Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred ICRLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United StatesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.PiperazinesNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred C3HLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Inbred LewEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
(1/279) Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

(2/279) Mucosal vaccination strategies for women.

Women were immunized orally, rectally, or vaginally with a recombinant cholera toxin B-containing vaccine to determine which of these mucosal immunization routes generate the greatest levels of antibody in the female genital tract and rectum. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of cholera toxin B-specific IgA and IgG antibody in serum and secretions before and after three immunizations. Each immunization route similarly increased specific IgG in serum and specific IgA in saliva. Only the vaginal route increased IgA antibodies in genital tract secretions and could be shown to induce a local IgG response. However, vaginal immunization failed to produce antibody in the rectum. In a similar fashion, rectal immunization elicited highest concentrations of locally derived IgA and IgG antibody in the rectum but was ineffective for generating antibody in the genital tract. The data suggest that local immunization may induce the greatest immune responses in the female genital tract and rectum of humans.  (+info)

(3/279) Trefoil peptide TFF2 (spasmolytic polypeptide) potently accelerates healing and reduces inflammation in a rat model of colitis.

BACKGROUND: The trefoil peptides are major secretory products of mucus cells of the gastrointestinal tract and show increased expression after inflammatory or ulcerative damage. Recombinant human TFF2 (spasmolytic polypeptide) has been shown to be cytoprotective, and enhances repair in models of gastric injury. AIMS: To test the healing effects of recombinant human (h)TFF2 in a rat model of chronic colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in ethanol. Mucosal repair was quantified macroscopically, microscopically by image analysis of tissue histology, and by measuring myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Initial validation studies showed that maximal injury and inflammation occurred at the end of the first week after colitis induction (active phase), and that spontaneous healing was complete by eight weeks. Once daily intrarectal application of hTFF2 (2.5 mg/kg; approximately 0.5 mg/rat) for five days after maximal damage had been sustained, reduced both microscopic and macroscopic injury by 80% and inflammatory index by 50% compared with vehicle controls. In addition, endogenous concentrations of rat TFF2 and TFF3 (intestinal trefoil factor) were increased in the active phase of colitis and were reduced to basal levels by hTFF2 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that hTFF2 enhances the rate of colonic epithelial repair, and reduces local inflammation in a rat model of colitis, and suggests that luminal application of trefoil peptides may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.  (+info)

(4/279) Efficient gene delivery to the inflamed colon by local administration of recombinant adenoviruses with normal or modified fibre structure.

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Replication deficient recombinant adenoviruses represent an efficient means of transferring genes in vivo into a wide variety of dividing and quiescent cells from many different organs. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a potentially attractive target for gene therapy approaches, only a few studies on the use of viral gene transfer vehicles in the gut have been reported. The prospects of using recombinant adenoviruses for gene delivery into epithelial and subepithelial cells of the normal and inflamed colon are here analysed. METHODS: An E1/E3 deleted recombinant adenovirus (denoted AdCMVbetaGal) and an adenovirus with modified fibre structure (denoted AdZ.F(pk7)) both expressing the bacterial lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus promoter were used for reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo. beta-Galactosidase activity was determined by specific chemiluminescent reporter gene assay. RESULTS: Intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of AdCMVbetaGal into healthy Balb/c mice caused strong reporter gene expression in the liver and spleen but not in the colon. In contrast, local administration of AdCMVbetaGal resulted in high reporter gene expression in colonic epithelial cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells. A local route of adenovirus administration in mice with experimental colitis induced by the hapten reagent trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid was next evaluated. Interestingly, rectal administration of AdCMVbetaGal caused a higher beta-galactosidase activity in isolated lamina propria cells from infected mice with experimental colitis than in those from controls. Furthermore, isolated lamina propria cells from mice with colitis infected in vitro showed a significant increase in reporter gene activity compared with controls. Finally, AdZ.F(pk7) adenoviruses with modified fibre structure produced 10- to 40-fold higher reporter gene activity in spleen T cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells of colitic mice compared with standard AdCMVbetaGal vectors. CONCLUSIONS: Local administration of recombinant adenoviruses with normal or modified fibre structure could provide a new reliable method for targeted gene expression in the inflamed colon. Such gene delivery could be used to specifically express signal transduction proteins with therapeutic potential in inflamed colonic tissue. In particular, adenoviruses with modified fibre structure may be useful in T cell directed therapies in intestinal inflammation.  (+info)

(5/279) Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of rectally administered paracetamol in preterm neonates.

AIM: To investigate the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and dose-response relation of a single rectal dose of paracetamol in preterm infants in two different age groups. METHODS: Preterm infants stratified by gestational age groups 28-32 weeks (group 1) and 32-36 weeks (group 2) undergoing painful procedures were included in this study. Pain was assessed using a modified facies pain score. RESULTS: Twenty one infants in group 1 and seven in group 2 were given a single rectal dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Therapeutic concentrations were reached in 16/21 and 1/7 infants in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Peak serum concentrations were significantly higher in group 1. Median time to reach peak concentrations was similar in the two groups. As serum concentration was still in the therapeutic range for some infants in group 1, elimination half life (T1/2) could not be determined in all infants: T1/2 was 11.0 +/- 5.7 in 11 infants in group 1 and 4.8 +/- 1.2 hours in group 2. Urinary excretion was mainly as paracetamol sulphate. The glucuronide:sulphate ratio was 0.12 +/- 0.09 (group 1) and 0.28 +/- 0.35 (group 2). The pain score did not correlate with therapeutic concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A 20 mg/kg single dose of paracetamol can be safely given to preterm infants in whom sulphation is the major pathway of excretion. Multiple doses in 28-32 week old neonates would require an interval of more than 8 hours to prevent progressively increasing serum concentrations.  (+info)

(6/279) Anatomic segmentation of the intestinal immune response in nonhuman primates: differential distribution of B cells after oral and rectal immunizations to sites defined by their source of vascularization.

We show that the distribution of specific antibodies and antibody-secreting cells in the intestine after oral and rectal immunizations corresponds to the vascularization and lymph drainage patterns of the gut. Oral immunizations induce antibody responses along the parts of the intestine connected to the superior mesenteric vessels and lymph ducts, whereas rectal immunizations induce antibody responses along the parts of the intestine associated with the inferior mesenteric vessels and ducts.  (+info)

(7/279) Rectally administered dimenhydrinate reduces postoperative vomiting in children after strabismus surgery.

We have investigated the effectiveness of rectally administered dimenhydrinate on postoperative vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery, in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. In one group, dimenhydrinate 50 mg was administered rectally 30 min before starting anaesthesia, whereas in the control group, placebo suppositories were given. Children who received dimenhydrinate showed a significantly (P < 0.001) lower incidence of vomiting (15%) than those in the control group (75%). We conclude that rectal administration of dimenhydrinate is an effective means of reducing postoperative vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery.  (+info)

(8/279) Investigation of diazepam lipospheres based on Witepsol and lecithin intended for oral or rectal delivery.

Diazepam was incorporated in lipospheres prepared by high pressure homogenization of melted Witepsol (10%) dispersed in aqueous lecithin (2.4%). Diazepam content was 0.4% and more than 98% of the dose was found to be encapsulated in the lipospheres. Although the initial mean particle size was 0.3 micron, the liposhperes agglomerated during storage and this phenomenon was not eliminated by increasing lecithin concentration to 4% or incorporation of oleic acid (0.1%) and co-surfactants, polysorbate 80 (0.5%) or poloxamer (up to 6%). The formulation was not able to mask effectively bitter taste of diazepam, even when lipids of higher melting temperature, namely glyceryl tripalmitate or stearic acid, were introduced.  (+info)

*  Rectal administration
... uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the ... Finally, rectal administration can allow patients to remain in the home setting when the oral route is compromised. Unlike ... The rectal route of administration is useful for patients with any digestive tract motility problem, such as dysphagia, ileus, ... Rectal administration of medication may be performed with any of the following: A suppository, a drug delivery system inserted ...
*  End-of-life care
"Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man. Absorption rate and bioavailability of phenobarbital and its sodium ... is a specialized catheter designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications via the rectal ... "Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations". Clin Pharmacokinetics. 7 (4): 285-311. doi:10.2165/ ... The catheter was developed to make rectal access more practical and provide a way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in ...
*  Enteral administration
... and rectal. Parenteral administration is via a peripheral or central vein. In pharmacology, the route of drug administration is ... Rectal administration usually involves rectal suppositories.) The mechanism for drug absorption from the intestine is for most ... In general medicine, enteral administration (Greek enteros, "intestine") is food or drug administration via the human ... Enteral administration may be divided into three different categories, depending on the entrance point into the GI tract: oral ...
*  Vinylbital
"Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of vinylbital in man after oral and rectal administration". Arzneimittel- ...
*  Nicomorphine
Pharmacokinetics via the rectal route differ, and change metabolism. Eight minutes after administration, morphine appeared ... Koopman-Kimenai PM, Vree TB, Booij LH, Dirksen R (Dec 2, 1994). "Rectal administration of nicomorphine in patients improves ... "Pharmacokinetics of nicomorphine and its metabolites in man after epidural administration. (Dutch)". Pharmaceutish Weekblad. ...
*  Enema
Improper administration of an enema can cause electrolyte imbalance (with repeated enemas) or ruptures to the bowel or rectal ... An enema might be used to clean the colon of feces first to help increase the rate of absorption in rectal administration of ... Enemas have also been used for ritual rectal drug administration such as balché, alcohol, tobacco, peyote, and other ... 201 de Boer AG, Moolenaar F, de Leede LG, Breimer DD (1982). "Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic ...
*  Oxycodone
The bioavailability of oral administration of oxycodone averages 60-87%, with rectal administration yielding the same results; ... Therapeutic Goods Administration (June 2008). Standard for the uniform scheduling of drugs and poisons no. 23 (PDF). Canberra: ... Drug Enforcerment Administration. Retrieved 23 November 2015. "DEA Diversion Control CSA". US Dept of Justice - DEA. Retrieved ... In the United Kingdom, it is available in 10 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL formulation for intramuscular or intravenous administration. ...
*  Artesunate
... rectal administration may be given as pre-referral treatment as long as parenteral administration is initiated after transfer ... oral or rectal administration". Malaria Journal. 10: 263. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-263. ISSN 1475-2875. PMC 3180444 . PMID ... artesunate may be given as a single intramuscular injection or by rectal route (children < 6 years) prior to transferring care ...
*  Project 523
... oral or rectal administration". Malaria Journal. 10 (1): 263. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-263. PMC 3180444 . PMID 21914160. Phu, ... It is exceptionally chemically stable, and hence, is the only drug among artemisins produced as oral tablets, rectal capsule ... The drug was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2009. Pharmacy and Pharmacology/Pharmacognosy and Medical Herbs ...
*  Lorazepam
Due to its poor lipid solubility, lorazepam is absorbed relatively slowly by mouth and is unsuitable for rectal administration ... There is no evidence of accumulation of lorazepam on administration up to six months. On regular administration, diazepam will ... On regular administration, maximum serum levels are attained after three days. Longer-term use, up to six months, does not ... Pregnancy and breast feeding - Lorazepam belongs to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) pregnancy category D, which means it ...
*  Diazepam
The bioavailability after oral administration is 100%, and 90% after rectal administration. The half-life of diazepam in ... Dhillon, S; Oxley, J; Richens, A (1 March 1982). "Bioavailability of diazepam after intravenous, oral and rectal administration ... The onset of action is one to five minutes for IV administration and 15-30 minutes for IM administration. The duration of ... after rectal administration, peak plasma levels occur after 10 to 45 minutes. Diazepam is highly protein-bound, with 96 to 99% ...
*  Ergotamine
Ibraheem JJ, Paalzow L, Tfelt-Hansen P. Low bioavailability of ergotamine tartrate after oral and rectal administration in ... "Pharmacokinetics of ergotamine in healthy volunteers following oral and rectal dosing". Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 30 (3): 331-4. ...
*  Promethazine
"Pharmacokinetics of promethazine hydrochloride after administration of rectal suppositories and oral syrup to healthy subjects ... approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), are deemed insufficient by state courts. On September 9, 2009, the FDA ... "Wyeth could have unilaterally added a stronger warning about IV-push administration" without acting in opposition to federal ... required a boxed warning be put on promethazine for injection, stating the contraindication for subcutaneous administration. ...
*  2C-C
... or rectal administration bypasses first pass metabolism, requiring about half the dose normally used orally; the effects occur ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. http ... As of July 9, 2012, in the United States 2C-C is a Schedule I substance under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and ... "S. 3187: Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act, Subtitle D-Synthetic Drugs". FDA
*  Route of administration
A suppository is a solid dosage form that fits for rectal administration. In hospice care, a specialized rectal catheter, ... Enteral/enteric administration usually includes oral (through the mouth) and rectal (into the rectum) administration, in the ... "Biophamacutics of rectal administration of drugs in man IX. Comparative biopharmaceutics of diazepam after single rectal, oral ... The rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications, especially those used at the end of life. The ...
*  Phenibut
Recreational users usually take the drug orally; there are a few case reports of rectal administration and one report of ... Phenibut is available as a medication in the form of 250 mg tablets for oral administration and as a solution at a ... Administration, Australian Government Department of Health. Therapeutic Goods (31 October 2017). "3.3 Phenibut". Therapeutic ... In animals, the absolute bioavailability of phenibut was 64% after oral and intravenous administration, it appeared to undergo ...
*  Papaverine
The hydrochloride salt is available for intramuscular, intravenous, rectal and oral administration. The teprosylate is ...
*  ENPP7
Rectal administration of recombinant ENPP7 has been shown to improve ulcerative colitis in an animal study, and patients with ... Sphingomyelin can also increase the levels of ENPP7 after a long term of administration. Besides, ursodeoxycholic acid and ...
*  Removal of cannabis from Schedule I of the Controlled Substances Act
... and even rectal administration, in addition to vaporizers, which release cannabis' active ingredients into the air without ... Department of Health and Human Services Drug Enforcement Administration Food and Drug Administration Advocacy groups: Drug ... The Nixon administration took no action to implement the recommendation, however. Jon Gettman, former director of the National ... The Food and Drug Administration elaborates on this, arguing that the widespread use of cannabis, and the existence of some ...
*  Macy catheter
The rectal route of administration is highly effective as the rectal mucosa is highly vascularized tissue that allows for rapid ... The rectal route of administration is highly effective as the rectal mucosa is highly vascularized tissue that allows for rapid ... "Biophamacutics of rectal administration of drugs in man IX. Comparative biopharmaceutics of diazepam after single rectal, oral ... "Biophamacutics of rectal administration of drugs in man IX. Comparative biopharmaceutics of diazepam after single rectal, oral ...
*  Progesterone (medication)
Progesterone for vaginal administration is available in the form of a gel or insert (suppository). With vaginal and rectal ... Routes of administration that progesterone has been used by include oral, intranasal, transdermal/topical, vaginal, rectal, ... Plasma levels of progesterone are similar after vaginal and rectal administration in spite of the different routes of ... administration, and rectal administration is an alternative to vaginal progesterone in conditions of vaginal infection, ...
*  Oxymorphone
Pain relief after injection begins after about 5-10 minutes and 15-30 minutes after rectal administration, and lasts about 3-4 ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. June 8, 2017. Retrieved October 26, 2017. Today, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ...
*  Thebacon
The drug is most commonly taken orally as an elixir, tablet, or capsule, although rectal and subcutaneous administration has ...
*  Propiram
... has been available in oral, rectal, and injectable formulations, with bioavailability above 97% after oral ... administration. Many related compounds are known, although only propiram was ever commercialized. Propiram is currently a ...
*  Benzodiazepine
In the community, intravenous administration is not practical and so rectal diazepam or (more recently) buccal midazolam are ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has categorized benzodiazepines into either category D or X meaning ... However, researchers hold contrary opinions regarding the effects of long-term administration. One view is that many of the ... "Approval letter for Ambien" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. American Geriatrics Society. "Five Things Physicians and ...
*  Skin and skin structure infection
Superficial infections or abscesses in an anatomical site, such as the rectal area, where the risk of anaerobic or gram- ... Food and Drug Administration has changed the terminology to "acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections" (ABSSSI). The ... Food and Drug Administration. October 2013. Retrieved 2014-11-23. Xia, Fan Di; Song, Philip; Joyce, Cara; Mostaghimi, Arash ( ...
FOR ORAL OR RECTAL ADMINISTRATION FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PORTAL-SYSTEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY - PDF  FOR ORAL OR RECTAL ADMINISTRATION FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PORTAL-SYSTEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY - PDF
USP 10 g/15 ml FOR ORAL OR RECTAL ADMINISTRATION FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PORTAL-SYSTEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY Rx Only ... 1 FORM NO VC3074 Rev.2/08 LACTULOSE SOLUTION, USP 10 g/15 ml FOR ORAL OR RECTAL ADMINISTRATION FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT ... FOR ORAL OR RECTAL ADMINISTRATION FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PORTAL-SYSTEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY. ... Download "FOR ORAL OR RECTAL ADMINISTRATION FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PORTAL-SYSTEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY" ...
more infohttp://docplayer.net/21801758-For-oral-or-rectal-administration-for-the-prevention-and-treatment-of-portal-systemic-encephalopathy.html
Topical Drug Delivery Market by Product Type, Route of Administration & Region - 2021 | MarketsandMarkets  Topical Drug Delivery Market by Product Type, Route of Administration & Region - 2021 | MarketsandMarkets
Rectal, Skin, Ophthalmic, Vaginal, Nasal), Product Type (Formulation (Solid, Cream, Lotion, Paste, Liquid), Transdermal (Patch ... 148 Pages Report] Topical Drug Delivery Market Report categories the global market by Route of Administration ( ... On the basis of route of administration, the market is segmented into skin, ophthalmic, rectal, vaginal, and nasal routes. ... Route of Administration (Skin, Ophthalmic, Rectal, Vaginal, Nasal), & Facility of Use (Hospital, Clinic, Home care, Research ...
more infohttps://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/topical-drug-delivery-market-124871717.html
Rectal administration - Wikipedia  Rectal administration - Wikipedia
Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the ... Finally, rectal administration can allow patients to remain in the home setting when the oral route is compromised. Unlike ... The rectal route of administration is useful for patients with any digestive tract motility problem, such as dysphagia, ileus, ... Rectal administration of medication may be performed with any of the following: A suppository, a drug delivery system inserted ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rectal_administration
Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man | SpringerLink  Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man | SpringerLink
Rectal absorption of acetylsalicylic acid and its calcium salt was studied in man and compared with oral absorption. Plasma ... The rectal dosage forms included fatty suppositories and aqueous solutions.. Compared with oral administration rectal ... Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man. Absorption rate and bioavailability of acetylsalicylic acid and its ... Moolenaar, F., A. G. G. Stuurman-Bieze, J. Visser andT. Huizinga (1978) Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02293485
Administration, rectal | definition of Administration, rectal by Medical dictionary  Administration, rectal | definition of Administration, rectal by Medical dictionary
What is Administration, rectal? Meaning of Administration, rectal medical term. What does Administration, rectal mean? ... rectal in the Medical Dictionary? Administration, rectal explanation free. ... Administration, rectal , definition of Administration, rectal by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... redirected from Administration, rectal). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. suppository. [sŭ-poz´ĭ-tor″e] an ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Administration%2C+rectal
Outpatient Treatment of Neonatal Sepsis by the Rectal Administration of Gentamicin | Saving Lives at Birth  Outpatient Treatment of Neonatal Sepsis by the Rectal Administration of Gentamicin | Saving Lives at Birth
Outpatient Treatment of Neonatal Sepsis by the Rectal Administration of Gentamicin. Home › Innovators › 2016 › ... propose to investigate the feasibility of a needle-free method of administration for the antibiotic gentamicin via the rectal ... Under this project we would conduct laboratory release studies, preclinical rectal bioavailability studies and stakeholder ...
more infohttps://savinglivesatbirth.net/summaries/2016/481
Macy Catheter for Rectal Medication Administration Receives FDA Clearance | Medgadget  Macy Catheter for Rectal Medication Administration Receives FDA Clearance | Medgadget
... other routes of administration have to be used. In the hospital this usually means ... When oral administration of medication is difficult or impossible, ... Macy Catheter for Rectal Medication Administration Receives FDA Clearance. February 17th, 2014 Wouter Stomp Medicine ... When oral administration of medication is difficult or impossible, other routes of administration have to be used. In the ...
more infohttps://www.medgadget.com/2014/02/macy-catheter-for-rectal-medication-administration-receives-fda-clearance.html
Clearance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in calves by rectal administration of bovine lactoferrin  Clearance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in calves by rectal administration of bovine lactoferrin
... Evelien Kieckens ( ... "Clearance of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection in Calves by Rectal Administration of Bovine Lactoferrin." Applied and ... "Clearance of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection in Calves by Rectal Administration of Bovine Lactoferrin." APPLIED AND ... H7 infection in calves by rectal administration of bovine lactoferrin. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 81(5), 1644-1651 ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication/5833225
Rectal and Stomal Administration of Analgesic Suppositories  Rectal and Stomal Administration of Analgesic Suppositories
... via the rectal and stomal routes of administration, to hospice patients unable to take oral medications. ... Abstract: This brief piece provides hints on administering analgesics, via the rectal and stomal routes of administration, to ...
more infohttp://www.ijpc.com/Abstracts/Abstract.cfm?ABS=147
Norvic Training - Administration of Rectal Diazepam and Buccal Midazolam Courses in Norwich, Cambridge and Kings Lynn  Norvic Training - Administration of Rectal Diazepam and Buccal Midazolam Courses in Norwich, Cambridge and Kings Lynn
Norvic train delegates in the safe and effective administration of rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam. ... Norvic Training offers courses on Administration of Rectal Diazepam and Buccal Midazolam, in Norwich, King's Lynn, Norfolk, ... Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam. *Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam ... Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam. Course Aims. To train delegates in the safe and effective administration ...
more infohttp://www.norvictraining.co.uk/clinical/Administration-of-Rectal-Diazepam/
Systemic Administration of Antiretrovirals Prior to Exposure Prevents Rectal and Intravenous HIV-1 Transmission in Humanized...  Systemic Administration of Antiretrovirals Prior to Exposure Prevents Rectal and Intravenous HIV-1 Transmission in Humanized...
Our results indicate that antiretroviral PrEP has the potential to be broadly effective at preventing new rectal or intravenous ... Therefore, we designed our in vivo preclinical study to systematically investigate whether rectal and intravenous HIV-1 ... Specifically, systemic antiretroviral PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate prevented both rectal (Chi ... rectal and intravenous. Our results show that BLT mice given systemic antiretroviral PrEP are efficiently protected from HIV-1 ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0008829
Opium Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com  Opium Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com
Following rectal administration, analgesia occurs in 15-30 minutes.a. Duration. Following rectal administration, analgesia is ... Rectal Administration. Opium is administered rectally as a suppository in combination with belladonna extract.a d ... Belladonna & opium rectal suppositories prescribing information. Minneapolis, MN; Undated.. e. Food and Drug Administration. ... Moisten finger and rectal suppository containing belladonna and opium with water prior to rectal insertion.a d ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/monograph/opium.html
When IV route not available consider a rectal catheter for rapid medication and fluid administration  When IV route not available consider a rectal catheter for rapid medication and fluid administration
... 0 ... cost effective device that allows for discreet and painless rectal administration of fluids and medications when the oral route ... A rectal catheter for rapid medication and fluid administration. Expert Review of Medical Devices. May 30th. . ... The rectum is an underutilized administration point that can be accessed with speed and relative ease" Macygin et al (2018).. ...
more infohttp://www.ivteam.com/intravenous-literature/when-iv-route-not-available-consider-a-rectal-catheter-for-rapid-medication-and-fluid-administration/
meatslayer - Celiac.com Celiac Disease & Gluten-Free Diet Forum  meatslayer - Celiac.com Celiac Disease & Gluten-Free Diet Forum
Rectal Administration Of Vitamines? meatslayer replied to Seraphim_Gabe's topic in Celiac Disease - Coping With ...
more infohttps://www.celiac.com/gluten-free/profile/34803-meatslayer/?tab=friends
Plasma levels of progesterone after vaginal, rectal or intramuscular administration of progesterone. - Women in Balance...  Plasma levels of progesterone after vaginal, rectal or intramuscular administration of progesterone. - Women in Balance...
Plasma levels of progesterone after vaginal, rectal or intramuscular administration of progesterone.. Authors: Nillius SJ, ... obtained using 25 mg of injected progesterone or 100 mg via rectal or vaginal administration at 8 hours after administration. ...
more infohttp://research.womeninbalance.org/2012/11/20/plasma-levels-of-progesterone-after-vaginal-rectal-or-intramuscular-administration-of-progesterone/
Timmons & Hamilton:  Drugs, Brains and Behavior - Ch 3  Timmons & Hamilton: Drugs, Brains and Behavior - Ch 3
Drug Administration. Oral administration.. Rectal administration.. Mucous membranes.. Inhalation.. Subcutaneous injection.. ... Rectal administration. The absorption of drugs administered rectally is essentially the same as that of drugs that reach the ... Oral administration.. This is certainly the most common method of drug administration, and unless otherwise specified, we ... Drug Administration. In order for a drug to have an effect, it is necessary for it to reach some specific tissue of the body. ...
more infohttp://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~lwh/drugs/chap03.htm
Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal Diazepam - Full Day | Epilepsy Active  Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal Diazepam - Full Day | Epilepsy Active
Rectal Diazepam Administration Refresher - Half Day * Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal ... Rectal Diazepam Administration Refresher - Half Day * Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal ... Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal Diazepam - Full Day. Duration: This eight hour course ... Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Rectal Diazepam - Full Day * ...
more infohttps://www.epilepsyactive.co.uk/Courses/epilepsy-awareness-and-the-administration-of-buccal-midazolam-and-rectal-diazepam-full-day.html
Publications of Faculty of Medicine:Abstract of PROPHYLACTIC RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND INTRAVENOUS TENOXICAM ADMINISTRATION REDUCE...  Publications of Faculty of Medicine:Abstract of PROPHYLACTIC RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND INTRAVENOUS TENOXICAM ADMINISTRATION REDUCE...
PROPHYLACTIC RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND INTRAVENOUS TENOXICAM ADMINISTRATION REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF INTRATHECAL MORPHINE INDUCED ... PROPHYLACTIC RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND INTRAVENOUS TENOXICAM ADMINISTRATION REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF INTRATHECAL MORPHINE INDUCED ... Publications of Faculty of Medicine:PROPHYLACTIC RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND INTRAVENOUS TENOXICAM ADMINISTRATION REDUCE THE ... Group A,received 2ml saline I.V. as placebo, group B. received lOOmg rec tal diclofenac and group C , received 20 mg I.V. ...
more infohttp://bu.edu.eg/medicine_publications/805/abstract
Thiopental Sodium (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com  Thiopental Sodium (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com
Rectal administration Patients undergoing rectal surgery; lesions of bowel.. Dosage and Administration. Test Dose. Adults IV 25 ... Abdominal pain; rectal irritation; diarrhea; cramping; rectal bleeding (rectal suspension).. Respiratory. Apnea; laryngospasm; ... potential rectal surgery (rectal suspension), or presence of inflammatory, ulcerative, bleeding, or neoplastic lesions of lower ... IV administration); induction of preanesthetic sedation or basal narcosis (PR administration). ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/ppa/thiopental-sodium.html
Sublingual misoprostol for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.  Sublingual misoprostol for the prevention of postpartum hemorrhage.
Administration, Rectal. Administration, Sublingual. Adult. Female. Humans. Misoprostol / administration & dosage*. Oxytocics / ... as that of rectal route. It was observed that severe PPH (1000 ml but ,1500 ml) had been observed in 40% of those who developed ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Sublingual-misoprostol-prevention-postpartum-hemorrhage/19618006.html
rationaluseab-2010-130911113453-phpapp01.ppt | Antimicrobial Resistance | Antibiotics  rationaluseab-2010-130911113453-phpapp01.ppt | Antimicrobial Resistance | Antibiotics
PK It is well absorbed after oral or rectal administration. Pathogen Gram +ve cocci. Pneumococcus Streptococcus (common) ... Methods of administration of antimicrobials. Route of administration The route of administration depends on the site, type & ... Route of administration.cont route is the best for the management of severe & deep-seated infections since it ensures adequate ... Frequency of administration. The drug should be administered 4-5x the plasma half-life to maintain adequate therapeutic ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/presentation/179843915/rationaluseab-2010-130911113453-phpapp01-ppt
Patent US4708834 - Preparation of gelatin-encapsulated controlled release composition - Google Patents  Patent US4708834 - Preparation of gelatin-encapsulated controlled release composition - Google Patents
Pharmaceutical dosage unit for rectal administration. US5505959 *. Mar 31, 1994. Apr 9, 1996. Nestec S.A.. Pharmaceutical ... rectal, sublingual or buccal administration of the present pharmaceutical dosage forms. In addition to gelatin, the capsule ... rectal secretions and the like. The gelled matrix can stabilize the active ingredient and releases the active ingredient at a ... the total dose of the active ingredient into a bulk liquid carrier which must be measured out prior to each oral administration ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US4708834?dq=5572193
Phenytoin - Wikipedia  Phenytoin - Wikipedia
70-100% oral, 24.4% for rectal administration. Protein binding. 95%[2]. Metabolism. liver. ... It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1953 for use in seizures. ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notes on the phenytoin drug label that since strong evidence exists linking HLA-B*1502 with ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dilantin
drug absorption Flashcards by Ben  legend Gray | Brainscape  drug absorption Flashcards by Ben 'legend' Gray | Brainscape
what routes of administration are there for drugs? oral. IV. subcutaneous. intramuscular. other GI - sublingual, rectal. ... what advantages are the of sublingual/buccal administration and give an example of a drug administered this way ... what considerations would be mode prior to deciding which mode of administration to take? ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/drug-absorption-4429675/packs/6594247
  • Plasma concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid were measured by means of Hplc analysis, after a single dose of acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg) and after single rectal doses of acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg) and calcium acetylsalicylate (640 mg) in a cross-over study in 8 volunteers. (springer.com)
  • Indications/contra indicators of diazepam/midazolam, Storage conditions/procedures for diazepam/midazolam, Post administrative care, Regulations covering the use of diazepam/midazolam, Patient preparation and administration procedure. (norvictraining.co.uk)
  • Such accuracy is more difficult to achieve via a tabletting process wherein solids must be uniformly mixed and compressed, or by incorporation of the total dose of the active ingredient into a bulk liquid carrier which must be measured out prior to each oral administration. (google.com)
  • This is certainly the most common method of drug administration, and unless otherwise specified, we assume that taking medication means oral ingestion. (rutgers.edu)
  • 2C-C is schedule I of section 202(c) of the Controlled Substances Act in the United States, signed into law as of July, 2012 under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of July 9, 2012, in the United States 2C-C is a Schedule I substance under the Food and Drug Administration Safety and Innovation Act of 2012, making possession, distribution and manufacture illegal. (wikipedia.org)
  • China Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Act provides a process for rescheduling controlled substances by petitioning the Drug Enforcement Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, medical cannabis advocacy group Americans for Safe Access filed an appeal, Americans for Safe Access v. Drug Enforcement Administration in January 2012 with the District of Columbia Circuit, which was heard on 16 October 2012 and denied on 22 January 2013. (wikipedia.org)