Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Immunotherapy, Adoptive: Form of adoptive transfer where cells with antitumor activity are transferred to the tumor-bearing host in order to mediate tumor regression. The lymphoid cells commonly used are lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). This is usually considered a form of passive immunotherapy. (From DeVita, et al., Cancer, 1993, pp.305-7, 314)Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Transfer Techniques: The introduction of functional (usually cloned) GENES into cells. A variety of techniques and naturally occurring processes are used for the gene transfer such as cell hybridization, LIPOSOMES or microcell-mediated gene transfer, ELECTROPORATION, chromosome-mediated gene transfer, TRANSFECTION, and GENETIC TRANSDUCTION. Gene transfer may result in genetically transformed cells and individual organisms.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Mice, Inbred BALB CCD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Embryo Transfer: The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory: CD4-positive T cells that inhibit immunopathology or autoimmune disease in vivo. They inhibit the immune response by influencing the activity of other cell types. Regulatory T-cells include naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ cells, IL-10 secreting Tr1 cells, and Th3 cells.Lymphocyte Transfusion: The transfer of lymphocytes from a donor to a recipient or reinfusion to the donor.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Mice, SCID: Mice homozygous for the mutant autosomal recessive gene "scid" which is located on the centromeric end of chromosome 16. These mice lack mature, functional lymphocytes and are thus highly susceptible to lethal opportunistic infections if not chronically treated with antibiotics. The lack of B- and T-cell immunity resembles severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndrome in human infants. SCID mice are useful as animal models since they are receptive to implantation of a human immune system producing SCID-human (SCID-hu) hematochimeric mice.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Transfer (Psychology): Change in learning in one situation due to prior learning in another situation. The transfer can be positive (with second learning improved by first) or negative (where the reverse holds).T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Immunologic Memory: The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.Encephalomyelitis, Autoimmune, Experimental: An experimental animal model for central nervous system demyelinating disease. Inoculation with a white matter emulsion combined with FREUND'S ADJUVANT, myelin basic protein, or purified central myelin triggers a T cell-mediated immune response directed towards central myelin. The pathologic features are similar to MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, including perivascular and periventricular foci of inflammation and demyelination. Subpial demyelination underlying meningeal infiltrations also occurs, which is also a feature of ENCEPHALOMYELITIS, ACUTE DISSEMINATED. Passive immunization with T-cells from an afflicted animal to a normal animal also induces this condition. (From Immunol Res 1998;17(1-2):217-27; Raine CS, Textbook of Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p604-5)Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Cytotoxicity, Immunologic: The phenomenon of target cell destruction by immunologically active effector cells. It may be brought about directly by sensitized T-lymphocytes or by lymphoid or myeloid "killer" cells, or it may be mediated by cytotoxic antibody, cytotoxic factor released by lymphoid cells, or complement.Melanoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte: Antigenic determinants recognized and bound by the T-cell receptor. Epitopes recognized by the T-cell receptor are often located in the inner, unexposed side of the antigen, and become accessible to the T-cell receptors after proteolytic processing of the antigen.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell: Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.Rats, Inbred LewHypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Lymphocyte Depletion: Immunosuppression by reduction of circulating lymphocytes or by T-cell depletion of bone marrow. The former may be accomplished in vivo by thoracic duct drainage or administration of antilymphocyte serum. The latter is performed ex vivo on bone marrow before its transplantation.Patient Transfer: Interfacility or intrahospital transfer of patients. Intrahospital transfer is usually to obtain a specific kind of care and interfacility transfer is usually for economic reasons as well as for the type of care provided.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Interleukin-2: A soluble substance elaborated by antigen- or mitogen-stimulated T-LYMPHOCYTES which induces DNA synthesis in naive lymphocytes.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein: A transmembrane protein present in the MYELIN SHEATH of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. It is one of the main autoantigens implicated in the pathogenesis of MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS.Cell Movement: The movement of cells from one location to another. Distinguish from CYTOKINESIS which is the process of dividing the CYTOPLASM of a cell.Transfer Factor: Factor derived from leukocyte lysates of immune donors which can transfer both local and systemic cellular immunity to nonimmune recipients.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating: Lymphocytes that show specificity for autologous tumor cells. Ex vivo isolation and culturing of TIL with interleukin-2, followed by reinfusion into the patient, is one form of adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.Immunosuppression: Deliberate prevention or diminution of the host's immune response. It may be nonspecific as in the administration of immunosuppressive agents (drugs or radiation) or by lymphocyte depletion or may be specific as in desensitization or the simultaneous administration of antigen and immunosuppressive drugs.Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-2 receptor subunit that combines with the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-2.Interleukin-10: A cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; DENDRITIC CELLS; and EPITHELIAL CELLS that exerts a variety of effects on immunoregulation and INFLAMMATION. Interleukin-10 combines with itself to form a homodimeric molecule that is the biologically active form of the protein.Forkhead Transcription Factors: A subclass of winged helix DNA-binding proteins that share homology with their founding member fork head protein, Drosophila.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Immunophenotyping: Process of classifying cells of the immune system based on structural and functional differences. The process is commonly used to analyze and sort T-lymphocytes into subsets based on CD antigens by the technique of flow cytometry.Clone Cells: A group of genetically identical cells all descended from a single common ancestral cell by mitosis in eukaryotes or by binary fission in prokaryotes. Clone cells also include populations of recombinant DNA molecules all carrying the same inserted sequence. (From King & Stansfield, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Antigens, CD8: Differentiation antigens found on thymocytes and on cytotoxic and suppressor T-lymphocytes. CD8 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are associative recognition elements in MHC (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Class I-restricted interactions.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Interleukin-17: A proinflammatory cytokine produced primarily by T-LYMPHOCYTES or their precursors. Several subtypes of interleukin-17 have been identified, each of which is a product of a unique gene.Transplantation, Homologous: Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.Cholesterol Ester Transfer Proteins: Proteins that bind to and transfer CHOLESTEROL ESTERS between LIPOPROTEINS such as LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Lymphopenia: Reduction in the number of lymphocytes.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Nuclear Transfer Techniques: Methods of implanting a CELL NUCLEUS from a donor cell into an enucleated acceptor cell.Autoantigens: Endogenous tissue constituents that have the ability to interact with AUTOANTIBODIES and cause an immune response.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Retinitis: Inflammation of the RETINA. It is rarely limited to the retina, but is commonly associated with diseases of the choroid (CHORIORETINITIS) and of the OPTIC DISK (neuroretinitis).Th17 Cells: Subset of helper-effector T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete IL-17, IL-17F, and IL-22. These cytokines are involved in host defenses and tissue inflammation in autoimmune diseases.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Cell SeparationT-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer: Subpopulation of CD4+ lymphocytes that cooperate with other lymphocytes (either T or B) to initiate a variety of immune functions. For example, helper-inducer T-cells cooperate with B-cells to produce antibodies to thymus-dependent antigens and with other subpopulations of T-cells to initiate a variety of cell-mediated immune functions.Antigens, CD11c: An integrin alpha subunit of approximately 150-kDa molecular weight. It is expressed at high levels on monocytes and combines with CD18 ANTIGEN to form the cell surface receptor INTEGRIN ALPHAXBETA2. The subunit contains a conserved I-domain which is characteristic of several of alpha integrins.Radiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Thymectomy: Surgical removal of the thymus gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)Mice, Inbred CBATendon Transfer: Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.Mice, Inbred DBAAdenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antigen Presentation: The process by which antigen is presented to lymphocytes in a form they can recognize. This is performed by antigen presenting cells (APCs). Some antigens require processing before they can be recognized. Antigen processing consists of ingestion and partial digestion of the antigen by the APC, followed by presentation of fragments on the cell surface. (From Rosen et al., Dictionary of Immunology, 1989)Interleukin-4: A soluble factor produced by activated T-LYMPHOCYTES that induces the expression of MHC CLASS II GENES and FC RECEPTORS on B-LYMPHOCYTES and causes their proliferation and differentiation. It also acts on T-lymphocytes, MAST CELLS, and several other hematopoietic lineage cells.Antigens, CD11b: A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Genes, RAG-1: Genes involved in activating the enzyme VDJ recombinase. RAG-1 is located on chromosome 11 in humans (chromosome 2 in mice) and is expressed exclusively in maturing lymphocytes.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Antigens, CD4: 55-kDa antigens found on HELPER-INDUCER T-LYMPHOCYTES and on a variety of other immune cell types. CD4 antigens are members of the immunoglobulin supergene family and are implicated as associative recognition elements in MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX class II-restricted immune responses. On T-lymphocytes they define the helper/inducer subset. CD4 antigens also serve as INTERLEUKIN-15 receptors and bind to the HIV receptors, binding directly to the HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120.L-Selectin: Cell adhesion molecule and CD antigen that serves as a homing receptor for lymphocytes to lymph node high endothelial venules.Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta: T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.T-Cell Antigen Receptor Specificity: The property of the T-CELL RECEPTOR which enables it to react with some antigens and not others. The specificity is derived from the structure of the receptor's variable region which has the ability to recognize certain antigens in conjunction with the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX molecule.Lymphocytes: White blood cells formed in the body's lymphoid tissue. The nucleus is round or ovoid with coarse, irregularly clumped chromatin while the cytoplasm is typically pale blue with azurophilic (if any) granules. Most lymphocytes can be classified as either T or B (with subpopulations of each), or NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Mice, Inbred C3HNeoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Colitis: Inflammation of the COLON section of the large intestine (INTESTINE, LARGE), usually with symptoms such as DIARRHEA (often with blood and mucus), ABDOMINAL PAIN, and FEVER.Transplantation, Isogeneic: Transplantation between genetically identical individuals, i.e., members of the same species with identical histocompatibility antigens, such as monozygotic twins, members of the same inbred strain, or members of a hybrid population produced by crossing certain inbred strains.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Myelin Basic Protein: An abundant cytosolic protein that plays a critical role in the structure of multilamellar myelin. Myelin basic protein binds to the cytosolic sides of myelin cell membranes and causes a tight adhesion between opposing cell membranes.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Graft Rejection: An immune response with both cellular and humoral components, directed against an allogeneic transplant, whose tissue antigens are not compatible with those of the recipient.Receptors, Interleukin-2: Receptors present on activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and B-LYMPHOCYTES that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-2 and play an important role in LYMPHOCYTE ACTIVATION. They are heterotrimeric proteins consisting of the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR ALPHA SUBUNIT, the INTERLEUKIN-2 RECEPTOR BETA SUBUNIT, and the INTERLEUKIN RECEPTOR COMMON GAMMA-CHAIN.Coculture Techniques: A technique of culturing mixed cell types in vitro to allow their synergistic or antagonistic interactions, such as on CELL DIFFERENTIATION or APOPTOSIS. Coculture can be of different types of cells, tissues, or organs from normal or disease states.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Antigens, CD: Differentiation antigens residing on mammalian leukocytes. CD stands for cluster of differentiation, which refers to groups of monoclonal antibodies that show similar reactivity with certain subpopulations of antigens of a particular lineage or differentiation stage. The subpopulations of antigens are also known by the same CD designation.Lymphocyte Count: The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.Transplantation Tolerance: An induced state of non-reactivity to grafted tissue from a donor organism that would ordinarily trigger a cell-mediated or humoral immune response.Uveitis: Inflammation of part or all of the uvea, the middle (vascular) tunic of the eye, and commonly involving the other tunics (sclera and cornea, and the retina). (Dorland, 27th ed)Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Perforin: A calcium-dependent pore-forming protein synthesized in cytolytic LYMPHOCYTES and sequestered in secretory granules. Upon immunological reaction between a cytolytic lymphocyte and a target cell, perforin is released at the plasma membrane and polymerizes into transmembrane tubules (forming pores) which lead to death of a target cell.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Immunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Retroviridae: Family of RNA viruses that infects birds and mammals and encodes the enzyme reverse transcriptase. The family contains seven genera: DELTARETROVIRUS; LENTIVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE B, MAMMALIAN; ALPHARETROVIRUS; GAMMARETROVIRUS; RETROVIRUSES TYPE D; and SPUMAVIRUS. A key feature of retrovirus biology is the synthesis of a DNA copy of the genome which is integrated into cellular DNA. After integration it is sometimes not expressed but maintained in a latent state (PROVIRUSES).Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Listeriosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LISTERIA.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Dermatitis, Contact: A type of acute or chronic skin reaction in which sensitivity is manifested by reactivity to materials or substances coming in contact with the skin. It may involve allergic or non-allergic mechanisms.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.B-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of B-lymphocytes based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic: The demonstration of the cytotoxic effect on a target cell of a lymphocyte, a mediator released by a sensitized lymphocyte, an antibody, or complement.Antigens, CD19: Differentiation antigens expressed on B-lymphocytes and B-cell precursors. They are involved in regulation of B-cell proliferation.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Natural Killer T-Cells: A specialized subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES that exhibit features of INNATE IMMUNITY similar to that of NATURAL KILLER CELLS. They are reactive to glycolipids presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecule, CD1D ANTIGEN.Lymphoid Tissue: Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Histocompatibility Antigens Class II: Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Sarcoma, Experimental: Experimentally induced neoplasms of CONNECTIVE TISSUE in animals to provide a model for studying human SARCOMA.Whole-Body Irradiation: Irradiation of the whole body with ionizing or non-ionizing radiation. It is applicable to humans or animals but not to microorganisms.Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein: A myelin protein found in the periaxonal membrane of both the central and peripheral nervous systems myelin sheaths. It binds to cells surface receptors found on AXONS and may regulate cellular interactions between MYELIN and AXONS.MART-1 Antigen: A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte: Antigens expressed on the cell membrane of T-lymphocytes during differentiation, activation, and normal and neoplastic transformation. Their phenotypic characterization is important in differential diagnosis and studies of thymic ontogeny and T-cell function.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Pore Forming Cytotoxic Proteins: Proteins secreted from an organism which form membrane-spanning pores in target cells to destroy them. This is in contrast to PORINS and MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that function within the synthesizing organism and COMPLEMENT immune proteins. These pore forming cytotoxic proteins are a form of primitive cellular defense which are also found in human LYMPHOCYTES.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Lymphocyte Culture Test, Mixed: Measure of histocompatibility at the HL-A locus. Peripheral blood lymphocytes from two individuals are mixed together in tissue culture for several days. Lymphocytes from incompatible individuals will stimulate each other to proliferate significantly (measured by tritiated thymidine uptake) whereas those from compatible individuals will not. In the one-way MLC test, the lymphocytes from one of the individuals are inactivated (usually by treatment with MITOMYCIN or radiation) thereby allowing only the untreated remaining population of cells to proliferate in response to foreign histocompatibility antigens.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Transgenes: Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Haptens: Small antigenic determinants capable of eliciting an immune response only when coupled to a carrier. Haptens bind to antibodies but by themselves cannot elicit an antibody response.Immunodominant Epitopes: Subunits of the antigenic determinant that are most easily recognized by the immune system and thus most influence the specificity of the induced antibody.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Mice, Inbred AHeart Transplantation: The transference of a heart from one human or animal to another.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Interleukin-15: Cytokine that stimulates the proliferation of T-LYMPHOCYTES and shares biological activities with IL-2. IL-15 also can induce proliferation and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES.Transplantation Immunology: A general term for the complex phenomena involved in allo- and xenograft rejection by a host and graft vs host reaction. Although the reactions involved in transplantation immunology are primarily thymus-dependent phenomena of cellular immunity, humoral factors also play a part in late rejection.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Graft Survival: The survival of a graft in a host, the factors responsible for the survival and the changes occurring within the graft during growth in the host.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Antigens, CD28: Costimulatory T-LYMPHOCYTE receptors that have specificity for CD80 ANTIGEN and CD86 ANTIGEN. Activation of this receptor results in increased T-cell proliferation, cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival.Parabiosis: The experimental joining of two individuals for the purpose of studying the effects of one on the other.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Nerve Transfer: Surgical reinnervation of a denervated peripheral target using a healthy donor nerve and/or its proximal stump. The direct connection is usually made to a healthy postlesional distal portion of a non-functioning nerve or implanted directly into denervated muscle or insensitive skin. Nerve sprouts will grow from the transferred nerve into the denervated elements and establish contact between them and the neurons that formerly controlled another area.Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes: Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Thoracic Duct: The largest lymphatic vessel that passes through the chest and drains into the SUBCLAVIAN VEIN.Myelin Proteins: MYELIN-specific proteins that play a structural or regulatory role in the genesis and maintenance of the lamellar MYELIN SHEATH structure.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.

Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor. (1/4012)

Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis.  (+info)

Thymic selection by a single MHC/peptide ligand: autoreactive T cells are low-affinity cells. (2/4012)

In H2-M- mice, the presence of a single peptide, CLIP, bound to MHC class II molecules generates a diverse repertoire of CD4+ cells. In these mice, typical self-peptides are not bound to class II molecules, with the result that a very high proportion of H2-M- CD4+ cells are responsive to the various peptides displayed on normal MHC-compatible APC. We show here, however, that such "self" reactivity is controlled by low-affinity CD4+ cells. These cells give spectacularly high proliferative responses but are virtually unreactive in certain other assays, e.g., skin graft rejection; responses to MHC alloantigens, by contrast, are intense in all assays. Possible explanations for why thymic selection directed to a single peptide curtails self specificity without affecting alloreactivity are discussed.  (+info)

Rapid death of adoptively transferred T cells in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. (3/4012)

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) probably play the major role in controlling HIV replication. However, the value of adoptive transfer of HIV-specific CTL expanded in vitro to HIV+ patients has been limited: this contrasts with the success of CTL therapy in treating or preventing Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus disease after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We investigated the fate of expanded HIV-specific CTL clones in vivo following adoptive transfer to a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Two autologous CTL clones specific for HIV Gag and Pol were expanded to large numbers (>10(9)) in vitro and infused into an HIV-infected patient whose viral load was rising despite antiretroviral therapy. The fate of one clone was monitored by staining peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with T-cell receptor-specific tetrameric major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-peptide complexes. Although the CTL transfer was well tolerated, there were no significant changes in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts and virus load. By tracking an infused clone using soluble MHC-peptide complexes, we show that cells bearing the Gag-specific T-cell receptors were rapidly eliminated within hours of infusion through apoptosis. Thus, the failure of adoptively transferred HIV-specific CTL to reduce virus load in AIDS may be due to rapid apoptosis of the infused cells, triggered by a number of potential mechanisms. Further trials of adoptive transfer of CTL should take into account the susceptibility of infused cells to in vivo apoptosis.  (+info)

Chlamydia infections and heart disease linked through antigenic mimicry. (4/4012)

Chlamydia infections are epidemiologically linked to human heart disease. A peptide from the murine heart muscle-specific alpha myosin heavy chain that has sequence homology to the 60-kilodalton cysteine-rich outer membrane proteins of Chlamydia pneumoniae, C. psittaci, and C. trachomatis was shown to induce autoimmune inflammatory heart disease in mice. Injection of the homologous Chlamydia peptides into mice also induced perivascular inflammation, fibrotic changes, and blood vessel occlusion in the heart, as well as triggering T and B cell reactivity to the homologous endogenous heart muscle-specific peptide. Chlamydia DNA functioned as an adjuvant in the triggering of peptide-induced inflammatory heart disease. Infection with C. trachomatis led to the production of autoantibodies to heart muscle-specific epitopes. Thus, Chlamydia-mediated heart disease is induced by antigenic mimicry of a heart muscle-specific protein.  (+info)

Adoptive transfer of genetically modified macrophages elucidated TGF-beta-mediated 'self-defence' of the glomerulus against local action of macrophages. (5/4012)

TGF-beta has several anti-inflammatory properties which may be relevant to prevention of or recovery from acute glomerular inflammation. Using genetically modified mesangial cells and a technique for in vivo macrophage transfer, this article provides evidence for TGF-beta-mediated 'self-defence' of the glomerulus against macrophages. Rat mesangial cells stably transfected with TGF-beta1 showed a blunted response to the macrophage-derived, proinflammatory cytokine IL-1beta. In contrast, mesangial cells expressing the dominant-interfering TGF-beta receptor showed an enhanced response to IL-1. Similarly, externally added TGF-beta1 inhibited the cytokine response of normal glomeruli, and isolated nephritic glomeruli producing active TGF-beta1 showed a depressed response to IL-1beta, compared to normal glomeruli. Consistent with these in vitro results, in vivo transfer of activated macrophages revealed that the TGF-beta-producing glomeruli are insensitive to the effector action of macrophages. These results indicate that TGF-beta1 functions as an endogenous 'defender' that counteracts local action of activated macrophages in the glomerulus.  (+info)

Efficient IgG-mediated suppression of primary antibody responses in Fcgamma receptor-deficient mice. (6/4012)

IgG antibodies can suppress more than 99% of the antibody response against the antigen to which they bind. This is used clinically to prevent rhesus-negative (Rh-) women from becoming immunized against Rh+ erythrocytes from their fetuses. The suppressive mechanism is poorly understood, but it has been proposed that IgG/erythrocyte complexes bind to the inhibitory Fc receptor for IgG (FcgammaRIIB) on the B cell surface, thereby triggering negative signals that turn off the B cell. We show that IgG induces the same degree of suppression of the response to sheep erythrocytes in animals lacking the known IgG-binding receptors FcgammaRIIB, FcgammaRI + III, FcgammaRI + IIB + III, and FcRn (the neonatal Fc receptor) as in wild-type animals. Reinvestigation of the ability of F(ab')2 fragments to suppress antibody responses demonstrated that they were nearly as efficient as intact IgG. In addition, monoclonal IgE also was shown to be suppressive. These findings suggest that IgG inhibits antibody responses through Fc-independent mechanisms, most likely by masking of antigenic epitopes, thereby preventing B cells from binding and responding to antigen. In agreement with this, we show that T cell priming is not abolished by passively administered IgG. The results have implications for the understanding of in vivo regulation of antibody responses and Rh prophylaxis.  (+info)

Tolerance to antigen-presenting cell-depleted islet allografts is CD4 T cell dependent. (7/4012)

Pretreatment of pancreatic islets in 95% oxygen culture depletes graft-associated APCs and leads to indefinite allograft acceptance in immunocompetent recipients. As such, the APC-depleted allograft represents a model of peripheral alloantigen presentation in the absence of donor-derived costimulation. Over time, a state of donor-specific tolerance develops in which recipients are resistant to donor APC-induced graft rejection. Thus, persistence of the graft is sufficient to induce tolerance independent of other immune interventions. Donor-specific tolerance could be adoptively transferred to immune-deficient SCID recipient mice transplanted with fresh immunogenic islet allografts, indicating that the original recipient was not simply "ignorant" of donor antigens. Interestingly, despite the fact that the original islet allograft presented only MHC class I alloantigens, CD8+ T cells obtained from tolerant animals readily collaborated with naive CD4+ T cells to reject donor-type islet grafts. Conversely, tolerant CD4+ T cells failed to collaborate effectively with naive CD8+ T cells for the rejection of donor-type grafts. In conclusion, the MHC class I+, II- islet allograft paradoxically leads to a change in the donor-reactive CD4 T cell subset and not in the CD8 subset. We hypothesize that the tolerant state is not due to direct class I alloantigen presentation to CD8 T cells but, rather, occurs via the indirect pathway of donor Ag presentation to CD4 T cells in the context of host MHC class II molecules.  (+info)

Mucosal immunity to influenza without IgA: an IgA knockout mouse model. (8/4012)

IgA knockout mice (IgA-/-) were generated by gene targeting and were used to determine the role of IgA in protection against mucosal infection by influenza and the value of immunization for preferential induction of secretory IgA. Aerosol challenge of naive IgA-/- mice and their wild-type IgA+/+ littermates with sublethal and lethal doses of influenza virus resulted in similar levels of pulmonary virus infection and mortality. Intranasal and i.p. immunization with influenza vaccine plus cholera toxin/cholera toxin B induced significant mucosal and serum influenza hemagglutinin-specific IgA Abs in IgA+/+ (but not IgA-/-) mice as well as IgG and IgM Abs in both IgA-/- and IgA+/+ mice; both exhibited similar levels of pulmonary and nasal virus replication and mortality following a lethal influenza virus challenge. Monoclonal anti-hemagglutinin IgG1, IgG2a, IgM, and polymeric IgA Abs were equally effective in preventing influenza virus infection in IgA-/- mice. These results indicate that IgA is not required for prevention of influenza virus infection and disease. Indeed, while mucosal immunization for selective induction of IgA against influenza may constitute a useful approach for control of influenza and other respiratory viral infections, strategies that stimulate other Igs in addition may be more desirable.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Role of T cell receptor affinity in the efficacy and specificity of adoptive T cell therapies. AU - Stone, Jennifer D.. AU - Kranz, David M.. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Over the last several years, there has been considerable progress in the treatment of cancer using gene modified adoptive T cell therapies. Two approaches have been used, one involving the introduction of a conventional αβ T cell receptor (TCR) against a pepMHC cancer antigen, and the second involving introduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) consisting of a single-chain antibody as an Fvfragment linked to transmembrane and signaling domains. In this review, we focus on one aspect of TCR-mediated adoptive T cell therapies, the impact of the affinity of the aß TCR for the pepMHC cancer antigen on both efficacy and specificity. We discuss the advantages of higher-affinity TCRs in mediating potent activity of CD4 T cells. This is balanced with the potential disadvantage of higher-affinity TCRs in mediating ...
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is an incurable adult disease of unknown etiology. Understanding the biology of CLL cells, particularly cell maturation and growth in vivo, has been impeded by lack of a reproducible adoptive transfer model. We report a simple, reproducible system in which primary CLL cells proliferate in nonobese diabetes/severe combined immunodeficiency/γc(null) mice under the influence of activated CLL-derived T lymphocytes. By co-transferring autologous T lymphocytes, activated in vivo by alloantigens, the survival and growth of primary CFSE-labeled CLL cells in vivo is achieved and quantified. Using this approach, we have identified key roles for CD4(+) T cells in CLL expansion, a direct link between CD38 expression by leukemic B cells and their activation, and support for CLL cells preferentially proliferating in secondary lymphoid tissues. The model should simplify analyzing kinetics of CLL cells in vivo, deciphering involvement of nonleukemic elements and nongenetic ...
PubMedID: 26100671 | Tumor-Specific Effector CD8+ T Cells That Can Establish Immunological Memory in Humans after Adoptive Transfer Are Marked by Expression of IL7 Receptor and c-myc. | Cancer Research | 8/15/2015
Adoptive transfer assay for TRAIL and CD69 expression on liver natural killer cells in response to starvation.(A) Isolated TRAIL− natural killer (NK) cells we
यहां हम वीवो बी-1ए सेल माइग्रेशन और स्थानीयकरण में जांच करने के लिए रेट्रोवायरल अतिअभिव्यक्ति और मूत्र बी-1ए कोशिकाओं के दत्तक...
There are many ways to fight cancer using the bodys own immune system. Some methods include the administration of vaccines while others involve stimulatory factors injected near tumors. One promising method is enlisting the help of T cells. To fight cancer effectively, T cells must be able to recognize cancerous antigens and the environment in which these T cells reside must be conducive to their function, survival, and proliferation. This paper discusses a method of providing such an environment called adoptive cell transfer, as well as the elements that effect this protocol and the ways in which the environment can be manipulated to increase the effectiveness of adoptive cell transfer. Many factors contribute to the observation that the effectiveness of adoptive cell transfer increases as immunodepletion increases, namely, the depletion of regulatory T cells. Additionally, the existence of natural killer cells during adoptive cell transfer has been shown to decrease its effectiveness. Also, increased
Adoptive T cell therapy to treat cancer in combination with re-directing specificity through T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer, represents an effective therapeutic option. However, reduced effector responses due to the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment and insufficient long-term engraftment of transferred cells represent two potential limitations. Tumours often employ mechanisms to inhibit T cell responses including secretion of TGFβ and depleting the tumour microenvironment of amino acids. The main aim of this PhD project was to develop a strategy to enhance T cell function for tumour therapy. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway regulates CD8 T cell differentiation such that high mTOR activation leads to enhanced effector whilst low mTOR activation leads to increased T cell memory formation. Two retrovirus constructs have been designed whereby one expresses the positive mTOR regulator Rheb and the other expresses the negative mTOR regulator Pras40. Rheb transduction into ...
Complete cancer regression occurs in a subset of patients following adoptive T cell therapy (ACT) of ex vivo expanded tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). However, the low success rate presents a great challenge to broader clinical application. To provide insight into TIL-based immunotherapy, we studied a successful case of ACT where regression was observed against tumors carrying the hotspot mutation G12D in the KRAS oncogene. Four T cell receptors (TCRs) made up the TIL infusion and recognized two KRAS-G12D neoantigens, a nonamer and a decamer, all restricted by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) C*08:02. Three of them (TCR9a, 9b, and 9c) were nonamer-specific, while one was decamer-specific (TCR10). We show that only mutant G12D but not the wild-type peptides stabilized HLA-C*08:02 due to the formation of a critical anchor salt bridge to HLA-C. Therapeutic TCRs exhibited high affinities, ranging from nanomolar to low micromolar. Intriguingly, TCR binding affinities to HLA-C inversely correlated ...
Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is an essential cytokine required for the development and maintenance of mature T cell. Its availability is limited under normal conditions, but rises during lymphopenia, leading to increased T cell proliferation. The administration of recombinant IL-7 to normal or lymphopenic mice and humans results in increased T cell numbers and altered T cell phenotype. Hence, IL-7 administration could mediate therapeutic benefits in immunocompromised patients and is currently tested in several clinical trials. However, besides its well-studied effects on T cells little is known about the effect of IL-7 on other immune and non-immune cells and their influence on T cell homeostasis. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of IL-7 therapy on adoptively transferred T cells in IL-7 receptor (IL-7R)-competent and IL-7R-deficient lymphopenic mice. We confirm the benefits of IL-7 therapy on T cell responses but additionally show that many of these effects are dependent on IL-7R expression by host ...
Mechanistically, the authors showed again that peripheral CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs mediated tolerance, while the results of experiments in T cell receptor transgenic animals showed no evidence for clonal deletion of MBP-reactive effector T cells, despite some level of expression in the thymus of liver MBP-transgenic mice (20). Importantly, expression of MBP in the skin did not protect against EAE, which indicates that expression of this protein in the hepatic environment is critical. In an elegant set of experiments based on adoptive transfer of Tregs and effector T cells labeled with fluorescent dye, the authors showed that Tregs induced by hepatic expression can turn effector T cells into Tregs by inducing expression of the transcription factor Foxp3. Effector T cells lacking TGF-β receptor II were resistant to this infectious tolerance mechanism, indicating dependence on TGF-β signaling. These findings are reminiscent of TGF-β-dependent suppression of CD8+ T cells by CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs ...
Purpose: : Th17 cells were identified to be highly immunopathogenic in several autoimmune models, including experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). More recently, however, the Th17 population was reported by Cuas group to also include a subset of non-pathogenic cells (McGeachy et al., Nature Immunol, 2007). Here we examined this dichotomy by a system of adoptively transferred ocular inflammation. Methods: : Naïve CD4 TCR transgenic cells specific against hen egg lysozyme (HEL) were activated with APC and HEL ("APC/HEL"), or with plate-bound anti-CD3/CD28 antibodies ("PbAb") during polarization with IL-6 and TGF-beta. The cultured cells were tested for production of cytokines, chemokines and chemokine receptors, as well as their capacity to adoptively transfer ocular inflammation in recipient mice expressing HEL in their eyes. Results: : The two culturing procedures yielded populations with similar levels of IL-17 producing cells (~35%) and similar levels of IL-10, but with remarkably different ...
The reported duality of the MALT1 protease to promote cell intrinsic T‐cell effector functions and to suppress activated T cells in a Treg‐dependent manner raises a number of interesting questions. Even though the adoptive transfer demonstrates the potential of Tregs to counteract the autoimmunity, it remains open, if the reduced number of Tregs is indeed sufficient to cause the inflammatory phenotype. In the adoptive transfer experiment, only very few Tregs are sufficient to rescue the autoimmune phenotype raising the possibility that MALT1C472A/C472A Tregs may be less functional. In addition, the increase in IFN‐γ and IL‐4 production in MALT1 protease mutant mice may also indicate that deregulated T‐cell effector functions could also be involved in the early onset of gastritis, which is no longer counteracted due to the loss of peripheral T‐cell tolerance. In this respect, it remains an unresolved question why the autoimmune phenotype is manifested as gastritis. One can speculate ...
Purpose: To determine the antitumor efficacy and toxicity of a novel combination approach involving adoptive T cell immunotherapy utilizing chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with an immunomodulatory reagent for blocking immunosuppression. Experimental Design: We examined whether administration of a PD-1 blocking antibody could increase the therapeutic activity of CAR T cells against two different Her-2+ tumors. The use of a self-antigen mouse model enabled investigation into the efficacy, mechanism and toxicity of this combination approach. Results: In this study we first demonstrated a significant increase in the level of PD-1 expressed on transduced anti-Her-2 CD8+ T cells following antigen-specific stimulation with PD-L1+ tumor cells and that markers of activation and proliferation were increased in anti-Her-2 T cells in the presence of anti-PD-1 antibody. In adoptive transfer studies in Her-2 transgenic recipient mice, we demonstrated a significant improvement in growth inhibition of ...
Jin, L.-P., Zhou, Y.-H., Zhu, X.-Y., Wang, M.-Y. and Li, D.-J. (2006), Adoptive Transfer of Paternal Antigen-Hyporesponsive T Cells Facilitates a Th2 Bias in Peripheral Lymphocytes and at Materno-Fetal Interface in Murine Abortion-prone Matings. American Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 56: 258-266. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0897.2006.00425.x ...
Aims Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is characterized by autoimmune depletion of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. and T cells of NOD mice. In macrophages, 12/15-LO deletion leads to decreased proinflammatory cytokine mRNA and protein levels. Furthermore, splenocytes from NOD-mice are unable Pecam1 to transfer diabetes in an adoptive transfer model. In islets, expression of 12/15-LO in …Read More. ...
Cytokine and Chemokine analysis. □ Adoptive T cell therapy. □ Biomarkers. FACS analysis of Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) in tumor tissues ...
It remains difficult to treat the multiplicity of distinct viral infections that afflict immunocompromised patients. Adoptive transfer of virus-specific T cells (VSTs) can be safe and effective, but such cells have been complex to prepare and limited in antiviral range. We now demonstrate the feasib …
We have initiated a tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy program that has now treated over 70 metastatic melanoma patients with an ongoing 45-50% clinica...
Post-Doc position in adoptive T cell immunotherapySummary:Adoptive transfer of gene-modified T cells induces cancer regression in heavily pretreated patients. Treatment involves ex-vivo engineering of autologous lymphocytes, to express a chimeric ant ...
BACKGROUND. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells can induce remission in highly refractory leukemia and lymphoma subjects, yet the parameters for achieving sustained relapse-free survival are not fully delineated. METHODS. We analyzed 43 pediatric and young adult subjects participating in a phase I trial of defined composition CD19 CAR T cells (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02028455). CAR T cell phenotype, function, and expansion, as well as starting material T cell repertoire, were analyzed in relationship to therapeutic outcome (defined as achieving complete remission within 63 days) and duration of leukemia-free survival and B cell aplasia. RESULTS. These analyses reveal that initial therapeutic failures (n = 5) were associated with attenuated CAR T cell expansion and/or rapid attrition of functional CAR effector cells following adoptive transfer. The CAR T products were similar in phenotype and function when compared with products resulting in sustained remissions. However, the initial apheresed ...
New blood cancer breakthroughs - including several involving CAR T cell therapy - were announced by City of Hopes cancer center physicians at the 2017 American Society of Hematology (ASH) annual meeting in Atlanta.
Immunotherapy is an attractive option to extend remission rates in ovarian cancer. The use of adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of ex vivo generated tumor-antigen sp...
Intent on streamlining the production of T-cell therapies, manufacturers are looking into flexible cleanrooms, modular facilities, dynamic reactor environments, and co-culture technologies.
Find out more about Car T-Cell Therapy, its pros and cons and how it will affect the market, also from a Pharmaceutical Consulting point of view.
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the transfer of cells into a patient. The cells may have originated from the patient or from another individual. The cells are most commonly derived from the immune system with the goal of improving immune functionality and characteristics. In autologous cancer immunotherapy, T cells are extracted from the patient, genetically modified and cultured in vitro and returned to the same patient. Comparatively, allogeneic therapies involve cells isolated and expanded from a donor separate from the patient receiving the cells. In the 1960s, lymphocytes were discovered to be the mediators of allograft rejection in animals. Attempts to use T cells to treat transplanted murine tumors required cultivating and manipulating T cells in culture. Syngeneic lymphocytes were transferred from rodents heavily immunized against the tumor to inhibit growth of small established tumors, becoming the first example of ACT. Description of T cell growth factor interleukin-2 (IL-2) in 1976 ...
We have examined the migration of murine macrophages from the vascular compartment to normal and inflammatory tissues by the adoptive transfer of resident peritoneal macrophages (RPM phi) fluorescently labeled with the hydrophobic dye 1,1-dioctadecyl 3,3,3,3-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI). After initial labeling of the plasma membrane of RPM phi, the dye accumulated stably in intracellular vesicles of low density (rho = 1.042-1.045 kg/l) and cells remained viable in culture for 4 weeks. Like the normal monocyte, DiI-RPM phi, but not exudate-derived or fixed cells, migrated to peritoneal exudates, following i.v. adoptive transfer, by a mechanism inhibitable by an antibody to the type 3 complement receptor. In the absence of an inflammatory stimulus there was no migration to the peritoneal cavity, and DiI-RPM phi accumulated within 4 h in the red pulp and marginal zone of the spleen. By day 6 these cells still formed a tight ring of fluorescence in the marginal zone alone, ...
This dose-escalation study investigated the tolerability and efficacy of adoptive transfer of CH 296 (RetroNectin)-induced T-cell therapy in patients with
Adoptive cell therapy can be an effective treatment for some patients with advanced cancer. This report summarizes clinical trial results from the Surgery Branch, NCI, investigating tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) and gene engineered peripheral blood T cells for the therapy of patients with melanoma and other solid tumors.. Keywords: TIL, melanoma, NY-ESO-1, interleukin-2, lymphodepletion ...
Adoptive transfer of T cells genetically improved to sole anti-TSLPR chimeric antigen receptors can cure B-ALL in xenograft kinds. Philadelphia chromosomeClike (Ph-like) leukemias react badly to regular chemotherapy RICTOR and possess Angiotensin III (human, mouse) high prices of relapse.17 Multiple groupings have got Angiotensin III (human, mouse) now demonstrated that rearrangements accounts for fifty percent of Ph-like ALL genomic alterations and are also highly associated with concomitant and stage mutations.17,18,20,21,32 We keep that the TSLPR features as an ALL oncoprotein provided its cell surface area reflection and association with poor scientific outcomes and thus might be an ideal immunotherapeutic focus on. Furthermore, TSLPR phrase in regular tissue shows up to end up being limited. We demonstrate that a TSLPR CAR may eradicate individual Web site Angiotensin III (human, mouse) completely. For structure of the lengthy CAR constructs, the CH2CH3 websites from IGHG1 ...
Patients are being offered admission to this study to test the side effects of an investigational treatment prepared from special immune cells (T cells) specific for melanoma. A T-cell is a type of lymphocyte. Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that protect people from viral infections; help other cells fight bacterial and fungal infections; produce antibodies; fight cancers; and coordinate the activities of other cells in the immune system. These special immune cells will be taken from a sample of the patients tumor tissue that will be surgically removed from their body and grown in the laboratory. They will then given back to the patient in their veins. These cells are called tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). We wish to study the side effects of TIL when they are given with two chemotherapy drugs to temporarily decrease the patients own immune cells and a drug called Interleukin-2 (IL-2). The two chemotherapy drugs called fludarabine and cytoxan are used to greatly reduce the ...
OT could not be induced in CCR9−/− or β7−/− mice, or when MAdCAM-1 was blocked in wild-type mice, indicating that gut-homing receptors are required for oral tolerization. Consistent with the role of all-trans retinoic acid in inducing gut homing T cells, OT could not be induced in mice depleted of vitamin A. OT was rescued in CCR9−/− mice following adoptive transfer of wild-type T cells, but not CCR9−/− or β7−/− T cells. Gut-homing T cells are therefore necessary and sufficient to induce OT. Wild-type TREG cells and IL-10 were required to restore OT to CCR9−/− mice, indicating that homing and functional differentiation of IL-10-producing TREG cells in the gut is required for OT. Conversely, transfer of CCR9−/− or β7−/− T cells to wild-type mice partially inhibited OT ...
Principal Investigator:ICHIDA Takafumi, Project Period (FY):2002 - 2003, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Gastroenterology
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Lymph node activation is an intrinsic aspect of T cell activation by infectious pathogens and vaccines. We separated the T cell priming event from lymph node activation in space and time by exploiting an experimental model consisting of TCR-transgenic OT-I CD8+ T cells and engineered APCs expressing high levels of the cognate OVA-derived peptide epitope and the costimulatory ligand CD80. Prior work had demonstrated that a 20-h in vitro encounter with these APCs empowered naive OT-I cells to vigorously proliferate in vivo upon transfer to naive syngeneic recipient (15). Furthermore, these T cells were shown to develop into long-lived memory cells, capable of clonal expansion and protective effector function in response to secondary Ag encounter (16). Importantly, progression of the 20 h primed OT-I T cells through primary expansion, contraction, and memory phases required neither in vivo exposure to Ag nor the context of an inflamed, congested lymph node. This model therefore offered a unique ...
Adoptive Transfer of Dendritic Cells Expressing Fas Ligand Modulates Intestinal Inflammation in a Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease Abstract.
In recent years, the search for new cancer treatments has increasingly focused on immunotherapies that harness the bodys own defenses to fight tumors. Adoptive cell therapy (ACT) is a powerful immunotherapeutic strategy that can effectively control some cancers but that also has drawbacks.
The key component of adoptive T cell therapy is generation of functional tumor-specific T cells without immune tolerance to self-antigens. This can be accomplished by genetic modification of patient T cells using genes encoding CARs. Recently, the third-generation of CAR T cells has been developed, which includes an additional co-stimulatory domain, such as CD28 plus 4-1BB or CD28 plus OX40 together with CD3zeta along with the specific target. Results from several clinical trials in different settings including CAR design, culture techniques, lymphodepleting strategies, and target diseases, have provided valuable insights, and CAR T cells are emerging as a powerful therapy in hematologic malignancies [6]. Most clinical successes of CAR T cell therapy are recorded in the setting of B-cell malignancies, by targeting CD19 (Table 1). Several B cell antigens, such as CD20, CD22, CD23, and CD38 are under evaluation as alternative CAR T cell targets in B-cell malignancies. However, targets that are ...
Chemotherapy and IL-2 plus T-cells and the vaccine of dendritic cells received by vein (IV) about 4 hours after T-cells and again on Day 21 (+/- 7 days). Cyclophosphamide 60 mg/kg/d IV over 2 hours Days -7 and -6 (with Mesna) and Fludarabine 25 mg/m^2 IV daily Days -5 to -1 before T cell infusion. On Day 0, up to 1.5 x 10^11 T cells IV infusion over 30-60 minutes. Interleukin-2 12-16 hours after T cell infusion at standard dose of 720,000 IU/kg as intravenous bolus over 15 minute period every 8-16 hours for up to 15 doses on Days 1-5 and 22-26 ...
The data presented show that IFN-I and their signal transducer STAT-1 essentially contribute to the induction of OVA-specific CTL following immunization with OVA peptide and IC31 immune adjuvant. Surprisingly and contrasting many experimental situations with pathogen-specific CTL, OVA-specific CTL did not require IFN-I/STAT-1 as an activation/survival signal. This was shown by the use of conditional IFNAR1 deletion and by adoptive transfer of wt or STAT-1-mutant OT-1 CD8+ T cells into STAT-1-deficient animals. By contrast, adoptive transfer experiments with myeloid DC showed that IFN-I/STAT-1 are required to render these cells fully capable of stimulating CD8+ T cell activation. The IFN-I/STAT-1 effect most likely results from the ability to stimulate DC maturation and activation (35, 36, 37, 38). The reported stimulation of cross-presentation by DC may account for the stronger effect of IFN-I/STAT-1 in vivo when compared with our in vitro experiments, because immunization with the OVA/IC31 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adoptive transfer of zoledronate-expanded autologous V 39Vδ 2 T-cells in patients with treatment-refractory non-small-cell lung cancer. T2 - A multicenter, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study. AU - Kakimi, Kazuhiro. AU - Matsushita, Hirokazu. AU - Masuzawa, Keita. AU - Karasaki, Takahiro. AU - Kobayashi, Yukari. AU - Nagaoka, Koji. AU - Hosoi, Akihiro. AU - Ikemura, Shinnosuke. AU - Kitano, Kentaro. AU - Kawada, Ichiro. AU - Manabe, Tadashi. AU - Takehara, Tomohiro. AU - Ebisudani, Toshiaki. AU - Nagayama, Kazuhiro. AU - Nakamura, Yukio. AU - Suzuki, Ryuji. AU - Yasuda, Hiroyuki. AU - Sato, Masaaki. AU - Soejima, Kenzo. AU - Nakajima, Jun. PY - 2020/9/18. Y1 - 2020/9/18. N2 - Background Not all non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients possess drug-targetable driver mutations, and response rates to immune checkpoint blockade therapies also remain unsatisfactory. Therefore, more effective treatments are still needed. Here, we report the results of a phase 2 clinical trial of ...
Wilms tumor 1 antigen (WT1) is definitely overexpressed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) a high-risk neoplasm warranting advancement of book immunotherapeutic strategies. (CTLs) demonstrated antigen-specific reactivity against WT1 and against WT1+ leukemia cells. SmartDC/tWT1 injected s.c. into Nod.Rag1?/?.IL2rγc?/? mice were viable for more than three weeks. Migration of human being T cells (huCTLs) to the immunization site was shown following adoptive transfer of huCTLs into mice immunized with SmartDC/tWT1. Furthermore SmartDC/tWT1 immunization plus adoptive transfer of T cells reactive against WT1 into mice resulted in growth arrest of a WT1+ tumor. Gene array analyses of SmartDC/tWT1 proven upregulation of several genes related to innate immunity. Therefore SmartDC/tWT1 can be produced in a single day time of gene transfer are highly viable culture methods or by gene transfer VER-50589 of transgenic T-cell receptors for adoptive immunotherapy (Ho are usually quiescent which may hamper ...
The Ivan Borrello Lab focuses on the development of a novel approach of adoptive T cell therapy utilizing marrow-infiltrating lymphocytes (MILs) as a more tumor-specific T cell approach. This has led to establishing the first adoptive T cell trials at Johns Hopkins and an exploration of this approach in other diseases, including nonhematologic malignancies. The lab also examines strategies for treating minimal residual disease (MRD) in myeloma with the combination of immune modulation and whole cell-based vaccines.. Research Areas: immunology, vaccines, multiple myeloma, cancer, translational research, immunotherapy, T cells ...
Further verification of a graft-vs-tumor effect came from efforts to treat patients for posttransplant leukemic recurrence by infusing viable donor lymphocytes, resulting in sustained complete remissions in most patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia and in some patients with other hematologic malignancies.11 By the mid-1980s, it was generally accepted that adoptive transfer of allogeneic T cells could be of benefit, but was of limited potency, sometimes associated with significant toxicity in the form of graft-vs-host disease and restricted in its application to the post-allogeneic transplant setting.12 To make adoptive cell therapy more effective and broadly applicable, a large number of challenges presented themselves, including the requirement to be able to clone and expand tumor-reactive T cells, to define conditions that allow for their expansion and survival after reinfusion, to identify appropriate tumor-associated targets, and to develop methods to genetically engineer T cells to ...
T cells play a critical role in tumor immune surveillance as evidenced by extensive mouse-tumor model studies as well as encouraging patient responses to adoptive T cell therapies and dendritic cell vaccines. It is well established that the interplay of tumor cells with their local cellular environm …
In the May 5, 2017, issue of Science Immunology, cancer researchers at the Medical University of South Carolina report that blood platelets blunt the immune response to cancer. Genetic inactivation of platelets improved the ability of T cells to fight melanoma in preclinical tests. Adoptive T cell therapies for cancer could be enhanced when combined with common antiplatelet drugs.
The medical centers listed below currently offer Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell (CAR T-cell) therapy that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Each center has been carefully trained and certified to offer this new treatment.. These, and other medical centers, may also be testing other types of CAR T-cell therapy that are not yet approved by the FDA, but which may be available to you if you participate in a clinical trial. To learn more about CAR T-cell therapies currently being studied in a clinical trial click here [1].. ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: CAR T-Cell Therapy, CAR T Cell Therapy, Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell Therapy, Cytokine Release Syndrome, Tisagenlecleucel, Axicabtagene ciloleucel.
Twist Bioscience and Neogene Announce Broad Strategic Partnership for Next Generation Personalized T Cell Therapies - read this article along with other careers information, tips and advice on BioSpace
Passive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune serum or adoptive transfer of DENV2 E85-VRP-immune B cells can increase the viral RNA levels in the liver upon infectio
Eureka Therapeutics announced FDA allowance of its IND application to commence a phase I clinical trial for ET190L1-ARTEMIS T cells.
T-cell adoptive transfer[edit]. Adoptive cell transfer in vitro cultivates autologous, extracted T cells for later transfusion. ... Adoptive cell transfer has been tested on lung [13] and other cancers, with greatest success achieved in melanoma. ... "Adoptive cell transfer: A clinical path to effective cancer immunotherapy". Nature Reviews Cancer. 8 (4): 299-308. doi:10.1038/ ... Clinical responses to adoptive transfer of T cells were observed in patients with metastatic melanoma resistant to multiple ...
Ongoing research is looking at treatment by adoptive cell transfer.[114] Adoptive cell transfer refers to the application of ... The second treatment, adoptive transfer of genetically altered autologous lymphocytes, depends on delivering genes that encode ... "Focus on adoptive T cell transfer trials in melanoma". Clin. Dev. Immunol. 2010: 260267. doi:10.1155/2010/260267. PMC 3018069. ... and adoptive cell transfer.[110] These treatment options are most often used in people with metastatic melanoma and ...
Approaches include antibodies, checkpoint therapy and adoptive cell transfer. Laser therapy uses high-intensity light to treat ...
Adoptive cell transfer in vitro cultivates autologous, extracted T cells for later transfusion. The T cells may already target ... Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP, Yang JC, Morgan RA, Dudley ME (April 2008). "Adoptive cell transfer: a clinical path to effective ... Adoptive cell transfer has been tested on lung and other cancers. Dendritic cells can be stimulated to activate a cytotoxic ... "Efficacy of adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes after lymphopenia induction for metastatic melanoma". J. ...
"Recipient T Cell Exhaustion and Successful Adoptive Transfer of Haploidentical Natural Killer Cells". Biology of Blood and ... It was also shown that recipient T cell exhaustion provides sufficient conditions for NK cell transfer.[77] While there are ...
Marie Parry - Thomas's adoptive sister, whom he has a crush on. Mr Vishram - Thomas's boss at the Department of Transfer and ... Thomas Parry - protagonist Victor Parry - Thomas's adoptive father, a railroad engineer for the Red Quarter. ...
For example, adoptive transfer is used to study the effects of lymphocytes in the absence of other lymphoid cells. Ionizing ... 2009). "Adoptive transfer of virus-specific and tumor-specific T cell immunity." Current Opinion in Immunology 21(2): 224-232. ... The body is thus prepared for restoration of immune function by adoptive transfer of new lymphocytes. Another method is ... hematopoietic stem-cell transfer, used for studying lymphocyte development. Hematopoietic cells are killed by ionizing ...
2005). "Adoptive transfer of cytomegalovirus-specific CTL to stem cell transplant patients after selection by HLA-peptide ... "Multimer technologies for detection and adoptive transfer of antigen-specific T cells". Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010 (59): ... Uhlin; Okas M; Gertow J; Uzunel M; Brismar TB; Mattsson J. (2009). "A novel haplo-identical adoptive CTL therapy as a treatment ... 2009 a special dispensation was granted for a team to use them for isolating EBV-specific T cells for mother-daughter transfer ...
Adoptive T-cell therapy is a form of passive immunization by the transfusion of T-cells (adoptive cell transfer). They are ... Another approach is adoptive transfer of haploidentical γδ T cells or NK cells from a healthy donor. The major advantage of ... "Successful adoptive transfer and in vivo expansion of haploidentical γδ T cells". Journal of Translational Medicine. 12: 45. ... The first 2 adoptive T-cell therapies, tisagenlecleucel and axicabtagene ciloleucel, were approved by the FDA in 2017. ...
Adoptive transfer of TILs can increase the survival of melanoma patients when it is used as an adjuvant therapy, i.e. after a ... Adoptive transfer involves either collecting from patients intratumoral or blood T cells, stimulate them in vitro against ... Adoptive TIL transfer in the adjuvant setting for melanoma: long-term patient survival ". Journal of Immunology Research. 2014 ... but also the adoptive transfer of T cells that recognize these antigens. Finally, antibodies that increase the general activity ...
Once all parties agree, the embryo is transferred to the adoptive mother's clinic for a frozen embryo transfer.[citation needed ... Embryo ownership is transferred directly from the genetic parents to the adoptive parents. Genetic parents may be updated by ... is a misnomer because the transfer of an embryo is handled as property transfer. Abortion rights advocates, advocates of ... These scientific advances set the stage to allow open and candid discussion of embryo donation and transfer as a solution to ...
The use of TILs as an adoptive cell transfer therapy to treat cancer was pioneered by Dr. Steven Rosenberg at the National ... "Clinical Responses in a Phase II Study Using Adoptive Transfer of Short-term Cultured Tumor Infiltration Lymphocytes in ... "Efficacy of adoptive cell transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes after lymphopenia induction for metastatic melanoma". ... Lion Biotechnologies is developing adoptive cell transfer with TILs as a cancer therapy. Several centres are currently working ...
"In vivo imaging of T cell delivery to tumors after adoptive transfer therapy". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 104: 12457-12461. doi: ...
and was also verified for HIV in the mouse model by adoptive transfer experiments. Non-human primate experiments also indicate ... Thus, the approach has also transferred well for the treatment of hepatitis B and HIV. One of the approaches for a protective ...
The adoptive parents hired an Illinois attorney, Denise Patton, to arrange the transfer of custody. The child was born on June ... After the adoptive parents filed for adoption in South Carolina, the biological father learned of the prospective adoption and ... Godwin was the attorney for the adoptive couple, not for the birth mother. Godwin said the US Supreme Court decision, which ... In this case, the prospective adoptive parents, Bobby and Diane Bixler, removed the child from Oklahoma without the Interstate ...
"Reversible MHC multimer staining for functional isolation of T-cell populations and effective adoptive transfer". Nat Med. 8 (6 ...
Adoptive cell transfer therapy following non-myeloablative but lymphodepleting chemotherapy for the treatment of patients with ... Restoration of immunity in lymphopenic individuals with cancer by vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer. Nat Med 2005;11(11 ... Adoptive Cell Therapy for Patients With Metastatic Melanoma: Evaluation of Intensive Myeloablative Chemoradiation Preparative ... The latter situation -lymphodepletion- has been studied extensively and the proliferation of mature T cells upon transfer into ...
"Adoptive transfer of T-cell precursors enhances T-cell reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation ... and adoptive cell therapy with precursor T cells and b) novel insights in the pathophysiology of graft-versus-host disease ( ...
He transferred his patrimony to his adoptive son, Date Muneoki (伊達 宗興) and retired. But he returned to the Sonnō jōi movement ... and he became an adoptive son of his uncle, Date Moriaki(伊達 盛明). He inherited a patrimony by 12 years old, and was appointed " ...
In its ruling, the Court said, "We hold that the parents of Anna Mae He did not voluntarily transfer custody and guardianship ... "Adoptive Parents Lose Eight-Year Custody Battle". ABC News. 2007-02-21. Retrieved 2007-02-22. Davis, Robert (2007-02-21). " ... On June 4, 1999, the Hes and the Bakers went to the Shelby County Juvenile Court to obtain the consent order transferring ... This halted the Hes' petition in juvenile court and transferred the case to chancery court. In May 2000, Hes petition Juvenile ...
On 7 January 2008 he became English Premier League side Portsmouth F.C.'s first signing in the 2008 January transfer window. He ... Subotić began his career at FC Basel in his adoptive country Switzerland. ...
With no natural or adoptive heirs to succeed him, his kingdom was declared forfeit to the EIC. The temple of the Tanur royal ... the estate was handed over to the English East India Company and the Hindu temple of the ruling family was transferred to the ... family was transferred to the Zamorin of Calicut in 1842. The Bettut tradition of the dance drama Kathakali is attributed to a ...
May 1995). "Prolonged disease-free period in patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer after adoptive transfer of tumor- ... Adoptive Immuno cell therapy of cancer was first introduced by Steven Rosenberg and his colleagues of National Institute of ... September 2000). "Adoptive immunotherapy to lower postsurgical recurrence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma: a randomised trial ... July 2003). "Tumor-localization by adoptively transferred, interleukin-2-activated NK cells leads to destruction of well- ...
After ten months at Yerkes, Loulis was transferred to Oklahoma with Roger Fouts and Washoe, his adoptive mother. In 1980, the ...
Although adoptive transfer of CAR-modified T-cells is a unique and promising cancer therapeutic, there are significant safety ... A CAR therapy for cancer, using a technique called adoptive cell transfer, has been approved by the US Food and Drug ... Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors is a promising anti-cancer therapeutic as CAR-modified T ... Adoption of suicide gene therapy to the clinical application of CAR-modified T cell adoptive cell transfer has potential to ...
Prolactin also transfers to the breast milk. Some research indicates that prolactin in milk is greater at times of higher milk ... and demonstrated with varying success in adoptive mothers. It appears plausible that the possibility of lactation in women (or ... Thus the milk supply is strongly influenced by how often the baby feeds and how well it is able to transfer milk from the ... Low supply can often be traced to: not feeding or pumping often enough inability of the infant to transfer milk effectively ...
Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the transfer of cells into a patient. The cells may have originated from the patient or from ... Adoptive Transfer at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Adoptive Immunotherapy at the US ... The adoptive transfer of tumor-specific effector T cells knocked out or knocked down for CISH resulted in a significant ... Marcus A, Eshhar Z (2011). "Allogeneic adoptive cell transfer therapy as a potent universal treatment for cancer". Oncotarget. ...
High-affinity T cell receptors for adoptive cell transfer. Ariel Isser1 and Jonathan P. Schneck2,3 1Department of Biomedical ... Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of engineered T cell receptors (TCRs) for cancer immunotherapy has evolved from simple gene ... transfer of isolated TCRs to various affinity enhancement techniques that overcome limitations imposed by central and ...
... Dong-Sup Chung,1 Hye-Jin Shin,2 and Yong- ... Figure 1: Adoptive T cell transfer therapy. (a) Enhancement of tumor-specific T cell function. (b) Modification of the host ... A strategy to overcome these limitations is adoptive T cell transfer, in which tumor-specific T cells are expanded ex vivo ... Q. Zhang, X. Yang, M. Pins et al., "Adoptive transfer of tumor-reactive transforming growth factor-β-insensitive CD8+ T cells: ...
Adoptive Transfer of Splenocytes in SCID Mice Implicates CD4+ T Cells in Apoptosis and Epithelial Proliferation Associated with ... Recipient mice differed, however, according to the source of the transferred CD4+ cells. The CD4+ cell scores for recipients of ... In contrast, gastric mucosal CD4+ cell scores did not become significantly high until two weeks after transfer (postinoculation ...
Adoptive immunotherapy--the isolation of antigen-specific cells, their ex vivo expansion and activation, and subsequent ... Adoptive-cell-transfer therapy for the treatment of patients with cancer Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 Sep;3(9):666-75. doi: 10.1038/ ... These studies provide a blueprint for the wider application of adoptive-cell-transfer therapy, and emphasize the requirement ... Adoptive immunotherapy--the isolation of antigen-specific cells, their ex vivo expansion and activation, and subsequent ...
Adoptive Transfer of Haploidentical Natural Killer Cells and IL-2. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Adoptive Transfer of Haploidentical Natural Killer Cells and IL-2 in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). ...
vaccine with or without adoptive T cell transfer in subjects with locally advanced. pancreatic cancer undergoing chemotherapy, ... An Inactivated Recombinant Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Expressing Mutant Ras Protein Combined With Adoptive Transfer And ... An Inactivated Recombinant Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Expressing Mutant Ras Protein Combined With Adoptive Transfer And ... T cell transfer). All subjects will undergo apheresis of mononuclear cells immediately. before receiving four cycles of ...
Adoptive Transfer of Diabetes in BB Rats Induced by CD4 T Lymphocytes. ... Adoptive Transfer of Diabetes in BB Rats Induced by CD4 T Lymphocytes ... Adoptive Transfer of Diabetes in BB Rats Induced by CD4 T Lymphocytes ... Adoptive Transfer of Diabetes in BB Rats Induced by CD4 T Lymphocytes ...
Adoptive transfer of chimeric antigen receptor re-directed cytolytic T lymphocyte clones in patients with neuroblastoma.. Park ... This first-in-humans pilot study sets the stage for clinical trials employing adoptive transfer in the context of minimal ... and expansion to numbers sufficient for adoptive transfer. In total, 12 infusions (nine at 10(8) cells/m(2), three at 10(9) ...
Adoptive cell transfer can mediate durable complete regressions in 24% of patients with metastatic melanoma, with median ... Adoptive cell transfer, the infusion of large numbers of activated autologous lymphocytes, can mediate objective tumor ... Here, we evaluated the importance of adding TBI to the adoptive transfer of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in a ... Mean hematopoietic cell counts were transiently depressed in patients who received adoptive cell transfer, with a slightly ...
In this blog, read about adoptive cell transfer, the process of training and expanding a patients own immune cells and placing ... Zelig Eshhar and his lab thought of the idea of altering immune cells prior to adoptive transfer so that they could more ... called adoptive cell transfer, also known as ACT.. Whats in a name? - Apparently theres a lot of information in the generic ... scientists transferred lymphocytes into a rat with carcinogen-induced sarcoma. Indeed, the transferred lymphocytes were able to ...
Speakers from across the pharmaceutical industry and academia explore the latest advances CAR T cell therapies, and the up-and-coming field of T Cell Receptor therapies. Presentations will explore design and development strategies for the modification of patient and donor t cells, receptor engineering and target selection, and will review the advantages and challenges remaining in their use ...
Monoclonal antibodies, adoptive cell therapy, & cytokines. Take Quiz. Targeting inhibitors of immune responses & nonspecific ...
Jin, L.-P., Zhou, Y.-H., Zhu, X.-Y., Wang, M.-Y. and Li, D.-J. (2006), Adoptive Transfer of Paternal Antigen-Hyporesponsive T ... Adoptive Transfer of Paternal Antigen-Hyporesponsive T Cells Facilitates a Th2 Bias in Peripheral Lymphocytes and at Materno- ...
... *. ... The 5-year survival rate of metastatic RCC (mRCC) is only around 10%. Adoptive cell transfer (ACT), a particular form of cell- ...
Adoptive Transfer Animals Antigens, CD4 - analysis Duodenum - transplantation Gene Transfer Techniques Graft Rejection - drug ... Adoptive Transfer Adult Aged CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes - drug effects - immunology - pathology Cell Aging Cell Proliferation ... Adoptive Transfer Airway Resistance Animals Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid - cytology - immunology CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes - ... Adoptive Transfer Animals Bronchial Provocation Tests Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid - cytology - immunology CD8-Positive T- ...
Adoptive Cell Transfer TherapyRebecca Skane2018-05-25T00:34:01+00:00 Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy. Introduction to Adoptive ... Adoptive cell transfer (ACT) therapy focuses of using the patients own cells for therapeutic treatment. Within ACT there are ... Publications Using Cellometer for Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy Research. *Talebian L, Wu JY, Fischer DA, et al. (2012) Novel ... Human and Animal Cells Counted by Cellometer that are used in Adoptive Cell Transfer Therapy. ...
The transfer of immunologically competent white blood cells or their precursors into the host Explanation of adoptive transfer ... Looking for adoptive transfer? Find out information about adoptive transfer. ... adoptive immunotherapy. (redirected from adoptive transfer). Also found in: Dictionary, Medical.. Related to adoptive transfer ... Adoptive transfer , Article about adoptive transfer by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/adoptive ...
Adoptive Transfer of Specific Melanoma Antigens CD8+ T Cells in Metastatic Melanoma Patients: a Phase I/II Study (MelSort). The ... Adoptive Transfer of CD8+ T Cells, Sorted With HLA-peptide Multimers and Specific for Melan-A and MELOE-1 Melanoma Antigens, to ... This study evaluates the safety as well as the potential clinical efficacy of an adoptive transfer of CD8+ T cells, sorted with ...
Preliminary studies of artificial immunization of rats against Plasmodium berghei and adoptive transfer of this immunity by ... Preliminary studies of artificial immunization of rats against Plasmodium berghei and adoptive transfer of this immunity by ...
Spleen Cell Adoptive Transfer Peritoneal Exudate Cell Adult Hamster Phosphate Buffer Saline Solution Control These keywords ... Prevention of Primary Simian Adenovirus Type 7 (SA7) Tumors in Hamsters by Adoptive Transfer of Lymphoid Cells: Role of ... 25-28), or through adoptive transfer of specifically sensitized lymphoid cells (29-31). ... Tumors in Hamsters by Adoptive Transfer of Lymphoid Cells: Role of Different Cell Types. In: Wayne Streilein J., Hart D.A., ...
... ... The successful adoptive transfer of antigen-specific CD4+ cells to a patient with metastatic melanoma is not only an important ... Clinical investigations of adoptive therapy in solid tumors have primarily focused on CD8+ cells. A study by Hunder et al. is ... This report demonstrates an impressive persistence of adoptively transferred cells together with durability of clinical ...
Cutting Edge: Induction of Inflammatory Disease by Adoptive Transfer of an Atypical NK Cell Subset. Elisaveta Voynova, Chen- ... Cutting Edge: Induction of Inflammatory Disease by Adoptive Transfer of an Atypical NK Cell Subset ... Cutting Edge: Induction of Inflammatory Disease by Adoptive Transfer of an Atypical NK Cell Subset ... Cutting Edge: Induction of Inflammatory Disease by Adoptive Transfer of an Atypical NK Cell Subset ...
ES cells have only a limited lymphopoietic potential after adoptive transfer into mouse recipients ... ES cells have only a limited lymphopoietic potential after adoptive transfer into mouse recipients ... ES cells have only a limited lymphopoietic potential after adoptive transfer into mouse recipients ... ES cells have only a limited lymphopoietic potential after adoptive transfer into mouse recipients ...
  • During this time, scientists were mainly limited to cells that could be taken from one animal and directly placed into another animal, but this changed over the next few decades, particularly after the discovery of IL-2 and its ability to help expand T cells in vitro prior to (and during) its injection into the host, amplifying the anti-tumor response from transfer. (biolegend.com)
  • We speculated that if transferred T cells could benefit from EGFR ligands produced by the tumor, they might proliferate better and exert their anti-tumor activities more efficiently. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study consisted of two trials assessing the level of protection against Aspergillus fumigatus challenge afforded by transfer of splenocytes from convalescent turkeys. (aspergillus.org.uk)
  • The purpose of the present study was to use a recently developed model of adoptive transfer of splenocytes to determine if enhanced immune responses can lead to elimination of infection and resolution of gastritis in an H. pylori -infected host. (asm.org)
  • This first-in-humans pilot study sets the stage for clinical trials employing adoptive transfer in the context of minimal residual disease. (nih.gov)
  • Many factors contribute to the observation that the effectiveness of adoptive cell transfer increases as immunodepletion increases, namely, the depletion of regulatory T cells. (touro.edu)
  • This study was designed to investigate whether the protective effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (Lcr35) on allergic asthma are associated with the adoptive transfer of dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (Tregs), using a mouse experimental model of asthma. (docphin.com)
  • Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a relevant animal model for the human demyelinating inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), multiple sclerosis (MS). Induction of EAE by adoptive transfer allows studying the role of the donor T lymphocyte in disease pathogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Just like your smartphone, CARs have had steady improvements, leading to 2nd and 3rd generation CARs that help their T cells proliferate better or survive better after transfer by adding additional chimeric subunits, such as OX40 and CD28 into the endodomain. (biolegend.com)
  • Interestingly, adoptive-transfer experiments indicated that the chimeric IL-15Rα ext /IL-2Rα int receptor still supports trans -presentation. (bloodjournal.org)
  • The cytolytic T lymphocyte products were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells that were subjected to polyclonal activation, plasmid vector electrotransfer, limiting dilution hygromycin selection, and expansion to numbers sufficient for adoptive transfer. (nih.gov)
  • During acute infection, adoptive transfer of MCMV-immune, but not naive, spleen cells suppressed virus replication in the adrenal glands, but not the lungs or salivary gland. (asm.org)
  • Transfer of immune cells is made between different individuals of monozygotic twins in human or of the same pure line in experimental animals from immunologically sensitized to naive host, where transferred cells are engrafted without rejection or GVHD in the new host. (wikipedia.org)
  • Future work on adoptive transfer strategies may need to focus on striking a balance between the formation of these subsets to ensure the development of long lasting and protective immune responses that can access the organs affected by CMV disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Upon adoptive transfer, B220 − memory B cells proliferate to a lesser degree but produce greater amounts of antibody than their B220 + counterparts. (rupress.org)