Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms: Tumors or cancers of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Medulla: The inner portion of the adrenal gland. Derived from ECTODERM, adrenal medulla consists mainly of CHROMAFFIN CELLS that produces and stores a number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS, mainly adrenaline (EPINEPHRINE) and NOREPINEPHRINE. The activity of the adrenal medulla is regulated by the SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zona Reticularis: The inner zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces the enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE, a 21-carbon steroid, to 19-carbon steroids (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPREGNENOLONE.Adrenal Cortex Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL CORTEX.Adrenal Gland Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenal Gland Diseases: Pathological processes of the ADRENAL GLANDS.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Zona Fasciculata: The wide middle zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) via 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYPROGESTERONE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Adrenal Insufficiency: Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Steroid 11-beta-Hydroxylase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 11-beta-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B1 gene, is important in the synthesis of CORTICOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Defects in CYP11B1 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Adrenocortical Adenoma: A benign neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is characterized by a well-defined nodular lesion, usually less than 2.5 cm. Most adrenocortical adenomas are nonfunctional. The functional ones are yellow and contain LIPIDS. Depending on the cell type or cortical zone involved, they may produce ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE.Adrenal Cortex Function Tests: Examinations that evaluate and monitor hormone production in the adrenal cortex.Adrenal Cortex HormonesAdrenocortical Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the ADRENAL CORTEX. Adrenocortical carcinomas are unencapsulated anaplastic (ANAPLASIA) masses sometimes exceeding 20 cm or 200 g. They are more likely to be functional than nonfunctional, and produce ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES that may result in hypercortisolism (CUSHING SYNDROME); HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and/or VIRILISM.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Adrenal Hyperplasia, Congenital: A group of inherited disorders of the ADRENAL GLANDS, caused by enzyme defects in the synthesis of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) and/or ALDOSTERONE leading to accumulation of precursors for ANDROGENS. Depending on the hormone imbalance, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be classified as salt-wasting, hypertensive, virilizing, or feminizing. Defects in STEROID 21-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 11-BETA-HYDROXYLASE; STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE; 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES); TESTOSTERONE 5-ALPHA-REDUCTASE; or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein; among others, underlie these disorders.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Cosyntropin: A synthetic peptide that is identical to the 24-amino acid segment at the N-terminal of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. ACTH (1-24), a segment similar in all species, contains the biological activity that stimulates production of CORTICOSTEROIDS in the ADRENAL CORTEX.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Adrenalectomy: Excision of one or both adrenal glands. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Adrenodoxin: An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.Steroidogenic Factor 1: A transcription factor and member of the nuclear receptor family NR5 that is expressed throughout the adrenal and reproductive axes during development. It plays an important role in sexual differentiation, formation of primary steroidogenic tissues, and their functions in post-natal and adult life. It regulates the expression of key steroidogenic enzymes.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Adrenocortical Hyperfunction: Excess production of ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and/or ANDROSTENEDIONE. Hyperadrenal syndromes include CUSHING SYNDROME; HYPERALDOSTERONISM; and VIRILISM.Addison Disease: An adrenal disease characterized by the progressive destruction of the ADRENAL CORTEX, resulting in insufficient production of ALDOSTERONE and HYDROCORTISONE. Clinical symptoms include ANOREXIA; NAUSEA; WEIGHT LOSS; MUSCLE WEAKNESS; and HYPERPIGMENTATION of the SKIN due to increase in circulating levels of ACTH precursor hormone which stimulates MELANOCYTES.Steroid 17-alpha-Hydroxylase: A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Adosterol: A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging.Pregnenolone: A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Ferredoxin-NADP Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation and reduction of FERREDOXIN or ADRENODOXIN in the presence of NADP. EC 1.18.1.2 was formerly listed as EC 1.6.7.1 and EC 1.6.99.4.17-Hydroxycorticosteroids: A group of hydroxycorticosteroids bearing a hydroxy group at the 17-position. Urinary excretion of these compounds is used as an index of adrenal function. They are used systemically in the free alcohol form, but with esterification of the hydroxy groups, topical effectiveness is increased.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Hyperaldosteronism: A condition caused by the overproduction of ALDOSTERONE. It is characterized by sodium retention and potassium excretion with resultant HYPERTENSION and HYPOKALEMIA.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.Steroids: A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.Chromaffin Cells: Cells that store epinephrine secretory vesicles. During times of stress, the nervous system signals the vesicles to secrete their hormonal content. Their name derives from their ability to stain a brownish color with chromic salts. Characteristically, they are located in the adrenal medulla and paraganglia (PARAGANGLIA, CHROMAFFIN) of the sympathetic nervous system.Dehydroepiandrosterone: A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.Catecholamines: A general class of ortho-dihydroxyphenylalkylamines derived from tyrosine.Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 2: A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in the ADRENAL CORTEX. It shows specificity for ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.Cerebellar Cortex: The superficial GRAY MATTER of the CEREBELLUM. It consists of two main layers, the stratum moleculare and the stratum granulosum.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Adenoma: A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Hypophysectomy: Surgical removal or destruction of the hypophysis, or pituitary gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Adrenarche: A stage of development at which the ADRENAL GLANDS undergo maturation leading to the capability of producing increasing amounts of adrenal androgens, DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenarche usually begins at about 7 or 8 years of age before the signs of PUBERTY and continues throughout puberty.Aminoglutethimide: An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.Progesterone Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate: The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Metyrapone: An inhibitor of the enzyme STEROID 11-BETA-MONOOXYGENASE. It is used as a test of the feedback hypothalamic-pituitary mechanism in the diagnosis of CUSHING SYNDROME.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Steroid Hydroxylases: Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES) that are important in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mineralocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS primarily associated with water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ION TRANSPORT in renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid secretion is itself regulated by PLASMA VOLUME, serum potassium, and ANGIOTENSIN II.Chromaffin System: The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Gyrus Cinguli: One of the convolutions on the medial surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. It surrounds the rostral part of the brain and CORPUS CALLOSUM and forms part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fushi Tarazu Transcription Factors: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Endocrine Glands: Ductless glands that secrete HORMONES directly into the BLOOD CIRCULATION. These hormones influence the METABOLISM and other functions of cells in the body.Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the SELLA TURCICA. It is connected to the HYPOTHALAMUS by a short stalk which is called the INFUNDIBULUM.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Restraint, Physical: Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Cyanoketone: 2 alpha-Cyano-17 beta-hydroxy-4,4',17 alpha-trimethylandrost-5-ene-3-one. An androstenolone-nitrile compound with steroidogenesis-blocking activity.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Chromaffin Granules: Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microsomes: Artifactual vesicles formed from the endoplasmic reticulum when cells are disrupted. They are isolated by differential centrifugation and are composed of three structural features: rough vesicles, smooth vesicles, and ribosomes. Numerous enzyme activities are associated with the microsomal fraction. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990; from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Adrenal Rest Tumor: Neoplasm derived from displaced cells (rest cells) of the primordial ADRENAL GLANDS, generally in patients with CONGENITAL ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA. Adrenal rest tumors have been identified in TESTES; LIVER; and other tissues. They are dependent on ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN for growth and adrenal steroid secretion.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Freeze Etching: A replica technique in which cells are frozen to a very low temperature and cracked with a knife blade to expose the interior surfaces of the cells or cell membranes. The cracked cell surfaces are then freeze-dried to expose their constituents. The surfaces are now ready for shadowing to be viewed using an electron microscope. This method differs from freeze-fracturing in that no cryoprotectant is used and, thus, allows for the sublimation of water during the freeze-drying process to etch the surfaces.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Myelolipoma: A rare benign tumor of the adrenal gland, several centimeters in diameter, composed in varying proportions of adipose tissue, lymphocytes, and primitive myeloid cells, probably a developmental abnormality. (Dorland, 27th ed)

Nuclear bodies are usual constituents in tissues of hibernating dormice. (1/1201)

In previous studies we demonstrated in several tissues of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius that during hibernation cell nuclei contain particular structural constituents absent in euthermia. In the present study we examine the same tissues in euthermic and hibernating individuals of the edible dormouse Glis glis in order to investigate possible modifications of nuclear structural constituents occurring during hibernation in this species. Edible dormice were captured in the wild and maintained in an external animal house. Samples of liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue and adrenal cortex were taken from three hibernating and three euthermic animals and processed for resin embedding. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies were carried out on cell nuclei of these tissues. The most evident feature of cell nuclei of hibernating dormice was the presence of several nuclear bodies, namely fibro-granular material, amorphous bodies, coiled bodies, perichromatin granule-like granules and nucleoplasmic fibrils, the distribution of which was peculiar to each tissue. No one of these constituents was detectable during euthermia. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that they contain some splicing factors. Apart from some differences, maybe due to the different characteristics of lethargy, the nuclear bodies found in edible dormice were morphologically and immunocytochemically similar to those previously described in the same tissues of hazel dormice. They therefore seem to be strictly correlated to the hibernating state. If they represent storage and/or assembly sites of splicing factors to be rapidly used upon arousal, they could represent a usual structural feature in cells of hibernating species.  (+info)

Natural killer cell activity in the peripheral blood of patients with Cushing's syndrome. (2/1201)

BACKGROUND: Natural killer (NK) cells are CD3(-)CD16(+)CD56(+) bone-marrow-derived lymphocytes mediating first-line defence by direct cytotoxicity against various types of target cells without prior immunization. NK cell activity is positively regulated by immune interferon (IFN-gamma); among hormones, glucocorticoids are potent in vitro and in vivo inhibitors, whereas ACTH and beta-endorphin in many experimental circumstances enhance NK cytotoxicity. DESIGN: We measured NK cytotoxicity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) obtained at 0800h and 2000h from 26 patients with Cushing's syndrome (12 pituitary-dependent, 12 adrenal-dependent and two dependent on ectopic ACTH secretion). In vitro responsiveness to IFN-gamma or cortisol was also tested. METHODS: NK activity was measured in a 4-h direct cytotoxicity assay using K562 cells as targets. Plasma ACTH, serum and urinary free cortisol were concomitantly measured with commercially available kits. RESULTS: Spontaneous activity and responsiveness to IFN-gamma or cortisol were significantly greater in 15 age- and sex-matched controls than in Cushing's patients at 0800h. In pituitary-dependent Cushing's patients, plasma ACTH correlated positively with mean levels of spontaneous NK activity (r=0.64, P<0.05) and negatively with cortisol-dependent percentage inhibition (r=-0.69, P<0.02). In adrenal-dependent Cushing's patients, a negative correlation was observed between levels of spontaneous NK activity and urinary free cortisol (r=-0.67, P<0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that excess endogenous glucocorticoids affect spontaneous NK cell activity and responsiveness to exogenous IFN-gamma or cortisol. The differential patterns observed between pituitary-dependent and adrenal-dependent groups are compatible with a positive immunomodulatory role of pituitary pro-opiomelanocortin-derived peptides that effectively counterbalance, at least partially, glucocorticoid immunosuppression.  (+info)

Lipid requirement of membrane-bound 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase. Studies on beef adrenocortical microsomes. (3/1201)

The role of phospholipid in the beef adrenal microsomal 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase (EC 5.3.1.1) has been investigated with the use of phospholipase A to alter the microsomal phospholipids. The byproducts of phospholipase A digestion have been removed with a wash solution containing bovine serum albumin. Removal of 80-85% of the phospholipid leads to loss of 80-90% of the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity. Reconstitution experiments have been performed by introduction of lipid aqueous dispersions in the enzymatic assay. Asolectin, a commercially available preparation of soy phosphatides, is able to stimulate the enzymatic activity but does not restore the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity in phospholipase-A-treated membranes. In contrast, the introduction of aqueous dispersions of microsomal total lipid mixtures in the enzymatic assay brings about a complete restoration of the 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase activity in the lipid-depleted membranes. It is concluded that the bovine adrenal microsomal 3-oxosteroid delta4-delta5-isomerase requires phospholipid(s) to exhibit its full catalytic activity.  (+info)

Local renin-angiotensin system is involved in K+-induced aldosterone secretion from human adrenocortical NCI-H295 cells. (4/1201)

NCI-H295, a human adrenocarcinoma cell line, has been proposed as a model system to define the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the regulation of aldosterone production in humans. Because the precise cellular localization of the components of the renin-angiotensin system in human adrenal cortical cells remains unclear, we investigated their localization in this defined cell system. NCI-H295 cells expressed both angiotensinogen and renin as shown by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. Human angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) was not detectable by immunocytochemistry, ACE binding, or reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. However, 3.5 mmol/L K+ stimulated the formation of both angiotensin I and angiotensin II 1. 9- and 2.5-fold, respectively, and increased aldosterone release 3. 0-fold. The K+-induced stimulation of aldosterone release was decreased by captopril and enalaprilat (24% and 26%, respectively) and by the angiotensin type 1 (AT1)-receptor antagonist losartan (28%). Angiotensin II-induced stimulation of aldosterone release was abolished by losartan treatment. Specific [125I]Sar1-angiotensin II binding was detected by receptor autoradiography. The binding of [125I]Sar1-angiotensin II was completely displaced by the AT1 antagonist losartan but not by the AT2 receptor ligand PD 123319, confirming the expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptors in NCI-H295 cells. Our results demonstrate that NCI-H295 cells express most of the components of the renin-angiotensin system. Our failure to detect ACE, however, suggests that the production of angiotensin II in NCI-H295 cells may be ACE independent. NCI-H295 cells are able to produce angiotensin II, and K+ increases aldosterone secretion in part through an angiotensin-mediated pathway. The production of angiotensin II in NCI-H295 cells demonstrates that this human cell line can be useful to characterize the role of locally produced angiotensin II in the regulation of aldosterone release.  (+info)

Comparison of expression and regulation of the high-density lipoprotein receptor SR-BI and the low-density lipoprotein receptor in human adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295 cells. (5/1201)

In rodents, cholesterol for adrenal steroidogenesis is derived mainly from high-density lipoproteins (HDL) via the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor-BI (SR-BI). In humans cholesterol for steroidogenesis is considered to be derived from the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor pathway, and the contribution of SR-BI to that is unknown. In the present study SR-BI expression and regulation by steroidogenic stimuli was analysed in human adrenocortical cells and compared with LDL receptor expression. In addition, the functional contribution of both receptors for cholesteryl ester delivery to human adrenocortical cells was compared. Northern blot and reverse transcription-PCR amplification and sequence analysis demonstrated the presence of SR-BI mRNA in foetal and adult human adrenal cortex. Furthermore, SR-BI mRNA was expressed to similar levels in human primary adrenocortical and adrenocortical carcinoma NCI-H295 cells, indicating its presence in the steroid-producing cells. Treatment of NCI-H295 cells with 8Br-cAMP, a stimulator of glucocorticoid synthesis via the protein kinase A second messenger signal transduction pathway, resulted in an increase of both SR-BI and LDL receptor mRNA levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The induction of SR-BI and LDL receptor by cAMP was independent of ongoing protein synthesis and occurred at the transcriptional level. Ligand blot experiments indicated that a protein of similar size to SR-BI is the major HDL-binding protein in NCI-H295 cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that cAMP treatment increased the levels of LDL receptor and, to a lesser extent, SR-BI protein in NCI-H295 cells. Binding and uptake of cholesterol was quantitatively smaller from HDL than from LDL, both in basal as well as in cAMP-stimulated cells. Scatchard analysis under basal conditions indicated that NCI-H295 cells express twice as many specific binding sites for LDL than for HDL. Dissociation constant values (Kd; in nm) were approximately five times higher for HDL than for LDL, indicating a lower affinity of HDL compared with LDL. The combined effects of these two parameters and the low cholesteryl ester content of HDL subfraction 3 (HDL3) contributes to a lower cholesteryl ester uptake from HDL than from LDL by the NCI-H295 cells. In conclusion, both the SR-BI and LDL receptor genes are expressed in the human adrenal cortex and coordinately regulated by activators of glucocorticoid synthesis. In contrast to rodents, in human adrenocortical cells the HDL pathway of cholesterol delivery appears to be of lesser importance than the LDL pathway. Nevertheless, the SR-BI pathway may become of major importance in conditions of functional defects in the LDL receptor pathway.  (+info)

The expression of inhibin/activin subunits in the human adrenal cortex and its tumours. (6/1201)

Inhibins and activins are dimeric proteins of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily which have been shown to be expressed in the adrenal cortex. Recent studies have suggested a role for these peptides in the pathogenesis and/or function of adrenal tumours. To investigate further their physiological and pathological roles, we have documented immunoreactivity for inhibin alpha, betaA and betaB subunits in normal adult and fetal human adrenals, in hyperplastic adrenals and in adrenal tumours. In the normal and hyperplastic adult gland, diffuse immunopositivity was demonstrated for beta subunits, suggesting that activins (beta beta dimers) can be expressed in all zones. Inhibin alpha was limited to the zona reticularis and the innermost zona fasciculata in the normal gland, extending centripetally into the zona fasciculata in hyperplasia, supporting a role for ACTH in the regulation of expression, and suggesting that expression of inhibins (alpha beta dimers) is restricted. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in both fetal and definitive zones of the fetal cortex, indicating that both inhibins and activins could be expressed in both. Immunopositivity for all three subunits was seen in most adrenocortical tumours. Loss of immunopositivity for inhibin alpha in a subgroup of carcinomas might indicate a role in tumour progression. The greater intensity of staining for inhibin alpha in tumours associated with Cushing's syndrome again suggests a link with cortisol production.  (+info)

Influences of long-term administration of 24R, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a vitamin D3 derivative, in rats. (7/1201)

In order to examine the influences by long-term feeding of 24R, 25 dihydroxyvitamin D3[24R, 25(OH)2D3], an active form of vitamin D, Wistar rats (14-week-old, male, 20 rats/group) were fed a powder diet containing 0 or 5 ppm 24R, 25(OH)2D3 for 57 weeks. Final body weights and total food consumption were comparable between the groups. Urinary calcium levels were significantly (p < 0.05 or 0.01) increased by the administration of 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at weeks 3, 22 and 56, although the levels of serum calcium did not differ between the groups at the termination of week 57. In the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group, weights of the adrenals and femurs were significantly (p < 0.01) increased. Histopathologically, this was found due to thickening of cortical bone in the femurs, and medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma of the adrenals. Immunohistochemically, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-labeling indices for intact adrenal medulla, medullary hyperplasia and pheochromocytoma in the 24R, 25(OH)2D3 group were respectively 1.82 +/- 1.21, 5.88 +/- 4.13 and 16, all higher than that for the adrenal medulla in the control group (0.87 +/- 0.67). These results indicate that 24R, 25(OH)2D3 at a dose with which serum calcium is not chronically increased causes thickening of the cortex of the femur, and development of adrenal proliferative lesions, suggesting that rats may be too sensitive for results to be relevant to human risk assessment.  (+info)

Calcium and reactive oxygen species as messengers in endotoxin action on adrenocortical cells. (8/1201)

The effect of Escherichia coli 0111:B4 endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) on the intracellular Ca2+ and reactive oxygen metabolite content of both rat isolated fasciculata-reticularis and glomerulosa cells was evaluated by flow cytometry to know the role of these mechanisms in the initiation of cell injury produced by LPS on adrenocortical cells during endotoxic shock. A rapid increase of intracellular calcium was induced by endotoxin in both cell types. In fasciculata-reticularis cells, this [Ca2+]i increase was mainly due to an important mobilization of intracellular stores. Dose-dependent increases in [Ca2+]i were also observed when both cell types were incubated with LPS for 20 min in the presence of extracellular calcium. This treatment abolished the increase in intracellular calcium induced by ACTH and angiotensin II. On the other hand, the endotoxin produced a fast and dose-dependent increase in reactive oxygen species in both cell types, higher in glomerulosa than in fasciculata-reticularis cells. LPS-pretreated cells showed more susceptibility to the oxidative stress induced by Fe2+. These results can be related to functional alterations previously described showing the involvement of calcium and reactive oxygen species as messengers in the endotoxin action on adrenocortical cells.  (+info)

Adrenavive II, Bovine Adrenal Cortex 125mg (90 Capsules) Adrenavive II contains 125mg of freeze-dried Bovine Adrenal Cortex per capsule, from Procepts proprietary farm sources in Europe. Our grass-fed cattle are reared as nature intended, without the use of growth-promoting hormones or antibiotics. For most of the year they are free to range on natural grass pastures and whilst protected indoors during the winter months, they are fed naturally fermented grass (silage). The whole adrenal glands are collected by EU approved abattoirs, before careful removal of the adrenal medulla. The adrenal cortex is then freeze-dried and processed at low temperatures to carefully preserve its raw nutritional value. Pure, Simple, Quality Nutrition Free-range bovine adrenal cortex Grass fed on natural pastures Reared without the use of growth promoting hormones or antibiotics No solvent, enzymatic or heat-based removal of fats Nothing is removed. Just raw, premium quality, adrenal cortex, processed at
CiteSeerX - Document Details (Isaac Councill, Lee Giles, Pradeep Teregowda): Diameters of the circular profiles of spherical mitochondria in parenchymal cells of the zona fasciculata in rat adrenal cortex were measured for intact controls and for the regenerating adrenal cortex on electron micrographs recorded at random. The diameter data were then processed by Bachs method which deals with the sphere size distribution. The structural parameters of the mitochondria were computed with the aid of an electronic computer. The total number of mitochondria in all the parenchymal cells of the zona fasciculata were calculated. The surface area of the inner mitochondrial membrane was then determined stereologically. Biochemical parameters were obtained for the protein, the phospholipid, and the cytochrome P-450 content, per averaged mitochondrion. The number of cytochrome P-450 molecules contained in the inner membrane was determined in terms of the unit surface area and of the unit amount of phospholipid.
1. Omeprazole, a substituted benzimidazole, is a potent inhibitor of gastric acid secretion which is currently being evaluated in patients with peptic ulcer and Zollinger-Ellison syndrome.. 2. Drugs which possess an imidazole nucleus have previously been shown to inhibit cortisol release from the adrenal cortex, secondary to inhibition of mitochondrial cytochrome P-450 dependent hydroxylation reactions.. 3. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study in healthy male volunteers, omeprazole (60 mg daily for 7 days) did not alter basal cortisol levels. The peak cortisol response to ACTH stimulation was significantly reduced. Cortisol levels 60 min after ACTH were 824 ± 27 nmol/l on omeprazole (mean ± sem), and 929 ± 35 on placebo (P , 0.005).. 4. In vitro, omeprazole caused a concentration-dependent inhibition of ACTH-stimulated cortisol release from isolated bovine adrenal cells (ED50 = 20 μg/ml). This was associated with a decrease in deoxycortisol synthesis. Therefore, unlike some ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of Responsiveness of Cultured Adrenal Cells to Adrenocorticotropin and Prostaglandin E1. T2 - Cell Density, Cell Division, and Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis. AU - Hornsby, Peter J.. AU - Gill, Gordon N.. PY - 1981/1. Y1 - 1981/1. N2 - In cultured bovine adrenocortical cells, responsiveness to ACTH, as assessed by the maximal rate of ACTHstimulated cAMP production, has been found to depend on cell density and cell proliferation, while the maximal rate of prostaglandin E1, (PGE1)-stimulated cAMP production was constant.The combination of low cell density and normal cell proliferation caused a specific decline in responsiveness to ACTH. Responsiveness did not decline at any density when proliferation was inhibited by mitomycin C treatment. Specific declines in responsiveness to ACTH were also seen when cultures were treated with cycloheximide or sodium butyrate. When protein synthesis was completely inhibited by cycloheximide treatment, responsiveness to ACTH declined ...
The adrenal steroid hormones have a central role in maintaining homeostasis, as they have influence on almost every physiological process. Their movement across the cell membrane is still poorly understood, although this is of great interest to basic biology and medicine. Previous studies have suggested transporter(s) may participate in this process. In this study the characteristic features of the previously demonstrated ROAT1-like exchange transport system in bovine adrenal cells were investigated with representative substrates. Corticotrophin (ACTH) stimulated 3H-PAH uptake into bovine adrenocortical cells, which could be inhibited by probenecid. Cortisol, glutarate and PAH in the incubation medium also cis-inhibited 3H-PAH uptake, and preincubation with PAH trans-stimulated 3H-PAH uptake. Preliminary studies on human adrenocortical cells also provided evidence for the existence of a probenecid inhibitable PAH-transporter. These results support the concept of an organic anion/dicarboxylate ...
ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands. ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex. The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor.[7] Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP[8] and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ACTH influences steroid hormone secretion by both rapid short-term mechanisms that take place within minutes and slower long-term actions. The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. P450scc catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis that is cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol. ACTH also stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortical cells. This increases the ...
Pudney, J., Sweet, P. R., Vinson, G. P. and Whitehouse, B. J. (1981), Morphological correlates of hormone secretion in the rat adrenal cortex and the role of filopodia. Anat. Rec., 201: 537-551. doi: 10.1002/ar.1092010310 ...
The cells of the adrenal cortex are of mesodermal origin, in contrast to the neuroectodermal cells of the adrenal medulla. Human embryonic adrenogonadal progenitor cells first appear at around the fourth week of gestation between the urogenital ridge and dorsal mesentery. These progenitor cells give rise to the steroidogenic cells of the gonads and to the adrenal cortex. The adrenal and gonadal cells then separate-the adrenal cells migrate retroperitoneally to the cranial pole of the mesonephros, and the gonadal cells migrate caudally. Between the seventh and eighth weeks of development, sympathetic cells from the neural crest invade the primitive adrenal and become the adrenal medulla. By the end of the eighth week, the rudimentary adrenal has become encapsulated and is associated with the upper pole of the kidney, which at this time is much smaller than the adrenal. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - INFLUENCE OF THE THYMUS ON ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERACTIVITY IN. AU - FACHET, J.. AU - VALLENT, K.. AU - Palkóvits, M.. AU - ACS, Z.. PY - 1964. Y1 - 1964. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=78651150870&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=78651150870&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 14239404. AN - SCOPUS:78651150870. VL - 20. SP - 281. EP - 287. JO - Acta Medica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. JF - Acta Medica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. SN - 0001-5989. ER - ...
CheriseSteffel - Family/Friend: Adrenal Cortical Cancer (Adrenal Cortex Carcinoma) Patient Info: Newly diagnosed (has not begun treatment), Diagnosed: over 9 years ago, Female, Age: 38
Calcitonin is secreted by the parafollicular cells of the thyroid gland. This hormone opposes the action of the parathyroid glands by reducing the calcium level in the blood. If blood calcium becomes too high, calcitonin is secreted until calcium ion levels decrease to normal.. The adrenal cortex consists of three different regions, with each region producing a different group or type of hormones. Chemically, all the cortical hormones are steroid.. Mineralocorticoids are secreted by the outermost region of the adrenal cortex. The principal mineralocorticoid is aldosterone, which acts to conserve sodium ions and water in the body.. Glucocorticoids are secreted by the middle region of the adrenal cortex. The principal glucocorticoid is cortisol, which increases blood glucose levels.. The third group of steroids secreted by the adrenal cortex is the gonadocorticoids, or sex hormones. Male hormones, androgens, and female hormones, estrogens, are secreted in minimal amounts in both sexes by the ...
Principal Investigator:SASANO Hironobu, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Human pathology
This paper reports our experience in the treatment of liver disease using a new therapy: extract of adrenal cortex.. We have felt for some time that forced feedings of proteins and carbohydrates with high vitamins as suggested by Patek,1 intravenous human serum albumin,2 and the use of lipotropic compounds were in large part an effort to support the patient until the liver repaired itself. Too often these measures failed. Watson3 has recently emphasized "the difficulties in the prognosis and treatment of hepatic disease, difficulties which are inherent because of the multiplicity of the functions of the liver, the remarkable dissociation ...
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Lidex is a topical adrenocortical steroid targeted to treat skin inflammation, redness and swelling. There are many people across the world that use Lide
The adrenals are enlarged, the gland surface is smooth; on cross section the cortex appears to be markedly widened showing diffuse, pale-yellow or ivory-white discoloration. A two- to fourfold...
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This brief chapter aims to provide a basis for understanding the psychological aberrations observed in patients with either hyper- or hypoadrenocorticism. Our knowledge of endocrinological psychiatry...
A sterol usually substituted with radioactive iodine. It is an adrenal cortex scanning agent with demonstrated high adrenal concentration and superior adrenal imaging. . ...
My next appointment with the neurosurgeon is tomorrow. I dont know what he plans to tell me. But, no matter what he says I have something that I want to try. It seems that L-lysine may have some affect on the ability of the adrenal cortex to produce cortisol in response to ACTH. I discovered this quite by accident. It seems that L-lysine has a half life of around 11 days and after 3 months of taking small amounts of it I not only was feeling better but saw some improvements in some of my lab work ...
a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal cortex of animals; affects functioning of gonads and has anti-inflammatory activity. ...
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adrenal cortex, b-cell, bone, bone marrow, brain, cartilage, cerebellum, cerebrum, cervix, colon, embryonic tissue, endocrine, esophagus, eye, fetus, gastrointestinal tract, heart, kidney, liver, lung, lymph node, lymphoreticular, mammary gland, muscle, nervous, ovary, pancreas, pancreatic islet, parathyroid, peripheral nervous system, placenta, pooled tissue, prostate, retina, skin, soft tissue, spleen, stem cell, stomach, synovium, t-cell, testis, thymus, thyroid, uncharacterized tissue, uterus, ...
Stress response is the sum of the bodys non-specific responses generated by a variety of very stimulations, and is the comprehensive response of hypothalamus-pituitary- adrenal cortex sys
Peter J. Hornsby The author is in the Department of Physiology and Sam and Ann Barshop Center for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX 78245, USA. E-mail: hornsby{at}uthscsa.edu. http://sageke.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/2004/35/re6 Key Words: adrenal gland steroid DHEA(S) ischemia replicative senescence cell death. Abstract: The most striking age-related change in the human adrenal cortex is the decline in secretion of dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate, steroids synthesized by the inner zone of the cortex, the zona reticularis. Because these steroids are of essentially unknown function, the importance of this age-related change is the subject of considerable debate. It is likely that the age-related change in these steroids results from loss of zona reticularis cells or impairment of their function. During aging, cumulative damage to the zona reticularis could occur through ischemia-related infarcts and other causes of cell death. ...
Cholesterol metabolism in normal adrenal cortex cells is acutely regulated by ACTH stimulation, rising appreciably within 3 minutes of treatment and peaking within 10-15 minutes (3). Defects in either PKA or G protein coupling, as seen in mutant mouse adrenal cell sub-lines, block this response by preventing cAMP formation (11). Other signaling pathways playing key roles in adrenal responses to ACTH include lipoxygenase activation (12) and, at least in adrenal fasciculata cells, stimulation mediated by receptors for IGF1, retinoids, and thyroid hormone; several cytokines, conversely, can suppress production of steroid hormones by these cells (13). For the most part, I will focus here on the mechanisms of acute adrenal fasciculata responses to cAMP and its analogs, which are generally shared with testicular and ovarian cells. It is interesting to note, however, that StAR regulation in another adrenal steroidogenic cell type, the glomerulosa cell, responds via alternative pathways involving Ca2+ ...
Naturally occurring primary hypoadrenocorticism is a relatively uncommon condition in both dogs and cats characterized by clinically significant loss of adrenocortical secretory capacity. Primary hypoadrenocorticism is generally a result of immune-mediated adrenocortical destruction with resultant mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid deficiency. In a small proportion of cases there is selective loss of only glucocorticoid secreting capacity. Aetiology. Impaired adrenocortical function may develop as a result of disease of any part of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However in dogs, hypoadrenocorticism is generally a result of substantial destruction of adrenocortical tissue. Although any destruction of adrenocortical tissue may impair adrenocortical reserve, in non-stressful situations approximately 90% of the adrenal cortex needs to be non-functional before this impairment becomes clinically significant. In most cases the underlying reason for adrenal destruction appears to be ...
The lipid transport protein, apolipoprotein E (apoE), is expressed in many peripheral tissues in vivo including the adrenal gland and testes. To investigate the role of apoE in adrenal cholesterol homeostasis, we have expressed a human apoE genomic clone in the Y1 mouse adrenocortical cell line. Y1 cells do not express endogenous apoE mRNA or protein. Expression of apoE in Y1 cells resulted in a dramatic decrease in basal steroidogenesis; secretion of fluorogenic steroid was reduced 7- to greater than 100-fold relative to Y1 parent cells. Addition of 5-cholesten-3 beta,25-diol failed to overcome the suppression of steroidogenesis in these cells. Cholesterol esterification under basal conditions, as measured by the production of cholesteryl [14C]oleate, was similar in the Y1 parent and the apoE-transfected cell lines. Upon incubation with adrenocorticotropin or dibutyryl cAMP, production of cholesteryl [14C]oleate decreased 5-fold in the Y1 parent cells but was unchanged in the apoE-transfected ...
The fetal endocrine system is one of the first systems to develop during prenatal development. The fetal adrenal cortex can be identified within four weeks of gestation. The adrenal cortex originates from the thickening of the intermediate mesoderm. At five to six weeks of gestation, the mesonephros differentiates into a tissue known as the gonadal ridge. The gonadal ridge produces the steroidogenic cells for both the gonads and the adrenal cortex. The adrenal medulla is derived from ectodermal cells. Cells that will become adrenal tissue move retroperitoneally to the upper portion of the mesonephros. At seven weeks of gestation, the adrenal cells are joined by sympathetic cells that originate from the neural crest to form the adrenal medulla. At the end of the eighth week, the adrenal glands have been encapsulated and have formed a distinct organ above the developing kidneys. At birth, the adrenal glands weight approximately eight to nine grams (twice that of the adult adrenal glands) and are ...
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous group of disorders presenting with hyperandrogenism in adolescents and young women. The etiology of this condition remains unknown, despite its many identified links to insulin resistance, hypertension and metabolic syndrome, as well as its potential connection to the various forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).. The adrenal glands are the only source in the body of adrenocortical steroids. In normal physiology, the pituitary hormone ACTH regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids, while the secretion of mineralocorticoids is controlled by the renin-angiotensin system. In addition to these two steroids, the adrenal gland secretes lesser amounts of intermediate metabolites of these steroids, as well as the sex-steroids DHEA, DHEAS, androstenedione, testosterone, estrogen, and estrone. Dysregulated secretion of any of these hormones can be caused by the development of hyperplasia of the adrenocortical tissue, which may be mild and ...
CONTEXT: The endocrine function of human fetal adrenals (HFAs) is activated already during first trimester, but adrenal steroidogenesis during fetal life is not well characterized.. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate HFA steroidogenesis by analyzing adrenal glands from first and second trimesters.. DESIGN AND SETTING: Male and female HFA from gestational weeks (GWs) 8 to 19 were examined, including a total of 101 samples from 83 fetuses.. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Expression level of steroidogenic genes and protein expression/localization were determined by quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively, and intra-adrenal steroid levels were quantified by LC-MS/MS.. RESULTS: Transcriptional levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, CYP21A2, CYP11B1/2, and SULT2A1 were significantly higher in second trimester compared to first trimester (P , 0.05), whereas expression levels of 3β-HSD2 and ARK1C3 were unaltered between GWs 8 and 19. All investigated steroidogenic proteins were expressed ...
The adrenal cortex produces two main groups of hormones; the glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids. The release of glucocorticoids is triggered by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Mineralocorticoids are mediated by signals triggered by the kidney.. When the hypothalamus produces corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), it stimulates the pituitary gland to release adrenal corticotrophin hormone (ACTH). These hormones, in turn, alert the adrenal glands to produce corticosteroid hormones.. There is a third class of hormone released by the adrenal cortex, known as sex steroids or sex hormones. The adrenal cortex releases small amounts of male and female sex hormones. However, their impact is usually surpassed by the greater amounts of other hormones (such as estrogen and testosterone) released by the ovaries or testes.. ...
The high stress of daily life in modern America has resulted in prolonged pressure upon the adrenal glands to produce tremendous quantities of hormones to deal with this stress. For many Americans this constant stress seems to have produced a form of adrenal insufficiency. The adrenal glands have become so overworked they may no longer produce sufficient quantities of hormones for some individuals to adequately cope with the stress of life.. Adrenal Cortex Hormones:. The outer portion of the adrenal glands are known as the cortex which produces a very different class of hormones than that of the inner or medulla portion. A lack of sufficient hormones from the adrenal cortex may be manifest as a wide variety of health problems. One of the most notorious is a sense of chronic fatigue and exhaustion, of being tired all the time, even when a physician can find no medical cause for the problem. Hormones from the adrenal cortex known as glucocorticoids, regulate blood sugar. When not produced in a ...
A new drug formulation of the adrenal cortex (AC) inhibitor o,p′-DDD (chloditan) was developed as a solution for i.v. injection. Its effects on glucocorticoid hormone production by human AC tissue culture and AC function in dogs were studied. A concentration range of 0.005 - 5.0 mg/mL was established by adding 5% o,p′-DDD solution to the culture medium. Cultivation of specimens of human adrenocortical tissue in the presence of o,p′-DDD solution caused after 24 h a dose-dependent decrease of 11-hydroxycorticosteroid (11-HCS) content by 11.0 - 69.8%. The 11-HCS content in dog blood plasma decreased by an average of 3.5 times; the response to synthetic 1 - 24-corticotropin stimulation, by three times, with daily administration for 3 d of 10 mL of the solution. The 11-HCS blood level was still reduced two weeks after withdrawal of the drug. The proposed o,p′-DDD solution showed adrenocorticolytic activity and could be recommended for clinical trials.
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In the UK, a problem with the immune system is the most common cause of Addisons disease, accounting for 70-90% of cases.. The immune system is your bodys defence against infection and disease. If youre ill, your immune system produces antibodies (a special type of protein that destroys disease-carrying organisms and toxins). These antibodies attack the cause of the illness.. However, if you develop a problem with your immune system, it can start to attack your own healthy tissues and organs. This is known as an autoimmune disorder.. Addisons disease can develop if your immune system attacks your adrenal glands and severely damages your adrenal cortex. When 90% of the adrenal cortex is destroyed, your adrenal glands wont be able to produce enough of the steroid hormones cortisol and aldosterone. Once levels of these start decreasing, youll experience symptoms of Addisons disease.. Its not clear why some people develop this problem with their immune system, although it can run in families ...
In the UK, a problem with the immune system is the most common cause of Addisons disease, accounting for 70-90% of cases.. The immune system is your bodys defence against infection and disease. If youre ill, your immune system produces antibodies (a special type of protein that destroys disease-carrying organisms and toxins). These antibodies attack the cause of the illness.. However, if you develop a problem with your immune system, it can start to attack your own healthy tissues and organs. This is known as an autoimmune disorder.. Addisons disease can develop if your immune system attacks your adrenal glands and severely damages your adrenal cortex. When 90% of the adrenal cortex is destroyed, your adrenal glands wont be able to produce enough of the steroid hormones cortisol and aldosterone. Once levels of these start decreasing, youll experience symptoms of Addisons disease.. Its not clear why some people develop this problem with their immune system, although it can run in families ...
Adrenocortical hyperfunction has occurred in association with carcinomas not originating in the adrenal glands. These cancers included those from the bronchus, thymus, pancreas, and prostate. The syndrome has been characterized by an acute onset, occurrence in young adults, and a short duration of life. The fulminating course appears to be due to the adrenal cortical overactivity.. Three patients have been studied: (1) a 23-year-old female with a small-cell carcinoma of the thyroid with extensive metastases, bilateral pheochromecytoma, and hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex; (2) a 33-year-old male with Hodgkins disease and adrenal hyperfunction; and (3) a 57-year-old male with metastatic ...
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Adrenal by Pure Encapsulations supports optimal adrenal health and function with a bovine-sourced whole adrenal and adrenal cortex. Order yours online.
The Adrenal Stress Index The adrenals are two small glands, each weighing 3 to 5 grams, that are located above the kidneys. The adrenals have one of the highest rates of blood flow per gram of tissue, and the highest content of Vitamin C per gram of any tissue in the body.. Each adrenal gland is composed of two separate functional entities. The outer zone, or cortex, accounts for 80% to 90% of the gland, and secretes adrenal steroids (Cortisol, DHEA(S) and Aldosterone). The inner zone, or medulla, comprises 10% to 20% of the gland, and secretes the catecholamines adrenaline and nor-adrenaline. Cortisol, DHEA and adrenaline are the three main adrenal stress hormones.. The Adrenal Rhythm & Its Importance ...
Answers from doctors on adrenal glands fatigue. First: Should there be loss of adrenocortical function, steroid replacement is advocated to rebuild the normal stamina.
Résumé : ORP2 is a ubiquitously expressed OSBP-related protein previously implicated in triacylglycerol (TG) metabolism at endoplasmic reticulum (ER) - lipid droplet (LD) contacts, cholesterol transport, and adrenocortical steroidogenesis. We now characterize the functional role of ORP2 by employing ORP2-knock-out (KO) hepatoma cells generated by CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing. Loss of ORP2 did not affect the major cellular phospholipids, cholesterol, or oxysterols, nor the quantity of ER-LD contact sites. However, the knock-out resulted in reduced expression of SREBP-1 target genes and mRNAs encoding glycolytic enzymes, defective TG synthesis and storage, inhibition of LD growth upon fatty acid loading, reduction of glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis, glycolysis (ECAR) and Akt activity. ORP2 was found to form a physical complex with key controllers of Akt, Cdc37 and Hsp90. In addition to the metabolic phenotypes, the ORP2-KO cells showed defects in adhesion, lamellipodieae formation, migration and ...
They include all the adrenal cell contents, such as nucleic acids (adrenal cell RNA and DNA) and concentrated nutrients in the form and proportion used by the adrenals to properly function and recover, but contain only tiny amounts of the actual hormones in the adrenal gland ...
Brand name: Cytadren. Aminoglutethimide is the drug which acts on the adrenal cortex. Production of steroids is affected by its administration. Aminoglutethimide is prescribed...
Human Adrenal Fibroblast Genomic DNA https://www.sciencepro.com.br/produtos/sc-3639 https://www.sciencepro.com.br/@@site-logo/logo-novo.png ...
Article of the Day: Cortisol Often referred to as the stress hormone because of its involvement in the bodys stress response, cortisol is the principal steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. It increases blood pressure and blood sugar levels and can act as an immunosuppressant. Hydrocortisone, or synthetic cortisol, is used to treat a…
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones. Mineralocorticoids[edit]. Main article: ... The adrenal cortex comprises three main zones, or layers that are regulated by distinct hormones as noted below. This anatomic ... October 1991). "The product of the CYP11B2 gene is required for aldosterone biosynthesis in the human adrenal cortex". Mol. ...
Angiotensin II is a hormone which acts on the adrenal cortex, causing the release into the blood of the steroid hormone, ... Williams GH, Dluhy RG (2008). "Chapter 336: Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex". In Loscalzo J, Fauci AS, Braunwald E, Kasper DL, ... "Zona glomerulosa cells of the mouse adrenal cortex are intrinsic electrical oscillators". J Clin Invest. 122 (6): 2046-2053. ... membranes in the outer layer of the adrenal cortex.[55] This causes the release of aldosterone into the blood. ...
... is a steroid hormone produced by the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland.[1][2] It is essential for ... Control of aldosterone release from the adrenal cortexEdit. The renin-angiotensin system, showing role of aldosterone between ... Moreover, aldosterone synthase is found within the zona glomerulosa at the outer edge of the adrenal cortex; 11β-hydroxylase is ... The corticosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol within the zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex. Most steroidogenic ...
CYP11B1 (encoding the protein P450c11β) found in the inner mitochondrial membrane of adrenal cortex has steroid 11β-hydroxylase ... CYP21A1 (P450c21) in adrenal cortex conducts 21-hydroxylase activity.. *CYP19A (P450arom, aromatase) in endoplasmic reticulum ... CYP17A1, in endoplasmic reticulum of adrenal cortex has steroid 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities. ... A subset of cytochrome P450 enzymes play important roles in the synthesis of steroid hormones (steroidogenesis) by the adrenals ...
Adrenal glands[change , change source]. *Adrenal glands *Adrenal cortex produces *Glucocorticoids (chiefly cortisol) Zona ... Male left, female on the right.) 1. Pineal gland 2. Pituitary gland 3. Thyroid gland 4. Thymus 5. Adrenal gland 6. Pancreas 7. ... Adrenal medulla produces *Adrenaline (epinephrine) (Primarily) Chromaffin cells. *Noradrenaline (norepinephrine) Chromaffin ... Adrenal gland - Corpus luteum - Hypothalamus - Ovaries - Pancreas - Parathyroid gland - Pineal gland - Pituitary gland - Testes ...
... the second of three layers comprising the adrenal cortex. The cortex forms the outer "bark" of each adrenal gland, situated ... It is produced in humans by the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex within the adrenal gland.[1] It is released in response ... Synthesis takes place in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal cortex. (The name cortisol is derived from cortex.) While the ... through which blood carries it to the adrenal cortex. ACTH stimulates the synthesis of cortisol and other glucocorticoids, ...
... in the human adrenal cortex and its disorders". Endocrine Pathology. 25 (3): 229-235. doi:10.1007/s12022-013-9280-9. PMID ... MT was discovered in 1957 by Vallee and Margoshe from purification of a Cd-binding protein from horse (equine) renal cortex. ... "A cadmium protein from equine kidney cortex". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 79 (17): 4813-4814. doi:10.1021/ ...
Hanke, W. (2013) [1978]. "Chapter 5. The adrenal cortex of Amphibia". In I. Chester Jones; I.W. Henderson. General, Comparative ... and Clinical Endocrinology of the Adrenal Cortex, Volume 2. Academic Press. pp. 419-487. Teixeira, P.C., Dias, D.C., Rocha, G.C ... a part of the brain's cortex considered to be the "thinking area". However, research has provided evidence that monkeys, dogs, ...
... the innermost layer of the adrenal cortex. Adrenal androgens function as weak steroids (though some are precursors), and the ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced in the adrenal cortex from cholesterol.[4] It is the primary ... Androstenedione (A4) is an androgenic steroid produced by the testes, adrenal cortex, and ovaries. While androstenediones are ... The main subset of androgens, known as adrenal androgens, is composed of 19-carbon steroids synthesized in the zona reticularis ...
In turn, ACTH directs the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids, such as cortisol. The GCs then reduce the rate of ...
Haines WJ (1952). "The biosynthesis of adrenal cortex hormones". Recent Progr. Hormone Res. 7: 255-305. Mueller GC; Rumney G ( ...
Cope, C. L. (1966). "The adrenal cortex in internal medicine. I". BMJ. 2 (5518): 847-853. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.5518.847. PMC ... The Adrenal Cortex in Internal Medicine 1967 Cyril Astley Clarke, Prevention of Rh-Haemolytic Disease 1968 Anthony Clifford ...
ACTH - Stimulates the synthesis and release of Cortisol (zona fasiculata of adrenal cortex in adrenals ... ADH (Vasopressin/AVP) - Induces the synthesis and release of glucocorticoids (Zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex in kidney); ... Angiotensin II - Induces Aldosterone synthesis and release (zona glomerulosa of adrenal cortex in kidney) ... Epinephrine - released by the adrenal medulla during the fasting state, when body is under metabolic duress. It stimulates ...
... but also stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex. Kisspeptin is distributed from the adrenal cortex and it is ... "Presence of kisspeptin-like immunoreactivity in human adrenal glands and adrenal tumors". Journal of Molecular Neuroscience. 41 ... Adrenal gland[edit]. The neuropeptide kisspeptin plays an important role in reproduction, ... The exact nature of the expression of kisspeptins in human adrenal glands unfortunately has not been fully clarified yet and ...
Cairella, M (1961). "Non-steroid inhibitors of the adrenal cortex". La Clinica terapeutica. 20: 667-79. PMID 13689840. ...
... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT axis) Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal ... The cells in the adrenal medulla that release adrenaline and noradrenaline proved to have properties between endocrine cells ...
... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus ...
... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ... An example of a neuroendocrine cell is a cell of the adrenal medulla (innermost part of the adrenal gland), which releases ... The adrenal medullary hormones are kept in vesicles much in the same way neurotransmitters are kept in neuronal vesicles. ... The adrenal medullary cells are controlled by the sympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system. These cells are ...
ACTH is transported by the blood to the adrenal cortex of the adrenal gland, where it rapidly stimulates biosynthesis of ... Important to the function of the HPA axis are some of the feedback loops: Cortisol produced in the adrenal cortex will ... ACTH in turn acts on: the adrenal cortex, which produces glucocorticoid hormones (mainly cortisol in humans) in response to ... released by the adrenal cortex. •The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone ...
Increased androgen secretion during puberty (in males from testes and in females from adrenal cortex) ...
ACTH is a peptide hormone that regulates the secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. β-Endorphin and [Met] ... Mutations in this gene have been associated with early onset obesity, adrenal insufficiency, and red hair pigmentation. A study ... essential for normal steroidogenesis and the maintenance of normal adrenal weight, and β-lipotropin are the major end-products ...
Rapoport R, Sklan D, Hanukoglu I (March 1995). "Electron leakage from the adrenal cortex mitochondrial P450scc and P450c11 ...
Addison's disease is a disorder of the adrenal cortex which results in decreased hormonal production. Addison's disease, even ... response to facial recognition have shown activity predominately in the left hemisphere in the left lateral prefrontal cortex, ...
"Are Hox genes responsible for the phenotypic switching and zonation of the adult adrenal cortex?". Endocrine Abstracts. 2: 52. ...
In addition, mitotane has direct and selective cytotoxic effects on the adrenal cortex, via an unknown mechanism, and thereby ... Mitotane is an inhibitor of the adrenal cortex. It acts as an inhibitor of cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc, ... 179-. ISBN 978-1-61705-019-0. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) C.R. Kannan (6 December 2012). The Adrenal Gland. ... The medication is used in the controlled destruction of adrenal tissue, leading to a decrease in cortisol production. ...
"Aromatase and nonaromatizing 10-demethylase activity of adrenal cortex mitochondrial P-450(11)beta". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. ...
... or an autonomously functioning tumor of the adrenal cortex (AT). Primary adrenocortical neoplasia has been diagnosed in 10 to ... hyperadrenocorticism is a multisystemic disorder resulting from excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. ...
... as the adrenal cortex), preventing hormone production. A shortage of adrenal hormones (adrenal insufficiency) disrupts several ... 21-hydroxylase is found in the adrenal glands where it plays a key role in producing a variety of hormones that regulate many ... In autoimmune Addison disease, however, an immune response is triggered by a normal adrenal gland protein; in about 85 percent ... Loss of hormones produced by the adrenal glands leads to the features of the condition, which include extreme tiredness ( ...
... of uncertain pathogenesis resulting from the immune systems destruction of the hormone producing cells of the adrenal cortex. ...
title = "Adrenal myelolipoma associated with adenoma",. abstract = "The association of an adrenal myelolipoma with a non- ... Adrenal myelolipoma associated with adenoma. Francesca Rappa, Francesca Manassero, Alfonso Crisci, Giorgio Pomara, Maria ... The association of an adrenal myelolipoma with a non-functioning adenoma is very rare. Herein,we report on such a case in an ... Rappa F, Manassero F, Crisci A, Pomara G, Cuttano MG, Selli C. Adrenal myelolipoma associated with adenoma. International ...
... especially because adrenal imaging can be misleading mimicking other adrenocortical diseases. Bilateral laparoscopic ... The patient underwent left laparoscopic adrenalectomy and histological examination revealed pigmented micronodular adrenal ... Stewart PM: The adrenal cortex. Williams textbook of endocrinology. Edited by: Larsen PR, Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, et al. 2003 ... the adrenal gland identified and the adrenal vein dissected, double clipped and divided. The upper adrenal vessels are either ...
Dec.22, 2009 in Adrenal Function Tests Addisons disease is primary adrenocortical insufficiency from bilateral adrenal cortex ... Under long-term steroid suppression, a normal adrenal cortex may be unable to respond immediately to stimulation. A definitive ... Long-term steroid therapy causes adrenal cortex atrophy from disuse, and if steroids are abruptly withdrawn, symptoms of ... forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia-due to congenital deficiency of certain enzymes necessary for adrenal cortex hormone ...
Clinical Disorders of adrenal function and puberty: assessment of the role of the adrenal cortex and abnormal puberty in man ... Cel s destined to generate the adrenal cortex migrate from the coelomic epithelium forming the primitive adrenal gland by eight ... the adrenal cortex becomes encapsulated and chromaffin cel s originating from the neural crest migrate through the fetal cortex ... is in theory the morphological equivalent of the fetal zone of adrenal cortex. The primate adrenal produces large amounts of ...
Primary adrenal insufficiency is usually not apparent until 90% of the adrenal cortex has been destroyed. The most common cause ... Patients with adrenal insufficiency demonstrate no or little adrenal response.. Patients on chronic steroids therapy can also ... of Addisons disease is idiopathic adrenal insufficiency secondary to autoimmune destruction of the adrenal cortex. Symptoms ... Addisons disease, or primary adrenal insufficiency, is distinguished from other types of adrenal insufficiency in that the ...
Adrenal Glands. Addisons occurs because of damage to the cortex.. Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc. ... Primary Addison disease-adrenal gland tissue can not make hormones. *Secondary Addison disease-other hormones that tell adrenal ... Addison disease is a disorder of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and make important hormones. ... They can also help prevent an adrenal crisis. An adrenal crisis will need immediate medical attention to try to balance the ...
The most plausible explanation may be that undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells within the adrenal cortex are stimulated to ... USG revealed an adrenal mass along with multiple stones in the gall bladder. The pain was related to adrenal myelolipoma, ... ADRENAL MYELOLIPOMA ASSOCIATED WITH CHOLELITHIASIS- A CASE REPORT. HTML Full Text ADRENAL MYELOLIPOMA ASSOCIATED WITH ... Conn syndrome and congenital adrenal hyperplasia 3. Malignant degeneration of adrenal myelolipoma has not been reported so far. ...
Adrenal Glands Addisons occurs because of damage to the cortex. Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc. ... Primary Addison disease-adrenal gland tissue can not make hormones. *Secondary Addison disease-other hormones that tell adrenal ... Addison disease is a disorder of the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands sit on top of the kidneys and make important hormones. ... They can also help prevent an adrenal crisis. An adrenal crisis will need immediate medical attention to try to balance the ...
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... The adrenal cortex produces a number of different corticosteroid hormones. Mineralocorticoids[edit]. Main article: ... The adrenal cortex comprises three main zones, or layers that are regulated by distinct hormones as noted below. This anatomic ... October 1991). "The product of the CYP11B2 gene is required for aldosterone biosynthesis in the human adrenal cortex". Mol. ...
Adrenal cortex hormones. Definition. Adrenal complex hormones are lipid hormones, derived from the small molecule cholesterol ... Adrenal function: Cortisol metabolism during acute stress-an (IC)U turn *Joana Osório ... Example adrenal complex hormones are corticosteroids such as immune system hormone glucocorticoid, and androgens such as ... and generated by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family in the adrenal gland that sits atop the kidneys. ...
Adrenal cortex definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up ... adrenal cortex. adrammelech, adrastea, adrastus, adren-, adrenal, adrenal cortex, adrenal crisis, adrenal gland, adrenal glands ... The outer part of the adrenal gland, consisting of the zona glomerulosa, the zona fasciculata, and the zona reticularis and ...
G. J. Pepe and E. D. Albrecht, "Regulation of the primate fetal adrenal cortex," Endocrine Reviews, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 151-176 ... S. Mesiano and R. B. Jaffe, "Developmental and functional biology of the primate fetal adrenal cortex," Endocrine Reviews, vol ... H. Ishimoto and R. B. Jaffe, "Development and function of the human fetal adrenal cortex: a key component in the feto-placental ... S. J. Spencer, S. Mesiano, and R. B. Jaffe, "Programmed cell death in remodelling of the human fetal adrenal cortex: possible ...
The cortex is divided into 3 concentric zones ("GFR") (image A): *Zona glomerulosa (ZG) *Thin outermost layer, comprised of ...
Chemistry of the Adrenal Cortex Hormones. Read the Nobel Lecture. Pdf 386 kB. Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1950 ...
The adrenal cortex produces cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens. Cortisol is pr... more ... Adrenal medullae normally secrete 80% epinephrine and 20% norepinephrine. Sympathetic stimulation results in secretion. ... What is the normal function of the adrenal medullae and adrenal cortex?) and What is the normal function of the adrenal ... What is the normal function of the adrenal medullae and adrenal cortex?. Updated: Oct 11, 2018 ...
Situated along the perimeter of the adrenal gland, the adrenal cortex mediates the stress response through the production of ... The adrenal cortex comprises three main zones, or layers. This anatomic zonation can be appreciated at the microscopic level, ... The adrenal cortex exhibits functional zonation as well: by virtue of the characteristic enzymes present in each zone, the ... October 1991). "The product of the CYP11B2 gene is required for aldosterone biosynthesis in the human adrenal cortex". Mol. ...
... is the procedure of choice for small benign adrenal tumors. In the absence of local invasion or metastases, the preoperative ... Long-term Outcome following Laparoscopic Adrenalectomy for Large Solid Adrenal Cortex Tumors. ... Limitations of size as a criterion in the evaluation of adrenal tumors. Surgery 2000;128:973-982CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar ... 18F-FDG PET in evaluation of adrenal lesions in patients with lung cancer. J Nucl Med 2004;45:2058-2062PubMedGoogle Scholar ...
Adrenal cortical atrophy ( Figure 1. and Figure 2. ) may be focal or diffuse. Compared with the normal adrenal cortex ( Figure ... Adrenal gland, Cortex - Atrophy in a female Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study. The width of the cortex (C) and the ... Adrenal gland, Cortex - Normal in a female Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study. A normal adrenal gland at the same ... Adrenal gland, Cortex - Normal in a female Sprague-Dawley rat from a chronic study. A normal adrenal gland at the same ...
The adrenal cortex makes androgen and corticosteroid hormones. ... The outer part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of ... adrenal cortex listen (uh-DREE-nul KOR-tex) The outer part of the adrenal gland (a small organ on top of each kidney). The ... There are two adrenal glands, one on top of each kidney. The outer part of each gland is the adrenal cortex; the inner part is ... adrenal cortex makes androgen and corticosteroid hormones. More Information. *Adrenocortical Carcinoma. Enlarge Anatomy of the ...
Chemical compound and disease context of Adrenal Cortex. *We studied six human adrenal carcinomas and normal adrenal cortex ... The increase in adrenal weight with EGF administration was due to hypertrophy of definitive zone cells of the adrenal cortex, ... in the adrenal medulla and adrenal cortex [31].. *Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secretion from the anterior pituitary gland ... which results in hyperplasia of the adrenal cortex [2].. *Congenital adrenal hyperplasia is a family of inborn errors of ...
Excess adrenal androgens also occur: In females they will overcompensate the gonadotrophic loss, inducing high testosterone; in ... Prolonged in vivo stimulation with ACTH leads to an increase in total adrenal protein and RNA synthesis. Cell proliferation is ... Prolonged in vivo stimulation with ACTH leads to an increase in total adrenal protein and RNA synthesis. Cell proliferation is ... Chronic ACTH excess leads to chronic adrenal mineralocorticoid excess and low aldosterone levels: after an acute rise, ...
Adrenal Cortex Cancer) - Pipeline Review, H1 2020 Summary This latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare disease pipeline guide ... Adrenal cortex cancer (ACC) is a rare disease. It is caused by a cancerous growth in the adrenal cortex, which is the outer ... Adrenocortical Carcinoma (Adrenal Cortex Cancer) - Pipeline Review, H1 2020. Summary. This latest Pharmaceutical and Healthcare ... Adrenal Cortex Cancer) and features dormant and discontinued projects. The guide covers therapeutics under Development by ...
  • Naturally occurring hyperadrenocorticism is a multisystemic disorder resulting from excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortex. (cornell.edu)
  • Histology revealed adrenal hyperplasia with small, pigmented cortical nodules establishing the diagnosis of PPNAD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Microscopic examination revealed predominantly mature adipose tissue interspersed with hematopoietic cells of erythroid, myeloid and megakaryocytic series with peripheral compressed adrenal cortical tissue ( Fig. 2 ). (ijpsr.com)
  • The most plausible explanation may be that undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells within the adrenal cortex are stimulated to differentiate into myeloid and lipoid lines by some stress in the form of chronic illness, necrosis or neoplasia 4 . (ijpsr.com)
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