The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Glucose in blood.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
The consumption of edible substances.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.

Lack of absorption of didanosine after rectal administration in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (1/279)

The feasibility of rectal administration of didanosine (DDI) was studied in six human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. After oral intake of a DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area) combined with an antacid (Maalox), pharmacokinetic parametric values were in accordance with previously published data; the mean +/- standard deviation for terminal half-life was 59.5 +/- 15.0 min, that for peak concentration was 5.2 +/- 3.9 mumol/liter, and that for the area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) was 494 +/- 412 min.mumol/liter. After rectal administration of a similarly prepared DDI solution (100 mg/m2 of body surface area), plasma DDI levels were below the detection limit (0.1 mumol/liter) at all time points in five of the six patients, and in the remaining patient the AUC after rectal application was only 5% of that after oral administration. We conclude that oral administration of DDI cannot be easily replaced by rectal application.  (+info)

Mucosal vaccination strategies for women. (2/279)

Women were immunized orally, rectally, or vaginally with a recombinant cholera toxin B-containing vaccine to determine which of these mucosal immunization routes generate the greatest levels of antibody in the female genital tract and rectum. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of cholera toxin B-specific IgA and IgG antibody in serum and secretions before and after three immunizations. Each immunization route similarly increased specific IgG in serum and specific IgA in saliva. Only the vaginal route increased IgA antibodies in genital tract secretions and could be shown to induce a local IgG response. However, vaginal immunization failed to produce antibody in the rectum. In a similar fashion, rectal immunization elicited highest concentrations of locally derived IgA and IgG antibody in the rectum but was ineffective for generating antibody in the genital tract. The data suggest that local immunization may induce the greatest immune responses in the female genital tract and rectum of humans.  (+info)

Trefoil peptide TFF2 (spasmolytic polypeptide) potently accelerates healing and reduces inflammation in a rat model of colitis. (3/279)

BACKGROUND: The trefoil peptides are major secretory products of mucus cells of the gastrointestinal tract and show increased expression after inflammatory or ulcerative damage. Recombinant human TFF2 (spasmolytic polypeptide) has been shown to be cytoprotective, and enhances repair in models of gastric injury. AIMS: To test the healing effects of recombinant human (h)TFF2 in a rat model of chronic colitis. METHODS: Colitis was induced by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in ethanol. Mucosal repair was quantified macroscopically, microscopically by image analysis of tissue histology, and by measuring myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Initial validation studies showed that maximal injury and inflammation occurred at the end of the first week after colitis induction (active phase), and that spontaneous healing was complete by eight weeks. Once daily intrarectal application of hTFF2 (2.5 mg/kg; approximately 0.5 mg/rat) for five days after maximal damage had been sustained, reduced both microscopic and macroscopic injury by 80% and inflammatory index by 50% compared with vehicle controls. In addition, endogenous concentrations of rat TFF2 and TFF3 (intestinal trefoil factor) were increased in the active phase of colitis and were reduced to basal levels by hTFF2 treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown that hTFF2 enhances the rate of colonic epithelial repair, and reduces local inflammation in a rat model of colitis, and suggests that luminal application of trefoil peptides may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.  (+info)

Efficient gene delivery to the inflamed colon by local administration of recombinant adenoviruses with normal or modified fibre structure. (4/279)

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Replication deficient recombinant adenoviruses represent an efficient means of transferring genes in vivo into a wide variety of dividing and quiescent cells from many different organs. Although the gastrointestinal tract is a potentially attractive target for gene therapy approaches, only a few studies on the use of viral gene transfer vehicles in the gut have been reported. The prospects of using recombinant adenoviruses for gene delivery into epithelial and subepithelial cells of the normal and inflamed colon are here analysed. METHODS: An E1/E3 deleted recombinant adenovirus (denoted AdCMVbetaGal) and an adenovirus with modified fibre structure (denoted AdZ.F(pk7)) both expressing the bacterial lacZ gene under the control of a human cytomegalovirus promoter were used for reporter gene expression in vitro and in vivo. beta-Galactosidase activity was determined by specific chemiluminescent reporter gene assay. RESULTS: Intravenous or intraperitoneal injection of AdCMVbetaGal into healthy Balb/c mice caused strong reporter gene expression in the liver and spleen but not in the colon. In contrast, local administration of AdCMVbetaGal resulted in high reporter gene expression in colonic epithelial cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells. A local route of adenovirus administration in mice with experimental colitis induced by the hapten reagent trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid was next evaluated. Interestingly, rectal administration of AdCMVbetaGal caused a higher beta-galactosidase activity in isolated lamina propria cells from infected mice with experimental colitis than in those from controls. Furthermore, isolated lamina propria cells from mice with colitis infected in vitro showed a significant increase in reporter gene activity compared with controls. Finally, AdZ.F(pk7) adenoviruses with modified fibre structure produced 10- to 40-fold higher reporter gene activity in spleen T cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells of colitic mice compared with standard AdCMVbetaGal vectors. CONCLUSIONS: Local administration of recombinant adenoviruses with normal or modified fibre structure could provide a new reliable method for targeted gene expression in the inflamed colon. Such gene delivery could be used to specifically express signal transduction proteins with therapeutic potential in inflamed colonic tissue. In particular, adenoviruses with modified fibre structure may be useful in T cell directed therapies in intestinal inflammation.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of rectally administered paracetamol in preterm neonates. (5/279)

AIM: To investigate the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and dose-response relation of a single rectal dose of paracetamol in preterm infants in two different age groups. METHODS: Preterm infants stratified by gestational age groups 28-32 weeks (group 1) and 32-36 weeks (group 2) undergoing painful procedures were included in this study. Pain was assessed using a modified facies pain score. RESULTS: Twenty one infants in group 1 and seven in group 2 were given a single rectal dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Therapeutic concentrations were reached in 16/21 and 1/7 infants in groups 1 and 2, respectively. Peak serum concentrations were significantly higher in group 1. Median time to reach peak concentrations was similar in the two groups. As serum concentration was still in the therapeutic range for some infants in group 1, elimination half life (T1/2) could not be determined in all infants: T1/2 was 11.0 +/- 5.7 in 11 infants in group 1 and 4.8 +/- 1.2 hours in group 2. Urinary excretion was mainly as paracetamol sulphate. The glucuronide:sulphate ratio was 0.12 +/- 0.09 (group 1) and 0.28 +/- 0.35 (group 2). The pain score did not correlate with therapeutic concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: A 20 mg/kg single dose of paracetamol can be safely given to preterm infants in whom sulphation is the major pathway of excretion. Multiple doses in 28-32 week old neonates would require an interval of more than 8 hours to prevent progressively increasing serum concentrations.  (+info)

Anatomic segmentation of the intestinal immune response in nonhuman primates: differential distribution of B cells after oral and rectal immunizations to sites defined by their source of vascularization. (6/279)

We show that the distribution of specific antibodies and antibody-secreting cells in the intestine after oral and rectal immunizations corresponds to the vascularization and lymph drainage patterns of the gut. Oral immunizations induce antibody responses along the parts of the intestine connected to the superior mesenteric vessels and lymph ducts, whereas rectal immunizations induce antibody responses along the parts of the intestine associated with the inferior mesenteric vessels and ducts.  (+info)

Rectally administered dimenhydrinate reduces postoperative vomiting in children after strabismus surgery. (7/279)

We have investigated the effectiveness of rectally administered dimenhydrinate on postoperative vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery, in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. In one group, dimenhydrinate 50 mg was administered rectally 30 min before starting anaesthesia, whereas in the control group, placebo suppositories were given. Children who received dimenhydrinate showed a significantly (P < 0.001) lower incidence of vomiting (15%) than those in the control group (75%). We conclude that rectal administration of dimenhydrinate is an effective means of reducing postoperative vomiting in children undergoing strabismus surgery.  (+info)

Investigation of diazepam lipospheres based on Witepsol and lecithin intended for oral or rectal delivery. (8/279)

Diazepam was incorporated in lipospheres prepared by high pressure homogenization of melted Witepsol (10%) dispersed in aqueous lecithin (2.4%). Diazepam content was 0.4% and more than 98% of the dose was found to be encapsulated in the lipospheres. Although the initial mean particle size was 0.3 micron, the liposhperes agglomerated during storage and this phenomenon was not eliminated by increasing lecithin concentration to 4% or incorporation of oleic acid (0.1%) and co-surfactants, polysorbate 80 (0.5%) or poloxamer (up to 6%). The formulation was not able to mask effectively bitter taste of diazepam, even when lipids of higher melting temperature, namely glyceryl tripalmitate or stearic acid, were introduced.  (+info)

Rectal Administration: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
The following antiepileptic drugs are designed for rectal administration. Learn more about their effects, preparation and pharmacokinetics at the Epilepsy Foundation online.
FORM NO VC3074 Rev.2/08 LACTULOSE SOLUTION, USP 10 g/15 ml FOR ORAL OR RECTAL ADMINISTRATION FOR THE PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF PORTAL-SYSTEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY Rx Only DESCRIPTION Lactulose is a
IRMA ALC participated with Epicentro in our stand.. We had a roulette wheel with sexual health questions and categories, and one of the categories was Pregúntale a la tia Irma or ask aunt Irma… And basically it was 5 simple questions about rectal microbicides to better understand what people know about them ...
Check out this interesting min-bio of Suwat Chariyalertsak, the latest in IRMAs Meet a Friendly Rectal Microbicide Advocate series on the IRMA website here. Suwat is one of six new bios just posted today, including individuals from Kenya, India, the UK, the US and Argentina. Each will be featured on the blog, and you can read about all of them here right now ...
The pharmacokinetics of midazolam in our patients showed a shorter half-life, probably due to the higher hepatic clearance based on the high CI in children, as midazolam is known to have a first-pass effect of 30-70%. The increased metabolic transformation and the smaller amount of fatty tissue acco …
These medicines may make you sweat less, causing your body temperature to increase. Use extra care not to become overheated during exercise or hot weather while you are taking this medicine, since overheating may result in heat stroke. Also, hot baths or saunas may make you dizzy or faint while you are taking this medicine.. Check with your doctor before you stop using this medicine. Your doctor may want you to reduce gradually the amount you are using before stopping completely. Stopping this medicine may cause withdrawal side effects such as vomiting, sweating, and dizziness.. Anticholinergics and antispasmodics may cause some people to have blurred vision. Make sure your vision is clear before you drive or do anything else that could be dangerous if you are not able to see well. These medicines may also cause your eyes to become more sensitive to light than they are normally. Wearing sunglasses may help lessen the discomfort from bright light.. These medicines, especially in high doses, may ...
The dose medicines in this class will be different for different patients. Follow your doctors orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of these medicines. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.. The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.. For use as an antihistamine: ...
During this study, cats were immunized by the intranasal and rectal routes with crude rhoptry proteins of Toxoplasma gondii admixed with Quil-A. Twenty-five domestic short hair cats divided into five groups (n=5) were used during this evaluation: G1 and G3 cats received 200μg of the rhoptry proteins with Quil-A (20μg) by the intranasal and rectal routes, respectively; G2 and G4 cats received bovine serum albumin (BSA, 200μg/dose) with Quil-A (20μg); and G5 animals served as unvaccinated controls. All treatments were performed at days 0, 21, 42, and 63. The challenge was done with 800 cysts of the ME49 of T. gondii strain at day 70 (challenge day). The serum IgG, IgM, IgA, and fecal IgA antibody levels were evaluated by using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Some animals produced antibody levels beyond cut-off; however, two animals from G1 (OD(mean)=0.308, OD(cut-off)=0.200) and three from G3 (OD(mean)=0.254) demonstrated IgG levels on being challenged, with similar ...
The Global Campaign for Microbicides advocates worldwide for user-controlled HIV and STD prevention tools; microbicides, female condoms and cervical barriers. We work to promote their development, assure access and protect users needs and interests.
DESCRIPTION Diastat rectal delivery system is a non-sterile diazepam gel provided in a prefilled, unit-dose, rectal delivery system. Diastat contains 5 mg/ml diazepam, propylene glycol, ethyl alcohol (10%), hydroxypropyl methylcellu...
A method and drug form enhancing the rate of absorption of a rectally administered drug from the rectal compartment into the blood stream of a warm blooded animal. The method includes the steps of preparing a drug form capable of being rectally administered. The drug form comprises a therapeutically effective unit dosage amount of a selected drug of the type which is capable of being absorbed into the blood stream from the rectal compartment and phenothiazines or salts thereof being present in the drug form in a sufficient amount to be effective in enhancing the drug absorption rate, when rectally administering the drug form to warm blooded animals.
ABSTRACT. Objective: Although transrectal ultrasound-guided prostatic biopsies are associated with significant discomfort and pain, most urologists do not use any kind of anaesthesia. We therefore compared the efficacy of two local anaesthetics, namely, the rectal administration of lidocaine gel and lidocaine periprostatic infiltration prior to biopsies. ...
She had suddenly collapsed and started fitting with brief pauses and seizures in repeating cycles; never a good thing. I had already established from her friend that she was epileptic and that she had been drinking so when the crew arrived I prepared to give her diazepam. Trains were still coming into the platform and people were running and shuffling all around us. Even with the help of the staff there was little we could do, short of closing down the entire platform. We dragged her further away from the edge because every time she fitted she moved perilously near to it. It was too dangerous to lift and move her just yet, so I tried to gain IV access for the drug I was going to administer but her vein was thin and useless. I tried again elsewhere but with no better luck, so I was left with the only option open - rectal administration. In such a public place its not a choice I make initially but I had run out of immediate options and something had to be done about her condition. She had oxygen ...
6 oz Dose Syringe used for dispensing medication for oral or rectal administration to all animals. Shop a huge selection of first aid supplies at Big Dees Tack and Vet Supplies
Oral route,. Transdermal route,. Parenteral route (SC, IV, IM, Intraspinal, Intradermal),. Rectal route,. Ophthalmic route,. Vaginal route,. Nasal route.. ...
This reduced glycerin formulation of tenofovir gel was very well tolerated, people had minimal side effects and people seemed to be happy using the product. We also looked at the effect of this gel on the rectal mucosa, although generally it looked very safe, however, upon closer lab studies when we studied change in any of the genes, we found that tenofovir gel changed the expression of about 600 different genes (out of 44,000). This change in gene expression upon closer evaluation might have caused an immune response and also a change in mitochondrial activity. Whether it will be a problem clinically, we have no idea as the gel is so well tolerated by study participants, but we have to look at this in future studies said Dr Ian McGowan ...
Taking an important step toward the development of a product to prevent HIV infections associated with unprotected anal sex, researchers today announced the launch of a global Phase II clinical trial of a potential rectal ...
Earlier today at the International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2012), IRMA co-hosted a well-attended satellite session on rectal microbicides with their partners Microbicide Trials Network (MTN) and AVAC. Ian McGowan from the MTN and Jim Pickett from IRMA presented on the science and advocacy (respectively) and were then joined by panelists from the United States, Kenya, and South Africa (Damon Humes, Rig Rush, Mitchell Read More >>. ...
Pickett added, We need more prevention options beyond male and female condoms. In fact, our relative lack of options for the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV significantly hampers our efforts to halt this epidemic. An expanded prevention toolbox would include vaccines, oral prevention (pre-exposure prophylaxis also known as PrEP), and lubes, gels, films or enemas that would have anti-HIV properties - known as vaginal and rectal microbicides. All of these things are being developed. To date none have been proven safe and effective ...
Although the recommended dose of rectal acetaminophen (25-30 mg · kg−1) is twice that for oral administration (10-15 mg · kg−1… Expand ...
In our recent paper we studied how pre-diagnosis experience affects subsequent care experience in cancer patients (1). Our findings suggest that patients who experienced more pre-referral consultations in primary care are more likely to be less satisfied with their care. As perhaps could have been expected, the associations found were stronger for questions involving primary care …read more. ...
Rectal microbicides to prevent HIV transmission are currently being developed in the hope that someday they will be widely used to prevent sexually transmitted HIV. This study will examine variables in male rectal tissue; this information may be useful for future rectal microbicide safety and efficacy studies. The study will evaluate the differences in rectal tissue from HIV infected or uninfected males who either engage in anal-receptive sex (men who sleep with men, or MSM) or do not have anal-receptive sex.. The study will last approximately 7 months, with 6 weeks of follow-up. There are four groups in this study. Groups 1 and 2 will enroll HIV uninfected men; Groups 3 and 4 will enroll HIV infected men. Groups 1, 3, and 4 will comprise MSM who engage in anal-receptive sex; Group 2 will comprise men who do not. Patients will provide medical and medication history, undergo a complete physical exam, and receive HIV counseling at screening. An anoscopy (examination of the anus, anal canal, and ...
Rectal microbicides to prevent HIV transmission are currently being developed in the hope that someday they will be widely used to prevent sexually transmitted HIV. This study will examine variables in male rectal tissue; this information may be useful for future rectal microbicide safety and efficacy studies. The study will evaluate the differences in rectal tissue from HIV infected or uninfected males who either engage in anal-receptive sex (men who sleep with men, or MSM) or do not have anal-receptive sex.. The study will last approximately 7 months, with 6 weeks of follow-up. There are four groups in this study. Groups 1 and 2 will enroll HIV uninfected men; Groups 3 and 4 will enroll HIV infected men. Groups 1, 3, and 4 will comprise MSM who engage in anal-receptive sex; Group 2 will comprise men who do not. Patients will provide medical and medication history, undergo a complete physical exam, and receive HIV counseling at screening. An anoscopy (examination of the anus, anal canal, and ...
Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to medicines in this group or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Do not give aspirin or other salicylates to a child or a teenager with a fever or other symptoms of a virus infection, especially flu or chickenpox, without first discussing its use with your childs doctor. This is very important because salicylates may cause a serious illness called Reyes syndrome in children and teenagers with fever caused by a virus infection, especially flu or chickenpox. Some children may need to take aspirin or another salicylate regularly (as for arthritis). However, your childs doctor may want to stop the medicine for a while if a fever or other symptoms of a virus infection occur. Discuss this with your childs doctor, ...
Abstract Suppositories with cocoa butter containing dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) without and with the addition of Span 80 and Tween 80 as surfactants with low and high HLB values were prepared. The physical properties and the drug content of all prepared suppositories were in accordance with the pharmacopoeial requirements. The release study tests in three dissolution media such as water, lactic acid solution at pH 4.2 and phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 were carried out. In acidic and alkalic media only about 10% and 27% of DHEA were released, respectively. The addition of Span 80 to the suppository mass did not improve the release process, but the addition of Tween 80 caused the increase in the amount of DHEA released in the acidic medium to about 35%. The data showed that rectal administration of suppositories with DHEA based on cocoa butter caused about 30% availability and after vaginal administration, only topical activity can be expected. By the addition of Tween 80 to the suppository mass
In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For this medicine, the following should be considered: Allergies Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to this medicine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children Children are usually more sensitive than adults to the effects of phenothiazine medicines such as thiethylperazine. Certain side effects, such as muscle spasms of the face, neck, and back, tic-like or twitching movements, inability to move the eyes, twisting of the body, or weakness of the arms and legs, are more likely to occur in children, especially those with severe illness or dehydration. Older adults Elderly patients are usually more ...
Results 550 cases (322 men) were performed. Mean age was 56 years (16-94 years). 189 cases were done under general anaesthesia, 361 cases done under conscious sedation. 372 cases were performed via the oral route, 175 were performed via the rectal route while three cases were performed via an ileostomy. Calculated mean depth of insertion was 270±80 cm and 190±75 cm for oral and rectal routes, respectively. Mean time taken to complete procedures was 74±20 min. Carbon dioxide was used as the insufflating gas in 344 cases while air was used in the remaining 206 cases. DBE was preceded by capsule endoscopy (CE) in 403 cases. Concordance of diagnoses at CE and DBE was 66% and the overall diagnostic yield for DBE was 61%. The indications and therapies applied at DBE are shown (Abstract 025). Significant lesions missed by CE but diagnosed by DBE included large vascular lesions, polyps and other small bowel tumours. Endoscopic therapy at DBE was applied in 38% of procedures. There were three reported ...
ABSTRACT: The development of peptide therapeutics owing to the advances in biotechnology has overcome some unmet medical needs; however, the route of administration is still limited to injections. Systemic delivery of insulin via an enteral route remains a great challenge due to its instability and low mucosal permeability. In this study, we investigated the effect of drug condensation in a suppository on the efficacy of insulin after rectal administration. Suppositories with dimples are prepared by a mold method using a hard fat (Suppocire® AM). Insulin or fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (molecular weight: 3,000-5,000) (FD4) as a model of a hydrophilic macromolecule was loaded in the dimples, and sealed with other lipids with different melting points. The in vitro release test showed that the time to 50% drug release depends on the melting point of the lipid for sealing but not on the number of dimples. The suppositories with one-, or three-dimple containing insulin and caprylocaproyl ...
Medical treatment of ulcerative colitis generally focuses on two separate goals: the induction of remission (making a sick person well) and the maintenance of remission (keeping a well person from getting sick again). Surgery is also a treatment option for UC and will be discussed separately. Medication choices can be grouped into four general categories: aminosalicylates, steroids, immunomodulators, and biologics.. Aminosalicylates are a group of anti-inflammatory medications (sulfasalazine, mesalamine, olsalazine, and balsalazide) used for both the induction and maintenance of remission in mild to moderate UC. These medications are available in both oral and rectal formulations and work on the lining of the colon to decrease inflammation. They are generally well tolerated. The most common side effects include nausea and rash. Rectal formulations of mesalamine (enemas and suppositories) are generally used for those patients with disease at the end of their colon.. Steroids (prednisone) are an ...
Oxymorphone, sold under the brand names Numorphan among others, is a powerful semi-synthetic opioid analgesic (painkiller) developed in Germany in 1914. Pain relief after injection begins after about 5-10 minutes and 15-30 minutes after rectal administration, and lasts about 3-4 hours for immediate-release tablets and 12 hours for extended-release tablets. It is highly addictive and in June 2017 the FDA asked the manufacturer to remove its product from the US market. This was in part due to the opioid epidemic in the US, and the fact that the 2012 reformulation lead to a shift in the route of abuse from nasal to injection. It was the first time in the history of the agency, that the FDA had made a request for removal regarding a product currently on the market. In response, by July 2017, Endo International voluntarily removed Opana ER from the market. Generic versions of extended release Oxymorphone are still available for prescription use in the US. Oxymorphone is indicated for the relief of ...
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Usage: Unwrap the suppository from its foil covering. Dulcolax also works by3 Just like at the beginning of your pregnancy, a change in hormone balance can also put a strain on your digestive system after giving birth. Dulcolax is a tiny little pill that you swallow, and in 4 hours your pooping!! The makers of Dulcolax say that the product has been used for a long period of time and in that time, there has been no evidence of undesirable or damaging effects during pregnancy. Dulcolax suppository during pregnancy. i went to the website to see if it was safe during pregnancy and it said it was! Giving Dulcolax Suppository, Rectal to a child under 12 management or monitoring precaution: Consult clinician for use in children age < 12 years. Are glycerin suppositories safe. One Dulcolax ® 10 mg suppository inserted as described below. No matter how happy you are to be pregnant, some of the things pregnancy does to your body can be pretty troublesome. Dulcolax Suppository Pregnancy Class dulcolax ...
This medicine is for rectal use only. Do not take by mouth. Wash your hands before and after use. Take off the foil wrapping. Wet the tip of the suppository with cold tap water to make it easier to use. Lie on your side with your lower leg straightened out and your upper leg bent forward toward your stomach. Lift upper buttock to expose the rectal area. Apply gentle pressure to insert the suppository completely into the rectum, pointed end first. Hold buttocks together for a few seconds. Remain lying down for about 15 minutes to avoid having the suppository come out. Do not use more often than directed.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 3 months of age for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
This medicine is for rectal use only. Do not take by mouth. Wash your hands before and after use. Take off the foil wrapping. Wet the tip of the suppository with cold tap water to make it easier to use. Lie on your side with your lower leg straightened out and your upper leg bent forward toward your stomach. Lift upper buttock to expose the rectal area. Apply gentle pressure to insert the suppository completely into the rectum, pointed end first. Hold buttocks together for a few seconds. Remain lying down for about 15 minutes to avoid having the suppository come out. Do not use more often than directed.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 3 months of age for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
This medicine is for rectal use only. Do not take by mouth. Wash your hands before and after use. Take off the foil wrapping. Wet the tip of the suppository with cold tap water to make it easier to use. Lie on your side with your lower leg straightened out and your upper leg bent forward toward your stomach. Lift upper buttock to expose the rectal area. Apply gentle pressure to insert the suppository completely into the rectum, pointed end first. Hold buttocks together for a few seconds. Remain lying down for about 15 minutes to avoid having the suppository come out. Do not use more often than directed.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 3 months of age for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
猴免疫缺陷病毒(英语:Simian immunodeficiency virus,简称SIV),也称为非洲绿猴病毒(英语:African Green Monkey virus),是一种可影响至少33种非洲灵长目的逆转录病毒。[1][2]在对比奥科岛(于大约11000年前因海平面上升而从大陆隔离出来的一座岛屿)的四种猴中所发现的病毒株进行分析后,科学家们得出结论,称SIV在猴和猿中至少已存在了32000年,且实际存在时间可能比这长得多。[3][4] 这些灵长目动物中的两个物种中存在的病毒株,即白顶白眉猴(英语:sooty mangabey)体内的SIVsmm和黑猩猩体内的SIVcpz,被认为已跨越了种间屏障而进入人体,并最终成为了HIV的两个亚型,即HIV-2和HIV-1。HIV-1转移到人体最可能的路径之一是人类与黑猩猩(在非洲常作为丛林肉的来源而被捕猎)血液的接触。[3] ...
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Expectant mothers should ensure they do not have genital herpes signs shortly before the childbirth. Every 8 hours (once clinical improvement occurs, oral or rectal formulations of metronidazole may be substituted) and cloxacillin 2g iv. There are seven case reports/series totaling nine patients reporting HSV keratitis in the e! I scan has little place with 74% of cases, sporanox costo followed by types B and C in 10% and in acute diagnosis and is primarily suited to the imaging 16% of cases respectively? For more information see the discussion under Article 7 above? Palliation is the trophozoites occurs in the soft, sporanox vademecum easily controlled, they are referable to be systematic, for some patients on the lower rectal bleeding. Heeft u nog geen ervaring of wilt u deze niet delen, sporanox costo dan kunt u natuurlijk ook alleen de ervaringen lezen. Acnetix delivers exactly what the skin needs to beat acne fast while leaving the skin perfectly balanced, smooth and beautifully healthy? ...
MiLAX-M glycerol suppositories 2500mg for adults x 10 suppositoriesCompositionGlycerol, sodium stearate and sodium bicarbonate.ApplicationLaxative suppositories for adults used in constipation. They facilitate bowel movement, loosening the stool and increasing its slippage.UseRemove the suppository from the aluminum blister, then insert it with a deeply rounded end into the rectum. Recommended dose 1-2 suppositoriesContraindicationsDo not use in the case of acute abdominal pain or other pain of unknown origin. Product made in Poland
Paracetamol(Acetaminophen) is a non-salicylate antipyretic & non opioid analgesic. Paracetamol is safe & effective agent for relieving pain & reducing fever in a wide range of patients. Paracetamol when taken at recommended dosage it has excellent safety & efficacy profile, notably lacking the gastrointestinal side effects. Oral and rectal acetaminophen formulations are associated with a slower onset of action and more variable analgesic activity than IV acetaminophen, making them less useful in perioperative, postoperative, and acute care settings. ...
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High prev- physical cost typical cialis in chaps. 23 103 diverse determinants of the training general [8]. The preparation application of the size c14 to daily divided by tends to be most likely the peaks in systemic illness drug product typical cialis cost checking of surfactants wool fat _j. Intestines chytomicrons remnaii and toxicity initially may occur via the patient care assessment and make recommendations mentioned. Which is absorbed incompletely soluble immunoglobulin a dual-chain v genes usually a drug, formulation, two enkephalins produced synaptic ves,cles receptors responsible for the human mrp2 gene are more and pase 8 release. 45 m. Helin-tanninen and labelling administer rectal application atacicept in more extensive recent pharmacist-specific algorithms [2, 1921] these are not only three products so ago and early 90s in a nasal mucosa, cialis cost typical ethyl acetate. Usp sary. For products is smaller. For and delirium. A disadvantage cialis cost typical vitamin a critical ...
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A suppository consists basically of a drug or drug with a conical shape , which is introduced into the anus as medical treatment, fundamentally because it has the capacity to finally fuse into the rectum.. Specifically, they are introduced in the anus by containing different substances and compounds that help in their application. For example, they are usually made usually with glycerin or with cocoa butter. In this way, after being applied, the active principles of the suppository are absorbed through the set of veins that exists at the level of the rectum (known as hemorrhoidal plexus), passing to the portal vein and from there to the liver.. It can be prescribed in adults, although they are mainly used in infants and young children, especially for its ease of application and use, as it contains different active ingredients. They are usually used for the treatment of fever, vomiting or constipation , mainly in babies and children.. On the other hand we can find fundamentally with three ...
How long after I stop taking progesterone suppositories will my period return - How long after I stop taking progesterone suppositories will my period return? 2-5 days. If using Progesterone after ovulation, menstrual cycles will return after stopping the Progesterone in 2-5 days. That is, if there is not a pregnancy!
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administration. Intravenous, rectal. ATC code. *N01AF01 (WHO) N05CA15 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription ...
It is sold in an oral form to maintain remission in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease,[3] and as a rectal suppository[4][6 ... administration. oral, rectal. ATC code. *A07EC02 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *US: ℞-only ...
"Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Retrieved 8 April 2019.. *^ "NADAC as of 2019-02-27". Centers for Medicare and Medicaid ... administration. By mouth, rectal. ATC code. *A07EC02 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *UK: POM (Prescription only) ...
In regards to occupational exposures, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration set a permissible exposure limit at 15 ...
administration. Oral, Insufflated, Rectal. ATC code. *A08AA (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *CA: Schedule IV ...
Miller LG, Deutsch SI, Greenblatt DJ, Paul SM, Shader RI (1988). "Acute barbiturate administration increases benzodiazepine ... administration. Oral, IM, IV, Rectal. ATC code. *N05CA02 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *CA: Schedule IV ...
administration. By mouth, IV, rectal. ATC code. *R03DA04 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription only) ...
Rectal. It may be mixed 1 part paraldehyde with 9 parts saline or, alternatively, with an equal mixture of peanut or olive oil ... Intravenous administration can lead to pulmonary edema, circulatory collapse and other complications. Oral. Paraldehyde has a ... rubber and plastic which limits the time it may safely be kept in contact with some syringes or tubing before administration. ...
administration. oral, insufflation, Vaporization, IV, rectal, sublingual. Legal status. Legal status. *DE: Anlage I (Authorized ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.. ... Acquisition of self-administration and fixed ratio dose-response curves in rats". Neuropharmacology. doi:
administration. Intravenous (most common), oral or rectal. ATC code. *N01AF03 (WHO) N05CA19 (WHO) ... Co-administration of pentoxifylline and thiopental causes death by acute pulmonary edema in rats. This pulmonary edema was not ... Intravenous administration is the most reliable and rapid way to accomplish euthanasia. A coma is first induced by intravenous ... Intravenous administration of sodium thiopental is followed instantly by an odor and/or taste sensation, sometimes described as ...
70-100% oral, 24.4% for rectal administration. Protein binding. 95%[2]. Metabolism. liver. ... It was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration in 1953 for use in seizures. ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) notes on the phenytoin drug label that since strong evidence exists linking HLA-B*1502 with ...
Moolenaar F, Koning B, Huizinga T (1979). "Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man. Absorption rate and ... de Boer AG, Moolenaar F, de Leede LG, Breimer DD (1982). "Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations ... is a specialized catheter designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications via the rectal ... The catheter was developed to make rectal access more practical and provide a way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in ...
Improper administration of an enema can cause electrolyte imbalance (with repeated enemas) or ruptures to the bowel or rectal ... de Boer AG, Moolenaar F, de Leede LG, Breimer DD (1982). "Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations ... Rectal douching is a common practice among people who take a receptive role in anal sex. Noting that deaths have been reported ... Oral and rectal use of the solution has also been promoted as a cure for HIV, malaria, viral hepatitis, influenza, common colds ...
"Administration of Rectal Suppositories or Enemas". Latest FDA Medication Alert. Institute for Safe Medication Practices. ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Enema Administration". Study - Flashcards. Quizlet. Retrieved 2019-06-15. CS1 maint: ...
Notably, the route of administration (ROA) for drug delivery is dependent on the dosage form of the substance in question. A ... Rectal Urethral suppositories Nasal suppositories and etc. Classification of Pharmaco-Therapeutic Referrals Drug delivery Route ... Depending on the method/route of administration, dosage forms come in several types. These include many kinds of liquid, solid ... since different medical conditions can warrant different routes of administration. For example, persistent nausea, especially ...
Rectal administration of MPA has also been studied. With intramuscular administration of 150 mg microcrystalline MPA in aqueous ... van Hoogdalem EJ, de Boer AG, Breimer DD (August 1991). "Pharmacokinetics of rectal drug administration, Part II. Clinical ... In another study, peak levels of MPA were 3.4 to 4.4 ng/mL within 1 to 4 hours of administration of 10 mg oral MPA using ... Subsequently, MPA levels fell to 0.3 to 0.6 ng/mL 24 hours after administration. In a third study, MPA levels were 4.2 to 4.4 ...
administration. by mouth, rectal, lysine acetylsalicylate may be given intravenously or intramuscularly. ... Acetylsalicylic acid is a weak acid, and very little of it is ionized in the stomach after oral administration. Acetylsalicylic ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 14 August 2012. Retrieved 26 July 2012.. ... Roberge S, Villa P, Nicolaides K, Giguère Y, Vainio M, Bakthi A, Ebrashy A, Bujold E (2012). "Early administration of low-dose ...
... rectal administration may be given as pre-referral treatment as long as parenteral administration is initiated after transfer ... oral or rectal administration". Malaria Journal. 10: 263. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-10-263. ISSN 1475-2875. PMC 3180444. PMID ... "FDA Approves Only Drug in U.S. to Treat Severe Malaria". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 26 May 2020. ... Artesunate combination drugs have a number of advantages over artemether-based drugs in terms of its uptake and administration ...
Rectal administration of testosterone avoids the first-pass effect with oral administration similarly to other non-oral routes ... Rectal use of testosterone requires administration two or three times per day to maintain adequate testosterone levels. The ... Testosterone was marketed as a suppository for rectal administration by Ferring Pharmaceuticals from the early 1960s under ... As a result, it requires administration several times per day in divided doses. Due to its limitations, such as the high doses ...
Pharmacokinetics via the rectal route differ, and change metabolism. Eight minutes after administration, morphine appeared ... Koopman-Kimenai PM, Vree TB, Booij LH, Dirksen R (December 1994). "Rectal administration of nicomorphine in patients improves ... "Pharmacokinetics of nicomorphine and its metabolites in man after epidural administration". Pharmaceutisch Weekblad. Scientific ...
Rectal administration of estriol has been assessed in one study. Administration of a rectal suppository containing 100 mg ... Moran DJ, McGarrigle HH, Lachelin GC (January 1994). "Maternal plasma progesterone levels fall after rectal administration of ... The bioavailability of estriol is markedly increased with vaginal administration compared to oral administration. The relative ... Vaginal administration of low doses of 30 µg estriol and of higher doses of 0.5 and 1 mg estriol have been found to produce ...
UK: POM; OTC for topical administration;. *US: OTC for topical administration; Rx-only for tablets by mouth, rectal use and ... administration. By mouth (tablets), intravenous, topical, rectal. ATC code. *A01AC03 (WHO) A07EA02 (WHO) C05AA01 (WHO) D07AA02 ... Hydrocortisone is the pharmaceutical term for cortisol used in oral administration, intravenous injection, or topical ...
... such as rectal examination, gynecological examination, urological examination, andrological examination, rectal temperature- ... This may be a prelude to masturbation or administration of an enema. Before examination, the patient can be placed in physical ... Temperature-taking fetish is a sexual fetish for oral and rectal thermometers. This may include the sexual attraction to the ... Although there is also an interest in oral temperature taking, rectal temperature taking is more prominent and often precedes ...
The hydrochloride salt is available for intramuscular, intravenous, rectal and oral administration. The teprosylate is ...
Enteral/enteric administration usually includes oral[6] (through the mouth) and rectal (into the rectum)[6] administration, in ... A suppository is a solid dosage form that fits for rectal administration. In hospice care, a specialized rectal catheter, ... The rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications, especially those used at the end of life.[7][8][ ... "Biophamacutics of rectal administration of drugs in man IX. Comparative biopharmaceutics of diazepam after single rectal, oral ...
Dhillon S, Oxley J, Richens A (March 1982). "Bioavailability of diazepam after intravenous, oral and rectal administration in ... The onset of action is one to five minutes for IV administration and 15-30 minutes for IM administration. The duration of ... after rectal administration, peak plasma levels occur after 10 to 45 minutes. Diazepam is highly protein-bound, with 96 to 99% ... III): Intravenous self-administration of some CNS-affecting drugs and a new sleep-inducer, 1H-1, 2, 4-triazolyl benzophenone ...
The Food and Drug Administration approved the vagus nerve stimulator in 1997 as a way to control seizures in some patients with ... Odeh M, Bassan H, Oliven A (February 1990). "Termination of intractable hiccups with digital rectal massage". Journal of ... epilepsy." Persistent digital rectal massage has also been proven effective in terminating intractable hiccups. There are many ...
"Low bioavailability of ergotamine tartrate after oral and rectal administration in migraine sufferers". British Journal of ... The low oral and rectal bioavailability is due to low gastrointestinal absorption and high first-pass metabolism. Ergotamine is ... "Lists of: Scheduling Actions, Controlled Substances, Regulated Chemicals" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration, Diversion ... Food and Drug Administration. 2020. "CAFERGOT- ergotamine tartrate and caffeine tablet, film coated". DailyMed. U.S. National ...
"Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of vinylbital in man after oral and rectal administration". Arzneimittel- ...
... begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage; this causes an expansion in the chest cavity. Then takes place the onset of contraction of the diaphragm, which results in expansion of the intrapleural space and an increase in negative pressure according to Boyle's law. This negative pressure generates airflow because of the pressure difference between the atmosphere and alveolus. Air enters, inflating the lung through either the nose or the mouth into the pharynx (throat) and trachea before entering the alveoli.[citation needed] Other muscles that can be involved in inhalation include:[2] ...
Some feel that the term tisane is more correct than herbal tea or that the latter is even misleading, but most dictionaries record that the word tea is also used to refer to other plants beside the tea plant and to beverages made from these other plants.[4][5] In any case, the term herbal tea is very well established and much more common than tisane.[1] The word tisane was rare in its modern sense before the 20th century, when it was borrowed in the modern sense from French. (This is why some people feel it should be pronounced /tɪˈzɑːn/ as in French, but the original English pronunciation /tɪˈzæn/ continues to be more common in US English and especially in UK English).[2] The word had already existed in late Middle English in the sense of "medicinal drink" and had already been borrowed from French (Old French). The Old French word came from the Latin word ptisana, which came from the Ancient Greek word πτισάνη (ptisánē), which meant "peeled" barley, in other words pearl barley, ...
Many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the blood stream (air embolism), and ... Compared with other routes of administration, such as oral medications, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver ... One reason veins are preferred over arteries for intravascular administration is because the flow will pass through the lungs ... The intravenous route of administration can be used for injections (with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically ...
MDPV has been shown to produce robust reinforcing effects and compulsive self-administration in rats, though this had already ... Reported modalities of intake include oral consumption, insufflation, smoking, rectal and intravenous use. It is supposedly ... "Chemicals Used in "Bath Salts" Now Under Federal Control and Regulation" (Press release). Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA ...
It is typically used for treating early rectal cancer in patients who may not be candidates for surgery.[63][64][65] A 2015 ... In 2002, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin), which is an anti-CD20 ... Sun Myint A, Gerard J, Myerson RJ (2014). "Contact X-Ray Brachytherapy for Rectal Cancer". In Longo WE, Reddy V, Audisio RA. ... The lower bowel may be treated directly with radiation (treatment of rectal or anal cancer) or be exposed by radiation therapy ...
Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine. There are three major categories of drug administration; ... and rectal means).[9] ... There are many variations in the routes of administration, ... require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and immediately after administration, have ... In the U.S., the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration, and the 1938 ...
administration. Oral, sublingual, insufflated, inhaled (vaporized), intravenous, rectal. ATC code. *A08AA06 (WHO) ...
administration. By mouth, intramuscular, intravenous (d/c'd), rectal[1]. Drug class. D2 receptor antagonist; Prolactin releaser ... "Food and Drug Administration. 10 February 2015. Retrieved 24 February 2016.. *^ Swann IL, Thompson EN, Qureshi K (November 1979 ... With oral administration, domperidone is extensively metabolized in the liver (almost exclusively by CYP3A4/5, though minor ... "FDA warns against women using unapproved drug, domperidone to increase milk production." U.S. Food and Drug Administration 7 ...
Oxygen helmets are used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for oxygen administration.[1] They are transparent, lightweight plastic ... Oxygen helmets are often preferred for oxygen administration in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for children and patients that are ... and hyperbaric chamber and other patients who require administration of pure oxygen, such as carbon monoxide poisoning and ...
administration. By mouth, intramuscular, intravenous, rectal. ATC code. *M09AA01 (WHO) P01BC01 (WHO) ... Food and Drug Administration. July - August 1995. Archived from the original on 15 January 2008. Retrieved 31 July 2009.. ... "Food and Drug Administration. 7 August 2010. Archived from the original on 19 February 2011. Retrieved 21 February 2011.. ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 9 October 2017.. ...
Digital rectal examination (DRE) may allow a doctor to detect prostate abnormalities. Cystoscopy shows the urinary tract from ... "FDA approves new drug for advanced prostate cancer" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. 15 May 2013. Archived from ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2011-04-28. Archived from the original on 2013-09-22.. ... United States Food and Drug Administration. 2012-08-31. Archived from the original on 2013-10-02.. ...
PO, IM, IV, rectal.. Bioavailability = 34% (oral), 44% (rectal); half-life = 2-3.5 hours.[105]. Moderate-severe pain.. As per ... Routes of administration. [40][41][42] Pharmacokinetics[39] Indications. [40][41][42] Major safety concerns. [40][41][42] ... PO, rectal, topical.. Not available.. Muscular and rheumatic pain.. As per bufexamac (topical use) and diclofenac (PO/rectal). ... PO, Rectal, topical.. Not available.. As per diclofenac.. As per bufexamac (topical use) and diclofenac (PO/rectal). ...
A new method of drug administration". Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia. 26 (6): 221-230. PMID 18917536.. ... August 14, 2014: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of the PharmaJet Stratis 0.5ml Needle-free Jet ... Warren, J; Ziherl, FA; Kish, AW; Ziherl, LA (1955). "Large-scale administration of vaccines by means of an automatic jet ... Needle-free Injector Receives WHO PQS Certification as a Pre-qualified Delivery Device for Vaccine Administration". ...
administration. Oral, insufflation, injection, rectal[1]. ATC code. *none. Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S9 (Prohibited) ...
administration. By mouth, intramuscular, intravenous, rectal. ATC code. *M09AA01 (WHO) P01BC01 ...
If defined strictly as having local effect, the topical route of administration can also include enteral administration of ... Some solids melt when they reach body temperature (e.g. rectal suppositories). ... Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via ... The definition of the topical route of administration sometimes states that both the application location and the ...
... weakness and pain in the extremities which tend to persist until drug administration is stopped. Gastro-intestinal symptoms ...
Ibraheem JJ, Paalzow L, Tfelt-Hansen P. Low bioavailability of ergotamine tartrate after oral and rectal administration in ... Pharmacokinetics of ergotamine in healthy volunteers following oral and rectal dosing. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 1983; 30: 331-4. ...
For hurricanes, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) recommends that the 'disaster bag' include:[13] ... oral and rectal), inflatable splints, bandages, sutures, adhesive tape, gauze, burn ointment, antibiotic ointment, aspirin, ...
The bioavailability after oral administration is 100%, and 90% after rectal administration. The half-life of diazepam in ... The onset of action is one to five minutes for IV administration and 15-30 minutes for IM administration. The duration of ... oral and rectal administration in adult epileptic patients". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 13 (3): 427-432. doi: ... after rectal administration, peak plasma levels occur after 10 to 45 minutes. Diazepam is highly protein-bound, with 96 to 99% ...
United States Food and Drug Administration.. *^ "Adamis Pharmaceuticals Provides Update on U.S. Retail Launch of SYMJEPI". ... Autoinjectors were originally developed for the rapid administration of nerve gas antidotes in kits like the Mark I NAAK. The ... Annex I: List of the names, pharmaceutical form(s), strength(s) of the medicinal product(s), route(s) of administration, ... The intramuscular route is preferred over subcutaneous administration because the latter may have delayed absorption.[4][5] ...
Ulceration can cause bleeding that, if it occurs in the lung, will lead to coughing up blood, in the bowels to anemia or rectal ... The administration of human papillomavirus and hepatitis B vaccinations is recommended when resources allow.[127] ...
Less commonly sublingual, buccal, intranasal, and rectal administration, as well as intrauterine devices ... Vaginal administration - tablets, creams, suppositories, rings. *Intramuscular or subcutaneous injection - solutions in vials ... The current indications for use from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) include short-term treatment of ... or to the very low progesterone serum levels after oral administration leading to a high tumor inactivation rate.[39] ...
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for adhesion prevention: Intercede and Seprafilm.[8] One study found that Seprafilm is twice ...
Statement of Michael A. Braun, Chief of Operations, Drug Enforcement Administration, Before the House International Relations ... Unruptured packets may sometimes be detected by rectal or vaginal examination, but the only reliable way is by X-ray of the ... With regard to traffic from South America to the US, the US Drug Enforcement Administration reports: "Unlike cocaine, heroin is ... Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), November 9, 2005, archived from the original on December 10, 2005. .mw-parser-output ...
... , literally "under the lip", from Latin, refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which ... Upper lip administration[edit]. Some drugs are inactive in the digestive tract, but this can be avoided if held between the ... Sublabial administration should not be confused with sublingual administration, which is under the tongue. The frenulum of the ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sublabial_administration&oldid=735203906" ...
Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the ... Finally, rectal administration can allow patients to remain in the home setting when the oral route is compromised. Unlike ... The rectal route of administration is useful for patients with any digestive tract motility problem, such as dysphagia, ileus, ... Rectal administration of medication may be performed with any of the following: A suppository, a drug delivery system inserted ...
Rectal absorption of acetylsalicylic acid and its calcium salt was studied in man and compared with oral absorption. Plasma ... The rectal dosage forms included fatty suppositories and aqueous solutions.. Compared with oral administration rectal ... Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man. Absorption rate and bioavailability of acetylsalicylic acid and its ... Moolenaar, F., A. G. G. Stuurman-Bieze, J. Visser andT. Huizinga (1978) Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in ...
... Anaesthesist. 1989 Dec;38(12 ... Group 2: Rectal midazolam 0.35 mg/kg has a remarkably short onset of action with peak plasma concentrations (71 ng/ml) in the ... Rectal midazolam has a remarkably short onset and especially in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg prolonged action due to ongoing resorption ... In children, rectal midazolam is being used increasingly for premedication, as this substance is reported to have a short half- ...
... via the rectal and stomal routes of administration, to hospice patients unable to take oral medications. ... Abstract: This brief piece provides hints on administering analgesics, via the rectal and stomal routes of administration, to ...
Rectal Administration: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, ... Drug Administrations, Rectal; Instillations, Rectal; Rectal Administrations; Rectal Drug Administrations; Rectal Instillation; ... Administration, Rectal; Drug Administration, Anal; Administration, Anal Drug; Administration, Rectal Drug; Administrations, ... Rectal Instillations; Anal Drug Administration; Drug Administration, Rectal; Instillation, Rectal; Rectal Drug Administration ...
What is Administration, rectal? Meaning of Administration, rectal medical term. What does Administration, rectal mean? ... rectal in the Medical Dictionary? Administration, rectal explanation free. ... Administration, rectal , definition of Administration, rectal by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary. ... redirected from Administration, rectal). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. suppository. [sŭ-poz´ĭ-tor″e] an ...
An exploratory study in paediatric surgical patients was performed to describe the behaviour of a rectal solution of ... Rectal administration of paracetamol: a comparison of a solution and suppositories in adult volunteers. Pharm World Sci 1996;18 ... Plasma concentration profiles after pre-operative rectal administration of a solution of paracetamol in children. *W. J. ... Kollöffel, W.J., Driessen, F.G.W.H.M. & Goldhoorn, P.B. Plasma concentration profiles after pre-operative rectal administration ...
Outpatient Treatment of Neonatal Sepsis by the Rectal Administration of Gentamicin. Home › Innovators › 2016 › ... propose to investigate the feasibility of a needle-free method of administration for the antibiotic gentamicin via the rectal ... Under this project we would conduct laboratory release studies, preclinical rectal bioavailability studies and stakeholder ...
Our results indicate that antiretroviral PrEP has the potential to be broadly effective at preventing new rectal or intravenous ... Therefore, we designed our in vivo preclinical study to systematically investigate whether rectal and intravenous HIV-1 ... Specifically, systemic antiretroviral PrEP with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate prevented both rectal (Chi ... rectal and intravenous. Our results show that BLT mice given systemic antiretroviral PrEP are efficiently protected from HIV-1 ...
... Evelien Kieckens ( ... "Clearance of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection in Calves by Rectal Administration of Bovine Lactoferrin." Applied and ... "Clearance of Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Infection in Calves by Rectal Administration of Bovine Lactoferrin." APPLIED AND ... H7 infection in calves by rectal administration of bovine lactoferrin. APPLIED AND ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, 81(5), 1644-1651 ...
... 0 ... cost effective device that allows for discreet and painless rectal administration of fluids and medications when the oral route ... A rectal catheter for rapid medication and fluid administration. Expert Review of Medical Devices. May 30th. . ... The rectum is an underutilized administration point that can be accessed with speed and relative ease" Macygin et al (2018).. ...
For rectal cancer, the value of D-CEUS for pathological response prediction and assessment has never been assessed. Therefore, ... in this study we assessed D-CEUS to predict and assess pathological response in rectal cancer after neo-adjuvant CRT.. Registro ... In recent years the concept of organ sparing treatment in rectal cancer was introduced for selected good responders after neo- ... For rectal cancer, the value of D-CEUS for pathological response prediction and assessment has never been assessed. Therefore, ...
... includes Analpram-hc Rectal Cream 1% And 2.5% side effects, interactions, indications ... Analpram-hc Rectal Cream 1% And 2.5% information from Drugs.com, ... Administration of topical corticosteroids to children should be ... Dosage and Administration. Topical corticosteroids are generally applied to the affected area as a thin film three to four ... See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION .). Once absorbed through the skin, topical corticosteroids are handled through pharmacokinetic ...
Read more about the prescription drug ANTIBIOTIC/ANESTHETIC/STEROID - RECTAL SUPPOSITORIES. ... RECTAL SUPPOSITORIES , includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... antibiotic/anesthetic/steroid-rectal suppositories. GENERIC NAME: ANTIBIOTIC/ANESTHETIC/STEROID - RECTAL SUPPOSITORIES. ...
Read more about the prescription drug PRAMOXINE/HYDROCORTISONE CREAM, OINTMENT - RECTAL. ... RECTAL (Analpram), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... pramoxine/hydrocortisone cream, ointment - rectal, Analpram. GENERIC NAME: PRAMOXINE/HYDROCORTISONE CREAM, OINTMENT - RECTAL ( ...
Mesalamine Rectal Suspension official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, ... How is Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Supplied. Mesalamine Rectal Suspension, USP Enema for rectal administration is an off-white ... Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Dosage and Administration. The usual dosage of Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Enema in 60 mL units ... Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Enema is for rectal use only.. Patients should be instructed to shake the bottle well to make sure ...
Rectal" by people in this website by year, and whether "Administration, Rectal" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Administration, Rectal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Administration, Rectal" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Administration, Rectal". ...
Amantadine rectal administration - ED Drugs Without a Prescription. Free delivery Worldwide. Over the Counter. Delivery to All ... Amantadine rectal administration Charlotte-Gastonia-Rock hill, they are now is a new paper published for older. Eim, lungs but ... Mcp-1 and frequency or uncle amantadine rectal administration the dot target to all patients, john p. 10.4, is a prolonged ... Amantadine rectal administration Tucson. Topical delivery of the onset of children are used during pregnancy says. Rothblat, ...
Drug administration. The study was a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind, crossover design. Patients took ... Rectal pain sensitivity and stress during distension. Rectal pain during distension and auditory stress was rated by the ... Brain activation with rectal pain and stress after placebo. During painful rectal distension after placebo, prominent brain ... patients underwent rectal distension testing during fMRI to measure cerebral activation associated with rectal pain. Patients ...
Rectal Administration Of Vitamines? meatslayer replied to Seraphim_Gabes topic in Celiac Disease - Coping With ...
Drug Administration. Oral administration.. Rectal administration.. Mucous membranes.. Inhalation.. Subcutaneous injection.. ... Rectal administration. The absorption of drugs administered rectally is essentially the same as that of drugs that reach the ... Oral administration.. This is certainly the most common method of drug administration, and unless otherwise specified, we ... Drug Administration. In order for a drug to have an effect, it is necessary for it to reach some specific tissue of the body. ...
PROPHYLACTIC RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND INTRAVENOUS TENOXICAM ADMINISTRATION REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF INTRATHECAL MORPHINE INDUCED ... PROPHYLACTIC RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND INTRAVENOUS TENOXICAM ADMINISTRATION REDUCE THE INCIDENCE OF INTRATHECAL MORPHINE INDUCED ... Publications of Faculty of Medicine:PROPHYLACTIC RECTAL DICLOFENAC AND INTRAVENOUS TENOXICAM ADMINISTRATION REDUCE THE ... Group A,received 2ml saline I.V. as placebo, group B. received lOOmg rec tal diclofenac and group C , received 20 mg I.V. ...
Rectal Diazepam Administration Refresher - Half Day * Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal ... Rectal Diazepam Administration Refresher - Half Day * Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal ... Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Rectal Diazepam - Full Day. Duration: This six hour course will enable delegates ... Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Rectal Diazepam - Full Day * ...
Abdominal bloating Pain on defecation Rectal bleeding Spurious diarrhea Low back pain ... more ... US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Trulance for chronic idiopathic constipation. January 19, 2017. Available at http ... Stapled transanal rectal resection for outlet obstruction syndrome: results and follow-up. World J Surg. 2008 Jun. 32(6):1110-5 ... US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Movantik for opioid-induced constipation. September 16, 2014. Available at http ...
Digital rectal examination provides information about the following: Anorectal masses Tone of the internal anal sphincter ... US Food and Drug Administration. FDA approves Trulance for chronic idiopathic constipation. January 19, 2017. Available at http ... Stapled transanal rectal resection for outlet obstruction syndrome: results and follow-up. World J Surg. 2008 Jun. 32(6):1110-5 ... encoded search term (What information is provided in a digital rectal exam?) and What information is provided in a digital ...
administration. Intravenous, rectal. ATC code. *N01AF01 (WHO) N05CA15 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription ...
It is sold in an oral form to maintain remission in ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease,[3] and as a rectal suppository[4][6 ... administration. oral, rectal. ATC code. *A07EC02 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *US: ℞-only ...
CONCLUSIONS Rectal administration of levothyroxine using enemas can be a safe and effective alternative for patients in whom ... Successful Management of Hypothyroidism in Gastric Outlet Obstruction Using Levothyroxine Rectal Enemas: A Case Report Am J ... However, the patients surgical condition precluded oral administration of levothyroxine and the parenteral alternative was ... administration via the oral route is not feasible, especially when parenteral formulas are unavailable. ...
RECTAL. C38295. RESPIRATORY (INHALATION). C38216. RETROBULBAR. C38296. SOFT TISSUE. C38198. SUBARACHNOID. C38297. ...
  • Rectal administration of medication may be performed with any of the following: A suppository, a drug delivery system inserted into the rectum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enema Rectal discharge Routes of administration Suppository The rectum has numerous blood vessels available to absorb drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cacchillo, A. F. , and W. H. Hassler (1954) The influence of suppository bases upon the rectal absorption of acetylsalicylic acid. (springer.com)
  • Drugs administered by rectal suppository are absorbed systemically, and this route is especially useful in babies, in uncooperative patients, and in cases of vomiting or certain digestive disorders. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 13,14 Nevertheless, pharmacokinetics of its single rectal dose is not well established since its absorption is prolonged and depends on size of suppository, base composition, and rate of dissolutions. (scielo.br)
  • Rectal administration of a 10mg suppository will only achieve a peak blood level of 17-37 ng/ml in 2 hours. (netwellness.org)
  • A 20mg rectal suppository will achieve a peak blood level of 43-82 ng/ml. (netwellness.org)
  • If noted, medicate with Naproxen rectal suppository 375 mg. (jesus-is-savior.com)
  • A drug that is administered rectally will in general (depending on the drug) have a faster onset, higher bioavailability, shorter peak, and shorter duration than oral administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absorption rate and bioavailability of phenobarbital and its sodium salt from rectal dosage forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moolenaar, F., B. Koning and T. Huizinga (1979a), part 7: Absorption rate and bioavailability of phenobarbital and its sodium salt from rectal dosage forms. (springer.com)
  • The bioavailability of rectal midazolam, comparing the area under the median curves, is 4.7% in group 2 and 16.1% in group 3. (nih.gov)
  • Bioavailability of acetaminophen after rectal administration. (springer.com)
  • Under this project we would conduct laboratory release studies, preclinical rectal bioavailability studies and stakeholder interviews to assess the feasibility of novel concept. (savinglivesatbirth.net)
  • Gilman G. Drug absorption, bioavailability, and routes of administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Parenteral administration generally has the greatest bioavailability because it avoids an absorption phase as well as possible inactivation by first-pass metabolism by the liver. (wellness.com)
  • The bioavailability of metoclopramide rectal suppositories is 53%, so a lot less is actually absorbed by this route. (netwellness.org)
  • We conclude that it is in principle possible to improve the rectal absorption rate and also the bioavailability of phenytoin by increasing the solubility of this drug with non-absorbable agents. (springer.com)
  • Plasma levels of progesterone after vaginal, rectal or intramuscular administration of progesterone. (womeninbalance.org)
  • 4 Giving diazepam by mouth is difficult and hazardous when the dog is actively seizing, and absorption after oral administration is slow and unpredictable.4 On the other hand, rectal administration of diazepam results in higher and earlier blood levels compared with either oral or intramuscular routes, making this route of administration ideal for home treatment of cluster seizures. (canine-epilepsy.com)
  • Premedication is the preoperative nasal, oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of sedative drugs to lower the patient's fear of surgical intervention, achieve sedation and anxiolysis, and decrease the amount of anesthetics needed. (scielo.br)
  • The rectal dosage forms included fatty suppositories and aqueous solutions. (springer.com)
  • Rectal administration of paracetamol: a comparison of a solution and suppositories in adult volunteers. (springer.com)
  • Treatment of detrusor instability with oxybutynin rectal suppositories. (uchicago.edu)
  • RECTAL SUPPOSITORIES side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. (medicinenet.com)
  • The rectal dosage forms included fatty suppositories, an aqueous suspension and solutions with various solvents in order to achieve complete dissolution of phenytoin. (springer.com)
  • Compared with oral administration rectal absorption conditions of phenytoin from fatty suppositories or aqueous suspensions were found to be extremely unfavourable. (springer.com)
  • The pharmacokinetics of intravenous administered and rectal administered in rabbits was investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • In recent years the concept of organ sparing treatment in rectal cancer was introduced for selected good responders after neo-adjuvant treatment. (ichgcp.net)
  • For rectal cancer, the value of D-CEUS for pathological response prediction and assessment has never been assessed. (ichgcp.net)
  • Therefore, in this study we assessed D-CEUS to predict and assess pathological response in rectal cancer after neo-adjuvant CRT. (ichgcp.net)
  • How can I help my family cope with my diagnosis of colon or rectal cancer? (sharecare.com)
  • It is common that a diagnosis of colon or rectal cancer may both frighten and upset your family. (sharecare.com)
  • The incidence and epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, and screening recommendations are common to both colon cancer and rectal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The image below depicts the staging and workup of rectal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • Staging and workup of rectal cancer patients. (medscape.com)
  • Bleeding is the most common symptom of rectal cancer, occurring in 60% of patients. (medscape.com)
  • A multidisciplinary approach that includes surgery, medical oncology, and radiation oncology is required for optimal treatment of patients with rectal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • The first step involves achievement of cure, because the risk of pelvic recurrence is high in patients with rectal cancer, and locally recurrent rectal cancer has a poor prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • On December 22, 2010, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine (Gardasil) for prevention of anal cancer and associated precancerous lesions in people aged 9-26 years. (medscape.com)
  • A review of 111,453 patients in the National Cancer Data Base who were diagnosed with early-stage (T1N0 or T2N0) rectal cancer from 1998 to 2010 found that increasing age, male sex, higher comorbidity score, and positive or unknown final surgical margins were associated with poorer long-term adjusted overall survival. (medscape.com)
  • Recurrence of rectal cancer, which usually develops in the first year after surgery, carries a poor prognosis. (medscape.com)
  • local recurrence is more common in rectal cancer than in colon cancer. (medscape.com)
  • A study by Thong et al found that survivors of rectal cancer may benefit from increased focus, both clinical and psychological, on the possible long-term morbidity of treatment and its effects on health. (medscape.com)
  • Kapiteijn E, Marijnen CA, Nagtegaal ID, Putter H, Steup WH, Wiggers T. Preoperative radiotherapy combined with total mesorectal excision for resectable rectal cancer. (medscape.com)
  • To verify the radiosensitizing effect of capecitabine that is based on such pharmacokinetic characteristics, we performed a retrospective analysis on the optimal timing of capecitabine administration with performing preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer . (bvsalud.org)
  • Among 171 patients who were treated with preoperative radiotherapy and concurrent capecitabine administration for rectal cancer , 56 patients were administered capecitabine at 1~2 hours before radiotherapy (group A), and at other time in the other 115 patients (group B). Total mesorectal excision was done at 4 to 6 weeks after the completion of chemoradiation. (bvsalud.org)
  • When performing preoperative chemoradiation for locally advanced rectal cancer , the radiosensitizing effect of capecitabine was enhanced when it was administered 1 hour before radiotherapy . (bvsalud.org)
  • Subcutaneous (SbQ) Versus Intravenous (IV) Administration of Amifostine for Head and Neck (HN) Cancer Patients Receiving Radiotherapy (RT): Prelimi. (oncolink.org)
  • The diagnosis of colorectal cancer is based on digital rectal examination, testing for blood in the stool, proctosigmoidoscopic examination of the sigmoid, and x-ray studies of the GI tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Preoperative radiation with single agent chemotherapy as sensitizer is the standard care of locally advanced rectal cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the efficacy of chemotherapy alone with short-term modified FOLFOXIRI or long-term mFOLFOX with standard chemoradiation as neoadjuvant therapy for locally advanced rectal cancer. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Is It Time to Introduce PET/CT in Rectal Cancer Guidelines? (medworm.com)
  • PET/CT is not indicated in the follow-up or surveillance of rectal cancer. (medworm.com)
  • This review article aims to emphasize differences between current international guidelines and scientific literature in the role of PET/CT in rectal cancer. (medworm.com)
  • AbstractRectal adenocarcinoma with mucinous components is an uncommon type of rectal cancer with two distinct histologic subtypes: mucinous adenocarcinoma and signet-ring cell carcinoma. (medworm.com)
  • Rectal administration uses the rectum as a route of administration for medication and other fluids, which are absorbed by the rectum's blood vessels, and flow into the body's circulatory system, which distributes the drug to the body's organs and bodily systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the rectal route bypasses around two thirds of the first-pass metabolism as the rectum's venous drainage is two thirds systemic (middle and inferior rectal vein) and one third hepatic portal system (superior rectal vein). (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, rectal administration can allow patients to remain in the home setting when the oral route is compromised. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rectal route of administration is useful for patients with any digestive tract motility problem, such as dysphagia, ileus, or bowel obstruction, that would interfere with the progression of the medication through the tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because using the rectal route enables a rapid, safe, and lower cost alternative to administration of medications, it may also facilitate the care of patients in long-term care or palliative care, or as an alternative to intravenous or subcutaneous medication delivery in other instances. (wikipedia.org)
  • National Hospice and Palliative Care Organization's Facts and Figures: Hospice Care in America, 2013 Edition" (PDF) Archived 2014-05-13 at the Wayback Machine A Quality Improvement Study: Use of a Rectal Medication Administration Device Intervention to manage end-stage symptoms in hospice patients when the oral route fails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coldwell, B. B., G. Solomonray, E. M. Boyd, J. Jantz and A. B. Morrison (1969) The effect of dosage form and route of administration on the absorption and excretion of acetylsalicylic acid in man. (springer.com)
  • We propose to investigate the feasibility of a needle-free method of administration for the antibiotic gentamicin via the rectal route. (savinglivesatbirth.net)
  • Areas Covered: Literature reviews of pharmaceutical, medical, and nursing references reveal current and historical science that validates the rectal route as a means of alternative administration for fluids and medications. (ivteam.com)
  • This serves as an introduction to a novel, simple, cost effective device that allows for discreet and painless rectal administration of fluids and medications when the oral route is compromised and/or intravenous access is difficult or unnecessary. (ivteam.com)
  • This route of administration has the advantage of quickly and easily placing the drug in contact with the relatively large surface membrane of the stomach, which has a rich supply of capillaries for entry into the plasma compartment. (rutgers.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS Rectal administration of levothyroxine using enemas can be a safe and effective alternative for patients in whom administration via the oral route is not feasible, especially when parenteral formulas are unavailable. (nih.gov)
  • The global contrast media market has been segmented based on type, route of administration, imaging modality, application, and region. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Based on route of administration, the global contrast media market has been categorized into oral, rectal, intravenous/intra-arterial, others. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Intravenous is the safest and most common route of administration of contrast media to enhance imaging. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The route of administration is defined as the path by which a drug or other substance enters the body. (wellness.com)
  • It can be further divided into two subgroups: parenteral by injection or infusion and other parenteral excluding oral route of administration. (wellness.com)
  • Though this is widely available, the route of administration is problematic in many circumstances. (epilepsy.com)
  • Oral formulations are available for clonazepam , diazepam , and lorazepam , though this route of administration has a relatively longer time to onset of action. (epilepsy.com)
  • It should include fields such as patient identifier, antimicrobial agent, route of administration, date of administration, and location of patient for all inpatient locations, emergency departments (EDs), and 24-hour observation locations as applicable. (cdc.gov)
  • By Route of Administration they are segmented into Oral, Parenteral and rectal. (medgadget.com)
  • The rectal route proved to be as acceptable as the oral one among parents. (scielo.br)
  • In some circumstances, rectal preparation is used, such as when the patient is vomiting or the physician or parents prefer the rectal route. (scielo.br)
  • The route of administration will often make a difference as to how a medication may be used for therapy. (netwellness.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Postpartum use of 600 microg misoprostol by sublingual route has a comparable effect in reducing PPH, as that of rectal route. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Anesthesia Parenteral - a route of administration for an agent that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract. (aaoms.org)
  • Enteral - a route of administration for an agent that is placed directly into the gastrointestinal tract from which absorption occurs across the entire membrane. (aaoms.org)
  • Kayexalate requires several hours of contact with the colonic mucosa to be effective, and the rectal route of administration is preferred. (tripdatabase.com)
  • This brief piece provides hints on administering analgesics, via the rectal and stomal routes of administration, to hospice patients unable to take oral medications. (ijpc.com)
  • These compounds are injected with the help of contrast media injectors through different routes of administration. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration recognizes 111 distinct routes of administration. (wellness.com)
  • Routes of administration can broadly be divided into four categories: topical, enteral, parenteral and other. (wellness.com)
  • Enumerate the routes of administration of most important medications. (scribd.com)
  • Plasma concentrations of acetylsalicylic acid and salicylic acid were measured by means of Hplc analysis, after a single dose of acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg) and after single rectal doses of acetylsalicylic acid (500 mg) and calcium acetylsalicylate (640 mg) in a cross-over study in 8 volunteers. (springer.com)
  • As pharmacokinetic data in children are lacking and different dose regimens for rectal premedication exist, we studied plasma concentrations in 3 groups of children. (nih.gov)
  • Rectal midazolam has a remarkably short onset and especially in a dose of 0.5 mg/kg prolonged action due to ongoing resorption from the rectum as demonstrated by the clinically relevant plasma concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • The aim of this study was to determine if low dose amitriptyline reduces ACC activation during painful rectal distension in IBS to confer clinical benefits. (bmj.com)
  • Such accuracy is more difficult to achieve via a tabletting process wherein solids must be uniformly mixed and compressed, or by incorporation of the total dose of the active ingredient into a bulk liquid carrier which must be measured out prior to each oral administration. (google.com)
  • Your doctor probably will decrease your diazepam rectal dose gradually. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The rectal dose is higher than the intravenous dose in order to obtain adequate blood levels. (canine-epilepsy.com)
  • To compare a dose of oral and rectal acetaminophen and to evaluate acceptability of rectal acetaminophen, since oral and rectal acetaminophen is widely used as an antipyretic agent in febrile children and the comparative effectiveness of these two preparations is not well established. (scielo.br)
  • 15 Moreover, some evidence revealed that antipyretic serum concentration of 15-20 µg/mL could not be achieved by rectal dose of 10-15 mg/kg and a rectal dose of 30-45 mg/kg was needed. (scielo.br)
  • The recommended dose of Diastat Acudial rectal gel is 0.2-0.5 mg/kg depending on age. (rxlist.com)
  • Vérifiez votre statut d'ordre en ligne erythromycin dose for tooth infection . (spiritofbaraka.com)
  • Cela a réveillé un vif débat sur la vente en ligne des médicaments erythromycin dose for tooth infection . (spiritofbaraka.com)
  • Subcutaneous administration is certainly a more attractive option from a logistical standpoint, as it entails less time and effort and provides a longer window between drug delivery and radiation treatment. (oncolink.org)
  • The compositions are well-suited for subcutaneous administration. (google.es)
  • A malignant epithelial tumour arising from the colonic or rectal mucosa. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between vitamin C intake and apoptosis in normal rectal mucosa. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apoptosis was measured by morphological evaluation of H&E-stained sections obtained from pinch biopsy samples of normal rectal mucosa in consenting participants ( n = 503). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This training will equip delegates with an understanding of the theory & practice of administering rectal diazepam, and the knowledge to administer rectal diazepam safely according to the individual care plan. (epilepsyactive.co.uk)
  • Any health care provider working in the public or private sector who may be required to administer rectal diazepam or buccal midazolam to a patient or client as part of their care. (norvictraining.co.uk)
  • Intravenous administration can lead to pulmonary edema, circulatory collapse and other complications. (wikipedia.org)
  • His heart rate decreased to 170 bpm after initiation of ventilation with 100% oxygen and intravenous administration of 20 mL/kg normal saline. (aappublications.org)
  • Unlike intravenous lines, which usually need to be placed in an inpatient environment and require special formulation of sterile medications, a specialized rectal catheter can be placed by a clinician, such as a hospice nurse or home health nurse, in the home. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many oral forms of medications can be crushed and suspended in water to be given via a rectal catheter. (wikipedia.org)
  • A specialized catheter designed for rectal administration of medications and liquids, that can be placed safely and remain comfortably in the rectum for repeated use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macygin, K.M.C., Kulstad, E., Mokszycki, R.K. and Goldsmith, M. (2018) Evaluation of the Macy Catheter®: A rectal catheter for rapid medication and fluid administration. (ivteam.com)
  • The rectum is an underutilized administration point that can be accessed with speed and relative ease" Macygin et al (2018). (ivteam.com)
  • The physiology of the rectum allows for rapid and reliable administration of a variety of medications as well as hydration. (ivteam.com)
  • Gently insert the syringe tip into the rectum until the rim is snug against the rectal opening. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We administered the drugs by advancing the cannula 1 cm into the rectum, and the rectal administration volume was 1 mL for all the rats. (scielo.br)
  • In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. (scielo.br)
  • Although 100 µg kg -1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg -1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the rectum. (scielo.br)
  • CONCLUSIONS Rectal thiopental sodium is a safe and effective drug for pediatric sedation. (ajnr.org)
  • This medication is for rectal use only. (medicinenet.com)
  • rectal bleeding , change in skin appearance (e.g., color, thickness), skin redness/tenderness/pus or other signs of skin infection .Rarely, it is possible this medication will be absorbed into the bloodstream. (medicinenet.com)
  • This is certainly the most common method of drug administration, and unless otherwise specified, we assume that taking medication means oral ingestion. (rutgers.edu)
  • This training facilitates safe, dignified and appropriate administration of this medication providing all the necessary guidelines, policies and procedures are in place and followed. (epilepsyactive.co.uk)
  • Intrapulmonary (within the lung) administration allows the medication to be taken up directly into the pulmonary capillaries, which then go to the heart with direct blood flow into the brain. (epilepsy.com)
  • The delivery routes described above all allow for rapid administration of medication. (epilepsy.com)
  • Many have been shown to have faster administration that IV medication since special medical training is not required. (epilepsy.com)
  • Diazepam rectal may cause a physical dependence (a condition in which unpleasant physical symptoms occur if a medication is suddenly stopped or used in smaller doses), especially if you use it for several days to several weeks. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Before diazepam rectal gel is prescribed, the doctor will talk to your caregiver about how to recognize signs of the type of seizure activity that should be treated with this medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Administration of medication. (cengage.com)
  • I notice that there is a medication called Primperan for nausea and vomiting and the oral form is 10 mg per tablet while the rectal form is 20 mg per tablet. (netwellness.org)
  • Therefore, higher rectal doses, or more frequent administration, may be required to achieve and/or maintain blood concentrations of a medication comparable to those obtained following oral administration. (netwellness.org)
  • Providing proper education about treatment, including medication administration, expected side effects and associated treatments, and when patients can expect improvement. (adventisthealthcare.com)
  • Our Diastat Acudial (diazepam) Rectal Gel Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • Diazepam rectal may increase the risk of serious or life-threatening breathing problems, sedation, or coma if used along with certain medications. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you use diazepam rectal with any of these medications and you develop any of the following symptoms, call your doctor immediately or seek emergency medical care immediately: unusual dizziness, lightheadedness, extreme sleepiness, slowed or difficult breathing, or unresponsiveness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diazepam rectal gel is used in emergency situations to stop cluster seizures (episodes of increased seizure activity) in people who are taking other medications to treat epilepsy (seizures). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most medications are ingested orally, but other routes, such as rectal administration, are also used to administer a drug, especially if a patient has trouble swallowing. (netwellness.org)
  • This makes me feel that rectal form is not equal to oral form. (netwellness.org)
  • Perform physical examination with specific attention to the size and location of the rectal tumor in addition to possible metastatic lesions, including enlarged lymph nodes or hepatomegaly. (medscape.com)
  • At least 8 weeks after you have stopped receiving radiotherapy, you will have the rectal tumor removed by surgery. (knowcancer.com)
  • The timing of surgical resection is dependent on the size, location, extent, and grade of the rectal carcinoma. (medscape.com)
  • Compared with oral administration rectal absorption of acetylsalicylic acid can be equally rapid, if the volume and the pH of the aqueous micro-enema was optimized (20 ml, pH 4.0). (springer.com)
  • The active ingredient in Mesalamine Rectal Suspension, USP Enema, a disposable (60 mL) unit, is mesalamine, also known as 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA). (drugs.com)
  • Each rectal suspension enema unit contains 4 grams of mesalamine. (drugs.com)
  • Each Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Enema delivers up to 4 g of mesalamine to the left side of the colon. (drugs.com)
  • Mesalamine administered rectally as Mesalamine Rectal Suspension Enema is poorly absorbed from the colon and is excreted principally in the feces during subsequent bowel movements. (drugs.com)
  • 1982) "Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations. (wikipedia.org)
  • 20 Although several investigations have been conducted on acetaminophen, it is not known whether equal doses of rectal and oral acetaminophen have similar effectiveness in reducing fever. (scielo.br)
  • Intraperitoneal, (into the peritoneum) is predominantly used in veterinary medicine and animal testing for the administration of systemic drugs and fluids due to the ease of administration compared with other parenteral methods. (wellness.com)
  • Early administration of systemic therapy is also proved beneficial for long-term survival. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The pharmacopoeial requirement of sterility test for all products intended for parental administration and ophthalmic preparation, irrespective of whether they are prepare by end -sterilization process or produced under conditions, provides an adequate level of control for such preparation. (scribd.com)
  • Oral acetaminophen, rectal acetaminophen, fever. (scielo.br)
  • While some investigations showed that oral acetaminophen was more effective than the rectal form 21 , others found they had similar effects. (scielo.br)
  • We also evaluated the acceptability of rectal acetaminophen among parents of young children. (scielo.br)
  • Exclusion criteria included the following conditions: diminished level of consciousness, known allergy to acetaminophen, any condition that preclude oral or rectal drug administration, known malignancy, diarrhea or vomiting in the previous 24 hours, or have taken any antipyretics and antibiotics within 24 hours prior to the initiation of the study. (scielo.br)
  • To train delegates in the safe and effective administration of rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam. (norvictraining.co.uk)
  • Indications/contra indicators of diazepam/midazolam, Storage conditions/procedures for diazepam/midazolam, Post administrative care, Regulations covering the use of diazepam/midazolam, Patient preparation and administration procedure. (norvictraining.co.uk)
  • At this time, only the rectal form of diazepam (Diastat) is FDA approved for at-home treatment of cluster seizures. (epilepsy.com)
  • Intranasal (within the nose) therapies, such as midazolam or diazepam, have a lot of promise, due to rapid absorption and relative ease of administration once the caregiver receives some training. (epilepsy.com)
  • Rectal diazepam is FDA approved. (epilepsy.com)
  • Diazepam rectal may be habit forming. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Stopping diazepam rectal suddenly can worsen your condition and cause withdrawal symptoms that may last for several weeks to more than 12 months. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diazepam rectal gel is not meant to be used on a daily basis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Diazepam rectal gel should not be used more than 5 times a month or more often than every 5 days. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you or your caregiver think that you need diazepam rectal gel more often than this, talk to your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The purpose of this article is to provide general information about home treatment with rectal diazepam (valium) for dogs with cluster seizures. (canine-epilepsy.com)
  • Why is rectal administration of diazepam recommended? (canine-epilepsy.com)
  • Rectal administration of diazepam (valium) by the client is a safe method of home treatment of cluster seizures in dogs with idiopathic epilepsy. (canine-epilepsy.com)
  • Which dogs are candidates for home treatment with rectal diazepam? (canine-epilepsy.com)
  • If this is not totally successful and the patient still tends to suffer cluster seizures, then home treatment with rectal diazepam should be considered. (canine-epilepsy.com)
  • Diastat Acudial (diazepam) Rectal Gel is a benzodiazepine used for rectal administration in the management of selected, refractory , patients with epilepsy , on stable regimens of AEDs, who require intermittent use of diazepam to control bouts of increased seizure activity. (rxlist.com)
  • The sedative effects of diazepam rectal may last longer in older adults. (rxlist.com)
  • Use caution to avoid falling or accidental injury while you are using diazepam rectal. (rxlist.com)
  • Diazepam rectal gel adverse event data were collected from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and open-label studies. (rxlist.com)
  • However, the patient's surgical condition precluded oral administration of levothyroxine and the parenteral alternative was unavailable. (nih.gov)
  • One gram of rectal ointment contains 4 mg Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN). (medicines.org.uk)
  • The ointment also contains 36 mg Propylene Glycol, and 140 mg Lanolin, per gram rectal ointment. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Rectal ointment. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Rectogesic 4 mg/g Rectal Ointment is indicated in adults for relief of pain associated with chronic anal fissure. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Plasma levels of progesterone equivalent to normal luteal phase levels were obtained using 25 mg of injected progesterone or 100 mg via rectal or vaginal administration at 8 hours after administration. (womeninbalance.org)
  • Group 2: Rectal midazolam 0.35 mg/kg has a remarkably short onset of action with peak plasma concentrations (71 ng/ml) in the range of sedative levels in adults occurring in 7.5 min. (nih.gov)
  • Administration, Rectal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uchicago.edu)
  • In children, rectal midazolam is being used increasingly for premedication, as this substance is reported to have a short half-life and rapid action. (nih.gov)
  • 3 , 4 , 5 , 7 and 8 Rectal administration is also preferred, particularly for the premedication of young children. (scielo.br)
  • 4 , 8 , 18 , 19 , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 and 24 However, there are no published studies concerning the rectal application of dexmedetomidine for premedication. (scielo.br)
  • See your doctor if you have shortness of breath, abdominal discomfort or bloating, rectal bleeding or bowel obstruction. (sharecare.com)
  • Rectal bleeding, occult blood in stools and, if advanced, bowel obstruction and weight loss. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 7(4):285-311 Moolenaar F, Koning B, Huizinga T. (1979) "Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moolenaar, F., A. G. G. Stuurman-Bieze, J. Visser and T. Huizinga (1978) Biopharmaceutics of rectal administration of drugs in man, part 1: Introduction of benzoic acid as a test drug. (springer.com)
  • There are, however, some special characteristics of the gastric environment that may cause difficulties for the administration of certain drugs. (rutgers.edu)
  • Consider reviewing a longer period to potentially capture the administration of rarer drugs/routes. (cdc.gov)
  • In the United States, current Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) regulations are issued by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the minimum requirements for quality systems for FDA-regulated products such as food, drugs, biologics and devices. (scribd.com)
  • Preventie en behandeling van acute pijn bij kinderen [Prevention and treatment of acute pain in children]. (springer.com)
  • Three animals received a daily rectal spray treatment with bovine lactoferrin, three animals received an oral treatment, and three animals served as a control group. (ugent.be)
  • Animals in the rectal group ceased shedding within 26 days of the experimental treatment and remained negative. (ugent.be)
  • However, the results indicate that the use of bovine lactoferrin as a rectal treatment can be a useful strategy to preclude further transmission of EHEC infections from cattle to humans. (ugent.be)
  • Cohen RD, Dalal SR. Systematic Review: Rectal Therapies for the Treatment of Distal Forms of Ulcerative Colitis. (uchicago.edu)
  • It is used in the treatment of hemorrhoids and other rectal conditions. (medicinenet.com)
  • Deputy director amantadine rectal administration Michigan treatment of complete stop making of hodgkin lymphoma more severe limb. (ass-fingering-teens.info)
  • Do not breastfeed for an appropriate period of time after receiving treatment with Diastat Acudial rectal gel. (rxlist.com)
  • In this prospective parallel group designed study, 60 children who presented to the emergency department or outpatient pediatric clinic at a tertiary hospital and aged from 6 months to 6 years with rectal temperature over 39 °C were enrolled. (scielo.br)
  • Rectal thiopental sodium for sedation of pediatric patients undergoing MR and other imaging studies. (ajnr.org)
  • PURPOSE To determine the efficacy and safety of rectal thiopental sodium as a sedation agent for pediatric imaging. (ajnr.org)
  • US Food and Drug Administration. (medscape.com)
  • Disclaimer: This homeopathic product has not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration for safety or efficacy. (nih.gov)
  • The development of alternative methods of drug administration has improved the ability of physicians to manage specific problems. (wellness.com)
  • Aerosol drug administration. (cengage.com)
  • Temperature was recorded at baseline and 1 and 3 hours after drug administration. (scielo.br)
  • FRIDAY, March 3, 2017 -- There's no evidence that a growing trend called whole body cryotherapy is effective, but it does pose a number of risks, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration warns. (medworm.com)
  • For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. (scielo.br)
  • The average time from drug administration to sedation was 12.2 minutes. (ajnr.org)
  • For all rectal dosage forms, the extent to which acetylsalicylic acid reached the general circulation intact, was smaller than after oral administration. (springer.com)
  • 4.Anti-infective agents - administration and dosage. (who.int)
  • Rectal absorption of phenytoin and its sodium salt from various dosage forms was studied in man. (springer.com)
  • For more specific information on dosing of CAMPTOSAR, see the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section of this booklet. (meds.com)
  • Twenty-four-hour telephone follow-up in 325 patients revealed a 34% incidence of minor rectal irritation and diarrhea, sleepiness, nausea and vomiting, or ataxia. (ajnr.org)
  • Serum potassium levels of 5.5-6.5 mEq/L should be treated by eliminating all sources of potassium from the diet or IV fluids and administration of a cation exchange resin, such as sodium polystyrene sulfonate ( Kayexalate ). (tripdatabase.com)
  • METHODS Four hundred sixty-two infants and children were sedated with rectal thiopental sodium for MR, CT, or nuclear imaging in 1992 and 1993. (ajnr.org)