Field of psychology concerned with the normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. It includes mental processes as well as observable responses.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological methods of recognizing and treating behavior disorders.
The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.
Any observable response or action of an adolescent.
The science dealing with the study of mental processes and behavior in man and animals.
The branch of psychology concerned with the effects of group membership upon the behavior, attitudes, and beliefs of an individual.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological changes during ADOLESCENCE, approximately between the age of 13 and 18.
Organized services to provide health care to adolescents, ages ranging from 13 through 18 years.
The branch of psychology concerned with similarities or differences in the behavior of different animal species or of different races or peoples.
The branch of psychology concerned with psychological aspects of teaching and the formal learning process in school.
The branch of psychology which seeks to learn more about the fundamental causes of behavior by studying various psychologic phenomena in controlled experimental situations.
Principles applied to the analysis and explanation of psychological or behavioral phenomena.
A branch of psychology in which there is collaboration between psychologists and physicians in the management of medical problems. It differs from clinical psychology, which is concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of behavior disorders.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with the application of psychologic principles and methods to industrial problems including selection and training of workers, working conditions, etc.
A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in individuals 13-18 years.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
The interactions between parent and child.
Group composed of associates of same species, approximately the same age, and usually of similar rank or social status.
The interdisciplinary field concerned with the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical science, knowledge, and techniques relevant to health and illness and the application of this knowledge and these techniques to prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation.
Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Disciplines concerned with the study of human and animal behavior.
The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.
The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Ecological and environmental entities, characteristics, properties, relationships and processes.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.
A person's view of himself.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.
A psychologic theory, developed by John Broadus Watson, concerned with studying and measuring behaviors that are observable.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
Those forces and content of the mind which are not ordinarily available to conscious awareness or to immediate recall.
Educational institutions.
The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.
A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)
The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Psychoanalytic theory focusing on interpretation of behavior in reference to self. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Terms, 1994) This elaboration of the psychoanalytic concepts of narcissism and the self, was developed by Heinz Kohut, and stresses the importance of the self-awareness of excessive needs for approval and self-gratification.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
Persons whom one knows, likes, and trusts.
A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
The process by which an emotional or behavioral response that is appropriate for one situation appears in another situation for which it is inappropriate.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in children.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The branch of applied psychology concerned with psychological aspects of selection, assignment, training, morale, etc., of Armed Forces personnel.
Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.
In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.
The science which utilizes psychologic principles to derive more effective means in dealing with practical problems.
The perceiving of attributes, characteristics, and behaviors of one's associates or social groups.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A psychological theory based on dimensions or categories used by a given person in describing or explaining the personality and behavior of others or of himself. The basic idea is that different people will use consistently different categories. The theory was formulated in the fifties by George Kelly. Two tests devised by him are the role construct repertory test and the repertory grid test. (From Stuart Sutherland, The International Dictionary of Psychology, 1989)
A relational pattern in which a person attempts to derive a sense of purpose through relationships with others.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
The period from about 5 to 7 years to adolescence when there is an apparent cessation of psychosexual development.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
Sexual activities of humans.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
The conscious portion of the personality structure which serves to mediate between the demands of the primitive instinctual drives, (the id), of internalized parental and social prohibitions or the conscience, (the superego), and of reality.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A state in which attention is largely directed inward upon one's self.
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Strong desires to accomplish something. This usually pertains to greater values or high ideals.
The study of the structure, growth, activities, and functions of NEURONS and the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The branch of psychology which investigates the psychology of crime with particular reference to the personality factors of the criminal.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
A branch of psychology which investigates the correlation between experience or behavior and the basic neurophysiological processes. The term neuropsychology stresses the dominant role of the nervous system. It is a more narrowly defined field than physiological psychology or psychophysiology.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
Behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
Cultural contacts between people of different races.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Behavioral, psychological, and social relations among various members of the nuclear family and the extended family.
A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.
The persistence to perform a learned behavior (facts or experiences) after an interval has elapsed in which there has been no performance or practice of the behavior.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
The process of discovering or asserting an objective or intrinsic relation between two objects or concepts; a faculty or power that enables a person to make judgments; the process of bringing to light and asserting the implicit meaning of a concept; a critical evaluation of a person or situation.
The excessive use of marijuana with associated psychological symptoms and impairment in social or occupational functioning.
Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior in which the basic rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. These behaviors include aggressive conduct that causes or threatens physical harm to other people or animals, nonaggressive conduct that causes property loss or damage, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violations of rules. The onset is before age 18. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
Mental activity, not predominantly perceptual, by which one apprehends some aspect of an object or situation based on past learning and experience.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The individual's experience of a sense of fulfillment of a need or want and the quality or state of being satisfied.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
Non-acceptance, negative attitudes, hostility or excessive criticism of the individual which may precipitate feelings of rejection.
The human ability to adapt in the face of tragedy, trauma, adversity, hardship, and ongoing significant life stressors.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Principles, models, and laws that apply to complex interrelationships and interdependencies of sets of linked components which form a functioning whole, a system. Any system may be composed of components which are systems in their own right (sub-systems), such as several organs within an individual organism.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.
Differential response to different stimuli.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
A return to earlier, especially to infantile, patterns of thought or behavior, or stage of functioning, e.g., feelings of helplessness and dependency in a patient with a serious physical illness. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994).
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
The observable response of a man or animal to a situation.
Emotional attachment to someone or something in the environment.
The continuous developmental process of a culture from simple to complex forms and from homogeneous to heterogeneous qualities.
The application of modern theories of learning and conditioning in the treatment of behavior disorders.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
The art, technique, or business of producing motion pictures for entertainment, propaganda, or instruction.
The unconscious transfer to others (including psychotherapists) of feelings and attitudes which were originally associated with important figures (parents, siblings, etc.) in one's early life.
Education which increases the knowledge of the functional, structural, and behavioral aspects of human reproduction.
The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
Use for general articles concerning nursing education.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Preventive health services provided for students. It excludes college or university students.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.
An adolescent who is receiving long-term in-patient services or who resides in an institutional setting.
Aggressive behavior intended to cause harm or distress. The behavior may be physical or verbal. There is typically an imbalance of power, strength, or status between the target and the aggressor.
Adaptation of the person to the social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (From Campbell, Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Conceptual system developed by Freud and his followers in which unconscious motivations are considered to shape normal and abnormal personality development and behavior.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Abstract standards or empirical variables in social life which are believed to be important and/or desirable.
Female parents, human or animal.
The process by which an aspect of self image is developed based on in-group preference or ethnocentrism and a perception of belonging to a social or cultural group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke from CANNABIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
The unsuccessful attempt to kill oneself.
The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders.
Longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States during the 1994-95 school year. The Add Health cohort has been followed into young adulthood. (from http://www.cpc.unc.edu/projects/addhealth accessed 08/2012)
A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.
A particular kind of learning characterized by occurrence in very early life, rapidity of acquisition, and relative insusceptibility to forgetting or extinction. Imprinted behavior includes most (or all) behavior commonly called instinctive, but imprinting is used purely descriptively.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Struggle or disagreement between parents, parent and child or other members of a family.
The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Interaction between the father and the child.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Acquired or learned responses which are regularly manifested.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The transmission and reproduction of transient images of fixed or moving objects. An electronic system of transmitting such images together with sound over a wire or through space by apparatus that converts light and sound into electrical waves and reconverts them into visible light rays and audible sound. (From Webster, 3rd ed)
A book is not a medical term, but generally refers to a set of printed or written sheets of paper bound together that can contain a wide range of information including literature, research, educational content, and more, which may be utilized in the medical field for various purposes such as learning, reference, or patient education.
A form of interactive entertainment in which the player controls electronically generated images that appear on a video display screen. This includes video games played in the home on special machines or home computers, and those played in arcades.
The training or molding of an individual through various relationships, educational agencies, and social controls, which enables him to become a member of a particular society.
Those psychological characteristics which differentiate individuals from one another.
Set of expectations that exempt persons from responsibility for their illness and exempt them from usual responsibilities.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.
The internal individual struggle resulting from incompatible or opposing needs, drives, or external and internal demands. In group interactions, competitive or opposing action of incompatibles: antagonistic state or action (as of divergent ideas, interests, or persons). (from Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Conscious or unconscious emotional reaction of the therapist to the patient which may interfere with treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

Psychosocial factors related to adolescent smoking: a critical review of the literature. (1/746)

OBJECTIVE: To extend the analysis of psychosocial risk factors for smoking presented in the United States surgeon general's 1994 report on smoking and health, and to propose a theoretical frame of reference for understanding the development of smoking. DATA SOURCES: General Science Index, Medline, PsycLIT, Sociofile, Sociological Abstracts, and Smoking and Health. Holdings of the Addiction Research Foundation of Ontario Library as well as the authors' personal files. STUDY SELECTION: Reviewed literature focused on studies that examined the association of sociodemographic, environmental, behavioural, and personal variables with smoking. DATA SYNTHESIS: Adolescent smoking was associated with age, ethnicity, family structure, parental socioeconomic status, personal income, parental smoking, parental attitudes, sibling smoking, peer smoking, peer attitudes and norms, family environment, attachment to family and friends, school factors, risk behaviours, lifestyle, stress, depression/distress, self-esteem, attitudes, and health concerns. It is unclear whether adolescent smoking is related to other psychosocial variables. CONCLUSIONS: Attempts should be made to use common definitions of outcome and predictor variables. Analyses should include multivariate and bivariate models, with some attempt in the multivariate models to test specific hypotheses. Future research should be theory driven and consider the range of possible factors, such as social, personal, economic, environmental, biological, and physiological influences, that may influence smoking behaviour. The apparent inconsistencies in relationships between parental socioeconomic status and adolescent disposable income need to be resolved as does the underlying constructs for which socioeconomic status is a proxy.  (+info)

The effects of a participative programme on Irish pupils' attitudes to HIV/AIDS. (2/746)

The study is concerned with a general humanistic approach to health (lifeskills) education and its application to the specific issue of HIV/AIDS in the Republic of Ireland. A programme of five classroom sessions, structured to encourage active participation, was administered to an experimental group of 20 participants (10 male and 10 female). There was an equivalent control group. Attitudes towards 10 AIDS-related person concepts were measured before and after the programme using semantic differential rating scales. Highly significant differences were found between groups in post-programme attitudes to the concepts. There were no gender differences. It is concluded that this participative programme strongly influences AIDS-related attitudes, and, in particular, promotes compassion towards those with HIV/AIDS.  (+info)

Adolescents' pregnancy intentions: relations to life situations and caretaking behaviors prenatally and 2 years postpartum. (3/746)

PURPOSE: This study explores if and how adolescents' pregnancy intentions relate to life situations and health-related behaviors prenatally and up to 2 years postpartum. METHODS: Adolescent girls who reported that they had "wanted a baby" (n = 75) as their reason for pregnancy were compared with those who reported that the pregnancy "just happened" (n = 79) at four separate time periods: prenatally, at 6 and 24 months postpartum, and at 18 months postpartum for teens who became pregnant again subsequent to the study pregnancy. RESULTS: Those who stated that they wanted a baby were more likely to be Hispanic, married, and out of school before becoming pregnant. They were less likely to receive welfare as their primary means of support and to have run away from home in the past than teens who stated that their pregnancy just happened. Self-reported reason for pregnancy was unrelated to repeat pregnancy by 18 months postpartum, but those who had wanted the study baby were less likely to undergo elective termination of a subsequent pregnancy and less likely to become pregnant by a different partner. The groups diverged at 24 months postpartum when those who wanted a baby were more likely to be married to the father of the baby, be financially supported by him, receive child care assistance from him, and have attempted or succeeded at breastfeeding the study child. CONCLUSION: Self-reported reason for pregnancy reveals many important characteristics of pregnant adolescents both at the time of presentation and up to 2 years postpartum. Young women in this study who reported intentional pregnancy seem to fare better with regard to their financial status and their relationship with the father of the baby.  (+info)

Alcohol-related problems among adolescent suicides in Finland. (4/746)

We studied 106 adolescent suicides out of a total nationwide population of 1397 suicides. Forty-four (42%) of these 13-22-year-old victims were classified as having suffered either a DSM-III-R alcohol use disorder or diagnostically subthreshold alcohol misuse according to retrospective evaluation using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST). These victims were found to differ from the other adolescent suicides in several characteristics: they were more likely to have comorbid categorical DSM-III-R disorders, antisocial behaviour, disturbed family backgrounds, precipitating life-events as stressors and severe psychosocial impairment. In addition, they also had a greater tendency to be alcohol-intoxicated at the time of the suicidal act, which tended to occur during weekends, suggesting that drinking in itself, and its weekly pattern, each contributed to the completion of their suicides.  (+info)

Male youth street culture: understanding the context of health-related behaviours. (5/746)

In the UK growing concerns have been expressed about young people, and particularly young men, who spend large amounts of their leisure time on the streets. Problems such as vandalism, under-age drinking and drug use have all been heavily reported in local and national media. This paper reports on ethnographic (primarily participant observation-based) research which sought to explore the motivations, meanings and behaviours of young people hanging around on the streets during the evening in a Scottish town. The aim is to move beyond previous research which has largely focused on the 'risk' factors associated with health-relevant behaviours, and to provide an understanding of the roles of alcohol, illicit drugs and tobacco within the young people's street culture. The paper therefore provides contextualized accounts of health-relevant behaviours. In conclusion it is argued that, to be effective, health promotion programmes need to locate lifestyle risk behaviours within broader life circumstances and that without a reduction in 'risk conditions' it is unlikely that youth street culture will disappear or that 'risk behaviours' will reduce.  (+info)

Adolescents' knowledge and attitudes concerning HIV infection and HIV-infected persons: how a survey and focus group discussions are suited for researching adolescents' HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes. (6/746)

The purpose of this article is to examine how two different corpora of material are suited for researching the sexuality of youth on the basis of material gathered via a structured questionnaire (N = 1183, response rate 87%) and via eight focus group discussions (FGDs), and to investigate the knowledge and opinions of adolescents at the age of 15 years about HIV infection and HIV-infected persons. Both boys and girls showed a good level of knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS. While their level of knowledge was good, their attitude was that the threat of an HIV infection was not a personal issue. Furthermore, negative attitudes to those having HIV/AIDS became more pronounced the more socially distant the infected person was to the respondent. The FGDs presented a more sceptical view of the attitudes of adolescents than the survey, while the knowledge about HIV infection and AIDS was the same regardless of the research method. In the FGDs, girls discussed the topics more extensively than boys, they used longer sentences, there was spontaneous discussion within the groups and the participants commented on each other's opinions. Boys were often content with short dichotomous responses and the interviewers had to qualify the responses with supplementary questions.  (+info)

Young people's understanding of mental illness. (7/746)

Research exploring young people's perspectives on mental health is at an early stage of development and few studies have focused in detail on mental distress or illness. This paper reports findings from a qualitative study which used case vignettes in group and individual interviews to explore the ways in which the young people who took part constructed their understanding of what constitutes mental illness. In essence, they did so by drawing on their own experiences to distinguish between behaviours with which they could identify in some way and those with which they could not. An overview of previous relevant research is provided in the Introduction, followed by a description of the methods and sampling strategies used. The main findings of the study are then presented in relation to the ways in which young people defined unusual behaviour, their understanding of the behaviours associated with different mental health problems and their attitudes to the people concerned. Finally, some ways in which health promotion might build on the findings are identified and discussed.  (+info)

Exploring young people's difficulties in talking about contraception: how can we encourage more discussion between partners? (8/746)

Interviews were conducted with 56 young men and women aged 16-19 within the Southampton Community Health NHS Trust to explore difficulties in talking about contraception. Concern about a partner's hostile or negative reaction to any discussion about contraception was central to explaining why some people found it so difficult to initiate such discussions. Admitting the intention to have intercourse, together with a perceived association between condom use and disease prevention, were the main concerns. There was some indication of gender differences in these findings. Furthermore, this negative reaction is perceived to be exacerbated according to the partner's reputation, the potential for harming one's own reputation and whether there is a desire for a longer-term relationship with this partner. The most important outcome of the interviews was that these concerns about a partner's negative reaction were largely unjustified, with the vast majority of participants showing only positive responses to scenarios of future partners initiating discussions with them about contraception. In addition to the need to improve communication skills, the data suggest that greater awareness about the positive reactions towards such discussions should be encouraged.  (+info)

Adolescent psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the study of adolescents, their behavior, thoughts, and emotions. This field examines the cognitive, social, and emotional development of adolescents, as well as any challenges or mental health issues they may face during this stage of life. It also involves the application of psychological theories and principles to promote positive adolescent development and address adolescent mental health concerns. Adolescent psychologists work in various settings, including schools, clinics, hospitals, and private practices, providing assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and counseling services to adolescents and their families.

Clinical psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the diagnosis, assessment, treatment, and prevention of mental health disorders. It is a practice-based profession and involves the application of psychological research and evidence-based interventions to help individuals, families, and groups overcome challenges and improve their overall well-being.

Clinical psychologists are trained to work with people across the lifespan, from young children to older adults, and they may specialize in working with specific populations or presenting problems. They use a variety of assessment tools, including interviews, observations, and psychological tests, to help understand their clients' needs and develop individualized treatment plans.

Treatment approaches used by clinical psychologists may include cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, family therapy, and other evidence-based practices. Clinical psychologists may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, mental health clinics, private practice, universities, and research institutions.

In addition to direct clinical work, clinical psychologists may also be involved in teaching, supervision, program development, and policy advocacy related to mental health. To become a licensed clinical psychologist, individuals must typically complete a doctoral degree in psychology, a one-year internship, and several years of post-doctoral supervised experience. They must also pass a state licensing exam and meet other requirements set by their state's regulatory board.

Child psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the mental, emotional, and social development of children from birth to adolescence. It involves the study of children's behavior, thoughts, feelings, and relationships with others, including their families, peers, and teachers. Child psychologists use various research methods, such as observation, interviews, and testing, to understand how children develop and learn. They also work with children who have emotional, social, or behavioral problems, providing assessments, therapy, and counseling services to help them overcome these challenges. Additionally, child psychologists may provide consultation and training to parents, teachers, and other professionals who work with children.

Adolescent behavior refers to the typical behaviors, attitudes, and emotions exhibited by individuals who are within the developmental stage of adolescence, which generally falls between the ages of 10-24 years old. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines an adolescent as "an individual who is in the process of growing from childhood to adulthood, and whose age ranges from 10 to 19 years." However, it's important to note that the specific age range can vary depending on cultural, societal, and individual factors.

During adolescence, individuals experience significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes that can influence their behavior. Some common behaviors exhibited by adolescents include:

1. Increased independence and autonomy seeking: Adolescents may start to challenge authority figures, question rules, and seek more control over their lives as they develop a stronger sense of self.
2. Peer influence: Adolescents often place greater importance on their relationships with peers and may engage in behaviors that are influenced by their friends, such as experimenting with substances or adopting certain fashion styles.
3. Risk-taking behavior: Adolescents are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as reckless driving, substance use, and unsafe sexual practices, due to a combination of factors, including brain development, peer pressure, and the desire for novelty and excitement.
4. Emotional volatility: Hormonal changes and brain development during adolescence can lead to increased emotional intensity and instability, resulting in mood swings, irritability, and impulsivity.
5. Identity exploration: Adolescents are often preoccupied with discovering their own identity, values, beliefs, and goals, which may result in experimentation with different hairstyles, clothing, hobbies, or relationships.
6. Cognitive development: Adolescents develop the ability to think more abstractly, consider multiple perspectives, and engage in complex problem-solving, which can lead to improved decision-making and self-reflection.
7. Formation of long-term relationships: Adolescence is a critical period for establishing close friendships and romantic relationships that can have lasting impacts on an individual's social and emotional development.

It is essential to recognize that adolescent development is a complex and dynamic process, and individual experiences may vary significantly. While some risky behaviors are common during this stage, it is crucial to provide support, guidance, and resources to help adolescents navigate the challenges they face and promote healthy development.

Psychology is not a medical discipline itself, but it is a crucial component in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of many medical conditions. It is a social science that deals with the scientific study of behavior and mental processes such as perception, cognition, emotion, personality, and motivation. In a medical context, psychology can be applied to help understand how biological, psychological, and social factors interact to influence an individual's health and well-being, as well as their response to illness and treatment. Clinical psychologists often work in healthcare settings to evaluate, diagnose, and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders, using various therapeutic interventions based on psychological principles and research.

Social psychology is a branch of psychology that studies how individuals behave, think, and feel in social situations. It examines the ways in which people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the actual, imagined, or implied presence of others. Social psychologists seek to understand how we make sense of other people and how we understand ourselves in a social context. They study phenomena such as social influence, social perception, attitude change, group behavior, prejudice, aggression, and prosocial behavior.

In summary, social psychology is the scientific study of how people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are shaped by their social context and interactions with others.

Adolescent development is a phase of growth and development that occurs after childhood and before adulthood, typically between the ages of 10-24 years old. This stage is characterized by significant physical, cognitive, emotional, and social changes as an individual transitions from dependence to independence.

Physical development during adolescence includes significant growth spurts, hormonal changes, and sexual maturation, leading to puberty. Cognitive development involves the acquisition of abstract thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making skills. Emotional development is marked by increased self-awareness, self-esteem, and the ability to regulate emotions. Social development includes the formation of peer relationships, romantic relationships, and the development of a sense of identity and independence from family.

It's important to note that adolescent development can vary widely among individuals, and cultural, social, and environmental factors can significantly influence the course and outcome of this stage.

Adolescent health services refer to medical and related services that are specifically designed to meet the unique physical, mental, emotional, and social needs of young people between the ages of 10-24 years. These services encompass a broad range of interventions, including preventive care, acute and chronic disease management, reproductive health care, mental health services, substance use treatment, and health promotion and education. The goal of adolescent health services is to support young people in achieving optimal health and well-being as they navigate the complex transitions of adolescence and early adulthood. Such services may be provided in a variety of settings, including primary care clinics, schools, community health centers, and specialized youth clinics.

Comparative psychology, in medical and scientific terms, is a branch of psychology that focuses on comparing the behavior, cognition, and emotional processes across different species. The goal is to identify both similarities and differences in order to understand the evolutionary origins and development of these processes. This field often involves the use of animal models to make inferences about human psychological functioning, as well as to increase our understanding of animal behavior and cognition in their own right. Comparative psychologists may study a wide range of topics, including perception, learning, memory, language, emotion, social behavior, and cognitive development. The ultimate aim is to contribute to the development of a unified theory of mind and behavior that can be applied across all species.

Educational psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the application of psychological principles and research to educational theory, policy, and practice. The primary aim of educational psychology is to understand how individuals learn and develop within educational settings, as well as to promote effective teaching and learning practices. This field draws upon various areas of psychology, including cognitive, developmental, social, and clinical perspectives, to examine issues related to student motivation, engagement, achievement, and well-being.

Educational psychologists often conduct research on topics such as memory, attention, learning strategies, motivation, and social interaction in order to better understand the factors that influence academic success. They may also work directly with educators, administrators, and policymakers to develop evidence-based interventions and programs that support student learning and development. Additionally, educational psychologists may provide assessment, counseling, and consultation services to students, parents, and teachers in order to address a range of educational and psychological concerns.

Overall, the goal of educational psychology is to promote positive educational outcomes for all students by applying psychological knowledge and research to real-world educational contexts.

Experimental psychology is a branch of psychology that uses scientific methods and systematic experiments to investigate various psychological phenomena. It employs rigorous experimental designs, controlled laboratory settings, and statistical analyses to test hypotheses and draw conclusions about human cognition, emotion, motivation, learning, memory, perception, and other areas of mental processes. The goal is to establish reliable and valid principles that can help explain behavior and mental experiences. This subfield often involves the use of specific research methods, such as reaction time measurements, response latencies, signal detection theory, and psychophysical procedures, among others.

A psychological theory is a proposed explanation or framework that aims to describe, explain, and predict psychological phenomena. It is based on established scientific principles and methods, and it integrates various observations, facts, and findings to provide a coherent understanding of psychological processes and behaviors. Psychological theories can encompass a wide range of topics, including cognition, emotion, motivation, perception, personality, learning, memory, development, and psychopathology. They are used to guide research, inform clinical practice, and advance our knowledge of the human mind and behavior.

Medical psychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the application of psychological principles and methods to understanding, diagnosing, and treating physical illnesses and disorders. It involves the collaboration between psychologists and medical professionals to address the psychological, behavioral, and emotional aspects of medical conditions. Medical psychologists may provide assessments, interventions, and treatments for patients dealing with chronic illnesses, pain management, adjustment to disability, adherence to medical regimens, and other health-related concerns. They also conduct research in the area of health psychology and may provide consultation services to healthcare organizations and professionals.

Industrial-Organizational Psychology (I-O Psychology) is a subfield of psychology that applies psychological principles, theories, and research to the workplace and organizations. Its primary focus is on understanding how workers and work systems interact, with the goal of improving the well-being and performance of employees while also enhancing organizational effectiveness.

I-O psychologists study a wide range of topics, including:

1. Job analysis and design: Identifying the important tasks, responsibilities, and requirements of jobs to improve job satisfaction, productivity, and safety.
2. Personnel selection and assessment: Developing and implementing methods for selecting, evaluating, and promoting employees, such as interviews, tests, and simulations.
3. Training and development: Designing, delivering, and evaluating training programs to enhance employee skills, knowledge, and abilities.
4. Motivation and performance management: Understanding what motivates employees and developing strategies for improving performance, engagement, and job satisfaction.
5. Leadership and organizational culture: Examining the impact of leadership styles and organizational cultures on employee attitudes, behaviors, and performance.
6. Work-life balance and well-being: Investigating ways to promote work-life balance and improve employee well-being, including stress management and work-family conflict.
7. Organizational development and change: Assessing and improving organizational effectiveness through interventions such as team building, organizational restructuring, and culture change.

I-O psychologists work in a variety of settings, including corporations, government agencies, consulting firms, and academic institutions. They use scientific methods to conduct research, analyze data, and develop evidence-based solutions to real-world problems in the workplace.

Adolescent medicine is a medical specialty focused on the unique health care needs of patients between the ages of 10-25. This includes physical, mental, and emotional health concerns that are specific to this age group, such as:

* Growth and development
* Sexual and reproductive health
* Substance use and abuse
* Mental health disorders
* Eating disorders
* Chronic illness management
* Injury prevention and management

Healthcare providers who specialize in adolescent medicine are trained to understand the physical, emotional, and social challenges that adolescents face during this transitional stage of life. They work closely with patients and their families to provide comprehensive care, including preventive services, education, and treatment for acute and chronic conditions.

In addition to medical training, adolescent medicine specialists may also have expertise in psychology, sociology, public health, and education to help them address the complex needs of this population.

Adolescent Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders in adolescents, which are individuals typically ranging in age from 13 to 18 years old. This field requires specialized knowledge, training, and expertise in the unique developmental, emotional, and behavioral challenges that adolescents face. Adolescent psychiatrists provide comprehensive assessments, including medical and psychological evaluations, and develop individualized treatment plans that may involve psychotherapy, medication management, and/or coordination with other healthcare professionals and community resources. They also work closely with families to help them understand their adolescent's mental health needs and support their recovery process.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for the term "Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is quite broad and can encompass various aspects related to nutrition and physiological changes that occur during adolescence. However, I can provide some insight into the nutritional and physiological changes that typically occur during adolescence.

Adolescence is a critical period of growth and development, and proper nutrition is essential to support these changes. During this time, adolescents experience significant increases in height, weight, and muscle mass, as well as sexual maturation and reproductive development. As a result, their nutrient needs are higher than those of children or adults.

Some key nutritional physiological phenomena that occur during adolescence include:

1. Increased energy needs: Adolescents require more calories to support their rapid growth and development. The estimated daily calorie needs for boys aged 14-18 years are 2,500-3,000 calories, while for girls aged 14-18 years, the estimated daily calorie needs are 2,200-2,400 calories.
2. Increased protein needs: Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues, including muscle mass. Adolescents require more protein to support their growth and development, with an estimated daily need of 46 grams for girls aged 14-18 years and 52 grams for boys aged 14-18 years.
3. Increased calcium needs: Calcium is essential for building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. Adolescents undergo significant bone growth during this time, making it crucial to meet their increased calcium needs. The recommended daily intake of calcium for adolescents is 1,300 milligrams.
4. Increased iron needs: Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells and the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Adolescent girls, in particular, have increased iron needs due to menstruation. The recommended daily intake of iron for adolescents is 8 mg for boys aged 14-18 years and 15 mg for girls aged 14-18 years.
5. Increased nutrient needs: Adolescents require a variety of vitamins and minerals to support their growth and development, including vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and magnesium. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products can help meet these needs.

In summary, adolescents have increased nutrient needs to support their growth and development. Meeting these needs requires a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all food groups. It is essential to ensure adequate intake of protein, calcium, iron, and other vitamins and minerals during this critical period of growth and development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Parent-Child Relations" is not a medical term per se. It falls more under the purview of psychology, social work, and sociology. However, I can provide you with a general definition:

Parent-Child Relations refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, behavioral, and social relationships between parents (or primary caregivers) and their children. This relationship significantly influences a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, social, and behavioral growth. Positive parent-child relations typically involve warmth, support, communication, consistency, and appropriate expectations, which contribute to healthy child development outcomes. On the other hand, negative or dysfunctional parent-child relations can lead to various developmental and psychological issues for the child.

In the context of public health and medical research, a peer group is a social group whose members have similar interests, concerns, or social positions. Peer groups can play an important role in shaping individual behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs, particularly during adolescence and young adulthood. In research, studying peer groups can help researchers understand how social norms and influences affect health-related behaviors, such as substance use, sexual behavior, and mental health. It's worth noting that the term "peer group" doesn't have a specific medical definition, but it is widely used in public health and medical research to refer to these types of social groups.

Behavioral medicine is a field of healthcare that focuses on the development and integration of behavioral and biomedical sciences in the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and treatment of disorders. It is an interdisciplinary approach that involves the collaboration of professionals from various fields, including psychology, psychiatry, medicine, nursing, social work, and public health.

Behavioral medicine recognizes that behavior plays a critical role in health outcomes and seeks to understand how behaviors such as diet, physical activity, sleep, stress management, and substance use can impact physical health. It also examines the psychological factors that can influence health, such as thoughts, emotions, and social support.

The goal of behavioral medicine is to develop interventions that target these modifiable risk factors to prevent or treat illness, improve quality of life, and reduce healthcare costs. These interventions may include individual counseling, group therapy, lifestyle modification programs, stress management techniques, and other evidence-based practices.

In summary, behavioral medicine is a medical specialty that focuses on the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders that result from the interaction of biological, behavioral, and environmental factors. It aims to promote health and well-being by addressing modifiable risk factors through evidence-based interventions.

Graduate education typically refers to educational programs beyond the undergraduate level that lead to an advanced degree, such as a master's, doctoral, or professional degree. These programs usually require completion of a Bachelor's degree as a prerequisite and involve more specialized and in-depth study in a particular field. Graduate education may include coursework, research, examinations, and the completion of a thesis or dissertation. The specific requirements for graduate education vary depending on the field of study and the institution offering the degree program.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

The Behavioral Sciences are a group of disciplines that focus on the study of human and animal behavior. These sciences use various methods, including experiments, observations, and surveys, to understand why organisms behave the way they do. Some of the key disciplines in the Behavioral Sciences include:

1. Psychology: The scientific study of the mind and behavior, including topics such as perception, cognition, emotion, motivation, and personality.
2. Sociology: The scientific study of human social behavior, including topics such as group dynamics, social norms, and cultural influences.
3. Anthropology: The scientific study of human societies and cultures, both past and present, including their evolution, development, and variation.
4. Education: The field concerned with teaching and learning processes, curriculum development, and instructional design.
5. Communication Studies: The field that examines how people use symbols, language, and communication to create and maintain relationships, communities, and cultures.
6. Political Science: The study of political systems, institutions, and behaviors, including topics such as power, governance, and public policy.
7. Economics: The study of how individuals, businesses, and societies allocate scarce resources to satisfy their needs and wants.

Overall, the Behavioral Sciences aim to provide a deeper understanding of human behavior and social phenomena, with applications in fields such as healthcare, education, business, and policy-making.

Behavioral economics in the field of medicine refers to the study of how psychological, social, and emotional factors influence the economic decisions and behaviors of individuals and groups within the healthcare system. This interdisciplinary approach combines insights from psychology, economics, and other social sciences to examine how various factors such as cognitive biases, heuristics, emotions, social norms, and cultural influences affect health-related decision-making by patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other stakeholders.

By understanding these behavioral factors, researchers and practitioners can develop more effective interventions, policies, and strategies to improve health outcomes, promote evidence-based practices, reduce healthcare costs, and enhance patient satisfaction and well-being. Examples of applications of behavioral economics in medicine include nudging patients toward healthier choices, reducing overuse and underuse of medical services, promoting shared decision-making between patients and providers, and designing insurance plans and payment systems that incentivize high-value care.

Neurosciences is a multidisciplinary field of study that focuses on the structure, function, development, and disorders of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. It incorporates various scientific disciplines such as biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science to understand the complexities of the nervous system at different levels, from molecular and cellular mechanisms to systems and behavior.

The field encompasses both basic research and clinical applications, with the aim of advancing our knowledge of the nervous system and developing effective treatments for neurological and psychiatric disorders. Specialties within neurosciences include neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, neurochemistry, neuropharmacology, neurobiology, neuroimmunology, behavioral neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, clinical neuroscience, and computational neuroscience, among others.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Ecological and environmental phenomena refer to the processes, conditions, and interactions between living organisms and their physical surroundings in a given ecosystem or environment. These phenomena can include various natural and human-induced factors that affect the health, distribution, abundance, and diversity of species and populations within an ecosystem, as well as the overall function and stability of the ecosystem itself.

Examples of ecological and environmental phenomena include:

1. Biogeochemical cycles (e.g., carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus) that regulate the flow of nutrients and energy through an ecosystem.
2. Climate change and global warming, which can alter temperature, precipitation patterns, and other abiotic factors that impact species' distributions and survival.
3. Habitat fragmentation and loss due to human activities such as land use changes, urbanization, and deforestation, which can lead to declines in biodiversity and ecosystem health.
4. Pollution from various sources (e.g., air, water, soil) that can harm living organisms and disrupt ecological processes.
5. Invasive species introductions, which can outcompete native species for resources and alter community structure and function.
6. Natural disasters such as wildfires, hurricanes, and floods that can impact ecosystems and their inhabitants in various ways.
7. Human-induced disturbances such as hunting, fishing, and logging that can affect population dynamics and community structure.

Understanding ecological and environmental phenomena is crucial for developing effective strategies to conserve biodiversity, mitigate climate change, and promote sustainable development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

Pregnancy in adolescence, also known as teenage pregnancy, refers to a pregnancy that occurs in females under the age of 20. This can be further categorized into early adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 10-14), middle adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 15-17), and late adolescent pregnancy (occurring between ages 18-19). Teenage pregnancy is associated with higher risks of complications for both the mother and the baby, including preterm birth, low birth weight, and increased risk of neonatal mortality. Additionally, teenage mothers are more likely to drop out of school and face socioeconomic challenges.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

Behavioral research is a branch of scientific study that focuses on observing and analyzing the behaviors of humans and animals in various situations. This type of research aims to understand the underlying factors that influence, shape, and motivate behavior, including cognitive processes, emotional responses, and environmental influences. In medical terms, behavioral research can be used to investigate how certain behaviors or lifestyle factors may contribute to the development, prevention, or management of health conditions. This may include studying patterns of substance use, dietary habits, physical activity levels, adherence to medical treatments, and other health-related behaviors. The goal of behavioral research in a medical context is often to develop interventions or strategies that can help promote positive health behaviors and improve overall health outcomes.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Gestalt Theory" is actually a concept in psychology, not medicine. It is a theory of perception that describes the way we organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes rather than processing them as individual parts. The term "Gestalt" is German for "form" or "shape."

In medical/healthcare fields, you might hear about Gestalt principles being used in areas like physical therapy, occupational therapy, or counseling to help patients make sense of their experiences or perceptions, but the theory itself is a concept from psychology.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about parenting from a psychological and sociological perspective. Parenting is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child or children. It involves caring for their daily needs, providing a safe and nurturing environment, setting boundaries and expectations, modeling appropriate behavior, and fostering healthy relationships and communication skills. Parents also help their children develop coping strategies, resilience, and self-esteem by encouraging them to explore their interests, express their feelings, and learn from their mistakes. Effective parenting often requires patience, consistency, empathy, and adaptability, as the needs and developmental stages of children can vary widely.

Behaviorism is a theory of learning and psychology that focuses on observable and measurable behaviors, rather than on internal thoughts, feelings, or motivations. It asserts that behavior is shaped by environmental factors, particularly through the process of conditioning. There are two main types of behaviorism: methodological and radical. Methodological behaviorists study observable behaviors and their environmental causes and effects, while radical behaviorists argue that behavior is exclusively determined by environmental factors and that internal mental states do not exist or are irrelevant.

In medical terms, behaviorism can be applied to the understanding and treatment of various psychological and behavioral disorders. For example, therapies based on behavioral principles, such as cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), focus on modifying maladaptive behaviors and beliefs through techniques like exposure, reinforcement, and extinction. These interventions aim to help individuals learn new, adaptive behaviors that can improve their mental health and well-being.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

I apologize for any confusion, but "students" is not a medical term. It refers to individuals who are engaged in studying or learning at an educational institution, such as a school, college, or university. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Schools" is not a medical term. It generally refers to educational institutions where children or adults receive instruction in various subjects. If you are asking about a medical condition that might be associated with the word "school," it's possible you could mean "psychological disorders that first present or become evident during the school-aged period (approximately 5-18 years of age)." These disorders can include, but are not limited to, ADHD, learning disabilities, anxiety disorders, and mood disorders. However, without more context, it's difficult for me to provide a more specific answer.

Psychophysiology is a branch of psychology that deals with the scientific study of the relationships between physical processes (such as heart rate, skin conductance, brain activity) and mental or emotional states. It involves the use of physiological measures to understand psychological phenomena and how they relate to behavior. This field of study often employs various research methods, including laboratory experiments, observational studies, and neuroimaging techniques, to examine these relationships in both healthy individuals and those with psychological disorders. The goal of psychophysiology is to better understand the underlying mechanisms that contribute to emotional, cognitive, and behavioral functioning.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "philosophy" is not a medical term. It is a branch of study that deals with fundamental questions about existence, knowledge, ethics, and reality. In contrast, medical terms typically refer to concepts within the field of medicine, such as diseases, treatments, or anatomical structures. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you!

Cognitive science is an interdisciplinary field of study that combines various scientific disciplines such as psychology, neuroscience, linguistics, anthropology, philosophy, artificial intelligence, and computer science to understand the nature of human cognition, including perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, decision-making, learning, and consciousness.

The goal of cognitive science is to develop a unified theoretical framework that can explain how these various cognitive processes work together to enable intelligent behavior in humans and other animals. This field of study has important implications for understanding human thought, communication, creativity, and mental health, as well as for developing artificial intelligence systems that can mimic or enhance human cognition.

Self psychology is a branch of psychoanalysis developed by Heinz Kohut that emphasizes the role of empathy in understanding and treating psychological disorders. It focuses on the self, which includes an individual's sense of identity, self-esteem, and emotional well-being. According to this theory, a healthy self is characterized by a cohesive and stable sense of self, along with the ability to experience joy, pride, and satisfaction. In contrast, a poorly functioning self may result in feelings of emptiness, low self-esteem, and difficulties in forming and maintaining relationships.

Self psychology posits that individuals have certain innate psychological needs, including the need for mirroring (to have one's thoughts, feelings, and experiences affirmed by others), idealization (the ability to admire and look up to others as role models), and twinship (a sense of connection and understanding with others). When these needs are not met in early childhood, it can lead to the development of psychological issues.

In therapy, self psychologists aim to provide a therapeutic environment that meets the patient's emotional needs through empathic listening and understanding. This approach helps the patient develop a stronger and more cohesive sense of self, improve their ability to regulate their emotions, and form healthier relationships with others.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Friends" is not a medical term. If you are referring to the term "friends" in the context of social relationships, it generally refers to individuals who share a mutual affection and enjoy spending time together. However, if you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

In the context of medicine, risk-taking refers to the decision-making process where an individual or a healthcare provider knowingly engages in an activity or continues a course of treatment despite the potential for negative outcomes or complications. This could include situations where the benefits of the action outweigh the potential risks, or where the risks are accepted as part of the process of providing care.

For example, a patient with a life-threatening illness may choose to undergo a risky surgical procedure because the potential benefits (such as improved quality of life or increased longevity) outweigh the risks (such as complications from the surgery or anesthesia). Similarly, a healthcare provider may prescribe a medication with known side effects because the benefits of the medication for treating the patient's condition are deemed to be greater than the potential risks.

Risk-taking can also refer to behaviors that increase the likelihood of negative health outcomes, such as engaging in high-risk activities like substance abuse or dangerous sexual behavior. In these cases, healthcare providers may work with patients to identify and address the underlying factors contributing to their risky behaviors, such as mental health issues or lack of knowledge about safe practices.

Child psychiatry is a medical subspecialty that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders in children, adolescents, and their families. It incorporates various disciplines, including psychology, pediatrics, neurology, social work, nursing, and education, to provide comprehensive care for children with complex needs.

Child psychiatrists use a biopsychosocial approach to understand the underlying causes of a child's difficulties, considering genetic, biological, developmental, environmental, and psychological factors. They are trained to perform comprehensive evaluations, including diagnostic interviews, cognitive and neuropsychological testing, and psychiatric assessments, to develop individualized treatment plans.

Treatment modalities may include psychotherapy (individual, family, or group), medication management, psychoeducation, and coordination with other healthcare professionals and community resources. Child psychiatrists often work in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, schools, and residential treatment facilities, to ensure that children receive the necessary support and care for their mental health concerns.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

Cognition refers to the mental processes involved in acquiring, processing, and utilizing information. These processes include perception, attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and decision-making. Cognitive functions allow us to interact with our environment, understand and respond to stimuli, learn new skills, and remember experiences.

In a medical context, cognitive function is often assessed as part of a neurological or psychiatric evaluation. Impairments in cognition can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections, toxins, and mental health conditions. Assessing cognitive function helps healthcare professionals diagnose conditions, monitor disease progression, and develop treatment plans.

Military psychology is a subfield of psychology that applies psychological principles and methods to address military-specific challenges related to the defense, optimization of individual and unit performance, prevention and treatment of mental health issues, and reintegration of service members into civilian life. It encompasses various areas such as clinical psychology, neuropsychology, social psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, and cognitive psychology. Professionals in military psychology may work in research, teaching, consultation, assessment, or treatment roles, and they often collaborate with other healthcare providers and military leaders to enhance the overall well-being and readiness of service members and their families.

In the context of healthcare and medical psychology, motivation refers to the driving force behind an individual's goal-oriented behavior. It is the internal or external stimuli that initiate, direct, and sustain a person's actions towards achieving their desired outcomes. Motivation can be influenced by various factors such as biological needs, personal values, emotional states, and social contexts.

In clinical settings, healthcare professionals often assess patients' motivation to engage in treatment plans, adhere to medical recommendations, or make lifestyle changes necessary for improving their health status. Enhancing a patient's motivation can significantly impact their ability to manage chronic conditions, recover from illnesses, and maintain overall well-being. Various motivational interviewing techniques and interventions are employed by healthcare providers to foster intrinsic motivation and support patients in achieving their health goals.

In medical terms, "character" is not a term that has a specific or technical definition. It is a common English word that can have various meanings depending on the context in which it is used. In general, "character" refers to the personality traits, behaviors, and qualities that define an individual. However, in a medical or clinical setting, healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms, such as the quality, intensity, or duration of a particular symptom. For example, a patient's pain might be described as sharp, stabbing, or dull in character.

It is important to note that while healthcare professionals may use the term "character" to describe certain aspects of a patient's symptoms or condition, it is not a medical diagnosis or a specific medical term with a standardized definition.

Applied psychology is a branch of psychology that focuses on the application of psychological theories and principles to address real-world problems and improve various aspects of human behavior and experience. It involves the use of scientific methods to understand and solve practical issues in fields such as education, healthcare, organizational management, sports, forensics, and consumer behavior, among others.

Applied psychologists work in a variety of settings, including schools, hospitals, businesses, government agencies, and private practices. They may specialize in areas such as clinical psychology, counseling psychology, industrial-organizational psychology, school psychology, or neuropsychology, among others. The goal of applied psychology is to use psychological research and interventions to promote positive changes in individuals, groups, and organizations, and to enhance overall well-being and quality of life.

Social perception, in the context of psychology and social sciences, refers to the ability to interpret and understand other people's behavior, emotions, and intentions. It is the process by which we make sense of the social world around us, by observing and interpreting cues such as facial expressions, body language, tone of voice, and situational context.

In medical terminology, social perception is not a specific diagnosis or condition, but rather a cognitive skill that can be affected in various mental and neurological disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, and dementia. For example, individuals with autism may have difficulty interpreting social cues and understanding other people's emotions and intentions, while those with schizophrenia may have distorted perceptions of social situations and interactions.

Healthcare professionals who work with patients with cognitive or neurological disorders may assess their social perception skills as part of a comprehensive evaluation, in order to develop appropriate interventions and support strategies.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

Personal Construct Theory (PCT) is not a medical term per se, but rather a psychological theory developed by George Kelly in the 1950s. It is a theory of personality and psychotherapy that emphasizes an individual's unique way of construing or making sense of their experiences. According to PCT, people are active scientists who constantly test their assumptions about the world through their personal construct systems.

In medical settings, PCT may be used as a framework for understanding patients' perspectives and beliefs about their illnesses and treatments. This can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions to individual patients' needs and improve communication and collaboration between patients and healthcare providers. However, it is important to note that PCT is not a widely recognized or established medical concept, but rather a psychological theory that has been applied in various fields, including healthcare.

Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, which most often occurs in the thoracic or lumbar regions. The curvature can be "C" or "S" shaped and may also include rotation of the vertebrae. Mild scoliosis doesn't typically cause problems, but severe cases can interfere with breathing and other bodily functions.

The exact cause of most scoliosis is unknown, but it may be related to genetic factors. It often develops in the pre-teen or teenage years, particularly in girls, and is more commonly found in individuals with certain neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy.

Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the curve, its location, and the age and expected growth of the individual. Mild cases may only require regular monitoring to ensure the curve doesn't worsen. More severe cases may require bracing or surgery to correct the curvature and prevent it from getting worse.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

In psychology, the term "ego" is used to describe a part of the personality that deals with the conscious mind and includes the senses of self and reality. It is one of the three components of Freud's structural model of the psyche, along with the id and the superego. The ego serves as the mediator between the unconscious desires of the id and the demands of the real world, helping to shape behavior that is socially acceptable and adaptive.

It's important to note that this definition of "ego" is specific to the field of psychology and should not be confused with other uses of the term in different contexts, such as its use in popular culture to refer to an inflated sense of self-importance or self-centeredness.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Neurobiology is not strictly a medical term, but rather a field of study that investigates the interconnections between the nervous system and living organisms' biological processes. It is a multidisciplinary area that combines neuroscience, biology, chemistry, and physics to understand how the brain and nervous system function at molecular, cellular, and systems levels.

In medical contexts, neurobiological concepts are often applied to understand the underlying mechanisms of various neurological and psychiatric disorders, develop diagnostic tools, and design treatment strategies. For instance, research in neurobiology may explore how genetic factors contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders like autism or how molecular changes in the brain lead to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

In summary, neurobiology is a scientific discipline concerned with understanding the biological basis of nervous system function, which has significant implications for medical research and practice.

Criminal psychology is a subfield of psychology that focuses on the study of the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals who commit crimes. It involves understanding the motives, emotions, and cognitive processes underlying criminal behavior in order to help explain why some people engage in illegal activities. Criminal psychologists may also apply their knowledge to assist in the investigation and prevention of crime, such as by providing profiles of unknown offenders or consulting on jail and prison management.

Criminal psychology is a multidisciplinary field that draws upon various areas of psychology, including developmental, social, cognitive, and forensic psychology, as well as other disciplines such as criminology and sociology. It involves the use of scientific methods to study criminal behavior, including observational studies, surveys, experiments, and case studies.

Criminal psychologists may work in a variety of settings, including law enforcement agencies, forensic hospitals, prisons, and academic institutions. They may also provide expert testimony in court cases or consult with attorneys on legal issues related to criminal behavior.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology that deals with the study of the structure and function of the brain as they relate to cognitive and behavioral processes. It involves understanding how damage to different parts of the brain can affect various mental abilities such as memory, attention, language, perception, and problem-solving.

Neuropsychologists often work with patients who have neurological conditions like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, traumatic brain injury, stroke, or epilepsy to evaluate their cognitive and behavioral strengths and weaknesses. They use various assessment tools and techniques, including neuropsychological tests, interviews, and observations, to make these evaluations.

The findings from a neuropsychological evaluation can help in several ways, such as:

1. Diagnosing neurological conditions or monitoring the progression of a known condition.
2. Developing treatment plans that take into account the individual's cognitive and behavioral strengths and weaknesses.
3. Providing recommendations for rehabilitation or accommodations in daily life, education, or work settings.
4. Monitoring changes in cognitive function over time to assess the effectiveness of treatments or the progression of a condition.
5. Conducting research to better understand the relationship between brain structure and function and behavior.

'Alcohol drinking' refers to the consumption of alcoholic beverages, which contain ethanol (ethyl alcohol) as the active ingredient. Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant that can cause euphoria, disinhibition, and sedation when consumed in small to moderate amounts. However, excessive drinking can lead to alcohol intoxication, with symptoms ranging from slurred speech and impaired coordination to coma and death.

Alcohol is metabolized in the liver by enzymes such as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). The breakdown of ethanol produces acetaldehyde, a toxic compound that can cause damage to various organs in the body. Chronic alcohol drinking can lead to a range of health problems, including liver disease, pancreatitis, cardiovascular disease, neurological disorders, and increased risk of cancer.

Moderate drinking is generally defined as up to one drink per day for women and up to two drinks per day for men, where a standard drink contains about 14 grams (0.6 ounces) of pure alcohol. However, it's important to note that there are no safe levels of alcohol consumption, and any level of drinking carries some risk to health.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Aggression is defined in medical terms as behavior that is intended to cause harm or damage to another individual or their property. It can take the form of verbal or physical actions and can be a symptom of various mental health disorders, such as intermittent explosive disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and dementia. Aggression can also be a side effect of certain medications or a result of substance abuse. It is important to note that aggression can have serious consequences, including physical injury, emotional trauma, and legal repercussions. If you or someone you know is experiencing problems with aggression, it is recommended to seek help from a mental health professional.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "race relations" is not a term that has a medical definition. It generally refers to the relationship and interactions between different racial groups in a society, including issues of discrimination, prejudice, and social justice. The study of these relationships can intersect with fields such as medical anthropology or sociology, where researchers might examine how systemic racism impacts health outcomes for certain populations. However, "race relations" itself is not a term used within the field of medicine to describe a specific condition or phenomenon.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Health behavior can be defined as a series of actions and decisions that individuals take to protect, maintain or promote their health and well-being. These behaviors can include activities such as engaging in regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, getting sufficient sleep, practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco and excessive alcohol consumption, and managing stress.

Health behaviors are influenced by various factors, including knowledge and attitudes towards health, beliefs and values, cultural norms, social support networks, environmental factors, and individual genetic predispositions. Understanding health behaviors is essential for developing effective public health interventions and promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent chronic diseases and improve overall quality of life.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

Body image is a person's perception and attitude towards their own physical appearance, shape, and size. It involves how a person thinks and feels about their body, including their self-perceived strengths and flaws. Body image can be influenced by many factors, such as cultural and societal standards of beauty, personal experiences, and media messages. A positive body image is associated with higher self-esteem, confidence, and overall well-being, while a negative body image can contribute to emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and disordered eating behaviors.

Professional ethics in the medical field are a set of principles that guide physicians and other healthcare professionals in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and society. These ethical standards are based on values such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. They help to ensure that medical professionals provide high-quality care that is safe, effective, and respectful of patients' rights and dignity.

Some key principles of professional ethics in medicine include:

1. Respect for autonomy: Healthcare professionals should respect patients' right to make their own decisions about their healthcare, including the right to refuse treatment.
2. Non-maleficence: Medical professionals have a duty to avoid causing harm to their patients. This includes avoiding unnecessary tests or treatments that may cause harm or waste resources.
3. Beneficence: Healthcare professionals have a duty to act in the best interests of their patients and to promote their well-being.
4. Justice: Medical professionals should treat all patients fairly and without discrimination, and should work to ensure that healthcare resources are distributed equitably.
5. Confidentiality: Medical professionals have a duty to keep patient information confidential, unless the patient gives permission to share it or there is a legal or ethical obligation to disclose it.
6. Professional competence: Medical professionals have a duty to maintain their knowledge and skills, and to provide care that meets accepted standards of practice.
7. Honesty and integrity: Medical professionals should be honest and truthful in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and other stakeholders. They should avoid conflicts of interest and should disclose any potential conflicts to patients and others.
8. Responsibility to society: Medical professionals have a responsibility to contribute to the health and well-being of society as a whole, including advocating for policies that promote public health and addressing health disparities.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

"Family relations" is a broad term that refers to the various interactions, roles, and relationships between members of a family unit. This can include the dynamics between parents and children, siblings, extended family members, and any other individuals considered part of the family.

Family relations can be influenced by a variety of factors, including cultural background, individual personalities, life experiences, and family structure. These relationships can have a significant impact on an individual's emotional, social, and psychological development and well-being.

Positive family relations are characterized by open communication, mutual respect, support, and affection. On the other hand, negative family relations can be marked by conflict, hostility, neglect, and abuse. It is important to note that family relations can be complex and multifaceted, with both positive and negative aspects coexisting within the same family system.

In a medical context, understanding family relations can be crucial for healthcare providers in order to provide effective care and support to their patients. This may involve assessing family dynamics and communication patterns, as well as providing education and resources to help families navigate any challenges or conflicts that may arise.

Family therapy, also known as family systems therapy, is a type of psychological counseling that involves all members of a nuclear or extended family. Its primary goal is to promote understanding and improve communication between family members in order to resolve conflicts and foster healthy relationships. It is based on the belief that the family system is an interconnected unit and that changes in one part of the system affect the other parts as well.

Family therapy can be used to address a wide range of issues, including behavioral problems in children and adolescents, mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety, substance abuse, marital conflicts, and chronic illness or disability. The therapist will typically observe the family's interaction patterns and communication styles during sessions and provide feedback and guidance on how to make positive changes.

Family therapy can be conducted with the entire family present in the same room, or it may involve individual sessions with different family members. The number of sessions required will depend on the severity and complexity of the issues being addressed. It is important for all family members to be open and willing to participate in the therapy process in order for it to be effective.

Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, generally occurring between the ages of 10 and 16 in females and between 12 and 18 in males. It is characterized by a series of events including rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. Puberty is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to the secretion of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone that drive the physical changes associated with this stage of development.

In females, puberty typically begins with the onset of breast development (thelarche) and the appearance of pubic hair (pubarche), followed by the start of menstruation (menarche). In males, puberty usually starts with an increase in testicular size and the growth of pubic hair, followed by the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the development of muscle mass.

It's important to note that the onset and progression of puberty can vary widely among individuals, and may be influenced by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

In the context of medical definitions, "judgment" generally refers to the ability to make decisions or form opinions regarding a patient's condition or treatment. It involves critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and knowledge of medical principles and practices. In some cases, it may also refer to a medical professional's assessment or evaluation of a patient's health status or response to treatment.

However, it is important to note that "judgment" is not a term with a specific medical definition, and its meaning can vary depending on the context in which it is used. In general, it refers to the ability to make sound decisions based on evidence, experience, and expertise.

"Marijuana Abuse" is not a term that is typically used in the medical field. Instead, the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), which is used by mental health professionals to diagnose mental conditions, uses the term "Cannabis Use Disorder." This disorder is defined as a problematic pattern of cannabis use leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, with symptoms including:

1. Taking larger amounts of cannabis over a longer period than intended.
2. A persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control cannabis use.
3. Spending a lot of time obtaining, using, or recovering from the effects of cannabis.
4. Craving or a strong desire to use cannabis.
5. Recurrent cannabis use resulting in failure to fulfill major role obligations at work, school, or home.
6. Continued cannabis use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by the effects of cannabis.
7. Giving up or reducing important activities because of cannabis use.
8. Recurrent cannabis use in situations in which it is physically hazardous.
9. Continued cannabis use despite knowledge of having a persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problem that is likely to have been caused or exacerbated by cannabis.
10. Tolerance, as defined by either:
a) A need for markedly increased amounts of cannabis to achieve intoxication or desired effect.
b) Markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount of cannabis.
11. Withdrawal, as manifested by either:
a) The characteristic withdrawal syndrome for cannabis.
b) Cannabis is taken to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms.

The diagnosis of a mild, moderate, or severe Cannabis Use Disorder depends on the number of symptoms present.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but there isn't a universally accepted medical or scientific definition for "happiness." Happiness is a subjective experience and can mean different things to different people. It's often associated with feelings of joy, contentment, satisfaction, or well-being.

However, in the field of positive psychology, happiness is sometimes defined as "the overall experience of pleasure and meaning" or "subjective well-being." This can be measured in terms of both cognitive judgments (how satisfied people are with their lives) and affective evaluations (how often people experience positive emotions and negative emotions).

Please note that while we can study factors that contribute to happiness, such as strong social connections, meaningful activities, and positive emotions, the experience of happiness itself is highly individual and subjective.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Conduct Disorder is a mental health disorder that typically begins in childhood or adolescence and is characterized by a repetitive pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms and rules. The behaviors fall into four main categories: aggression to people and animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, and serious violation of rules.

The specific symptoms of Conduct Disorder can vary widely among individuals, but they generally include:

1. Aggression to people and animals: This may include physical fights, bullying, threatening others, cruelty to animals, and use of weapons.
2. Destruction of property: This may include deliberate destruction of others' property, arson, and vandalism.
3. Deceitfulness or theft: This may include lying, shoplifting, stealing, and breaking into homes, buildings, or cars.
4. Serious violation of rules: This may include running away from home, truancy, staying out late without permission, and frequent violations of school rules.

Conduct Disorder can have serious consequences for individuals who suffer from it, including academic failure, substance abuse, depression, anxiety, and difficulties in interpersonal relationships. It is important to note that Conduct Disorder should be diagnosed by a qualified mental health professional based on a comprehensive evaluation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "thinking" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a cognitive process, which is a general term used to describe various mental activities related to perception, reasoning, memory, attention, language use, learning, and problem-solving. These processes are studied across many fields, including psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, and linguistics.

If you're looking for medical definitions of cognitive processes or conditions that affect cognition, I'd be happy to help! Please provide more details.

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Personal Satisfaction" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the feeling of contentment or fulfillment one derives from achieving their personal goals or desires. However, in a medical context, it might be used to assess a person's quality of life or their satisfaction with their healthcare or treatment outcomes.

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Violence is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be described as the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against oneself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment, or deprivation. This definition is often used in public health and medical research to understand the impact of violence on health outcomes.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

Psychological resilience refers to the ability of an individual to adapt and cope effectively in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, or significant sources of stress. It is the capacity to "bounce back" from difficulties, maintain psychological well-being, and continue to function positively despite experiencing challenging life events. Psychological resilience involves various factors such as cognitive flexibility, problem-solving skills, positive self-esteem, adaptive coping strategies, and strong social support networks. It is not a fixed trait but can be developed and strengthened through personal growth, learning experiences, and supportive environments.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

Systems Theory is not a medical concept per se, but rather a broad interdisciplinary field that studies systems in general, including biological systems. In the context of medicine and healthcare, Systems Theory is often applied to understand complex biological systems, such as the human body, as well as organizational structures within healthcare institutions.

The Institute of Medicine defines Systems Medicine as "an approach to medical research and health care that takes into account the complexity of biological systems by considering the dynamic interactions between all relevant factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic."

In essence, Systems Theory in medicine recognizes that the human body is a complex system made up of many interconnected subsystems (organs, tissues, cells, etc.) that work together to maintain homeostasis. By understanding these interactions and relationships, healthcare professionals can develop more effective and personalized approaches to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Similarly, in the context of healthcare organizations, Systems Theory can be applied to understand how different components (e.g., staff, patients, processes, technology) interact and influence each other to achieve desired outcomes. This perspective can help inform strategies for improving patient care, safety, and overall organizational performance.

A dissertation is a long formal piece of writing that is based on original research, usually presenting the author's findings and conclusions. In academic terms, a dissertation is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification, typically representing completion of a research project undertaken over a number of years.

Dissertations in the field of medicine are often required as part of a medical degree program, such as an MD or PhD. These dissertations typically involve conducting original research in a specific area of medicine, analyzing data, and presenting findings in a clear and concise manner. The dissertation process includes identifying a research question or hypothesis, designing and implementing a study to test the question or hypothesis, analyzing the resulting data, and writing up the findings in a clear and coherent way.

The format of medical dissertations typically includes an abstract, introduction, methods section, results section, discussion section, and conclusion. The dissertation may also include appendices, figures, tables, and references. The length of a medical dissertation can vary widely depending on the field of study and the requirements of the academic institution, but they are often several hundred pages long.

The defense of a dissertation is a formal presentation and examination of the research that the student has conducted, in front of a panel of experts in the field. The defense typically includes a brief presentation of the research findings, followed by questions from the examiners. Successful completion of the dissertation and defense is usually required to earn a medical degree.

In the context of medical science, culture refers to the growth of microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, under controlled conditions in a laboratory setting. This process is used to identify and study the characteristics of these microorganisms, including their growth patterns, metabolic activities, and sensitivity to various antibiotics or other treatments.

The culture medium, which provides nutrients for the microorganisms to grow, can be modified to mimic the environment in which the organism is typically found. This helps researchers to better understand how the organism behaves in its natural habitat.

In addition to its use in diagnosis and research, culture is also an important tool in monitoring the effectiveness of treatments and tracking the spread of infectious diseases.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

'Behavior' is a term used in the medical and scientific community to describe the actions or reactions of an individual in response to internal or external stimuli. It can be observed and measured, and it involves all the responses of a person, including motor responses, emotional responses, and cognitive responses. Behaviors can be voluntary or involuntary, adaptive or maladaptive, and normal or abnormal. They can also be influenced by genetic, physiological, environmental, and social factors. In a medical context, the study of behavior is often relevant to understanding and treating various mental health conditions, such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and personality disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "object attachment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition in the way that a term like "myocardial infarction" (heart attack) or "major depressive disorder" does. It may be used in various ways in different contexts, such as in psychology or psychiatry to describe a phenomenon where an individual becomes excessively attached to an object or items, but it is not a widely recognized or standardized term in medical terminology. If you are referring to a specific concept or diagnosis and could provide more context, I would be happy to help further!

Cultural evolution is a term used to describe the process of change and development in human culture over time. It refers to the way in which cultural traits, practices, beliefs, and technologies spread, change, and evolve within and between populations. Cultural evolution is influenced by various factors such as demographic changes, migration, innovation, selection, and diffusion.

The study of cultural evolution draws on insights from anthropology, sociology, psychology, archaeology, linguistics, and other disciplines to understand the patterns and dynamics of cultural change. It emphasizes the importance of understanding culture as a complex adaptive system that evolves through processes of variation, selection, and transmission.

Cultural evolution is often studied using comparative methods, which involve comparing similarities and differences in cultural traits across different populations or time periods. This allows researchers to identify patterns of cultural change and infer the underlying mechanisms that drive them. Some researchers also use mathematical models and computational simulations to study cultural evolution, allowing them to explore the dynamics of cultural change in a more controlled and systematic way.

Overall, the study of cultural evolution seeks to provide a deeper understanding of how human cultures have evolved over time, and how they continue to adapt and change in response to changing social, environmental, and technological conditions.

Behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that focuses on modifying harmful or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions by applying learning principles derived from behavioral psychology. The goal of behavior therapy is to reinforce positive behaviors and eliminate negative ones through various techniques such as systematic desensitization, aversion therapy, exposure therapy, and operant conditioning.

Systematic desensitization involves gradually exposing the individual to a feared situation or stimulus while teaching them relaxation techniques to reduce anxiety. Aversion therapy aims to associate an undesirable behavior with an unpleasant stimulus to discourage the behavior. Exposure therapy exposes the individual to a feared situation or object in a controlled and safe environment to help them overcome their fear. Operant conditioning uses reinforcement and punishment to encourage desirable behaviors and discourage undesirable ones.

Behavior therapy has been found to be effective in treating various mental health conditions, including anxiety disorders, phobias, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders. It is often used in combination with other forms of therapy and medication to provide a comprehensive treatment plan for individuals seeking help for mental health concerns.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morals" is not a term that has a medical definition. Morals refer to personal or societal beliefs about right and wrong behavior. It is a concept that falls under the realm of ethics, philosophy, and sociology rather than medicine. If you have any questions related to medical terminologies or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Scientific societies are organizations that bring together professionals and researchers in a specific scientific field to promote the advancement of knowledge, research, and application of that science. These societies often engage in activities such as publishing scientific journals, organizing conferences and meetings, providing continuing education and professional development opportunities, and advocating for science policy and funding. Membership may be open to anyone with an interest in the field, or it may be restricted to individuals who meet certain qualifications, such as holding a degree in the relevant scientific discipline. Examples of scientific societies include the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Chemical Society (ACS), and the Royal Society of London.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Motion Pictures as Topic" is not a medical term or concept. It is actually a subject heading used in library and information sciences to categorize materials related to the study or analysis of motion pictures as a medium or art form. This could include books, articles, and other resources about film theory, film history, film criticism, and so on.

If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help!

Sex education is a systematic instruction or information regarding human sexuality, including human reproduction, sexual anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections, sexual activity, sexual orientation, emotional relations, reproductive health, and safe sex, among other topics. It is usually taught in schools but can also be provided by healthcare professionals, parents, or community organizations. The aim of sex education is to equip individuals with the knowledge and skills necessary to make informed decisions about their sexual health and relationships while promoting responsible and respectful attitudes towards sexuality.

In the context of medicine, 'knowledge' refers to the understanding and comprehension of medical facts, principles, theories, and practices that are acquired through education, training, research, and experience. This encompasses a deep familiarity with anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, pharmacology, clinical guidelines, and evidence-based practices. It also includes awareness of current research developments, emerging trends, and best practices in the field. Medical knowledge is constantly evolving and requires healthcare professionals to engage in lifelong learning to maintain their expertise and provide high-quality care to patients.

I must clarify that there is no such thing as "Schizophrenic Psychology." The term schizophrenia is used to describe a specific and serious mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It's important not to use the term casually or inaccurately, as it can perpetuate stigma and misunderstanding about the condition.

Schizophrenia is characterized by symptoms such as hallucinations (hearing or seeing things that aren't there), delusions (false beliefs that are not based on reality), disorganized speech, and grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. These symptoms can impair a person's ability to function in daily life, maintain relationships, and experience emotions appropriately.

If you have any questions related to mental health conditions or psychology, I would be happy to provide accurate information and definitions.

"Nursing Education" refers to the process of teaching and learning the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for nursing practice. This can occur in a variety of settings, including academic institutions and clinical environments. The goal of nursing education is to prepare nurses to provide safe, effective, and compassionate care to patients across the lifespan and in a variety of healthcare settings.

Nursing education programs may lead to various levels of qualification, such as a diploma, associate's degree, bachelor's degree, master's degree, or doctoral degree in nursing. The length and content of these programs vary, but all include coursework in topics such as anatomy and physiology, microbiology, pharmacology, health assessment, pathophysiology, and nursing theory. In addition to classroom instruction, nursing education also includes clinical experiences, where students apply their knowledge and skills in a supervised healthcare setting.

Nursing education is essential for ensuring that nurses are prepared to meet the challenges of an increasingly complex healthcare system. It provides the foundation for nursing practice and enables nurses to provide high-quality care to patients and families.

"Personal Autonomy" is not a medical term per se, but it is often used in medical ethics and patient care. It refers to the ability of an individual to make informed decisions about their own health and healthcare, based on their own values, beliefs, and preferences, without undue influence or coercion from others. This includes the right to accept or refuse medical treatment, to maintain confidentiality, and to participate in shared decision-making with healthcare providers. Personal autonomy is recognized as a fundamental principle in medical ethics and patient rights, and is protected by laws and regulations in many countries.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

School health services refer to the health programs and services provided within schools by qualified healthcare professionals or specialists. These services aim to improve the overall well-being, academic success, and development of students by addressing both their physical and mental health needs. Examples of school health services include:

1. Health screenings: Routine vision, hearing, dental, and other health screenings to identify any potential issues early on.
2. Immunizations: Ensuring students are up-to-date with required immunizations and providing education about the importance of vaccinations.
3. Chronic disease management: Helping students manage chronic conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or epilepsy through individualized care plans and coordination with healthcare providers.
4. Mental health services: Providing counseling, therapy, and support for students dealing with emotional or behavioral challenges, including anxiety, depression, or trauma.
5. Health education: Teaching students about various health topics, such as nutrition, hygiene, sexual health, substance abuse prevention, and safety practices.
6. Case management: Coordinating care and providing resources for students with complex medical needs or social determinants of health challenges.
7. First aid and emergency care: Providing immediate medical attention in case of injuries or illnesses that occur during school hours.
8. Referrals to community resources: Connecting students and families with local healthcare providers, support services, and other resources as needed.

The goal of school health services is to create a safe, healthy, and supportive learning environment that promotes the overall well-being of all students.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Social Sciences" is a broad term that refers to academic disciplines that study human society and social relationships. It includes fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, political science, and economics. These subjects are considered part of the liberal arts and humanities, not medical sciences.

However, aspects of social sciences can intersect with medical studies in areas like medical anthropology, health psychology, sociology of health and illness, and psychiatry. For instance, medical anthropologists might study how cultural factors influence healthcare practices, while health psychologists examine the role of behavior and mental processes in health and illness.

If you're looking for a definition related to medical sciences, perhaps there was some confusion with the term. Could you please clarify or provide more context?

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

There is no formal medical definition for "child of impaired parents." However, it generally refers to a child who has at least one parent with physical, mental, or psychological challenges that impact their ability to care for themselves and/or their children. These impairments may include substance abuse disorders, mental illnesses, chronic medical conditions, or developmental disabilities.

Children of impaired parents often face unique challenges and stressors in their lives, which can affect their emotional, social, and cognitive development. They may have to take on additional responsibilities at home, experience neglect or abuse, or witness disturbing behaviors related to their parent's impairment. As a result, these children are at higher risk for developing mental health issues, behavioral problems, and academic difficulties.

Support services and interventions, such as family therapy, counseling, and community resources, can help mitigate the negative effects of growing up with impaired parents and improve outcomes for these children.

An "institutionalized adolescent" is a term used to describe a young person who resides in a residential institution, such as a group home, juvenile detention center, or other types of facilities that provide 24-hour care and supervision. These institutions may serve various purposes, including providing temporary or long-term housing for adolescents who are unable to live with their families, offering rehabilitative services for those who have been involved in the juvenile justice system, or supporting young people with mental health or developmental disabilities.

Institutionalization can impact an adolescent's development and well-being in various ways. While some adolescents may benefit from the structure and support provided in these settings, others may experience negative consequences such as stigma, social isolation, and disruptions to their education and relationships. As a result, it is essential to consider the individual needs and circumstances of each adolescent when making decisions about their care and living arrangements.

Bullying is a form of aggressive behavior in which someone repeatedly and intentionally causes harm or distress to another person, who has difficulty defending themselves. It can take various forms, including physical (e.g., hitting, kicking), verbal (e.g., name-calling, teasing), social (e.g., spreading rumors, deliberately excluding someone from a group), and electronic (e.g., cyberbullying through emails, text messages, or social media).

Bullying often involves an imbalance of power between the bully and the victim, and it can have serious negative effects on the emotional, psychological, and physical well-being of those who are targeted. It is important to note that bullying is not a normal part of growing up and should never be tolerated or ignored.

Social adjustment, in the context of mental health and psychology, refers to an individual's ability to adapt and function effectively within their social environment. It involves developing and maintaining positive relationships with others, fulfilling various social roles (such as being a family member, friend, or employee), and meeting the expectations and demands of one's social group.

Social adjustment can be affected by various factors, including an individual's personality traits, coping skills, mental and physical health status, and life experiences. Poor social adjustment can lead to feelings of isolation, loneliness, and dissatisfaction with life, as well as increased risk for mental health problems such as depression and anxiety.

Assessing social adjustment is an important aspect of mental health care, as it can provide valuable insights into an individual's overall functioning and quality of life. Treatments such as psychotherapy and social skills training may be used to help improve social adjustment in individuals who are struggling in this area.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Psychoanalytic theory is a psychological framework developed primarily by Sigmund Freud and his followers, which seeks to explain psychic phenomena in terms of unconscious mental processes and early childhood experiences. It posits that the human mind is composed of three elements: the id (primitive instincts), ego (rational thought), and superego (moral standards). The theory emphasizes the importance of resolving unconscious conflicts, making the unconscious conscious, and analyzing defense mechanisms in order to alleviate psychological distress and promote mental health. It also includes various concepts such as the Oedipus complex, psychosexual development stages, and transference/countertransference phenomena.

Childhood behavior disorders are a group of disruptive behaviors that are more frequent or severe than is typical for the child's age and development. These behaviors can cause significant impairment in the child's life, including their relationships with family, friends, and at school. Common examples of childhood behavior disorders include:

1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A chronic condition characterized by difficulty paying attention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity.
2. Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD): A pattern of negative, hostile, and defiant behavior towards authority figures.
3. Conduct Disorder: A repetitive and persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others or major age-appropriate societal norms or rules.
4. Intermittent Explosive Disorder (IED): A disorder characterized by recurrent impulsive aggressive behavior disproportionate to the situation.
5. Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, and repetitive behaviors.
6. Tourette Syndrome: A neurological disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements and vocalizations called tics.

It's important to note that children with behavior disorders often have other conditions such as learning disabilities, mood disorders, or anxiety disorders. Early identification and treatment of these disorders can significantly improve the child's outcome.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social values" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in a broader social context, "social values" refer to the beliefs, principles, and standards that a group or society holds in regard to what is considered important, desirable, or acceptable. These values can influence attitudes, behaviors, and decisions related to health and healthcare. They may also impact medical research, policy-making, and patient care.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

"Social identification" is a psychological concept rather than a medical term. It refers to the process by which individuals define themselves in terms of their group membership(s) and the social categories to which they believe they belong. This process involves recognizing and internalizing the values, attitudes, and behaviors associated with those groups, and seeing oneself as a member of that social collective.

In medical and healthcare settings, social identification can play an important role in shaping patients' experiences, perceptions of their health, and interactions with healthcare providers. For example, a patient who identifies strongly with a particular cultural or ethnic group may have unique health beliefs, practices, or needs that are influenced by that group membership. Recognizing and understanding these social identifications can help healthcare professionals provide more culturally sensitive and effective care.

However, it's important to note that 'social identification' itself is not a medical term with a specific diagnosis or clinical definition.

Bibliometrics is the use of statistical methods to analyze books, articles, and other publications. In the field of information science, bibliometrics is often used to measure the impact of scholarly works or authors by counting the number of times that a work has been cited in other publications. This can help researchers identify trends and patterns in research output and collaboration, as well as assess the influence of individual researchers or institutions.

Bibliometric analyses may involve a variety of statistical measures, such as citation counts, author productivity, journal impact factors, and collaborative networks. These measures can be used to evaluate the performance of individual researchers, departments, or institutions, as well as to identify areas of research strength or weakness.

It is important to note that while bibliometrics can provide useful insights into research trends and impact, they should not be the sole basis for evaluating the quality or significance of scholarly work. Other factors, such as the rigor of the research design, the clarity of the writing, and the relevance of the findings to the field, are also important considerations.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

A "periodical" in the context of medicine typically refers to a type of publication that is issued regularly, such as on a monthly or quarterly basis. These publications include peer-reviewed journals, magazines, and newsletters that focus on medical research, education, and practice. They may contain original research articles, review articles, case reports, editorials, letters to the editor, and other types of content related to medical science and clinical practice.

As a "Topic," periodicals in medicine encompass various aspects such as their role in disseminating new knowledge, their impact on clinical decision-making, their quality control measures, and their ethical considerations. Medical periodicals serve as a crucial resource for healthcare professionals, researchers, students, and other stakeholders to stay updated on the latest developments in their field and to share their findings with others.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

'Marijuana smoking' is not typically defined in a medical context, but it generally refers to the act of inhaling smoke from burning marijuana leaves or flowers, which are often dried and rolled into a cigarette (known as a "joint"), pipe, or bong. The active ingredients in marijuana, primarily delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are absorbed through the lungs and enter the bloodstream, leading to various psychological and physiological effects.

It's worth noting that marijuana smoking is associated with several potential health risks, including respiratory problems such as bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), as well as potential cognitive impairments and an increased risk of mental health disorders such as psychosis and schizophrenia in vulnerable individuals.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), "An attempted suicide is a non-fatal self-directed, potentially injurious behavior with intent to die as a result of the behavior. It's a clear expression of intention to die."

It's important to note that anyone who has attempted suicide requires immediate professional medical attention and support. They should be assessed for their level of suicidal ideation and any underlying mental health conditions, and provided with appropriate care and treatment. If you or someone you know is struggling with thoughts of suicide, please reach out to a healthcare provider or a trusted mental health professional immediately.

Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. A psychiatrist is a medically trained doctor who specializes in psychiatry, and they are qualified to assess both the mental and physical aspects of psychological problems. They can use a variety of treatments, including psychotherapy, medications, psychoeducation, and psychosocial interventions, to help patients manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Psychiatrists often work in multidisciplinary teams that include other mental health professionals such as psychologists, social workers, and mental health nurses. They may provide services in a range of settings, including hospitals, clinics, community mental health centers, and private practices.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate and helpful information, my responses should not be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. If you or someone else has concerns about mental health, it is always best to consult with a qualified healthcare provider.

The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) is not a medical definition itself, but it is a ongoing, longitudinal study on the health and behavior of adolescents and their development into adulthood. It is designed to explore the causes of health-related behaviors and their social contexts. The study was initiated in 1994 and has followed multiple cohorts of adolescents over time, collecting data through interviews, surveys, and assessments on various aspects of their physical, mental, and sexual health, as well as their family relationships, educational attainment, and civic engagement. Add Health is a valuable resource for researchers in the fields of medicine, public health, psychology, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and address the complex factors that influence adolescent health and development.

Pediatrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the medical care and treatment of infants, children, and adolescents, typically up to the age of 18 or sometimes up to 21 years. It covers a wide range of health services including preventive healthcare, diagnosis and treatment of physical, mental, and emotional illnesses, and promotion of healthy lifestyles and behaviors in children.

Pediatricians are medical doctors who specialize in this field and have extensive training in the unique needs and developmental stages of children. They provide comprehensive care for children from birth to young adulthood, addressing various health issues such as infectious diseases, injuries, genetic disorders, developmental delays, behavioral problems, and chronic conditions like asthma, diabetes, and cancer.

In addition to medical expertise, pediatricians also need excellent communication skills to build trust with their young patients and their families, and to provide education and guidance on various aspects of child health and well-being.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Family conflict refers to disagreements or discord between family members, which can range from minor misunderstandings or differences in opinion to more serious issues such as communication breakdowns, emotional distress, and negative behaviors. These conflicts can arise from various sources, including differing values, beliefs, expectations, and parenting styles, as well as financial problems, substance abuse, and chronic illness. In some cases, family conflicts may be resolved through open communication, compromise, and counseling, while in other situations, they may lead to more serious consequences such as divorce, separation, or estrangement.

In the context of medicine and psychology, perception refers to the neurophysiological processes, cognitive abilities, and psychological experiences that enable an individual to interpret and make sense of sensory information from their environment. It involves the integration of various stimuli such as sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell to form a coherent understanding of one's surroundings, objects, events, or ideas.

Perception is a complex and active process that includes attention, pattern recognition, interpretation, and organization of sensory information. It can be influenced by various factors, including prior experiences, expectations, cultural background, emotional states, and cognitive biases. Alterations in perception may occur due to neurological disorders, psychiatric conditions, sensory deprivation or overload, drugs, or other external factors.

In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often assess patients' perceptions of their symptoms, illnesses, or treatments to develop individualized care plans and improve communication and adherence to treatment recommendations.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) is a medical approach that combines the best available scientific evidence with clinical expertise and patient values to make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases. It emphasizes the use of systematic research, including randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, to guide clinical decision making. EBM aims to provide the most effective and efficient care while minimizing variations in practice, reducing errors, and improving patient outcomes.

Choice behavior refers to the selection or decision-making process in which an individual consciously or unconsciously chooses one option over others based on their preferences, values, experiences, and motivations. In a medical context, choice behavior may relate to patients' decisions about their healthcare, such as selecting a treatment option, choosing a healthcare provider, or adhering to a prescribed medication regimen. Understanding choice behavior is essential in shaping health policies, developing patient-centered care models, and improving overall health outcomes.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

I'm not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "Father-Child Relations" is a social science or psychological concept rather than a medical one. It generally refers to the nature and quality of the emotional, social, and behavioral relationship between a father and his child. This relationship can have significant impacts on a child's development, including their cognitive, emotional, and social growth. Factors such as involvement, communication, support, and attachment are often considered when examining father-child relations.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) with hyperactivity is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects both children and adults. The condition is characterized by symptoms including:

1. Difficulty paying attention or staying focused on a single task
2. Impulsivity, or acting without thinking
3. Hyperactivity, or excessive fidgeting, restlessness, or talking

In order to be diagnosed with ADHD with hyperactivity, an individual must exhibit these symptoms to a degree that is developmentally inappropriate and interferes with their daily functioning. Additionally, the symptoms must have been present for at least six months and be present in multiple settings (e.g., at home, school, work).

It's important to note that ADHD can manifest differently in different people, and some individuals may experience predominantly inattentive or impulsive symptoms rather than hyperactive ones. However, when the hyperactive component is prominent, it is referred to as ADHD with hyperactivity.

Effective treatments for ADHD with hyperactivity include a combination of medication (such as stimulants) and behavioral therapy. With appropriate treatment, individuals with ADHD can learn to manage their symptoms and lead successful, fulfilling lives.

In the context of medical terminology, a "habit" refers to a regular, repeated behavior or practice that is often performed automatically or subconsciously. Habits can be physical (such as biting nails) or mental (such as worrying). They can be harmless, beneficial (like regularly brushing your teeth), or harmful (like smoking cigarettes).

Habits are different from instincts or reflexes because they involve a learned behavior that has been repeated and reinforced over time. Breaking a habit can often be challenging due to the deeply ingrained nature of the behavior.

Coitus is the medical term for sexual intercourse, which is typically defined as the act of inserting the penis into the vagina for the purpose of sexual pleasure, reproduction, or both. It often involves rhythmic thrusting and movement, and can lead to orgasm in both males and females. Coitus may also be referred to as vaginal sex or penetrative sex.

It's important to note that there are many ways to engage in sexual activity beyond coitus, including oral sex, manual stimulation, and using sex toys. All of these forms of sexual expression can be healthy and normal when practiced safely and with consent.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Television" is a consumer electronic device and does not have a medical definition. It is used for receiving and displaying broadcast television programs through an antenna, satellite dish, or cable provider. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

I apologize for any confusion, but "books" is a general term that refers to bound sets of pages that are printed or written with text, illustrations, or signs, and are meant to be read, studied, or consulted. It does not have a specific medical definition. If you're looking for information about a specific medical term or concept, please let me know and I'd be happy to help!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Video Games" is not a term that has a medical definition. Video games are interactive software programs that run on electronic devices, such as computers, gaming consoles, and mobile phones. They typically involve some form of user input, such as keyboard or controller movements, to control an avatar or environment within the game.

However, there is a growing field of research examining the potential health impacts of video games, both positive and negative. Some studies have suggested that certain types of video games can improve cognitive abilities, such as problem-solving, memory, and reaction time. However, excessive gaming has also been linked to issues such as addiction, social isolation, and decreased physical activity.

If you have any concerns about the impact of video games on your health or the health of someone you know, it may be helpful to speak with a healthcare professional for guidance.

In the context of medicine and public health, "socialization" typically refers to the process by which individuals learn and internalize the norms, values, attitudes, and behaviors that are considered appropriate within their particular cultural, social, or community group. This process is critical for developing a sense of identity, fostering social connections, and promoting mental and emotional well-being.

Socialization can have important implications for health outcomes, as individuals who are able to effectively navigate social norms and relationships may be better equipped to access resources, seek support, and make healthy choices. On the other hand, inadequate socialization or social isolation can contribute to a range of negative health outcomes, including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, and poor physical health.

Healthcare providers may play an important role in promoting socialization and addressing social isolation among their patients, for example by connecting them with community resources, support groups, or other opportunities for social engagement.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "individuality" refers to the unique characteristics, traits, and needs that distinguish one person from another. This concept recognizes that each patient is a distinct individual with their own genetic makeup, lifestyle factors, personal history, and social circumstances, all of which can influence their health status and response to medical interventions.

Individuality in healthcare emphasizes the importance of tailoring medical treatments and care plans to meet the specific needs and preferences of each patient, rather than relying on a one-size-fits-all approach. This personalized approach can lead to better outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and reduced healthcare costs.

Factors that contribute to an individual's medical individuality include their genetic makeup, epigenetic factors, environmental exposures, lifestyle choices (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), and social determinants of health (such as income, education, and access to care). All of these factors can interact in complex ways to influence a person's health status and risk for disease.

Recognizing and respecting individuality is essential for providing high-quality, patient-centered care. Healthcare providers who take the time to understand their patients' unique needs and preferences are better able to build trust, promote adherence to treatment plans, and achieve positive outcomes.

The "Sick Role" is a sociological concept that refers to the social position and expectations associated with being ill or sick. It was first introduced by sociologist Talcott Parsons in his 1951 work, "The Social System." According to Parsons, when an individual assumes the sick role, they are exempt from their normal social responsibilities and obligations. However, they are also expected to seek medical help, comply with medical treatment recommendations, and strive to get better and return to their regular social roles as soon as possible.

The sick role involves several key components:
1. The individual is not responsible for their illness and did not cause it intentionally.
2. They are exempt from normal social obligations and responsibilities, such as work or household duties.
3. They must seek medical help and follow the recommended treatment plan.
4. They should strive to get better and return to their regular social roles as soon as possible.

The sick role serves several functions in society, including:
1. Providing a framework for understanding and responding to illness.
2. Encouraging individuals to seek medical help when they are ill.
3. Allowing individuals to take a break from their normal social obligations while they recover.
4. Helping to maintain social order by ensuring that individuals do not abuse the sick role and return to their regular roles as soon as possible.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

Professional competence, in the context of medicine, refers to the possession of the necessary skills, knowledge, and behaviors required for the provision of high-quality healthcare services. It involves the ability to apply medical knowledge and clinical skills effectively in practice, make informed and evidence-based decisions, communicate clearly and effectively with patients and colleagues, demonstrate professionalism and ethical behavior, and engage in continuous learning and improvement.

Professional competence is evaluated through various means, including assessments of clinical skills, knowledge tests, patient feedback, and peer reviews. It is an ongoing process that requires healthcare professionals to continually update their knowledge and skills, adapt to changes in medical practice, and strive for excellence in patient care. Maintaining professional competence is essential for ensuring the safety and quality of healthcare services and is a key component of medical regulation and licensure.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Cross-cultural comparison is a research method used in various fields such as anthropology, sociology, psychology, and medical sciences to compare and contrast cultural practices, beliefs, values, and behaviors across different cultural groups. In the context of medicine, cross-cultural comparison involves examining health outcomes, illness experiences, healthcare systems, and medical practices across diverse populations to identify similarities and differences.

The goal of cross-cultural comparison in medicine is to enhance our understanding of how culture shapes health and illness, improve the cultural competence of healthcare providers, reduce health disparities, and develop culturally appropriate interventions and treatments. Cross-cultural comparison can help identify best practices and effective strategies that can be adapted and applied in different cultural contexts to promote health and wellbeing.

Examples of cross-cultural comparisons in medicine include comparing the prevalence and risk factors of chronic diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer across different populations, examining cultural differences in pain management and communication styles between patients and healthcare providers, and exploring the impact of traditional healing practices on mental health outcomes.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social conformity" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly used in sociology and psychology.

In general, social conformity refers to the process of changing one's behavior, attitudes, or beliefs to fit in with a group, society, or culture. This can be driven by a variety of factors, including the desire for social acceptance, the need to maintain social norms, and the fear of social rejection or punishment.

While not a medical term, social conformity can have implications for health and healthcare. For example, social conformity can influence people's attitudes and behaviors related to health risks, such as smoking or excessive drinking, and can affect help-seeking behaviors, such as seeking medical care when needed. Understanding the dynamics of social conformity can be useful in developing interventions and policies aimed at promoting positive health behaviors and outcomes.

Patient compliance, also known as medication adherence or patient adherence, refers to the degree to which a patient's behavior matches the agreed-upon recommendations from their healthcare provider. This includes taking medications as prescribed (including the correct dosage, frequency, and duration), following dietary restrictions, making lifestyle changes, and attending follow-up appointments. Poor patient compliance can negatively impact treatment outcomes and lead to worsening of symptoms, increased healthcare costs, and development of drug-resistant strains in the case of antibiotics. It is a significant challenge in healthcare and efforts are being made to improve patient education, communication, and support to enhance compliance.

Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted body image, and extremely restrictive eating behaviors leading to significantly low body weight. It primarily affects adolescent girls and young women but can also occur in boys and men. The diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), include:

1. Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements leading to a significantly low body weight in the context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health. Significantly low weight is defined as a weight that is less than minimally normal or, for children and adolescents, less than that expected.
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight.
3. Disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight.
4. In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles). A woman is considered to have amenorrhea if her periods occur only following hormone replacement therapy.

Anorexia nervosa can manifest in two subtypes: the restricting type and the binge-eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors, while the binge-eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating or purging through self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.

Anorexia nervosa can lead to severe medical complications, including but not limited to malnutrition, electrolyte imbalances, heart problems, bone density loss, and hormonal disturbances. Early identification, intervention, and comprehensive treatment, which often involve a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication management, are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term health consequences.

Authoritarianism is a political system or philosophy in which individuals are subordinated to the state or organizational authorities that are perceived to be infallible, and where such authority has the right to exercise power over citizens without restriction or oversight. In an authoritarian regime, individual freedoms are often limited, dissent is suppressed, and the ruling authority maintains control through force, coercion, or propaganda.

In a medical context, authoritarianism can refer to a type of doctor-patient relationship in which the physician holds all the power and makes decisions without considering the patient's preferences or values. This approach can lead to poor communication, decreased patient satisfaction, and worse health outcomes. Instead, a more collaborative and patient-centered approach is generally recommended, in which patients are actively involved in their own care and decision-making processes.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs), also known as Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), are a group of diseases or infections that spread primarily through sexual contact, including vaginal, oral, and anal sex. They can also be transmitted through non-sexual means such as mother-to-child transmission during childbirth or breastfeeding, or via shared needles.

STDs can cause a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, and some may not show any symptoms at all. Common STDs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, HIV/AIDS, human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), hepatitis B, and pubic lice.

If left untreated, some STDs can lead to serious health complications, such as infertility, organ damage, blindness, or even death. It is important to practice safe sex and get regular screenings for STDs if you are sexually active, especially if you have multiple partners or engage in high-risk behaviors.

Preventive measures include using barrier methods of protection, such as condoms, dental dams, and female condoms, getting vaccinated against HPV and hepatitis B, and limiting the number of sexual partners. If you suspect that you may have an STD, it is important to seek medical attention promptly for diagnosis and treatment.

Eating disorders are mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in eating behaviors and associated distressing thoughts and emotions. They include several types of disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED). These disorders can have serious medical and psychological consequences if left untreated.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Individuals with anorexia may also have a distorted body image and deny the severity of their low body weight.

Bulimia nervosa involves recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging (e.g., self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics), fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain.

Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort, accompanied by feelings of loss of control and distress. Unlike bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge eating disorder do not engage in compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED) include atypical anorexia nervosa, subthreshold bulimia nervosa, and subthreshold binge eating disorder, which may have similar symptoms to the above disorders but do not meet all the diagnostic criteria.

Eating disorders can affect people of any age, gender, race, or ethnicity, and they are often associated with other mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychological therapy, nutrition counseling, and medical management to address both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

Medical definitions typically come from authoritative sources such as medical textbooks or professional organizations. Here is a definition from the World Health Organization (WHO):

"Sexual abstinence is the act of refraining from sexual activity, which may be chosen for a variety of reasons, including personal, health, religious, or other reasons."

It's important to note that sexual abstinence can have different meanings for different people. For some, it may mean avoiding all forms of sexual contact, while for others, it may refer only to vaginal or anal intercourse. It's a personal decision and can be interpreted differently based on cultural, religious, and individual beliefs.

I believe you may have made a typo in your question. The term you're asking about should be "mentor" instead of "mentors." A mentor is not a medical term per se, but I can certainly provide a general definition.

A mentor is a experienced and trusted advisor or guide who provides support, shares knowledge, and helps in the personal and professional development of an individual, often in a specific field or industry. In a medical context, a mentor could be a senior physician or researcher who guides and supports a medical student, resident, or fellow in their learning and career progression.

In the context of medicine, problem-solving refers to the cognitive process by which healthcare professionals identify, analyze, and address clinical issues or challenges in order to provide optimal care for their patients. This may involve gathering relevant information, generating potential solutions, evaluating their feasibility and risks, selecting the most appropriate course of action, and implementing and monitoring the chosen intervention. Effective problem-solving skills are essential for making informed decisions, improving patient outcomes, and reducing medical errors.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Experimental Games" as it is not a term commonly used in the medical field. However, I can provide some context that might help you understand the possible relationship between experimental games and medicine.

Experimental games generally refer to games designed specifically to explore, test, or validate certain concepts, hypotheses, or theories. These games often involve novel mechanics, rules, or systems that are intended to create unique experiences, engage players in specific ways, or teach particular skills or knowledge.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, experimental games might be used for various purposes, such as:

1. Medical education and training: Experimental games can help medical professionals learn new skills, understand complex concepts, or practice decision-making in a safe, controlled environment. These games could simulate various medical scenarios, allowing players to develop their expertise and improve patient outcomes.
2. Therapeutic interventions: Experimental games might be used as a form of therapy for patients with physical, cognitive, or emotional challenges. By engaging patients in gameplay that targets specific areas of need, these games can help improve various aspects of health and well-being. For example, therapeutic gaming applications have been developed to assist with rehabilitation, pain management, stress reduction, and mental health conditions like anxiety and depression.
3. Research: Experimental games could be used in medical research to investigate various aspects of human behavior, cognition, or physiology. By observing how players interact with the game and its mechanics, researchers can gain insights into factors that influence health, decision-making, or treatment outcomes.

In summary, while "Experimental Games" is not a standard medical term, it generally refers to games designed to explore, test, or validate specific concepts, hypotheses, or theories. In the context of medicine and healthcare, experimental games might be used for medical education, therapeutic interventions, or research purposes.

Suicidal ideation is a medical term used to describe thoughts about, or an unusual preoccupation with, suicide. The range of suicidal ideation varies greatly from fleeting thoughts, to extensive thoughts, to detailed planning, role playing, and incomplete attempts, which may be deliberately constructed to not complete or to be discovered, or may be fully intended to result in death.

It's important to take any mention of suicide seriously and seek immediate help from a healthcare professional if someone is experiencing suicidal ideation. Mental health conditions such as depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder, and substance abuse are commonly associated with an increased risk of suicidal thoughts.

If you or someone you know is struggling with suicidal thoughts, please reach out to a mental health professional or trusted person immediately. In the US, contact the National Suicide Prevention Lifeline at 1-800-273-TALK (1-800-273-8255) or use the Crisis Text Line by texting HOME to 741741.

In a medical or psychological context, attention is the cognitive process of selectively concentrating on certain aspects of the environment while ignoring other things. It involves focusing mental resources on specific stimuli, sensory inputs, or internal thoughts while blocking out irrelevant distractions. Attention can be divided into different types, including:

1. Sustained attention: The ability to maintain focus on a task or stimulus over time.
2. Selective attention: The ability to concentrate on relevant stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones.
3. Divided attention: The capacity to pay attention to multiple tasks or stimuli simultaneously.
4. Alternating attention: The skill of shifting focus between different tasks or stimuli as needed.

Deficits in attention are common symptoms of various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as ADHD, dementia, depression, and anxiety disorders. Assessment of attention is an essential part of neuropsychological evaluations and can be measured using various tests and tasks.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "History, 20th Century" is a broad and complex topic that refers to the events, developments, and transformations that occurred throughout the world during the 1900s. It is not a medical term or concept. If you're interested in learning more about this historical period, I would recommend consulting a history textbook, reputable online resources, or speaking with a historian. They can provide detailed information about the political, social, economic, and cultural changes that took place during the 20th century.

Motivational interviewing is a patient-centered counseling style that aims to engage, support, and strengthen a person's own motivation for change. It is a collaborative conversation style that is evidence-based and widely used in healthcare settings to address problematic behaviors such as substance abuse, poor diet, physical inactivity, and non-adherence to medical treatment. The approach is characterized by the use of empathic listening, affirmations, reflective statements, and summaries to help patients explore and resolve ambivalence about behavior change. Motivational interviewing is grounded in the principles of motivational psychology and is designed to enhance a patient's intrinsic motivation for change rather than imposing it from outside. The goal is to create a supportive environment that empowers patients to make positive changes in their lives.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

Self-efficacy is not a medical term per se, but it is widely used in medical and health-related contexts. It is a concept from social cognitive theory that refers to an individual's belief in their ability to successfully perform specific tasks or achieve certain goals, particularly in the face of challenges or adversity.

In medical settings, self-efficacy can refer to a patient's confidence in their ability to manage their health condition, adhere to treatment plans, and engage in healthy behaviors. For example, a person with diabetes who has high self-efficacy may feel confident in their ability to monitor their blood sugar levels, follow a healthy diet, and exercise regularly, even if they encounter obstacles or setbacks.

Research has shown that self-efficacy is an important predictor of health outcomes, as individuals with higher self-efficacy are more likely to engage in positive health behaviors and experience better health outcomes than those with lower self-efficacy. Healthcare providers may seek to enhance patients' self-efficacy through education, counseling, and support to help them manage their health condition more effectively.

Concept formation in the medical context refers to the cognitive process of forming a concept or mental representation about a specific medical condition, treatment, or phenomenon. This involves identifying and integrating common characteristics, patterns, or features to create a coherent understanding. It's a critical skill for healthcare professionals, as it enables them to make accurate diagnoses, develop effective treatment plans, and conduct research.

In psychology, concept formation is often studied using tasks such as categorization, where participants are asked to sort objects or concepts into different groups based on shared features. This helps researchers understand how people form and use concepts in their thinking and decision-making processes.

A crime victim is a person who has suffered direct or threatened physical, emotional, or financial harm as a result of the commission of a crime. According to the United States Department of Justice, victims of crime may experience a range of negative effects including physical injury, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, anxiety, and financial losses.

Crime victimization can take many forms, such as assault, robbery, homicide, sexual assault, domestic violence, child abuse, identity theft, and fraud. In addition to the immediate harm caused by criminal acts, victims may also face long-term challenges related to their recovery, including emotional trauma, difficulty trusting others, and economic instability.

Many countries have laws and policies in place to support crime victims and provide them with access to resources and services. These can include victim compensation programs, counseling and therapy services, and legal assistance. In the United States, for example, the Victims of Crime Act (VOCA) provides funding for victim services through a federal grant program administered by the Office for Victims of Crime (OVC).

Overall, the medical definition of 'crime victims' refers to individuals who have been directly or indirectly harmed by criminal behavior and may require support and resources to help them recover from their experiences.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Counseling is a therapeutic intervention that involves a trained professional working with an individual, family, or group to help them understand and address their problems, concerns, or challenges. The goal of counseling is to help the person develop skills, insights, and resources that will allow them to make positive changes in their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, and improve their overall mental health and well-being.

Counseling can take many forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the individual seeking help. Some common approaches include cognitive-behavioral therapy, psychodynamic therapy, humanistic therapy, and solution-focused brief therapy. These approaches may be used alone or in combination with other interventions, such as medication or group therapy.

The specific goals and techniques of counseling will vary depending on the individual's needs and circumstances. However, some common objectives of counseling include:

* Identifying and understanding the underlying causes of emotional or behavioral problems
* Developing coping skills and strategies to manage stress, anxiety, depression, or other mental health concerns
* Improving communication and relationship skills
* Enhancing self-esteem and self-awareness
* Addressing substance abuse or addiction issues
* Resolving conflicts and making difficult decisions
* Grieving losses and coping with life transitions

Counseling is typically provided by licensed mental health professionals, such as psychologists, social workers, marriage and family therapists, and professional counselors. These professionals have completed advanced education and training in counseling techniques and theories, and are qualified to provide a range of therapeutic interventions to help individuals, families, and groups achieve their goals and improve their mental health.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Cooperative behavior, in a medical or healthcare context, refers to the actions and attitudes displayed by individuals or groups working together to achieve a common goal related to health and well-being. This may involve patients following their healthcare providers' advice, healthcare professionals collaborating to diagnose and treat medical conditions, or communities coming together to promote healthy behaviors and environments. Cooperative behavior is essential for positive health outcomes, as it fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers, and helps to ensure that everyone involved in the care process is working towards the same goal.

Community Mental Health Services (CMHS) refer to mental health care services that are provided in community settings, as opposed to traditional hospital-based or institutional care. These services are designed to be accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated, with the goal of promoting recovery, resilience, and improved quality of life for individuals with mental illnesses.

CMHS may include a range of services such as:

1. Outpatient care: Including individual and group therapy, medication management, and case management services provided in community clinics or healthcare centers.
2. Assertive Community Treatment (ACT): A team-based approach to providing comprehensive mental health services to individuals with severe and persistent mental illnesses who may have difficulty engaging in traditional outpatient care.
3. Crisis intervention: Including mobile crisis teams, emergency psychiatric evaluations, and short-term residential crisis stabilization units.
4. Supported housing and employment: Services that help individuals with mental illnesses to live independently in the community and to obtain and maintain competitive employment.
5. Prevention and early intervention: Programs that aim to identify and address mental health issues before they become more severe, such as suicide prevention programs, bullying prevention, and early psychosis detection and treatment.
6. Peer support: Services provided by individuals who have personal experience with mental illness and can offer support, guidance, and advocacy to others who are struggling with similar issues.
7. Family education and support: Programs that provide information, resources, and support to family members of individuals with mental illnesses.

The goal of CMHS is to provide accessible, comprehensive, and coordinated care that meets the unique needs of each individual and helps them to achieve their recovery goals in the community setting.

The Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed journal covering child and adolescent mental ... "The Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology's Future Directions Forum, Annual Meeting in Washington, DC". 2018. ... the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. The editor-in-chief is Andres De Los Reyes (University of Maryland at ... It was established in 1971 as the Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, obtaining its current name in 2001. It is published by ...
The Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (SCCAP) is an academic and professional society in the United States ... "A Brief History of the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (SCCAP) from Section 1, APA Division 12, status ... and public policy in clinical child and adolescent psychology as a means of improving the welfare and mental health of children ... Adolescent Psychology Divisions of the American Psychological Association Association for Psychological Science "Division 53 ...
Adolescent Psychology. 48 (3): 469-479. doi:10.1080/15374416.2017.1357126. PMC 5817027. PMID 28820607. Fuligni, Andrew J.; ... Fuligni and colleagues (2019) examined a sample of American adolescents and found that younger adolescents, especially those ... Importantly, research shows that declines in adolescent sleep duration are characteristic of adolescents around the world. Poor ... Adolescent Psychology. 48 (3): 469-479. doi:10.1080/15374416.2017.1357126. ISSN 1537-4416. PMC 5817027. PMID 28820607. Keyes, ...
Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. n.d. Brendgen, M.; van Lier, P. A.; Witvliet, M ... Adolescent cliques are cliques that develop amongst adolescents. In the social sciences, the word "clique" is used to describe ... and European American adolescents' selection of similar friends". Developmental Psychology. 36 (2): 209-219. CiteSeerX 10.1. ... Adolescent Psychology. 39 (5): 693-704. doi:10.1080/15374416.2010.501678. PMID 20706921. S2CID 12368330. Dishion, T. J.; McCord ...
Child and adolescent psychiatry organizations, Non-profit organizations based in Illinois, 501(c)(3) organizations, Psychology ... The Oxford Handbook of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. Oxford University Press. p. 8. ISBN 9780190669768. " ... Its official peer-reviewed journal is the Research on Child and Adolescent Psychopathology, which is published by Springer ... The International Society for Research in Child and Adolescent Psychopathology (abbreviated ISRCAP) is an international learned ...
Retrieved October 31, 2012 "Peer Relationships , Adolescent Psychology". courses.lumenlearning.com. Retrieved 2021-09-08. Tichy ... Adolescent cliques Cabal Clique in communication groups from Dunbar's number In-group and out-group Salkind, Neil (2008-01-01 ... Examples of common or stereotypical adolescent cliques include athletes, nerds, and "outsiders". Typically, people in a clique ... Social Psychology Quarterly. 51 (2): 123-140. doi:10.2307/2786835. JSTOR 2786835. Barth, Fredrik (1998-03-11). Ethnic Groups ...
Lerner RM, Steinberg L (2004). Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 193-196. ISBN 978-0-471-69044-3. When ... Richard M. Lerner; Laurence Steinberg (2004). Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 193-196. ISBN 978-0-471 ... Richard M. Lerner; Laurence Steinberg (2004). Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 193-196. ISBN 978-0-471 ... Richard M. Lerner; Laurence Steinberg (2004). Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 193-196. ISBN 978-0-471 ...
Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. Wiley-Blackwell. doi:10.1002/9780470479193.adlpsy001012. ISBN 978-0-470-47919-3. Keppens, ... Hollin CR (2013). Psychology and Crime: An Introduction to Criminological Psychology. USA & Canada: Routledge. p. 62. Aichhorn ... Psychology portal Zoology portal Atlas personality Attachment parenting Attachment theory and psychology of religion Fathers as ... For older children, adolescents and adults, semi-structured interviews are used in which the manner of relaying content may be ...
Handbook of Adolescent psychology. Vol. 2 (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley. pp. 345-371. ISBN 9780470149225. "JUSTICE FOR CHILDREN: ... "Arab adolescents facing the future". pp. 232 in Brown et al., (eds.) The World's Youth: Adolescence in Eight Regions of the ... Aggressive adolescents who have been rejected by peers are also more likely to have a "hostile attribution bias", which leads ... Adolescents with siblings who have committed crimes are more likely to be influenced by their siblings and become delinquent if ...
Brown, B. (2004) Adolescents' relationships with peers. In R. Lerner and L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology ... Horn, S.S. (2003). "Adolescents' reasoning about exclusion from social groups". Developmental Psychology. 39 (1): 71-84. doi: ... and Suicidality in Adolescents". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 46 (1): 40-49. doi:10.1097/ ... have unpopular adolescents participate in group activities together with the popular adolescents under supervision of ...
Elkind, D. & Bowen, R. (1979). "Imaginary audience behavior in children and adolescents". Developmental Psychology. 15: 38-344 ... There are various reasons as to why adolescents experience egocentrism: Adolescents are often faced with new social ... Frankenberger K. D. (2000). "Adolescent egocentrism: A comparison among adolescents and adults". Journal of Adolescence. 23 (3 ... Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. New York: Wiley. O'Connor, B. P. & Nikolic, J. (1990). "Identity development and formal ...
In R. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), ''Handbook of adolescent psychology.'' New York: Wiley. Mory, M. (1994, February). "When ... Horn, S. S. (2003). Adolescents' reasoning about exclusion from social groups. ''Developmental Psychology, 39'' 363-371. Brown ... Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 74-103). New York: Wiley. Eder, D. (1985). "The cycle of popularity: ... Developmental Psychology, 31, 540-547. Kinney, D. (1993). "From nerds to normals: The recovery of identity among adolescents ...
In Lerner, R. M., & Steinberg, L. (Eds.). (2009). Handbook of adolescent psychology. Volume 1: Individual bases of adolescent ... Aalsma, M. C.; Lapsley, D. K.; Flannery, D. J. (2006). "Personal fables, narcissism, and adolescent adjustment". Psychology in ... Müge Artar conducted a study comparing adolescents identified as having higher levels of egocentrism with adolescents ... the adolescent believes he cannot be harmed or affected in the ways others can. And finally, uniqueness is the adolescent's ...
Handbook of Adolescent Health Psychology. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 246-. ISBN 978-1-4614-6633-8. Delcour C, ...
2009). Handbook of Adolescent Psychology. doi:10.1002/9780470479193. ISBN 9780470479193. S2CID 143274575. Freund, Alexandra M ... Child and Adolescent Development: An Advanced Course. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2008. Lerner, Richard M.; Steinberg, Laurence, eds. ( ... Lerner, Richard M. and Willis F. Overton (eds.). Handbook of Child Psychology and Developmental Science. 4 vols. Hoboken, NJ: ... Urie Bronfenbrenner Award for Lifetime Contribution to Developmental Psychology in the Service of Science and Society, 2013 ...
Handbook of Adolescent Health Psychology. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 246-. ISBN 978-1-4614-6633-8. Z. Hochberg (1 ...
Abnormal child and adolescent psychology. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall Higher Education. pp. 327-359. ISBN 978-0-13- ... These negative symptoms can severely impact children's and adolescents' abilities to function in school and in other public ... An important gene for adolescent-onset schizophrenia is the catechol-O-methyltransferase gene, a gene that regulates dopamine. ... Kumar A, Datta SS, Wright SD, Furtado VA, Russell PS (October 2013). "Atypical antipsychotics for psychosis in adolescents". ...
Handbook of Adolescent Health Psychology. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 246-. ISBN 978-1-4614-6633-8. Braunstein, ... 1 April 2008). "Use of Aromatase Inhibitors in Children and Adolescents With Disorders of Growth and Adolescent Development". ... leads to transient gynecomastia in adolescent males. It can occur in up to 65% of adolescents as early as age 10 and peaks at ... In adolescent males, it is recommended that surgery is postponed until puberty is completed (penile and testicular development ...
Adolescent Psychology. 31 (4): 525-539. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3104_11. PMID 12402571. S2CID 11292218. (All articles with ... Q methodology is a research method used in psychology and in social sciences to study people's "subjectivity"-that is, their ...
50 Years of Research on Treatment for Child and Adolescent Anxiety". Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 45 (2 ... Mental health providers who work with children and adolescents are informed by research in developmental psychology, clinical ... A meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence of mental disorders in children and adolescents". Journal of Child Psychology and ... Adolescent Psychology. 46 (1): 11-43. doi:10.1080/15374416.2016.1220310. ISSN 1537-4416. PMC 5296370. PMID 27870579. Higa- ...
Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 363-394. doi:10.1002/9780471726746. ... Family structure and parent-adolescent relationship as protective factors". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. 66 ( ... Adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A)". Journal of the American ... "The Two Faces of Adolescents' Success With Peers: Adolescent Popularity, Social Adaptation, and Deviant Behavior". Child ...
Adolescent Psychology. 39 (3): 421-435. doi:10.1080/15374411003691776. PMC 4300522. PMID 20419582. Solberg, Mona E.; Olweus, ... and the safety of sexual minority adolescents". Psychology in the Schools. 43 (5): 573-589. doi:10.1002/pits.20173. Kosciw, ... Archived 2016-03-04 at the Wayback Machine Molden, Daniel C.; Dweck, Carol S. (April 2006). "Finding "meaning" in psychology: a ... in 2007 collected data from over 2000 adolescents through telephone interviews. The most surprising finding was that those who ...
Adolescent Psychology. 39 (4): 597-602. doi:10.1080/15374416.2010.486323. PMC 2914792. PMID 20589570. Siegler, Robert (2006). ... because they are often the problem discussed among adolescents. Research suggests that within adolescents, children who ... Female adolescents are more likely to co-ruminate than younger girls because their social worlds become increasingly complex ... In addition, mother-adolescent co-rumination was related to positive relationship quality, but also to enmeshment which was ...
Adolescent Psychology. 40 (6): 807-817. doi:10.1080/15374416.2011.614584. PMC 3205473. PMID 22023272. Gunn, J., Lester, D., ... To capture an adolescent's self-perception of group affiliation one may ask an adolescent to identify themselves as a member of ... It is important to find out how important it is for an adolescent to be a member of a group because not all adolescents are ... social inclusion and exclusion by peers affects the psychology of voice" (PDF). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. ...
50 Years of Research on Treatment for Child and Adolescent Anxiety". Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology. 45 (2 ... Psychology. Michael Passer, Ronald Smith, Nigel Holt, Andy Bremner, Ed Sutherland, Michael Vliek. (2009) McGrath Hill Higher ... OCD affects roughly 1-⁠2% of adults (somewhat more women than men), and under 3% of children and adolescents. A person with OCD ... Fluoxetine, sertraline and paroxetine can also help with some forms of anxiety in children and adolescents. If the chosen ...
Brown, B. (2004). Adolescents' relationships with peers. In R. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology ... Society portal Adolescent medicine Adolescent sleep Children and adolescents in the United States Clique Emerging adulthood and ... Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (2 ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. "Jean Macfarlane, 95, Psychology Professor". The New ... The formal study of adolescent psychology began with the publication of G. Stanley Hall's Adolescence in 1904. Hall, who was ...
Adolescent Psychology. 30 (3): 376-384. doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3003_9. ISSN 1537-4416. PMID 11501254. S2CID 9334984. Ramos, S ... "Practice Parameters for Assessing Children and Adolescents with PTSD". Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent ... The Child PTSD Symptom Scale (CPSS) is a free checklist designed for children and adolescents to report traumatic events and ... CAPS-CA for assessing posttraumatic stress symptoms in children and adolescents". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 28 (1): 51-56. ...
In R. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), "Handbook of adolescent psychology" (3rd ed., Vol. 2, pp. 43-73). New York: Wiley. Yeh, H ... While young adolescents often provide one another with warmth and support, this period of development is also marked by ... Adolescents fight for the same reasons younger children fight, but they are better equipped physically and intellectually to ... Often, adolescents from the same family adopt differing lifestyles which further contributes to emotional distance between one ...
Adolescent Psychology. 40 (3): 456-467. doi:10.1080/15374416.2011.563472. hdl:11655/14529. ISSN 1537-4416. PMC 4247339. PMID ... Valsamma Eapen is a chair of infant, child and adolescent psychiatry at UNSW Sydney. She is a fellow of the Royal Australian ... child and adolescent psychiatry at UNSW Sydney and as clinical academic and head of the academic unit of child psychiatry at ... Adolescent Psychiatry. 49 (12): 1215-1224. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2010.08.019. ISSN 0890-8567. PMC 4247330. PMID 21093771. Eapen, V ...
Adolescent Psychology. 44 (5): 814-825. doi:10.1080/15374416.2014.900718. PMC 4214906. PMID 24787263. Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, ... Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 24 (3): 756-766. doi:10.1037/0096-1523.24.3.756. PMID ... British Journal of Educational Psychology. 83 (4): 686-702. doi:10.1111/bjep.12003. PMID 24175689. Hopp, Holger; Vogelbacher, ... Usage of the minority language at home and in formal settings Type of heritage language spoken at home Developmental psychology ...
The Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed journal covering child and adolescent mental ... "The Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychologys Future Directions Forum, Annual Meeting in Washington, DC". 2018. ... the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. The editor-in-chief is Andres De Los Reyes (University of Maryland at ... It was established in 1971 as the Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, obtaining its current name in 2001. It is published by ...
4 Core Findings About Adolescent Narcissism Adolescents are not all narcissistic. Posted May 17, 2023 , Reviewed by Ekua Hagan ... Adolescents can be perceived as narcissistic when asserting their individualism.. *Some adolescents with narcissistic traits ... The topic of adolescent narcissism drew my interest due to several paradoxes that have been discussed in the past about youth ... Adolescents with narcissistic traits may be perceived negatively by their peers as manipulative, difficult to get along with, ...
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Students will explore various psychological theories and perspectives related to adolescent development. ... Home/ College Catalog/ Course Offerings/ All Courses/ PSYC 209 - Adolescent Psychology. PSYC 209 - Adolescent Psychology. 3-0-3 ... Students will explore various psychological theories and perspectives related to adolescent development. ...
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Scandinavian journal of child and adolescent psychiatry and psychology. Journal Volume: 2. Journal Issue: 3. Journal Year: 2014 ...
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Keywords : School Psychology; Adolescence; Historical-Cultural Psychology. · abstract in Portuguese · text in Portuguese · ... School Psychology in the work with adolescents: Art as an intervention. Rev. psicopedag. [online]. 2022, vol.39, n.120, pp. 368 ... This article, derived from two doctoral researches, reflects on the theoretical foundations of Historical-Cultural Psychology ...
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  • By exploring the topic of adolescent narcissism within the context of different generations, it becomes crucial to consider the impact of developmental forces during adolescence as well as individual variations in personality . (psychologytoday.com)
  • From early to late adolescence, a person's thinking is typically affected by a concept known as adolescent egocentrism. (betterhelp.com)
  • Your adolescence definition and understanding adolescent psychology vary from your perspective but the truth remains the same and that is, adolescents need guidance. (betterhelp.com)
  • This article, derived from two doctoral researches, reflects on the theoretical foundations of Historical-Cultural Psychology in its understanding of adolescence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Navigating the journey from adolescence to adulthood can be difficult to say the least, which is why adolescent psychology can be invaluable. (attunedpsychology.com)
  • Most teenagers experience a flood of changes during adolescence which can feel confronting and challenging, and is why adolescent psychology is offered at Attuned Psychology. (attunedpsychology.com)
  • Featuring 24 revised and updated chapters from the International Encyclopedia of Adolescence (2007), readers are introduced to the way the majority of the world's adolescents actually live. (clarku.edu)
  • Occurrence of chronic pain peaks in adolescence (around 15-16 years), when adolescents are seeking more independence and responsibility. (pedpsych.org)
  • This 30 credit Master of Science (MS) program in Child and Adolescent Developmental Psychology enables students to pursue advanced study in child and adolescent developmental psychology that can lead to careers in the helping professions, industry, government, and for profit and nonprofit organizations for which clinical training is not necessary. (ncu.edu)
  • The child and adolescent developmental psychology master's degree program also provides students with the foundational knowledge and skills necessary for doctoral-level study. (ncu.edu)
  • Click here for potential career opportunities within the Masters of Science in Child and Adolescent Developmental Psychology. (ncu.edu)
  • The Master of Science degree in Child and Adolescent Developmental Psychology requires a total of 30 credits for completion. (ncu.edu)
  • The University may accept a maximum of 12 semester credits in transfer toward the Master of Science in Child and Adolescent Developmental Psychology for graduate course work completed at an accredited college or university with a grade average of "B" or better. (ncu.edu)
  • Additionally, I find the unique aspects of adolescent development intriguing, as they suggest that narcissism may be a normal part of being an adolescent and can even be adaptive in some ways. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Describe aspects of adolescent development in relation to your topic. (proficientconcepts.com)
  • This new online distance learning programme provides a comprehensive overview of child and adolescent mental health, introducing core concepts, theories, and models of current evidence-based practice. (annafreud.org)
  • Dr Clair Lawson leads a highly professional, growing and diverse clinical psychology practice. (lawsonpsychology.com.au)
  • Beginning with a set of general conceptual frameworks for practice, the book gives specific guidance on the management of problems commonly encountered in clinical work with children and adolescents drawing on the best practice in the fields of clinical psychology and family therapy. (youbookinc.com)
  • The Handbook of Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychology is one of a set of 3 books published by Routledge which includes The Handbook of Adult Clinical Psychology: An Evidence Based Practice Approach, Second Edition (Edited by Carr & McNulty) and The Handbook of Intellectual Disability and Clinical Psychology Practice (Edited by Alan Carr, Christine Linehan, Gary O'Reilly, Patricia Noonan Walsh and John McEvoy). (youbookinc.com)
  • Since traditional therapy does not always work with children and adolescents, we also utilize a number of creative interventions (such as art, play, and music) to promote growth and change. (sevenhillspsychology.com)
  • This handbook describes in detail different contemporary approaches to group work with children and adolescents. (youbookinc.com)
  • Because the brains of teenagers differ fundamentally from those of younger children or adults, understanding their unique psychology at every adolescent age range can help you strengthen your relationship and better support them as they grow. (betterhelp.com)
  • Children and adolescents require support from adults-especially parents and teachers-that fosters a healthy environment for their emotional growth and brain development. (betterhelp.com)
  • Students in the child/adolescent concentration learn about the unique psychological needs of children and adolescents, as well as developmental considerations in psychopathology, assessment, and treatment, including the role of family and social contexts. (montclair.edu)
  • No doubt that's important, but I'd like to raise another issue to consider: to also take note of the stress that our adolescent children may be under, and what our culture and parenting have to do with it. (bonesbrigaderecords.com)
  • Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SUMMARY: Various forms of theory-based TF-CBT are highly effective in the treatment of children and adolescents with PTSD. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Less than 0.5% of pre-adolescent children (aged under twelve years) experience panic disorder [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The existing literature gives some indication of the diagnostic symptoms experienced by children and adolescents with panic disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 8 ] found that children and adolescents aged 8-17 years had higher levels of anxiety sensitivity than those with other anxiety disorders and Elkins, et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In addition, caution is warranted in relying on findings from studies that include children as well as adolescents, especially given the very low rates of panic disorder among pre-adolescent children [ 1 , 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Pediatric occupational therapy deals with various medical conditions, psychological as well as physical problems, and disabilities in children and adolescents. (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • Children and adolescents ages 0-21 who need psychiatric support receive comprehensive treatment at our therapy center. (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • Almost 20 percent of children and adolescents in Germany exhibit one or more mental disorders on an annual basis. (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • The mission of AACAP is to promote the healthy development of children, adolescents, and families through research, training, prevention, comprehensive diagnosis and treatment and to meet the professional needs of child and adolescent psychiatrists throughout their careers. (baker.edu)
  • This means that he has attained the highest possible competency in providing clinical psychology services to children and adolescents. (edcommodate.com)
  • The CCAP Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology (CCAP) Program focuses upon the developmental paths of children and youth experiencing psychological disorders within the contexts of family, school and community. (uoguelph.ca)
  • In 1996, an on-site clinic was established for the combined purpose of training students and providing a service to children, adolescents and families within the wider community. (uoguelph.ca)
  • In epidemiological surveys, the median prevalence of chronic pain reported in community samples of children and adolescents is 11 to 38 percent. (pedpsych.org)
  • Other psychological therapies include hypnosis, mindfulness, and acceptance and commitment therapy, which have been delivered to children and adolescents with pain, with less available evidence to date. (pedpsych.org)
  • Psychological interventions for parents of children and adolescents with chronic illness. (pedpsych.org)
  • The Congress consists of a scientific and training forum aiming to encourage the exchanging of scientific and professional experiences on the evaluation and treatment of psychological problems in children and adolescents. (sbponline.org.br)
  • Approximately one-fifth of children Study design researchers agreed on the final list of and adolescents are afflicted annually The study was a retrospective audit of items to be included. (who.int)
  • Despite this, mental health care for old and new patients were reviewed, designed data collection sheet (avail- children and adolescents including de- i.e. patients who had consulted during able from the authors on request). (who.int)
  • Patients' medical files contained tabase in the industrialized countries randomly (by lottery) for data collec- multiple sources for data extraction, in- that assists in the development of good tion from 3 different cities: Al-Amal cluding consultant psychiatrists' initial quality health care services for children Complex for Mental Health in Riyadh, and follow-up evaluation notes, social and adolescents [5-10]. (who.int)
  • Eating disorders have increased globally in children and adolescents during COVID," said Toulany. (medscape.com)
  • All public schools with on school-age children and adolescents to any classes of grades 7-12 in Tabuk city reduce future smoking-related illness and were placed in 2 categories according to associated costs. (who.int)
  • Much like adult psychotherapy, child and adolescent psychotherapy relies on trust and safety to promote growth. (sevenhillspsychology.com)
  • Especially in adolescents, it is often difficult to tell whether changes in behavior are part of normal development or symptoms of a mental illness, because the characteristics are similar. (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • However, if there are stressful situations or experiences that have led to the change in behavior, or the adolescent completely turns away from family, friends, and recreational activities for an extended period of time, there may be a mental health problem. (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychology Treatment Modules: Personalized Care in Behavior and Emotion provides clinicians with modularized treatment strategies for commonly occurring child and youth mental health disorders. (youbookinc.com)
  • Field of psychology involving the study of normal and abnormal behavior of adolescents. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Epidemiology of child and adolescent psychopathology / edited by Frank C. Verhulst and Hans M. Koot. (who.int)
  • It was established in 1971 as the Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, obtaining its current name in 2001. (wikipedia.org)
  • Browse other courses in Health studies , Psychology , Child psychology , Educational psychology , Social sciences , Social studies or Child studies , or search our comprehensive database of postgrad programs . (postgrad.com)
  • The Child/Adolescent Psychology concentration within the MA program in Clinical Psychology provides students with foundational-level training in clinical psychology, with a focus on clinical child psychology. (montclair.edu)
  • Download Abnormal Child Psychology ebook PDF or Read Online books in PDF, EPUB, and Mobi Format. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • If potential psychological problems are already recognized in childhood, you can contact our child psychology Düsseldorf. (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • Our program began as a M.A. program in Applied Child Psychology not long after the official founding of the University of Guelph in 1965. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Dr. Deborah Berberich, PHD is an adolescent psychologist in Anaheim, CA. Her office accepts new patients. (healthgrades.com)
  • The Vivare team is always available as an adolescent psychologist in Düsseldorf . (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • Dr. Nikhil Koushik, Board Certified Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychologist is the new Director of Psychological Services at Edcommodate. (edcommodate.com)
  • He is a psychologist in good standing with the Ontario College of Psychologists and has declared competencies in clinical psychology and clinical neuropsychology across the lifespan. (edcommodate.com)
  • Most of my research has been in the area of adolescent narcissism, as well as the connection between narcissism and social media activity. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Justify the chosen topic in the area of adolescent development. (proficientconcepts.com)
  • In addition to the number of changes adolescents usually go through physically and socially, their brains are undergoing multiple biological processes and developmental transformations that cause distinctive and often irrational behaviors that may confuse a parent. (betterhelp.com)
  • Understanding that this is one of the normal adolescent behaviors and a natural phase of human development that will pass can be comforting to parents and can remind them to do their best to offer consistent support despite periods of frustration. (betterhelp.com)
  • Seventy-one 9th grade adolescents (52% female) participated in an experimental 'chat room' paradigm involving 'e-confederates' who endorsed sexual risk behaviors. (ed.gov)
  • Results provide novel preliminary evidence regarding the importance of peer influence susceptibility in adolescents' development of sexual behaviors. (ed.gov)
  • These changes and associated behaviors are part of the normal development of adolescents, but they can also be symptoms of a psychologically stressful situation . (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • Contagion-as-imitation combines perspectives from psychology, sociology, and public health research and provides the greatest heuristic utility for examining whether and how suicide and suicidal behaviors may spread among persons at both individual and population levels. (cdc.gov)
  • The Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed journal covering child and adolescent mental health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lighthouse Psychologists are all Chartered Consultant Adult, Adolescent and Child Psychologists. (lighthousepsychology.ie)
  • We adopted the CCAP name in 2018 to reflect the program's explicit focus on training in clinical psychology within child and adolescent (rather than adult) populations. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Thus, transition of pain self-management tasks from parents to adolescents and transition from pediatric to adult health care are important considerations. (pedpsych.org)
  • presents research findings on the cognitive, physical, social, emotional and behavioral aspects of 'normal' adolescent development to help guide professionals working with adolescents in many different contexts. (baker.edu)
  • Emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions for eating disorders have increased significantly among adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to new research. (medscape.com)
  • Among adolescents, the observed rate of ED visits during the 30 pandemic months studied was 7.38 per 100,000 population, compared with 3.33 per 100,000 before the pandemic (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.21). (medscape.com)
  • The rate of hospital admissions among adolescents increased by 54% above the expected rate during the pandemic. (medscape.com)
  • Chris Barry, Ph.D., is a Professor in the Department of Psychology at Washington State University. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Most adolescents and adults who suffer from addictive disorders have also suffered fr. (healthgrades.com)
  • The researchers examined the following four age categories: adolescents (ages 10 to 17 years), young adults (ages 18 to 26 years), adults (ages 27 to 40 years), and older adults (ages 41 to 105 years). (medscape.com)
  • Regardless of the cause, more investment in eating disorders research and eating disorder programs for adolescents and adults is needed, she said. (medscape.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Adolescent psychology. (who.int)
  • A list of journals on research topics in adolescent psychology, available through the FCC Library's Academic Search Premier database. (frederick.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to examine adolescents' experiences of having panic disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adolescents' favorite movie stars and their smoking status, controlling for variables associated with smoking initiation. (nih.gov)
  • Our adolescent residential program is available for teens ages 13-18 who are suffering from substance use disorders and co-occurring mental health concerns. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Before an adolescent is admitted to our residential program, our team conducts a thorough assessment to gather information about their mental and physical health history, symptoms, and treatment objectives. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Mental health of adolescents and young persons : report on a technical conference, Stockholm, 9-13 June 1969 / Anthony R. May, Jack H. Kahn, Börje Cronholm. (who.int)
  • Adopting a range of evidence-based approaches, Clair draws on 18 years of experience in child and adolescent mental health to inform her therapy for clients of all ages - with particular expertise in the treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. (lawsonpsychology.com.au)
  • In our Vivare Health Center we approach the investigation of the mental problems of the adolescents with the utmost attentiveness and counteract them with occupational therapy measures. (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • To identify mental illness in adolescents, the changes need to be looked at closely . (vivare-gesundheitszentrum.de)
  • RÉSUMÉ Une étude transversale par questionnaire sur les corrélats de l'expérience du tabagisme chez les adolescents a été réalisée dans les écoles publiques de Tabouk (Arabie saoudite). (who.int)
  • Favorite stars differed significantly among adolescent ever and never smokers. (nih.gov)
  • Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology Routledge.com KWH. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • e-Study Guide for Abnormal Child and Adolescent. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • pdf download [PDF] Book Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology Download Ebook none, Written from a developmental perspective, Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology 2nd edition is organized around 5 prominent and recurring themes. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • 1/01/1997В В· Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology has 47 ratings and 4 reviews. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • Download Ebook : abnormal child and adolescent psychology in PDF Format. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • ALERT: Before you purchase, check with your instructor or review your course syllabus to ensure that youselect the correct Buy, download and read Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology ebook online in EPUB format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • Abnormal Child Adolescent Psychology Ebook Abnormal Child Adolescent Psychology currently available at www.electricien-villeurbanne.org for review only, if you need Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology: Pearson New International Edition CourseSmart eTextbook - Kindle edition by Rita Wicks-Nelson, Allen C. Israel. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • Title: Introduction To Abnormal Child And Adolescent Psychology Free Ebook Download Pdf Author: Timothy Armstrong Subject: Introduction To Keywords Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology: A Developmental Perspective, Second Edition - Kindle edition by Linda Wilmshurst. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • Read "Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology Pearson New International Edition CourseSmart eTextbook" by Rita Wicks-Nelson with Rakuten Kobo. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • Abnormal Child and, Buy, download and read Introduction to Abnormal Child and Adolescent Psychology ebook online in EPUB format for iPhone, iPad, Android, Computer and Mobile readers. (ianlaingproperties.com)
  • the Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine (SAHM) is a multidisciplinary organization committed to improving the physical and psychosocial health and well-being of all adolescents through advocacy, clinical care, health promotion, health service delivery, professional development and research. (baker.edu)
  • Dr. Koushik is also board certified in clinical child and adolescent psychology through the American Board of Professional Psychology. (edcommodate.com)
  • Accreditation by the Canadian Psychological Association (CPA) indicates that our program meets the standards that are thought to be important by the broader psychology community for a professional psychology training program. (uoguelph.ca)
  • The Health of adolescents : understanding and facilitating biological, behavioral, and social development / William R. Hendee, editor. (who.int)
  • Health of adolescents and youths in the Americas. (who.int)
  • From the Center for Adolescent Health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health (JHSPH). (baker.edu)
  • Health child and adolescent psychiatric throughout the data collection phase. (who.int)
  • Commenting on the findings for Medscape, Victor Fornari, MD, director of child and adolescent psychiatry at Zucker Hillside Hospital/Northwell Health in Glen Oaks, New York, said, "Our experience in the United States parallels what is described in this Canadian paper. (medscape.com)
  • Among Asian-Americans, depression diagnoses rose 104% and anxiety disorders 97% after the onset of the COVID pandemic, the highest increase among any ethnic/racial group, with 64% of Asian-American adolescents reporting being targets of racism, also the highest of any group. (bonesbrigaderecords.com)
  • Further, this volume illustrates the application of these models to work with the youth of today, whether victims of trauma, adolescents struggling with LGBT issues, or youth with varying common diagnoses such as autism spectrum disorders, depression, and anxiety. (youbookinc.com)
  • This retrospective review of records describes the pattern of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders among patients consulting 3 child psychiatric clinics in Saudi Arabia during the year 2008. (who.int)
  • Thus, it will appeal to all committed to a critical approach across the Encyclopedia of Critical Psychology, for alternative analyses of psychological events, processes, and practices. (lu.se)
  • Depression signs, Teasing and Low Self-esteem in Female Obese Adolescents: a clinical evaluation. (unime.it)
  • A performance-based measure of peer influence susceptibility was examined as a moderator of the longitudinal association between peer norms and trajectories of adolescents' number of sexual intercourse partners. (ed.gov)
  • High perceptions of the number of popular peers' sexual intercourse partners combined with high peer influence susceptibility predicted steeper longitudinal trajectories of adolescents' number of partners. (ed.gov)
  • Scholarly Peer-Reviewed articles in Psychology. (frederick.edu)
  • The aim is to help teachers become reasonably well-informed about the current scientific knowledge about childhood, adolescent development and psychology so that instead of simply dismissing a child as a brat, the teachers will form a friendship with the student to understand and resolve his/her issues. (aarogya.com)
  • Our team aims to provide adolescents in our program with treatment that meets them where they are on their recovery journeys. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In psychology, research is done on people or animals - a research article should discuss who participated in a study. (frederick.edu)
  • 95% CI 1.12, 1.62), even after adjustment for known predictors of adolescent smoking and demographic variables. (nih.gov)
  • The 1996 California Tobacco Survey questioned 6,252 adolescents about their favorite stars, smoking history, exposure to smokers, rebelliousness, knowledge and attitudes regarding smoking, and cigarette advertising and promotion. (nih.gov)
  • Community Psychology , 1996, 24(1): 63-107. (bvs.br)
  • It is published by Routledge on behalf of the American Psychological Association's Division 53, the Society of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although neither the GRE General Test nor the GRE Psychology Subject Test are required for admission if you have an overall GPA of 3.3 or higher, applicants may submit these scores for consideration by the admissions committee. (montclair.edu)
  • The findings show that adolescents experience panic disorder as extremely overwhelming and unpleasant, with debilitating feelings of drowning in sensations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings offer new insight into these adolescents' lived experience of panic disorder and highlight the need for adolescents to access timely, evidence-based treatment, as well as the need for increased awareness and understanding of panic disorder in schools. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Provides scientific & scholarly presentations on cutting edge issues & concepts in the field of child & adolescent development. (frederick.edu)
  • Examines current theory and research about adolescent learning and development and explore implications for secondary teaching. (colorado.edu)
  • For students with non-psychology undergraduate degrees, we require a minimum of 12 undergraduate credits in psychology or a closely related field, including a course in statistics and an experimental/research methodology course. (montclair.edu)