Diseases of the uterine appendages (ADNEXA UTERI) including diseases involving the OVARY, the FALLOPIAN TUBES, and ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).
Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).
General term for CYSTS and cystic diseases of the OVARY.
An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.
Tumors or cancer of the EYE.
Sweat gland neoplasms are abnormal growths that can be benign or malignant, originating from the sweat glands (eccrine or apocrine) and found anywhere on the skin surface.
Tumor or cancer of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
Pathological processes of the OVARY.
Neoplasms of the bony orbit and contents except the eyeball.
A tumor consisting of displaced ectodermal structures along the lines of embryonic fusion, the wall being formed of epithelium-lined connective tissue, including skin appendages, and containing keratin, sebum, and hair. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the CONJUNCTIVA.
A benign neoplasm derived from epithelial cells of sweat glands. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus.
Tumors of cancer of the EYELIDS.
A benign neoplasm derived from glandular epithelium, in which cystic accumulations of retained secretions are formed. In some instances, considerable portions of the neoplasm, or even the entire mass, may be cystic. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Sebaceous gland neoplasms are uncommon cutaneous tumors that originate from the sebaceous glands, which can be benign (e.g., seborrheic keratosis, syringoma, trichofolliculoma) or malignant (e.g., sebaceous carcinoma, sebaceomatosis, mucoepidermoid carcinoma).
A benign tumor of the sweat glands which is usually multiple and results from malformation of sweat ducts. It is uncommon and more common in females than in males. It is most likely to appear at adolescence, and further lesions may develop during adult life. It does not appear to be hereditary. (Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2407-8)
Extranodal lymphoma of lymphoid tissue associated with mucosa that is in contact with exogenous antigens. Many of the sites of these lymphomas, such as the stomach, salivary gland, and thyroid, are normally devoid of lymphoid tissue. They acquire mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type as a result of an immunologically mediated disorder.
Infection with CHLAMYDOPHILA PSITTACI (formerly Chlamydia psittaci), transmitted to humans by inhalation of dust-borne contaminated nasal secretions or excreta of infected BIRDS. This infection results in a febrile illness characterized by PNEUMONITIS and systemic manifestations.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A type I keratin found in the basal layer of the adult epidermis and in other stratified epithelia.
A genus of CHLAMYDOPHILA infecting primarily birds. It contains eight known serovars, some of which infect more than one type of host, including humans.
A multilocular tumor with mucin secreting epithelium. They are most often found in the ovary, but are also found in the pancreas, appendix, and rarely, retroperitoneal and in the urinary bladder. They are considered to have low-grade malignant potential.
A malignant tumor composed of cells showing differentiation toward sebaceous epithelium. The tumor is solitary, firm, somewhat raised, more or less translucent, and covered with normal or slightly verrucose epidermis. It may be yellow or orange. The face and scalp are the commonest sites. The growth can be slow or rapid but metastasis is uncommon. Surgery cures most of the cases. (From Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, pp2403-4)
Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.
A spectrum of inflammation involving the female upper genital tract and the supporting tissues. It is usually caused by an ascending infection of organisms from the endocervix. Infection may be confined to the uterus (ENDOMETRITIS), the FALLOPIAN TUBES; (SALPINGITIS); the ovaries (OOPHORITIS), the supporting ligaments (PARAMETRITIS), or may involve several of the above uterine appendages. Such inflammation can lead to functional impairment and infertility.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.
A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Excision of one or both of the FALLOPIAN TUBES.

Subjective assessment of adnexal masses with the use of ultrasonography: an analysis of interobserver variability and experience. (1/150)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the subjective assessment of ultrasonographic images for discriminating between malignant and benign adnexal masses. STUDY DESIGN: The study was prospective. Initially, one ultrasonographer preoperatively assessed 300 consecutive patients with adnexal masses. Subsequently, the recorded transparent photographic prints were independently assessed by five investigators, with different qualifications and level of experience, who were also given a brief clinical history of the patients (i.e. the age, menstrual status, family history of ovarian cancer, previous pelvic surgery and the presenting symptoms). The diagnostic performance of the observers was compared with the histopathology classification of malignant or benign tumors. The end-points were accuracy, interobserver agreement and the possible effect of experience. RESULTS: The first ultrasonographer and the most experienced investigator both obtained an accuracy of 92%. There was very good agreement between these two investigators in the classification of the adnexal masses (Cohen's kappa 0.85). The less experienced observers obtained a significantly lower accuracy, which varied between 82% and 87%. Their interobserver agreement was moderate to good (Cohen's kappa 0.52 to 0.76). CONCLUSION: Experienced ultrasonographers using some clinical information and their subjective assessment of ultrasonographic images can differentiate malignant from benign masses in most cases. The accuracy and the level of interobserver agreement are both correlated with experience. About 10% of masses were extremely difficult to classify (only < 50% of assessors were correct).  (+info)

Artificial neural network models for the preoperative discrimination between malignant and benign adnexal masses. (2/150)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to generate and evaluate artificial neural network (ANN) models from simple clinical and ultrasound-derived criteria to predict whether or not an adnexal mass will have histological evidence of malignancy. DESIGN: The data were collected prospectively from 173 consecutive patients who were scheduled to undergo surgical investigations at the University Hospitals, Leuven, between August 1994 and August 1996. The outcome measure was the histological classification of excised tissues as malignant (including borderline) or benign. METHODS: Age, menopausal status and serum CA 125 levels and sonographic features of the adnexal mass were encoded as variables. The ANNs were trained on a randomly selected set of 116 patient records and tested on the remainder (n = 57). The performance of each model was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and compared with corresponding data from an established risk of malignancy index (RMI) and a logistic regression model. RESULTS: There were 124 benign masses, five of borderline malignancy and 44 invasive cancers (of which 29% were metastatic); 37% of patients with a malignant or borderline tumor had stage I disease. The best ANN gave an area under the ROC curve of 0.979 for the whole dataset, a sensitivity of 95.9% and specificity of 93.5%. The corresponding values for the RMI were 0.882, 67.3% and 91.1%, and for the logistic regression model 0.956, 95.9% and 85.5%, respectively. CONCLUSION: An ANN can be trained to provide clinically accurate information, on whether or not an adnexal mass is malignant, from the patient's menopausal status, serum CA 125 levels, and some simple ultrasonographic criteria.  (+info)

Successful laparoscopic management of adnexal torsion during week 25 of a twin pregnancy. (3/150)

Adnexal torsion is a rare occurrence during pregnancy. Here we present a case of adnexal torsion during the 25th week of pregnancy, which was managed laparoscopically. The woman had achieved a successful twin pregnancy after in-vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection. She was admitted to the emergency department with acute abdominal pain. Abdominal ultrasound with colour Doppler mapping of the intra-ovarian blood flow showed adnexal torsion. Laparoscopic management was successfully carried out.  (+info)

Prospective cross-validation of Doppler ultrasound examination and gray-scale ultrasound imaging for discrimination of benign and malignant pelvic masses. (4/150)

OBJECTIVE: To cross-validate, prospectively, the diagnostic performance of established ultrasound methods for discrimination of benign and malignant pelvic masses. METHODS: A total of 173 consecutive women with a pelvic mass judged clinically to be of adnexal origin underwent preoperative ultrasound examination including color and spectral Doppler techniques. A total of 149 tumors were benign, and 24 were malignant. The sensitivity and false-positive rate with regard to malignancy were calculated for the following methods, using cut-off values recommended in previous publications: Lerner score; ultrasound morphology, i.e. tumors without solid components being classified as benign and tumors with solid components as malignant; tumor color score; pulsatility index; resistance index; time-averaged maximum velocity; peak systolic velocity; the combined use of ultrasound morphology and tumor color score and the combined use of ultrasound morphology and peak systolic velocity. Sensitivity and false-positive rate were also calculated for subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image and for subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image supplemented with subjective evaluation of color Doppler ultrasound examination. The confidence with which the diagnosis was made, based on subjective evaluation, was rated on a visual analog scale. RESULTS: Subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image was by far the best method for distinguishing benign from malignant tumors (sensitivity 88%, false-positive rate 4%), followed in descending order by subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image supplemented with color Doppler examination, the Lerner score and the time-averaged maximum velocity. Adding Doppler examination to subjective evaluation of the gray-scale image did not increase the number of correct diagnoses, but it increased the confidence with which a correct diagnosis was made in 14% of tumors. In 11 tumors (6% of the series as a whole), the addition of Doppler examination changed the diagnosis based on subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image from an incorrect (n = 1) or uncertain (n = 10) diagnosis to a correct and confident diagnosis. CONCLUSION: In experienced hands, subjective evaluation of the gray-scale ultrasound image is the best ultrasound method for discriminating between benign and malignant adnexal masses. The main advantage of adding Doppler examination to subjective evaluation of the gray-scale image is an increase in the confidence with which a correct diagnosis is made.  (+info)

Prospective evaluation of a logistic model based on sonographic morphologic and color Doppler findings developed to predict adnexal malignancy. (5/150)

To assess prospectively a logistic model based on sonographic morphologic and color Doppler findings, which had been developed to predict adnexal malignancy, 167 consecutive and unselected patients (mean age, 45.7 yr; range, 17 to 81 yr; 113 [67.7%] premenopausal and 54 [32.3%] postmenopausal) diagnosed as having an adnexal mass and scheduled for surgery were prospectively included in this study. All patients were evaluated by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasonography. The probability of adnexal malignancy was estimated prior to surgery, applying a logistic model developed previously. A probability of malignancy greater than 75% was considered to assess model performance. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were calculated for the model. In all cases definitive histopathologic diagnosis was obtained. One hundred and twenty-five (74.9%) benign and 42 (25.1%) malignant tumors were found. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the model were 85.7% (95% confidence intervals, 71.4% to 94.6%), 100% (95% confidence intervals, 97.1% to 100%), 100% (95% confidence intervals, 90.3% to 100%), and 95.4% (95% confidence intervals, 90.3% to 98.3%), respectively. Overall accuracy was 96.4% (95% confidence intervals, 91.3% to 98.7%). Our results confirm the validity of the proposed logistic model in predicting adnexal malignancy.  (+info)

Comparison of Lerner score, Doppler ultrasound examination, and their combination for discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses. (6/150)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the combined use of Lerner's morphologic score and color Doppler ultrasound examination results in better discrimination of benign and malignant adnexal masses than the use of Lerner's score alone or Doppler variables alone. DESIGN: One hundred and seventy-three consecutive women with a pelvic mass judged clinically to be of adnexal origin underwent preoperative ultrasound examination including color and spectral Doppler techniques. One hundred and forty-nine tumors were benign and 24 malignant. The sensitivity and false-positive rate with regard to malignancy were calculated for Lerner's score, six Doppler variables and combinations of Lerner's score and Doppler variables. Previously defined gray scale and Doppler criteria of malignancy were used and tested prospectively. The best method was defined as that detecting most malignancies with the lowest false-positive rate. RESULTS: Lerner's score had a sensitivity of 92% and a false-positive rate of 36%. The best Doppler variable--time-averaged maximum velocity--had similar diagnostic properties with a sensitivity of 100% and a false-positive rate of 41%. Combining Lerner's score with Doppler measurement of time-averaged maximum velocity--i.e. requiring both Lerner's score and time-averaged maximum velocity to indicate malignancy for a malignant diagnosis to be made--had a sensitivity of 92% and a false-positive rate of 19%. CONCLUSIONS: The combined use of Lerner's score and measurement of time-averaged maximum velocity is a better method for discrimination of benign and malignant adnexal masses than the use of Lerner's score alone or Doppler ultrasound examination alone. The clinical value of the combined method needs to be cross-validated prospectively in a new series of tumors.  (+info)

Transvaginal ultrasonography associated with colour Doppler energy in the diagnosis of hydrosalpinx. (7/150)

The aims of this prospective study were to investigate the accuracy of B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography alone, using the typical finding of the presence of an elongated shaped mass with incomplete septa, in the screening of hydrosalpinx in women undergoing surgery for gynaecological diseases, and to determine the predictive value of this method combined with colour Doppler energy (CDE) imaging evaluation and CA125 concentrations in differentiating hydrosalpinx from other adnexal masses. In the first part of the study, 378 consecutive pre-menopausal non-pregnant women were submitted to transvaginal ultrasonography alone before surgery. In the second part of the study, 256 adnexal masses underwent transvaginal ultrasonography combined with CDE imaging evaluation associated with spectral Doppler analysis and plasma concentrations of CA125. Sensitivity and specificity for the ultrasonographic screening were 84.6 and 99.7% respectively, calculated for each adnexum (n = 756) and 93.3 and 99.6% respectively, calculated for each mass, for differentiating hydrosalpinx from other adnexal masses. The CDE imaging and the evaluation of CA125 plasma concentrations do not seem to increase the accuracy of B-mode transvaginal ultrasonography. Inter- and intra-observer agreement, expressed in terms of k-values, was high (0.87 and 0.93 respectively). In conclusion, transvaginal ultrasonography alone is a useful method of detection of hydrosalpinx.  (+info)

Contrast-enhanced sonography in the examination of benign and malignant adnexal masses. (8/150)

Our objective was to characterize the properties of an intravascular ultrasonographic contrast agent in examination of adnexal masses and to compare contrast agent properties between benign and malignant adnexal tumors. Fifty-eight consecutively examined women with suspected ovarian tumors were examined preoperatively by power Doppler ultrasonography, first without and then with contrast agent enhancement (Levovist). Fourteen women had ovarian cancer, 3 had borderline ovarian tumors, 18 had benign ovarian neoplasms, and 23 had functional adnexal cystic masses or endometriomas. The effect of the contrast agent was evaluated visually and by using computerized power Doppler signal intensity measurements. In visual evaluation, the brightness of the power Doppler signal and the amount of recognizable vascular areas increased in each tumor after contrast agent administration. The number of vessels in power Doppler ultrasonograms, both before and after contrast agent enhancement, was significantly higher in malignant than in benign adnexal masses, as also was the increase in the number of recognizable vessels after contrast agent administration. Contrast agent uptake time was significantly shorter in malignant than in benign tumors. No significant differences were found in the power Doppler signal intensities or their changes between benign and malignant tumors. In conclusion, use of sonographic contrast agent facilitates imaging of tumor vessels. For differentiation of benign and malignant tumors, the kinetic properties of the contrast agent, such as uptake and washout times, may have more potential than the use of the contrast agent in anatomic imaging of the tumor vessels.  (+info)

Adnexal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the adnexa of the uterus, which includes the fallopian tubes and ovaries. These diseases can range from benign conditions such as ovarian cysts or ectopic pregnancies, to more serious conditions like ovarian or fallopian tube cancer.

Some common adnexal diseases include:

1. Ovarian cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop on the ovary. They are usually benign but can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, bloating, and irregular menstruation.
2. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. This condition is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment.
3. Endometriosis: A condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of it, often on the ovaries or fallopian tubes. This can cause pain, irregular bleeding, and infertility.
4. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): An infection of the reproductive organs, usually caused by sexually transmitted bacteria. PID can affect the ovaries and fallopian tubes and can lead to chronic pain and infertility if left untreated.
5. Ovarian cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the ovary. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment, usually involving surgery and chemotherapy.
6. Fallopian tube cancer: A rare form of cancer that affects the fallopian tubes. Like ovarian cancer, it requires prompt treatment with surgery and chemotherapy.

"Adnexa uteri" is a medical term that refers to the structures closely related to or associated with the uterus. These structures include:

1. The fallopian tubes (also known as oviducts or salpinges): paired tubular structures that transport the egg from the ovary to the uterus during ovulation and provide a site for fertilization.
2. The ovaries (also known as gonads): paired reproductive organs that produce eggs (oocytes) and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone.
3. The broad ligaments: large, double-layered folds of peritoneum (the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity) that extend from the sides of the uterus and enclose and support the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding blood vessels.
4. The suspensory ligaments of the ovaries: these are extensions of the broad ligament that suspend the ovaries from the pelvic wall.
5. The round ligaments: these are fibromuscular bands that extend from the uterus to the labia majora and help maintain the position of the uterus within the pelvis.

Anomalies, inflammation (e.g., salpingitis, oophoritis), or other pathologies affecting the adnexa uteri may lead to various gynecological conditions and symptoms, such as pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy.

An ovarian cyst is a sac or pouch filled with fluid that forms on the ovary. Ovarian cysts are quite common in women during their childbearing years, and they often cause no symptoms. In most cases, ovarian cysts disappear without treatment over a few months. However, larger or persistent cysts may require medical intervention, including surgical removal.

There are various types of ovarian cysts, such as functional cysts (follicular and corpus luteum cysts), which develop during the menstrual cycle due to hormonal changes, and non-functional cysts (dermoid cysts, endometriomas, and cystadenomas), which can form due to different causes.

While many ovarian cysts are benign, some may have malignant potential or indicate an underlying medical condition like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Regular gynecological check-ups, including pelvic examinations and ultrasounds, can help detect and monitor ovarian cysts.

A "torsion abnormality" is not a standard medical term, but I believe you are asking about torsional deformities or abnormalities related to torsion. Torsion refers to a twisting force or movement that can cause structures to rotate around their long axis. In the context of medical definitions:

Torsional abnormality could refer to a congenital or acquired condition where anatomical structures, such as blood vessels, muscles, tendons, or bones, are twisted or rotated in an abnormal way. This can lead to various complications depending on the structure involved and the degree of torsion.

For instance, in congenital torsional deformities of long bones (like tibia or femur), the rotation of the bone axis can cause issues with gait, posture, and joint function. In some cases, this may require surgical intervention to correct the abnormality.

In the context of vascular torsion abnormalities, such as mesenteric torsion, it could lead to bowel ischemia due to the twisting of blood vessels that supply the intestines. This can be a surgical emergency and requires immediate intervention to restore blood flow and prevent further damage.

It's essential to consult with a medical professional for a precise diagnosis and treatment options if you or someone else experiences symptoms related to torsional abnormalities.

Eye neoplasms, also known as ocular tumors or eye cancer, refer to abnormal growths of tissue in the eye. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Eye neoplasms can develop in various parts of the eye, including the eyelid, conjunctiva, cornea, iris, ciliary body, choroid, retina, and optic nerve.

Benign eye neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, or a noticeable mass in the eye. Treatment options for benign eye neoplasms include monitoring, surgical removal, or radiation therapy.

Malignant eye neoplasms, on the other hand, can grow and spread rapidly to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as vision changes, eye pain, floaters, or flashes of light. Treatment options for malignant eye neoplasms depend on the type and stage of cancer but may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these treatments.

It is important to note that early detection and treatment of eye neoplasms can improve outcomes and prevent complications. Regular eye exams with an ophthalmologist are recommended for early detection and prevention of eye diseases, including eye neoplasms.

Sweat gland neoplasms are abnormal growths that develop in the sweat glands. These growths can be benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign sweat gland neoplasms include hidradenomas and syringomas, which are usually slow-growing and cause little to no symptoms. Malignant sweat gland neoplasms, also known as sweat gland carcinomas, are rare but aggressive cancers that can spread to other parts of the body. They may cause symptoms such as a lump or mass under the skin, pain, swelling, and redness. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the growth.

Genital neoplasms in females refer to abnormal growths or tumors that occur in the female reproductive organs. These can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). The most common types of female genital neoplasms are:

1. Cervical cancer: This is a malignancy that arises from the cells lining the cervix, usually caused by human papillomavirus (HPV) infection.
2. Uterine cancer: Also known as endometrial cancer, this type of female genital neoplasm originates in the lining of the uterus (endometrium).
3. Ovarian cancer: This is a malignancy that develops from the cells in the ovaries, which can be difficult to detect at an early stage due to its location and lack of symptoms.
4. Vulvar cancer: A rare type of female genital neoplasm that affects the external female genital area (vulva).
5. Vaginal cancer: This is a malignancy that occurs in the vagina, often caused by HPV infection.
6. Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: A rare group of tumors that develop from placental tissue and can occur during or after pregnancy.

Regular screening and early detection are crucial for successful treatment and management of female genital neoplasms.

CA-125 antigen is a type of protein that is found on the surface of many ovarian cancer cells and is often used as a tumor marker to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect recurrence of ovarian cancer. Elevated levels of CA-125 may also be present in other types of cancer, as well as nonmalignant conditions such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and cirrhosis. It is important to note that while CA-125 can be a useful tool in managing ovarian cancer, it is not specific to this type of cancer and should be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Ovarian neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the ovary, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various cell types within the ovary, including epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian neoplasms are often classified based on their cell type of origin, histological features, and potential for invasive or metastatic behavior.

Epithelial ovarian neoplasms are the most common type and can be further categorized into several subtypes, such as serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell, and Brenner tumors. Some of these epithelial tumors have a higher risk of becoming malignant and spreading to other parts of the body.

Germ cell ovarian neoplasms arise from the cells that give rise to eggs (oocytes) and can include teratomas, dysgerminomas, yolk sac tumors, and embryonal carcinomas. Stromal ovarian neoplasms develop from the connective tissue cells supporting the ovary and can include granulosa cell tumors, thecomas, and fibromas.

It is essential to diagnose and treat ovarian neoplasms promptly, as some malignant forms can be aggressive and potentially life-threatening if not managed appropriately. Regular gynecological exams, imaging studies, and tumor marker tests are often used for early detection and monitoring of ovarian neoplasms. Treatment options may include surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, depending on the type, stage, and patient's overall health condition.

Ovarian diseases refer to a range of conditions that affect the function and health of the ovaries, which are the female reproductive organs responsible for producing eggs (oocytes) and female hormones estrogen and progesterone. These diseases can be categorized into functional disorders, infectious and inflammatory diseases, neoplastic diseases, and other conditions that impact ovarian function. Here's a brief overview of some common ovarian diseases:

1. Functional Disorders: These are conditions where the ovaries experience hormonal imbalances or abnormal functioning, leading to issues such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A condition characterized by hormonal imbalances that can cause irregular periods, cysts in the ovaries, and symptoms like acne, weight gain, and infertility.
* Functional Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop within the ovary, usually as a result of normal ovulation (follicular or corpus luteum cysts). They're typically harmless and resolve on their own within a few weeks or months.
2. Infectious and Inflammatory Diseases: These conditions are caused by infections or inflammation affecting the ovaries, such as:
* Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): An infection that spreads to the reproductive organs, including the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and uterus. It's often caused by sexually transmitted bacteria like Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
* Tuberculosis (TB): A bacterial infection that can spread to the ovaries and cause inflammation, abscesses, or scarring.
3. Neoplastic Diseases: These are conditions where abnormal growths or tumors develop in the ovaries, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Examples include:
* Ovarian Cysts: While some cysts are functional and harmless, others can be neoplastic. Benign tumors like fibromas, dermoids, or cystadenomas can grow significantly larger and cause symptoms like pain or bloating. Malignant tumors include epithelial ovarian cancer, germ cell tumors, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
4. Other Conditions: Various other conditions can affect the ovaries, such as:
* Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that causes enlarged ovaries with small cysts. It's associated with irregular periods, infertility, and increased risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, and heart disease.
* Premature Ovarian Failure (POF): Also known as primary ovarian insufficiency, it occurs when the ovaries stop functioning before age 40, leading to menstrual irregularities, infertility, and early onset of menopause.

It's essential to consult a healthcare professional if you experience any symptoms related to your reproductive system or suspect an issue with your ovaries. Early detection and treatment can significantly improve the prognosis for many conditions affecting the ovaries.

Orbital neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the orbit, which is the bony cavity that contains the eyeball, muscles, nerves, fat, and blood vessels. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells within the orbit.

Orbital neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms depending on their size, location, and rate of growth. Common symptoms include protrusion or displacement of the eyeball, double vision, limited eye movement, pain, swelling, and numbness in the face. In some cases, orbital neoplasms may not cause any noticeable symptoms, especially if they are small and slow-growing.

There are many different types of orbital neoplasms, including:

1. Optic nerve glioma: a rare tumor that arises from the optic nerve's supportive tissue.
2. Orbital meningioma: a tumor that originates from the membranes covering the brain and extends into the orbit.
3. Lacrimal gland tumors: benign or malignant growths that develop in the lacrimal gland, which produces tears.
4. Orbital lymphangioma: a non-cancerous tumor that arises from the lymphatic vessels in the orbit.
5. Rhabdomyosarcoma: a malignant tumor that develops from the skeletal muscle cells in the orbit.
6. Metastatic tumors: cancerous growths that spread to the orbit from other parts of the body, such as the breast, lung, or prostate.

The diagnosis and treatment of orbital neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type, size, location, and extent of the tumor. Imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRI, are often used to visualize the tumor and determine its extent. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the diagnosis and determine the tumor's type and grade. Treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

A dermoid cyst is a type of benign (non-cancerous) growth that typically develops during embryonic development. It is a congenital condition, which means it is present at birth, although it may not become apparent until later in life. Dermoid cysts are most commonly found in the skin or the ovaries of women, but they can also occur in other areas of the body, such as the spine or the brain.

Dermoid cysts form when cells that are destined to develop into skin and its associated structures, such as hair follicles and sweat glands, become trapped during fetal development. These cells continue to grow and multiply, forming a sac-like structure that contains various types of tissue, including skin, fat, hair, and sometimes even teeth or bone.

Dermoid cysts are usually slow-growing and may not cause any symptoms unless they become infected or rupture. In some cases, they may cause pain or discomfort if they press on nearby structures. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the cyst to prevent complications and alleviate symptoms.

Conjunctival neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the conjunctiva, which is the thin, clear mucous membrane that covers the inner surface of the eyelids and the outer surface of the eye. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign conjunctival neoplasms are typically slow-growing and do not spread to other parts of the body. They may include lesions such as conjunctival cysts, papillomas, or naevi (moles). These growths can usually be removed through simple surgical procedures with a good prognosis.

Malignant conjunctival neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous and have the potential to invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body. The most common type of malignant conjunctival neoplasm is squamous cell carcinoma, which arises from the epithelial cells that line the surface of the conjunctiva. Other less common types include melanoma, lymphoma, and adenocarcinoma.

Malignant conjunctival neoplasms typically require more extensive treatment, such as surgical excision, radiation therapy, or chemotherapy. The prognosis for malignant conjunctival neoplasms depends on the type and stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis, as well as the patient's overall health and age. Early detection and prompt treatment are key to improving outcomes in patients with these conditions.

A sweat gland adenoma is a benign (non-cancerous) tumor that develops in the sweat glands. These glands are responsible for producing sweat to help regulate body temperature. When an adenoma forms in the sweat glands, it can cause a variety of symptoms depending on its size and location.

Sweat gland adenomas are relatively rare and can occur anywhere on the body where there are sweat glands. They typically appear as painless, slow-growing lumps or bumps under the skin. In some cases, they may cause excessive sweating, discomfort, or other symptoms if they press on nearby nerves or structures.

The exact cause of sweat gland adenomas is not fully understood, but they are thought to arise from abnormal growth and division of the cells that make up the sweat glands. Treatment options for these tumors may include surgical removal, depending on their size, location, and symptoms. If left untreated, some sweat gland adenomas may continue to grow and cause complications over time.

Lacrimal apparatus diseases refer to conditions that affect the structure and function of the lacrimal system, which is responsible for producing, storing, and draining tears. The lacrimal apparatus includes the lacrimal glands, lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct.

Diseases of the lacrimal apparatus can cause a range of symptoms, including watery eyes, redness, pain, swelling, and discharge. Some common conditions that affect the lacrimal apparatus include:

1. Dry eye syndrome: A condition in which the lacrimal glands do not produce enough tears or the tears are of poor quality, leading to dryness, irritation, and inflammation of the eyes.
2. Dacryocystitis: An infection of the lacrimal sac that can cause pain, swelling, redness, and discharge from the eye.
3. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction: A blockage in the nasolacrimal duct that can cause watery eyes, discharge, and recurrent infections.
4. Epiphora: Excessive tearing or watering of the eyes due to overflow of tears from the eye because of blocked tear ducts or increased production of tears.
5. Canaliculitis: An infection of the lacrimal canaliculi that can cause swelling, redness, and discharge from the eye.
6. Lacrimal gland tumors: Rare tumors that can affect the lacrimal glands and cause symptoms such as pain, swelling, and protrusion of the eyeball.

Treatment for lacrimal apparatus diseases depends on the specific condition and its severity. Treatment options may include medications, surgery, or a combination of both.

Eyelid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the tissues of the eyelids. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Common types of benign eyelid neoplasms include papillomas, hemangiomas, and nevi. Malignant eyelid neoplasms are typically classified as basal cell carcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, or melanomas. These malignant tumors can be aggressive and may spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. Treatment options for eyelid neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical excision is often the preferred treatment approach, although radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used in some cases. Regular follow-up care is important to monitor for recurrence or new growths.

Cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor (not cancerous), which arises from glandular epithelial cells and is covered by a thin layer of connective tissue. These tumors can develop in various locations within the body, including the ovaries, pancreas, and other organs that contain glands.

There are two main types of cystadenomas: serous and mucinous. Serous cystadenomas are filled with a clear or watery fluid, while mucinous cystadenomas contain a thick, gelatinous material. Although they are generally not harmful, these tumors can grow quite large and cause discomfort or other symptoms due to their size or location. In some cases, cystadenomas may undergo malignant transformation and develop into cancerous tumors, known as cystadenocarcinomas. Regular medical follow-up and monitoring are essential for individuals diagnosed with cystadenomas to ensure early detection and treatment of any potential complications.

Sebaceous gland neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the sebaceous glands, which are small oil-producing glands found in the skin. These glands are responsible for producing sebum, a natural oil that helps keep the skin and hair moisturized. Sebaceous gland neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign sebaceous gland neoplasms include:

* Seborrheic keratosis: These are common, harmless growths that appear as rough, scaly patches on the skin. They can be tan, brown, or black in color and vary in size from small to large.
* Sebaceous adenoma: This is a benign tumor that arises from the sebaceous glands. It typically appears as a small, yellowish bump on the skin.

Malignant sebaceous gland neoplasms include:

* Sebaceous carcinoma: This is a rare but aggressive form of skin cancer that arises from the sebaceous glands. It often appears as a hard, painless nodule on the eyelid or other areas of the face and can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated.
* Basal cell carcinoma: While not exclusively a sebaceous gland neoplasm, basal cell carcinomas can sometimes arise from the sebaceous glands. These are slow-growing but invasive skin cancers that typically appear as pearly or flesh-colored bumps on the skin.

It is important to have any new or changing growths on the skin evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine whether they are benign or malignant and to develop an appropriate treatment plan if necessary.

Syringomas are benign, slow-growing skin tumors that originate from the eccrine sweat glands. They typically appear as multiple, small, skin-colored or slightly yellowish papules, often found on the lower eyelids, upper cheeks, and other areas of the face. They can also occur on the chest, abdomen, and genital regions. Syringomas are more common in women than men and usually develop during adolescence or early adulthood. While they are generally harmless and do not cause any symptoms, some people may seek treatment for cosmetic reasons.

B-cell marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a type of indolent (slow-growing) non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). It arises from B-lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell found in the lymphatic system. MZLs typically involve the marginal zone of lymphoid follicles, which are structures found in lymph nodes and other lymphatic tissues.

There are three subtypes of MZL: extranodal MZL (also known as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue or MALT lymphoma), nodal MZL, and splenic MZL. Extranodal MZL is the most common form and can occur at various extranodal sites, such as the stomach, lungs, skin, eyes, and salivary glands. Nodal MZL involves the lymph nodes without evidence of extranodal disease, while splenic MZL primarily affects the spleen.

MZLs are typically low-grade malignancies, but they can transform into more aggressive forms over time. Treatment options depend on the stage and location of the disease, as well as the patient's overall health. Common treatments include watchful waiting, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Psittacosis is a zoonotic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Chlamydia psittaci, which is typically found in birds. It can be transmitted to humans through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds, and less commonly, through direct contact with infected birds or their environments. The disease is characterized by symptoms such as fever, headache, muscle aches, cough, and pneumonia. In severe cases, it can lead to respiratory failure, heart inflammation, and even death if left untreated. It's important to note that psittacosis is treatable with antibiotics, and early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for a favorable prognosis.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

Keratin-15 is a type I keratin protein that is expressed in the basal cells of stratified epithelia, including the hair follicle and the epidermis. It plays a role in maintaining the integrity and stability of these tissues, particularly during periods of stress or injury. Keratin-15 has also been identified as a marker for stem cells in the hair follicle bulge region, which is responsible for hair regeneration. In addition, keratin-15 expression has been linked to various skin disorders, such as psoriasis and certain types of cancer, including squamous cell carcinoma.

'Chlamydophila psittaci' is a gram-negative, obligate intracellular bacterium that causes psittacosis, also known as parrot fever. It is commonly found in birds, particularly parrots and psittacines, but can also infect other bird species, mammals, and humans. In humans, it can cause a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, cough, and pneumonia. Human-to-human transmission is rare, and the disease is typically acquired through inhalation of dried secretions or feces from infected birds.

Mucinous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes of the body. It is most commonly found in the ovary, but can also occur in other locations such as the pancreas or appendix.

Mucinous cystadenomas are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a slippery, gel-like substance that accumulates inside the tumor and causes it to grow into a cystic mass. These tumors can vary in size, ranging from a few centimeters to over 20 centimeters in diameter.

While mucinous cystadenomas are generally benign, they have the potential to become cancerous (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma) if left untreated. Symptoms of mucinous cystadenoma may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, and changes in bowel movements or urinary habits. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Adenocarcinoma, sebaceous is a type of cancer that develops from the sebaceous glands, which are glands in the skin that produce an oily substance called sebum. This type of cancer is a malignant tumor that forms in the glandular cells and can spread to other parts of the body. It most commonly occurs in the glands found in the eyelids (known as meibomian glands), but it can also occur in other areas of the body such as the genitals, breasts, and skin.

Sebaceous adenocarcinoma is a rare type of cancer, accounting for less than 1% of all skin cancers. It typically affects older adults and has been linked to exposure to radiation and certain genetic mutations. Treatment usually involves surgical removal of the tumor, along with radiation therapy or chemotherapy in some cases.

It is important to note that while I strive to provide accurate and up-to-date information, this definition may not be complete or fully comprehensive. If you have any concerns about your health or a medical condition, it is always best to consult with a qualified healthcare professional for personalized advice and treatment.

Fallopian tube diseases refer to conditions that affect the function or structure of the Fallopian tubes, which are a pair of narrow tubes that transport the egg from the ovaries to the uterus during ovulation and provide a pathway for sperm to reach the egg for fertilization. Some common Fallopian tube diseases include:

1. Salpingitis: This is an inflammation of the Fallopian tubes, usually caused by an infection. The infection can be bacterial, viral, or fungal in origin and can lead to scarring, blockage, or damage to the Fallopian tubes.
2. Hydrosalpinx: This is a condition where one or both of the Fallopian tubes become filled with fluid, leading to swelling and distension of the tube. The cause of hydrosalpinx can be infection, endometriosis, or previous surgery.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition where the tissue that lines the inside of the uterus grows outside of it, including on the Fallopian tubes. This can lead to scarring, adhesions, and blockage of the tubes.
4. Ectopic pregnancy: This is a pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, usually in the Fallopian tube. An ectopic pregnancy can cause the Fallopian tube to rupture, leading to severe bleeding and potentially life-threatening complications.
5. Tubal ligation: This is a surgical procedure that involves blocking or cutting the Fallopian tubes to prevent pregnancy. In some cases, tubal ligation can lead to complications such as ectopic pregnancy or tubal sterilization syndrome, which is a condition where the fallopian tubes reconnect and allow for pregnancy to occur.

These conditions can cause infertility, chronic pain, and other health problems, and may require medical or surgical treatment.

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the reproductive organs in women, specifically the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries. It is often caused by an infection that ascends from the cervix or vagina into the upper genital tract. The infectious agents are usually sexually transmitted bacteria such as Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, but other organisms can also be responsible.

Symptoms of PID may include lower abdominal pain, irregular menstrual bleeding, vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor, fever, painful sexual intercourse, or pain in the lower back. However, some women with PID may not experience any symptoms at all. If left untreated, PID can lead to serious complications such as infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain.

Diagnosis of PID is typically based on a combination of clinical findings, physical examination, and laboratory tests. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eradicate the infection and may also include pain management and other supportive measures. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary for more intensive treatment or if complications arise.

Ectopic pregnancy is a type of abnormal pregnancy that occurs outside the uterine cavity. The most common site for an ectopic pregnancy is the fallopian tube, accounting for about 95% of cases. This condition is also known as tubal pregnancy. Other less common sites include the ovary, cervix, and abdominal cavity.

In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg travels down the fallopian tube and implants itself in the lining of the uterus. However, in an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and starts to develop somewhere other than the uterus. The growing embryo cannot survive outside the uterus, and if left untreated, an ectopic pregnancy can cause life-threatening bleeding due to the rupture of the fallopian tube or other organs.

Symptoms of ectopic pregnancy may include abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, shoulder pain, lightheadedness, fainting, and in severe cases, shock. Diagnosis is usually made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, ultrasound, and blood tests to measure the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone produced during pregnancy.

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy depends on several factors, including the location, size, and growth rate of the ectopic mass, as well as the patient's overall health and desire for future pregnancies. Treatment options may include medication to stop the growth of the embryo or surgery to remove the ectopic tissue. In some cases, both methods may be used together. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve the chances of preserving fertility in future pregnancies.

Diagnostic techniques in obstetrics and gynecology refer to the various methods used by healthcare professionals to diagnose and monitor conditions related to the female reproductive system and pregnancy. Here are some commonly used diagnostic techniques:

1. Physical examination: A thorough physical exam, including a pelvic exam, can help identify any abnormalities in the reproductive organs.
2. Medical history: A detailed medical history, including information about menstrual cycles, sexual activity, and family health, can provide valuable clues to diagnose various conditions.
3. Imaging tests: Ultrasound, CT scans, and MRIs can help healthcare professionals visualize the reproductive organs and detect any abnormalities.
4. Laboratory tests: Blood tests, urine tests, and cultures can help identify infections, hormonal imbalances, and other conditions.
5. Biopsy: A small sample of tissue is taken from the affected area and examined under a microscope to diagnose conditions such as cancer.
6. Colposcopy: This procedure involves using a special magnifying device to examine the cervix and vagina for signs of abnormalities.
7. Hysterosalpingography: This is an X-ray procedure that involves injecting a dye into the uterus and fallopian tubes to detect any blockages or other abnormalities.
8. Sonohysterography: This is an ultrasound procedure that involves injecting a fluid into the uterus to help visualize its interior and detect any abnormalities.
9. Minimally invasive surgery: Procedures such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy can help healthcare professionals diagnose and treat various conditions related to the reproductive organs.

These diagnostic techniques can help healthcare professionals identify and manage a wide range of conditions, including infertility, pregnancy complications, infections, hormonal imbalances, and cancer.

The broad ligament is a wide, flat fold of peritoneum (the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity) that supports and suspends the uterus within the pelvic cavity. It consists of two layers - the anterior leaf and the posterior leaf - which enclose and protect various reproductive structures such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and blood vessels.

The broad ligament plays a crucial role in maintaining the position and stability of the uterus, allowing for proper functioning of the female reproductive system. It also serves as a conduit for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply and drain the uterus and other pelvic organs.

Anomalies or pathologies of the broad ligament, such as cysts, tumors, or inflammation, can potentially lead to various gynecological conditions and symptoms, requiring medical evaluation and intervention if necessary.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

Salpingectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both of the fallopian tubes are removed. These tubes are slender structures that connect the ovaries to the uterus, through which the egg travels from the ovary to the uterus during ovulation. Salpingectomy can be performed for various reasons such as ectopic pregnancy, salpingitis (inflammation of the fallopian tubes), hydrosalpinx (fluid-filled tube), or as a preventative measure in women with increased risk of ovarian cancer. The procedure can be carried out through laparoscopy, hysteroscopy, or laparotomy, depending on the patient's condition and the surgeon's preference.

... adnexal torsion) is an infrequent but significant cause of acute lower abdominal pain in women. This condition is usually ... Role of multidetector CT in the management of acute female pelvic disease. Emerg Radiol. 2009 Nov. 16(6):453-72. [QxMD MEDLINE ... In a retrospective large study comparing pregnant patients with adnexal torsion to nonpregnant patients with adnexal torsion, ... encoded search term (Ovarian (Adnexal) Torsion) and Ovarian (Adnexal) Torsion What to Read Next on Medscape ...
... adnexal torsion) is an infrequent but significant cause of acute lower abdominal pain in women. This condition is usually ... Consideration is particularly imperative in a patient with known risk factors for the disease, such as ovarian mass, prior ... encoded search term (Ovarian (Adnexal) Torsion) and Ovarian (Adnexal) Torsion What to Read Next on Medscape ... Ovarian (Adnexal) Torsion Differential Diagnoses. Updated: Sep 29, 2022 * Author: Erik D Schraga, MD; Chief Editor: Eugene C ...
Cancer antigen 125 in patients with chronic liver disease. Mayo Clin Proc. 2002 Jun. 77(6):538-41. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... encoded search term (Adnexal Tumors) and Adnexal Tumors What to Read Next on Medscape ... At this point, it represents a pathological adnexal mass.. Adnexal masses present a diagnostic dilemma; the differential ... Determining the true frequency of adnexal masses is impossible because most adnexal cysts develop and resolve without clinical ...
Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO) is a rare gynecologic neoplasm of low-malignant potential presumed to ... Disease-defining molecular alterations for FATWO have yet to be discovered. Similar articles * Targeted Genomic Profiling ... Targeted Genomic Profiling of Female Adnexal Tumors of Probable Wolffian Origin (FATWO) Jelena Mirkovic 1 , Fei Dong, Lynette M ... Female Adnexal Tumor of Probable Wolffian Origin: A Review. Shalaby A, Shenoy V. Shalaby A, et al. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2020 ...
Start Over You searched for: Subjects Adnexal Diseases -- surgery ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Adnexal Diseases -- surgery ... Adnexal Diseases -- surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms -- surgery 2. Extirpation of the uterus in disease of the adnexa ... Adnexal Diseases -- surgery 5. Twelve months of abdominal and vaginal section Author(s): Byford, Henry T. (Henry Turman), 1853- ... Adnexal Diseases -- surgery. Vagina -- surgery 7. Hysterectomy for other conditions than fibroid and malignant tumors ...
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - Detailed Fact Sheet from CDC ... adnexal tenderness.. The requirement that all three minimum ... What is pelvic inflammatory disease?. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome that results from the ascension ... two of the most common reportable infectious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the US. ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) - CDC Basic Fact Sheet. Basic fact sheets are presented in plain language for individuals ...
MDC 13 Diseases & Disorders of the Female Reproductive System. Uterine and Adnexal Procedures for Non-Malignancy. ...
Jeon K, Kwon OJ, Lee NY, Kim BJ, Kook YH, Lee SH, Antibiotic treatment of Mycobacterium abscessus lung disease: a retrospective ... Nontuberculous mycobacterial ocular and adnexal infections. Surv Ophthalmol. 2012;57:202-35. DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... Prevots DR, Shaw PA, Strickland D, Jackson LA, Raebel MA, Blosky MA, Nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease prevalence at ... Pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial disease, Ontario, Canada, 1998-2010. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:1889-91. DOIPubMedGoogle ...
Bilateral adnexal tenderness * Cervical motion tenderness Among women with severe clinical signs, more elaborate diagnostic ... Pelvic inflammatory disease. In: Sweet RL, Gibbs RS, eds. Infectious diseases of the female genital tract. 2nd ed. Baltimore: ... Pelvic inflammatory disease: key treatment and management issues and options. In: Joint Meeting of the Centers for Disease ... Sexually transmitted diseases and human immunodeficiency virus infection among women with pelvic inflammatory disease. Am J ...
Categories: Adnexal Diseases Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 4 ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ...
Diseases of female external genitalia. Adnexal tumors of the skin].. Grimmer H. Z Haut Geschlechtskr; 1971 Jul; 46(13):95-104 ... Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria.. Samaila MO. Ann Afr Med; 2008 Mar; 7(1):6-10. PubMed ID: 18702242. [TBL] ... Skin adnexal neoplasms--part 2: an approach to tumours of cutaneous sweat glands.. Obaidat NA; Alsaad KO; Ghazarian D. J Clin ... An adnexal adenoma with sebaceous and apocrine poroma-like differentiation.. Zaim MT. Am J Dermatopathol; 1988 Aug; 10(4):311-8 ...
... and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. ... adnexal degeneration, and epithelial intracytoplasmic accumulations; oligodendroglioma and microgliomas in rats; a microcytic, ... and lymphoproliferative disease in a cynomolgus monkey. (Last reviewed January 2022) ...
Adnexal Diseases 1 0 Gingival Overgrowth 1 0 Granular Cell Tumor 1 0 ... in Genopedia reflects only the indexed disease term without children terms, but the number in the HuGE Literature Finder ... reflects all text searches of the disease term including the indexed term and corresponding children terms. ...
Liver Disease. Clomiphene citrate therapy is contraindicated in patients with liver disease or a history of liver dysfunction ( ... Genitourinary: Endometriosis, ovarian cyst (ovarian enlargement or cysts could, as such, be complicated by adnexal torsion), ... Neoplasms: Liver (hepatic hemangiosarcoma, liver cell adenoma, hepatocellular carcinoma); breast (fibrocystic disease, breast ...
Comparative effectiveness of robotically assisted compared with laparoscopic adnexal surgery for benign gynecologic disease. ...
Adnexal tumors, Fallopian tube cancer, Vulvar dysplasia, Germ cell tumor, Mediastinal lymph node enlargement, Ovarian remnant ... Sexually transmitted disease, Polycystic ovary syndrome, Endometriosis, Chronic pelvic pain, Vaginitis, Bacterial vaginosis, ... Adnexal tumors, Fallopian tube cancer, Vulvar dysplasia, Germ cell tumor, Ovarian remnant syndrome, Peritoneal cancer ... Adnexal tumors, Fallopian tube cancer, Germ cell tumor, Ovarian remnant syndrome, Peritoneal cancer ...
The first journal exclusively dedicated to research and treatment of hair nail and skin gland diseases ... The section "Adnexal Surgery" focuses on both established and approved as well as new surgical treatments. Pathological ... The First Journal Exclusively Dedicated to Research and Treatment of Hair, Nail, and Skin Gland Diseases. Skin Appendage ...
BackgroundEndometriosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue. In ... Isidor B, Latypova X and Ploteau S (2018) Familial deep endometriosis: A rare monogenic disease?, European Journal of ... including eight uterine myomas and 70 adnexal masses, with no laparoscopic evidence of endometriosis and random peritoneal ... 2001), whereas a few studies reported increased but not significant ORs for the disease (Buck Louis et al. 2005; Heilier et al ...
Emergency medicine, Ocular and adnexal trauma, Orbital and skull-based diseases, Reconstructive surgery ...
Gestational trophoblastic disease: presentations from the XVIIth World Congress on Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases. J Reprod ... Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian Origin - A report of two cases at one institution. Gynecol Oncol Rep. 2020 Aug; 33: ... Gestational Trophoblastic Disease: Presentations from the XVIIIth World Congress on Gestational Trophoblastic Diseases. J ... How to optimize the management of gestational trophoblastic disease during the coronavirus disease era? Am J Obstet Gynecol. ...
3.14.5 Adnexal Disease. *3.14.6 Conclusion. *References. *Glossary. *3.15. Three-Dimensional Multispectral MRI for Patients ...
Adnexal Diseases - Preferred Concept UI. M0000457. Scope note. Diseases of the uterine appendages (ADNEXA UTERI) including ... Diseases of the uterine appendages (ADNEXA UTERI) including diseases involving the OVARY, the FALLOPIAN TUBES, and ligaments of ... inflamm dis = PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE. Allowable Qualifiers:. BL blood. CF cerebrospinal fluid. CI chemically induced. CL ... Adnexal Disease. Disease, Adnexal. Diseases, Adnexal. Tree number(s):. C12.050.351.500.056. C12.100.250.056. ...
... uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. ... Access the 1990 Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) case definition; ... Adnexal tenderness. In addition to all of the above criteria, at least one of the following findings must also be present:. * ... National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System (NNDSS). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. ...
Urogenital Diseases [C12] * Genital Diseases [C12.100] * Genital Diseases, Female [C12.100.250] * Adnexal Diseases [C12.100. ... Adnexal Diseases [C12.050.351.500.056] * Fallopian Tube Diseases [C12.050.351.500.056.390] * Ovarian Diseases [C12.050.351.500. ... Adnexal Diseases Preferred Concept UI. M0000457. Scope Note. Diseases of the uterine appendages (ADNEXA UTERI) including ... Urogenital Diseases [C12] * Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications [C12.050] * Female Urogenital Diseases [ ...
Urogenital Diseases [C12] * Genital Diseases [C12.100] * Genital Diseases, Female [C12.100.250] * Adnexal Diseases [C12.100. ... Adnexal Diseases [C12.050.351.500.056] * Fallopian Tube Diseases [C12.050.351.500.056.390] * Ovarian Diseases [C12.050.351.500. ... Adnexal Diseases Preferred Concept UI. M0000457. Scope Note. Diseases of the uterine appendages (ADNEXA UTERI) including ... Urogenital Diseases [C12] * Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications [C12.050] * Female Urogenital Diseases [ ...
Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma -- Is there anyone else out there whos been affected by this? Would love to chat!! My husband ... Sarcoidosis is auto-immune disease, it is not cancer. It can affect any part of your body, mine is in my lungs. It was ... Do not use this information to diagnose or treat a health problem or disease without consulting with a qualified healthcare ...
However, it is a rarer presentation, misleading the pathologist to think first about metastatic breast disease, the most ... Malignant adnexal cutaneous tumor of the scalp: a case report of difficult differential diagnosis between metastatic breast ... A primary adnexal cutaneous tumor is rare and may share characteristics with mammary ductal carcinoma since the mammary ducts ... 3.Zelger BG, Stelzmueller I, Dunst KM, Zelger B. Solid apocrine carcinoma of the skin: report of a rare adnexal neoplasm ...
adnexal tumours. Tumours in hamsters linked to polymavirus infection. source: A.P. Foster et al. Veterinary Record vol 151 no 1 ... Diseases in pet guinea pigs: a retrospective study in 1000 animals. Dental and skin diseases most common health problems in ... The most common symptom in rabbits is a head tilt due to vestibular disease. E cunicli can also cause kidney disease, cataracts ... Rabbits were most likely to die from predation or disease, though some died from flooding. The incidence of disease may be ...
  • 3. Benign cutaneous adnexal tumors with combined folliculosebaceous, apocrine, and eccrine differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • 8. [Benign adnexal tumors of late occurrence in verrucoid-sebaceous nevus (Jadassohn). (nih.gov)
  • Adnexal tumors of the skin]. (nih.gov)
  • 11. Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria. (nih.gov)
  • 14. Benign cutaneous adnexal tumors in childhood and young adults, excluding pilomatrixoma: review of 28 cases and literature. (nih.gov)
  • The most common skin diseases observed in this study were skin appendage disorders, benign skin and adnexal tumors, pigmentation disorders, and papulosquamous lesions. (qxmd.com)
  • In women of reproductive age who have had adnexal masses removed surgically, most are benign cysts or masses. (medscape.com)
  • The histopathological pattern of benign and non-neoplastic skin diseases at King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia. (qxmd.com)
  • To characterize and compare the histopathological pattern of benign skin diseases in patients from Madinah region of Saudi Arabia. (qxmd.com)
  • This retrospective study was conducted at the Department of Pathology, King Fahad Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia, and contained cases of benign skin diseases for 11 years (from January 2006 to December 2017). (qxmd.com)
  • The pelvic examination showed left adnexal tenderness with a possible mass. (cdc.gov)
  • 17. Skin adnexal neoplasms--part 2: an approach to tumours of cutaneous sweat glands. (nih.gov)
  • Clinical characteristics of adnexal torsion in premenarchal patients. (medscape.com)
  • Determining the true frequency of adnexal masses is impossible because most adnexal cysts develop and resolve without clinical detection. (medscape.com)
  • When assessing the clinical significance of an adnexal mass, consideration of several age groups is important. (medscape.com)
  • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a clinical syndrome that results from the ascension of microorganisms from the cervix and vagina to the upper genital tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Geographical Health District and Distance Traveled Influence on Clinical Status at Admission of Patients with Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. (dana-farber.org)
  • The omission of an adequate lymphadenectomy in clinical early-stage disease results in the underdiagnosis of stage III disease in approximately 10%-20% of patients, leading to the exclusion of adjuvant chemotherapy with curative intent ( 4 , 5 ). (snmjournals.org)
  • The investigators pointed out that mantle cell lymphoma is a rare form of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma characterized by widespread disease on presentation, an aggressive clinical course, frequent recurrences, and poor survival. (optometrytimes.com)
  • Female adnexal tumor of probable Wolffian origin (FATWO) is a rare gynecologic neoplasm of low-malignant potential presumed to be derived from mesonephric remnants in the upper female genital tract. (nih.gov)
  • A quick and confident diagnosis is required to save the adnexal structures from infarction. (medscape.com)
  • If follicular atrophy occurs without involvement of other adnexal structures, the term "Skin, Fol icle - Atrophy" should be used. (nih.gov)
  • However, other less common forms of skin cancer can also be treated with Mohs surgery including: Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans (DFSP), Extramammary Paget's Disease (EMPD), Sebaceous Carcinoma, Microcystic Adnexal Carcinoma (MAC), and Atypical Fibroxanthoma (AFX). (houstondermatologyspecialists.com)
  • In the past, physicians relied on the findings of a pelvic examination to diagnose an adnexal mass. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast, the presence of an adnexal mass in prepubertal girls and postmenopausal women heightens the risk of a malignant neoplastic etiology. (medscape.com)
  • Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Endometriosis is a common gynecologic disease characterized by the ectopic growth of endometrial tissue and is often associated with pelvic pain and/or infertility. (nih.gov)
  • Adnexal torsion is not limited to women of reproductive age. (medscape.com)
  • In the group of skin appendages disorders, epidermal inclusion cyst was the most common disease entity representing 20.4% of cases, followed by trichilemmal cyst accounting for 9.2% of the total cases. (qxmd.com)
  • Ovarian torsion (adnexal torsion) is an infrequent but significant cause of acute lower abdominal pain in women . (medscape.com)
  • Pregnancy is associated with, and may be responsible for, torsion in approximately 20% of adnexal torsion cases. (medscape.com)
  • The process can involve the ovary alone but more commonly affects both the ovary and the oviduct (adnexal torsion). (medscape.com)
  • Confident and early diagnosis of ovarian torsion (adnexal torsion) is imperative. (medscape.com)
  • Color Doppler sonography of adnexal torsion. (medscape.com)
  • Comparison of adnexal torsion between pregnant and nonpregnant women. (medscape.com)
  • It is important for patients with cervical abnormalities to undergo regular gynaecological exams to ensure that the disease has not progressed. (centrembg.com)
  • The physical examination revealed no palpable adnexal masses, orbital rim deformities, or relative proptosis. (optometrytimes.com)
  • Consideration is particularly imperative in a patient with known risk factors for the disease, such as ovarian mass, prior pelvic surgery, or pregnancy. (medscape.com)
  • Transient osteoporosis of pregnancy (TOP) is a rare and often misdiagnosed disease during pregnancy. (issr-journals.org)
  • An adnexal adenoma with sebaceous and apocrine poroma-like differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Whenever present, adnexal atrophy, follicular atrophy, or sebaceous gland atrophy should be diagnosed and assigned a severity grade. (nih.gov)
  • 1 When present, signs and symptoms of PID are nonspecific, so other reproductive tract illnesses and diseases of both the urinary and the gastrointestinal tracts should be considered when evaluating a sexually active woman with lower abdominal pain. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, in the treatment of ocular surface disease, anti-inflammatory effects, as well as rapid epithelialization, would be critical. (molvis.org)
  • In this regard, if the suspension type of AM is provided and retains its own beneficial effect, it may prove valuable in the treatment of ocular surface disease, as AM has been shown to promote corneal epithelialization and to suppress inflammation on the ocular surface. (molvis.org)
  • The section "Adnexal Surgery" focuses on both established and approved as well as new surgical treatments. (karger.com)
  • PID is a serious complication of chlamydia and gonorrhea, two of the most common reportable infectious diseases and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the US. (cdc.gov)
  • Griffith DE , Aksamit T , Brown-Elliott BA , Catanzaro A , Daley C , Gordin F , An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • In sexually active adolescents, one must always consider a tubo-ovarian abscess as the cause of an adnexal mass. (medscape.com)
  • Figure 2 Adnexal atrophy-smaller and reduced numbers of pilosebaceous units (arrows) in a male B6C3F1 mouse from a chronic study. (nih.gov)
  • Adnexal atrophy is characterized by smaller and reduced numbers of pilosebaceous units (Figure 2 and Figure 3). (nih.gov)
  • Adnexal or follicular atrophy may correspond to the gross observation of alopecia. (nih.gov)
  • Each year approximately 1 million women in the United States experience an episode of symptomatic pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) (*) (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • 530 disease terms (MeSH) has been reported with TP53 gene. (cdc.gov)
  • A study by a team from the University of Brno, Czech Republic, of records for 1,000 pet guinea pigs taken to a vet clinic from 2008 to 2013 has found dental and skin diseases to be their most common health problems. (infopet.co.uk)
  • Skin diseases thus present differently in children than in adults. (odopublishing.com)
  • Pediatric dermatology has seen significant advances over the last decade, particularly in the field of molecular genetics research, which has furthered our understanding of the pathogenesis of many skin diseases and the development of new approaches to treatment. (odopublishing.com)
  • This first edition provides state-of-the-art information on all aspects of skin disease in children. (odopublishing.com)
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
  • A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. (cancer.org)
  • 10. [Diseases of female external genitalia. (nih.gov)
  • Other diseases included gastrointestinal problems, and osteoarthritis. (infopet.co.uk)
  • Determining if these drugs increase risk is complicated by the fact that people with RA, which is an autoimmune disease, already have a higher risk of NHL (see below). (cancer.org)
  • What are the complications of pelvic inflammatory disease? (cdc.gov)
  • How do women get pelvic inflammatory disease? (cdc.gov)
  • How common is pelvic inflammatory disease in the United States? (cdc.gov)
  • NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (nih.gov)
  • But it's not totally clear if this is related to the disease itself or if it is an effect of the treatment. (cancer.org)
  • Current chemotherapeutic options for the treatment of gestational trophoblastic disease. (dana-farber.org)