The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Glucose in blood.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
The consumption of edible substances.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.

Treatment of cutaneous ulcers with benzoyl peroxide. (1/2779)

Benzoyl peroxide, a powerful organic oxidizing agent, was applied topically according to a carefully developed technique to cutaneous ulcers of different types. The healing time was shortened greatly by the rapid development of healthy granulation tissue and the quick ingrowth of epithelium. Exceptionally large pressure ulcers with deep cavities, undercut edges and sinus tracts were sucessfully treated, as were stasis ulcers of long duration resistant to all other therapy. There were only 13 treatment failures among the 133 cases. The slow, sustained release of oxygen by benzoyl peroxide was though to be responsible for the success. The only complications were contact irritant dermatitis in 3% and contact allergic dermatitis in 2% of patients treated.  (+info)

Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. (2/2779)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. DESIGN: 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. SETTING: Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of steroid. RESULTS: Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a mean concentration of 456 micrograms/g (range 64 to 1500 micrograms/g). All were applied to areas of sensitive skin such as face and flexures. CONCLUSION: Greater regulation needs to be imposed on Chinese herbalists to prevent illegal and inappropriate prescribing of potent steroids.  (+info)

Bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis. (3/2779)

Two long-term therapy trials with high concentrations of antibiotic were carried out to determine the duration of therapy required to achieve bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs. In the first study, corneas still contained Pseudomonas after 4 days of continual topical therapy with either tobramycin 400 mg/ml, amikacin 250 mg/ml, ticarcillin 400 mg/ml, or carbenicillin 400 mg/ml. In an 11-day trial of topical therapy with tobramycin 20 mg/ml, 34 of 36 corneas grew no Pseudomonas after 6 or more days of therapy. The bacteriologic response to therapy in this model occurred in two phases. About 99.9% or more of the organisms in the cornea were killed in the first 24 hr of therapy. The numbers of bacteria remaining in the cornea declined gradually over the next several days until the corneas were sterile. Optimal antibiotic therapy may include two stages: initial intensive therapy with high concentrations of antibiotic applied frequently to achieve a large rapid decrease in numbers of organisms in the cornea, followed by prolonged, less intensive therapy to eradicate organisms and prevent relapse.  (+info)

Effect of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation and wound healing. (4/2779)

PURPOSE: To establish whether fucoidin, by blocking the adhesion of leukocytes on the limbal vascular endothelium, prevents extravasation of the cells from the blood stream into the limbal stroma and the wounded area after corneal injury. Successful leukocyte blocking enabled investigation of the influence of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation after corneal wounding. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were used. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and a standardized alkali corneal wound were used as models in two sets of experiments. In half of the injured rabbits fucoidin was used to prevent leukocytes from leaving the local vessels. The efficiency of the blocking technique was evaluated by counting the number of leukocytes in the limbal and wounded corneal areas. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was used as a marker for proliferative activity. RESULTS: The infiltration of leukocytes into the limbus and the cornea after PRK and alkali injuries can be blocked by fucoidin. The healing rate of corneal epithelium after alkali burn was retarded in the absence of leukocytes. PCNA expression was enhanced in the presence of leukocytes. Fucoidin per se had no influence on corneal cell proliferation and wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) can be prevented from entering the cornea in vivo by fucoidin after PRK and after alkali burn. The corneal epithelial healing rate is delayed in the absence of PMNs in vivo, and PCNA expression increases in the presence of leukocytes.  (+info)

Riluzole improves functional recovery after ischemia in the rat retina. (5/2779)

PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia leads to neuronal death. The effects of riluzole, a drug that protects against the deleterious effect of cerebral ischemia by acting on several types of ion channels and blocking glutamatergic neurotransmission, were investigated in a rat model of retinal ischemic injury. METHODS: Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure above systolic blood pressure for 30 minutes. Electroretinograms were recorded before ischemia and at different periods of reperfusion. Riluzole was injected or topically applied to the eye before or after ischemia and twice daily during the reperfusion period. Retinas were harvested for histopathology (toluidine blue and silver-impregnation stainings, Tdt-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling [TUNEL] method) and immunohistochemistry for cytoskeletal glial fibrillary acid protein and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (p-JNK). RESULTS: Ischemia for 30 minutes caused a reduction of a- and b-waves of the electroretinogram. Systemic and topical treatments with riluzole significantly enhanced the recovery of the reduced a- and b-waves after defined reperfusion times. Riluzole also prevented or attenuated ischemia-induced retinal cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and reduced the activation of p-JNK, c-jun phosphorylation, and the increase of cytoskeletal proteins induced by ischemic injury. CONCLUSIONS: Riluzole acted in vivo as a potent neuroprotective agent against pressure-induced ischemia. Therefore, riluzole may be a major drug for use in protection against retinal injury.  (+info)

Topical psoriasis therapy. (6/2779)

Psoriasis is a common dermatosis, affecting from 1 to 3 percent of the population. Until recently, the mainstays of topical therapy have been corticosteroids, tars, anthralins and keratolytics. Recently, however, vitamin D analogs, a new anthralin preparation and topical retinoids have expanded physicians' therapeutic armamentarium. These new topical therapies offer increased hope and convenience to the large patient population with psoriasis.  (+info)

Contact hypersensitivity: a simple model for the characterization of disease-site targeting by liposomes. (7/2779)

A murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is characterized with respect to liposome accumulation at a site of inflammation. Mice were sensitized by painting the abdominal region with a solution of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and inflammation was induced 5 days later by challenging the ear with a dilute solution of DNFB. The inflammatory response was readily monitored by measuring ear thickness (edema) and radiolabeled leukocyte infiltration. Maximum ear swelling and cellular infiltration occurred 24 h after the epicutaneous challenge with the ear returning to normal size after approximately 72 h. We demonstrate that large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) accumulate at the site of inflammation to a level more than 20-fold higher than that measured in the untreated ear. Vesicle delivery to the ear correlated with increased vascular leakage resulting from endothelium remodeling in response to DNFB challenge, and was not a consequence of increased local tissue blood volume. Extravasation occurred only during the first 24 h after ear challenge; after this time the permeability of the endothelium to vesicles returned to normal. We further showed that LUV with a diameter of 120 nm exhibit maximum levels of accumulation, that a polyethylene glycol surface coating does not increase delivery, and that the process can be inhibited by the application of topical corticosteroids at the time of induction. These data and the inflammation model are discussed with respect to developing lipid-based drug delivery vehicles designed to accumulate at inflammatory disease sites.  (+info)

Topical gene delivery to murine skin. (8/2779)

We topically applied naked plasmid DNA containing the luciferase or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase cDNA directly to mouse skin. Gene expression was detected in skin samples as early as 4 h after DNA application, plateaued from 16 to 72 h post-application, and had decreased significantly by 7 d post-application. Reporter gene activity following topical DNA delivery was comparable with that produced by intradermal injection of DNA. Plasmid DNA at concentrations > or =0.25 microg per microl were required to achieve maximal expression levels. Reporter gene expression following topical administration was largely confined to the superficial layers of the epidermis and to hair follicles. Surprisingly, certain cationic liposomes inhibited the efficiency of cutaneous gene transfer. This technique provides a simple, clinically relevant approach to deliver genes to the skin, with potential application in treating a variety of cutaneous disorders.  (+info)

[148 Pages Report] Topical Drug Delivery Market Report categories the global market by Route of Administration (Rectal, Skin, Ophthalmic, Vaginal, Nasal), Product Type (Formulation (Solid, Cream, Lotion, Paste, Liquid), Transdermal (Patch, Gel)), Facility of Use (Clinic, Hospital, Home care, Research) & Geography
The structural properties of ethyl cellulose and propylene glycol dicaprylate mixtures were investigated with a view to facilitating use of the system as excepient for topical drug delivery. The working protocol included small-deformation dynamic oscillation in combination with the principle of time-temperature superposition, micro and modulated differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectroscopy, and optical profile analysis in the form of gel particle roughness. In contrast to thermoreversible gelation upon heating of aqueous ethyl cellulose solutions reported widely in the literature, replacing water with propylene glycol dicaprylate and mixing with the polymer yields gels that revert to the solution state with increasing temperature. Time effects were also probed; the continuous increase in viscoelasticity of preparations as a function of time of observation at ambient temperature was accompanied by structural disintegration of the polymeric ...
Formulations of topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and indomethacin demonstrated significantly higher rates of clinical success (more participants with at least 50% pain relief) than matching topical placebo (moderate or high
Retinas from Cx3cr1gfp/+ mice, as well as retinas and choroids from C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice, were dissected and divided into radial portions to be used in whole-mount immunofluorescence staining, as previously described.34 Tissue whole-mounts were incubated in 20 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 30 minutes at 37°C and blocked in 0.3% Triton X-100, 3% bovine serum albumin in PBS for 30 minutes at room temperature before antibody incubation. Tissues were then incubated with rabbit anti-mouse ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1, 1:400; Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) and rat anti-mouse MHC class II (M5/114.15.2, 1:400; BD Pharmingen, San Diego, CA, USA). Incubations were carried out for four hours at room temperature, followed by overnight incubation at 4°C. The following day, whole-mounts were washed three times in PBS and incubated with biotinylated goat anti-rat (1:400; Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, UK) diluted in blocking buffer, for two hours at ...
The systematic reviews by Zhang et al and Lin et al examined the effectiveness of oral and topical treatments for osteoarthritis. These treatments have been recommended by the American College of Rheumatology1 and in treatment guidelines developed in Europe and the UK.2,3 The use of paracetamol and topical NSAIDs must be even more closely examined in light of the withdrawal of rofecoxib from the market.. In a thorough review, Lin et al concluded that topical NSAIDs were superior to placebo in reducing pain and improving function, although effects waned after 2 weeks. The authors also noted that effects differed based on the specific drug. Comparisons of topical and oral NSAIDs were based on only 1 or 2 studies, and comparisons of various topical agents were not done in this review. The well done systematic review by Zhang et al examined the efficacy of paracetamol for reducing osteoarthritis pain and concluded that paracetamol is effective and safe for osteoarthritis pain relief. A similar ...
Biology Assignment Help, Topical route for injection, Topical Route The medication in topical route is administered through ear, nose and eye. Drops are instilled into the nose, ear and eyes of the child in much the same way as they are in the adult with the following exceptions. The dose
Good health starts with great skin, and a daily application of vitamin C serum for the face is recommended by many dermatologists. A simple solution of 25% vitamin C serum for the skin provides protection from environmentally induced free radicals, boosts the immune system, prevents inflammation that can cause wrinkling and exposure threats, and infuses much needed components that help make skin tighten and glow. Vitamin C has long been known as a deterrent for disease and ailments, going back as far as the ancient mariners who carried oranges and other citrus fruits on long voyages to prevent scurvy. The same prevention can be effective today, available in a daily application of vitamin C face serum to combat pollutants in the atmosphere leach out vital nutrients causing unhealthy attributes in skin.. Vitamin C Face Serum. A daily application is all it takes to return your skin and health to a youthful condition. As we age, moisture levels of our skin become depleted, bringing a host of ...
Purpose: : To determine the effect of topical hypotensive lipids on macular thickness in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: : This prospective study measures foveal and macular thickness in one eye of patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma without pre-existing macular thickening. Measurements of the fovea and macula were obtained using OCT before and after topical use of hypotensive lipids. Similar measurements were performed for comparison in an untreated control group. OCT measurement calculations used for analysis included fovea, the average of four quadrants of the inner ring of macular measurement, and similarly for the outer macular ring, as provided by OCT software Results: : Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients were enrolled in the treatment group and 21 eyes of 21 patients for the control group. OCT was performed in the treatment group before and 6.7 ± 5.0 months following initial topical therapy and over a similar time ...
The aim of the study was to assess changes in the activity of anti-inflammatory terpenes from Chilean medicinal plants after the formation of derivatives incorporating synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. Ten new hybrid molecules were synthesized combining terpenes (ferruginol (1), imbricatolic acid (2) and oleanolic acid (3)) with ibuprofen (4) or naproxen (5). The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was assessed in mice by the arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced ear edema assays. Basal cytotoxicity was determined towards human lung fibroblasts, gastric epithelial cells and hepatocytes. At 1.4 µmol/mouse, a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the TPA assay was observed for oleanoyl ibuprofenate 12 (79.9%) and oleanoyl ibuprofenate methyl ester 15 (80.0%). In the AA assay, the best activity was observed for 12 at 3.2 µmol/mouse, with 56.8% reduction of inflammation, in the same range as nimesulide (48.9%). All the terpenyl-synthetic anti
The authors report studies indicating that topical vitamins A and K may reduce the darkness of the under-eye region that often appears as people age.
Chronic topical administration of WIN-55-212-2 maintains a reduction in IOP in a rat glaucoma model without adverse effects Article ...
Differentiate. Always supply epinephrine for topical use in a pour-bottle (vial with peel off cap). If pour-bottles from manufacturers are not available (e.g., backorder), require pharmacy to prepare ready-to-use doses in pour-bottles or topical syringes, and to communicate the expected change in appearance to all affected service areas. Never take the risk of withdrawing a topical medication into a parenteral syringe.. Provide label clarity. Ensure that the word TOPICAL appears on the label of any container used to hold a solution intended for topical application.. Distinguish processes. Develop distinct processes for preparing and handling EPINEPHrine for topical application. In particular, medications such as EPINEPHrine intended for topical application should not be placed into a parenteral syringe. Conversely, a medication intended for injection (e.g., local anesthetic) should not be placed into an open container.. Separate processes. Store and prepare medications intended for topical use ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Comparison of the Uptake and Retention of Carcinogen by Breast and Fat (after Feeding) and Skin (after Topical Administration). by Fred G. Bock
Fungal infections of the skin are one of the often faced with dermatological diseases in worldwide. Topical therapy is an attractive choice for the treatment of the cutaneous infections due to its advantageous such as targeting of drugs to the site of infection and reduction of the risk of systemic side effects. Currently, antifungal drugs are generally used as conventional cream and gel preparations in topical treatment. The efficiency of that treatment depends on the penetration of drugs through the target layers of the skin at the effective concentrations. However, stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, is an effective barrier for penetration of drugs into deeper layers of the skin. The physicochemical characteristics of drug molecules and the types of the formulations are effective factors in topical drug delivery. Therefore, a number of formulation strategies have been investigated for delivering antifungal compounds through targeted site of the skin. This review article focuses on the
A Bulldog who spent two years either lying down or throwing up plays like a puppy thanks to a daily dose of medical marijuana. A Boxers skin cancer begins to disappear following topical applications of cannabis oil. A 12-year-old Lab mix diagnosed with liver and lung cancer regains his appetite and becomes more himself after his owner gives him a cannabis tincture purchased
The most common method of removing a scar is through the use of pharmacologic topical agents that can be applied directly on the scar tissue. These topical agents usually come in the form of creams and lotions that is why their application on the scar is easy and the effect is direct.. The only downside to this type of scar removal treatment is that it has many limitations. First, this will only apply to scars that have been formed recently therefore the old scars that may have been present in the persons life for years could not be easily removed.. And second, it would take a long time before these topical agents would work but rest assured, they will.. How do these topical agents work?. The basic mechanism of these topical agents is through the enhanced growth and multiplication of the epithelial skin cells.. When the scar is found only on the epidermal or the upper portion of the skin, by enhancing skin cell division, the upper portion can be easily shed off and be replaced by a new skin ...
DermaVir is a synthetic pathogen-like nanomedicine. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is a single plasmid DNA expressing fifteen HIV antigens that assemble to HIV-like particles. These particles are safe; replication, integration and reverse transcription deficient. DermaVir is targeted to Langerhans cells by topical administration with DermaPrep. Langerhans cells with DermaVir migrate to lymph nodes and induce HIV-specific T cells that can kill HIV-infected cells.. GIEU006 is a Phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, double-blinded, multicenter study to assess the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and preliminary antiretroviral activity of DermaVir in antiretroviral therapy naïve adults with HIV-infection. ...
DermaVir is a synthetic pathogen-like nanomedicine. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is a single plasmid DNA expressing fifteen HIV antigens that assemble to HIV-like particles. These particles are safe; replication, integration and reverse transcription deficient. DermaVir is targeted to Langerhans cells by topical administration with DermaPrep. Langerhans cells with DermaVir migrate to lymph nodes and induce HIV-specific T cells that can kill HIV-infected cells.. GIEU006 is a Phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, double-blinded, multicenter study to assess the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and preliminary antiretroviral activity of DermaVir in antiretroviral therapy naïve adults with HIV-infection. ...
INTRODUCTION: Nanogels may be defined as nano-sized hydrogel systems, which are highly cross-linked systems in nature involving polymer systems, which are either co-polymerised or monomers 1, 2. The sudden outbreak in the field of nanotechnology has introduced the need for developing nanogel systems, which prove their potential to deliver drugs in various manners like controlled, sustained and targetable. In the emerging field of polymer sciences it has now become inevitable to prepare smart nano-systems that can prove effective for the treatment as well as clinical trials progress 3, 4, 10.. Traditionally in the name of gels we have heard of semisolid formulations with three-dimensional networks of organic systems encompassing fluids and drugs. Majorly these systems have been the part of the traditional system of topical drug delivery for local effects. Prospects of targeted drug delivery perhaps could not be established with these preparations. The significance of nano-sized microgel and ...
Topical drug formulation are made up in a vehicle or base which is made specific to the site of the body or type of skin - PersistenceMarketResearch.com
Treatment Agents. Anti-aging. The area around the eyes develop wrinkles because we use this region extensively for facial expression - and the more that we move an area of skin, the more likely it is to develop a crease. Once the crease has become deep enough it develops into a fold or static wrinkle. Sun damage adds to the collagen changes which contribute to wrinkle development, and therefore those individuals with badly sun damaged skin tend to have deeper and more pronounced wrinkles.. Topical Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has been shown to increase the activities of the fibroblasts - the cells that produce collagen, and interestingly enough Vitamin C is used by the body to cross-link (therefore strengthen) collagen strands in situ (in the body). The exact mechanism of how topical Vitamin C works is still under scientific investigation.. There are a number of Vitamin C preparations available - however there are very few patented formulations that have demonstrated capabilities. Vitamin C is a ...
Treatment Agents. Anti-aging. The area around the eyes develop wrinkles because we use this region extensively for facial expression - and the more that we move an area of skin, the more likely it is to develop a crease. Once the crease has become deep enough it develops into a fold or static wrinkle. Sun damage adds to the collagen changes which contribute to wrinkle development, and therefore those individuals with badly sun damaged skin tend to have deeper and more pronounced wrinkles.. Topical Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has been shown to increase the activities of the fibroblasts - the cells that produce collagen, and interestingly enough Vitamin C is used by the body to cross-link (therefore strengthen) collagen strands in situ (in the body). The exact mechanism of how topical Vitamin C works is still under scientific investigation.. There are a number of Vitamin C preparations available - however there are very few patented formulations that have demonstrated capabilities. Vitamin C is a ...
The present invention relates to a method for the treatment of either phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis or uveitis by administering at least one cyclosporin topically to the eyes. Topical application of cyclosporin provides cyclosporin to the anterior chamber, the posterior chamber and the vitreous body of the eye.
Call 561 588 0896 to order products by phone Continental US free UPS ground. Complex C Serum btc001. for all skin types and conditions. Appearance: Clear Liquid - fragrance free. Use: Use twice daily after thorough cleansing and toning. If using Alpha Beta Hydroxyl Acids or Retinol, use Complex C Serum first and let it absorb before adding other products. This will allow the special encapsulation to work completely.. Benefits: This advanced Vitamin C creme protects, hydrates and conditions skin without irritation. Vitamin C is a major anti-oxident in the body. It is well established that Vitamin C is essential for healthy skin. This formula also incorporates ingredients to calm redness ...
Vitamin C as a potent antioxidant. Environmental factors, such as solar radiation, pollution, and smoking can accelerate damage to the skin through the generation of so-called oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most potent antioxidants in the skin. It neutralizes the oxidative stress by a process of electron transfer and/or donation.[3]. Protection against photoaging. Transurocanic acid is a by-product of fillagrin present in the skin, which acts as a chromophore for photons of solar radiation (mainly ultraviolet [UV] and, to a degree, infrared) leading to the formation of singlet oxygen. This triggers a cascade of events that lead to the formation of so-called reactive oxygen species or free radicals.[7-9] Free radicals are highly toxic, unstable molecules that can cause damage to nucleic acids, proteins, and cell membranes. UV-induced reactive oxygen species also trigger the signal transduction cascade, which leads to upregulation of factors, such as activation protein-1 (AP-1) ...
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One hundred fifty-nine operative procedures for postburn contractures of interdigital webs (96), the axilla (46), or the neck (17) were prospectively randomized to be treated postoperatively for four months with a topical steroid (Aristocort A), topical vitamin E, or the base cream carrier for these …
Topical corticosteroids preparations are commonly used in the treatment of ocular inflammation. For anterior segment inflammation, topical steroids treatme..
PJUR BACK DOOR ANAL COMFORT SERUM 20MLThe special serum for impulsive anal intercourse. The gel forms an invisible, protective film on the skin and thus reduces sensitivity without any numbing effect! Contains no lidocaine or benzocaine. Safe with condoms and suited for daily application. Ideal in combination with pjur® BACK DOOR Anal Glides. Reduces sensitivity, not sensation - without numbing! New protective, invisible film Highly concentrated gel for impulsive anal sex 20 ml Default Title18.14 EUR
Regenerate and rejuvenate tired skin with the daily application of our moisturisers. Buy at Tesco direct online and choose from day and night creams.
Regenerate and rejuvenate tired skin with the daily application of our moisturisers. Buy at Tesco direct online and choose from day and night creams.
Our serums are packed with a very high concentration of powerful anti-aging active ingredients. Moreover, serums are formulated with smaller molecules allowing their powerful nutrients to penetrate deeper, faster and more effectively than non-serums. Made up of smaller molecules, a serum is able to penetrate into all three layers of the skin. As such, only a small drops are needed with each application to deliver powerful anti-aging benefits. A 10z bottle should last about 1 month (based upon twice daily application ...
Fontis Skinfood clients use their products for minor cuts and bruises on a regular basis so it came as no surprise when Gerhard after damaging his calf in a vehicle related accident pulled his Exhuberance Nectar close. I celebrate with him that after daily application of Fontis Exuberance Nectar he achieved awesome results!. ...
Antiretroviral drugs are the gold standard for the treatment of HIV infection. They are highly effective in suppressing replication of the virus but require lifelong daily application and can be associated with side effects.
The goal of topical corticosteroid therapy is to maximise the clinical benefits of this highly effective group of drugs, while minimising their adverse effects. Many types of steroid-induced skin...
Use this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not use it for any other condition without checking first with your doctor. This medicine may cause unwanted effects if it is used too much, because more of it is absorbed into the body through the skin. This medicine comes with a medication guide and a patient information insert. Read and follow the instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions. Wash your hands with soap and water before and after using this medicine. Be careful not to get any of this medicine in your eyes, nose, or mouth. Do not use it on skin areas that have cuts or scrapes. If it does get on these areas, rinse it off right away. This medicine should only be used for problems being treated by your doctor. Check with your doctor before using it for other problems, especially if you think that an infection may be present. Do not bathe, shower, or swim right after applying this medicine. Also, the treated skin areas should not be bandaged or covered ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of lebrikizumab compared with Topical Corticosteroids (TCS) alone in patients with persistent moderate to
CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug
It is very important that you use this medicine only as directed. Do not use more of it, do not use it more often, and do not use it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. To do so may cause irritation of the skin. Do not apply this medicine to windburned or sunburned skin or on open wounds. Do not use this medicine in or around the eyes, lips, or inside of the nose. Spread the medicine away from these areas when applying. If the medicine accidently gets on these areas, wash with water at once. Apply the medicine to clean, dry areas of the skin affected by acne. Rub in gently and well. Wash your hands afterwards to remove any medicine that may remain on them. To help clear up your acne completely, it is very important that you keep using this medicine for the full time of treatment , even if your symptoms begin to clear up after a short time. If you stop using this medicine too soon, your acne may return or get worse. Dosing The dose of this medicine will be different for different ...
Is there anything I can do to help treat eczema, besides applying topical steroids medications? Answered by Dr. Manav Singla: Inhibit Calcineurin: There is another group of topical drugs that are ...
The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctors orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.. The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.. ...
According to the U.S. 2012 National Health Interview Survey, 25 million American adults suffer from daily chronic pain, reporting severe pain that interferes
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
Topical formulations are available in Europe.[37] Hair follicles have estrogen receptors and it truly is theorized topical compounds act on them straight to market hair advancement and antagonize androgen action. Substantial scientific scientific studies exhibiting success are absent. Topical treatment can also be normally unavailable in North The usa.[4 ...
Topical vitamin C has some healthy skin benefits; it can brighten the skin, and helps with overall tone and texture. Watch me discuss the positive imp
Common warts (verruca vulgaris) are benign epithelial proliferations associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Salicylic acid and cryotherapy are the most frequent treatments for common warts, but can be painful and cause scarring, and have high failure and recrudescence rates. Topical vitamin A has been shown to be a successful treatment of common warts in prior informal studies. The subject is a healthy, physically-active 30 old female with a 9 year history of common warts on the back of the right hand. The warts resisted treatment with salicylic acid, apple cider vinegar and an over-the-counter blend of essential oils marketed for the treatment of warts. Daily topical application of natural vitamin A derived from fish liver oil (25,000 IU) led to replacement of all the warts with normal skin. Most of the smaller warts had been replaced by 70 days. A large wart on the middle knuckle required 6 months of vitamin A treatment to resolve completely. Retinoids should be further investigated in
The study was carried out with the record linkage database of the medicines monitoring unit at the University of Dundee. This database contains prospectively gathered information on all dispensed community prescriptions for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and ulcer healing drugs in Tayside from 1 January 1989 and diagnostic and demographic data on all patients admitted to hospitalin Tayside from 1980 (Scottish Morbidity Record 1). These data can be linked by a unique 10 digit number, the community health number. The methods of data collection for this database have been described in detail elsewhere.7 In brief, prescriptions encashed at Tayside pharmacies are sent to the medicines monitoring unit after dispensing. The patientsname, address, and other prescription details are used to find the unique community health number by using purpose written software to search the community health index for Tayside. This is a listof all patients registered with a general practitioner, which is ...
Title:Comparison of Clobetasol Propionate Generics Using Simplified In vitro Bioequivalence Method for Topical Drug Products. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 7. Author(s):Kelen C.C. Soares, Weidson C. de Souza, Leonardo de S. Texeira, Marcilio S.S. da Cunha-Filho, Guilherme M. Gelfuso and Tais Gratieri*. Affiliation:Laboratory of Food, Drugs and Cosmetics (LTMAC), School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, 70.910-900. Brasilia, DF, Statistical analysis, Jardim America, 74275-060. Goiania, GO, Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Studies and Research (ICF), Setor Marista. 74175-100. Goiania, GO, Laboratory of Food, Drugs and Cosmetics (LTMAC), School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, 70.910-900. Brasilia, DF, Laboratory of Food, Drugs and Cosmetics (LTMAC), School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, 70.910-900. Brasilia, DF, Laboratory of Food, Drugs and Cosmetics (LTMAC), School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, 70.910-900. Brasilia, DF. Keywords:Clobetasol propionate, ...
Abstract Poly lactic acid is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic polymer, widely used in many pharmaceutical preparations such as controlled release formulations, parenteral preparations, surgical treatment applications, and tissue engineering. In this study, we prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for topical and site targeting delivery of Norfloxacin by emulsification solvent evaporation method (ESE). The design of experiment (DOE) was done by using software to optimize the result, and then a surface plot was generated to compare with the practical results. The surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential and composition of the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM, and FTIR. The thermal behavior of the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles was characterized by DSC and TGA. The prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles of Norfloxacin exhibited an average particle size from 178.6 ± 3.7 nm to 220.8 ± 2.3 nm, and showed very narrow ...
List of elements from ATC D04A: Antipruritics, Topical Use (Antihistamines, Anesthetics) by level of risk according e-lactancia.org
Bioconductor version: Development (3.12) Datasets of accompany Harman, a PCA and constrained optimisation based technique. Contains three datasets: IMR90, Human lung fibroblast cells exposed to nitric oxide; NPM, an experiment to test skin penetration of metal oxide nanoparticles following topical application of sunscreens in non-pregnant mice; OLF; an experiment to gauge the response of human olfactory neurosphere-derived (hONS) cells to ZnO nanoparticles.. Author: Josh Bowden [aut], Jason Ross [aut, cre], Yalchin Oytam [aut] Maintainer: Jason Ross ,jason.ross at csiro.au, ...
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for acute and chronic inflammatory painful conditions. NSAIDs produce analgesia by inhibition of the enzyme mediating production of prostaglandins and thromboxane.1 Systemic administration of NSAIDs produces relatively high blood concentrations that can lead to serious adverse events including gastrointestinal bleeding, renal failure and precipitation of congestive heart failure and other cardiovascular events.2 ,3 Topical application may reduce these risks by avoiding circulation to all parts of the body that accompany oral, rectal and intravenous administration. Topical formulations have limited tissue penetration with minimal uptake into the systemic circulation. This route is indicated for superficial and well-defined areas with intact skin and is not appropriate for deeper structures (eg, spine or organs). Unlike compounded creams, gels and sprays, topical formulations are … ...
Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a group of medications commonly used to treat pain and reduce inflammation. They are commonly used for muscle and joint pain or swelling.
To date, few studies have evaluated chitin synthesis inhibitors against bed bugs, although they would provide an alternative mode of action to circumvent insecticide resistance. Acute and sublethal effects of lufenuron were evaluated against two strains of the common bed bug. Combined acute and sublethal effects were used to calculate effective doses. The dose that was effective against 50% of Harlan strain bed bugs was 0.0081% (w/v), and was much higher against Bradenton strain bed bugs (1.11% w/v). Sublethal doses were chosen to determine the effect that leg abnormalities had on pulling force. Both Harlan and Bradenton strain bed bugs had significantly lower locomotion ability (p < 0.0001) following topical application of lufenuron. The observed sublethal effects that limit locomotion could prevent bed bugs from moving within a domicile and taking a blood meal, subsequently reducing a bed bug population over time.
This study is in its 2nd Phase. It focuses on the evaluation of Topical Non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with a non-central involved DME. The clinical criteria is to assess the effects of NSAIDs on macular retinal volume compared with placebo in eyes with non-central DME. The principle investigator is John S Pollack, MD at will take place at our Joliet office and Barb as the head coordinator. Please contact our Joliet office for more information.. ...
A topical formulation includes a water-soluble ingredient and an oil-soluble ingredient and includes a combination of water, a rheology modifier, and a water miscible organic solvent to stabilize the composition.
July 31,2008- Preclinical Data for a Topical Formulation of Voclosporin as a Potential Best-in-Class Treatment for Chronic Inflammatory Eye Diseases Presented at ARVO.
Mechanism: Valchlor is a gel formulation of mechlorethamine, an alkylating agent which inhibits rapidly proliferating cells. Valchlor is specifically indicated for the topical treatment of Stage IA and IB mycosisfungoides-type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma in patients who have received prior skin-directed therapy. Valchlor is supplied as a gel for topical administration. The recommendation is to apply a thin film of Valchlor gel once daily to affected areas of the skin. Upon improvement, treatment with Valchlor can be restarted at a reduced frequency of once every 3 days. If reintroduction of treatment is tolerated for at least one week, the frequency of application can be increased to every other day for at least one week and then to once daily application if tolerated. Valchlor is a gel formulation of mechlorethamine, also known as nitrogen mustard, an alkylating agent which inhibits rapidly proliferating cells. ...
Coconut oil has many benefits and it plays an important im 14 and why do i have cellulite on my stomach to get rid the cellulite on the back of thighs. Compositions according to the invention can be formulated as a cosmetic composition intended for daily topical application and can provide a significant measurable improvement in cellulite after at least 8 weeks of daily topical application. The company also offers a lifetime supply option for $49.95, where the customer pays the $49.95 up front and then pays just the shipping and handling for all future orders. Finally, there is the Endermologie treatment method has also shown promise for those with cellulite on their bodies, and it has been approved by the FDA too. I personally think the good fats, especially the fish oil, helped me get rid of it.
Miotic agents may also cause retinal detachment; thus, care should be exercised with all miotic therapy especially in young myopic patients. Lens opacity (cataracts) may occur with a prolonged use of pilocarpine. Systemic reactions following topical administration, although extremely rare, have included hypertension, tachycardia, bronchitis spasm, pulmonary edema, salivation, sweating, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.. ...
Assessment of bronchial effects following topical administration of butylamino-phenoxy-propanol-acetate, an oculoselective beta- adrenoceptor blocker in asthmatic subjects. (pages 122-129). KG Bauer, F Brunner-Ferber, LM Distlerath, EA Lippa, B Binkowitz, P Till and GA Kaik. Version of Record online: 26 JUL 2012 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2125.1992.tb04120.x. ...
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Topical corticosteroids offer a more potent anti-inflammatory effect for the treatment of atopic dermatitis (AD), but they may impair the restoration of the skin barrier and can induce skin atrophy, making topical calcineurin inhibitors more suitable for long-term treatment of the disease.
The April 2009 issue of the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine provides a viable and safe alternative to the potentially dangerous drugs that are in use today. A trial was set up to investigate the efficacy of a Vitamin B12 cream in the treatment of children with atopic dermatitis (eczema).. Twenty-one patients with ages ranging from 6 months to 18 years enrolled in this 4 week trial. Each volunteer applied either a Vitamin B12 cream or a placebo cream to symptomatic areas on opposite sides of their bodies. For instance, the B12 cream was only applied to the right side and the placebo was exclusively used to treat the left side. This allowed for a comparison model for the two treatments.. At the end of weeks 2 and 4, an investigator performed skin checks using a standardized scoring system. The findings were expressed in this manner, Skin treated with topical vitamin B(12) improved significantly more than placebo treated skin at 2 and 4 weeks. Topical vitamin B(12) should be ...
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
Dendrimers are characterized as synthetic, spherical macromolecules with tree- like branched structures. Their well-controlled sizes (3 - 10 nm), ease of functionalization, high water solubility, well-defined chemical structure, and biocompatibility make these nanomaterials attractive for a wide spectrum of promising biomedical applications. Peptide dendrimers and polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been used to date as effective transdermal or topical drug delivery systems, with the latest in a much greater extent. The structural characteristics of the aforementioned molecules guided us to design a novel repeating unit for dendrimers (monomer) possessing amino branching point and able to afford generation expanding through repeating amide bonds. The novel monomer, after appropriate modifications, was used to develop lower generations of polyamidoamino dendritic structures having amide groups and amino-branching points in their interior. The new dendrimers were isolated and fully ...
Originally published on Soy Connection. Introduction. Traditional Chinese medicine professes that topical soy provides skin care benefits.1 There are reportedly anecdotal accounts from scientists that Asian workers in soybean factories who handled soy regularly had hands that were especially smooth and even-toned and that women workers in the tofu industry had beautiful skin. While these types of observations may not stand up to modern day scientific scrutiny, cosmetics companies have certainly embraced soy. Within the past 10 years, the cosmetic industry (worldwide sales are reportedly $170 billion dollars a year, almost 25% of which occurs in the United States) has tapped the soybean and its components for use in a wide range of products - from shampoos and conditioners to creams aimed at evening skin tone and reducing blotchiness. While most cosmetic interest in soy involves topical application and is thus unrelated to dietary considerations, there is emerging interest in the effects of soy ...
Topical retinoids. The amount of drug absorbed from the skin when using this product is very low; however, there are 4 published case reports of birth defects in the literature associated with topical tretinoin use, which are consistent with retinoid embryopathy. The role of the topical retinoids in these cases remains controversial,15-18 as 2 prospective studies that examined use during the first trimester of pregnancy with 96 and 106 women did not find an increased risk of major malformations or evidence of retinoid embryopathy.19,20 However, until data on larger cohorts are collected, women should not be encouraged to use topical retinoids during pregnancy.. Topical antibacterials. Clindamycin and erythromycin are used either alone or in combination with other agents as topical treatments of acne. A surveillance study examining oral or topical use of clindamycin reported no increased risk of malformations among 647 women with use in the first trimester.21 Similarly, there have been no ...
There are more treatment options for reducing intraocular pressure in glaucoma than ever before and currently ophthalmologists are combining eye drops to
Prednisolone Acetate eye drops for cats and dogs are a topical anti-inflammatory agent that helps the swelling, itching, and redness of the eyes and eyelids. It also is effective against inflammation of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and frontal globe.
This study focused on the overall treatment effect and the percentage of that effect that is attributable to contextual (placebo) effects (PCE). Using placebo-controlled RCT data in OA, we examined a sample of contrasting treatments including complementary medicines, nutraceuticals, oral drugs, topical NSAIDs, compounds administered through intra-articular injection and joint lavage. We found that the overall treatment effect of these 11 diverse treatments in reducing OA pain ranged from 0.46 SD (joint lavage) to 1.37 SD (topical NSAIDs), of which 91% of the improvement with lavage and 85% of the improvement with topical NSAIDs is explained by contextual effects. On average, the contextual effect contributed 75% to the overall treatment effect for the included treatments for pain in OA. We also found that PCE varied across treatments, ranging from the lowest with IACS (0.47, 95% CI 0.32 to 0.70) to the highest with joint lavage (0.91, 95% CI 0.60 to 1.37). Two factors known to influence the ...
Capsaicin, the compound that makes chili peppers hot, boasts analgesic properties. Discover the history, uses, and benefits of capsaicin.
Pantothenic acid is essential to normal epithelial function. It is a component of coenzyme A, which serves as a cofactor for a variety of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that are important in the metabolis
The most common side effect of topical corticosteroid use is skin atrophy. All topical steroids can induce atrophy, but higher potency steroids, occlusion, thinner skin, and older patient age increase the risk. The face, the backs of the hands, and
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Tretinoin Cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Tretinoin Cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Tretinoin Cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Tretinoin Cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Tretinoin Cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Tretinoin Cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
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• Eighty patients with ocular hypertension (intraocular pressure >20 mm Hg) and GG-response to topical corticosteroids (over 31 mm Hg after six weeks of topi
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Tretinoin Cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Tretinoin Cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Tretinoin Cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Tretinoin Cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Tretinoin Cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Tretinoin Cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
Pregnancy and breast-feeding: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Tretinoin Cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Tretinoin Cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Tretinoin Cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
Loprox (ciclopirox) is a cheap, effective treatment for fungal infections that have not penetrated past the skin, but requires daily application for weeks to months to see an improvement. You might need to use Loprox (ciclopirox) for many months to treat your condition.
Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not start to get better or if they get worse. This medicine can make certain skin conditions worse. Only use it for conditions for which your doctor or health care professional has prescribed. Unless told to do so by your doctor or health care professional, do not use for longer than 1 week or over large areas of the body.. Do not take this medicine by mouth. Except for the ophthalmic prep solution, contact with your eyes should be avoided. If contact with the eyes occur, rinse out with plenty of cool tap water.. ...
A system for delivering a chemical agent in the form of a spray or foam, which in a preferred embodiment involves the use of an aerosol dispenser to deliver a formulation containing both an anionic surface active agent such as sodium lauryl sulfate as a foaming agent and a chemical agent such as either hydrogen peroxide as a disinfecting chemical agent or natural sea water.
Voted Best in Clark County Twice! Permanent Cosmetics are a great solution for people looking to save time or enhance their appearance. Choosing permanent eyeliner or lip color gives us a sense of natural beauty without the daily application of cosmetics or make-up.
Project Prelearn. Conducted by the Prenatal and Infant Education Institute (PIEI), a preliminary phase of its Cardiac Curriculum clinical study began last December with electronically synthesized, progressively structured heartbeat variants made available-through an audiocassette player transducer on the maternal abdomen-to an in utero infant eight weeks beyond conception and whose initial brain growth spurt was commencing; the volunteer mother of three previous children elected weekly lesson changes as well as two daily application periods of 60 minutes each.. Fetal movement started approximately one month early, with distinct reflex activity (described by the gavida as pleasant, rhythmic \rolling\) throughout a curricular tapes duration. Both mother and infant appear in excellent health; the projected birthdate is July 1987, to be followed by extensive evaluation.. This event represents the first instance of neurogenetic augmentation by sonoral means in a curricular modality based upon ...
Varicose veins are abnormally enlarged swollen veins that usually occur in the legs. They are the result of weakness of the valves inside the veins that allow the blood to flow back to the heart. If the valves do not work properly, blood accumulates in the veins, stretching them and causing varicosities. Apply a daily application in a 3% dilution in gentle, upward, almost superficial effleurage strokes should be used. Work up the legs from the feet towards the heart. Vary the essential oils used form time to time. The following are essential oils that have been shown to help. This in no way is to replace medications or medical supervision.
Application of Murivenna oil, to the body encourages toxins to the surface. Daily application over the torso from side to side can increase metabolism. Warm the oil up slightly and then massage on the affected area well, and leave on for at least an hour before washing off. Very good for fractures or swelling due to accidents ...
This medicine is for external use only. Do not take by mouth. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Wash your hands before and after use. Apply a thin film of medicine to the affected area. Do not cover with a bandage or dressing unless your doctor or health care professional tells you to. Do not use on healthy skin or over large areas of skin. Do not get this medicine in your eyes. If you do, rinse out with plenty of cool tap water. It is important not to use more medicine than prescribed. Do not use your medicine more often than directed. To do so may increase the chance of side effects.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed.. Elderly patients are more likely to have damaged skin through aging, and this may increase side effects. This medicine should only be used for brief periods and infrequently in older patients.. ...
Chronic NeP can markedly diminish both quality of life and daily function. Pain reduction is the main goal of treatment, but improving sleep, daily function, and quality-of-life are also important.1 First-line medications include oral amitriptyline, gabapentin and pregabalin. Duloxetine, venlafaxine, tramadol, and opioids are second- or third-line agents.1,6-9 However, chronic NeP often persists after trials of all of these medications which can be frustrating for both the patient and the clinician. Topical agents have the potential to deliver drugs locally without systemic toxicity.10 They are often considered for the treatment of localised NeP pain when oral therapies have failed or have been stopped due to side effects. However, there is a lack of quality evidence for topical treatments in neuropathic pain and data is often conflicting. This may be due to varying responses of different forms of NeP, the location and surface area of application, and differences in formulations used.14. The ...
Topical administration[edit]. There has been much interest and effort in the development of topical AR antagonists to treat ... Oral, topical. 1959. Available. 3,010,000 Topilutamide. Nonsteroidal. AR antagonist. Eucapil. Topical. 2003. Availableb. 36,300 ... topical administration has disappointingly been found generally to possess limited and only modest effectiveness, even when ... Oral, topical. 1977. Available. 3,650,000 Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, ...
administration. by mouth, topical. ATC code. *D11AX22 (WHO) P02CF01 (WHO) QP54AA01 (WHO) QS02QA03 (WHO) ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved August 18, 2018.. *^ "SKLICE- ivermectin lotion (NDC Code(s): 49281-183-71)". ... Mites such as scabies:[25][26][27] It is usually limited to cases that prove to be resistant to topical treatments or that ... Pariser DM, Meinking TL, Bell M, Ryan WG (November 2012). "Topical 0.5% ivermectin lotion for treatment of head lice". The New ...
... it does not correct hyponatremia as rapidly as administration of hypertonic saline does. Due to hypertonicity, administration ... antibiotics or topical anesthetics. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear- ... Water privation combined with diuretic block does not produce as much risk of CPM as saline administration does; however, ... after either ophthalmic or intravenous administration.[20] However, ophthalmic use is done with sterile filtered drugs that is ...
administration. intravenous, topical. ATC code. *B05BB01 (WHO) Ringer's lactate solution (RL), also known as sodium lactate ... For fluid resuscitation the usual rate of administration is 20 to 30 ml/kg body weight/hour. RL is not suitable for maintenance ... Careful monitoring of blood acid-base balance is essential during the administration of sodium lactate.. ... aggressive administration of sodium lactate may result in metabolic alkalosis. ...
Santos I, Clissold S (2010). "Urogenital disorders associated with oestrogen deficiency: the role of promestriene as topical ... administration. Topical. Drug class. Estrogen; Estrogen ester. ATC code. *G03CA09 (WHO) Identifiers. ...
As a topical drug mequinol is often mixed with tretinoin, a topical retinoid. A common formulation for this drug is an ... Mequinol is a common active ingredient in topical drugs used for skin depigmentation. ... administration. Topical. ATC code. *D11AX06 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *CA: Unscheduled ...
Absorption of topical permethrin is minimal. One in vivo study demonstrated 0.5% absorption in the first 48 hours based upon ... Permethrin is available for topical use as a cream or lotion. It is indicated for the treatment and prevention in exposed ... Permethrin has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 ... administration. topical. ATC code. *P03AC04 (WHO) QP53AC04 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *US: OTC ...
administration. Topical, oral. ATC code. *A06AA01 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *In general: Over-the-counter (OTC) ...
"Topical treatments for HIV-related oral ulcers". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1: CD007975. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007975.pub2. ... Amlexanox is the active ingredient in a common topical treatment for recurrent aphthous ulcers of the mouth (canker sores),[2] ... Elad S, Epstein JB, von Bültzingslöwen I, Drucker S, Tzach R, Yarom N (March 2011). "Topical immunomodulators for management of ... administration. Topical. ATC code. *A01AD07 (WHO) R03DX01 (WHO). Pharmacokinetic data. Elimination half-life. 3.5 hours. ...
... following ocular administration to rats". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 37 (8): 1622-34. doi:10.1124/dmd.108.024885. PMID ... administration. Topical (eye drops). ATC code. *S01EE05 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *US: ℞-only ...
"Selenium sulfide topical Use During Pregnancy , Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. ... as to exactly what form selenium is in any given topical preparation. ... "Topical Selenium Sulfide for the Treatment of Hyperkeratosis". Dermatology and therapy. 8 (4): 639-46. PMC 6261123. PMID ... administration. Topical. ATC code. *D01AE13 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *US: OTC ...
... (INN, BAN, JAN), also known as flurandrenolide (USAN) and flurandrenolone,[1] is a synthetic topical ... Nakamura, H.; Motoyoshi, S.; Ishii, K.; Seto, Y.; Shimizu, M. (1980). "Anti-inflammatory activity of a topical glucocorticoid, ... administration. Topical. ATC code. *D07AC07 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *UK: POM (Prescription only) ...
administration. Topical Hazards R-phrases (outdated) R43 S-phrases (outdated) (S2) S24 S28 S37 S46 ... "Topical pine tar: History, properties and use as a treatment for common skin conditions". Australasian Journal of Dermatology ... "Clean-Up of Ineffective Ingredients in OTC Drug Products" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2014-04-19. ...
administration. Topical. ATC code. *D08AG02 (WHO) *D09AA09 (WHO) (dressing). *D11AC06 (WHO). *G01AX11 (WHO) ... Wong RH, Wong VW, Hung EC, Lee PY, Ng CS, Wan IY, Underwood MJ (2011). "Topical application of povidone-iodine before wound ... Povidone-iodine is a broad spectrum antiseptic for topical application in the treatment and prevention of wound infection. It ...
administration. Inhalation, nasal, topical. ATC code. *A07EA07 (WHO) D07AC15 (WHO), R01AD01 (WHO), R03BA01 (WHO) ...
As an ingredient or topical agent, witch hazel water is regulated in the United States as an over-the-counter drug for external ... In 2017, one manufacturer of skincare products containing witch hazel was warned by the Food and Drug Administration for making ... "Witch hazel - topical". Health Canada: Drugs and Health Products. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2017. "Code of Federal ... In the United States, witch hazel water can be used as an ingredient for topical applications, but individual products are not ...
"Ketoprofen Absorption by Muscle and Tendon after Topical or Oral Administration in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate ... Ketoprofen is also available as a 2.5% gel for topical application, and it is also available as a patch for topical analgesia ... Mazières, B (2005). "Topical ketoprofen patch". Drugs in R&D. 6 (6): 337-44. doi:10.2165/00126839-200506060-00003. PMID ... Administration[edit]. Ketoprofen, when administered intravenously, is recommended for a maximum of five days of use. Its ...
administration. topical, intravenous (for animal euthanasia). ATC code. *C05AD04 (WHO) D04AB02 (WHO) N01BB06 (WHO) S01HA06 (WHO ... Cinchocaine is the active ingredient in some topical hemorrhoid creams such as Proctosedyl. It is also a component of the ... current use of cinchocaine is generally restricted to spinal and topical anesthesia.[1][2] It is sold under the brand names ...
A lotion is a low-viscosity topical preparation intended for application to the skin. By contrast, creams and gels have higher ... Though this has some use as a route of drug administration, it more commonly results in unintended side effects. For example, ... "Betamethasone (Topical)". Lexicomp Online. Hudson, OH: Lexi-Comp, Inc. April 21, 2017. Retrieved April 25, 2017. Graham, ... The Food and Drug Administration voiced concern about lotions not classified as drugs that advertise anti-aging or anti-wrinkle ...
"国家食品药品监督管理总局关于停止生产销售使用酮康唑口服制剂的公告(2015年第85号)" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 25 June 2015. Archived from the ... Topical ketoconazole is also used as a treatment for dandruff (seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp) and for seborrheic ... However, topical ketoconazole, which does not distribute systemically, is safe and widely used still. Ketoconazole HRA was ... The topical formulations have not been associated
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for nitroglycerin ... "Association of methemoglobinemia and intravenous nitroglycerin administration". American Journal of Cardiology. 55 (1): 181-183 ... administration. Intravenous, by mouth, under the tongue, topical Pharmacokinetics: Bioavailability. ,1% Metabolism ...
The routes of administration vary. They may be both systemic and topical. For example, pseudoephedrine is taken orally and ... Many are used in medicine to treat hypotension and as topical decongestants. Vasoconstrictors are also used clinically to ...
Dena'ina Topical Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. "Coast Pilot (R) Volume 9, Chapter 4, Pages: 124,224 - ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration "Cook Inlet - Northern part 1:194,154 nautical chart 16660". National Oceanic ... "Cook Inlet-Approaches to Anchorage, Alaska; 1:50,000 nautical chart 16665". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. " ... Susitna River nautical chart narrative" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Build new Alaskan bridge in ...
"The Dangers of Fireworks" (PDF). Topical Fire Research Series. U.S. Fire Administration/National Fire Data Center. 5 (4). June ...
If topical corticosteroids and moisturisers fail, short-term treatment with topical calcineurin inhibitors like tacrolimus or ... "FDA approves new eczema drug Dupixent". US Food & Drug Administration. 28 March 2017. Archived from the original on 28 March ... However a 2015 meta-analysis indicated that topical tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are more effective than low dose topical ... Cury Martins J, Martins C, Aoki V, Gois AF, Ishii HA, da Silva EM (July 2015). "Topical tacrolimus for atopic dermatitis". The ...
Topical drug ointments containing papain are used to remove dead or contaminated tissue in acute and chronic lesions, such as ... On September 23, 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warned companies to stop marketing ophthalmic balanced salt ... Shuren J (2008-09-22). "Topical Drug Products Containing Papain; Enforcement Action Dates" (PDF). United States Food and Drug ... The FDA said, "Papain-containing drug products in topical form historically have been marketed without approval...". According ...
Oral administration is the most convenient. Testosterone administered by mouth is rapidly absorbed, but it is largely converted ... There are four common forms in which AAS are administered: oral pills; injectable steroids; creams/gels for topical application ... The traditional routes of administration do not have differential effects on the efficacy of the drug. Studies indicate that ... did not find an increase in the occurrence of angry behavior during 10 weeks of administration of testosterone enanthate at 600 ...
"Topical Acne Drug Products". CFR - Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 1 April 2018. Skin ... According to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act "does not recognize any ... Treatment measures with topical antibiotic medication can be helpful. Cosmeceuticals are topically-applied, combination ... website]. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, MD. Updated 26 January 2015. [3] Schwanitz HJ, Riehl U, Schlesinger ...
The Holy Roman Empire 1495-1806 (2011); specialized topical essays by scholars ... law and administration. Most rulers maintained one or a number of favourites Imperial palace sites, where they would advance ...
Topical Nasal Decongestants. Most topical nasal decongestants also carry the warning against unsupervised use with hypertension ... "United States Food and Drug Administration. April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2016 ... administration. Medical: Inhalation (nasal). Recreational: Oral, intravenous, insufflation, inhalation, suppository. Legal ... Topical nasal decongestants --(i) For products containing levmetamfetamine identified in 341.20(b)(1) when used in an inhalant ...
Recommended therapies for first-line use in acne vulgaris treatment include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and topical or ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November ... antibiotic and topical retinoid, or topical retinoid and benzoyl peroxide.[47] Dermatologists generally prefer combining ... Topical retinoids include adapalene, retinol, tazarotene, trifarotene, and tretinoin.[47][85] They often cause an initial flare ...
... can be treated with topical anti-fungal drugs, such as nystatin, miconazole, Gentian violet or amphotericin B ... depending on the route of administration. Topically administered corticosteroids in the mouth may take the form of mouthwashes ... The prognosis of such infection is usually excellent after the application of topical or systemic treatments. However, oral ... but occasionally it can occur after only a few days of using a topical antibiotic. This is usually termed "antibiotic sore ...
Another crucial preventive measure is the use of persistent acaricides, such as topical repellents or pesticides that contain ... oral administration of doxycycline is widely recommended as the first choice, as it is effective against not only Borrelia ... Intravenous administration of ceftriaxone is recommended as the first choice in these cases;[23] cefotaxime and doxycycline are ... LYMErix was approved on the basis of these trials by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 21 December 1998. ...
... begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage; this causes an expansion in the chest cavity. Then takes place the onset of contraction of the diaphragm, which results in expansion of the intrapleural space and an increase in negative pressure according to Boyle's law. This negative pressure generates airflow because of the pressure difference between the atmosphere and alveolus. Air enters, inflating the lung through either the nose or the mouth into the pharynx (throat) and trachea before entering the alveoli.[citation needed] Other muscles that can be involved in inhalation include:[2] ...
Topical administrationEdit. There has been much interest and effort in the development of topical AR antagonists to treat ... topical administration has disappointingly been found generally to possess limited and only modest effectiveness, even when ... Oral, topical. 1977. 3,650,000. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, SC. 1958. ... However, one topical AR antagonist, topilutamide (fluridil), has been introduced in a few European countries for the treatment ...
Some feel that the term tisane is more correct than herbal tea or that the latter is even misleading, but most dictionaries record that the word tea is also used to refer to other plants beside the tea plant and to beverages made from these other plants.[4][5] In any case, the term herbal tea is very well established and much more common than tisane.[1] The word tisane was rare in its modern sense before the 20th century, when it was borrowed in the modern sense from French. (This is why some people feel it should be pronounced /tɪˈzɑːn/ as in French, but the original English pronunciation /tɪˈzæn/ continues to be more common in US English and especially in UK English).[2] The word had already existed in late Middle English in the sense of "medicinal drink" and had already been borrowed from French (Old French). The Old French word came from the Latin word ptisana, which came from the Ancient Greek word πτισάνη (ptisánē), which meant "peeled" barley, in other words pearl barley, ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration 14. Appendix F(mg) *^ Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Elements Food and Nutrition Board, ... Research indicates that the primary dental benefit from fluoride occurs at the surface from topical exposure.[42][43] Of the ...
... whereas outpatient or community pharmacies typically engage in compounding medications for oral or topical administration. Due ... "Food and Drug Administration. January 10, 2002. Retrieved 2014-02-18.. *^ Boothby LA, Doering PL (August 2008). "Bioidentical ... Therapeutic Goods Administration. December 1997. Retrieved 2017-02-21.. *^ "International Academy of Compounding Pharmacists: ... "Food and Drug Administration. 2012-12-03. Archived from the original on January 7, 2015. Retrieved 2012-12-19.. ...
Both oral and topical uses have been reported to cause anaphylaxis,[15][16] including one case of anaphylaxis with cardiac ... Usefulness of the prick test for anaphylactoid reaction in intravenous fluorescein administration]". Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi ... Topical, oral, and intravenous use of fluorescein can cause adverse reactions, including nausea, vomiting, hives, acute ... where topical fluorescein is used in the diagnosis of corneal abrasions, corneal ulcers and herpetic corneal infections. It is ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2018-11-03.. *^ a b c "Isotretinoin 20mg capsules - - (eMC)". www.medicines.org.uk. ... Shalita A (2001). "The integral role of topical and oral retinoids in the early treatment of acne". Journal of the European ... "U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 20 January 2014.. *^ Gina Kolata for the New York Times. April 22, 1988 ... "U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 20 January 2014.. *^ "FDA information, side effects, and uses / Accutane ( ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 25 March 2002.. *^ "Kava kava". National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health ... skin diseases and topical wounds, and as an analgesic, with significant subtlety and nuance attending the precise strain, plant ... "Therapeutic Goods Administration, Department of Health, Australian Government. 14 April 2015. Retrieved 22 October 2016.. . ... "Therapeutic Goods Administration, Government of Australia. April 2005. Archived from the original on 20 July 2006. Retrieved 10 ...
Administration of the oil was difficult. Taken orally it is extremely nauseating. Given by enema may cause peri-anal ulcers and ... He tried the oil as an oral and topical agent in two cases of leprosy and reported significant improvements in an 1854 paper.[ ... The first parenteral administration was given by the Egyptian doctor Tortoulis Bey, personal physician to the Sultan Hussein ...
... topical vaginal estrogen has been found to reduce recurrence.[53][54] As opposed to topical creams, the use of vaginal estrogen ... "Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 8 March 2018. Archived from the original on 18 July 2019. Retrieved 17 July 2019.. ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommends against the use of fluoroquinolones when other options are available due to ...
... is classified as an orphan drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration[13] ... To avoid side-effects associated with intravenous administration, the solution should be slowly infused to minimize the release ...
US Food and Drug Administration. September 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. *^ "Sativex Oromucosal Spray - Summary of Product ... Mirzaei, Hamed; O'Brien, Allen; Tasnim, Nishat; Ravishankara, Adithya; Tahmooressi, Hamed; Hoorfar, Mina (2019). "Topical ... "US Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. ... such as in the United States where the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Drug Enforcement Administration continue to control ...
Kwok, CS; Gibbs, S; Bennett, C; Holland, R; Abbott, R (12 September 2012). "Topical treatments for cutaneous warts". The ... administration. intravenous, intramuscular, subcutaneous, intrapleural, intratumoral. ATC code. *L01DC01 (WHO) Legal status. ...
Many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the blood stream (air embolism), and ... To make the procedure more tolerable for children, medical staff may apply a topical local anaesthetic (such as EMLA or Ametop ... Compared with other routes of administration, such as oral medications, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver ... One reason veins are preferred over arteries for intravascular administration is because the flow will pass through the lungs ...
Two federal agencies, the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), determine which ... Cocaine: used as a topical anesthetic and to stop severe epistaxis. *Codeine (pure) and any drug for non-parenteral ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2 July 2015.. *^ "Medical Device Amendments". Rx-wiki. Parsons Printing Press. Retrieved ... Drug Enforcement Administration. 66 (75): 20038-20076. Retrieved 13 June 2013.. *^ Gee, Paul; Gilbert, Mark; Richardson, Sandra ...
Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine. There are three major categories of drug administration; ... Diagnostic: topical anesthetics, sympathomimetics, parasympatholytics, mydriatics, cycloplegics. *Antibacterial: antibiotics, ... require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and immediately after administration, have ... In the U.S., the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration, and the 1938 ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration.. *^ Comite SL, Smith K. "Commenting on: "Duration of efficacy increases with the repetition ... which cannot be managed by topical agents.[when?][19][20] ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[17] The duration of the ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved tap water iontophoresis devices for the treatment of hyperhidrosis.[25] ... Treatment algorithms for hyperhidrosis recommend topical antiperspirants as the first line of therapy for hyperhidrosis. Both ...
Oxygen helmets are used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for oxygen administration.[1] They are transparent, lightweight plastic ... Oxygen helmets are often preferred for oxygen administration in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for children and patients that are ... and hyperbaric chamber and other patients who require administration of pure oxygen, such as carbon monoxide poisoning and ...
Administration for Children and Families (2010) The Program Manager's Guide to Evaluation. Chapter 2: What is program ... For a topical guide to this subject, see Outline of social science § Branches of social science. ... Public administration is one of the main branches of political science, and can be broadly described as the development, ... Though public administration has been historically referred to as government management,[40] it increasingly encompasses non- ...
Volume II contained the Law Digests, which included a topical index, Digests of the Laws of the States, Territories and ... Administration, see Executors and Administrators, Admission to bar, see Attorney and Counselors; Admissions and dues tax, see ... Ancillary administration, see Executors and Administrators; Annulment of marriage, see Marriage, see also Divorce; Answer, see ... Administration, Direct Actions Against Insurer); Appeal and Error (Appeal Bond, Stay of Proceedings, Extent of Review, ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2020.. This article incorporates text from this source, ... "Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for analgesia in traumatic corneal abrasions". The Cochrane Database of ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.. This article incorporates ... In October 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required the drug label to be updated for all nonsteroidal anti- ...
"IAEA Topical Booklets and Overviews" (PDF). Iaea.org.. *^ "Wayback Machine". 4 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2009- ... In 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a report stating that radionuclides, traced from the ... The National Nuclear Security Administration has acknowledged the seriousness of the 2012 Plowshares action. Non-proliferation ...
Topical medications *Antiseptics / disinfectants *Antiseptic fluid, moist wipe or spray- For cleaning and disinfecting a wound ... In the United States, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) requires all job sites and workplaces to make ... such as after the administration of an epipen. A common recommendation for adults is to take two 25mg pills. Non-solid forms of ...
US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2016-01-21.. *^ "Baclofen Overdose: Drug Experimentation in a Group of Adolescents ... Baclofen can be administered transdermally as part of a pain-relieving and muscle-relaxing topical cream mix at a compounding ... With pump administration, a test dose is first injected into the spinal fluid to assess the effect, and if successful in ... Besides those with spasticity, intrathecal administration is also used in patients with multiple sclerosis who have severe ...
Salves, oils, balms, creams and lotions are other forms of topical delivery mechanisms. Most topical applications are oil ... In the United States, herbal remedies are regulated dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under current ... This oil can then be made into salves, creams, lotions, or simply used as an oil for topical application. Many massage oils, ... diluting them in olive oil or another food grade oil such as almond oil can allow these to be used safely as a topical. ...
Purchase Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780433336457 ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration 1st Edition. Pharmaceutical Monographs. Write a review ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration , Volume 9 provides the product characteristics, formulation, ... and rationale of topical therapeutic preparations.. The book attempts to take the reader logically from the physiological and ...
Topical application of cyclosporin provides cyclosporin to the anterior chamber, the posterior chamber and the vitreous body of ... Combined topical and systemic method of administration of cyclosporine. US5079341 *. Jul 21, 1988. Jan 7, 1992. Galpin Ian J. ... Thus topical administration has surprisingly been found to be an excellent method for providing cyclosporin in much greater ... 19-102), the topical administration of a cyclosporin to the eye is efficatious in the treatment of phacoanaphylactic ...
... Jae-Hun Lee,1,2 Min ... at four weeks after drug administration and these increased thresholds remained until 12 weeks after drug administration. KG ... After twelve weeks of drug administration, the KG and KI groups showed a total loss of HCs and a partial loss of nerve fibers ... Drug Administration. Kanamycin (KM) sulphate was diluted in normal saline (150 mg/ml) and administered in three different ways ...
The present invention provides formulations for the topical application of cyclosporin to skin tissue for treatment of ... initiating said systemic administration at a first dosage level prior to initiating said topical administration, and lowering ... initiating said systemic administration prior to said administration of topical cyclosporin, and discontinuing said systemic ... Ophthalmic treatment by topical administration of cyclosporin. US4677968 *. 14 Jan 1986. 7 Jul 1987. University Of Utah ...
Filed Under: Bruises, Dermatitis, Dermatological disorders, Haemorrhoids, Haemorrhoids (topical application), Neurodermitis ... atopica, Skin inflammation, Varicose veins (topical administration) Hamamelidis cortex (Hamamelis bark) - Online consultation. ... topical application), Inflammation of the oropharyngeal mucosa, Mouth, ear, nose and throat disorders, Online Consultation, ... Varicose veins (topical administration). Varicose veins (topical administration). Hamamelidis folium (Hamamelis leaf) - Online ...
... Oh Sook Kwon,1 Seung Hee ... S. R. Pinnell, "Cutaneous photodamage, oxidative stress, and topical antioxidant protection," Journal of the American Academy ...
Topical" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Administration, Topical" was a major or minor topic of ... "Administration, Topical" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Administration, Topical" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Administration, Topical". ...
Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%.. The safety and ... A Prospective, Single-Center, Open-Label, Study of the Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Safety Following Topical Administration of ... Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%. ...
Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The safety and scientific ... Drug: Epinephrin (Intranasal injection) Drug: Epinephrin (Topical administration) Hide Detailed Description Detailed ... Active Comparator: Topical administration An an intranasal injection of saline will be used as control, and thereafter cotton ... We hypothesize that topical administration of epinephrine provides a hemostatic effect not inferior to that of intranasal ...
Retinal delivery after topical administration was confirmed, and retinal expression of IRS-1 was demonstrated to be elevated in ... Topical application of aganirsen offers a safe and effective therapy for both choroidal and retinal neovascularization without ... Topical corneal application of aganirsen attenuated neovascular lesion development dose dependently in African green monkeys. ... Topical aganirsen inhibited retinal neovascularization after OIR in rats (P , 0.05); furthermore, a single intravitreal ...
Pharmacokinetics of the green tea derivative, EGCG, by the topical route of administration in mouse and human skin. ... Conclusion: The present study showed that topical application of EGCG in hydrophilic ointment USP achieved high concentrations ... To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of EGCG following topical application, EGCG was applied as 10% EGCG in hydrophilic ... Topical application of EGCG in hydrophilic ointment USP to human or mouse skin resulted in substantial intradermal uptake of up ...
Topical drug administration is a convenient and non-invasive administration route for both local and systemic drug delivery. ... nanostructured delivery systems containing isolated terpenes and/or essential oils designed for topical administration and on ... topical drug administration essential oils; terpenes; nanotechnology; cyclodextrins; topical drug administration ... Topical drug administration is a convenient and non-invasive administration route for both local and systemic drug delivery. ...
148 Pages Report] Topical Drug Delivery Market Report categories the global market by Route of Administration (Rectal, Skin, ... 7 Topical Drug Delivery Market, By Route of Administration (Page No. - 52). 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Skin Drug Delivery 7.3 ... 4 Topical Drug Delivery Market: Premium Insights (Page No. - 27). 4.1 Global Market, By Route of Administration 4.2 Global ... Table 23 Topical Drug Delivery Market Size, By Route of Administration, 2014 2021 (USD Billion). Table 24 Some Commercially ...
Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic ... PL was found to be photoprotective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for ... before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were ... The observed photoprotective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of ...
Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration Lacramioara ... Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration. Molecules. ... "Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration." Molecules 21 ... Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration. Molecules 2016 ...
Buy or Rent Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration as an eTextbook and get instant access. With ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration Edition by N. J. Van Abbé and Publisher Elsevier Butterworth ...
Drug administration Is the Subject Area "Drug administration" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Correction: Nanoformulations of Rilpivirine for Topical Pericoital and Systemic Coitus-Independent Administration Efficiently ...
A Study to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Administration of FMX-101 for Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Acne. The ... This is a Phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and long-term safety of the topical administration of FMX-101, 4% ... This is a Phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and long-term safety of the topical administration of FMX-101, 4% ... A Randomized, Double-Blind Study to Compare the Efficacy, Safety and Long-Term Safety of Topical Administration of FMX-101 for ...
Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Administration of FMX101 for 12 Weeks in the Treatment of Moderate-to- Severe Acne ... A Randomized, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Administration of FMX101 ...
... mineral oil and bisabolol for topical administration. Nitrite anions may act as a vasodilator in vivo by generating nitric ... This technology discloses a topical ointment formulation comprising about .5% to 3.0% by weight non-acidified sodium nitrite ... 10, 2014, "Topical Sodium Nitrite Formulations", [HHS Ref. No. E-149-2014-0-US-01]; ... 10, 2015, "Topical Sodium Nitrite Formulations", [HHS Reference No. E-149-2014-0-PCT-02]; ...
Topical administration of drugs via eyedrops is a desirable route of delivery to the retina, since it minimizes the potential ... 2). Topical administration of Nepafenac significantly inhibited development of the diabetes-induced OP delays (200.5 ± 13.2; P ... Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac achieved sufficient drug delivery to the retina and diabetes-induced alterations in ... Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac was also found to inhibit leukostasis within retinal microvessels. Leukostasis ...
... administration is pushing the development of this growing sector in drug delivery. ... SPECIAL FEATURE - Transdermal, Topical & Subcutaneous Drug Delivery: Extending Pipelines & Improving Self-Administration. ... In the topical space, Tapemark offers single-use pads and topical patches created by coating or dispensing the active ... In the topical delivery market, Tapemark has had success with its patented Snap!® and SnapplicatorTM single-dose packaging ...
Rabbit corneal allograft survival following topical administration of cyclosporin A. J S Kana; F Hoffmann; R Buchen; A Krolik; ... Rabbit corneal allograft survival following topical administration of cyclosporin A. You will receive an email whenever this ... J S Kana, F Hoffmann, R Buchen, A Krolik, M Wiederholt; Rabbit corneal allograft survival following topical administration of ... Topical Ocular Drug Delivery to the Back of the Eye by Mucus-Penetrating Particles ...
Inhibition of experimental diabetic cataract by topical administration of RS-verapamil hydrochloride ... Inhibition of experimental diabetic cataract by topical administration of RS-verapamil hydrochloride ...
T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Welcome to the ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Pang, Fei Victor ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. ... Topical T-2 application caused severe dermal injury and adverse systemic effects, including anorexia, posterior weakness, ...
CHF6001 was found effective and extremely well tolerated upon topical administration in relevant animal models, and may ... CHF6001 II: A Novel Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Suitable for Topical Pulmonary Administration-In Vivo Preclinical ... CHF6001 II: A Novel Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Suitable for Topical Pulmonary Administration-In Vivo Preclinical ... specifically developed for topical administration to the airways as a result of an internal discovery and optimization program ...
Evaluation of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Concentrations in Human Conjunctival Tissue Following Topical Administration ... Evaluation of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Concentrations in Human Conjunctival Tissue Following Topical Administration ... Evaluation of Fluoroquinolone Antibiotic Concentrations in Human Conjunctival Tissue Following Topical Administration . Invest ... Samples were analyzed by a dual analyte reversed phase HPLC method. Results: After a single administration of either ...
NGF topical administration in dogs affected by spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis sicca by Pl Dodi et al. ... NGF topical administration in dogs affected by spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis sicca. @article{Dodi2007NGFTA, title={NGF ... topical administration in dogs affected by spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis sicca}, author={Pl Dodi and Claudia Zanotti and ...
... an effective amount of a topical anesthetic, such as lidocaine, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. ... Topical administration of a topical anesthetic, e.g., in nosedrops or eyedrops, can relieve the symptoms of conditions due to ... Administration and Dosages. While it is possible that, for use in therapy, the topical anesthetics or their salts may be ... For topical administration to the eye, nasal membranes or to the skin, the compounds according to the invention may be ...
Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration , Volume 9 provides the product characteristics, formulation, ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs By A. Jarrett and R. I. C. Spearman ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs A. Jarrett , R. I. C. Spearman , N. ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs PDF (Adobe DRM) can be read on any ...
  • Topical corneal application of aganirsen attenuated neovascular lesion development dose dependently in African green monkeys. (nih.gov)
  • Rabbit corneal allograft survival following topical administration of cyclosporin A. (arvojournals.org)
  • The mechanism by which CS-A delayed corneal graft rejection seems to depend mainly on the specific and/or the nonspecific effect of topical CS-A on lymphocytes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Topical administration of Zerumbone accelerated corneal wound healing. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • These factors are giving rise to a new generation of transdermal, topical, and subcutaneous drug products designed to satisfy caregiver and patient preferences while addressing managed care initiatives and the formulation limitations of new classes of therapeutic drugs. (drug-dev.com)
  • The growing interest in transdermal, topical, and subcutaneous drug delivery is a reflection of the industry's quest for alternative routes of administration, much needed for the delivery of new chemical entities (biologics in particular) as well as for enabling and enhancing the drug pipelines for known compounds that stand to benefit from reformulation," says Jasmine Musakhanian, Marketing & Scientific Director, Pharmaceutical Division, Gattefossé USA. (drug-dev.com)
  • Oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) 10% is a new transdermal formulation of oxybutynin chloride that is efficacious in improving OAB-related urinary symptoms with low incidences of peripheral anticholinergic adverse effects. (neaua.org)
  • Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still commonly referred to as routes of administration . (wikipedia.org)
  • Other forms of testosterone replacement therapies include: buccal tablets, subcutaneous pellets, transdermal patches, injections and topical gels. (fiercepharma.com)
  • It is intended to provide a low molecular weight adjuvant which can be administered safely without inducing skin irritation or the like by transdermal or transmucosal administration and is for enhancing immunogenicity of an antigen efficiently. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention provides formulations for the topical application of cyclosporin to skin tissue for treatment of autoimmune, T-cell mediated immune disease, and inflammatory conditions, and for producing prolonged skin allograft survival and wound healing. (google.com.au)
  • The present review focuses on describing the current status of research concerning nanostructured delivery systems containing isolated terpenes and/or essential oils designed for topical administration and on discussing the use of terpenes and essential oils either for their biological activities or as permeation enhancers in pharmaceutic formulations. (mdpi.com)
  • Pharmaceutical formulations containing tetracycline for topical administration, as well as methods of making and administering the same, are disclosed. (lens.org)
  • ADMINISTRATION this invention relates to pharmaceutical formulations including, as the active ingredient, substances which arc poorly soluble in water, for example therapeutically active cyclosporins, taxoides and taxancs. (allindianpatents.com)
  • In hospice care , a specialized rectal catheter , designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications provides a practical way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in the distal rectum, giving health practitioners a way to leverage the established benefits of rectal administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • SEPPIC designs and manufactures excipients such as emulsifiers, solubilizers and texturing agents for the topical route of administration to help formulators optimize and simplify their formulations. (seppic.com)
  • While injections may be made on a daily basis, sustained release formulations are usually preferred for parenteral administration of bioactive materials to moderate the release of the active agent, to reduce initial spiking of concentrations in the body, and to reduce the frequency with which the material must be administered. (google.ca)
  • Aqueous formulations of somatotropin intended for administration over an extended period by means of an implanted osmotic pump delivery device are described in U.S. Pat. (google.ca)
  • Efficacy and safety of dupilumab with concomitant topical corticosteroids in children 6 to 11 years old with severe atopic dermatitis: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. (harvard.edu)
  • Topical corticosteroids share anti-inflammatory, anti-pruritic and vasoconstrictive actions. (nih.gov)
  • The mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of the topical corticosteroids is unclear. (nih.gov)
  • Various laboratory methods, including vasoconstrictor assays, are used to compare and predict potencies and/or clinical efficacies of the topical corticosteroids. (nih.gov)
  • The extent of percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids is determined by many factors including the vehicle, the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and the use of occlusive dressings. (nih.gov)
  • Topical corticosteroids can be absorbed from normal intact skin. (nih.gov)
  • Occlusive dressings substantially increase the percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids. (nih.gov)
  • Once absorbed through the skin, topical corticosteroids are handled through pharmacokinetic pathways similar to systemically administered corticosteroids. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the topical corticosteroids and their metabolites are also excreted into the bile. (nih.gov)
  • Topical corticosteroids are contraindicated in those patients with a history of hypersensitivity to any of the components of the preparation. (nih.gov)
  • Systemic absorption of topical corticosteroids has produced reversible hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, manifestations of Cushing's syndrome, hyperglycemia, and glucosuria in some patients. (nih.gov)
  • Topical corticosteroids are one of the oldest and most useful treatments for dermatologic conditions. (aafp.org)
  • Topical corticosteroids are effective for conditions that are characterized by hyperproliferation, inflammation, and immunologic involvement. (aafp.org)
  • 5 , 6 Alopecia areata, which is usually self-limited, may respond to ultra-high-potency topical corticosteroids, but randomized controlled trials have yielded conflicting results. (aafp.org)
  • The following local adverse reactions are reported infrequently with topical corticosteroids, but may occur more frequently with the use of occlusive dressings. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Topical corticosteroids are generally applied to the affected area as a thin film from three to four times daily depending on the severity of the condition. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Topical application of cyclosporin provides cyclosporin to the anterior chamber, the posterior chamber and the vitreous body. (google.com)
  • and systemically administering a formulation containing cyclosporin in pharmaceutically effective amounts in conjunction with said topical application. (google.com.au)
  • 2. A method according to claim 1, further comprising: initiating said systemic administration prior to said administration of topical cyclosporin, and discontinuing said systemic administration prior to discontinuing said topical administration. (google.com.au)
  • This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example. (harvard.edu)
  • Topical drug administration is a convenient and non-invasive administration route for both local and systemic drug delivery. (mdpi.com)
  • Do the Effects of Oxybutynin on Cognition Depend on the Route of Administration_Topical or Oral? (neaua.org)
  • A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Route of administration and dosage form are aspects of drug delivery . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, uptake of drugs administered orally may also occur already in the stomach , and as such gastrointestinal (along the gastrointestinal tract ) may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications, especially those used at the end of life . (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravitreal injection of bevacizumab was the most effective route of administration for intraocular tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Each vaccine has a recommended administration route and site. (cdc.gov)
  • Oral route accounts for the majority of the pharmaceutical market, followed by injectable and then topical drugs. (seppic.com)
  • Each route of administration has its own advantages and disadvantages, as well as specific requirements. (seppic.com)
  • The injectable route is used for a quick administration (adapted to emergencies), a controlled dosage, the absence of intestinal and hepatic first pass effect and continuous medication (infusion). (seppic.com)
  • This route of administration is growing with the developments of biological drugs posing new challenges. (seppic.com)
  • SEPPIC designs and manufactures adjuvants for therapeutic vaccines and excipients such as solubilizers and emulsifiers dedicated to injectable route of administration. (seppic.com)
  • The topical route is easy to use for patients. (seppic.com)
  • Challenges of this route of administration are linked to the texture of the drug to improve patient compliance as well as efficacy. (seppic.com)
  • Initially this route of drug administration was attempted for the management of allergic rhinosinusitis. (scribd.com)
  • The reasons for interest in this route of drug administration because of its high vascularity, porous endothelial basement membrane and a high total blood flow per volume of tissue. (scribd.com)
  • 3. A method according to claim 1, further comprising: initiating said systemic administration at a first dosage level prior to initiating said topical administration, and lowering said systemic dosage to a second level during said topical administration. (google.com.au)
  • Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local (sometimes termed topical ), such as in a contrast enema , whereby contrast media is infused into the intestines for imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, enthusiasm for systemic administration of agents to address vascular access dysfunction is somewhat limited because of off-target effects and toxicities. (asnjournals.org)
  • The topical drug delivery market is expected to reach USD 125.88 Billion by 2021 from USD 92.40 Billion in 2016 at a CAGR of 6.4% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Europe was the second-largest market for topical drugs in 2016. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • ABR was measured several times after drug administration. (hindawi.com)
  • The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. (harvard.edu)
  • Time-resolved fluorescence microscopy with phasor analysis for visualizing multicomponent topical drug distribution within human skin. (harvard.edu)
  • High incidence of skin diseases (such as psoriasis, eczema, and skin cancer), increasing inclination of patients towards pain-free drug delivery, launch of new topical products, and increasing focus of prominent players on strengthening their presence in the North American market (through acquisitions and expansions) are expected to drive the growth of this regional market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The topical drug delivery market is a fragmented market with several global as well as local players operating in various market segments. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Drug administration" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • We explored the effect of topical Nepafenac, an anti-inflammatory drug known to reach the retina when administered via eyedrops, on the development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy and on metabolic and physiologic abnormalities that contribute to the retinal disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac achieved sufficient drug delivery to the retina and diabetes-induced alterations in retinal vascular metabolism, function, and morphology were inhibited. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Results A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. (elsevier.com)
  • Xylocaine jelly is a topical drug that is used to ease pain and discomfort of the skin. (brighthub.com)
  • You can purchase this drug in the form of a film patch, topical cream, spray, film, solution or lotion. (brighthub.com)
  • FLECTOR PATCH (diclofenac epolamine patch) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, available for topical application. (rxlist.com)
  • TOPICAL (Olux) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. (medicinenet.com)
  • Otolaryngologists in some centers to reduce bleeding topical vasoconstrictors used such as phenylephrine an Alpha-agonist drug caused peripheral vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. (ac.ir)
  • The best of our knowledge, bradycardia followed by topical administration of this drug is rare in ENT surgeries perhaps the main reason is the administration of atropine or glycopirolate before operation(2). (ac.ir)
  • The New York State Department of Health has had four reports of cardiac arrest following administration of topical phenylephrine has been reported that in all cases labetalol was prescribed to control high blood pressure(2,5).probably decreased cardiac output after treatment with this drug lead to arrest. (ac.ir)
  • These results suggest that SLN are effective drug carriers for topical delivery and that CsA-loaded SLN can be therapeutically applied in allergy-related skin disorders. (elsevier.com)
  • Some vaccines are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for administration by the Pharmajet Stratis needle-free injection system. (cdc.gov)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Axiron on November 23, 2010 , making it the first and only testosterone replacement therapy applied to the underarm. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Considering taking medication to treat administration+of+local+anesthetic+drug? (webmd.com)
  • Below is a list of common medications used to treat or reduce the symptoms of administration+of+local+anesthetic+drug. (webmd.com)
  • To assess the extent of illness from ingestion of lindane, CDC, with assistance from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and state health departments, collected case reports and analyzed data from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides (SENSOR-Pesticides) program and the Toxic Exposure Surveillance System (TESS). (cdc.gov)
  • US Food and Drug Administration. (medscape.com)
  • FALSE CHAPTER 3: The drug form(s) that are manufactured for dissolving in the mouth are A AND D (BUCCAL TABLETS AND TRANSMUCOSAL ORAL TABLETS) Topical preparations include medications used in the eye and ear, as well as on the skin. (bartleby.com)
  • Needle insertion angles for 4 types of parenteral administration of medication: intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intradermal injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parenteral administration can be performed by injection , that is, using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle ) and a syringe , [16] or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter . (wikipedia.org)
  • Whatever injectable drugs developed - biologicals or small molecules - and whatever the parenteral administration - intravenous, subcutaneous, ocular - drugs can be developed with one or several SEPPIC products to improve solubility, stability, safety and efficiency of pharmaceutical actives. (seppic.com)
  • Solid dosage forms of bioactive materials for parenteral administration such as porcine or bovine somatotropin pellets intended for subcutaneous implantation to improve food production of farm animals are coated with polyvinyl alcohol to extend the release characteristics of the material. (google.ca)
  • Solid pellets of somatotropin adapted for parenteral administration by implantation and having at least one uncoated release surface are described in U.S. Pat. (google.ca)
  • Locations of application of parenteral administration include: Central nervous system: Epidural (synonym: peridural) (injection or infusion into the epidural space), e.g. epidural anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration , Volume 9 provides the product characteristics, formulation, and rationale of topical therapeutic preparations. (elsevier.com)
  • For example, 10% EGCG was lost after 2 days at 37 °C, but the same formulation supplemented with 0.1% butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) had significantly longer stability with ≥90% EGCG remaining after 130 days at 37 °C. Topical application of EGCG in hydrophilic ointment USP to human or mouse skin resulted in substantial intradermal uptake of up to 1-20% of the applied dose. (springer.com)
  • This technology discloses a topical ointment formulation comprising about .5% to 3.0% by weight non-acidified sodium nitrite dispersed in white petrolatum, mineral oil and bisabolol for topical administration. (federalregister.gov)
  • Therapeutic application of sodium nitrite through this specific topical formulation may provide selective vasodilation to hypoxemic tissue that treat ulcers associated with chronic ischemic and neuropathic ulcer conditions associated with several diseases. (federalregister.gov)
  • A tetracycline formulation for topical administration comprising at least one tetracycline or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or hydrate thereof substantially stabilized in a base, wherein the base comprises at least one hydrophobic, non-hygroscopic silicone thickening agent, and wherein the formulation is substantially free of pro tic liquids. (lens.org)
  • The tetracycline formulation of claim 1 or 2, wherein topical administration is external administration to the skin. (lens.org)
  • There are many topical steroids available, and they differ in potency and formulation. (aafp.org)
  • The main challenges for formulating topical forms are Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) solubility, stability of the formulation, penetration of the API, formulation of a combination of APIs, patient compliance. (seppic.com)
  • Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. (nih.gov)
  • The trial consisted in 10 days daily administration of murine NGF as eye-drops for a total dose of 1 mg NGF/pt. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The patients were followed for one year after administration of the first dose to evaluate long-term efficacy and safety. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • It had also efficient effect on healing process and duration of wound healing with a dose-response by oral administration and a maximal effect observed from the lowest to the highest dose by topical application. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The recommended dose of FLECTOR is one (1) topical system to the most painful area twice a day both in adults and pediatric patients 6 years of age and older. (rxlist.com)
  • At the end of 3 days, the total recovery ranged between 0.48% and 0.94% with an average of 0.76%, indicating that approximately 5.98% of the topical dose was absorbed systemically. (nih.gov)
  • If applied twice daily, this would indicate systemic absorption of topical fluorouracil to be in the range of 5 to 6 mg per daily dose of 100 mg. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, patients receiving a large dose of a potent topical steroid applied to a large surface area or under an occlusive dressing should be evaluated periodically for evidence of HPA axis suppression by using the urinary free cortisol and ACTH stimulation tests. (nih.gov)
  • Results: In comparison with topical application of saline, the administration of oxygenated IKOR 2084 increases wound reepithelialization and formation of neo-granulation tissue in a dose-dependent manner, and cellular proliferation (Ki-67). (northwestern.edu)
  • An ideal antibacterial therapeutic for administration during pregnancy would be one that is highly specific for its target, leaving the surrounding microbiota intact. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2. The therapeutic system for the administration of a biologically active macromolecule according to claim 1, wherein the macromolecule is a protein. (google.com)
  • 3. The therapeutic system for the administration of a macromolecule according to claim 1, wherein the interpenetrating phase is substantially continuous and homogenous within said matrix phase. (google.com)
  • 4. The therapeutic system for the administration of a macromolecule according to claim 1, wherein the macromolecule has a molecular weight of 10 3 to 10 6 daltons. (google.com)
  • 6. The therapeutic system for the administration of a macromolecule according to claim 1, wherein the macromolecule is a trypsin inhibitor. (google.com)
  • 7. The therapeutic system for the administration of a macromolecule according to claim 1, wherein the macromolecule swells and exerts pressure on the polymer matrix whereby through the combined physical operations the macromolecule is released from the system. (google.com)
  • 8. The therapeutic system for the administration of a macromolecule according to claim 1 wherein the environment is a warm blooded animal. (google.com)
  • 9. The therapeutic system for the administration of a macromolecule according to claim 1, wherein the aqueous fluid is a member selected from the group consisting of water, saline, buffers and biological fluids. (google.com)
  • 10. The therapeutic system for the administration of a macromolecule according to claim 1, wherein the system comprises from 3 to 90 parts macromolecule to 97 to 10 parts of matrix. (google.com)
  • 11. The therapeutic system for the administration of a macromolecule according to claim 1, wherein the polymeric matrix is formed of a material that retains its physical and chemical integrity during the period of active macromolecular release from the system. (google.com)
  • We wish to conduct a prospective controlled trial assessing the hemostatic and hemodynamic effects of intranasal injection compared to topical application of epinephrin during ESS, in order to evaluate whether the previous could be avoided due to its untoward effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Another pilot study has demonstrated that epinephrine injection better facilitates visualization of the surgical field, yet topical application does not involve hemodynamic side effects [11]. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The objective of the current study is to compare the hemostatic and hemodynamic effects of intranasal injection versus topical application of epinephrin during ESS, in order to evaluate whether the previous could be avoided due to its untoward effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • After obtaining informed consent, patients will be assigned to one of two groups - intranasal injection group (IG) or topical application (TG) of epinephrine, by computer-generated assignment of random numbers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Topical application of aganirsen offers a safe and effective therapy for both choroidal and retinal neovascularization without preventing its normal vascularization. (nih.gov)
  • To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of EGCG following topical application, EGCG was applied as 10% EGCG in hydrophilic ointment USP to full-thickness mouse or human skin in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The present study showed that topical application of EGCG in hydrophilic ointment USP achieved high concentrations in skin but negligible systemic availability. (springer.com)
  • Its beneficial photoprotective effects in the treatment of vitiligo and its antioxidant properties encouraged us to evaluate in vivo the potentially useful photoprotective property of natural extract of PL after topical application or oral ingestion. (nih.gov)
  • PL was found to be photoprotective after topical application as well as oral administration. (nih.gov)
  • The subconjunctival application of CS-A was irritating, whereas the topical instillation of the water-soluble preparation was well tolerated. (arvojournals.org)
  • SCs was investigated by oral administration (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg) and cutaneous application (2.5, 5.0 and 10.0%) to evaluate its impact in two dermatological disorder models in mice: skin inflammation and wound healing. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The release liner is removed prior to topical application to the skin. (rxlist.com)
  • Routes of administration are usually classified by application location (or exposition). (wikipedia.org)
  • An exception is topical administration , which generally means that both the application location and the effect thereof is local. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical administration is sometimes defined as both a local application location and local pharmacodynamic effect, [3] and sometimes merely as a local application location regardless of location of the effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: Oxygen was delivered to ischemic wounds by means of the topical application of oxygenated, chemically modified bovine hemoglobin (IKOR 2084) in a validated rabbit ear ischemic wound model. (northwestern.edu)
  • Conclusion: This study suggests that the topical application of oxygenated IKOR 2084 ameliorates the reparative progress of ischemic wounds through enhanced angiogenesis, cellular proliferation, and collagen deposition. (northwestern.edu)
  • A pharmaceutical excipient suitable for topical application is included. (google.ca)
  • To investigate the pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab in rabbits for three different routes of administrations: intravitreal injection, subconjunctival injection, and eye drops. (elsevier.com)
  • however, the amount of fluorouracil absorbed systemically after topical administration to actinic keratoses is minimal (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ). (nih.gov)
  • Evidence indicate that topical administration of epinephrine achieves similar hemostatic effects compared with injection of epinephrine, while avoiding systemic adverse effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We hypothesize that topical administration of epinephrine provides a hemostatic effect not inferior to that of intranasal injection while minimizing hemodynamic instability during ESS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evidence indicate that topical use of epinephrine may achieve similar hemostatic effects compared with injection of epinephrine [10]. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Pigmented rabbits received bevacizumab in one eye by topical eye drops (1.25 mg/0.05 mL six times daily for the first 7 days), single subconjunctival injection (1.25 mg/0.05 mL), or single intravitreal injection (1.25 mg/0.05 mL). (elsevier.com)
  • Intracerebral (into the cerebrum) administration by direct injection into the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • WO9850014A1 ] Compositions for the topical treatment of sagging subcutaenous muscle and overlying cutaneous tissue contain an active ingredient exhibiting or producing catecholamine activity such as catecholamines and/or related compounds in a dermatologically acceptable carrier that contains at least one percutaneous penetration enhancer. (epo.org)
  • These findings suggest that administration of SCs by both oral and topical routes appeared to have beneficial effects on skin lesions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Action may be topical (local), enteral (system-wide effect, but delivered through the gastrointestinal tract ), or parenteral (systemic action, but delivered by routes other than the GI tract). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two major methods, NP encapsulation and buccal administration, have been gathering a large amount of attention as alternatives to the more traditional oral and IV routes. (asme.org)
  • Pharmaceutical drugs are developed for 3 main routes of administration: oral, injectable and topical routes. (seppic.com)
  • As with any topical corticosteroid product, prolonged use may produce atrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues. (nih.gov)
  • This guideline concentrates on topical administration for atopic dermatitis/eczema for children and young people. (gosh.nhs.uk)
  • FLECTOR® is indicated for the topical treatment of acute pain due to minor strains, sprains, and contusions in adults and pediatric patients 6 years and older. (rxlist.com)
  • EFUDEX Solutions and Cream are topical preparations containing the fluorinated pyrimidine 5-fluorouracil, an antineoplastic antimetabolite. (nih.gov)
  • One hundred fifty-nine operative procedures for postburn contractures of interdigital webs (96), the axilla (46), or the neck (17) were prospectively randomized to be treated postoperatively for four months with a topical steroid (Aristocort A), topical vitamin E, or the base cream carrier for these drugs. (nih.gov)
  • This is a Phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and long-term safety of the topical administration of FMX-101, 4% minocycline foam for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acne vulgaris. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Objective To determine the mydriatic effects of topical rocuronium bromide administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and to identify any adverse effects associated with treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • EFUDEX is recommended for the topical treatment of multiple actinic or solar keratoses. (nih.gov)
  • Amphotericin B releasing nanoparticle topical treatment of Candida spp. (jove.com)
  • Therefore, it is reasonable to avoid of treatment with this and other beta-blockers in hypertension induced by topical phenylephrine. (ac.ir)
  • Maternal treatment can often result in the fetus being unnecessarily treated and conversely, attempts to treat the fetus in utero by maternal administration of drugs can vary greatly depending on the placental transfer of the chosen compound ( Pacifici, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • When prescribing topical steroids, it is important to consider the diagnosis as well as steroid potency, delivery vehicle, frequency of administration, duration of treatment, and side effects. (aafp.org)
  • Currently, healthcare professionals and patients have access to topical testosterone treatment options that are applied to various areas of the skin. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Lidocaine Hydrochloride Jelly USP, 2% is indicated for prevention and control of pain in procedures involving the male and female urethra for topical treatment of painful urethritis, and as an anesthetic lubricant for endotracheal intubation (oral and nasal). (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • In all, continuous topical steroid treatment was given during the one year period of observation. (nih.gov)
  • Which topical antimicrobial agents are used in the treatment of acute conjunctivitis (pink eye)? (medscape.com)
  • Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the operating theatre intravenous access was established, after routine monitoring, as in our hospital atropine or glycopyrolate administration before surgery is not routinely, general anesthesia was induced with midazolam 1 mg, fentanyl 50 µg thiopental 125 mg, and atracurium 12.5 mg. (ac.ir)
  • Fluocinonide Topical Solution USP, 0.05% FOR TOPICAL USE ONLY. (nih.gov)
  • Fluocinonide Topical Solution USP, 0.05% is intended for topical administration. (nih.gov)
  • Fluocinonide Topical Solution USP, 0.05% contains fluocinonide 0.5 mg/mL in a solution of citric acid, ethyl alcohol (35%), diisopropyl adipate, propylene glycol and purified water. (nih.gov)
  • Fluocinonide Topical Solution USP, 0.05% is indicated for the relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses. (nih.gov)
  • Topical steroids are available in a variety of potencies and preparations. (aafp.org)
  • Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration Edition by N. J. Van Abbé and Publisher Elsevier Butterworth Heinemann. (vitalsource.com)
  • Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs PDF (Adobe DRM) can be read on any device that can open PDF (Adobe DRM) files. (ebookmall.com)
  • If irritation develops, topical corticosteroid should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted. (nih.gov)
  • Triamcinolone Acetonide is a topical corticosteroid known chemically as 9-Fluoro-11β, 16α, 17, 21-tetrahydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione cyclic 16,17-acetal with acetone. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • The effects of topical administration of an alcohol extract of the leaves of an evergreen plant, Terminalia chebula, on the healing of rat dermal wounds, in vivo, was assessed. (isharonline.org)
  • Topical therapy with rhubarb navel plasters in patients with chronic constipation: Results from a prospective randomized multicenter study. (harvard.edu)
  • Retinal delivery after topical administration was confirmed, and retinal expression of IRS-1 was demonstrated to be elevated in patients with subretinal neovascularization and AMD. (nih.gov)
  • Short-term administration of NGF eye-drops caused neither significant adverse effects nor visual function losses in the tested RP patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study supports the safety and possible efficacy of NGF eye-drops administration in RP patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this investigation was to investigate the potential efficacy and adverse effects of murine NGF eyedrops administration in RP patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite not meeting the primary endpoint, the results of this phase III trial suggest that topical administration of the TLR-9 agonist DIMS0150 is able to induce remission in ulcerative colitis patients, as judged by objective clinical and endoscopic measures. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • This is a pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of concomitant administration of hyaluronic acid and topical hyperbaric oxygen therapy (THOT) by a specifically designed medical device (vaginal natural oxygenation device, VNOD) in improving the symptomatology of postmenopausal patients with vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA). (europeanreview.org)
  • Administration, Topical" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Results indicated that oral and topical administrations of the two higher doses of SCs had significant effects on macroscopic score of skin inflammation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Flector Patch belongs to a class of drugs called Topical Skin Products. (rxlist.com)
  • Many skin conditions are treated with topical steroids ( Table 1 ), but evidence of effectiveness has been established only for a small number of conditions. (aafp.org)
  • Signs of puberty that are not expected (for example, pubic hair) have happened in young children who were accidentally exposed to testosterone through skin to skin contact with men using topical testosterone products like AXIRON. (fiercepharma.com)
  • Management: Limit doses of vitamin A to 5,000 units per day if combined with topical bexarotene. (drugs.com)
  • Due to severe complications have been ever seen, avoidance of topical administration of phenylephrine or other vasoconstrictors with undetermined doses is reasonable. (ac.ir)
  • Commercially available compositions for oral administration are known under the trade names Sandimunn Sandimunn®-Neora1, Consuprcn®, Implanta®, Imusporin® as described in GB-A-2015339, GB-A-2222770, CB-A-2270842 and GB-A-22787S0. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The book attempts to take the reader logically from the physiological and pathological aspects through to the reasoning behind topical medication. (elsevier.com)
  • TRUE The medical assistant or allied health professional needs which of the following knowledge bases for effective medication administration? (bartleby.com)
  • CRUSHING OF THE TABLET FOR EASE OF ADMINISTRATION "Off-label" use of medications means the indications for use do not appear on the medication label affixed to the bottle/vial. (bartleby.com)
  • Medication administration to a pediatric patient can be challenging. (bartleby.com)
  • China, India, and Japan are some of the major markets for topical drugs in the Asia-Pacific region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • TRUE Drugs are classified by the ALL OF THE ABOVE Oral medications may be mixed with food to assist with their administration in older adults and children. (bartleby.com)
  • This e book takes a look at the new emerging frontier of nasal administration of drugs and vaccines. (scribd.com)
  • Topical Antiandrogen Therapies for Androgenetic Alopecia and Acne Vulgaris. (harvard.edu)
  • Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic reactions as well as. (nih.gov)
  • Adverse experiences following the administration of lidocaine are similar in nature to those observed with other amide local anesthetic agents. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Our case was an intraoperative arrest of a 9-yrs-old girl related to administration of topical phenylephrine during adenoidectomy however, bradycardia is a rare complication of topical phenylephrine in ENT surgeries probably due to preoperative administration of atropine or glycopirolate. (ac.ir)
  • In other hand we can say that bradycardia can be an unavoidable complication of the administration of phenylephrine. (ac.ir)
  • We have expanded the scope of this review to include an assessment of the topical and oral effects of CHM for eczema. (isharonline.org)
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of oral ingestion and topical applications of CHM for the management of eczema in children and adults. (isharonline.org)
  • Five biweekly administration of THOT and concomitant of hyaluronic acid were performed with a specifically designed medical device. (europeanreview.org)
  • Moreover, the topical administration of oxygenated IKOR 2084 induces angiogenesis as evidenced by concomitant increases in CD31 protein and vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression in treated wounds. (northwestern.edu)
  • Bevacizumab concentrations in plasma and ocular tissues in the treated and fellow eyes were determined by sandwich enzymelinked immunosorbent assay at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks after administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species. (elsevier.com)
  • Significantly, topical applications of aganirsen did not interfere with physiological retinal vessel development in newborn rats. (nih.gov)