comprise early renal inflammation, followed by subsequent tubulointerstitial fibrosis, tubular atrophy, and glomerulosclerosis ( 1 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • One of these areas is a portion of the primary motor cortex that is concerned with the control of axial body movement and posture. (kurzweilai.net)
  • Primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD) was first coined in 1984 by Carney et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incidence and Characteristics of Adrenal Crisis in Children Younger than 7 Years with 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency: A Nationwide Survey in Japan. (medscape.com)
  • Steps must be taken, however, to avert adrenal crisis -a sudden, life-threatening steroid deficiency usually brought on by infection, injury, or stress-which requires immediate emergency treatment. (healthcommunities.com)