Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred ICRLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United StatesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.PiperazinesNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred C3HLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Inbred LewEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

The bioavailability, dispostion kinetics and dosage of sulphadimethoxine in dogs. (1/15664)

The disposition kinetics of sulphadimethoxine were studied in six normal beagle dogs after intravenous injection of a single dose (55 mg/kg). The median (range) distribution and elimination half times of the drug were 2.36 (2.06-3.35) hours and 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, respectively. Total body clearance of the drug had a median value of 21.7 ml/kg/h and a mean value of 21.4 ml/kg/h. While the overall tissue to plasma level ratio (k12/k21) of the drug was 0.55 after distribution equilibrium had been attained, analogue computer simulated curves showed that at 24 hours the fractions (percentage) of the dose in the central and tissue compartments were 12 and 11%, respectively. The drug was shown, by equilibrium dialysis method, to be highly bound to plasma proteins (greater than 75%) within the usual therapeutic range (50 to 150 mug/ml) of plasma levels. The systemic availability of sulphadimethoxine from the oral suspension was 32.8% (22.5-80.0). Since the absorption half time, 1.87 (0.86-3.22) hours, was considerably shorter than the half-life, 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, of the drug, the rate of absorption would have little influence on the dosage regimen. Based on the experimental data obtained, a satisfactory dosage regimen might consist of a priming dose of 55 mg/kg by the intravenous route and maintenance doses of either 27.5 mg/kg of sulphadimethoxine injection given intravenously or 55 mg/kg of the oral suspension administered at 24 hour intervals. The adequacy and duration of therapy will depend upon the clinical response obtained.  (+info)

Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases. (2/15664)

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

Segmental colonic transit after oral 67Ga-citrate in healthy subjects and those with chronic idiopathic constipation. (3/15664)

Measurement of segmental colonic transit is important in the assessment of patients with severe constipation. 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been established as the tracer of choice for these studies, but it is expensive and not readily available. 67Ga-citrate is an inexpensive tracer and when given orally is not absorbed from the bowel. It was compared with 111In-DTPA in colonic transit studies in nonconstipated control subjects and then in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: Studies were performed after oral administration of 3 MBq (81 microCi) 67Ga-citrate or 4 MBq (108 microCi) 111In-DTPA in solution. Serial abdominal images were performed up to 96 h postinjection, and computer data were generated from geometric mean images of segmental retention of tracer, mean activity profiles and a colonic tracer half-clearance time. RESULTS: There were no differences in segmental retention of either tracer or in mean activity profiles between control subjects and constipated patients. Results in constipated subjects were significantly different from those in controls. The mean half-clearance times of tracer for control subjects were 28.8 h for 67Ga-citrate and 29.9 h for 111In-DTPA in control subjects and 75.0 h for 67Ga-citrate and 70.8 h for 111In-DTPA in constipated patients. CONCLUSION: Oral 67Ga-citrate can be used as a safe alternative to 111In-DTPA for accurate measurement of segmental colonic transit.  (+info)

Marimastat in recurrent colorectal cancer: exploratory evaluation of biological activity by measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen. (4/15664)

Marimastat is a specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases that has been shown to be effective in cancer models. A pilot, escalating-dose study of oral marimastat was performed in patients with recurrent colorectal cancer, in whom evaluation of serological response was made by measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. The study assessed the safety and tolerability of 4 weeks administration of marimastat, and determined a dose range producing detectable serological effects. Patients were recruited with a serum CEA level greater than 5 ng ml(-1), and rising by more than 25% over a 4-week screening period. Patients were treated for 28 days and entered into a continuation protocol if a serological response or clinical benefit was observed. Pharmacokinetic and safety data determined that groups of patients were recruited sequentially at 25 mg and 50 mg twice daily, and, thereafter, 10 mg twice daily, 10 mg once daily, 5 mg once daily and 20 mg once daily. A biological effect (BE) was defined as a CEA value on day 28 no greater than on day 0; a partial biological effect (PBE) was defined as a rise in CEA over the 28-day treatment period of less than 25%. Of 70 patients recruited, 63 completed the 28-day treatment period, and 55 were eligible for cancer antigen analysis. Examination of the dose-effect relationships provides evidence for a causal relationship between marimastat and biological effects: the proportion of patients with BE or PBE was higher with twice daily dosing (16 out of 25, 64%) than with once daily dosing (11 out of 30, 37%) (P = 0.043, chi2 test). Furthermore, the median rates of rise of CEA fell markedly during treatment compared with the screening period for patients receiving twice daily marimastat (P<0.0001), but not for patients receiving marimastat once daily (P = 0.25). Musculoskeletal adverse events emerged as the principal drug-related toxicity of marimastat, occurring in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. It was concluded that marimastat was associated with dose-dependent biological effects in cancer patients. The occurrence of musculoskeletal side-effects define 25 mg twice daily as the upper limit of the dose range for continuous use in further studies. Therefore, a dose range of 20 mg once daily to 25 mg twice daily seems appropriate for further studies, which should aim to demonstrate the efficacy of the drug in terms of conventional clinical end points and describe the long-term tolerability of this novel agent.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (5/15664)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-temozolomide following oral administration to patients with advanced cancer. (6/15664)

The purpose of this study is to characterize the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of carbon 14-labeled temozolomide (14C-TMZ) administered p.o. to adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. On day 1 of cycle 1, six patients received a single oral 200-mg dose of 14C-TMZ (70.2 microCi). Whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces were collected from days 1-8 and on day 14 of cycle 1. Total radioactivity was measured in all samples. TMZ, 5-(3-methyltriazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC), and 4-amino-5-imidazole-carboxamide (AIC) concentrations were determined in plasma, and urine and plasma samples were profiled for metabolite/degradation products. Maximum TMZ plasma concentrations were achieved between 0.33 to 2 h (mean, 1.2 h), and half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and oral clearance values averaged 1.9 h, 17 liters/m2, and 104 ml/min/m2, respectively. A first-order absorption, one-compartment linear model, which included first-order formation of MTIC from TMZ and elimination of MTIC via degradation to AIC, and a peripheral distribution compartment for AIC, adequately described the plasma TMZ, MTIC, and AIC concentrations. MTIC systemic clearance was estimated to be 5384 ml/min/m2, and the half-life was calculated to be 2.5 min. Metabolite profiles of plasma at 1 and 4 h after treatment showed that 14C-derived radioactivity was primarily associated with TMZ, and a smaller amount was attributed to AIC. Profiles of urine samples from 0-24 h revealed that 14C-TMZ-derived urinary radioactivity was primarily associated with unchanged drug (5.6%), AIC (12%), or 3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]tetrazine-8-carboxyl ic acid (2.3%). The recovered radioactive dose (39%) was principally eliminated in the urine (38%), and a small amount (0.8%) was excreted in the feces. TMZ exhibits rapid oral absorption and high systemic availability. The primary elimination pathway for TMZ is by pH-dependent degradation to MTIC and further degradation to AIC. Incomplete recovery of radioactivity may be explained by the incorporation of AIC into nucleic acids.  (+info)

Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. (7/15664)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality related to pregnancy of supplementing women of reproductive age each week with a recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A, either preformed or as beta carotene. DESIGN: Double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: Rural southeast central plains of Nepal (Sarlahi district). SUBJECTS: 44 646 married women, of whom 20 119 became pregnant 22 189 times. INTERVENTION: 270 wards randomised to 3 groups of 90 each for women to receive weekly a single oral supplement of placebo, vitamin A (7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) or beta carotene (42 mg, or 7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) for over 31/2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in women during pregnancy up to 12 weeks post partum (pregnancy related mortality) and mortality during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum, excluding deaths apparently related to injury (maternal mortality). RESULTS: Mortality related to pregnancy in the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups was 704, 426, and 361 deaths per 100 000 pregnancies, yielding relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 0. 60 (0.37 to 0.97) and 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86). This represented reductions of 40% (P<0.04) and 49% (P<0.01) among those who received vitamin A and beta carotene. Combined, vitamin A or beta carotene lowered mortality by 44% (0.56 (0.37 to 0.84), P<0.005) and reduced the maternal mortality ratio from 645 to 385 deaths per 100 000 live births, or by 40% (P<0.02). Differences in cause of death could not be reliably distinguished between supplemented and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of women with either vitamin A or beta carotene at recommended dietary amounts during childbearing years can lower mortality related to pregnancy in rural, undernourished populations of south Asia.  (+info)

In vivo activities of peptidic prodrugs of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. (8/15664)

A series of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems which have excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial activities exhibit modest efficacies against acute lethal infections (3.8 mg/kg of body weight against Escherichia coli and 0.9 mg/kg against Staphylococcus aureus) in mice when they are administered orally. In an effort to improve the efficacies of orally administered drugs through enhanced absorption by making use of a peptide-mediated transport system, several different amino acids were added at the aminomethyl THF side chains of the carbapenem molecules. The resulting peptidic prodrugs with L-amino acids demonstrated improved efficacy after oral administration, while the D forms were less active than the parent molecules. After oral administration increased (3 to 10 times) efficacy was exhibited with the alanine-, valine-, isoleucine-, and phenylalanine-substituted prodrugs against acute lethal infections in mice. Median effective doses (ED50s) of < 1 mg/kg against infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained after the administration of single oral doses. Several of the peptidic prodrugs were efficacious against Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli infections, with ED50s of 1 to 14 mg/kg by oral administration compared with ED50s of 14 to > 32 mg/kg for the parent molecules. In general, the parent molecules demonstrated greater efficacy than the prodrugs against these same infections when the drugs were administered by the subcutaneous route. The parent molecule was detectable in the sera of mice after oral administration of the peptidic prodrugs.  (+info)

Iron bivalent, oral preparations market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by MIcroMarketMonitor.com. Iron bivalent, oral preparations market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Iron bivalent, oral preparations markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Iron bivalent, oral preparations companies.
BioAssay record AID 236679 submitted by ChEMBL: Maximum plasma concentration in rat after oral administration at 10 mg/kg dosage.
BioAssay record AID 58769 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for duration of action after oral administration at a dose 25 mg/kg to dog..
Spring is a time for renewal but for allergy sufferers its a time for perpetually sneezing rubbing itchy eyes swallowing to relieve the sore feeling in your throat. Red irritated eyes result that go away in three days to a week. Contains Ascorbyl Palmitate an oil soluble highly stable form of vitamin C Marie has been thinking that wearing contacts just isnt worth it. Check out these natural ways to heal pink eye! These really work to heal You might not need to go to the doctor for pink eye.. My head has a dull feeling and my eyes are sore and strained. If any one of these is you it pays to know the warning signs. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is present as evidenced by Progressive ischemia leads to the pre-proliferative stage where "cotton wool spots" (nerve fie Urgent referral to an ophthalmologist Vitamin K Oral Preparations Contagious After Eye Bacterial Drops Pink is essential in patients with any level of. Wash face with ice cold water; Ice or cold packs; Limit sodium intake. ...
The effects of acute oral administration of lithium (7439932) compounds on multiple schedule performance were studied in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley-rats were administered lithium-chloride (7447418) or lithium-carbonate (554132) orally in doses of 100, 200, or 300 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Bar pressing performance on a multiple fixed ratio 20/fixed interval 5 minute schedule was measure
It was hypothesized in this study that alterations in plasma lipoprotein profile and disturbed gastrointestinal motility as observed in diabetes mellitus may influence the disposition of halofantrine (HF), a highly lipophilic antimalarial drug. Therefore, using a rat model of diabetes mellitus induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate, the effects of the disease on the pharmacokinetics of HF was investigated. Also, the drug binding to normal and diabetic plasma components was determined. Results showed that the mean Cmax values of HF and its major metabolite, desbutylhalofantrine (DHF), were markedly higher (up to 2.5 times) in the control than in diabetic rats (p , 0.05). Also, the early AUC (AUC0 - 12) and rate of drug absorption (Cmax /AUC0-) were markedly reduced by 40 and 58%, respectively, in diabetic compared to control group. However, the Tmax, AUC0-, and elimination T1/2 of HF were comparable between the two groups (p , 0.05). The binding of HF and DHF in diabetic plasma was ...
SierraSil®s composition naturally promotes absorption of the minerals.* When taken with water on an empty stomach, SierraSil® has a pH of about 3.5, which allows the beneficial minerals to be easily ionized and presented to the tissues to simultaneously replenish mineral deficiencies and support metabolic balance.* It is very important to always take SierraSil® on an empty stomach. If taken with food, medications or supplements the clay component of SierraSil® will become bound to food components such as fiber, phytates and phosphates, as well as your medications or supplements and will not be absorbed into the body but will instead pass right through with all the contents intact. If taking SierraSil with food and medications the maximum intended benefits will not be realized because the proper concentrations were not absorbed into the body.. Due to SierraSil®s absorptive and adsorptive properties, SierraSil should be taken at a different time of day, at least 4 hours before or after ...
... - Drinking water on an empty stomach soon after waking up is a healthy habit for people in Japan and this habit has many health benefits that were shown in several studies, water treatment provides a seriously positive effect against many ailments. The consumption of water first thing in the morning was shown to be
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of multiple ascending oral doses (MAD) of GLPG0555 given to healthy subjects for 13 days compared to placebo, and to evaluate the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of two different aqueous suspensions of GLPG0555 administered for 3 days. Finally, it is aimed to characterize PK and pharmacodynamics (PD) of GLPG0555 after multiple oral administrations ...
The early onset of the mean Cmax for the two major metabolites, penciclovir and M4, and their rate and extent of excretion in the urine indicated that SK1899 was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and extensively converted to its metabolites following oral administration to the rat and dog at doses up to 2 and 0.68 mmol/kg, respectively. However, the parent compound SK1899 was not detected in either plasma or urine, indicating that substantial first-pass metabolism of SK1899 occurred in both rats and dogs.. Following oral administration of SK1899 to both species, the ratios of the mean Cmax and AUC values for penciclovir to the corresponding values for M4 in plasma and the ratio of penciclovir to M4 concentrations excreted in urine decreased with increasing dose, suggesting that a dose-dependent decrease in the conversion of SK1899 to penciclovir occurred. In the rat, a 10-fold increase in dose from 0.2 to 2 mmol/kg led to a decrease in the ratios of penciclovir to M4 ...
Each type of medication will help lower the blood sugar levels in a different way. Some people with type 2 diabetes may take a combination of diabetes pills and insulin. Your doctor will prescribe the treatment plan that will work best for you and will give you directions as to the times, dosage, and frequency of each type of medication.. Only people with type 2 diabetes use oral medications. They are not helpful for a person with type 1 diabetes whose pancreas has lost most or all ability to produce insulin.. Maintaining a proper diet and a regular exercise program are both important steps in controlling diabetes, even when taking oral medications. Oral medications are designed to work with diet and exercise, not in place of them.. Click here to view ...
Each type of medication will help lower the blood sugar levels in a different way. Some people with type 2 diabetes may take a combination of diabetes pills and insulin. Your doctor will prescribe the treatment plan that will work best for you and will give you directions as to the times, dosage, and frequency of each type of medication.. Only people with type 2 diabetes use oral medications. They are not helpful for a person with type 1 diabetes whose pancreas has lost most or all ability to produce insulin.. Maintaining a proper diet and a regular exercise program are both important steps in controlling diabetes, even when taking oral medications. Oral medications are designed to work with diet and exercise, not in place of them.. Click here to view ...
|b|I was prescribed AKT-4; the pack contains three tablets and one capsule.|/b| I would like to know which medicine needs to be taken empty stomach (one tablet or the capsule). The remaining medicines have to be taken after breakfast, lunch and dinner. I am suffering from tuberculosis and I got pleural fluid in my lungs.
We have seen that the tonus and contractions of the empty stomach are temporarily inhibited by stimulation of nerves in the mouth, in the esophagus, and in the gastric mucosa itself. Can the tonus and...
The biggest benefit of drinking water comes when it is consumed early in the morning, on an empty stomach, before brushing the teeth.
I have had a bad sinus infection now for a few days and I have been taking Tylenol Sinus Severe for it. I just took it a little bit ago on an empty stomach and
It is necessary to keep a close eye on the foods to avoid on empty stomach because that is what ends up impacting the overall well being and your health throughout the day. What you eat in a day and the kind of diet you adhere to actually does make quite an impact on the overall well being of your body.
Because Im one of those people who cant function when Im hungry (I get nausous, weak and grumpy), I always used to make sure I ate a small breakfast before exercising in the morning, but for the last few weeks Ive been running on an empty stomach because Ive heard its more effective for burning fat, and because it means I can get out of bed a little later. The first few times I was surprised to find that I was still able to get through the run and didnt feel nauseous, but I still feel
Exercising on an empty stomach does not help you burn more fat. Our energy sources are stored in a few different places, based on how easy it is to a
Feb 13, 2012. Whitney Houstons Death Xanax and Alcohol, Lethal Duo. Throw in other factors-sleep deprivation, an empty stomach, a cold-and
I was told that its best to run this on an empty stomach as it made it more effective. Is there actually any truth behind this, or does it make no difference if I through it in with a shake or something?
Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to medicines in this group or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Although there is no specific information comparing use of antimyasthenics in children with use in other age groups, these medicines are not expected to cause different side effects or problems in children than they do in adults. Older adults- Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. Although there is not much information comparing use of antimyasthenics in the elderly with use in other age groups, these medicines are not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than they do in younger adults. ...
Evaluate the safety, tolerability, plasma concentrations of PF-03382792 and other biological activity following a single dose of PF-03382792. Three ascending single doses of PF-03382792 were administered in this study (0.05 mg, 0.15mg and 0.5 mg). The decision to terminate the study was made on June 4, 2010 due to safety findings and limitations regarding the levels of the metabolite projected for doses above 0.5 mg ...
Allergies Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to medicines in this group or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children Children are especially sensitive to the effects of insulin before puberty (the time when sexual changes occur). Therefore, low blood sugar may be especially likely to occur. Use in teenagers is similar to use in older age groups. The insulin need may be higher during puberty and lower after puberty. Older adults Use in older adults is similar to use in other age groups. However, sometimes the first signs of low or high blood sugar are missing or not easily seen in older patients. This may increase the chance of low blood sugar during treatment. Also, some older people may have vision problems or other medical problems that make it harder for them ...
Several economic evaluations of regimens including oral preparations such as capecitabine and tegafur-uracil have shown that such regimens are more cost effective than regimens comprising only injectable preparations [15, 30-32].
In the present study, we quantified the relationships of plasma concentrations of PF06463922 to inhibition of ALK phosphorylation and tumor growth inhibition in a crizotinib-resistant ALK-tumor model (i.e., H3122 NSCLC with EML4-ALKL1196M) using a mathematical modeling approach. This is the first report to quantitatively characterize PKPD relationships of a second-generation ALK inhibitor for target modulation (including rebounds) and antitumor efficacy in an ALK-tumor model. Unexpectedly, the rebounds of ALK phosphorylation in vivo were observed at 24-36 hours after repeated oral administration of PF06463922. By that time, the plasma concentrations of PF06463922 declined to less than 5 ng/ml (3 nM free), which was ,10-fold lower than the EC50,in vivo (36 nM free). The observations that ALK responses were partially back to near or above the baseline around 24 hours postdose were consistent in an ALK-tumor model treated with not only PF06463922, but also other in-house ALK inhibitors. Moreover, ...
Jamu Merit Jamu Merit is a traditional oral preparation used to induce weight loss and support a healthier, trimmer figure. It is a combination of herbs that have diuretic and fat-cleansing effects. Jamu Merit reduces flabbiness, while protecting...
This single-dose study is evaluating the pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of single subcutaneous 100 and 150 mg doses of mavrilimumab in healthy adult
Furazabol is methylated at C17, which allows peroral administration but can also have hepatotoxic effects (liver damage). The steroid is used by ...
... are usually the first treatment options suggested for patients with mild to moderate bladder symptoms and/or pain.
In this lesson we break down tips for administering oral medications to patients. View the free video lesson and practice questions today!
Mg has been implicated in cramping and it is often added to supplements and drinks. There is no evidence to support this and it is extremely unlikely that anyone would suffer Mg deficits during a race. It is totally unlikely that oral Mg supplements could correct such deficits if they existed. Both calcium and magnesium for contraction and nerve conduction are highly sequestered in separate compartments with tightly controlled levels. Furthermore, there is evidence that fatigued muscle cells actually dump Ca and Mg in the extracellular fluid. Such active mechanisms cannot be counterbalanced by oral ingestion of minerals. In these cases oral intake just adds to the already increased plasma load and puts stress on the kidney ...
Disclaimer: I am gluten, lactose and soy intolerant and while I try my best to avoid these things while eating out, I am sometimes willing to take risks with what I eat. Please ensure that you also do your own research and take your own precautions to make sure that any food served by the places I visit and the food I make is suitable for you. I dont want anyone getting sick because of me. ...
Disclaimer: I am gluten, lactose and soy intolerant and while I try my best to avoid these things while eating out, I am sometimes willing to take risks with what I eat. Please ensure that you also do your own research and take your own precautions to make sure that any food served by the places I visit and the food I make is suitable for you. I dont want anyone getting sick because of me. ...
Today I woke up and felt a little better. I still feel nauseated and my stomach is still VERY sensitive. But, Im not running to the bathroom and that is a great sign! Liquids worked for me yesterday, so that was where I picked up. So, I waited and drank a little and then a…
If you have any concerns about the information below or need any help understanding it and relating it to your own situation, you should talk to your GP or pharmacist.
I am Korean and Indian. So much these days is focused on race. This is something that has never been a problem for me. But, it is something that has caused a lot of confusion, everywhere I go. People look at me like Im a math problem. Jo Koi once said. It is a feeling…
Pharmacokinetics Assessments - Cmax - Cmax is the maximum (peak) blood drug concentration after dose administration (ng/mL) calculated as the maximum of C1h and C2h. C1h was 1 hour post-dose blood concentration (ng/mL) and C2h was 2 hour post-dose blood concentration (ng/mL). C1h and C2h post-dose samples were collected from all patients in both arms at Visit 3. Steady-state for the C1h and C2h samples was defined as continuous administration of the same dose in the previous 4 days and the day on which the C1h and C2h samples were collected. Steady-state for the 5 mg every other day regimen was defined as the state when the 5 mg dose was taken 2 days and 4 days before sampling. PK samples were only drawn at visit 3, and only analyzed for patients receiving everolimus at steady state (if patients had received the dose the previous 4 days). In addition summary statistics were only done for each everolimus dose when 3 samples were available. Only valid C1h and C2h everolimus samples were included ...
Most of large molecules like proteins and peptides are administered chronically through the parenteral route, sometimes for long periods of treatment. For this
ListMoto.com - (Route_of_administration) A ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. Routes can also be classified based on where the target of action is
Any type 2 diabetic is eventually going to need oral medications, and some on oral medications may eventually progress to needing insulin. The regimens are complex and vary from patient to patient. Learn how to individually tailor such decisions.
This dose-escalation study is investigating ASP-3700 as single ascending oral doses in healthy male subjects. This study will also explore the effect of
For most infections, children older than 3 months but less than 40 kg are treated with 25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours, 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours, 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours or 45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours depending on type and severity of the infection ...
For most infections, children older than 3 months but less than 40 kg are treated with 25 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours, 20 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours, 40 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 8 hours or 45 mg/kg/day in divided doses every 12 hours depending on type and severity of the infection ...
Dosage. This medication is taken 2-4 times a day. You must take Carafate on an empty stomach, at least an hour before you have your meal. The dosage will be based on the uniqueness of your treatment and the way you respond to the medication. The dosage and dose schedule must only be determined by a physician.. In order to benefit from this medication, you need to take it as regularly as possible. If you keep forgetting your doses, take them at the same time every day. This way, you will be able to take them on time. It is important for you to continue the treatment even if you no longer feel ulcer pain. You must not discontinue the treatment without consulting a physician. It usually takes 4-8 weeks for ulcers to heal completely. So, you must continue to take the medication until your prescription finishes.. If you are taking any other medication, note that they may not be as effective when you mix them with Carafate. So, if you are consuming any other drugs, make sure to take them well ahead or ...
Adult dosage (ages 18 years and older). Your doctor may prescribe 500 mg in a single dose on Day 1, followed by 250 mg once per day on Days 2-5.. Child dosage (ages 6 months-17 years). Children of this age typically take 10 mg/kg of body weight in a single dose on day 1. Then they take 5 mg/kg once per day on days 2-5.. Child dosage (ages 0-6 months). This drug should not be used in children who are younger than 6 months.. ...
The review, initially set for six months, was delayed by three months when Novartis said May 25 that the FDA requested additional analysis of data. Rival medicine cladribine, from Darmstadt, Germany-based Merck, won a priority review in July, reducing to six months from 10 the time it will take the FDA to decide on approval, after the agency rejected an earlier application in November. Merck expects a decision on cladribine in the fourth quarter ...
Take Syprine on an empty stomach, at least one hour before a meal or two hours after a meal and at least one hour apart from any other drug, food, or milk. The capsules should be swallowed whole with water and should not be opened or chewed. For the first month of treatment, take your temperature every night, and report any symptom such as fever or skin rash to your doctor ...
Dosage:. 3-4tsf with equal quantity of hot water on empty stomach once or twice or as directedd by teh physician.. Effect on tridoshas:calms vata and pitta.. Chiruvilwadi kashayam ingredients:. Chirabilwa. punarnava. vahni(chitraka). Abhaya. kana. saindava. nagara. Reference: sahasrayoga.. ...
watch out for internal vitamin D if you are very deficient: it can make you bleed internally, or rather, on the way out, which is, to say the least, extremely disconcerting. especially do not take it with c, or on an empty stomach. i have been breaking open the gelcaps and rubbing it on my skin before getting a little sun; that seems to work best ...
These effects are generally not reproduced by oral administration of the drug in test animals, and virtually no scientific ... route of administration unspecified) Minimum lethal dose (as sulfate salt): 300 mg/kg (dog; IV); 2000 mg/kg (dog; oral); 250 mg ... After IV administration of the drug, the α-phase T1/2 was found to be about 3 mins., and the β-phase T1/2 was about 35 mins. ... More modern studies were carried out by Frank and coworkers, who reported that IV administration of 2 mg/kg of hordenine to ...
ORAL ANSWERS. - MANUSCRIPTS COMMISSION". Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas. 1928-10-17. Retrieved 2009-02-14. "Members". ... Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. pp. 288-289. ISBN 0-906980-11-9. "Eoin MacNeill". UCD. Retrieved 2009-02-14. "Dáil ...
The mean half-life of carvedilol following oral administration ranges from 7 to 10 hours. Carvedilol has two enantiomers: R(+)- ... Carvedilol is about 25% to 35% bioavailable following oral administration due to extensive first-pass metabolism. The compound ... Tablet, Oral •Capsule Extended Release 24 Hour, Oral Labetalol, first generation of beta blockers propranolol, second ... "Coreg - Food and Drug Administration" (PDF). U.S. Patent 4503067 "Drug Approval Package". www.accessdata.fda.gov. Retrieved ...
... oral history; museum and historical administration; documentation and information services, corporate biography; and public ...
"Oral History Interview." Interview by Avis Berman. Archives of American Art's U.S. General Services Administration. 14 Oct. ... the General Services Administration, the Urban Waterfront Center, the Korean Cultural Commission, and the Land Forum Design ... and the Eisenhower Memorial Jury with the General Services Administration. Mikyoung Kim Design's work has been published in ...
"U.S. Naval Administration in World War II". HyperWar Foundation. 2011. Retrieved September 29, 2011. Thomas, Charles (March 8, ... Hebert, Mary (1995). "Remembering the Scandals". Oral History Newsletter. 3 (2). Archived from the original on August 4, 2005 ... It is the voice of the LSU student body on matters ranging from university administration to parking and transportation. In ... Around 3,000 LSU students volunteered during the months after Katrina, assisting with the administration of medical treatment ...
"Oral History Interview with Oscar R. Ewing." Oral History Interviews. Truman Presidential Library. May 1, 1969; Reorganization ... Social Security Administration U.S. Dept. of Education U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services U.S. Food and Drug ... "Oral History Interview with Oscar R. Ewing." Oral History Interviews. Truman Presidential Library. May 1, 1969. Reorganization ... Social Security Administration. Accessed Jan. 22, 2007. Blake, Paul V. McNutt: Portrait of a Hoosier Statesman, 1966; Series 4 ...
Intravenous administration can lead to pulmonary edema, circulatory collapse and other complications. Oral. Paraldehyde has a ... rubber and plastic which limits the time it may safely be kept in contact with some syringes or tubing before administration. ...
Food and Drug Administration has listed some of these products among its "187 Fake Cancer 'Cures' Consumers Should Avoid". Oral ... the use of sanguinaria in oral hygiene products is associated with the development of a premalignant oral leukoplakia,which may ... Leukoplakia Archived 2007-01-07 at the Wayback Machine., (pdf format) hosted by the American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial ... Bouquot, Brad W. Neville , Douglas D. Damm, Carl M. Allen, Jerry E. (2002). Oral & maxillofacial pathology (2. ed.). ...
"Harm Reduction Associated with Inhalation and Oral Administration of Cannabis and THC". Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. 1 (3- ... Archives of oral biology. 60 (12): 1750-1755. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2015.09.009. PMID 26433192. [non-primary source needed ...
Ghom (1 December 2005). Textbook of Oral Medicine. p. 885. ISBN 978-81-8061-431-6. "FDA ANDA Generic Drug Approvals". Food and ... Drug Administration. "What are the fuels for radioisotope thermoelectric generators?". qrg.northwestern.edu. Doyle, James (30 ...
Non-compliance with naltrexone therapy is a concern with oral formulations because of its daily dosing, and although the ... p. 4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2012 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: ... Substance Use and Mental Health Services Administration. "Substance Use Disorders". Volkow ND, Koob GF, McLellan AT (January ... Ferri, Marica; Minozzi, Silvia; Bo, Alessandra; Amato, Laura; Ferri, Marica (2013). "Slow-release oral morphine as maintenance ...
... administration of oxygen; administration of oral glucose; emergency childbirth; ventilation using pocket mask and bag/valve/ ... administration of colloid and non-crystalloid volume expanders; administration of the following intravenous, oral, nebulized, ... administration of the following oral, sublingual or inhaled medications; anti-anginal; anti-hypoglycemic agent; analgesic; ... administration of the following intravenous, intra-muscular, subcutaneous, oral, sublingual, inhaled or nebulized medications: ...
Oral or intravenous; dosing varies by purpose and route of administration as well as patient weight. Melphalan Prescribing ... and oral ulceration. Bone marrow suppression, including Decreased white blood cell count causing increased risk of infection ... patients the palliative treatment of MM patients for whom oral therapy is not appropriate Melphalan is currently being used to ...
"Fabric: An oral history". RA.com. 2009-10-09. "Further delay to Jubilee Line upgrade". BBC. London. 2010-08-10. "Fabric ... On 24 June it was announced Fabric was no longer in administration and had been bought by Fabric Life Limited, "a consortium ... "Fabric: Out of Administration". RA. 2010-06-24. "About fabric". fabric london. Retrieved 2017-07-08. "Club (About)". ... In 2010, Fabric briefly went into administration after its sister club Matter, with whom it had a cross-guaranteed loan, ...
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Vaxchora, a single-dose oral vaccine to prevent cholera for travelers. ... "Vaxchora (Cholera vaccine, Live, Oral)" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March ... Oral cholera vaccines were first introduced in the 1990s and oral cholera vaccine is on the World Health Organization's List of ... The oral vaccines are generally of two forms: inactivated and attenuated. Inactivated oral vaccines provide protection in 52 ...
February 1997). "Jack S. Futterman Oral History". Social Security Administration. Retrieved 2012-02-08. Maryland State Roads ... Maryland State Highway Administration. Maryland State Highway Administration (1991). Maryland: Official Highway Map (Map). ... MD 122 serves the headquarters of the Social Security Administration and connects the agency with Interstate 70, I-695, and U.S ... Maryland State Highway Administration. Retrieved 2012-02-07. Baltimore County (PDF) Google (2012-02-07). "Maryland Route 122" ( ...
In the United States, it is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in combination with paritaprevir, ritonavir ... "TECHNIVIE™ (ombitasvir, paritaprevir and ritonavir) Tablets, for Oral Use. Full Prescribing Information" (PDF). AbbVie Inc., ... "FDA approves Technivie for treatment of chronic hepatitis C genotype 4". Food and Drug Administration. July 24, 2015. Jordan J ... "FDA approves Viekira Pak to treat hepatitis C". Food and Drug Administration. December 19, 2014. " ...
Many oral treatments have been studied, but results so far have been mixed. Some consider the use of nonsurgical approaches to ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 6 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013. Pollack, Andrew (December 6, 2013). "Injections ... Mynderse LA, Monga M (October 2002). "Oral therapy for Peyronie's disease". International Journal of Impotence Research. 14 (5 ...
"William Emerson Oral History: Vets on Campus". Florida Goes to War: The Sunshine State in World War II. Florida Humanities ... The Warrington College of Business Administration has named a professorship after him. In 2000, he and his wife donated $3 ... "William Emerson Oral History: Pearl Harbor". Florida Goes to War: The Sunshine State in World War II. Florida Humanities ... "William Emerson Oral History: Okinawa". Florida Goes to War: The Sunshine State in World War II. Florida Humanities Council. ...
... can be administered via oral or I.V. administration, but the problem with oral administration is that one experimental ... Ambazone is an oral antiseptic. Ambazon was patented in 1957 by Bayer under the trade name Iversal, and briefly used in Germany ... It has not been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Ambazone can be obtained in a two step ... doses up to 10-5 mol/kg and oral doses up to 10-3 mol/kg. ...
"Questions for Oral Answers" (PDF). Second House of Representatives Malaysia - Fourth Session - Order Paper. Parlimen Malaysia. ... Roslan (1998). "Case Abstract- 'Hospikrai Can'". National Institute of Public Administration (INTAN), Malaysia. Archived from ...
On oral administration, it produces diarrhea; intestinal bleeding may occur at higher doses. Ethacrynic acid acts by inhibiting ... Last updated February 2005 per FDA site for NDA 016093 injected form and FDA site for NDA 016092 oral form per index here, each ...
Unlike the case of oral administration, transdermal administration of 30 mg/day pregnenolone cream has not been found to affect ... Oral administration of 50 or 100 mg pregnenolone has been found to have minimal or negligible effect on urinary levels of ... In further research by their group, a single 400 mg dose of oral pregnenolone at 3 hours post-administration was found to ... Saudan C, Desmarchelier A, Sottas PE, Mangin P, Saugy M (2005). "Urinary marker of oral pregnenolone administration". Steroids ...
Wagner 2006 Goldberg & Wing 2003, which cites: Weeks, Andrew; Alfirevic, Zarko (2006). "Oral Misoprostol Administration for ... 2006). "Oral misoprostol in preventing postpartum haemorrhage in resource-poor communities: A randomised controlled trial". The ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indinavir on March, 1996, making it the eighth antiretroviral drug approved. It ... This enhances its solubility and oral bioavailability, making it easier for users to intake. It was synthetically produced for ... They sold it to Stadtalnder's Pharmacy and limited quantities to Veteran Administration's hospitals and some managed-care ...
The results of primary and secondary humoral immune responses after oral administration of test formulation in female Sprague ... Evaluation of Immune Biomarkers After Oral Administration of the Novel Herbomineral Formulation Treated with The Trivedi Effect ... Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Parameters in Female Sprague Dawley Rats after Oral Administration of the Biofield Energy ... Evaluation of Immune Biomarkers After Oral Administration of Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation in Male ...
Oral administration is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os (P.O.) is sometimes used ... a b c TheFreeDictionary , oral administration of medication Citing: Mosbys Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009 ... "Oral medications". Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 22 June 2013.. .mw- ... Sublingual administration, dissolved under the tongue, but due to rapid absorption many consider SL a parenteral route ...
Does anyone know what CPT code I would use for the administration of a theraputic drug given orally? It is a melt-away tablet ... Does anyone know what CPT code I would use for the administration of a theraputic drug given orally? It is a melt-away tablet ... Drug Administration and Monitoring. By lao1960 in forum Medical Coding General Discussion ...
... ) and Is injectable or oral ... Is injectable or oral administration of antipsychotic agents more effective for schizophrenia?. Updated: Mar 16, 2018 ... or oral risperidone (n = 43) for 12 months. Study data showed that the LAI formulation of risperidone proved superior to oral ... Long-acting risperidone and oral antipsychotics in unstable schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 3. 364(9):842-51. [Medline]. ...
ACY-7 Oral Administration of Acyline (ACY-7). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Oral Acyline. 20 mg dose of GIPET enhanced oral acyline for 7 days ... Oral Acyline. 20 mg dose of GIPET enhanced oral acyline for 7 days ... Oral testosterone in oil plus dutasteride in men: a pharmacokinetic study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):2610-7. Epub ...
Itraconazole Oral Administration) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Hepatic Impairment. Limited data are available on the use of oral ... See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Hepatic Impairment. Limited data are available on the use of oral ... Concomitant administration of ONMEL and oral midazolam or triazolam is contraindicated. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS ...
Administration, oral Bioavailability Caffeine Drug therapy, combination Paracetamol Pharmacokinetics This is a preview of ... Eandi M, Viano I, Ricci Gamalero S. Absolute bioavailability of paracetamol after oral and rectal administration in healthy ... Bioavailibility of paracetamol after oral administration to healthy volunteers. Influence of caffeine on rate and extent of ...
... Thriving at Work: A Multi-level and Longitudinal Investigation of Changes ... www.concordia.ca/content/shared/en/events/offices/vprgs/sgs/2018/03/12/phd-oral-exam-150-zhe-ni-wang-business-administration. ... This oral exam is open to the public.. Abstract. In the workplace, employees often have multiple tasks that they need to ...
... and hydrates were detected in rat bile after oral administration. The metabolites produced,i, in vitro,/i, by incubation with ... and the first pass effect of the liver appears to be the reason for the low oral bioavailability of the two lactones. ... Metabolism Analysis of Alantolactone and Isoalantolactone in Rats by Oral Administration. Mengyue Wang. ,1 Renjie Xu. ,1 Ying ... Parent compounds and metabolites detected in the bile of rats after oral administration of alantolactone and isoalantolactone. ...
... oral - Answer: Too much medication would be released at once causing undesirable side ... ... Why cant sensipar tablets be broken in half before oral administration?. Asked. 27 Apr 2016 by Ein. Active. 27 Apr 2016. ... How many 250 mg tablets should you give to equal 1 gram of oral antibiotic?. Posted 10 Jan 2017 • 1 answer ...
Continuous Administration of Oral Contraceptive, Primary Dysmenorrhea. Official Title ICMJE Continuous Administration of a ... Continuous Administration of Oral Contraceptive, Primary Dysmenorrhea (Dysmenorrhea). The safety and scientific validity of ... treatment with monophasic oral contraceptive (gestodene 0,075 mg /ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for 168 continuous days through six ... treatment with monophasic oral contraceptive (gestodene 0,075 mg /ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for traditional (21 active days/7 ...
A 4 week oral administration of APCs containing water [0.5% (w/v)] ameliorated glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and ... Oral Administration of Apple Procyanidins Ameliorates Insulin Resistance via Suppression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine ...
... (Received 20 March 1997 ... Title Postmortem Amitriptyline Pharmacokinetics in Pigs after Oral and Intravenous Routes of Administration. Symposium , ... and metabolites in pigs after oral and intravenous administration, and the results are compared with previous studies in rats ...
The oral CCI-779 dosing unit according to claim 13, wherein said dosing unit further comprises a seal coat. 26. The oral CCI- ... The oral CCI-779 dosing unit according to claim 13, wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate. 20. The oral CCI-779 dosing ... in an immediate release dosage form for oral administration. The composition is in the form of a tablet or in filled capsules. ... Daily oral dosages of micronized CCI-779 can be 0.05 to 30 mg, about 1 mg to 25 mg, about 5 mg to about 10 mg. In one example, ...
Olaparib Capsules for Oral Administration) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling ... oral candidiasis, oral discomfort, oral herpes, oral infection, oral mucosal erythema, oral pain, oropharyngeal discomfort, and ... Lynparza tablets for oral administration contain 100 mg or 150 mg of olaparib. Inactive ingredients in the tablet core are ... Following oral administration of olaparib, absorption is rapid with median peak plasma concentrations typically achieved 1.5 ...
Buccal administration of human colostrum: impact on the oral microbiota of premature infants.. Sohn K1, Kalanetra KM2, Mills DA ... Buccal administration of mothers colostrum to VLBW infants influenced the colonization of the oral cavity with differences ... To determine whether the administration of mothers colostrum into the buccal pouch in the first days of life alters the oral ... The oral microbiota changed markedly over the 96 h period in all babies. Patterns of colonization differed between groups with ...
Oral Curcumin Administration to Remit Metabolic Syndrome. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Long-term curcumin administration protects against atherosclerosis via hepatic regulation of lipoprotein cholesterol metabolism ...
of baclofen after oral dosing was calculated as , where was obtained from the previous study [19]. ... After 10 min of the final dose of DW or each herbal medication, baclofen (1 mg/kg) was given by oral administration and plasma ... The absorption process after oral administration of baclofen was described as a first-order rate constant, . The differential ... Plasma baclofen increased rapidly after oral administration, reached its maximum concentration (. ) within 1 hour, and declined ...
Oral administration is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os (P.O.) is sometimes used ... Oral administration is a part of enteral administration, which also includes Buccal, dissolved inside the cheek Sublabial, ... TheFreeDictionary > oral administration of medication Citing: Mosbys Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009. ... "Oral medications". Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 22 June 2013. ...
... response in Wistar albino rats. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of long-term administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight/day) were tested in Wistar ...
... Ophthalmology. 2012 May;119(5):965-71. doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha. ... Purpose: To investigate whether ethanol administration disturbs the tear film and ocular surface. ...
Dramatic inhibition of retinal and choroidal neovascularization by oral administration of a kinase inhibitor.. Seo MS1, Kwak N ... Oral administration of CGP 41251 inhibits the development of choroidal neovascularization. Mice given vehicle alone by gavage ... Dramatic Inhibition of Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization by Oral Administration of a Kinase Inhibitor ... Dramatic Inhibition of Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization by Oral Administration of a Kinase Inhibitor ...
Furosemide Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics After Subcutaneous or Oral Administration (FUROPHARM-HF). The safety and ... Drug: Furosemide injection solution for subcutaneous administration (80 mg) Drug: Oral Furosemide tablets (80 mg) Phase 1 Phase ... Oral Furosemide tablets (80 mg) followed by Furosemide injection solution for subcutaneous administration (80 mg) over 5 hours ... Drug: Furosemide injection solution for subcutaneous administration (80 mg). Drug: Oral Furosemide tablets (80 mg). ...
What is oral administration? Meaning of oral administration as a legal term. What does oral administration mean in law? ... Definition of oral administration in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to oral administration: oral administration of medication, inhalation administration Administration. The performance of ... Oral administration legal definition of oral administration https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/oral+administration ...
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  • Stable, soluble solutions of 2-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-dibenz[b,f][1,xazepine are described, some of which are suitable for oral and others for parenteral administration. (patentgenius.com)
  • No. 3,546,226 specifically discloses2-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-dibenz[b,f][1,xazepine, its nontoxic pharamaceutically acceptable acid addition salts, their parenteral administration and their utility as central nervous system agents. (patentgenius.com)
  • Clinical studies described an increase of insulin sensitivity after acute and short-term (10 d) parenteral administration of ALA. The effects of a 4-week oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid were evaluated in a placebo-controlled, multicenter pilot study to determine see whether oral treatment also improves insulin sensitivity. (chiro.org)
  • Oral Administration of Apple Procyanidins Ameliorates Insulin Resistance via Suppression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Liver of Diabetic ob/ob Mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A 4 week oral administration of APCs containing water [0.5% (w/v)] ameliorated glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic gluconeogenesis in ob/ob mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate complete inhibition of retinal neovascularization in mice with oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy by oral administration of a partially selective kinase inhibitor that blocks several members of the protein kinase C family, along with vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. (nih.gov)
  • Liu, J. Repeated Oral Administration of Oleanolic Acid Produces Cholestatic Liver Injury in Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Fe metabolism inside the mice has been found to be maintained even after administration of mono form of Lf, this indicates novelty of Lf protein. (dovepress.com)
  • Robust and durable messenger RNA (mRNA) silencing was observed in mice for a GalNAc-conjugated siRNA targeting Factor 12 (F12) with a proprietary formulation containing a permeation enhancer and delivered via oral gavage. (businesswire.com)
  • Hello, We do a lot of oral gavage administration to mice in the context of experimental anticancer therapeutics. (protocol-online.org)
  • Effect of oral administration with pravastatin and atorvastatin on airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic reactions in asthmatic mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vivo, an effective inhibition of 72.9% was achieved upon oral administration to S180 carcinoma mice compared to 19.5% by Ap-Ph complex. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Paramylon is a β-1,3-D-glucan isolated from Euglena gracilis Z . This study was designed to evaluate the suppressive effects of the oral administration of paramylon on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) in sensitized NC/Nga mice. (go.jp)
  • These molecules, which have exhibited no evidence of toxicity, have been administered systemically (oral ingestion), and locally to the tumor site in the hamster cheek pouch. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and beta, have been immunohistochemically localized to the site of regressed oral carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE 2 and PGD 2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats. (mdpi.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: ALNY), the leading RNAi therapeutics company, announced today new advances in its RNAi therapeutics platform, including preclinical results demonstrating oral delivery of GalNAc-conjugated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) - the molecules that mediate RNAi - directed to a liver target. (businesswire.com)
  • These new preclinical data are the first demonstration of functional delivery of GalNAc-siRNA conjugates via the oral route of administration, representing an important step forward in potentially advancing and expanding the clinical and commercial potential of RNAi therapeutics. (businesswire.com)
  • Preclinical studies were performed to investigate the potential for oral administration of investigational RNAi therapeutics. (businesswire.com)
  • Given the natural biology of milk exosomes, the Calix technology may be uniquely positioned to permit oral administration of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics and other nucleic acid-based therapeutics such as mRNA," said Dr. Joseph Bolen, Chief Scientific Officer of PureTech Health. (biospace.com)
  • Inspired by the unique attributes of milk exosomes, PureTech Health is harnessing the underlying biology to achieve oral administration of proteins, peptides and nucleic acids therapeutics as well as small molecule drugs that are currently classified as non-orally bioavailable. (biospace.com)
  • In the FHT's opinion, the oral administration of essential oils is a potentially high-risk practice, particularly if the individual recommending or administering essential oils is not medically qualified to diagnose or has a lack of knowledge regarding essential oil pharmacology. (fht.org.uk)
  • A graphical presentation showing mean and individual plasma furosemide concentration-time profiles for comparison between subcutaneous or oral administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For the last 4 wk of a 9-wk period of each diet, a subgroup of each group of animals was treated daily with the oral A-1317 (CTL-A or FFR-A) or with vehicle (CTL-V or FFR-V). Rats were subjected to oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/Kg body weight) concomitantly with the evaluation of plasma insulin levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Moreover, ARA administration significantly increased the plasma levels of ARA, prostaglandin (PG) E 2 , and PGD 2 . (mdpi.com)
  • Plasma samples collected up to 48 hours post-administration were analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. (thepigsite.com)
  • A mean peak plasma concentration (C-max) for IM and PO administration was 3,748ng per ml (range: 2,749-6,004ng per ml) and 946ng per ml (range: 554-1,593ng per ml), respectively. (thepigsite.com)
  • It was confirmed that oral administration of NK (or natto) produced a mild and frequent enhancement of the fibrinolytic activity in the plasma, as indicated by the fibrinolytic parameters, and the production of tissue plasminogen activator. (karger.com)
  • Oral dosing with URB597 achieved significant, albeit transient, drug levels in plasma, inhibited brain FAAH activity, and elevated spinal cord anandamide content. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Maximum TMZ plasma concentrations were achieved between 0.33 to 2 h (mean, 1.2 h), and half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and oral clearance values averaged 1.9 h, 17 liters/m 2 , and 104 ml/min/m 2 , respectively. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Previously, exosomes had not been considered viable as vehicles for oral administration of drugs due to their lack of stability under the harsh physiologic conditions associated with transit through the stomach and small intestine. (biospace.com)
  • The present invention comprises novel oral rapamycin formulations which have, per 100 ml of formulation, from about 0.05 to about 10.0 grams of rapamycin, from about 0.1 to about 25 ml of N,N-dimethylacetamide, from about 0.1 to about 10 ml of surfactant, and from about 65 to about 99.8 ml of PEG 400. (google.com)
  • 0.05) and for (DSPE-PEG-NH2) LNCs after intravenous administration. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The recommendations cover the choice, administration and complications (relative and absolute) of the different oral bowel-cleansing agents, with specific guidance provided for different patient groups. (bsg.org.uk)
  • This document provides an outline of the different available oral bowel-cleansing agents and the complications that may arise. (bmj.com)
  • The majority of these incidents were reported as relating to the administration (56%) and prescription (21%) of the oral bowel-cleansing agents. (bmj.com)
  • An oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0 and 10 weeks. (rsc.org)
  • Oral bowel-cleansing preparations are used before colonic surgery and endoscopic and radiological assessment of the intestine to minimise faecal contamination. (bsg.org.uk)
  • Due to the compound's low solubility in water, it is difficult to formulate in conventional pharmaceutical forms such asparenteral and oral liquid preparations employing, for example, water for injection. (patentgenius.com)
  • However, in February 2009, the UK National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) issued a Rapid Response Report alerting healthcare providers to the potential risk of harm associated with the use of oral bowel-cleansing preparations and reporting one death and 218 patient safety incidents occurring over a 5-year period. (bmj.com)
  • Select patients with g BRCA m advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for Lynparza [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for Lynparza [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ]. (rxlist.com)
  • We included randomised, double- blind , placebo - and/or active-controlled studies using oral sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. (cochrane.org)
  • Sixty-one studies (37,250 participants) compared oral sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. (cochrane.org)
  • Twenty-four healthy volunteers were randomized in a double-blind design to receive either GAA (2.4 grams daily) or placebo (PLA) by oral administration for 6 weeks. (medsci.org)
  • Under social, cultural and religious influences, women have traditionally been prescribed oral contraceptives in a pattern of 21 days of active pills with seven days of inactive pills as a way of mimicking the natural menstrual cycle and provide reassurance of the absence of pregnancy by a withdrawal bleed during the placebo period. (knowcancer.com)
  • The study included 86 patients with a recent first episode of schizophrenia who were randomly assigned to receive LAI risperidone (n = 43) or oral risperidone (n = 43) for 12 months. (medscape.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to evaluate whether long-term administration of l -arginine acting through a normalization of NO/cyclic-guanosine-3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) pathway was able to ameliorate peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity in 12 lean type 2 diabetic patients. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to investigate whether food and gender could influence pharmacokinetic profiles of paeoniflorin after oral administration of Samul-tang. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A US study suggests that intramuscular administration of the pain control medication, flunixin meglumine is more effective that the oral route. (thepigsite.com)
  • In the present study, we examined the role of IL-4 on oral tolerance and in the generation of TGF-beta secreting cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of oral consumption of Aloe Vera gel on growth performance and some blood parameters of rainbow trout. (magiran.com)
  • In this open-label, randomized, crossover study, oral capsules and InteliSite delivery capsules containing LDX (50 mg) with radioactive marker were delivered to the proximal small bowel (PSB), distal SB (DSB), and ascending colon (AC) during separate periods. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Additionally, many physicians have used oral contraceptive pill regimens to treat endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, anovulatory dysfunctional uterine bleeding, acne, hirsutism and anemia. (knowcancer.com)
  • In recent weeks, the FHT has received an increasing number of queries from members, asking what our position is on the oral administration (ingestion) of essential oils. (fht.org.uk)
  • Researchers at Germany's Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Berlin including first-named author, Celine Simoneit, undertook a systematic review to assess the effects of oral administration of antimicrobials on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) from chickens. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • According to the results of a year-long randomized controlled trial, starting a long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic after a first episode of schizophrenia is more effective than starting an oral antipsychotic. (medscape.com)
  • The researchers conclude from their results that PO administration of flunixin meglumine is not the most effective route for mature swine when compared to IV and IM. (thepigsite.com)
  • According to the results, oral consumption of Aloe vera gel can be effective in improving the nutritional performance and reduce the physiological sugar and lipids of blood, and it is recommended during the period of breeding mentioned fish. (magiran.com)
  • Higher IPNV uptake by the oral compared to anal route suggests that both the anterior and posterior intestines are important for the uptake of the virus and that IPNV is resistant to gastric degradation of the Atlantic salmon stomach. (mdpi.com)
  • Chen L, Evensen Ø, Mutoloki S. IPNV Antigen Uptake and Distribution in Atlantic Salmon Following Oral Administration. (mdpi.com)
  • Oral administration of L. brevis significantly inhibited an increase in the level of serum ALT and AST, as well as the content of TG and total cholesterol in the liver caused by ethanol intake. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Oral administration of paramylon inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions as exemplified by a significant decrease in dermatitis scores for the back, ear swelling and hypertrophy of the skin, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin, and serum IgE levels. (go.jp)
  • Oral administration of paramylon reduced serum levels of both IL-4 and IFN-γ and IL-18 and IL-12 contents in the skin lesions. (go.jp)
  • Recently, liposomes composed of phosphaditylcholine, phosphaditylserine, and phosphodityelanolamine were combined with beta carotene and injected locally to oral squamous cell carcinoma of the hamster. (springer.com)
  • This invention relates to formulations containing rapamycin, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts of rapamycin, which are useful in oral administrations for inducing immunosuppression and for treating transplantation rejection, host vs. graft disease, autoimmune diseases, diseases of inflammation, solid tumors, fungal infections, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphomas and hyperproliferative vascular disorders. (google.com)
  • This invention is concerned with stable oral concentrates and parenteral solutions of 2-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)dibenz[b,f][1,xazepine base and its non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts. (patentgenius.com)
  • Acetylcysteine Solution will be available in the coming weeks as a 20% concentration for inhalation or oral administration in 30mL vials. (empr.com)
  • area under the concentration-time curve to the last measurable time point was 719.1 (157.05), 771.2 (152.88), 752.4 (163.38), and 574.3 (220.65) ng · h · ml −1 , respectively, for d -amphetamine after oral, PSB, DSB, and AC delivery of LDX. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Particularly, the administration of exogenous IFN-γ or IL-12 appears to inhibit such IL-4/IL-5-associated allergic asthma responses in patients and allergic animal models ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Buccal administration of human colostrum: impact on the oral microbiota of premature infants. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether the administration of mother's colostrum into the buccal pouch in the first days of life alters the oral microbiota compared with control infants. (nih.gov)
  • Buccal administration of mother's colostrum to VLBW infants influenced the colonization of the oral cavity with differences persisting 48 h after completion of the intervention. (nih.gov)