Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Knowledge Bases: Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Scientific Misconduct: Intentional falsification of scientific data by presentation of fraudulent or incomplete or uncorroborated findings as scientific fact.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Internal Medicine: A medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the internal organ systems of adults.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Serum Albumin: A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic molecules.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Tooth Discoloration: Any change in the hue, color, or translucency of a tooth due to any cause. Restorative filling materials, drugs (both topical and systemic), pulpal necrosis, or hemorrhage may be responsible. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p253)Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.
(1/1201) Nuclear bodies are usual constituents in tissues of hibernating dormice.

In previous studies we demonstrated in several tissues of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius that during hibernation cell nuclei contain particular structural constituents absent in euthermia. In the present study we examine the same tissues in euthermic and hibernating individuals of the edible dormouse Glis glis in order to investigate possible modifications of nuclear structural constituents occurring during hibernation in this species. Edible dormice were captured in the wild and maintained in an external animal house. Samples of liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue and adrenal cortex were taken from three hibernating and three euthermic animals and processed for resin embedding. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies were carried out on cell nuclei of these tissues. The most evident feature of cell nuclei of hibernating dormice was the presence of several nuclear bodies, namely fibro-granular material, amorphous bodies, coiled bodies, perichromatin granule-like granules and nucleoplasmic fibrils, the distribution of which was peculiar to each tissue. No one of these constituents was detectable during euthermia. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that they contain some splicing factors. Apart from some differences, maybe due to the different characteristics of lethargy, the nuclear bodies found in edible dormice were morphologically and immunocytochemically similar to those previously described in the same tissues of hazel dormice. They therefore seem to be strictly correlated to the hibernating state. If they represent storage and/or assembly sites of splicing factors to be rapidly used upon arousal, they could represent a usual structural feature in cells of hibernating species.  (+info)

(2/1201) Natural killer cell activity in the peripheral blood of patients with Cushing's syndrome.

BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(+) bone-marrow-derived lymphocytes mediating first-line defence by direct cytotoxicity against various types of target cells without prior immunization. NK cell activity is positively regulated by immune interferon (IFN-gamma); among hormones, glucocorticoids are potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitors, whereas ACTH and beta-endorphin in many experimental circumstances enhance NK cytotoxicity. DESIGN: We measured NK cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained at 0800h and 2000h from 26 patients with Cushing's syndrome (12 pituitary-dependent, 12 adrenal-dependent and two dependent on ectopic ACTH secretion). In vitro responsiveness to IFN-gamma or cortisol was also tested. METHODS: NK activity was measured in a 4-h direct cytotoxicity assay using K562 cells as targets. Plasma ACTH, serum and urinary free cortisol were concomitantly measured with commercially available kits. RESULTS: Spontaneous activity and responsiveness to IFN-gamma or cortisol were significantly greater in 15 age- and sex-matched controls than in Cushing's patients at 0800h. In pituitary-dependent Cushing's patients, plasma ACTH correlated positively with mean levels of spontaneous NK activity (r=0.64, P<0.05) and negatively with cortisol-dependent percentage inhibition (r=-0.69, P<0.02). In adrenal-dependent Cushing's patients, a negative correlation was observed between levels of spontaneous NK activity and urinary free cortisol (r=-0.67, P<0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that excess endogenous glucocorticoids affect spontaneous NK cell activity and responsiveness to exogenous IFN-gamma or cortisol. The differential patterns observed between pituitary-dependent and adrenal-dependent groups are compatible with a positive immunomodulatory role of pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides that effectively counterbalance, at least partially, glucocorticoid immunosuppression.  (+info)

(3/1201) Lipid requirement of membrane-bound 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase. Studies on beef adrenocortical microsomes.

The role of phospholipid in the beef adrenal microsomal 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase (EC 5.3.1.1) has been investigated with the use of phospholipase A to alter the microsomal phospholipids. The byproducts of phospholipase A digestion have been removed with a wash solution containing bovine serum albumin. Removal of 80-85% of the phospholipid leads to loss of 80-90% of the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity. Reconstitution experiments have been performed by introduction of lipid aqueous dispersions in the enzymatic assay. Asolectin, a commercially available preparation of soy phosphatides, is able to stimulate the enzymatic activity but does not restore the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity in phospholipase-A-treated membranes. In contrast, the introduction of aqueous dispersions of microsomal total lipid mixtures in the enzymatic assay brings about a complete restoration of the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity in the lipid-depleted membranes. It is concluded that the bovine adrenal microsomal 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase requires phospholipid(s) to exhibit its full catalytic activity.  (+info)

(4/1201) Local renin-angiotensin system is involved in K+-induced aldosterone secretion from human adrenocortical NCI-H295 cells.

NCI-H295, a human adrenocarcinoma cell line, has been proposed as a model system to define the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of aldosterone production in humans. Because the precise cellular localization of the components of the renin-angiotensin system in human adrenal cortical cells remains unclear, we investigated their localization in this defined cell system. NCI-H295 cells expressed both angiotensinogen and renin as shown by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was not detectable by immunocytochemistry, ACE binding, or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. However, 3.5 mmol/L K+ stimulated the formation of both angiotensin I and angiotensin II 1. 9- and 2.5-fold, respectively, and increased aldosterone release 3. 0-fold. The K+-induced stimulation of aldosterone release was decreased by captopril and enalaprilat (24% and 26%, respectively) and by the angiotensin type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan (28%). Angiotensin II-induced stimulation of aldosterone release was abolished by losartan treatment. Specific [125I]Sar1-angiotensin II binding was detected by receptor autoradiography. The binding of [125I]Sar1-angiotensin II was completely displaced by the AT1 antagonist losartan but not by the AT2 receptor ligand PD 123319, confirming the expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptors in NCI-H295 cells. Our results demonstrate that NCI-H295 cells express most of the components of the renin-angiotensin system. Our failure to detect ACE, however, suggests that the production of angiotensin II in NCI-H295 cells may be ACE independent. NCI-H295 cells are able to produce angiotensin II, and K+ increases aldosterone secretion in part through an angiotensin-mediated pathway. The production of angiotensin II in NCI-H295 cells demonstrates that this human cell line can be useful to characterize the role of locally produced angiotensin II in the regulation of aldosterone release.  (+info)

(5/1201) Comparison of expression and regulation of the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI and the low-density lipoprotein receptor in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295 cells.

In rodents, cholesterol for adrenal steroidogenesis is derived mainly from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) via the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI). In humans cholesterol for steroidogenesis is considered to be derived from the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway, and the contribution of SR-BI to that is unknown. In the present study SR-BI expression and regulation by steroidogenic stimuli was analysed in human adrenocortical cells and compared with LDL receptor expression. In addition, the functional contribution of both receptors for cholesteryl ester delivery to human adrenocortical cells was compared. Northern blot and reverse transcription-PCR amplification and sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of SR-BI mRNA in foetal and adult human adrenal cortex. Furthermore, SR-BI mRNA was expressed to similar levels in human primary adrenocortical and adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295 cells, indicating its presence in the steroid-producing cells. Treatment of NCI-H295 cells with 8Br-cAMP, a stimulator of glucocorticoid synthesis via the protein kinase A second messenger signal transduction pathway, resulted in an increase of both SR-BI and LDL receptor mRNA levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The induction of SR-BI and LDL receptor by cAMP was independent of ongoing protein synthesis and occurred at the transcriptional level. Ligand blot experiments indicated that a protein of similar size to SR-BI is the major HDL-binding protein in NCI-H295 cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that cAMP treatment increased the levels of LDL receptor and, to a lesser extent, SR-BI protein in NCI-H295 cells. Binding and uptake of cholesterol was quantitatively smaller from HDL than from LDL, both in basal as well as in cAMP-stimulated cells. Scatchard analysis under basal conditions indicated that NCI-H295 cells express twice as many specific binding sites for LDL than for HDL. Dissociation constant values (Kd; in nm) were approximately five times higher for HDL than for LDL, indicating a lower affinity of HDL compared with LDL. The combined effects of these two parameters and the low cholesteryl ester content of HDL subfraction 3 (HDL3) contributes to a lower cholesteryl ester uptake from HDL than from LDL by the NCI-H295 cells. In conclusion, both the SR-BI and LDL receptor genes are expressed in the human adrenal cortex and coordinately regulated by activators of glucocorticoid synthesis. In contrast to rodents, in human adrenocortical cells the HDL pathway of cholesterol delivery appears to be of lesser importance than the LDL pathway. Nevertheless, the SR-BI pathway may become of major importance in conditions of functional defects in the LDL receptor pathway.  (+info)

(6/1201) The expression of inhibin/activin subunits in the human adrenal cortex and its tumours.

Inhibins and activins are dimeric proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which have been shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex. Recent studies have suggested a role for these peptides in the pathogenesis and/or function of adrenal tumours. To investigate further their physiological and pathological roles, we have documented immunoreactivity for inhibin alpha, betaA and betaB subunits in normal adult and fetal human adrenals, in hyperplastic adrenals and in adrenal tumours. In the normal and hyperplastic adult gland, diffuse immunopositivity was demonstrated for beta subunits, suggesting that activins (beta beta dimers) can be expressed in all zones. Inhibin alpha was limited to the zona reticularis and the innermost zona fasciculata in the normal gland, extending centripetally into the zona fasciculata in hyperplasia, supporting a role for ACTH in the regulation of expression, and suggesting that expression of inhibins (alpha beta dimers) is restricted. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in both fetal and definitive zones of the fetal cortex, indicating that both inhibins and activins could be expressed in both. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in most adrenocortical tumours. Loss of immunopositivity for inhibin alpha in a subgroup of carcinomas might indicate a role in tumour progression. The greater intensity of staining for inhibin alpha in tumours associated with Cushing's syndrome again suggests a link with cortisol production.  (+info)

(7/1201) Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats.

In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.  (+info)

(8/1201) Calcium and reactive oxygen species as messengers in endotoxin action on adrenocortical cells.

The effect of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen metabolite content of both rat isolated fasciculata-reticularis and glomerulosa cells was evaluated by flow cytometry to know the role of these mechanisms in the initiation of cell injury produced by LPS on adrenocortical cells during endotoxic shock. A rapid increase of intracellular calcium was induced by endotoxin in both cell types. In fasciculata-reticularis cells, this [Ca2+]i increase was mainly due to an important mobilization of intracellular stores. Dose-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i were also observed when both cell types were incubated with LPS for 20 min in the presence of extracellular calcium. This treatment abolished the increase in intracellular calcium induced by ACTH and angiotensin II. On the other hand, the endotoxin produced a fast and dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species in both cell types, higher in glomerulosa than in fasciculata-reticularis cells. LPS-pretreated cells showed more susceptibility to the oxidative stress induced by Fe2+. These results can be related to functional alterations previously described showing the involvement of calcium and reactive oxygen species as messengers in the endotoxin action on adrenocortical cells.  (+info)

*  Development of the endocrine system
The fetal adrenal cortex can be identified within four weeks of gestation. The adrenal cortex originates from the thickening of ... The gonadal ridge produces the steroidogenic cells for both the gonads and the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla is derived ... twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are 0.5% of the total body weight. At 25 weeks, the adult adrenal cortex zone ... the adrenal cells are joined by sympathetic cells that originate from the neural crest to form the adrenal medulla. At the end ...
*  Adrenal cortex
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... The adrenal cortex comprises three main zones, or layers. This anatomic zonation can be appreciated at the microscopic level, ... The adrenal cortex exhibits functional zonation as well: by virtue of the characteristic enzymes present in each zone, the ... October 1991). "The product of the CYP11B2 gene is required for aldosterone biosynthesis in the human adrenal cortex". Mol. ...
*  Pain in amphibians
Hanke, W. (2013) [1978]. "Chapter 5. The adrenal cortex of Amphibia". In I. Chester Jones; I.W. Henderson. General, Comparative ... and Clinical Endocrinology of the Adrenal Cortex, Volume 2. Academic Press. pp. 419-487. Teixeira, P.C., Dias, D.C., Rocha, G.C ... a part of the brain's cortex considered to be the "thinking area". However, research has provided evidence that monkeys, dogs, ...
*  Estradiol 6beta-monooxygenase
Haines WJ (1952). "The biosynthesis of adrenal cortex hormones". Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 7: 255-305. Mueller GC; Rumney G ( ...
*  Lumleian Lectures
Cope, C. L. (1966). "The adrenal cortex in internal medicine. I". BMJ. 2 (5518): 847-853. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5518.847. PMC ... The Adrenal Cortex in Internal Medicine 1967 Cyril Astley Clarke, Prevention of Rh-Haemolytic Disease 1968 Anthony Clifford ...
*  Long-chain-alcohol oxidase
Cairella, M (1961). "Non-steroid inhibitors of the adrenal cortex". La Clinica terapeutica. 20: 667-79. PMID 13689840. ...
*  Neuroendocrinology
... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal ... The cells in the adrenal medulla that release adrenaline and noradrenaline proved to have properties between endocrine cells ...
*  Posterior pituitary
... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus ...
*  Neuroendocrine cell
... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... An example of a neuroendocrine cell is a cell of the adrenal medulla (innermost part of the adrenal gland), which releases ... The adrenal medullary hormones are kept in vesicles much in the same way neurotransmitters are kept in neuronal vesicles. ... The adrenal medullary cells are controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. These cells are ...
*  Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... Important to the function of the HPA axis are some of the feedback loops: Cortisol produced in the adrenal cortex will ... ACTH in turn acts on: the adrenal cortex, which produces glucocorticoid hormones (mainly cortisol in humans) in response to ... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ...
*  Mitotane
In addition, mitotane has direct and selective cytotoxic effects on the adrenal cortex, via an unknown mechanism, and thereby ... Mitotane is an inhibitor of the adrenal cortex. It acts as an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, ... 179-. ISBN 978-1-61705-019-0. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) C.R. Kannan (6 December 2012). The Adrenal Gland. ... The medication is used in the controlled destruction of adrenal tissue, leading to a decrease in cortisol production. ...
*  Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction
Additionally, hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex is infrequent. The role of ACTH is, therefore, still poorly understood. PPID ... decreased synthesis of cortisol at the level of the adrenal gland. A horse with PPID, which has an overactive pars intermedia ...
*  21-Hydroxylase
These syntheses take place in the adrenal cortex. Specifically, 21-hydroxylase converts progesterone and 17α- ... Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is an autosomal recessive disorder, and occurs in approximately 1 in 15000 births globally ... A defect within the CYP21A2 gene causes a disturbance of the development of the enzyme, which leads to congenital adrenal ... Steroid disorders in children: congenital ad- renal hyperplasia and apparent mineralocorticoid excess. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. ...
*  Steroid 11beta-monooxygenase
Yanagibashi K, Haniu M, Shively JE, Shen WH, Hall P (1986). "The synthesis of aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. Two zones ( ... oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + H2O The 3 substrates of this enzyme are steroid, reduced adrenal ferredoxin, and O2, whereas its ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is steroid,reduced-adrenal-ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase (11beta-hydroxylating). ... reduced adrenal ferredoxin + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } an 11beta-hydroxysteroid + ...
*  MEN1
In rare cases, adrenal cortex tumours are also seen. Most germline or somatic mutations in the MEN1 gene predict truncation or ...
*  Cyanoketone
Comparative and Clinical Endocrinology of the Adrenal Cortex. Elsevier Science. pp. 136-. ISBN 978-1-4832-5980-2. John A. ... As such, cyanoketone inhibits the production of both gonadal and adrenal steroids, including progesterone, androgens, estrogens ...
*  Insulin tolerance test
ACTH elevation causes the adrenal cortex to release cortisol. Normally, both cortisol and GH serve as counterregulatory ... If adrenal insufficiency is confirmed, the need for a repeat ITT may need to be reconsidered after 3 months thyroxine therapy. ... Sometimes ITT is performed to assess the peak adrenal capacity, e.g. before surgery. It is assumed that the ability to respond ... Thus ITT is considered to be the gold standard for assessing the integrity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. ...
*  Cytochrome P450
... in endoplasmic reticulum of adrenal cortex has steroid 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. CYP21A1 (P450c21) in adrenal ... found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of adrenal cortex has steroid 11β-hydroxylase, steroid 18-hydroxylase, and steroid 18 ... by the adrenals, gonads, and peripheral tissue: CYP11A1 (also known as P450scc or P450c11a1) in adrenal mitochondria affects " ... CYP11B2 (encoding the protein P450c11AS), found only in the mitochondria of the adrenal zona glomerulosa, has steroid 11β- ...
*  Adrenarche
During adrenarche the adrenal cortex secretes increased levels of androgens such as DHEA and DHEAS, but without increased ... Adrenarche is the result of the development of a new zone of the adrenal cortex, the zona reticularis. Adrenarche is a process ... Adrenal cortex Androgens Precocious puberty Puberty Parker, LN (1991). "Adrenarche". Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of ... from congenital adrenal hyperplasia, and from androgen-producing tumors of the adrenals or gonads. Pediatric endocrinologists ...
*  Broda Otto Barnes
The organ they found responsible was the adrenal cortex. The Barnes, et al., 1936, publication in Science was also reported in ... In 1938, Fleischmann and Kann determined that in addition to estrogen, a specific adrenal hormone, corticosterone, could cause ... Barnes BO, Kanter AE, Klawans AH (2 October 1936). "Bitterling Ovipositor Lengthening Produced By Adrenal Extracts". Science. ... Barnes also began to believe that virtually all his hypothyroid patients had concomitant undiagnosed adrenal insufficiency. ...
*  Glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism
Control of aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex: The role of the renin-angiotensin system: Angiotensin is involved in ... Aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone synthase ... Steroid hormones are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex. Aldosterone and corticosterone share the first ... The product of this hybrid gene is aldosterone synthase that is ACTH-sensitive in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal gland. ...
*  3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
The fetal adrenal cortex lacks expression of the enzyme early on, thus mineralocorticoids (e.g. aldosterone) and ... Neville AM, Orr JC, Engel LL (1968). "Delta5-3beta-Hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activities of bovine adrenal cortex". Biochem ... in the adrenal gland. It is the only enzyme in the adrenal pathway of corticosteroid synthesis that is not a member of the ... A deficiency in the type II form through mutations in HSD3B2 is responsible for a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. ...
*  Neural top-down control of physiology
Engeland, W. (2007). "Functional Innervation of the Adrenal Cortex by the Splanchnic Nerve". Hormone and Metabolic Research. 30 ... Areas doing this include the insular cortex, the orbital, and the medial prefrontal cortices. These cerebral areas also control ... The cerebral cortex in rodents shows lateral specialization in its regulation of immunity with immunosuppression being ... The sympathetic nervous system is predominantly controlled by the right side of the brain (focused upon the insular cortex), ...
*  Corticosteroid
... part of the name refers to the adrenal cortex, which makes these steroid hormones. Thus a corticosteroid is a "cortex steroid ... Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the ... Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex; 11β-hydroxylase is ... The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the adrenal cortex. Most steroidogenic reactions are catalysed by ...
*  Endocrine gland
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. ACTH release is triggered by ... The adrenal glands are located above the kidneys in humans and in front of the kidneys in other animals. The adrenal glands ... Addison's disease is an endocrine disease that results from hypocortisolism caused by adrenal gland insufficiency. Adrenal ... Dysfunction in the adrenal gland could be due to primary or secondary factors and can result in hypercortisolism or ...
*  Transgenerational stress inheritance
Stress-induced epigenetic changes, particularly to genes that effect the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, persist ... and postnatal maternal abuse also increases DNA methylation at regulatory regions of BDNF genes in the prefrontal cortex and ...
Aging of the Human Adrenal Cortex -- Hornsby 2004 (35): re6 -- <i>Science</i...  Aging of the Human Adrenal Cortex -- Hornsby 2004 (35): re6 -- <i>Science</i...
Citation: P. J. Hornsby, Aging of the Human Adrenal Cortex. Sci. Aging Knowl. Environ. 2004 (35), re6 (2004). ... Aging of the Human Adrenal Cortex Peter J. Hornsby The author is in the Department of Physiology and Sam and Ann Barshop Center ... Abstract: The most striking age-related change in the human adrenal cortex is the decline in secretion of ... Key Words: adrenal gland steroid DHEA(S) ischemia replicative senescence cell death. ...
more infohttp://sageke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/2004/35/re6
Adrenal cortex - Wikipedia  Adrenal cortex - Wikipedia
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones. Mineralocorticoids[edit]. Main article: ... The adrenal cortex comprises three main zones, or layers that are regulated by distinct hormones as noted below. This anatomic ... October 1991). "The product of the CYP11B2 gene is required for aldosterone biosynthesis in the human adrenal cortex". Mol. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reticular_layer
Adrenal cortex hormones - Latest research and news | Nature  Adrenal cortex hormones - Latest research and news | Nature
Adrenal cortex hormones. Definition. Adrenal complex hormones are lipid hormones, derived from the small molecule cholesterol ... Adrenal function: Cortisol metabolism during acute stress-an (IC)U turn *Joana Osório ... Example adrenal complex hormones are corticosteroids such as immune system hormone glucocorticoid, and androgens such as ... and generated by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family in the adrenal gland that sits atop the kidneys. ...
more infohttp://www.nature.com/subjects/adrenal-cortex-hormones?error=cookies_not_supported&code=5b9fe739-c63d-4308-bc02-78826e52ae0e
The Interplay between Estrogen and Fetal Adrenal Cortex  The Interplay between Estrogen and Fetal Adrenal Cortex
G. J. Pepe and E. D. Albrecht, "Regulation of the primate fetal adrenal cortex," Endocrine Reviews, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 151-176 ... S. Mesiano and R. B. Jaffe, "Developmental and functional biology of the primate fetal adrenal cortex," Endocrine Reviews, vol ... H. Ishimoto and R. B. Jaffe, "Development and function of the human fetal adrenal cortex: a key component in the feto-placental ... S. J. Spencer, S. Mesiano, and R. B. Jaffe, "Programmed cell death in remodelling of the human fetal adrenal cortex: possible ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jnme/2012/837901/ref/
WikiGenes - Adrenal Cortex  WikiGenes - Adrenal Cortex
Chemical compound and disease context of Adrenal Cortex. *We studied six human adrenal carcinomas and normal adrenal cortex ... The increase in adrenal weight with EGF administration was due to hypertrophy of definitive zone cells of the adrenal cortex, ... in the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex [31].. *Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion from the anterior pituitary gland ... which results in hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex [2].. *Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a family of inborn errors of ...
more infohttps://www.wikigenes.org/e/mesh/e/4190.html
Adrenal Cortex - 100 Vegicaps  Adrenal Cortex - 100 Vegicaps
Adrenal Cortex by NutriCology really works! I feel much more confident using this one from Australia where there are strict ... Adrenal Cortex by NutriCology really works! I feel much more confident using this one from Australia where there are strict ... Adrenal Cortex Tissue (Bovine‚ Lyophilized) 100 mg / *. *Daily Value not established.. Other ingredients: Hydroxypropyl ... Adrenal Cortex by NutriCology is well tolerated with no stomach upset when taken with food. ...
more infohttps://pureformulas.com/adrenal-cortex-100-vegetarian-capsules-by-nutricology.html
Adrenal Cortex - 60 Vegetarian Capsules  Adrenal Cortex - 60 Vegetarian Capsules
Adrenal cortex tissue extracts‚ such as those included in Adrenal Cortex by Thorne Research‚ play a valuable supporting role in ... Adrenal Cortex Vegetarian Capsules by Thorne Research help the body by providing pure adrenal cortex tissue to support healthy ... Adrenal cortex by Thorne Research was specifically designed to provide you with adrenal cortex tissue‚ which can help support ... Adrenal Cortex by Thorne Research helps support your adrenals if you have adrenal fatigue. ...
more infohttps://www.pureformulas.com/adrenal-cortex-60-vegetarian-capsules-by-thorne-research.html?N=4294855119
Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) - Pipeline Insights, 2017  Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) - Pipeline Insights, 2017
Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) Assessment by Molecule Type. Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) ... Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) Assessment by Molecule Type. Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) ... Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) Assessment by Monotherapy Products. Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex ... Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) Assessment by Monotherapy Products. Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex ...
more infohttps://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/4036542/adrenocortical-carcinoma-adrenal-cortex-cancer
Tadeus Reichstein - Nobel Lecture: Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones - NobelPrize.org  Tadeus Reichstein - Nobel Lecture: Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones - NobelPrize.org
Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Read the Nobel Lecture. Pdf 386 kB. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1950 ...
more infohttps://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/medicine/1950/reichstein/lecture/
Definition of adrenal cortex - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute  Definition of adrenal cortex - NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute
The adrenal cortex makes androgen and corticosteroid hormones. ... The outer part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of ... adrenal cortex listen (uh-DREE-nul KOR-tex) The outer part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The ... There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The outer part of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part is ... adrenal cortex makes androgen and corticosteroid hormones. More Information. *Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Enlarge Anatomy of the ...
more infohttps://www.cancer.gov/publications/dictionaries/cancer-terms/def/adrenal-cortex
Long-term Outcome following Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Large Solid Adrenal Cortex Tumors | SpringerLink  Long-term Outcome following Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Large Solid Adrenal Cortex Tumors | SpringerLink
... is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors. In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative ... Long-term Outcome following Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Large Solid Adrenal Cortex Tumors. ... Limitations of size as a criterion in the evaluation of adrenal tumors. Surgery 2000;128:973-982CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... 18F-FDG PET in evaluation of adrenal lesions in patients with lung cancer. J Nucl Med 2004;45:2058-2062PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00268-005-0288-2
Adrenal Cortex Hormones | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst  Adrenal Cortex Hormones | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
"Adrenal Cortex Hormones" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" was a major or ... "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adrenal Cortex Hormones" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Adrenal Cortex Hormones". ...
more infohttps://connects.catalyst.harvard.edu/Profiles/display/Concept/Adrenal%20Cortex%20Hormones
Adrenal Cortical Cancer | Adrenocortical cancer | Adrenal Cortex Cancer  Adrenal Cortical Cancer | Adrenocortical cancer | Adrenal Cortex Cancer
... also known as adrenocortical cancer or adrenal cortex cancer, is a malignant mass of cells that develop in the adrenal glands, ... Adrenal cortical cancer, also known as adrenocortical cancer or adrenal cortex cancer, is a malignant mass of cells that ... Adrenal Cortical Cancer Outlook. Adrenal cortical cancer generally has a poor prognosis, but this largely depends on the ... When functioning properly, the adrenal cortex processes cholesterol and secretes steroid hormones like testosterone and ...
more infohttps://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-types/adrenal-cortical-cancer/
CONCEPT Adrenal Cortex Hormones  CONCEPT Adrenal Cortex Hormones
CSP: any of the 21-carbon steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex hormones of adrenal origin) in response ... Any steroid hormone made in the adrenal cortex (the outer part of the adrenal gland). They are also made in the laboratory. ... Hormones synthesized in the cortex of the adrenal gland and consist of two subclasses, glucocorticoids (carbohydrate regulation ... Adrenal Cortex Hormones Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0001617 ...
more infohttp://linkedlifedata.com/resource?uri=http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/umls/id/C0001617
Frontiers | Effects of Chronic ACTH Excess on Human Adrenal Cortex | Endocrinology  Frontiers | Effects of Chronic ACTH Excess on Human Adrenal Cortex | Endocrinology
Excess adrenal androgens also occur: In females they will overcompensate the gonadotrophic loss, inducing high testosterone; in ... Prolonged in vivo stimulation with ACTH leads to an increase in total adrenal protein and RNA synthesis. Cell proliferation is ... Prolonged in vivo stimulation with ACTH leads to an increase in total adrenal protein and RNA synthesis. Cell proliferation is ... Chronic ACTH excess leads to chronic adrenal mineralocorticoid excess and low aldosterone levels: after an acute rise, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2017.00043/full
Adrenal Cortex Anatomy and Secretion of Cortisol | Blausen M...  Adrenal Cortex Anatomy and Secretion of Cortisol | Blausen M...
Within the adrenal cortex layer, glandular cells produce the ... ... The adrenal glands are small, pyramid-shaped glands that rest ... The adrenal glands are small, pyramid-shaped glands that rest on the top of each kidney. Within the adrenal cortex layer, ...
more infohttps://blausen.com/en/video/adrenal-cortex-anatomy-and-secretion-of-cortisol/
ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians  ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE* | Annals of Internal Medicine | American College of Physicians
ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE(ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE*) JOHN JOSEPH WEBSTER, M.D., F.A.C.P. ... ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE(ADRENAL CORTEX IN LIVER DISEASE*). Ann Intern Med. 1950;33:854-864. doi: 10.7326/0003-4819-33-4 ... This paper reports our experience in the treatment of liver disease using a new therapy: extract of adrenal cortex. ...
more infohttp://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/674465/adrenal-cortex-liver-disease
American Biologics Adrenal Cortex - 60 Capsules Customer Reviews - eVitamins.com  American Biologics Adrenal Cortex - 60 Capsules Customer Reviews - eVitamins.com
Have you taken Adrenal Cortex by American Biologics? Submit your own Adrenal Cortex review and let the world know what you ... Read the latest Adrenal Cortex by American Biologics reviews and find the latest results, side effects and user experiences ...
more infohttps://www.evitamins.com/reviews/adrenal-cortex-american-biologics-312225
Lipid Hyperplasia*, Adrenal Cortex, Rat | Springer for Research & Development  Lipid Hyperplasia*, Adrenal Cortex, Rat | Springer for Research & Development
... on cross section the cortex appears to be markedly widened showing diffuse, pale-yellow or ivory-white discoloration. A two- to ... The adrenals are enlarged, the gland surface is smooth; ... Neville AM, O'Hare MJ (1982) The human adrenal cortex. Springer ... Starka L, Motlik K (1971) The influence of injected aminoglutethimide on the morphology of rat adrenal cortex and adrenal ... Hart MM, Straw JA (1971) Studies on the site of action of o,p'DDD in the dog adrenal cortex. Steroids 17: 559-574PubMedCrossRef ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-96720-7_20
Difference Between Adrenal Medulla and Adrenal Cortex | Difference Between  Difference Between Adrenal Medulla and Adrenal Cortex | Difference Between
Adrenal Medulla Vs Adrenal Cortex It is actually very easy to differentiate the adrenal medulla from the adrenal cortex. For as ... Adrenal Medulla Vs Adrenal Cortex. It is actually very easy to differentiate the adrenal medulla from the adrenal cortex. For ... The adrenal cortex (being a cortex) is the outermost layer of the adrenal gland while the adrenal medulla (being a medulla) is ... 1. The adrenal cortex is the outermost part that covers the adrenal medulla, while the adrenal medulla is the centermost or ...
more infohttp://www.differencebetween.net/science/health/difference-between-adrenal-medulla-and-adrenal-cortex/
  • Dexter RN, Fishman LM, Ney RL, Liddle GW (1967) Inhibition of adrenal corticosteroid synthesis by aminoglutethimide: studies of the mechanism of action. (springer.com)
  • We studied proliferative activity in the rat adrenal cortex using an immunohistochemical method to detect the presence of the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) (an intranuclear enzyme whose synthesis reaches the maximum intensity during the S-phase of the cell cycle). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Adrenal cortex tissue extracts‚ such as those included in Adrenal Cortex by Thorne Research‚ play a valuable supporting role in maintaining your overall adrenal health‚ which in turn can help your immune system function properly and leave you feeling more energized. (pureformulas.com)
  • Adrenal cortical cancer rarely shows any symptoms, making diagnosis and treatment difficult. (knowcancer.com)
  • Chemotherapy has shown to be very ineffective in the treatment of adrenal cortical cancer. (knowcancer.com)
  • Adrenal cortical cancer generally has a poor prognosis, but this largely depends on the patient's age and the stage of the illness. (knowcancer.com)
  • Hutter AM Jr, Kayhoe DE (1966) Adrenal cortical carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • Despite great efforts devoted to clarifying the localization of proliferative activity in the adrenal cortex, the agents that stimulate proliferation remain controversial, and the nature of the stem cells from which cortical cells differentiate is incompletely understood. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Results of laparoscopic adrenalectomy for suspected and unsuspected malignant adrenal neoplasms. (springer.com)
  • Camacho AM, Cash R, Brough AJ, Wilroy RS (1967) Inhibition of adrenal steroidogenesis by amino-glutethimide and the mechanism of action. (springer.com)
  • Cash R, Brough AJ, Cohen MNP, Satoh PS (1967) Aminoglutethimide (Elipten-Ciba) as an inhibitor of adrenal steroidogenesis: mechanism of action and therapeutic trial. (springer.com)
  • Following descriptions by early 20th century researchers it is possible that these cells may also be stem cells and differentiate into adrenal cortex cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The adrenal cortex is characterized by three histologically and functionally distinct zones: the outermost zona glomerulosa (zG), the intermediate zona fasciculata, and the innermost zona reticularis. (frontiersin.org)
  • At the fourth day, the animals were sacrificed and the adrenals prepared for light and electron microscopy following usual procedures. (sens.org)
  • This fund supports full time adrenal cancer research and patient support at the Translational Genomics Research Institute. (dmoztools.net)