Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred ICRLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United StatesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.PiperazinesNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred C3HLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Inbred LewEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
(1/2779) Treatment of cutaneous ulcers with benzoyl peroxide.

Benzoyl peroxide, a powerful organic oxidizing agent, was applied topically according to a carefully developed technique to cutaneous ulcers of different types. The healing time was shortened greatly by the rapid development of healthy granulation tissue and the quick ingrowth of epithelium. Exceptionally large pressure ulcers with deep cavities, undercut edges and sinus tracts were sucessfully treated, as were stasis ulcers of long duration resistant to all other therapy. There were only 13 treatment failures among the 133 cases. The slow, sustained release of oxygen by benzoyl peroxide was though to be responsible for the success. The only complications were contact irritant dermatitis in 3% and contact allergic dermatitis in 2% of patients treated.  (+info)

(2/2779) Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. DESIGN: 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. SETTING: Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of steroid. RESULTS: Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a mean concentration of 456 micrograms/g (range 64 to 1500 micrograms/g). All were applied to areas of sensitive skin such as face and flexures. CONCLUSION: Greater regulation needs to be imposed on Chinese herbalists to prevent illegal and inappropriate prescribing of potent steroids.  (+info)

(3/2779) Bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis.

Two long-term therapy trials with high concentrations of antibiotic were carried out to determine the duration of therapy required to achieve bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs. In the first study, corneas still contained Pseudomonas after 4 days of continual topical therapy with either tobramycin 400 mg/ml, amikacin 250 mg/ml, ticarcillin 400 mg/ml, or carbenicillin 400 mg/ml. In an 11-day trial of topical therapy with tobramycin 20 mg/ml, 34 of 36 corneas grew no Pseudomonas after 6 or more days of therapy. The bacteriologic response to therapy in this model occurred in two phases. About 99.9% or more of the organisms in the cornea were killed in the first 24 hr of therapy. The numbers of bacteria remaining in the cornea declined gradually over the next several days until the corneas were sterile. Optimal antibiotic therapy may include two stages: initial intensive therapy with high concentrations of antibiotic applied frequently to achieve a large rapid decrease in numbers of organisms in the cornea, followed by prolonged, less intensive therapy to eradicate organisms and prevent relapse.  (+info)

(4/2779) Effect of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation and wound healing.

PURPOSE: To establish whether fucoidin, by blocking the adhesion of leukocytes on the limbal vascular endothelium, prevents extravasation of the cells from the blood stream into the limbal stroma and the wounded area after corneal injury. Successful leukocyte blocking enabled investigation of the influence of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation after corneal wounding. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were used. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and a standardized alkali corneal wound were used as models in two sets of experiments. In half of the injured rabbits fucoidin was used to prevent leukocytes from leaving the local vessels. The efficiency of the blocking technique was evaluated by counting the number of leukocytes in the limbal and wounded corneal areas. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was used as a marker for proliferative activity. RESULTS: The infiltration of leukocytes into the limbus and the cornea after PRK and alkali injuries can be blocked by fucoidin. The healing rate of corneal epithelium after alkali burn was retarded in the absence of leukocytes. PCNA expression was enhanced in the presence of leukocytes. Fucoidin per se had no influence on corneal cell proliferation and wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) can be prevented from entering the cornea in vivo by fucoidin after PRK and after alkali burn. The corneal epithelial healing rate is delayed in the absence of PMNs in vivo, and PCNA expression increases in the presence of leukocytes.  (+info)

(5/2779) Riluzole improves functional recovery after ischemia in the rat retina.

PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia leads to neuronal death. The effects of riluzole, a drug that protects against the deleterious effect of cerebral ischemia by acting on several types of ion channels and blocking glutamatergic neurotransmission, were investigated in a rat model of retinal ischemic injury. METHODS: Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure above systolic blood pressure for 30 minutes. Electroretinograms were recorded before ischemia and at different periods of reperfusion. Riluzole was injected or topically applied to the eye before or after ischemia and twice daily during the reperfusion period. Retinas were harvested for histopathology (toluidine blue and silver-impregnation stainings, Tdt-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling [TUNEL] method) and immunohistochemistry for cytoskeletal glial fibrillary acid protein and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (p-JNK). RESULTS: Ischemia for 30 minutes caused a reduction of a- and b-waves of the electroretinogram. Systemic and topical treatments with riluzole significantly enhanced the recovery of the reduced a- and b-waves after defined reperfusion times. Riluzole also prevented or attenuated ischemia-induced retinal cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and reduced the activation of p-JNK, c-jun phosphorylation, and the increase of cytoskeletal proteins induced by ischemic injury. CONCLUSIONS: Riluzole acted in vivo as a potent neuroprotective agent against pressure-induced ischemia. Therefore, riluzole may be a major drug for use in protection against retinal injury.  (+info)

(6/2779) Topical psoriasis therapy.

Psoriasis is a common dermatosis, affecting from 1 to 3 percent of the population. Until recently, the mainstays of topical therapy have been corticosteroids, tars, anthralins and keratolytics. Recently, however, vitamin D analogs, a new anthralin preparation and topical retinoids have expanded physicians' therapeutic armamentarium. These new topical therapies offer increased hope and convenience to the large patient population with psoriasis.  (+info)

(7/2779) Contact hypersensitivity: a simple model for the characterization of disease-site targeting by liposomes.

A murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is characterized with respect to liposome accumulation at a site of inflammation. Mice were sensitized by painting the abdominal region with a solution of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and inflammation was induced 5 days later by challenging the ear with a dilute solution of DNFB. The inflammatory response was readily monitored by measuring ear thickness (edema) and radiolabeled leukocyte infiltration. Maximum ear swelling and cellular infiltration occurred 24 h after the epicutaneous challenge with the ear returning to normal size after approximately 72 h. We demonstrate that large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) accumulate at the site of inflammation to a level more than 20-fold higher than that measured in the untreated ear. Vesicle delivery to the ear correlated with increased vascular leakage resulting from endothelium remodeling in response to DNFB challenge, and was not a consequence of increased local tissue blood volume. Extravasation occurred only during the first 24 h after ear challenge; after this time the permeability of the endothelium to vesicles returned to normal. We further showed that LUV with a diameter of 120 nm exhibit maximum levels of accumulation, that a polyethylene glycol surface coating does not increase delivery, and that the process can be inhibited by the application of topical corticosteroids at the time of induction. These data and the inflammation model are discussed with respect to developing lipid-based drug delivery vehicles designed to accumulate at inflammatory disease sites.  (+info)

(8/2779) Topical gene delivery to murine skin.

We topically applied naked plasmid DNA containing the luciferase or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase cDNA directly to mouse skin. Gene expression was detected in skin samples as early as 4 h after DNA application, plateaued from 16 to 72 h post-application, and had decreased significantly by 7 d post-application. Reporter gene activity following topical DNA delivery was comparable with that produced by intradermal injection of DNA. Plasmid DNA at concentrations > or =0.25 microg per microl were required to achieve maximal expression levels. Reporter gene expression following topical administration was largely confined to the superficial layers of the epidermis and to hair follicles. Surprisingly, certain cationic liposomes inhibited the efficiency of cutaneous gene transfer. This technique provides a simple, clinically relevant approach to deliver genes to the skin, with potential application in treating a variety of cutaneous disorders.  (+info)

*  Nasal administration
It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to ... Nasal administration can therefore be used as an alternative to oral administration of for example tablets and capsules if a ... Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. ... the variability in the amount absorbed after nasal administration should be comparable to that after oral administration. The ...
*  Cat
"Suspected Toxicosis after Topical Administration of Minoxidil in Two Cats". Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. ...
*  Clitoral enlargement methods
Topical administration of DHT is a well known treatment for clitoral growth in the trans male community. Clitoral pumping is ... To reduce side effects, many women attempt local topical administration. Anecdotal evidence suggests that DHT ( ...
*  Cat health
"Suspected toxicosis after topical administration of minoxidil in 2 cats". Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 14 ... Once-a-month topical products or ingestible pills are the most commonly used products to kill and prevent future parasite ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has come out against vegetarian cat and dog food for ...
*  DNA vaccination
This concept was applied in topical administration of pDNA encoding IL-10. Plasmid encoding B7-1 (a ligand on APCs) ... and topical administration of pDNA to the eye and vaginal mucosa. Mucosal surface delivery has also been achieved using ... "Suppression of ongoing ocular inflammatory disease by topical administration of plasmid DNA encoding IL-10". The Journal of ... It can also be accomplished by the co-administration of plasmid DNA encoding immune regulatory molecules, i.e. cytokines, ...
*  Wiley protocol
Hormones are applied transdermally, using an oil-based skin cream for topical administration.[self-published source?] Doses of ... Topical rather than oral administration[self-published source?] The protocol also includes a follow-up program to monitor the ...
*  Antibiotics
However, there are certain general causes for concern with topical administration of antibiotics. Some systemic absorption of ... Topical use is also one of the treatment options for some skin conditions including acne and cellulitis. Advantages of topical ... This involves the administration of a broad-spectrum antibiotic based on the signs and symptoms presented and is initiated ... Topical antibiotics applied over certain types of surgical wounds have been reported to reduce the risk of surgical site ...
*  Mometasone furoate
Topical administration applied to skin reduces the inflammation associated with chronic or acute dermatosis. Extensive ... As of 2016 mometasone furoate was available worldwide in formulations for nasal, oral inhalation, and topical administration, ... topical form), allergic rhinitis (such as hay fever) (topical form), asthma (inhalation form) for patients unresponsive to less ... Prakash, A; Benfield, P (January 1998). "Topical mometasone. A review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic use in ...
*  Systemic administration
... or parenteral administration (generally injection, infusion, or implantation). Contrast with topical administration where the ... Systemic administration is a route of administration of medication, nutrition or other substance into the circulatory system so ... Administration can take place via enteral administration (absorption of the drug through the gastrointestinal tract) ...
*  Aldose reductase inhibitor
Topical administration of aldose reductase inhibitors have been shown to prevent the cataract in rats. This class of drugs is ...
*  Carbachol
In topical ocular and intraocular administration its principal effects are miosis and increased aqueous humour outflow. In the ... Topical ocular administration is used to decrease intraocular pressure in people with primary open-angle glaucoma. Intraocular ... Since carbachol is poorly absorbed through topical administration, benzalkonium chloride is mixed in to promote absorption. ... of action and its duration of action is 4 to 8 hours with topical administration and 24 hours for intraocular administration. ...
*  Phage therapy
Topical administration often involves application to gauzes that are laid on the area to be treated. IV phage drip therapy was ... Oral administration works better when an antacid is included, as this increases the number of phages surviving passage through ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Researchers and observers predict that for phage therapy to be successful the FDA must ...
*  Stomatitis
Treatment usually involves the administration of topical nystatin or similar antifungal agents. Another treatment can be to ...
*  Pyriprole
Following topical administration pyriprole is rapidly distributed in the hair coat of dogs within one day after application. It ...
*  Cetalkonium chloride
Distribution of cyclosporine A in ocular tissues after topical administration of cyclosporine A cationic emulsions to pigmented ... Benefits of cetalkonium chloride cationic oil-in-water nanoemulsions for topical ophthalmic drug delivery. J Pharm Pharmacol. ...
*  Corneal neovascularization
Topical administration of steroids and non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs are first-line treatment for individuals with CNV. ... Topical and/or subconjunctival administration of bevaicizumab or ranibizumab have demonstrated short-term safety and efficacy, ... Corneal neovascularization can be suppressed with a combination of orally administration of doxycycline and with topical ... The administration of steroids can increase the risk of infection, glaucoma, cataracts, herpes simplex recurrence. The anti- ...
*  Route of administration
Parenteral administration generally acts more rapidly than topical or enteral administration, with onset of action often ... If defined strictly as having local effect, the topical route of administration can also include enteral administration of ... Topical administration is sometimes defined as both a local application location and local pharmacodynamic effect, and ... By this definition, topical administration also includes transdermal application, where the substance is administered onto the ...
*  Adenosine
Topical administration of adenosine for use in wound-healing deficiencies and diabetes mellitus in humans is currently under ... This lasts a few seconds after administration of a bolus dose, during transient asystole induced by intravenous administration ... Topical treatment of adenosine to foot wounds in diabetes mellitus has been shown in lab animals to drastically increase tissue ... The administration of adenosine also reduces blood flow to coronary arteries past the occlusion. Other coronary arteries dilate ...
*  Jan Trąbka
TRĄBKA J., PRZEWŁOCKI R., SIUTA J.: The influence of topical administration of the carboline derivatives on direct cortical ...
*  Chlormethine
There have been studies demonstrating that topical administration of mechlorethamine has efficacy in mycosis fungoides-type ... Topical chemotherapy in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: positive results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial testing the ... but when compounded into a topical formulation it can also be used to treat skin diseases. ... Retrieved from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/druginfo/meds/a682223.html Lindahl LM, Fenger-Gron M, Iversen L. Topical ...
*  Finafloxacin
... is commercially available as a 0.3% otic (meaning "for the ear") suspension for topical administration in the ... It is necessary to remain still for 1 minute, with the affected ear facing up while lying on one's side, after administration ... In the United States, it is approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat acute otitis externa (swimmer's ear) caused ... The suspension should be warmed gently in the hands for 1-2 minutes before administration to prevent dizziness, and shaken ...
*  Brit milah
Rezvani, Massoud; Finkelstein, Yaron (2007). "Generalized seizures following topical lidocaine administration during ...
*  Psoriasis
Psoralen and ultraviolet A phototherapy (PUVA) combines the oral or topical administration of psoralen with exposure to ... Another topical therapy used to treat psoriasis is a form of balneotherapy, which involves daily baths in the Dead Sea. This is ... The use of the finger tip unit may be helpful in guiding how much topical treatment to use. Vitamin D analogues may be useful ... Topical agents are typically used for mild disease, phototherapy for moderate disease, and systemic agents for severe disease. ...
*  Enema
The topical administration of medications into the rectum, such as corticosteroids and mesalazine used in the treatment of ... The administration of substances into the bloodstream. This may be done in situations where it is undesirable or impossible to ... Improper administration of an enema can cause electrolyte imbalance (with repeated enemas) or ruptures to the bowel or rectal ... An enema might be used to clean the colon of feces first to help increase the rate of absorption in rectal administration of ...
*  Antimicrobial peptides
... their use is generally limited to intravenous administration or topical applications due to their short half-lives. As of ... "Production and evaluation of an antimicrobial peptide-containing wafer formulation for topical application". Current ... January 2018 the following antimicrobial peptides were in clinical use: Bacitracin for pneumonia, topical Boceprevir, Hepatitis ...
*  Outline of Botswana
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Botswana: Botswana - a landlocked sovereign country ... President of Botswana Cabinet of Botswana President Vice president Minister of Presidential Affairs and Public Administration ...
*  Phototoxicity
The involved chemical may enter into the skin by topical administration or it may reach the skin via systemic circulation ... as well as compounds that could act as phototoxicants after topical application to the skin can be identified by the test. The ... Food and Drug Administration) MHLW/PMDA (Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare / Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices ... following ingestion or parenteral administration. The chemical needs to be "photoactive", which means that when it absorbs ...
Topical Drug Delivery Market by Product Type, Route of Administration & Region - 2021 | MarketsandMarkets  Topical Drug Delivery Market by Product Type, Route of Administration & Region - 2021 | MarketsandMarkets
148 Pages Report] Topical Drug Delivery Market Report categories the global market by Route of Administration (Rectal, Skin, ... 7 Topical Drug Delivery Market, By Route of Administration (Page No. - 52). 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Skin Drug Delivery 7.3 ... 4 Topical Drug Delivery Market: Premium Insights (Page No. - 27). 4.1 Global Market, By Route of Administration 4.2 Global ... Table 23 Topical Drug Delivery Market Size, By Route of Administration, 2014 2021 (USD Billion). Table 24 Some Commercially ...
more infohttps://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/topical-drug-delivery-market-124871717.html
Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration - 1st Edition  Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration - 1st Edition
Purchase Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780433336457 ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration 1st Edition. Pharmaceutical Monographs. Write a review ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration , Volume 9 provides the product characteristics, formulation, ... and rationale of topical therapeutic preparations.. The book attempts to take the reader logically from the physiological and ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/pharmaceutical-and-cosmetic-products-for-topical-administration/van-abbe/978-0-433-33645-7
Patent US4649047 - Ophthalmic treatment by topical administration of cyclosporin - Google Patents  Patent US4649047 - Ophthalmic treatment by topical administration of cyclosporin - Google Patents
Topical application of cyclosporin provides cyclosporin to the anterior chamber, the posterior chamber and the vitreous body of ... Combined topical and systemic method of administration of cyclosporine. US5079341 *. Jul 21, 1988. Jan 7, 1992. Galpin Ian J. ... Thus topical administration has surprisingly been found to be an excellent method for providing cyclosporin in much greater ... 19-102), the topical administration of a cyclosporin to the eye is efficatious in the treatment of phacoanaphylactic ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US4649047?dq=6,332,126
Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration | 9780433336457 | VitalSource  Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration | 9780433336457 | VitalSource
Buy or Rent Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration as an eTextbook and get instant access. With ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration Edition by N. J. Van Abbé and Publisher Elsevier Butterworth ...
more infohttps://www.vitalsource.com/products/pharmaceutical-and-cosmetic-products-for-topical-n-j-van-abbe-v9781483183046
Topical Administration of Manuka Oil Prevents UV-B Irradiation-Induced Cutaneous Photoaging in Mice  Topical Administration of Manuka Oil Prevents UV-B Irradiation-Induced Cutaneous Photoaging in Mice
... Oh Sook Kwon,1 Seung Hee ... S. R. Pinnell, "Cutaneous photodamage, oxidative stress, and topical antioxidant protection," Journal of the American Academy ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/930857/ref/
Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery - Full Text View -...  Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery - Full Text View -...
Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The safety and scientific ... Drug: Epinephrin (Intranasal injection) Drug: Epinephrin (Topical administration) Hide Detailed Description Detailed ... Active Comparator: Topical administration An an intranasal injection of saline will be used as control, and thereafter cotton ... We hypothesize that topical administration of epinephrine provides a hemostatic effect not inferior to that of intranasal ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/study/NCT01075581?show_desc=Y
Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery - Full Text View -...  Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery - Full Text View -...
Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The safety and scientific ... Active Comparator: Topical administration An an intranasal injection of saline will be used as control, and thereafter cotton ... We hypothesize that topical administration of epinephrine provides a hemostatic effect not inferior to that of intranasal ... Drug: Epinephrin (Topical administration) An intranasal injection of saline solution, followed by placement of cotton pledgets ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01075581?recr=Open&cond=%22Bradycardia%22&rank=16
Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%. - Tabular View -...  Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%. - Tabular View -...
Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%.. The safety and ... A Prospective, Single-Center, Open-Label, Study of the Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Safety Following Topical Administration of ... Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%. ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT02039765?term=BRIMONIDINE
Molecules | Free Full-Text | Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical...  Molecules | Free Full-Text | Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical...
Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration Lacramioara ... Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration. Molecules. ... "Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration." Molecules 21 ... Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration. Molecules 2016 ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/21/7/858
Antiangiogenic activity of aganirsen in nonhuman primate and rodent models of retinal neovascular disease after topical...  Antiangiogenic activity of aganirsen in nonhuman primate and rodent models of retinal neovascular disease after topical...
Retinal delivery after topical administration was confirmed, and retinal expression of IRS-1 was demonstrated to be elevated in ... Topical application of aganirsen offers a safe and effective therapy for both choroidal and retinal neovascularization without ... Topical corneal application of aganirsen attenuated neovascular lesion development dose dependently in African green monkeys. ... Topical aganirsen inhibited retinal neovascularization after OIR in rats (P , 0.05); furthermore, a single intravitreal ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=Cloutier%20F%2C%20Lawrence%20M%2C%20Goody%20R%2C%20Lamoureux%20S%2C%20Al
Speech by hon. Minister of Finance, Ghana (Seth Terkper) IMF international Seminar for Tax Policy and Administration Topical...  Speech by hon. Minister of Finance, Ghana (Seth Terkper) IMF international Seminar for Tax Policy and Administration Topical...
Minister of Finance, Ghana (Seth Terkper) IMF international Seminar for Tax Policy and Administration Topical Trust Fund (tpa- ... Minister of Finance, Ghana (Seth Terkper) IMF international Seminar for Tax Policy and Administration Topical Trust Fund (tpa- ... The review and reforms in tax policy and administration reforms remain a key element of the Programme. The Programme also has ...
more infohttp://www.mofep.gov.gh/node/408
NGF topical administration in dogs affected by spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis sicca - Semantic Scholar  NGF topical administration in dogs affected by spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis sicca - Semantic Scholar
NGF topical administration in dogs affected by spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis sicca' by Pl Dodi et al. ... NGF topical administration in dogs affected by spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis sicca. @article{Dodi2007NGFTA, title={NGF ... topical administration in dogs affected by spontaneous keratoconjunctivitis sicca}, author={Pl Dodi and Claudia Zanotti and ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/NGF-topical-administration-in-dogs-affected-by-Dodi-Zanotti/7219775b62ab6d558abb72c145440122f3d300c9
Topical Administration of Nepafenac Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Retinal Microvascular Disease and Underlying Abnormalities of...  Topical Administration of Nepafenac Inhibits Diabetes-Induced Retinal Microvascular Disease and Underlying Abnormalities of...
Topical administration of drugs via eyedrops is a desirable route of delivery to the retina, since it minimizes the potential ... 2). Topical administration of Nepafenac significantly inhibited development of the diabetes-induced OP delays (200.5 ± 13.2; P ... Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac achieved sufficient drug delivery to the retina and diabetes-induced alterations in ... Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac was also found to inhibit leukostasis within retinal microvessels. Leukostasis ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/56/2/373
Topical administration of L-carnitine on prevention and treatment of murine dry eye | IOVS | ARVO Journals  Topical administration of L-carnitine on prevention and treatment of murine dry eye | IOVS | ARVO Journals
Qian Garrett, Xin Zhang, Yu Wang, Peter Simmons, Joseph Vehige, Jinyang Li, Wei Chen; Topical administration of L-carnitine on ... Topical administration of L-carnitine on prevention and treatment of murine dry eye ... Topical administration of L-carnitine on prevention and treatment of murine dry eye ... Conclusions: Topical application of L-carnitine could limit progression as well as reduce the severity of dry eye, suggesting L ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2151740
A Non-Invasive Ocular Drug Delivery System That Delivers Substantially Greater Antibiotic Levels Than Topical Administration |...  A Non-Invasive Ocular Drug Delivery System That Delivers Substantially Greater Antibiotic Levels Than Topical Administration |...
A Non-Invasive Ocular Drug Delivery System That Delivers Substantially Greater Antibiotic Levels Than Topical Administration ... A Non-Invasive Ocular Drug Delivery System That Delivers Substantially Greater Antibiotic Levels Than Topical Administration ... A Non-Invasive Ocular Drug Delivery System That Delivers Substantially Greater Antibiotic Levels Than Topical Administration. ... no current for 30 or 60 min for topical passive controls). Transscleral in vitro delivery using an annular-shaped device was ...
more infohttps://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2374315
Secondary Degeneration of Auditory Neurons after Topical Aminoglycoside Administration in a Gerbil Model  Secondary Degeneration of Auditory Neurons after Topical Aminoglycoside Administration in a Gerbil Model
... Jae-Hun Lee,1,2 Min ... at four weeks after drug administration and these increased thresholds remained until 12 weeks after drug administration. KG ... After twelve weeks of drug administration, the KG and KI groups showed a total loss of HCs and a partial loss of nerve fibers ... Drug Administration. Kanamycin (KM) sulphate was diluted in normal saline (150 mg/ml) and administered in three different ways ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2018/9158187/
Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs ISBN 9780433336457 PDF epub | A....  Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs ISBN 9780433336457 PDF epub | A....
Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration , Volume 9 provides the product characteristics, formulation, ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs By A. Jarrett and R. I. C. Spearman ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs A. Jarrett , R. I. C. Spearman , N. ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration: Pharmaceutical Monographs PDF (Adobe DRM) can be read on any ...
more infohttps://www.ebookmall.com/ebook/pharmaceutical-and-cosmetic-products-for-topical-administration-pharmaceutical-monographs/n-j-van-abb/9780433336457
US5023085A - Transdermal flux enhancers in combination with iontophoresis in topical administration of pharmaceuticals 
       ...  US5023085A - Transdermal flux enhancers in combination with iontophoresis in topical administration of pharmaceuticals ...
... flux enhancers such as oleic acid and 1-dodecylazacycloheptan-2-one are used in combination with iontophoresis in the topical ... Transdermal and topical administration of local anesthetic agents using basic enhancers Okabe et al. 1986. New iontophoretic ... Pharmaceutical composition for topical administration containing transdermal flux enhancers JP33350990A JPH0688912B2 (en) 1989- ... Topical and transdermal administration of peptidyl drugs with hydroxide-releasing agents as skin permeation enhancers ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US5023085
  • High incidence of skin diseases (such as psoriasis, eczema, and skin cancer), increasing inclination of patients towards pain-free drug delivery, launch of new topical products, and increasing focus of prominent players on strengthening their presence in the North American market (through acquisitions and expansions) are expected to drive the growth of this regional market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Oxybutynin chloride topical gel (OTG) 10% is a new transdermal formulation of oxybutynin chloride that is efficacious in improving OAB-related urinary symptoms with low incidences of peripheral anticholinergic adverse effects. (neaua.org)
  • Samples collected from the receptor chambers of Ussing and Franz cells at various time points were analyzed for drug content by HPLC or LC/MS. The rate and extent of drug delivery achieved by iontophoresis was compared to topical passive delivery. (arvojournals.org)
  • Despite not meeting the primary endpoint, the results of this phase III trial suggest that topical administration of the TLR-9 agonist DIMS0150 is able to induce remission in ulcerative colitis patients, as judged by objective clinical and endoscopic measures. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • The book attempts to take the reader logically from the physiological and pathological aspects through to the reasoning behind topical medication. (elsevier.com)
  • We explored the effect of topical Nepafenac, an anti-inflammatory drug known to reach the retina when administered via eyedrops, on the development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy and on metabolic and physiologic abnormalities that contribute to the retinal disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac achieved sufficient drug delivery to the retina and diabetes-induced alterations in retinal vascular metabolism, function, and morphology were inhibited. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • constant current (+ or -) of 3 or 4 mA for 30 or 60 min was applied (no current for 30 or 60 min for topical passive controls). (arvojournals.org)
  • Antiangiogenic activity of aganirsen in nonhuman primate and rodent models of retinal neovascular disease after topical administration. (nih.gov)
  • The review and reforms in tax policy and administration reforms remain a key element of the Programme. (gov.gh)