Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred ICRLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United StatesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.PiperazinesNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred C3HLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Inbred LewEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Treatment of cutaneous ulcers with benzoyl peroxide. (1/2779)

Benzoyl peroxide, a powerful organic oxidizing agent, was applied topically according to a carefully developed technique to cutaneous ulcers of different types. The healing time was shortened greatly by the rapid development of healthy granulation tissue and the quick ingrowth of epithelium. Exceptionally large pressure ulcers with deep cavities, undercut edges and sinus tracts were sucessfully treated, as were stasis ulcers of long duration resistant to all other therapy. There were only 13 treatment failures among the 133 cases. The slow, sustained release of oxygen by benzoyl peroxide was though to be responsible for the success. The only complications were contact irritant dermatitis in 3% and contact allergic dermatitis in 2% of patients treated.  (+info)

Analysis of Chinese herbal creams prescribed for dermatological conditions. (2/2779)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether Chinese herbal creams used for the treatment of dermatological conditions contain steroids. DESIGN: 11 herbal creams obtained from patients attending general and paediatric dermatology outpatient clinics were analysed with high resolution gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. SETTING: Departments of dermatology and clinical biochemistry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Presence of steroid. RESULTS: Eight creams contained dexamethasone at a mean concentration of 456 micrograms/g (range 64 to 1500 micrograms/g). All were applied to areas of sensitive skin such as face and flexures. CONCLUSION: Greater regulation needs to be imposed on Chinese herbalists to prevent illegal and inappropriate prescribing of potent steroids.  (+info)

Bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis. (3/2779)

Two long-term therapy trials with high concentrations of antibiotic were carried out to determine the duration of therapy required to achieve bacteriologic cure of experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in guinea pigs. In the first study, corneas still contained Pseudomonas after 4 days of continual topical therapy with either tobramycin 400 mg/ml, amikacin 250 mg/ml, ticarcillin 400 mg/ml, or carbenicillin 400 mg/ml. In an 11-day trial of topical therapy with tobramycin 20 mg/ml, 34 of 36 corneas grew no Pseudomonas after 6 or more days of therapy. The bacteriologic response to therapy in this model occurred in two phases. About 99.9% or more of the organisms in the cornea were killed in the first 24 hr of therapy. The numbers of bacteria remaining in the cornea declined gradually over the next several days until the corneas were sterile. Optimal antibiotic therapy may include two stages: initial intensive therapy with high concentrations of antibiotic applied frequently to achieve a large rapid decrease in numbers of organisms in the cornea, followed by prolonged, less intensive therapy to eradicate organisms and prevent relapse.  (+info)

Effect of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation and wound healing. (4/2779)

PURPOSE: To establish whether fucoidin, by blocking the adhesion of leukocytes on the limbal vascular endothelium, prevents extravasation of the cells from the blood stream into the limbal stroma and the wounded area after corneal injury. Successful leukocyte blocking enabled investigation of the influence of leukocytes on corneal cellular proliferation after corneal wounding. METHODS: Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were used. Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and a standardized alkali corneal wound were used as models in two sets of experiments. In half of the injured rabbits fucoidin was used to prevent leukocytes from leaving the local vessels. The efficiency of the blocking technique was evaluated by counting the number of leukocytes in the limbal and wounded corneal areas. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was used as a marker for proliferative activity. RESULTS: The infiltration of leukocytes into the limbus and the cornea after PRK and alkali injuries can be blocked by fucoidin. The healing rate of corneal epithelium after alkali burn was retarded in the absence of leukocytes. PCNA expression was enhanced in the presence of leukocytes. Fucoidin per se had no influence on corneal cell proliferation and wound healing. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) can be prevented from entering the cornea in vivo by fucoidin after PRK and after alkali burn. The corneal epithelial healing rate is delayed in the absence of PMNs in vivo, and PCNA expression increases in the presence of leukocytes.  (+info)

Riluzole improves functional recovery after ischemia in the rat retina. (5/2779)

PURPOSE: Retinal ischemia leads to neuronal death. The effects of riluzole, a drug that protects against the deleterious effect of cerebral ischemia by acting on several types of ion channels and blocking glutamatergic neurotransmission, were investigated in a rat model of retinal ischemic injury. METHODS: Retinal ischemia was induced by increasing intraocular pressure above systolic blood pressure for 30 minutes. Electroretinograms were recorded before ischemia and at different periods of reperfusion. Riluzole was injected or topically applied to the eye before or after ischemia and twice daily during the reperfusion period. Retinas were harvested for histopathology (toluidine blue and silver-impregnation stainings, Tdt-dUTP terminal nick-end labeling [TUNEL] method) and immunohistochemistry for cytoskeletal glial fibrillary acid protein and c-jun NH2-terminal kinase (p-JNK). RESULTS: Ischemia for 30 minutes caused a reduction of a- and b-waves of the electroretinogram. Systemic and topical treatments with riluzole significantly enhanced the recovery of the reduced a- and b-waves after defined reperfusion times. Riluzole also prevented or attenuated ischemia-induced retinal cell death (necrosis and apoptosis) and reduced the activation of p-JNK, c-jun phosphorylation, and the increase of cytoskeletal proteins induced by ischemic injury. CONCLUSIONS: Riluzole acted in vivo as a potent neuroprotective agent against pressure-induced ischemia. Therefore, riluzole may be a major drug for use in protection against retinal injury.  (+info)

Topical psoriasis therapy. (6/2779)

Psoriasis is a common dermatosis, affecting from 1 to 3 percent of the population. Until recently, the mainstays of topical therapy have been corticosteroids, tars, anthralins and keratolytics. Recently, however, vitamin D analogs, a new anthralin preparation and topical retinoids have expanded physicians' therapeutic armamentarium. These new topical therapies offer increased hope and convenience to the large patient population with psoriasis.  (+info)

Contact hypersensitivity: a simple model for the characterization of disease-site targeting by liposomes. (7/2779)

A murine model of delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) is characterized with respect to liposome accumulation at a site of inflammation. Mice were sensitized by painting the abdominal region with a solution of 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB) and inflammation was induced 5 days later by challenging the ear with a dilute solution of DNFB. The inflammatory response was readily monitored by measuring ear thickness (edema) and radiolabeled leukocyte infiltration. Maximum ear swelling and cellular infiltration occurred 24 h after the epicutaneous challenge with the ear returning to normal size after approximately 72 h. We demonstrate that large unilamellar vesicles (LUV) accumulate at the site of inflammation to a level more than 20-fold higher than that measured in the untreated ear. Vesicle delivery to the ear correlated with increased vascular leakage resulting from endothelium remodeling in response to DNFB challenge, and was not a consequence of increased local tissue blood volume. Extravasation occurred only during the first 24 h after ear challenge; after this time the permeability of the endothelium to vesicles returned to normal. We further showed that LUV with a diameter of 120 nm exhibit maximum levels of accumulation, that a polyethylene glycol surface coating does not increase delivery, and that the process can be inhibited by the application of topical corticosteroids at the time of induction. These data and the inflammation model are discussed with respect to developing lipid-based drug delivery vehicles designed to accumulate at inflammatory disease sites.  (+info)

Topical gene delivery to murine skin. (8/2779)

We topically applied naked plasmid DNA containing the luciferase or chloramphenicol acetyltransferase cDNA directly to mouse skin. Gene expression was detected in skin samples as early as 4 h after DNA application, plateaued from 16 to 72 h post-application, and had decreased significantly by 7 d post-application. Reporter gene activity following topical DNA delivery was comparable with that produced by intradermal injection of DNA. Plasmid DNA at concentrations > or =0.25 microg per microl were required to achieve maximal expression levels. Reporter gene expression following topical administration was largely confined to the superficial layers of the epidermis and to hair follicles. Surprisingly, certain cationic liposomes inhibited the efficiency of cutaneous gene transfer. This technique provides a simple, clinically relevant approach to deliver genes to the skin, with potential application in treating a variety of cutaneous disorders.  (+info)

[148 Pages Report] Topical Drug Delivery Market Report categories the global market by Route of Administration (Rectal, Skin, Ophthalmic, Vaginal, Nasal), Product Type (Formulation (Solid, Cream, Lotion, Paste, Liquid), Transdermal (Patch, Gel)), Facility of Use (Clinic, Hospital, Home care, Research) & Geography
The structural properties of ethyl cellulose and propylene glycol dicaprylate mixtures were investigated with a view to facilitating use of the system as excepient for topical drug delivery. The working protocol included small-deformation dynamic oscillation in combination with the principle of time-temperature superposition, micro and modulated differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectroscopy, and optical profile analysis in the form of gel particle roughness. In contrast to thermoreversible gelation upon heating of aqueous ethyl cellulose solutions reported widely in the literature, replacing water with propylene glycol dicaprylate and mixing with the polymer yields gels that revert to the solution state with increasing temperature. Time effects were also probed; the continuous increase in viscoelasticity of preparations as a function of time of observation at ambient temperature was accompanied by structural disintegration of the polymeric ...
Formulations of topical diclofenac, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, piroxicam, and indomethacin demonstrated significantly higher rates of clinical success (more participants with at least 50% pain relief) than matching topical placebo (moderate or high
Retinas from Cx3cr1gfp/+ mice, as well as retinas and choroids from C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) mice, were dissected and divided into radial portions to be used in whole-mount immunofluorescence staining, as previously described.34 Tissue whole-mounts were incubated in 20 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid for 30 minutes at 37°C and blocked in 0.3% Triton X-100, 3% bovine serum albumin in PBS for 30 minutes at room temperature before antibody incubation. Tissues were then incubated with rabbit anti-mouse ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1, 1:400; Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Osaka, Japan) and rat anti-mouse MHC class II (M5/114.15.2, 1:400; BD Pharmingen, San Diego, CA, USA). Incubations were carried out for four hours at room temperature, followed by overnight incubation at 4°C. The following day, whole-mounts were washed three times in PBS and incubated with biotinylated goat anti-rat (1:400; Amersham Biosciences, Buckinghamshire, UK) diluted in blocking buffer, for two hours at ...
The systematic reviews by Zhang et al and Lin et al examined the effectiveness of oral and topical treatments for osteoarthritis. These treatments have been recommended by the American College of Rheumatology1 and in treatment guidelines developed in Europe and the UK.2,3 The use of paracetamol and topical NSAIDs must be even more closely examined in light of the withdrawal of rofecoxib from the market.. In a thorough review, Lin et al concluded that topical NSAIDs were superior to placebo in reducing pain and improving function, although effects waned after 2 weeks. The authors also noted that effects differed based on the specific drug. Comparisons of topical and oral NSAIDs were based on only 1 or 2 studies, and comparisons of various topical agents were not done in this review. The well done systematic review by Zhang et al examined the efficacy of paracetamol for reducing osteoarthritis pain and concluded that paracetamol is effective and safe for osteoarthritis pain relief. A similar ...
Biology Assignment Help, Topical route for injection, Topical Route The medication in topical route is administered through ear, nose and eye. Drops are instilled into the nose, ear and eyes of the child in much the same way as they are in the adult with the following exceptions. The dose
Good health starts with great skin, and a daily application of vitamin C serum for the face is recommended by many dermatologists. A simple solution of 25% vitamin C serum for the skin provides protection from environmentally induced free radicals, boosts the immune system, prevents inflammation that can cause wrinkling and exposure threats, and infuses much needed components that help make skin tighten and glow. Vitamin C has long been known as a deterrent for disease and ailments, going back as far as the ancient mariners who carried oranges and other citrus fruits on long voyages to prevent scurvy. The same prevention can be effective today, available in a daily application of vitamin C face serum to combat pollutants in the atmosphere leach out vital nutrients causing unhealthy attributes in skin.. Vitamin C Face Serum. A daily application is all it takes to return your skin and health to a youthful condition. As we age, moisture levels of our skin become depleted, bringing a host of ...
Purpose: : To determine the effect of topical hypotensive lipids on macular thickness in ocular hypertensive and glaucoma patients using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: : This prospective study measures foveal and macular thickness in one eye of patients with ocular hypertension or glaucoma without pre-existing macular thickening. Measurements of the fovea and macula were obtained using OCT before and after topical use of hypotensive lipids. Similar measurements were performed for comparison in an untreated control group. OCT measurement calculations used for analysis included fovea, the average of four quadrants of the inner ring of macular measurement, and similarly for the outer macular ring, as provided by OCT software Results: : Twenty-five eyes of 25 patients were enrolled in the treatment group and 21 eyes of 21 patients for the control group. OCT was performed in the treatment group before and 6.7 ± 5.0 months following initial topical therapy and over a similar time ...
The aim of the study was to assess changes in the activity of anti-inflammatory terpenes from Chilean medicinal plants after the formation of derivatives incorporating synthetic anti-inflammatory agents. Ten new hybrid molecules were synthesized combining terpenes (ferruginol (1), imbricatolic acid (2) and oleanolic acid (3)) with ibuprofen (4) or naproxen (5). The topical anti-inflammatory activity of the compounds was assessed in mice by the arachidonic acid (AA) and 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol 13-acetate (TPA) induced ear edema assays. Basal cytotoxicity was determined towards human lung fibroblasts, gastric epithelial cells and hepatocytes. At 1.4 µmol/mouse, a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the TPA assay was observed for oleanoyl ibuprofenate 12 (79.9%) and oleanoyl ibuprofenate methyl ester 15 (80.0%). In the AA assay, the best activity was observed for 12 at 3.2 µmol/mouse, with 56.8% reduction of inflammation, in the same range as nimesulide (48.9%). All the terpenyl-synthetic anti
The authors report studies indicating that topical vitamins A and K may reduce the darkness of the under-eye region that often appears as people age.
Differentiate. Always supply epinephrine for topical use in a pour-bottle (vial with peel off cap). If pour-bottles from manufacturers are not available (e.g., backorder), require pharmacy to prepare ready-to-use doses in pour-bottles or topical syringes, and to communicate the expected change in appearance to all affected service areas. Never take the risk of withdrawing a topical medication into a parenteral syringe.. Provide label clarity. Ensure that the word "TOPICAL" appears on the label of any container used to hold a solution intended for topical application.. Distinguish processes. Develop distinct processes for preparing and handling EPINEPHrine for topical application. In particular, medications such as EPINEPHrine intended for topical application should not be placed into a parenteral syringe. Conversely, a medication intended for injection (e.g., local anesthetic) should not be placed into an open container.. Separate processes. Store and prepare medications intended for topical use ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Comparison of the Uptake and Retention of Carcinogen by Breast and Fat (after Feeding) and Skin (after Topical Administration). by Fred G. Bock
Fungal infections of the skin are one of the often faced with dermatological diseases in worldwide. Topical therapy is an attractive choice for the treatment of the cutaneous infections due to its advantageous such as targeting of drugs to the site of infection and reduction of the risk of systemic side effects. Currently, antifungal drugs are generally used as conventional cream and gel preparations in topical treatment. The efficiency of that treatment depends on the penetration of drugs through the target layers of the skin at the effective concentrations. However, stratum corneum, the outermost layer of the skin, is an effective barrier for penetration of drugs into deeper layers of the skin. The physicochemical characteristics of drug molecules and the types of the formulations are effective factors in topical drug delivery. Therefore, a number of formulation strategies have been investigated for delivering antifungal compounds through targeted site of the skin. This review article focuses on the
A Bulldog who spent two years either lying down or throwing up plays like a puppy thanks to a daily dose of medical marijuana. A Boxers skin cancer begins to disappear following topical applications of cannabis oil. A 12-year-old Lab mix diagnosed with liver and lung cancer regains his appetite and becomes more himself after his owner gives him a cannabis tincture purchased
The most common method of removing a scar is through the use of pharmacologic topical agents that can be applied directly on the scar tissue. These topical agents usually come in the form of creams and lotions that is why their application on the scar is easy and the effect is direct.. The only downside to this type of scar removal treatment is that it has many limitations. First, this will only apply to scars that have been formed recently therefore the old scars that may have been present in the persons life for years could not be easily removed.. And second, it would take a long time before these topical agents would work but rest assured, they will.. How do these topical agents work?. The basic mechanism of these topical agents is through the enhanced growth and multiplication of the epithelial skin cells.. When the scar is found only on the epidermal or the upper portion of the skin, by enhancing skin cell division, the upper portion can be easily shed off and be replaced by a new skin ...
DermaVir is a synthetic pathogen-like nanomedicine. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is a single plasmid DNA expressing fifteen HIV antigens that assemble to HIV-like particles. These particles are safe; replication, integration and reverse transcription deficient. DermaVir is targeted to Langerhans cells by topical administration with DermaPrep. Langerhans cells with DermaVir migrate to lymph nodes and induce HIV-specific T cells that can kill HIV-infected cells.. GIEU006 is a Phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, double-blinded, multicenter study to assess the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and preliminary antiretroviral activity of DermaVir in antiretroviral therapy naïve adults with HIV-infection. ...
DermaVir is a synthetic pathogen-like nanomedicine. The active pharmaceutical ingredient is a single plasmid DNA expressing fifteen HIV antigens that assemble to HIV-like particles. These particles are safe; replication, integration and reverse transcription deficient. DermaVir is targeted to Langerhans cells by topical administration with DermaPrep. Langerhans cells with DermaVir migrate to lymph nodes and induce HIV-specific T cells that can kill HIV-infected cells.. GIEU006 is a Phase II randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-finding, double-blinded, multicenter study to assess the safety, tolerability, immunogenicity, and preliminary antiretroviral activity of DermaVir in antiretroviral therapy naïve adults with HIV-infection. ...
INTRODUCTION: Nanogels may be defined as nano-sized hydrogel systems, which are highly cross-linked systems in nature involving polymer systems, which are either co-polymerised or monomers 1, 2. The sudden outbreak in the field of nanotechnology has introduced the need for developing nanogel systems, which prove their potential to deliver drugs in various manners like controlled, sustained and targetable. In the emerging field of polymer sciences it has now become inevitable to prepare smart nano-systems that can prove effective for the treatment as well as clinical trials progress 3, 4, 10.. Traditionally in the name of gels we have heard of semisolid formulations with three-dimensional networks of organic systems encompassing fluids and drugs. Majorly these systems have been the part of the traditional system of topical drug delivery for local effects. Prospects of targeted drug delivery perhaps could not be established with these preparations. The significance of nano-sized microgel and ...
Treatment Agents. Anti-aging. The area around the eyes develop wrinkles because we use this region extensively for facial expression - and the more that we move an area of skin, the more likely it is to develop a crease. Once the crease has become deep enough it develops into a fold or static wrinkle. Sun damage adds to the collagen changes which contribute to wrinkle development, and therefore those individuals with badly sun damaged skin tend to have deeper and more pronounced wrinkles.. Topical Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has been shown to increase the activities of the fibroblasts - the cells that produce collagen, and interestingly enough Vitamin C is used by the body to cross-link (therefore strengthen) collagen strands in situ (in the body). The exact mechanism of how topical Vitamin C works is still under scientific investigation.. There are a number of Vitamin C preparations available - however there are very few patented formulations that have demonstrated capabilities. Vitamin C is a ...
Treatment Agents. Anti-aging. The area around the eyes develop wrinkles because we use this region extensively for facial expression - and the more that we move an area of skin, the more likely it is to develop a crease. Once the crease has become deep enough it develops into a fold or static wrinkle. Sun damage adds to the collagen changes which contribute to wrinkle development, and therefore those individuals with badly sun damaged skin tend to have deeper and more pronounced wrinkles.. Topical Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) has been shown to increase the activities of the fibroblasts - the cells that produce collagen, and interestingly enough Vitamin C is used by the body to cross-link (therefore strengthen) collagen strands in situ (in the body). The exact mechanism of how topical Vitamin C works is still under scientific investigation.. There are a number of Vitamin C preparations available - however there are very few patented formulations that have demonstrated capabilities. Vitamin C is a ...
The present invention relates to a method for the treatment of either phacoanaphylactic endophthalmitis or uveitis by administering at least one cyclosporin topically to the eyes. Topical application of cyclosporin provides cyclosporin to the anterior chamber, the posterior chamber and the vitreous body of the eye.
Call 561 588 0896 to order products by phone Continental US free UPS ground. Complex C Serum btc001. for all skin types and conditions. Appearance: Clear Liquid - fragrance free. Use: Use twice daily after thorough cleansing and toning. If using Alpha Beta Hydroxyl Acids or Retinol, use Complex C Serum first and let it absorb before adding other products. This will allow the special encapsulation to work completely.. Benefits: This advanced Vitamin C creme protects, hydrates and conditions skin without irritation. Vitamin C is a major anti-oxident in the body. It is well established that Vitamin C is essential for healthy skin. This formula also incorporates ingredients to calm redness ...
Vitamin C as a potent antioxidant. Environmental factors, such as solar radiation, pollution, and smoking can accelerate damage to the skin through the generation of so-called "oxidative stress". Vitamin C is one of the most potent antioxidants in the skin. It neutralizes the oxidative stress by a process of electron transfer and/or donation.[3]. Protection against photoaging. Transurocanic acid is a by-product of fillagrin present in the skin, which acts as a chromophore for photons of solar radiation (mainly ultraviolet [UV] and, to a degree, infrared) leading to the formation of singlet oxygen. This triggers a cascade of events that lead to the formation of so-called "reactive oxygen species" or "free radicals."[7-9] Free radicals are highly toxic, unstable molecules that can cause damage to nucleic acids, proteins, and cell membranes. UV-induced reactive oxygen species also trigger the signal transduction cascade, which leads to upregulation of factors, such as activation protein-1 (AP-1) ...
One hundred fifty-nine operative procedures for postburn contractures of interdigital webs (96), the axilla (46), or the neck (17) were prospectively randomized to be treated postoperatively for four months with a topical steroid (Aristocort A), topical vitamin E, or the base cream carrier for these …
Topical corticosteroids preparations are commonly used in the treatment of ocular inflammation. For anterior segment inflammation, topical steroids treatme..
Regenerate and rejuvenate tired skin with the daily application of our moisturisers. Buy at Tesco direct online and choose from day and night creams.
Regenerate and rejuvenate tired skin with the daily application of our moisturisers. Buy at Tesco direct online and choose from day and night creams.
Our serums are packed with a very high concentration of powerful anti-aging "active" ingredients. Moreover, serums are formulated with smaller molecules allowing their powerful nutrients to penetrate deeper, faster and more effectively than non-serums. Made up of smaller molecules, a serum is able to penetrate into all three layers of the skin. As such, only a small drops are needed with each application to deliver powerful anti-aging benefits. A 10z bottle should last about 1 month (based upon twice daily application ...
Fontis Skinfood clients use their products for minor cuts and bruises on a regular basis so it came as no surprise when Gerhard after damaging his calf in a vehicle related accident pulled his Exhuberance Nectar close. I celebrate with him that after daily application of Fontis Exuberance Nectar he achieved awesome results!. ...
Antiretroviral drugs are the gold standard for the treatment of HIV infection. They are highly effective in suppressing replication of the virus but require lifelong daily application and can be associated with side effects.
The goal of topical corticosteroid therapy is to maximise the clinical benefits of this highly effective group of drugs, while minimising their adverse effects. Many types of steroid-induced skin...
Use this medicine exactly as directed by your doctor. Do not use it for any other condition without checking first with your doctor. This medicine may cause unwanted effects if it is used too much, because more of it is absorbed into the body through the skin. This medicine comes with a medication guide and a patient information insert. Read and follow the instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions. Wash your hands with soap and water before and after using this medicine. Be careful not to get any of this medicine in your eyes, nose, or mouth. Do not use it on skin areas that have cuts or scrapes. If it does get on these areas, rinse it off right away. This medicine should only be used for problems being treated by your doctor. Check with your doctor before using it for other problems, especially if you think that an infection may be present. Do not bathe, shower, or swim right after applying this medicine. Also, the treated skin areas should not be bandaged or covered ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of lebrikizumab compared with Topical Corticosteroids (TCS) alone in patients with persistent moderate to
CONDITIONS OF USE: The information in this database is intended to supplement, not substitute for, the expertise and judgment of healthcare professionals. The information is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, drug
It is very important that you use this medicine only as directed. Do not use more of it, do not use it more often, and do not use it for a longer time than your doctor ordered. To do so may cause irritation of the skin. Do not apply this medicine to windburned or sunburned skin or on open wounds. Do not use this medicine in or around the eyes, lips, or inside of the nose. Spread the medicine away from these areas when applying. If the medicine accidently gets on these areas, wash with water at once. Apply the medicine to clean, dry areas of the skin affected by acne. Rub in gently and well. Wash your hands afterwards to remove any medicine that may remain on them. To help clear up your acne completely, it is very important that you keep using this medicine for the full time of treatment , even if your symptoms begin to clear up after a short time. If you stop using this medicine too soon, your acne may return or get worse. Dosing The dose of this medicine will be different for different ...
Is there anything I can do to help treat eczema, besides applying topical steroids medications? Answered by Dr. Manav Singla: Inhibit Calcineurin: There is another group of topical drugs that are ...
The dose of this medicine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctors orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of this medicine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.. The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.. ...
According to the U.S. 2012 National Health Interview Survey, 25 million American adults suffer from daily chronic pain, reporting severe pain that interferes
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
PREGNANCY and BREAST-FEEDING: If you become pregnant, contact your doctor. You will need to discuss the benefits and risks of using Temovate cream while you are pregnant. It is not known if Temovate cream is found in breast milk after topical use. If you are or will be breast-feeding while you use Temovate cream, check with your doctor. Discuss any possible risks to your baby ...
Topical formulations are available in Europe.[37] Hair follicles have estrogen receptors and it truly is theorized topical compounds act on them straight to market hair advancement and antagonize androgen action. Substantial scientific scientific studies exhibiting success are absent. Topical treatment can also be normally unavailable in North The usa.[4 ...
Topical vitamin C has some healthy skin benefits; it can brighten the skin, and helps with overall tone and texture. Watch me discuss the positive imp
New Corona virus (COVID-19) has made a horrible situation for all of the countries. This disease is not only a health problem but also economy, culture and the whole entity of the countries is under attack by the virus. This disease seems to affect the body in two different pathology pathways. From one side virus can decrease activity of immune system in the blood stream and whole body and from other side it can attack the respiratory cells. Tissue biopsy shows that immune cells penetrate into the Lung tissue and we have accumulation and over activity of Immune cells in the lung. This inflammation in respiratory tract probably is the major cause of Cytokine storm and release of TNF-α and IL-6 into the blood. It seems that by three strategy disease can be treated. 1- By using systemic immune simulators. 2- By using topical anti-inflammatory drug in the respiratory system (Steroids or NSAIDs) 3- By inhibition of replication of the virus in the attacked cells. ...
This multi-doses study investigated disitertide [P144; ISDIN] topical administration in healthy volunteers. The primary endpoint was performed through the
The medicine is for topical use in the mouth or throat. Do not swallow this medicine unless you have been told to. Follow the directions on the prescription label. Use a specially marked spoon or container to measure the solution. Ask your pharmacist if you do not have one. If you have a sore place in your mouth, you can apply the medicine with a cotton-tipped applicator. The solution can be swished around the mouth or gargled. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed ...
In this episode, we discuss: What is CBD? The legal and regulatory environment around CBD The health effects of CBD Choosing a CBD product and determining dosage How the CBD industry is changing and whats next for Ojai Energetics Topical uses for CBD Show notes: [embedded content] Hey, everybody, Chris […]. ...
Only oral preparations in ATC group D are given DDDs. Most products in this group are for topical use, and no DDDs are assigned because the amount given per day can vary very much according to the intensity and distribution of the disease. Consumption figures for these dermatological preparations can be expressed in grams of preparations regardless of strength ...
Only oral preparations in ATC group D are given DDDs. Most products in this group are for topical use, and no DDDs are assigned because the amount given per day can vary very much according to the intensity and distribution of the disease. Consumption figures for these dermatological preparations can be expressed in grams of preparations regardless of strength ...
Topical administration[edit]. There has been much interest and effort in the development of topical AR antagonists to treat ... Oral, topical. 1959. Available. 3,010,000 Topilutamide. Nonsteroidal. AR antagonist. Eucapil. Topical. 2003. Availableb. 36,300 ... topical administration has disappointingly been found generally to possess limited and only modest effectiveness, even when ... Oral, topical. 1977. Available. 3,650,000 Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, ...
administration. by mouth, topical. ATC code. *D11AX22 (WHO) P02CF01 (WHO) QP54AA01 (WHO) QS02QA03 (WHO) ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved August 18, 2018.. *^ "SKLICE- ivermectin lotion (NDC Code(s): 49281-183-71)". ... Mites such as scabies:[25][26][27] It is usually limited to cases that prove to be resistant to topical treatments or that ... Pariser DM, Meinking TL, Bell M, Ryan WG (November 2012). "Topical 0.5% ivermectin lotion for treatment of head lice". The New ...
... it does not correct hyponatremia as rapidly as administration of hypertonic saline does. Due to hypertonicity, administration ... antibiotics or topical anesthetics. Eye drops sometimes do not have medications in them and are only lubricating and tear- ... Water privation combined with diuretic block does not produce as much risk of CPM as saline administration does; however, ... after either ophthalmic or intravenous administration.[20] However, ophthalmic use is done with sterile filtered drugs that is ...
administration. intravenous, topical. ATC code. *B05BB01 (WHO) Ringer's lactate solution (RL), also known as sodium lactate ... For fluid resuscitation the usual rate of administration is 20 to 30 ml/kg body weight/hour. RL is not suitable for maintenance ... Careful monitoring of blood acid-base balance is essential during the administration of sodium lactate.. ... aggressive administration of sodium lactate may result in metabolic alkalosis. ...
Santos I, Clissold S (2010). "Urogenital disorders associated with oestrogen deficiency: the role of promestriene as topical ... administration. Topical. Drug class. Estrogen; Estrogen ester. ATC code. *G03CA09 (WHO) Identifiers. ...
As a topical drug mequinol is often mixed with tretinoin, a topical retinoid. A common formulation for this drug is an ... Mequinol is a common active ingredient in topical drugs used for skin depigmentation. ... administration. Topical. ATC code. *D11AX06 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *CA: Unscheduled ...
Absorption of topical permethrin is minimal. One in vivo study demonstrated 0.5% absorption in the first 48 hours based upon ... Permethrin is available for topical use as a cream or lotion. It is indicated for the treatment and prevention in exposed ... Permethrin has little systemic absorption, and is considered safe for topical use in adults and children over the age of 2 ... administration. topical. ATC code. *P03AC04 (WHO) QP53AC04 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *US: OTC ...
administration. Topical, oral. ATC code. *A06AA01 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *In general: Over-the-counter (OTC) ...
"Topical treatments for HIV-related oral ulcers". Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 1: CD007975. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007975.pub2. ... Amlexanox is the active ingredient in a common topical treatment for recurrent aphthous ulcers of the mouth (canker sores),[2] ... Elad S, Epstein JB, von Bültzingslöwen I, Drucker S, Tzach R, Yarom N (March 2011). "Topical immunomodulators for management of ... administration. Topical. ATC code. *A01AD07 (WHO) R03DX01 (WHO). Pharmacokinetic data. Elimination half-life. 3.5 hours. ...
... following ocular administration to rats". Drug Metabolism and Disposition. 37 (8): 1622-34. doi:10.1124/dmd.108.024885. PMID ... administration. Topical (eye drops). ATC code. *S01EE05 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *US: ℞-only ...
"Selenium sulfide topical Use During Pregnancy , Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. ... as to exactly what form selenium is in any given topical preparation. ... "Topical Selenium Sulfide for the Treatment of Hyperkeratosis". Dermatology and therapy. 8 (4): 639-46. PMC 6261123. PMID ... administration. Topical. ATC code. *D01AE13 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *US: OTC ...
... (INN, BAN, JAN), also known as flurandrenolide (USAN) and flurandrenolone,[1] is a synthetic topical ... Nakamura, H.; Motoyoshi, S.; Ishii, K.; Seto, Y.; Shimizu, M. (1980). "Anti-inflammatory activity of a topical glucocorticoid, ... administration. Topical. ATC code. *D07AC07 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *UK: POM (Prescription only) ...
administration. Topical Hazards R-phrases (outdated) R43 S-phrases (outdated) (S2) S24 S28 S37 S46 ... "Topical pine tar: History, properties and use as a treatment for common skin conditions". Australasian Journal of Dermatology ... "Clean-Up of Ineffective Ingredients in OTC Drug Products" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2014-04-19. ...
administration. Topical. ATC code. *D08AG02 (WHO) *D09AA09 (WHO) (dressing). *D11AC06 (WHO). *G01AX11 (WHO) ... Wong RH, Wong VW, Hung EC, Lee PY, Ng CS, Wan IY, Underwood MJ (2011). "Topical application of povidone-iodine before wound ... Povidone-iodine is a broad spectrum antiseptic for topical application in the treatment and prevention of wound infection. It ...
administration. Inhalation, nasal, topical. ATC code. *A07EA07 (WHO) D07AC15 (WHO), R01AD01 (WHO), R03BA01 (WHO) ...
As an ingredient or topical agent, witch hazel water is regulated in the United States as an over-the-counter drug for external ... In 2017, one manufacturer of skincare products containing witch hazel was warned by the Food and Drug Administration for making ... "Witch hazel - topical". Health Canada: Drugs and Health Products. 13 April 2010. Retrieved 13 April 2017. "Code of Federal ... In the United States, witch hazel water can be used as an ingredient for topical applications, but individual products are not ...
"Ketoprofen Absorption by Muscle and Tendon after Topical or Oral Administration in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate ... Ketoprofen is also available as a 2.5% gel for topical application, and it is also available as a patch for topical analgesia ... Mazières, B (2005). "Topical ketoprofen patch". Drugs in R&D. 6 (6): 337-44. doi:10.2165/00126839-200506060-00003. PMID ... Administration[edit]. Ketoprofen, when administered intravenously, is recommended for a maximum of five days of use. Its ...
administration. topical, intravenous (for animal euthanasia). ATC code. *C05AD04 (WHO) D04AB02 (WHO) N01BB06 (WHO) S01HA06 (WHO ... Cinchocaine is the active ingredient in some topical hemorrhoid creams such as Proctosedyl. It is also a component of the ... current use of cinchocaine is generally restricted to spinal and topical anesthesia.[1][2] It is sold under the brand names ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for nitroglycerin ... "Association of methemoglobinemia and intravenous nitroglycerin administration". American Journal of Cardiology. 55 (1): 181-183 ... administration. Intravenous, by mouth, under the tongue, topical Pharmacokinetics: Bioavailability. ,1% Metabolism ...
The routes of administration vary. They may be both systemic and topical. For example, pseudoephedrine is taken orally and ... Many are used in medicine to treat hypotension and as topical decongestants. Vasoconstrictors are also used clinically to ...
Topical administrationEdit. There has been much interest and effort in the development of topical AR antagonists to treat ... topical administration has disappointingly been found generally to possess limited and only modest effectiveness, even when ... Oral, topical. 1977. 3,650,000. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, SC. 1958. ... However, one topical AR antagonist, topilutamide (fluridil), has been introduced in a few European countries for the treatment ...
"Suspected toxicosis after topical administration of minoxidil in 2 cats". Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care. 14 ... Once-a-month topical products or ingestable pills are the most commonly used products to kill and prevent future parasite ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine has come out against vegetarian cat and dog food for ...
... and in a variety of formulations for topical administration, such as creams (used to treat tinea; cutaneous candidiasis, ... China Food and Drug Administration. 2015-06-25. Retrieved 2015-07-02. Phillips RM, Rosen T (2013). "Topical Antifungal Agents ... Topical ketoconazole is also used as a treatment for dandruff (seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp) and for seborrheic ... The topical formulations of Nizoral have not been associated with liver damage, adrenal problems, or drug interactions. These ...
By route of administrationEdit. Topical steroidsEdit. Main article: Topical steroid ... Habituation: Topical steroid addiction (TSA) or red burning skin has been reported in long-term users of topical steroids ( ... Topical corticosteroids are divided in potency classes I to IV in most countries (A to D in Japan). Seven categories are used ... Topical formulations are also available for the skin, eyes (uveitis), lungs (asthma), nose (rhinitis), and bowels. ...
Dena'ina Topical Dictionary. Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center. "Coast Pilot (R) Volume 9, Chapter 4, Pages: 124,224 - ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration "Cook Inlet - Northern part 1:194,154 nautical chart 16660". National Oceanic ... "Cook Inlet-Approaches to Anchorage, Alaska; 1:50,000 nautical chart 16665". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. " ... Susitna River nautical chart narrative" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. "Build new Alaskan bridge in ...
Recommended therapies for first-line use in acne vulgaris treatment include topical retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and topical or ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November ... antibiotic and topical retinoid, or topical retinoid and benzoyl peroxide.[47] Dermatologists generally prefer combining ... Topical retinoids include adapalene, retinol, tazarotene, trifarotene, and tretinoin.[47][85] They often cause an initial flare ...
Clindamycin topical is used for the treatment of bacterial infections and the symptoms it can Elimite Cream For Sale cause. ... CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are semisolid, white to off-white suppositories for intravaginal administration. There is a new cleanser ... The efluvial Michael goes through it and cost of cleocin suppositories misses it.. Cleocin t 1 topical cozelti 30 ml. Cleocin t ... Clindamycin topical is used for the treatment of bacterial infections and the symptoms it can cause. Candidiasis is a complex ...
The topical administration could be effective on tumor area while systemic undesired side effects are avoided. Preliminarily, ... The topical administration could be effective on tumor area while systemic undesired side effects are avoided. Preliminarily, ... although the systemic administration is associated with severe toxic effects and no topical formulations of 5-FU for buccal ... although the systemic administration is associated with severe toxic effects and no topical formulations of 5-FU for buccal ...
... availability and after vaginal administration, only topical activity can be expected. By the addition of Tween 80 to the ... The data showed that rectal administration of suppositories with DHEA based on cocoa butter caused about 30% ... availability and after vaginal administration, only topical activity can be expected. By the addition of Tween 80 to the ... Verma P. et al.: Routes of drug administration. Int. J. Pharm. Studies Res., 1(1), 54, 2010.Google Scholar ...
... liquid crystals and nanoparticles for topical administration. Europ J of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2004; 58(1):343- ... Jaiswal P, Kesharwani S, Kesharwani R, Patel D, Ethosome: A New Technology Used As Topical & Transdermal Delivery System. ...
Purchase Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780433336457 ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration 1st Edition. Pharmaceutical Monographs. Write a review ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration , Volume 9 provides the product characteristics, formulation, ... and rationale of topical therapeutic preparations.. The book attempts to take the reader logically from the physiological and ...
Topical application of cyclosporin provides cyclosporin to the anterior chamber, the posterior chamber and the vitreous body of ... Combined topical and systemic method of administration of cyclosporine. US5079341 *. Jul 21, 1988. Jan 7, 1992. Galpin Ian J. ... Thus topical administration has surprisingly been found to be an excellent method for providing cyclosporin in much greater ... 19-102), the topical administration of a cyclosporin to the eye is efficatious in the treatment of phacoanaphylactic ...
... Jae-Hun Lee,1,2 Min ... at four weeks after drug administration and these increased thresholds remained until 12 weeks after drug administration. KG ... After twelve weeks of drug administration, the KG and KI groups showed a total loss of HCs and a partial loss of nerve fibers ... Drug Administration. Kanamycin (KM) sulphate was diluted in normal saline (150 mg/ml) and administered in three different ways ...
The present invention provides formulations for the topical application of cyclosporin to skin tissue for treatment of ... initiating said systemic administration at a first dosage level prior to initiating said topical administration, and lowering ... initiating said systemic administration prior to said administration of topical cyclosporin, and discontinuing said systemic ... Ophthalmic treatment by topical administration of cyclosporin. US4677968 *. 14 Jan 1986. 7 Jul 1987. University Of Utah ...
... Oh Sook Kwon,1 Seung Hee ... S. R. Pinnell, "Cutaneous photodamage, oxidative stress, and topical antioxidant protection," Journal of the American Academy ...
Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%.. The safety and ... A Prospective, Single-Center, Open-Label, Study of the Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Safety Following Topical Administration of ... Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%. ...
Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The safety and scientific ... Drug: Epinephrin (Intranasal injection) Drug: Epinephrin (Topical administration) Hide Detailed Description Detailed ... Active Comparator: Topical administration An an intranasal injection of saline will be used as control, and thereafter cotton ... We hypothesize that topical administration of epinephrine provides a hemostatic effect not inferior to that of intranasal ...
Retinal delivery after topical administration was confirmed, and retinal expression of IRS-1 was demonstrated to be elevated in ... Topical application of aganirsen offers a safe and effective therapy for both choroidal and retinal neovascularization without ... Topical corneal application of aganirsen attenuated neovascular lesion development dose dependently in African green monkeys. ... Topical aganirsen inhibited retinal neovascularization after OIR in rats (P , 0.05); furthermore, a single intravitreal ...
Pharmacokinetics of the green tea derivative, EGCG, by the topical route of administration in mouse and human skin. ... Conclusion: The present study showed that topical application of EGCG in hydrophilic ointment USP achieved high concentrations ... To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of EGCG following topical application, EGCG was applied as 10% EGCG in hydrophilic ... Topical application of EGCG in hydrophilic ointment USP to human or mouse skin resulted in substantial intradermal uptake of up ...
148 Pages Report] Topical Drug Delivery Market Report categories the global market by Route of Administration (Rectal, Skin, ... 7 Topical Drug Delivery Market, By Route of Administration (Page No. - 52). 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Skin Drug Delivery 7.3 ... 4 Topical Drug Delivery Market: Premium Insights (Page No. - 27). 4.1 Global Market, By Route of Administration 4.2 Global ... Table 23 Topical Drug Delivery Market Size, By Route of Administration, 2014 2021 (USD Billion). Table 24 Some Commercially ...
Topical or oral administration with an extract of Polypodium leucotomos prevents acute sunburn and psoralen-induced phototoxic ... PL was found to be photoprotective after topical application as well as oral administration. PL increased UV dose required for ... before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were ... The observed photoprotective activities of oral or topical PL reveal a new avenue in examining the potentially useful field of ...
Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration Lacramioara ... Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration. Molecules. ... "Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration." Molecules 21 ... Alendronate-Loaded Modified Drug Delivery Lipid Particles Intended for Improved Oral and Topical Administration. Molecules 2016 ...
Buy or Rent Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration as an eTextbook and get instant access. With ... Pharmaceutical and Cosmetic Products for Topical Administration Edition by N. J. Van Abbé and Publisher Elsevier Butterworth ...
Drug administration Is the Subject Area "Drug administration" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Correction: Nanoformulations of Rilpivirine for Topical Pericoital and Systemic Coitus-Independent Administration Efficiently ...
A Study to Compare the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Administration of FMX-101 for Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Acne. The ... This is a Phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and long-term safety of the topical administration of FMX-101, 4% ... This is a Phase 3 study to evaluate the efficacy, safety and long-term safety of the topical administration of FMX-101, 4% ... A Randomized, Double-Blind Study to Compare the Efficacy, Safety and Long-Term Safety of Topical Administration of FMX-101 for ...
Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Administration of FMX101 for 12 Weeks in the Treatment of Moderate-to- Severe Acne ... A Randomized, Double-Blind, Vehicle-Controlled Study to Evaluate the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Administration of FMX101 ...
... mineral oil and bisabolol for topical administration. Nitrite anions may act as a vasodilator in vivo by generating nitric ... This technology discloses a topical ointment formulation comprising about .5% to 3.0% by weight non-acidified sodium nitrite ... 10, 2014, "Topical Sodium Nitrite Formulations", [HHS Ref. No. E-149-2014-0-US-01]; ... 10, 2015, "Topical Sodium Nitrite Formulations", [HHS Reference No. E-149-2014-0-PCT-02]; ...
In vivo inhibition of AA induced ear oedema in mice following topical administration.. ...
Topical administration of drugs via eyedrops is a desirable route of delivery to the retina, since it minimizes the potential ... 2). Topical administration of Nepafenac significantly inhibited development of the diabetes-induced OP delays (200.5 ± 13.2; P ... Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac achieved sufficient drug delivery to the retina and diabetes-induced alterations in ... Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac was also found to inhibit leukostasis within retinal microvessels. Leukostasis ...
Rabbit corneal allograft survival following topical administration of cyclosporin A. J S Kana; F Hoffmann; R Buchen; A Krolik; ... Rabbit corneal allograft survival following topical administration of cyclosporin A. You will receive an email whenever this ... J S Kana, F Hoffmann, R Buchen, A Krolik, M Wiederholt; Rabbit corneal allograft survival following topical administration of ... Topical Ocular Drug Delivery to the Back of the Eye by Mucus-Penetrating Particles ...
Inhibition of experimental diabetic cataract by topical administration of RS-verapamil hydrochloride ... Inhibition of experimental diabetic cataract by topical administration of RS-verapamil hydrochloride ...
  • Twenty-one healthy volunteers [either untreated or treated with oral psoralens (8-MOP or 5-MOP)] were enrolled in this study and exposed to solar radiation for evaluation of the following clinical parameters: immediate pigment darkening (IPD), minimal erythema dose (MED), minimal melanogenic dose (MMD), and minimal phototoxic dose (MPD) before and after topical or oral administration of PL. Immunohistochemical assessment of CD1a-expressing epidermal cells were also performed. (nih.gov)
  • Despite not meeting the primary endpoint, the results of this phase III trial suggest that topical administration of the TLR-9 agonist DIMS0150 is able to induce remission in ulcerative colitis patients, as judged by objective clinical and endoscopic measures. (ecco-ibd.eu)
  • Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that topical rocuronium bromide administration may be safely used for pupillary dilation in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and could be used for clinical evaluation, fundus imaging, and surgical interventions involving the lens and posterior segment in this species. (elsevier.com)
  • Various laboratory methods, including vasoconstrictor assays, are used to compare and predict potencies and/or clinical efficacies of the topical corticosteroids. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement is to solicit applications from single institutions and consortia of institutions to participate in the Integrated Preclinical Clinical Program for HIV Topical Microbicides and Biomedical Prevention (IPCP-MBP). (nih.gov)
  • CRUSHING OF THE TABLET FOR EASE OF ADMINISTRATION "Off-label" use of medications means the indications for use do not appear on the medication label affixed to the bottle/vial. (bartleby.com)
  • We explored the effect of topical Nepafenac, an anti-inflammatory drug known to reach the retina when administered via eyedrops, on the development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy and on metabolic and physiologic abnormalities that contribute to the retinal disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Taken together, further studies are required to adequately establish a protective effect of topical progesterone on the endometrium. (wikipedia.org)
  • The main challenges for formulating topical forms are Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) solubility, stability of the formulation, penetration of the API, formulation of a combination of APIs, patient compliance. (seppic.com)
  • Podofilox Topical Solution 0.5% is intended for cutaneous use only. (nih.gov)
  • WO9850014A1 ] Compositions for the topical treatment of sagging subcutaenous muscle and overlying cutaneous tissue contain an active ingredient exhibiting or producing catecholamine activity such as catecholamines and/or related compounds in a dermatologically acceptable carrier that contains at least one percutaneous penetration enhancer. (epo.org)
  • Otolaryngologists in some centers to reduce bleeding topical vasoconstrictors used such as phenylephrine an Alpha-agonist drug caused peripheral vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure. (ac.ir)
  • A tetracycline formulation for topical administration comprising at least one tetracycline or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt or hydrate thereof substantially stabilized in a base, wherein the base comprises at least one hydrophobic, non-hygroscopic silicone thickening agent, and wherein the formulation is substantially free of pro tic liquids. (lens.org)
  • ABR was measured several times after drug administration. (hindawi.com)
  • High incidence of skin diseases (such as psoriasis, eczema, and skin cancer), increasing inclination of patients towards pain-free drug delivery, launch of new topical products, and increasing focus of prominent players on strengthening their presence in the North American market (through acquisitions and expansions) are expected to drive the growth of this regional market. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The topical drug delivery market is a fragmented market with several global as well as local players operating in various market segments. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Drug administration" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • Topical ocular administration of Nepafenac achieved sufficient drug delivery to the retina and diabetes-induced alterations in retinal vascular metabolism, function, and morphology were inhibited. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Xylocaine jelly is a topical drug that is used to ease pain and discomfort of the skin. (brighthub.com)
  • Results A significant difference in pupillary diameter for the active versus control treatment group was noted from 20 to 360 minutes after drug administration, but not at 420 minutes. (elsevier.com)
  • TOPICAL (Tri-Luma) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. (medicinenet.com)
  • Is methoxsalen-topical available as a generic drug? (medicinenet.com)
  • Methoxsalen topical (Oxsoralen) is a prescription drug used to treat vitiligo (leucoderma). (medicinenet.com)
  • The best of our knowledge, bradycardia followed by topical administration of this drug is rare in ENT surgeries perhaps the main reason is the administration of atropine or glycopirolate before operation(2). (ac.ir)
  • The New York State Department of Health has had four reports of cardiac arrest following administration of topical phenylephrine has been reported that in all cases labetalol was prescribed to control high blood pressure(2,5).probably decreased cardiac output after treatment with this drug lead to arrest. (ac.ir)
  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Axiron on November 23, 2010 , making it the first and only testosterone replacement therapy applied to the underarm. (fiercepharma.com)
  • US Food and Drug Administration. (medscape.com)
  • FALSE CHAPTER 3: The drug form(s) that are manufactured for dissolving in the mouth are A AND D (BUCCAL TABLETS AND TRANSMUCOSAL ORAL TABLETS) Topical preparations include medications used in the eye and ear, as well as on the skin. (bartleby.com)
  • On March 1, 2012, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notified health care professionals of updates to the prescribing information concerning interactions between protease inhibitors (drugs for management of human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] and hepatitis B infection) and certain statin drugs. (medscape.com)
  • Topical: Apply to lesions once every other day for first week, then increase on a weekly basis to once daily, 2 times daily, 3 times daily, and finally 4 times daily, according to individual lesion tolerance. (drugs.com)
  • Topical retinoids reduce the numbers of microcomedones, comedones, and inflammatory lesions. (medscape.com)
  • [ 35 ] Topical retinoids should be initiated as first-line therapy for both comedonal and inflammatory acne lesions and continued as maintenance therapy to inhibit further microcomedone formation. (medscape.com)
  • The effects of topical administration of an alcohol extract of the leaves of an evergreen plant, Terminalia chebula, on the healing of rat dermal wounds, in vivo, was assessed. (isharonline.org)
  • For example, high- or ultra-high-potency topical steroids, alone or in combination with other topical treatments, are the mainstay of therapy for psoriasis. (aafp.org)
  • Although studies of topical progesterone that delivered the hormone in the form of a cream or water-based gel found only very low levels of progesterone in circulation, a preliminary study of 100 mg/day topical progesterone formulated in an alcohol-based gel observed luteal-phase levels of progesterone with peak concentrations of 8 ng/mL. (wikipedia.org)
  • One hundred fifty-nine operative procedures for postburn contractures of interdigital webs (96), the axilla (46), or the neck (17) were prospectively randomized to be treated postoperatively for four months with a topical steroid (Aristocort A), topical vitamin E, or the base cream carrier for these drugs. (nih.gov)
  • Low- to high-potency topical steroids should not be used continuously for longer than three months to avoid side effects. (aafp.org)
  • Triamcinolone Acetonide is a topical corticosteroid known chemically as 9-Fluoro-11β, 16α, 17, 21-tetrahydroxypregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione cyclic 16,17-acetal with acetone. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Effects on the endometrium of topical progesterone were assessed in three of the studies via endometrial biopsy and the results were mixed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our results demonstrated no differences between breast pump stimulation and oxytocin administration regarding the duration of the third stage of labor, postpartum hemorrhage, anaemia, after-birth pain, and the number of breastfeedings during the 24 h after delivery. (springer.com)