The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Glucose in blood.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
The consumption of edible substances.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.

The bioavailability, dispostion kinetics and dosage of sulphadimethoxine in dogs. (1/15664)

The disposition kinetics of sulphadimethoxine were studied in six normal beagle dogs after intravenous injection of a single dose (55 mg/kg). The median (range) distribution and elimination half times of the drug were 2.36 (2.06-3.35) hours and 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, respectively. Total body clearance of the drug had a median value of 21.7 ml/kg/h and a mean value of 21.4 ml/kg/h. While the overall tissue to plasma level ratio (k12/k21) of the drug was 0.55 after distribution equilibrium had been attained, analogue computer simulated curves showed that at 24 hours the fractions (percentage) of the dose in the central and tissue compartments were 12 and 11%, respectively. The drug was shown, by equilibrium dialysis method, to be highly bound to plasma proteins (greater than 75%) within the usual therapeutic range (50 to 150 mug/ml) of plasma levels. The systemic availability of sulphadimethoxine from the oral suspension was 32.8% (22.5-80.0). Since the absorption half time, 1.87 (0.86-3.22) hours, was considerably shorter than the half-life, 13.10 (9.71-16.50) hours, of the drug, the rate of absorption would have little influence on the dosage regimen. Based on the experimental data obtained, a satisfactory dosage regimen might consist of a priming dose of 55 mg/kg by the intravenous route and maintenance doses of either 27.5 mg/kg of sulphadimethoxine injection given intravenously or 55 mg/kg of the oral suspension administered at 24 hour intervals. The adequacy and duration of therapy will depend upon the clinical response obtained.  (+info)

Relative efficacy of 32P and 89Sr in palliation in skeletal metastases. (2/15664)

32p and 89Sr have been shown to produce significant pain relief in patients with skeletal metastases from advanced cancer. Clinically significant pancytopenia has not been reported in doses up to 12 mCi (444 MBq) of either radionuclide. To date, no reports comparing the relative efficacy and toxicity of the two radionuclides in comparable patient populations have been available. Although a cure has not been reported, both treatments have achieved substantial pain relief. However, several studies have used semiquantitative measures such as "slight," "fair," "partial" and "dramatic" responses, which lend themselves to subjective bias. This report examines the responses to treatment with 32P or 89Sr by attempting a quantification of pain relief and quality of life using the patients as their own controls and compares toxicity in terms of hematological parameters. METHODS: Thirty-one patients with skeletal metastases were treated for pain relief with either 32P (16 patients) or 89Sr (15 patients). Inclusion criteria were pain from bone scan-positive sites above a subjective score of 5 of 10 despite analgesic therapy with narcotic or non-narcotic medication, limitation of movement related to the performance of routine daily activity and a predicted life expectancy of at least 4 mo. The patients had not had chemotherapy or radiotherapy during the previous 6 wk and had normal serum creatinine, white cell and platelet counts. 32P was given orally as a 12 mCi dose, and 89Sr was given intravenously as a 4 mCi (148 MBq) dose. The patients were monitored for 4 mo. RESULTS: Complete absence of pain was seen in 7 of 16 patients who were given 32P and in 7 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Pain scores fell by at least 50% of the pretreatment score in 14 of 16 patients who were given 32P and 14 of 15 patients who were given 89Sr. Mean duration of pain relief was 9.6 wk with 32P and 10 wk with 89Sr. Analgesic scores fell along with the drop in pain scores. A fall in total white cell, absolute granulocyte and platelet counts occurred in all patients. Subnormal values of white cells and platelets were seen in 5 and 7 patients, respectively, with 32P, and in 0 and 4 patients, respectively, after 89Sr therapy. The decrease in platelet count (but not absolute granulocyte count) was statistically significant when 32P patients were compared with 89Sr patients. However, in no instance did the fall in blood counts require treatment. Absolute granulocyte counts did not fall below 1000 in any patient. There was no significant difference between the two treatments in terms of either efficacy or toxicity. CONCLUSION: No justification has been found in this study for the recommendation of 89Sr over the considerably less expensive oral 32P for the palliation of skeletal pain from metastases of advanced cancer.  (+info)

Segmental colonic transit after oral 67Ga-citrate in healthy subjects and those with chronic idiopathic constipation. (3/15664)

Measurement of segmental colonic transit is important in the assessment of patients with severe constipation. 111In-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) has been established as the tracer of choice for these studies, but it is expensive and not readily available. 67Ga-citrate is an inexpensive tracer and when given orally is not absorbed from the bowel. It was compared with 111In-DTPA in colonic transit studies in nonconstipated control subjects and then in patients with idiopathic constipation. METHODS: Studies were performed after oral administration of 3 MBq (81 microCi) 67Ga-citrate or 4 MBq (108 microCi) 111In-DTPA in solution. Serial abdominal images were performed up to 96 h postinjection, and computer data were generated from geometric mean images of segmental retention of tracer, mean activity profiles and a colonic tracer half-clearance time. RESULTS: There were no differences in segmental retention of either tracer or in mean activity profiles between control subjects and constipated patients. Results in constipated subjects were significantly different from those in controls. The mean half-clearance times of tracer for control subjects were 28.8 h for 67Ga-citrate and 29.9 h for 111In-DTPA in control subjects and 75.0 h for 67Ga-citrate and 70.8 h for 111In-DTPA in constipated patients. CONCLUSION: Oral 67Ga-citrate can be used as a safe alternative to 111In-DTPA for accurate measurement of segmental colonic transit.  (+info)

Marimastat in recurrent colorectal cancer: exploratory evaluation of biological activity by measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen. (4/15664)

Marimastat is a specific inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases that has been shown to be effective in cancer models. A pilot, escalating-dose study of oral marimastat was performed in patients with recurrent colorectal cancer, in whom evaluation of serological response was made by measurement of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. The study assessed the safety and tolerability of 4 weeks administration of marimastat, and determined a dose range producing detectable serological effects. Patients were recruited with a serum CEA level greater than 5 ng ml(-1), and rising by more than 25% over a 4-week screening period. Patients were treated for 28 days and entered into a continuation protocol if a serological response or clinical benefit was observed. Pharmacokinetic and safety data determined that groups of patients were recruited sequentially at 25 mg and 50 mg twice daily, and, thereafter, 10 mg twice daily, 10 mg once daily, 5 mg once daily and 20 mg once daily. A biological effect (BE) was defined as a CEA value on day 28 no greater than on day 0; a partial biological effect (PBE) was defined as a rise in CEA over the 28-day treatment period of less than 25%. Of 70 patients recruited, 63 completed the 28-day treatment period, and 55 were eligible for cancer antigen analysis. Examination of the dose-effect relationships provides evidence for a causal relationship between marimastat and biological effects: the proportion of patients with BE or PBE was higher with twice daily dosing (16 out of 25, 64%) than with once daily dosing (11 out of 30, 37%) (P = 0.043, chi2 test). Furthermore, the median rates of rise of CEA fell markedly during treatment compared with the screening period for patients receiving twice daily marimastat (P<0.0001), but not for patients receiving marimastat once daily (P = 0.25). Musculoskeletal adverse events emerged as the principal drug-related toxicity of marimastat, occurring in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. It was concluded that marimastat was associated with dose-dependent biological effects in cancer patients. The occurrence of musculoskeletal side-effects define 25 mg twice daily as the upper limit of the dose range for continuous use in further studies. Therefore, a dose range of 20 mg once daily to 25 mg twice daily seems appropriate for further studies, which should aim to demonstrate the efficacy of the drug in terms of conventional clinical end points and describe the long-term tolerability of this novel agent.  (+info)

Suppression of atherosclerotic development in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits treated with an oral antiallergic drug, tranilast. (5/15664)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory and immunological responses of vascular cells have been shown to play a significant role in the progression of atheromatous formation. Tranilast [N-(3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl) anthranillic acid] inhibits release of cytokines and chemical mediators from various cells, including macrophages, leading to suppression of inflammatory and immunological responses. This study tested whether tranilast may suppress atheromatous formation in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits. METHODS AND RESULTS: WHHL rabbits (2 months old) were given either 300 mg x kg-1 x d-1 of tranilast (Tranilast, n=12) or vehicle (Control, n=13) PO for 6 months. Tranilast treatment was found to suppress the aortic area covered with plaque. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that there was no difference in the percentage of the RAM11-positive macrophage area and the frequency of CD5-positive cells (T cells) in intimal plaques between Tranilast and Control. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II expression in macrophages and interleukin-2 (IL-2) receptor expression in T cells, as markers of the immunological activation in these cells, was suppressed in atheromatous plaque by tranilast treatment. Flow cytometry analysis of isolated human and rabbit peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that an increase in expression both of MHC class II antigen on monocytes by incubation with interferon-gamma and of IL-2 receptor on T cells by IL-2 was suppressed by the combined incubation with tranilast. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that tranilast suppresses atherosclerotic development partly through direct inhibition of immunological activation of monocytes/macrophages and T cells in the atheromatous plaque.  (+info)

Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-temozolomide following oral administration to patients with advanced cancer. (6/15664)

The purpose of this study is to characterize the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of carbon 14-labeled temozolomide (14C-TMZ) administered p.o. to adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. On day 1 of cycle 1, six patients received a single oral 200-mg dose of 14C-TMZ (70.2 microCi). Whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces were collected from days 1-8 and on day 14 of cycle 1. Total radioactivity was measured in all samples. TMZ, 5-(3-methyltriazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC), and 4-amino-5-imidazole-carboxamide (AIC) concentrations were determined in plasma, and urine and plasma samples were profiled for metabolite/degradation products. Maximum TMZ plasma concentrations were achieved between 0.33 to 2 h (mean, 1.2 h), and half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and oral clearance values averaged 1.9 h, 17 liters/m2, and 104 ml/min/m2, respectively. A first-order absorption, one-compartment linear model, which included first-order formation of MTIC from TMZ and elimination of MTIC via degradation to AIC, and a peripheral distribution compartment for AIC, adequately described the plasma TMZ, MTIC, and AIC concentrations. MTIC systemic clearance was estimated to be 5384 ml/min/m2, and the half-life was calculated to be 2.5 min. Metabolite profiles of plasma at 1 and 4 h after treatment showed that 14C-derived radioactivity was primarily associated with TMZ, and a smaller amount was attributed to AIC. Profiles of urine samples from 0-24 h revealed that 14C-TMZ-derived urinary radioactivity was primarily associated with unchanged drug (5.6%), AIC (12%), or 3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]tetrazine-8-carboxyl ic acid (2.3%). The recovered radioactive dose (39%) was principally eliminated in the urine (38%), and a small amount (0.8%) was excreted in the feces. TMZ exhibits rapid oral absorption and high systemic availability. The primary elimination pathway for TMZ is by pH-dependent degradation to MTIC and further degradation to AIC. Incomplete recovery of radioactivity may be explained by the incorporation of AIC into nucleic acids.  (+info)

Double blind, cluster randomised trial of low dose supplementation with vitamin A or beta carotene on mortality related to pregnancy in Nepal. The NNIPS-2 Study Group. (7/15664)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact on mortality related to pregnancy of supplementing women of reproductive age each week with a recommended dietary allowance of vitamin A, either preformed or as beta carotene. DESIGN: Double blind, cluster randomised, placebo controlled field trial. SETTING: Rural southeast central plains of Nepal (Sarlahi district). SUBJECTS: 44 646 married women, of whom 20 119 became pregnant 22 189 times. INTERVENTION: 270 wards randomised to 3 groups of 90 each for women to receive weekly a single oral supplement of placebo, vitamin A (7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) or beta carotene (42 mg, or 7000 micrograms retinol equivalents) for over 31/2 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause mortality in women during pregnancy up to 12 weeks post partum (pregnancy related mortality) and mortality during pregnancy to 6 weeks postpartum, excluding deaths apparently related to injury (maternal mortality). RESULTS: Mortality related to pregnancy in the placebo, vitamin A, and beta carotene groups was 704, 426, and 361 deaths per 100 000 pregnancies, yielding relative risks (95% confidence intervals) of 0. 60 (0.37 to 0.97) and 0.51 (0.30 to 0.86). This represented reductions of 40% (P<0.04) and 49% (P<0.01) among those who received vitamin A and beta carotene. Combined, vitamin A or beta carotene lowered mortality by 44% (0.56 (0.37 to 0.84), P<0.005) and reduced the maternal mortality ratio from 645 to 385 deaths per 100 000 live births, or by 40% (P<0.02). Differences in cause of death could not be reliably distinguished between supplemented and placebo groups. CONCLUSION: Supplementation of women with either vitamin A or beta carotene at recommended dietary amounts during childbearing years can lower mortality related to pregnancy in rural, undernourished populations of south Asia.  (+info)

In vivo activities of peptidic prodrugs of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl-1 beta-methylcarbapenems. (8/15664)

A series of novel aminomethyl tetrahydrofuranyl (THF)-1 beta-methylcarbapenems which have excellent broad-spectrum antibacterial activities exhibit modest efficacies against acute lethal infections (3.8 mg/kg of body weight against Escherichia coli and 0.9 mg/kg against Staphylococcus aureus) in mice when they are administered orally. In an effort to improve the efficacies of orally administered drugs through enhanced absorption by making use of a peptide-mediated transport system, several different amino acids were added at the aminomethyl THF side chains of the carbapenem molecules. The resulting peptidic prodrugs with L-amino acids demonstrated improved efficacy after oral administration, while the D forms were less active than the parent molecules. After oral administration increased (3 to 10 times) efficacy was exhibited with the alanine-, valine-, isoleucine-, and phenylalanine-substituted prodrugs against acute lethal infections in mice. Median effective doses (ED50s) of < 1 mg/kg against infections caused by S. aureus, E. coli, Enterobacter cloacae, or penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae were obtained after the administration of single oral doses. Several of the peptidic prodrugs were efficacious against Morganella morganii, Serratia marcescens, penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli infections, with ED50s of 1 to 14 mg/kg by oral administration compared with ED50s of 14 to > 32 mg/kg for the parent molecules. In general, the parent molecules demonstrated greater efficacy than the prodrugs against these same infections when the drugs were administered by the subcutaneous route. The parent molecule was detectable in the sera of mice after oral administration of the peptidic prodrugs.  (+info)

Iron bivalent, oral preparations market research report covering industry trends, market share, market growth analysis and projection by MIcroMarketMonitor.com. Iron bivalent, oral preparations market report includes,|Key question answered| What are market estimates and forecasts; which of Iron bivalent, oral preparations markets are doing well and which are not? and |Audience for this report| Iron bivalent, oral preparations companies.
BioAssay record AID 236679 submitted by ChEMBL: Maximum plasma concentration in rat after oral administration at 10 mg/kg dosage.
BioAssay record AID 58769 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was evaluated for duration of action after oral administration at a dose 25 mg/kg to dog..
Spring is a time for renewal but for allergy sufferers its a time for perpetually sneezing rubbing itchy eyes swallowing to relieve the sore feeling in your throat. Red irritated eyes result that go away in three days to a week. Contains Ascorbyl Palmitate an oil soluble highly stable form of vitamin C Marie has been thinking that wearing contacts just isnt worth it. Check out these natural ways to heal pink eye! These really work to heal You might not need to go to the doctor for pink eye.. My head has a dull feeling and my eyes are sore and strained. If any one of these is you it pays to know the warning signs. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is present as evidenced by Progressive ischemia leads to the pre-proliferative stage where cotton wool spots (nerve fie Urgent referral to an ophthalmologist Vitamin K Oral Preparations Contagious After Eye Bacterial Drops Pink is essential in patients with any level of. Wash face with ice cold water; Ice or cold packs; Limit sodium intake. ...
The effects of acute oral administration of lithium (7439932) compounds on multiple schedule performance were studied in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley-rats were administered lithium-chloride (7447418) or lithium-carbonate (554132) orally in doses of 100, 200, or 300 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). Bar pressing performance on a multiple fixed ratio 20/fixed interval 5 minute schedule was measure
But … Reasons Why You Should Eat Soaked Almonds. Too much fructose and fiber in the diet can slow down the digestive system if eaten on an empty stomach. How to drink olive oil on an empty stomach to lose weight and improve health Nutritionists say that you need to eat enough protein, fat and carbohydrates. Green tea is the preferred beverage of choice in the health circles because of its well-studied weight loss effects. Some drinks and foods are really simple and you will be surprised how they work. This tea dramatically improves body heat and metabolism, thus aiding weight loss. So you want to lose weight, huh? 3. Therefore, eating it in the morning on an empty stomach is equivalent to having two tall glasses of water to fill up your stomach. However, since one would feel the urge to eat a meal after an intense exercise, that person could end up eating … … Do you want to clear all the notifications from your inbox? Avoid having sweet juicy fruits like pumpkins, melons, cantaloupe and ...
It was hypothesized in this study that alterations in plasma lipoprotein profile and disturbed gastrointestinal motility as observed in diabetes mellitus may influence the disposition of halofantrine (HF), a highly lipophilic antimalarial drug. Therefore, using a rat model of diabetes mellitus induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate, the effects of the disease on the pharmacokinetics of HF was investigated. Also, the drug binding to normal and diabetic plasma components was determined. Results showed that the mean Cmax values of HF and its major metabolite, desbutylhalofantrine (DHF), were markedly higher (up to 2.5 times) in the control than in diabetic rats (p , 0.05). Also, the early AUC (AUC0 - 12) and rate of drug absorption (Cmax /AUC0-) were markedly reduced by 40 and 58%, respectively, in diabetic compared to control group. However, the Tmax, AUC0-, and elimination T1/2 of HF were comparable between the two groups (p , 0.05). The binding of HF and DHF in diabetic plasma was ...
SierraSil®s composition naturally promotes absorption of the minerals.* When taken with water on an empty stomach, SierraSil® has a pH of about 3.5, which allows the beneficial minerals to be easily ionized and presented to the tissues to simultaneously replenish mineral deficiencies and support metabolic balance.* It is very important to always take SierraSil® on an empty stomach. If taken with food, medications or supplements the clay component of SierraSil® will become bound to food components such as fiber, phytates and phosphates, as well as your medications or supplements and will not be absorbed into the body but will instead pass right through with all the contents intact. If taking SierraSil with food and medications the maximum intended benefits will not be realized because the proper concentrations were not absorbed into the body.. Due to SierraSil®s absorptive and adsorptive properties, SierraSil should be taken at a different time of day, at least 4 hours before or after ...
Drinking Water On An Empty Stomach Treatment For Many Ailments - Drinking water on an empty stomach soon after waking up is a healthy habit for people in Japan and this habit has many health benefits that were shown in several studies, water treatment provides a seriously positive effect against many ailments. The consumption of water first thing in the morning was shown to be
The purpose of the study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of multiple ascending oral doses (MAD) of GLPG0555 given to healthy subjects for 13 days compared to placebo, and to evaluate the relative bioavailability and pharmacokinetics (PK) of two different aqueous suspensions of GLPG0555 administered for 3 days. Finally, it is aimed to characterize PK and pharmacodynamics (PD) of GLPG0555 after multiple oral administrations ...
Background: The oral application of drugs is the most popular route through which the systemic effect can be achieved. Nevertheless, oral administration is limi
The early onset of the mean Cmax for the two major metabolites, penciclovir and M4, and their rate and extent of excretion in the urine indicated that SK1899 was rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and extensively converted to its metabolites following oral administration to the rat and dog at doses up to 2 and 0.68 mmol/kg, respectively. However, the parent compound SK1899 was not detected in either plasma or urine, indicating that substantial first-pass metabolism of SK1899 occurred in both rats and dogs.. Following oral administration of SK1899 to both species, the ratios of the mean Cmax and AUC values for penciclovir to the corresponding values for M4 in plasma and the ratio of penciclovir to M4 concentrations excreted in urine decreased with increasing dose, suggesting that a dose-dependent decrease in the conversion of SK1899 to penciclovir occurred. In the rat, a 10-fold increase in dose from 0.2 to 2 mmol/kg led to a decrease in the ratios of penciclovir to M4 ...
Each type of medication will help lower the blood sugar levels in a different way. Some people with type 2 diabetes may take a combination of diabetes pills and insulin. Your doctor will prescribe the treatment plan that will work best for you and will give you directions as to the times, dosage, and frequency of each type of medication.. Only people with type 2 diabetes use oral medications. They are not helpful for a person with type 1 diabetes whose pancreas has lost most or all ability to produce insulin.. Maintaining a proper diet and a regular exercise program are both important steps in controlling diabetes, even when taking oral medications. Oral medications are designed to work with diet and exercise, not in place of them.. Click here to view ...
Each type of medication will help lower the blood sugar levels in a different way. Some people with type 2 diabetes may take a combination of diabetes pills and insulin. Your doctor will prescribe the treatment plan that will work best for you and will give you directions as to the times, dosage, and frequency of each type of medication.. Only people with type 2 diabetes use oral medications. They are not helpful for a person with type 1 diabetes whose pancreas has lost most or all ability to produce insulin.. Maintaining a proper diet and a regular exercise program are both important steps in controlling diabetes, even when taking oral medications. Oral medications are designed to work with diet and exercise, not in place of them.. Click here to view ...
|b|I was prescribed AKT-4; the pack contains three tablets and one capsule.|/b| I would like to know which medicine needs to be taken empty stomach (one tablet or the capsule). The remaining medicines have to be taken after breakfast, lunch and dinner. I am suffering from tuberculosis and I got pleural fluid in my lungs.
We have seen that the tonus and contractions of the empty stomach are temporarily inhibited by stimulation of nerves in the mouth, in the esophagus, and in the gastric mucosa itself. Can the tonus and...
The biggest benefit of drinking water comes when it is consumed early in the morning, on an empty stomach, before brushing the teeth.
I have had a bad sinus infection now for a few days and I have been taking Tylenol Sinus Severe for it. I just took it a little bit ago on an empty stomach and
Exercising on an empty stomach is likely to bring important health benefits in how the body uses stored fat, according to an important new study.
It is necessary to keep a close eye on the foods to avoid on empty stomach because that is what ends up impacting the overall well being and your health throughout the day. What you eat in a day and the kind of diet you adhere to actually does make quite an impact on the overall well being of your body.
To maintain that kind of physical and social appearance, most of us usually practice regular exercises and workout sessions. Read the article to know the merits and demerits of empty stomach workout.
Because Im one of those people who cant function when Im hungry (I get nausous, weak and grumpy), I always used to make sure I ate a small breakfast before exercising in the morning, but for the last few weeks Ive been running on an empty stomach because Ive heard its more effective for burning fat, and because it means I can get out of bed a little later. The first few times I was surprised to find that I was still able to get through the run and didnt feel nauseous, but I still feel
Exercising on an empty stomach does not help you burn more fat. Our energy sources are stored in a few different places, based on how easy it is to a
Feb 13, 2012. Whitney Houstons Death Xanax and Alcohol, Lethal Duo. Throw in other factors-sleep deprivation, an empty stomach, a cold-and
I was told that its best to run this on an empty stomach as it made it more effective. Is there actually any truth behind this, or does it make no difference if I through it in with a shake or something?
We have conducted a dose-escalation study of the combination of the pan-PI3K inhibitor SAR245408 and the HER3-neutralizing antibody SAR256212. The MTD of SAR256212 was determined to be a loading dose of 40 mg/kg, followed by weekly doses at 20 mg/kg, in combination with daily oral administration of SAR245408 at 200 mg. This was on the basis of grade 3 or 4 maculopapular rash occurring in 33% of patients at the next higher dose. Twelve of 23 patients exhibited stable disease but there were no objective responses.. The toxicities seen in this study are consistent with predictions based upon the known safety profiles of both drugs. EGFR inhibitors cause diarrhea and other gastrointestinal toxicity, likely due to disruption of chloride secretion, intestinal motility, or gut repair and resorption (37, 38). SAR256212 is an intravenous mAb, but apparently mimicked the gastrointestinal side effects seen in patients treated with oral ERBB RTK inhibitors (39-41). Hyperglycemia is an expected class effect ...
Mice, rats, dogs, and monkeys were given a single 50 mg/kg oral dose of [14C]LY256548. Plasma levels of radioactivity and LY256548 were determined, as was the excretion of radioactivity. Peak plasma levels of LY256548 occurred prior to those of radioactivity in mice, dogs, and monkeys, but were coincident in rats. The Cmax of LY256548 in rats, mice, dogs, and monkeys was 0.17, 0.30, 0.04, and 0.02 microgram/ml, respectively. However, the Cmax of radioactivity was 10-fold greater than that of LY256548 in rats and mice, 24-fold greater in dogs, and 40-fold greater in monkeys. The half-lives of LY256548 were substantially less than those of radioactivity in all four species. The oral absorption of LY256548 in rats, dogs, and monkeys was 45%, 7%, and 12%, respectively. The systemic bioavailability of LY256548 in rats, dogs, and monkeys was 6%, 0.4%, and 3%, respectively. Extensive biotransformation of LY256548 was observed in all four species. Fecal excretion of radioactivity was the primary mode of ...
Allergies- Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to medicines in this group or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children- Although there is no specific information comparing use of antimyasthenics in children with use in other age groups, these medicines are not expected to cause different side effects or problems in children than they do in adults. Older adults- Many medicines have not been studied specifically in older people. Therefore, it may not be known whether they work exactly the same way they do in younger adults. Although there is not much information comparing use of antimyasthenics in the elderly with use in other age groups, these medicines are not expected to cause different side effects or problems in older people than they do in younger adults. ...
Evaluate the safety, tolerability, plasma concentrations of PF-03382792 and other biological activity following a single dose of PF-03382792. Three ascending single doses of PF-03382792 were administered in this study (0.05 mg, 0.15mg and 0.5 mg). The decision to terminate the study was made on June 4, 2010 due to safety findings and limitations regarding the levels of the metabolite projected for doses above 0.5 mg ...
Allergies Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to medicines in this group or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully. Children Children are especially sensitive to the effects of insulin before puberty (the time when sexual changes occur). Therefore, low blood sugar may be especially likely to occur. Use in teenagers is similar to use in older age groups. The insulin need may be higher during puberty and lower after puberty. Older adults Use in older adults is similar to use in other age groups. However, sometimes the first signs of low or high blood sugar are missing or not easily seen in older patients. This may increase the chance of low blood sugar during treatment. Also, some older people may have vision problems or other medical problems that make it harder for them ...
Several economic evaluations of regimens including oral preparations such as capecitabine and tegafur-uracil have shown that such regimens are more cost effective than regimens comprising only injectable preparations [15, 30-32].
In the present study, we quantified the relationships of plasma concentrations of PF06463922 to inhibition of ALK phosphorylation and tumor growth inhibition in a crizotinib-resistant ALK-tumor model (i.e., H3122 NSCLC with EML4-ALKL1196M) using a mathematical modeling approach. This is the first report to quantitatively characterize PKPD relationships of a second-generation ALK inhibitor for target modulation (including rebounds) and antitumor efficacy in an ALK-tumor model. Unexpectedly, the rebounds of ALK phosphorylation in vivo were observed at 24-36 hours after repeated oral administration of PF06463922. By that time, the plasma concentrations of PF06463922 declined to less than 5 ng/ml (3 nM free), which was ,10-fold lower than the EC50,in vivo (36 nM free). The observations that ALK responses were partially back to near or above the baseline around 24 hours postdose were consistent in an ALK-tumor model treated with not only PF06463922, but also other in-house ALK inhibitors. Moreover, ...
Jamu Merit Jamu Merit is a traditional oral preparation used to induce weight loss and support a healthier, trimmer figure. It is a combination of herbs that have diuretic and fat-cleansing effects. Jamu Merit reduces flabbiness, while protecting...
This single-dose study is evaluating the pharmacokinetics and immunogenicity of single subcutaneous 100 and 150 mg doses of mavrilimumab in healthy adult
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Oral medications are usually the first treatment options suggested for patients with mild to moderate bladder symptoms and/or pain.
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Mg has been implicated in cramping and it is often added to supplements and drinks. There is no evidence to support this and it is extremely unlikely that anyone would suffer Mg deficits during a race. It is totally unlikely that oral Mg supplements could correct such deficits if they existed. Both calcium and magnesium for contraction and nerve conduction are highly sequestered in separate compartments with tightly controlled levels. Furthermore, there is evidence that fatigued muscle cells actually dump Ca and Mg in the extracellular fluid. Such active mechanisms cannot be counterbalanced by oral ingestion of minerals. In these cases oral intake just adds to the already increased plasma load and puts stress on the kidney ...
Disclaimer: I am gluten, lactose and soy intolerant and while I try my best to avoid these things while eating out, I am sometimes willing to take risks with what I eat. Please ensure that you also do your own research and take your own precautions to make sure that any food served by the places I visit and the food I make is suitable for you. I dont want anyone getting sick because of me. ...
Disclaimer: I am gluten, lactose and soy intolerant and while I try my best to avoid these things while eating out, I am sometimes willing to take risks with what I eat. Please ensure that you also do your own research and take your own precautions to make sure that any food served by the places I visit and the food I make is suitable for you. I dont want anyone getting sick because of me. ...
Today I woke up and felt a little better. I still feel nauseated and my stomach is still VERY sensitive. But, Im not running to the bathroom and that is a great sign! Liquids worked for me yesterday, so that was where I picked up. So, I waited and drank a little and then a…
If you have any concerns about the information below or need any help understanding it and relating it to your own situation, you should talk to your GP or pharmacist.
I am Korean and Indian. So much these days is focused on race. This is something that has never been a problem for me. But, it is something that has caused a lot of confusion, everywhere I go. People look at me like Im a math problem. Jo Koi once said. It is a feeling…
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This study investigated the safety and effectiveness of treatment with once daily oral administration of dexlansoprazole delayed-release capsules in adolescents
Lipid-based oral delivery systems for skin deposition of a potential chemopreventive DIM derivative: characterization and evaluation - Texas A&M University (TAMU) Scholar profile, educations, publications, research, recent courses, and student works
FRUITS SHOULD BE EATEN ON AN EMPTY STOMACH. If you eat fruits on empty stomach, it will play a major role to detoxify your system, supplying you with a great deal of energy for weight loss and other life activities.. FRUIT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT FOOD. Lets say you eat two slices of bread and then a slice of fruit. The slice of fruit is ready to go straight through the stomach into the intestines, but it is prevented from doing so due to the bread taken before the fruit. In the meantime the whole meal of bread & fruit rots and ferments and turns to acid. The minute the fruit comes into contact with the food in the stomach and digestive juices, the entire mass of food begins to spoil. So please eat your fruits on an empty stomach or before your meals !. You have heard people complaining ...
Several oral ivermectin (IVM) formulations for use in sheep are available in the pharmaceutical veterinary market in different countries. All of them are indicated at the same dose rate to treat the gastrointestinal nematodes. However, there is a lack of information on the relative systemic exposure (plasma bioavailability) and clinical efficacy among oral formulations routinely used in sheep. The main goal of the work reported here was to perform a pharmaco-parasitological assessment of three different IVM oral formulations in lambs infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes. The comparative drug systemic exposure (IVM plasma concentrations) and nematodicidal efficacies (clinical efficacy) in lambs were determined for a reference (RF) and two different test (T1, T2) IVM oral formulations. One hundred and fifty six (n= 156) healthy Corriedale lambs, naturally infected with multiple resistant gastrointestinal nematodes were allocated into four experimental groups (n=39). Animals in each
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No biological or any other meaningful alterations in body weight, food consumption, or physical features Ipilimumab were noted. There were no significant dose-related effects in clinical laboratory examinations, and the treatment did not cause gross or microscopic changes in the tissues examined. The occasional presence of neoplasms did not reveal any consistent, dose-related trends in any group. The OECD (2004) derived from this study a NOAEL for chronic oral administration at approximately 2500 mg/kg bw/day. The NOAEL for surface-treated silica in a 6-month. dietary study was at 500 mg/kg bw/day, the only dose tested ( EPA, 2011). The toxic effects of nano- and micron-sized silica particles made from rice husk (and hence biogenic amorphous silica, not SAS) were studied by So et al. (2008). As this study is often discussed in the context of nanosilica in food it is nevertheless included in this review. The silica particles were about 30-90 nm. and 0.5-30 μm in size; their purity given as ...
No biological or any other meaningful alterations in body weight, food consumption, or physical features Ipilimumab were noted. There were no significant dose-related effects in clinical laboratory examinations, and the treatment did not cause gross or microscopic changes in the tissues examined. The occasional presence of neoplasms did not reveal any consistent, dose-related trends in any group. The OECD (2004) derived from this study a NOAEL for chronic oral administration at approximately 2500 mg/kg bw/day. The NOAEL for surface-treated silica in a 6-month. dietary study was at 500 mg/kg bw/day, the only dose tested ( EPA, 2011). The toxic effects of nano- and micron-sized silica particles made from rice husk (and hence biogenic amorphous silica, not SAS) were studied by So et al. (2008). As this study is often discussed in the context of nanosilica in food it is nevertheless included in this review. The silica particles were about 30-90 nm. and 0.5-30 μm in size; their purity given as ...
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Scientists have found that eating garlic on an empty stomach is a very effective way to prevent and treat many diseases. When you eat garlic on an empty stomach you increase its power against harmful bacteria because they are exposed to its direct action.. Garlic prevents aging and clogging the major and peripheral arteries, helping to reduce levels of bad cholesterol, protects against heart diseases, lowers blood pressure and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also reduces the synthesis of triglycerides in the liver, which helps prevent the development of atherosclerosis. Its consumption is recommended against diseases of the nervous system. Garlic aids in killing the cells of malignant tumors of the brain and strengthens the immune system.. ...
dosed preprandially with three meals. Absorption After oral administration, repaglinide is completely absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. After single and multiple oral doses in healthy subjects or in patients, peak plasma drug levels (Cmax) occur within 1 hour (Tmax). Repaglinide is eliminated from the blood stream with a half-life of approximately 1 hour. The mean absolute bioavailability is 56%. When repaglinide was given with food, the mean Tmax was not changed, but the mean Cmax and AUC (area under the time/plasma concentration curve) were decreased 20% and 12.4%, respectively.. Distribution After intravenous (IV) dosing in healthy subjects, the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) was 31 L, and the total body clearance (CL) was 38 L/h. Protein binding and binding to human serum albumin was greater than 98%.. Metabolism and Elimination. Repaglinide is completely metabolized by oxidative biotransformation and direct conjugation with glucuronic acid after either an IV or oral ...
In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study, the safety and effect on intestinal flora of sparfloxacin (SPX) were determined in 12 healthy male volunteers (8 received SPX and 4 received a placebo). Following fasting and oral administration of 400 mg on day 1 and 200 mg on days 2 to 8, concentrations of the free drug in serum, urine, and feces were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography; serum and urine were also evaluated by a microbiological assay. All results, except those for renal excretion, exclude the glucuroconjugate metabolite. A mean peak concentration in serum (400-mg dose) of 0.56 +/- 0.13 mg/liter was measured 3.52 +/- 0.98 h after administration. Pharmacokinetic parameters (measured by high-performance liquid chromatography) were based on an open, one-compartment model and resulted in the following day 1 (calculated for the 200-mg dose), day 4 (recalculated for a single dose), and day 8 values (mean +/- standard deviation): area ...
In a 2- year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, albuterol sulfate caused a significant dose-related increase in the incidence of benign leiomyomas of the mesovarium at dietary doses of 2, 10, and 50 mg/kg (approximately 1/2, 3, and 15 times, respectively, the maximum recommended daily oral dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis, or, 2/5, 2 and 10 times, respectively, the maximum recommended daily oral dose for children on a mg/m2 basis). In another study this effect was blocked by the coadministration of propranolol, a non-selective beta-adrenergic antagonist.. In an 18-month study in CD-1 mice albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses of up to 500 mg/kg, (approximately 65 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose for adults on a mg/m2 basis, or, approximately 50 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose for children on a mg/m2 basis). In a 22-month study in the Golden hamster, albuterol sulfate showed no evidence of tumorigenicity at dietary doses of up to 50 mg/kg, ...
TMZ, an imidazotetrazine derivative, is a new oral alkylating agent that has demonstrated promising antitumor activity in phase I and II trials (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) , particularly in patients with advanced high-grade central nervous system malignancies and melanoma. Mechanistic and preclinical studies predicted a potential clinical advantage of TMZ based, in part, on the nonenzymatic, pH-dependent generation of the cytotoxic intermediate MTIC, which optimally occurs at physiological pH (7, 8, 9) . This clinical study provides evidence that the principal pathway for TMZ elimination is through the formation of MTIC. The observed low interpatient variability in TMZ clearance indicates that generation of MTIC is consistent between patients. These results, combined with the observed high systemic availability after oral administration, indicate that the clinical use of TMZ may lead to a significant therapeutic advantage over i.v. DTIC, which requires metabolic activation via cytochrome P450 ...
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The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the voluntary acceptance of two oral liquid formulations of ciclosporin, investigational Atopica® oral solution (Elanco Animal Health) and Cyclavance® Oral Solution (Virbac), when given orally via syringe or offered freely after mixing with food to dogs. Twenty-five adult mixed breed dogs were selected for this two-phase study. In Phase 1, 12 (Group I) and 13 (Group II) dogs received Atopica® oral solution and Cyclavance® Oral Solution, respectively, daily for 7 days via an oral syringe. After a 3-day washout period, the dosing was switched for a further 7 days. For Phase 2, dosing was by acceptance from freely offered test article mixed in a small amount of food, approximately 6 h after the routine morning feeding. During the first part of this phase, normal daily ration of food offered in the morning was continuously left in the cage. Group I was offered Atopica® oral solution and Group II was offered Cyclavance® Oral Solution mixed with ~
Changes have been made to the ADVERSE REACTIONS sections of the safety label for Nucynta (tapentadol) Immediate-release Oral Tablets
Absorption - Oral absorption appears to be dose dependent. Peak plasma concentrations are reached within 0.75 to 6.0 hours following oral administration. At doses of 30 mg/m2 or less, methotrexate is generally well absorbed with a mean bioavailability of about 60%. The absorption of doses greater than 80 mg/m2 is significantly less, possibly due to a saturation effect.. In leukemic pediatric patients, oral absorption of methotrexate also appears to be dose dependent and has been reported to vary widely (23% to 95%). A twenty fold difference between highest and lowest peak levels (Cmax: 0.11 to 2.3 micromolar after a 20 mg/m2 dose) has been reported. Significant interindividual variability has also been noted in time to peak concentration (Tmax: 0.67 to 4 hrs after a 15 mg/m2 dose) and fraction of dose absorbed. The absorption of doses greater than 40 mg/m2 has been reported to be significantly less than that of lower doses. Food has been shown to delay absorption and reduce peak concentration. ...
Despite all the proven health benefits of wine, never take it on an empty stomach. Besides, you enjoy the taste of the flavor by slowly swirling it through your mouth. The alcoholic drink needs no digestion; instead, its directly absorbed in the bloodstream.. It means it instantly takes effect on the nervous system. Without food, the high absorption rate confuses the brain functions hence the misbehavior. Diet reduces this process by controlling your actions, emotions, and movement once you have your glass. What are the donts while taking wine?. The first warning is our point of focus in this article. The reasons why you shouldnt take wine before meals are. Reduces the rate of uncontrolled actions and behavior. Food reduces the speed at which the wine takes effect on your body. The delay provides ample time to digest as you think through your actions. However, once you engage in a glass without taking a meal, the speed overwhelms the control of the body functions.. It explains the ...
Stress can influence a number of physiological processes including adult neurogenesis, metabolism, cardiovascular function, immune function, neurophysiological function, endocrine function and inflammatory processes following injury. In testing drugs which may be used to treat various diseases or injuries, reducing stress associated with chronic drug delivery to animal models should then be an imperative, which led us to design a reliable voluntary oral drug delivery method. Various drug combinations were tested versus vehicle controls in four different rat stocks or strains (Wistar, Fisher, Long Evans and Sprague Dawley) with our voluntary oral delivery system. Oral medications were placed into a store-bought sugar cookie dough ball (∼4 g), thoroughly integrating the dry drugs with the dough. This method has worked consistently to deliver the medication (complete ingestion) in four different stocks or strains of rats, with reliabilities ranging from 98.6% to 100%. The percentage of rats in each stock
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One of the most common questions that fitness enthusiast often find themselves seeking an answer to is, whether they should exercise before or after taking a meal. Well, according to the findings of a study conducted by the researchers at the University of Bath in UK, exercising on empty stomach is likely to provide better health benefits in the long-term. The study analysed the effects of performing a workout before and after eating, on the adipose tissue within the body to arrive at this conclusion. This is because the adipose tissue plays an important role during exercise by providing a majority of the energy for working skeletal muscle. This essentially means that people who hit the gym or go for a workout first thing in the morning are more likely to enjoy a healthier and fitter life than those who do so after having any meal.
New Delhi: Garlic is popular for its health benefits. The people call it a healing food. If the garlic is consumed on empty stomach in the morning, it will be proving healthy.
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Take nootropics on an empty stomach, Researchers believe that these two showed increased blood levels of an important role in a sleep and memory problems. Vitamin B 12 Cobalamin to mg of Vitamin B 12 daily by mouth or 1 the labs may show B at risk of deficiency, including.
Question - Acidity after eating sweet stuff on empty stomach. Help. Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Omeprazole, Ask a Gastroenterologist
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When you eat garlic on an empty stomach, the bacteria in your body has its guard down and is weaker, making it easier to get rid of.
Studies regarding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of TBBA-DBPE were conducted. Male Fischer-344 rats were dosed with TBBA-DBPE (20mg/kg) by oral gavage or IV administration. Following a single oral administration of TBBA-DBPE, elimination of [14C] equivalents in feces was extensive and rapid (95% by 96 hours). Following repeated daily oral doses for 5 or 10 days, route and rate of elimination was similar to single administration of TBBA-DBPE. After IV administration, fecal excretion of [14C] equivalents was much slower (27% of dose eliminated by 36h, 71% by 96h). Urinary elimination was minimal (,0.1%) following oral and IV administration. A single peak that co-eluted with the standard of TBBA-DBPE was detected in extracts of whole blood following oral or IV administration. TBBA-DBPE elimination from the blood was slow. Kinetic constants following IV dosing were: t1/2b: 24.8h; CLb: 0.1mL/min. Kinetic constants following oral dosing were: t1/2a: 2.5h:13.9h; CLb :4.6mL/min. ...
Cardio on an empty stomach? Cardio on an empty stomach? Everyone should experience and check the results in person. Far from settling the issue, I would like to point out some advantages and mistakes about it. Aerobic exercise on an empty stomach can increase the amount of free fatty acids used as fuel. But, this is …. Cardio on an empty stomach? Read More ». ...
If you think that “scans of sandwiches for education and delight†doesn’t sound like a deliciously good time, then you obviously haven’t been to Scanwiches.. The website itself is run by Jon Chonko, a thehappycorp global designer, and to make the images, he takes sandwiches from the lunch shops around NYC, cuts them in half, scans the results, and then adds the image along with a written description of the ingredients to the Tumblr account.. If youre getting ready to visit the site, I have one warning for you: Don’t visit the site on an empty stomach, because monitors don’t like to be licked.. [Scanwiches]. ...
Covid warriors cant march on empty stomach: Docs protesting for salaries. Resident doctors of three North Delhi Municipal Corporation (NDMC)-run hospitals are currently holding an agitating seeking release of their salaries due for the last three months.
Missed menstrual periods may occur. If you suspect a pregnancy, you should stop taking this medicine immediately and call your doctor. Your doctor will let you know if you should continue taking the progestin.. If you are scheduled for any laboratory tests, tell your health care professional that you are taking a progestin. Progestins can change certain test results.. In some patients, tenderness, swelling, or bleeding of the gums may occur. Brushing and flossing your teeth carefully and regularly and massaging your gums may help prevent this. See your dentist regularly to have your teeth cleaned. Check with your medical doctor or dentist if you have any questions about how to take care of your teeth and gums, or if you notice any tenderness, swelling, or bleeding of your gums.. You will need to use a birth control method while taking progestins for noncontraceptive use if you are fertile and sexually active.. If you are using vaginal progesterone, avoid using other vaginal products for 6 hours ...
Let me preface this by saying I am not a doctor!!, but my understanding is that neither the RAST or SPT (skin prick test) are an exact science. Our sons allergist (Dr. Susan Waserman) has told us that the only true definitive test is eating the food (oral ingestion). So, definitely get all the testing done, and be safe at all times, but I believe the true test is whether you can eat the food without reaction. Our son had tested positive to cottonseed oil (Im actually not sure why he had been tested for this); however, he had ingested cottonseed oil on many occasions, and had never reacted, so she told us this was the definitive test - oral ingestion. Sometimes Ive wondered if our avoidance of eating these foods (those of us not allergic) could lead to an intolerance or allergy to these foods), but so far, weve had no problem. I always have one of my sons Epipens in my purse, so I suppose Im always prepared if anyone has a reaction... maybe you could do the same, in the meantime (until ...
The plasma concentration-time data observed in our study are similar to those observed in two preliminary reports describing the pharmacokinetics of orally administered nafithromycin in healthy subjects (17, 18). The mean ± SD Cmax of nafithromycin after the first dose of 800 mg in our study was 1.015 ± 0.314 mg/liter (at a mean time to Cmax [Tmax] of 3.97 h), whereas the reported range of mean Cmax values after a single dose was 0.932 to 1.207 mg/liter (at mean Tmax ranging from 3.88 to 4.0 h). Our observed value for the AUC from time zero extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) after the first dose (12.89 ± 3.77 mg · h/liter) was consistent with the values observed in subjects who received a single 800-mg dose in the fasted (12.49 mg · h/liter) or fed (14.85 mg · h/liter) state or on the first day (AUC0-24, 11.99 mg · h/liter) of a multiple-dose study. Previously reported data provided evidence that the plasma exposure of nafithromycin was only mildly increased by food (AUC and Cmax were ...
Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking any of these dietary supplements, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.. Using dietary supplements in this class with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with dietary supplements in this class or change some of the other medicines you take.. ...
Repeated oral administration of the test substance in an OECD 407 study to rats provided a NOAEL of 10 mg/kg/day based on local effects observed in the stomach. In the available OECD 421 study, similar effects were observed in the stomach but also noted was fluorosis in the teeth at the high and intermediate doses which led to a NOAEL of 5 mg/kg/day. This indicates metabolism of the substance followed by systemic circulation with fluorine able to lead to fluorosis in the teeth. Based on the relatively low Log Kow values (,4.5), bioaccumulation of the test substance is not expected. Acute oral toxicity of the test substance was observed (LD50 500 mg/kg). No treatment related changes were observed in any of the developmental or reproductive parameters in the OECD 421 study, possibly indicating low adsorption through the placenta to directly affect the foetuses. Pups presented with low bodyweights compared to controls although this is considered a secondary effect of parental toxicity at the ...
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Clinical studies have shown that the absorption of an oral dose of thioguanine in humans is incomplete and variable, averaging approximately 30% of the administered dose (range: 14% to 46%). Following oral administration of 35S-6-thioguanine, total plasma radioactivity reached a maximum at 8 hours and declined slowly thereafter. Parent drug represented only a very small fraction of the total plasma radioactivity at any time, being virtually undetectable throughout the period of measurements.. The oral administration of radiolabeled thioguanine revealed only trace quantities of parent drug in the urine. However, a methylated metabolite, 2-amino-6-methylthiopurine (MTG), appeared very early, rose to a maximum 6 to 8 hours after drug administration, and was still being excreted after 12 to 22 hours. Radiolabeled sulfate appeared somewhat later than MTG but was the principal metabolite after 8 hours. Thiouric acid and some unidentified products were found in the urine in small amounts. Intravenous ...
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Intravenous vs oral administration[edit]. Vancomycin must be given intravenously (IV) for systemic therapy, since it is not ... Following oral administration, the fecal concentration of vancomycin is around 500 µg/ml[28] (sensitive strains of C. difficile ... The only approved indication for oral vancomycin therapy is in the treatment of pseudomembranous colitis, where it must be ... It possesses poor oral bioavailability, so must be given intravenously for most infections. ...
Routes of administration[edit]. Oral[edit]. The most common form of patient-controlled analgesia is self-administration of oral ... For example, if a headache does not resolve with a small dose of an oral analgesic, more may be taken. As pain is a combination ... These are popular for administration of opioids such as fentanyl, or local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Iontocaine is one ... A patient-controlled analgesia infusion pump, configured for epidural administration of fentanyl and bupivacaine for ...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indinavir on March, 1996, making it the eighth antiretroviral drug approved. It ... This enhances its solubility and oral bioavailability, making it easier for users to intake. It was synthetically produced for ... They sold it to Stadtalnder's Pharmacy and limited quantities to Veteran Administration's hospitals and some managed-care ...
"US Food and Drug Administration. 12 July 2013.. *^ a b c d "GIOTRIF® Afatinib (as afatinib dimaleate)" (PDF). TGA eBusiness ... administration. Oral. ATC code. *L01XE13 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription only) ...
... , sold under the brand name Zinnat among others, is a second generation oral cephalosporin antibiotic. ... administration. Oral, IV, IM. Legal status. Legal status. *US: ℞-only Pharmacokinetic data. ...
Peak plasma levels occur 0.3 to 2 hours after oral administration. The bioavailability increases during the first week of ... Acute toxicity: The oral LD50 values in mouse and rat are quite high, indicating a wide therapeutic index. LD50 for mice is 730 ... 1998). "cAMP-dependent phosphorylation system after short and long-term administration of moclobemide". J Psychiatr Res. 32 (2 ... Dingemanse J, Hussain Y, Korn A (April 1996). "Tyramine pharmacodynamics during combined administration of lazabemide and ...
... the US Food and Drug Administration on October 31, 2008 [3] and Health Canada on February 9, 2012.[4] ... administration. Oral. ATC code. *G04BD11 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *In general: ℞ (Prescription only) ...
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"U.S. Food and Drug Administration.. *^ Cohen PA, Wang YH, Maller G, DeSouza R, Khan IA (March 2016). "Pharmaceutical quantities ... Staff (1983). Food and Drug Administration Consumer. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Public Health Service, ... Food and Drug Administration. p. 10.. *^ Lewis RA, Hawley GG (2016). Larrañaga MD, Lewis RJ, Lewis R (eds.). Hawley's Condensed ... administration. Oral. ATC code. *G04BE04 (WHO) QV03AB93 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription only) ...
administration. Oral. ATC code. *N05BB02 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *In general: ℞ (Prescription only) ...
administration. Oral. ATC code. *none. Legal status. Legal status. *In general: uncontrolled ...
Restrictions apply to infant foods.[5][6] In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers it to be ... is absorbed in the small intestine after oral ingestion; its hydrolysis to L-glutamate and ethylamine occur both in the ... "Cystine and theanine: Amino acids as oral immunomodulative nutrients". SpringerPlus. 2: 635. doi:10.1186/2193-1801-2-635. PMC ...
administration. Oral. ATC code. *A03CA02 (WHO) (combination with psycholeptics). Legal status. Legal status. *US: ℞-only ...
Simila S, Keinanen S, Kouvalainen K.Oral antipyretic therapy: evaluation of benorylate, an ester of acetylsalicylic acid and ...
administration. Oral. ATC code. *None. Legal status. Legal status. *In general: ℞ (Prescription only) ...
"Randomized controlled trial of an oral CGRP receptor antagonist, MK-0974, in acute treatment of migraine". Neurology. 70 (16): ... "Efficacy and tolerability of MK-0974 (telcagepant), a new oral antagonist of calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor, ...
... was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on May 20, 1999, and was marketed under the brand names ... Rofecoxib was available on prescription in both tablet-form and as an oral suspension. It was available by injection for ... The results of the VIGOR study were submitted to the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in February 2001. In ... "VIOXX® (rofecoxib tablets and oral suspension) : DESCRIPTION" (PDF). Merck.com. Retrieved 4 January 2015.. ...
In January 2008, the Food and Drug Administration approved its use for patients with established resistance to other drugs, ... administration. Oral. ATC code. *J05AG04 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription only) ...
administration. Oral, intranasal, intravenous. Legal status. Legal status. *CA: Schedule I *DE: Anlage II (Authorized trade ...
Field, SK (May 2008). "Roflumilast: an oral, once-daily selective PDE-4 inhibitor for the management of COPD and asthma". ... "FDA approves new drug to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA ...
Ipecac may delay the administration or reduce the effectiveness of activated charcoal, oral antidotes, and whole bowel ... The use of ipecac may also delay the use of other treatments (e.g., activated charcoal, whole bowel irrigation, or oral ... There is no evidence from clinical studies that ipecac improves the outcome of poisoned patients and its routine administration ... There is insufficient data to support or exclude ipecac administration soon after poison ingestion. ...
Wyeth announced on 23 January 2007 that it received an "approvable" letter from the Food and Drug Administration for ... administration. Oral. ATC code. *N06AX23 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription only) ...
administration. Oral. Legal status. Legal status. *DE: NpSG (Industrial and scientific use only) ...
... the presence of food at the time of drug administration increased Cmax by 77.5%, AUC0-t by 23.5%, and AUC0-∞ by 15.4%.[5] Thus ... and are informed that taking metaxalone with food results in an increase in the oral bioavailability of metaxalone compared to ...
"关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015.. ... "U.S. Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Archived from the original on 2003-01-02.. ... In fact, TFMPP reduces locomotor activity and produces aversive effects in animals rather than self-administration, which may ... administration. Oral. ATC code. *none. Legal status. Legal status
... and obtained Orphan Drug designation from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA)[7] and from the European ...
Kelliher P, Kelly JP, Leonard BE, Sánchez C (April 2003). "Effects of acute and chronic administration of selective monoamine ... administration. Oral. ATC code. *none. Legal status. Legal status. *In general: uncontrolled ...
... is readily absorbed after oral administration. The absolute oral bioavailability was not determined due to the ... Armodafinil exhibits linear time-independent kinetics following single and multiple oral dose administration. Increase in ... higher following administration of 200 mg Nuvigil than the corresponding value of modafinil following administration of 200 mg ... "Search results from the "OB_Rx" table for query on "021875."", Orange Book, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, March 2012, ...
"Pharmacokinetics and relative bioavailability of cyclobarbital calcium in man after oral administration". European Journal of ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved erlotinib for the treatment of locally advanced or metastatic non- ... administration. Oral tablets. ATC code. *L01XE03 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *UK: POM (Prescription only) ...
administration. Medical: Inhalation (nasal). Recreational: Oral, intravenous, insufflation, inhalation, suppository. Legal ... The study did not test the oral administration of levomethamphetamine. As of 2006, there were no studies demonstrating "drug ... "United States Food and Drug Administration. April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2016 ... In a study of psychoactive effects of levomethamphetamine, the intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg (but not 0.25 mg/kg) in ...
Publication of Iranian National Tax Administration) (23).. ... Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. * ...
... becoming oral vowels in the east, or a group formed by an oral vowels plus a nasal in the west; reduction of the sibilant ... being the first language of the local administrations and governments[citation needed]. It is supposedly by law to be taught ... Arquivo do Galego Oral - An archive of records of Galician speakers.. *A Nosa Fala - Sound recordings of the different dialects ... The resolution of hiatus formed by oral vowels had similar developments, most notably those derived from the loss of /l/, which ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. *Ebola: What You Need to Know - Scientific American articles related to Ebola; note ... Rehydration may be via the oral or intravenous route.[135] These measures may include pain management, and treatment for nausea ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.. This article incorporates ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 20 December 2019. Retrieved 22 December 2019.. ...
"U.S. Social Security Administration, Office of Retirement and Disability Policy. 2011. Retrieved October 19, 2012.. ... If a condition requiring treatment is discovered during an oral screening, the state is responsible for paying for this service ... United States Department of Labor/Employee Benefits Security Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 16, ... States may bundle together the administration of Medicaid with other programs such as the Children's Health Insurance Program ( ...
In 2012 Lautoka was announced as the administration capital of the western division... ... "spear hit." According to an oral tradition, the name arose following a duel between two chiefs. As one speared the other, he ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November ... Topical and oral preparations of nicotinamide (the amide form of vitamin B3) are alternative medical treatments.[147] ... Isotretinoin is an oral retinoid that is very effective for severe nodular acne, and moderate acne that is stubborn to other ... Unlike combined birth control pills, it is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for this purpose.[1][ ...
administration. Oral. ATC code. *none. Legal status. Legal status. *US: OTC *UN: Unscheduled ...
... depending on the route of administration. Topically administered corticosteroids in the mouth may take the form of mouthwashes ... Oral swabs are taken if culture is required. Some recommend that swabs be taken from 3 different oral sites. Oral rinse ... Oral candidiasis, also known as oral thrush among other names, is candidiasis that occurs in the mouth. That is, oral ... Special investigations to detect the presence of candida species include oral swabs, oral rinse or oral smears. Smears are ...
Oral carcinoma[edit]. Patients after HSCT are at a higher risk for oral carcinoma. Post-HSCT oral cancer may have more ... Prior to the administration of new cells (engraftment) patients may go for several weeks without appreciable numbers of white ... December 2010). "Oral cancer in patients after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: long-term follow-up suggests an ... aggressive behavior with poorer prognosis, when compared to oral cancer in non-HSCT patients.[39] ...
... for systemic administration is available as an oral tablet, an intramuscular injection, and as a solution for ... According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration pregnancy categories, levothyroxine has been assigned Pregnancy Category A.[ ... For oral tablets, the inability to swallow capsules serves as an additional contraindication.[15] ... Oral dosing for patients with subclinical hypothyroidism is 1 µg/kg/day.[15] ...
December 2004). "Chronic oral Gabapentin reduces elements of central sensitization in human experimental Hyperalgesia". ... Sluka, KA; Chandran, P (November 2002). "Enhanced reduction in hyperalgesia by combined administration of clonidine and TENS". ... "Effects of oral pregabalin and aprepitant on pain and central sensitization in the electrical hyperalgesia model in human ...
... oral administration of doxycycline is widely recommended as the first choice, as it is effective against not only Borrelia ... Intravenous administration of ceftriaxone is recommended as the first choice in these cases;[23] cefotaxime and doxycycline are ... intravenous antibiotics are preferred for retreatment in case of poor response to oral antibiotics.[23][30] Outside of that, a ... LYMErix was approved on the basis of these trials by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on 21 December 1998. ...
Routes of administration, dosage forms. Oral. Digestive. tract (enteral). Solids. *Pill. *Tablet ...
... along with an oral formulation of CX-1739, which is around 3-5x more potent than CX-717 and has better oral bioavailability, ... In 2005 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) accepted Cortex Pharmaceuticals' Investigational New Drug (IND) application ... The relatively poor oral bioavailability and blood-brain barrier penetration of CX-717 ultimately led to Cortex abandoning ... development of the 800 mg oral formulation of CX-717 for ADHD, although research into its action in the brain continues. ...
After receiving responses from the plaintiffs, the Ninth Circuit opted in November 2017 to hear oral arguments before making ... unlike the Obama Administration.[15] The National Association of Manufacturers, one of the fossil fuel groups, said that "as ... The Ninth Circuit scheduled oral argument on the appeal for the week of June 3, 2019 in Portland,[60] and the appeal was ... believing that the Department of Justice under the Trump Administration would vigorously defend the case, ...
In preliminary human studies, oral intake of quercetin in doses up to one gram per day over three months did not cause adverse ... "Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018. ... "Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, US Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 29 November 2018. ... The US Food and Drug Administration has issued warning letters to several manufacturers advertising unauthorized health claims ...
Oral, topical. 1977. 3,650,000. Medroxyprogesterone acetate. Steroidal. Progestin. Provera, Depo-Provera. Oral, IM, SC. 1958. ... whereas systemic administration of antiandrogens is very effective in treating these conditions, topical administration has ... Topical administrationEdit. There has been much interest and effort in the development of topical AR antagonists to treat ... Combined oral contraceptives containing ethinylestradiol have been found to increase circulating SHBG levels by 2- to 4-fold in ...
... who referred to an oral conclusion made by E.V. Shantser and wrote that the large ripple marks in Kuray Basin were results of ... National Aeronautics and Space Administration ; edited by Victor R. Baker and Dag Nummedal. Carling P.A. Morphology, ...
Knight, Henry (1954). Food Administration in India, 1939-47. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-0447-2. ... Replies to the Commission's questionnaire by the Associations concerned with tenants, Bar Associations, etc., and their oral ... large-scale removal or destruction of rural boats caused a near-complete breakdown of the existing transport and administration ... "Tackling hunger, disease and 'internal security': Official medical administration in colonial eastern India during the Second ...
"Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2009-06-14.. *^ Johnson, Craig (April 22, 2009). "Scrutiny in horse deaths falls on ... Oral rehydration therapy. *Polo pony. *Endurance riding. References[edit]. *^ a b "BIODYL" (PDF). M.C.I. Santé Animale. ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. July 8, 2003. Archived from the original on January 15, 2008. Retrieved April 24, 2009.. ... The Associated Press reported erroneously that the Food and Drug Administration had refused to approve the French-made ...
The optimal formulation of zinc lozenges and an ideal frequency of their administration should be examined. Given the evidence ... Analgjezikë të kombinuar oral, antihistaminikë dhe dekongestantë janë përgjithësisht efektiv për fëmijët më të rritur dhe të ... Oral antihistamine-decongestant-analgesic combinations for the common cold,url=https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:272429/ ... Textbook of Oral Medicine,year=2008,publisher=Jaypee Brothers Publishers,isbn=978-81-8061-562-7,page=336,url=https://books. ...
"Shahnameh in the Kurdish and Armenian Oral Tradition" Archived 18 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 7 July 2013. ... the two Kurdish administrations of Erbil and Sulaimaniya were unified. On 14 August 2007, Yazidis were targeted in a series of ... thanks to a unique oral tradition.[260] Other examples are the mythology of the Yezidis,[261] and the stories of the Dersim ... "Changes in the oral tradition among the Jews of Kurdistan". Retrieved 7 July 2013. ...
Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved December 17, 2016.. *^ "Bolinao, Philippines: Average ... According to oral history, the town of Bolinao used to be a small settlement in what is now Barrio Binabalian in Santiago ...
The effects of oral administration of cathinone occur more rapidly than the effects of amphetamine pills; roughly 15 minutes as ... "Import Alert 66-23" (Press release). Food and Drug Administration. 2011-03-18. Retrieved 26 January 2014.. ... Drug Administration) and FDA import Alert #66-23 (published date 03/18/2011) states that "Districts may detain, without ... the material is the holder of both a license to import and a permit to import granted by the Therapeutic Goods Administration ( ...
... and urinary excretion of alpha-lipoic acid following oral administration in healthy volunteers". J Clin Pharmacol. 43 (11): ...
The results of primary and secondary humoral immune responses after oral administration of test formulation in female Sprague ... Evaluation of Immune Biomarkers After Oral Administration of the Novel Herbomineral Formulation Treated with The Trivedi Effect ... Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Parameters in Female Sprague Dawley Rats after Oral Administration of the Biofield Energy ... Evaluation of Immune Biomarkers After Oral Administration of Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation in Male ...
Oral administration is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os (P.O.) is sometimes used ... a b c TheFreeDictionary , oral administration of medication Citing: Mosbys Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009 ... "Oral medications". Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 22 June 2013.. .mw- ... Sublingual administration, dissolved under the tongue, but due to rapid absorption many consider SL a parenteral route ...
Does anyone know what CPT code I would use for the administration of a theraputic drug given orally? It is a melt-away tablet ... Does anyone know what CPT code I would use for the administration of a theraputic drug given orally? It is a melt-away tablet ... Drug Administration and Monitoring. By lao1960 in forum Medical Coding General Discussion ...
Oral arguments shall also be transcribed verbatim. A copy of the transcript of the oral argument taken by a qualified court ... Parties requesting oral argument must demonstrate why oral argument would facilitate resolution of the issues before the ... The Executive Secretary shall advise all parties whether oral argument is to be heard. Within a reasonable time before the oral ... A party who fails to file a brief shall not be heard at the time of oral argument except by permission of the Commission. ...
... ) and Is injectable or oral ... Is injectable or oral administration of antipsychotic agents more effective for schizophrenia?. Updated: Mar 16, 2018 ... or oral risperidone (n = 43) for 12 months. Study data showed that the LAI formulation of risperidone proved superior to oral ... Long-acting risperidone and oral antipsychotics in unstable schizophrenia. N Engl J Med. 2011 Mar 3. 364(9):842-51. [Medline]. ...
ACY-7 Oral Administration of Acyline (ACY-7). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Oral Acyline. 20 mg dose of GIPET enhanced oral acyline for 7 days ... Oral Acyline. 20 mg dose of GIPET enhanced oral acyline for 7 days ... Oral testosterone in oil plus dutasteride in men: a pharmacokinetic study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2005 May;90(5):2610-7. Epub ...
Itraconazole Oral Administration) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Hepatic Impairment. Limited data are available on the use of oral ... See CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Hepatic Impairment. Limited data are available on the use of oral ... Concomitant administration of ONMEL and oral midazolam or triazolam is contraindicated. [See CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS ...
Administration, oral Bioavailability Caffeine Drug therapy, combination Paracetamol Pharmacokinetics This is a preview of ... Eandi M, Viano I, Ricci Gamalero S. Absolute bioavailability of paracetamol after oral and rectal administration in healthy ... Bioavailibility of paracetamol after oral administration to healthy volunteers. Influence of caffeine on rate and extent of ...
Oral administration is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os abbreviated to P.O. is ... Oral administration includes: Buccal, dissolved inside the cheek Sublabial, dissolved under the lip Sublingual administration ( ... ISBN 978-0-203-49024-2. TheFreeDictionary > oral administration of medication Citing: Mosbys Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. ... "Oral medications". Informed Health Online. Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. Retrieved 22 June 2013. Hunnius ...
... Thriving at Work: A Multi-level and Longitudinal Investigation of Changes ... www.concordia.ca/content/shared/en/events/offices/vprgs/sgs/2018/03/12/phd-oral-exam-150-zhe-ni-wang-business-administration. ... This oral exam is open to the public.. Abstract. In the workplace, employees often have multiple tasks that they need to ...
Continuous Administration of Oral Contraceptive, Primary Dysmenorrhea. Official Title ICMJE Continuous Administration of a ... Continuous Administration of Oral Contraceptive, Primary Dysmenorrhea (Dysmenorrhea). The safety and scientific validity of ... treatment with monophasic oral contraceptive (gestodene 0,075 mg /ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for 168 continuous days through six ... treatment with monophasic oral contraceptive (gestodene 0,075 mg /ethinyl estradiol 20 mcg) for traditional (21 active days/7 ...
A 4 week oral administration of APCs containing water [0.5% (w/v)] ameliorated glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and ... Oral Administration of Apple Procyanidins Ameliorates Insulin Resistance via Suppression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine ...
... (Received 20 March 1997 ... Title Postmortem Amitriptyline Pharmacokinetics in Pigs after Oral and Intravenous Routes of Administration. Symposium , ... and metabolites in pigs after oral and intravenous administration, and the results are compared with previous studies in rats ...
The oral CCI-779 dosing unit according to claim 13, wherein said dosing unit further comprises a seal coat. 26. The oral CCI- ... The oral CCI-779 dosing unit according to claim 13, wherein the lubricant is magnesium stearate. 20. The oral CCI-779 dosing ... in an immediate release dosage form for oral administration. The composition is in the form of a tablet or in filled capsules. ... Daily oral dosages of micronized CCI-779 can be 0.05 to 30 mg, about 1 mg to 25 mg, about 5 mg to about 10 mg. In one example, ...
Olaparib Capsules for Oral Administration) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling ... oral candidiasis, oral discomfort, oral herpes, oral infection, oral mucosal erythema, oral pain, oropharyngeal discomfort, and ... Lynparza tablets for oral administration contain 100 mg or 150 mg of olaparib. Inactive ingredients in the tablet core are ... Following oral administration of olaparib, absorption is rapid with median peak plasma concentrations typically achieved 1.5 ...
Vitis viniferae folium Red vine leaf Vitis vinifera L. Published: 2020 Format: PDF, 17 pages Online viewing (for only €30 per year, you can view online all the monographs; free for members of societies belonging to ESCOP) SUMMARY The herbal monograph selects and summarises … [Read more...] about Vitis viniferae folium (Red vine leaf) ...
Buccal administration of human colostrum: impact on the oral microbiota of premature infants.. Sohn K1, Kalanetra KM2, Mills DA ... Buccal administration of mothers colostrum to VLBW infants influenced the colonization of the oral cavity with differences ... To determine whether the administration of mothers colostrum into the buccal pouch in the first days of life alters the oral ... The oral microbiota changed markedly over the 96 h period in all babies. Patterns of colonization differed between groups with ...
... but oral administration of a safe saline spray every six hours might slash exhalation of germs in this group by an average 72 ... Oral administration of saline spray may stop spread of influenza, tuberculosis, and SARS. *Download PDF Copy ... but oral administration of a safe saline spray every six hours might slash exhalation of germs in this group by an average 72 ... "Administration of nebulized saline to individuals with viral or bacterial illnesses could dramatically reduce spread of these ...
of baclofen after oral dosing was calculated as , where was obtained from the previous study [19]. ... After 10 min of the final dose of DW or each herbal medication, baclofen (1 mg/kg) was given by oral administration and plasma ... The absorption process after oral administration of baclofen was described as a first-order rate constant, . The differential ... Plasma baclofen increased rapidly after oral administration, reached its maximum concentration (. ) within 1 hour, and declined ...
Oral administration of doxycycline has been shown to reduce the severity of articular cartilage breakdown in various animal ... Modification by oral doxycycline administration of articular cartilage breakdown in osteoarthritis J Rheumatol Suppl. 1995 Feb; ... Oral administration of doxycycline has been shown to reduce the severity of articular cartilage breakdown in various animal ...
... response in Wistar albino rats. ... MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of long-term administration of aspartame (40 mg/kg body weight/day) were tested in Wistar ...
Dramatic inhibition of retinal and choroidal neovascularization by oral administration of a kinase inhibitor.. Seo MS1, Kwak N ... Oral administration of CGP 41251 inhibits the development of choroidal neovascularization. Mice given vehicle alone by gavage ... Dramatic Inhibition of Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization by Oral Administration of a Kinase Inhibitor ... Dramatic Inhibition of Retinal and Choroidal Neovascularization by Oral Administration of a Kinase Inhibitor ...
Furosemide Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics After Subcutaneous or Oral Administration (FUROPHARM-HF). The safety and ... Drug: Furosemide injection solution for subcutaneous administration (80 mg) Drug: Oral Furosemide tablets (80 mg) Phase 1 Phase ... Oral Furosemide tablets (80 mg) followed by Furosemide injection solution for subcutaneous administration (80 mg) over 5 hours ... Drug: Furosemide injection solution for subcutaneous administration (80 mg). Drug: Oral Furosemide tablets (80 mg). ...
What is oral administration? Meaning of oral administration as a legal term. What does oral administration mean in law? ... Definition of oral administration in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. ... Related to oral administration: oral administration of medication, inhalation administration Administration. The performance of ... Oral administration legal definition of oral administration https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/oral+administration ...
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Moore MC, Cherrington AD, Mann SL, Davis SN: Acute fructose administration decreases the glycemic response to an oral glucose ... Acute Fructose Administration Improves Oral Glucose Tolerance in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. ... Acute Fructose Administration Improves Oral Glucose Tolerance in Adults With Type 2 Diabetes ... OGTT + F, oral glucose tolerance test with addition of fructose. *OGTT - F, oral glucose tolerance test without addition of ...
Higher IPNV uptake by the oral compared to anal route suggests that both the anterior and posterior intestines are important ... One impediment to the successful oral vaccination in fish is the hostile stomach environment that antigens must cross. ... Chen L, Evensen Ø, Mutoloki S. IPNV Antigen Uptake and Distribution in Atlantic Salmon Following Oral Administration. Viruses. ... Chen, L.; Evensen, Ø.; Mutoloki, S. IPNV Antigen Uptake and Distribution in Atlantic Salmon Following Oral Administration. ...
Disposition of 14C-LY3009104 Following Oral Administration in Healthy Human Subjects. The safety and scientific validity of ... Single 10-mg oral dose containing 1... Arm/Group Description: Single 10-mg oral dose containing 100 microcuries of 14C-labeled ... Single 10-mg oral dose containing 1... Arm/Group Description: Single 10-mg oral dose containing 100 microcuries of 14C-labeled ... Single 10-mg oral dose containing 1... Arm/Group Description: Single 10-mg oral dose containing 100 microcuries of 14C-labeled ...
The effects of acute oral administration of lithium (7439932) compounds on multiple schedule performance were studied in rats. ... Effects of acute oral administration of lithium compounds on multiple schedule performance in rats.. ... The effects of acute oral administration of lithium (7439932) compounds on multiple schedule performance were studied in rats. ... The authors conclude that oral administration of lithium- chloride or lithium-carbonate affects operant behavior. Data is ...
  • Eandi M, Viano I, Ricci Gamalero S. Absolute bioavailability of paracetamol after oral and rectal administration in healthy volunteers. (springer.com)
  • These results reveal that the liver is the main metabolic organ for alantolactone and isoalantolactone, and the first pass effect of the liver appears to be the reason for the low oral bioavailability of the two lactones. (hindawi.com)
  • Oral bioavailability was negligible in koalas. (wiley.com)
  • This study demonstrated that koalas exhibited rapid CL and extremely poor oral bioavailability compared with other eutherian species. (wiley.com)
  • Sublingual administration yielded a 20-30% higher bioavailability and a 50% higher C max than compared to the oral route. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sublingual administration seems to have higher bioavailability than oral administration. (frontiersin.org)
  • Milk exosomes represent a significant opportunity to potentially resolve the long-standing challenge of oral bioavailability of macromolecules and complex small molecules. (biospace.com)
  • The pre-clinical research conducted in my laboratory at the University of Louisville and 3P Biotechnologies has demonstrated significant oral bioavailability of milk exosome-delivered therapeutic compounds that are intrinsically not orally bioavailable," said Dr. Gupta. (biospace.com)
  • Bioavailability for PO administration was 22 per cent (range: 11-44 per cent) compared to IM at 76 per cent (range: 54-92 per cent). (thepigsite.com)
  • Pairis-Garcia and co-authors explain that, compared to IM administration, lower bioavailability and C-max of the PO route suggest that the latter route is less likely to be an effective therapy. (thepigsite.com)
  • Mixed micelles were designed to increase oral bioavailability of Apigenin (Ap). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The results present the designed micelles as a new way to improve oral bioavailability of sparingly soluble and poorly absorbed drugs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The present study embarks upon the folic acid (FA) functionalization of chitosan nanoparticles and its implications on stability, oral bioavailability and hypoglycemic activity following oral administration. (rsc.org)
  • Oral administration of FA-Ch-NPs demonstrated 2.13 fold higher cumulative hypoglycemia and 21.8 ± 2.4% relative bioavailability in comparison with subcutaneously administered insulin solution. (rsc.org)
  • 6 Oral administration in doses above 25 mg/day is associated with lower bioavailability due to the saturation of the absorption mechanism. (bmj.com)
  • Food enhanced the absorption, providing close to 100% oral bioavailability and reduced the inter-individual variability. (springer.com)
  • Food- and gender-dependent pharmacokinetics of paeoniflorin after oral administration with Samul-tang in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The 100 and 200mg/kg doses of lithium-carbonate had maximum effects on the day of administration, while the 300mg/kg dose had its maximum effect on the following day. (cdc.gov)
  • Approximately 90 percent knockdown was observed upon administration of three oral doses at 3 mg/kg. (businesswire.com)
  • Intravitreal administration of a conjugated siRNA targeting mouse transthyretin (TTR) demonstrated a dose-dependent and sustained knockdown of TTR, with maximal (greater than 95 percent) suppression achieved at doses as low as 15 micrograms per eye and lasting up to Day 135 post a single injection. (businesswire.com)
  • Animals were given STE by oral gavage with doses of 3.75 (low-dose), 7.50 (mid-dose) and 15.00 (high-dose) mg·nicotine/kg body weight/day for 184 days, followed by 30 days for recovery. (mdpi.com)
  • My question is which solvent is best for the oral doses and why? (protocol-online.org)
  • n = 3), and multiple doses were administered to two groups of koalas via the oral or s.c. routes ( n = 3 for both routes) with a loading dose of 0.2 mg/kg for day 1 followed by 0.1 mg/kg s.i.d for a further 3 days. (wiley.com)
  • Thus in high doses the parenteral administration is mandatory. (bmj.com)
  • In a dose response study, SKI-606 inhibited HT29 xenografts with once daily oral administration at 50 mg/kg, whereas twice daily administration at higher doses was required to inhibit the growth of Colo205 xenografts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • As a result, nine metabolites in vivo including cysteine conjugates, oxidates, dehydrogenates, and hydrates were detected in rat bile after oral administration. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study we have evaluated the postmortem pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline (Ami) and metabolites in pigs after oral and intravenous administration, and the results are compared with previous studies in rats and humans. (astm.org)
  • Comparative pharmacokinetics of chlorpyrifos versus its major metabolites following oral administration in the rat. (cdc.gov)
  • On the other hand, only traces of metabolites, supposedly caffeic and ferulic acids conjugates, were detected in rat plasma for 6 h after chlorogenic acid administration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Identification of flavonoid metabolites after oral administration to rats of a Ginkgo biloba extract. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Oral Administration of Apple Procyanidins Ameliorates Insulin Resistance via Suppression of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Expression in Liver of Diabetic ob/ob Mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • A 4 week oral administration of APCs containing water [0.5% (w/v)] ameliorated glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, and hepatic gluconeogenesis in ob/ob mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • In this study, we demonstrate complete inhibition of retinal neovascularization in mice with oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy by oral administration of a partially selective kinase inhibitor that blocks several members of the protein kinase C family, along with vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. (nih.gov)
  • The analgesic effects of opioids, such as morphine and codeine, in mice are enhanced by oral administration of the cannabinoid delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • AU - Cichewicz,Diana L, AU - McCarthy,Erin A, PY - 2003/2/27/pubmed PY - 2003/4/22/medline PY - 2003/2/27/entrez SP - 1010 EP - 5 JF - The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics JO - J Pharmacol Exp Ther VL - 304 IS - 3 N2 - The analgesic effects of opioids, such as morphine and codeine, in mice are enhanced by oral administration of the cannabinoid delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta(9)-THC). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Liu, J. Repeated Oral Administration of Oleanolic Acid Produces Cholestatic Liver Injury in Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Fe metabolism inside the mice has been found to be maintained even after administration of mono form of Lf, this indicates novelty of Lf protein. (dovepress.com)
  • Robust and durable messenger RNA (mRNA) silencing was observed in mice for a GalNAc-conjugated siRNA targeting Factor 12 (F12) with a proprietary formulation containing a permeation enhancer and delivered via oral gavage. (businesswire.com)
  • Hello, We do a lot of oral gavage administration to mice in the context of experimental anticancer therapeutics. (protocol-online.org)
  • Effect of oral administration with pravastatin and atorvastatin on airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic reactions in asthmatic mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In vivo, an effective inhibition of 72.9% was achieved upon oral administration to S180 carcinoma mice compared to 19.5% by Ap-Ph complex. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Paramylon is a β-1,3-D-glucan isolated from Euglena gracilis Z . This study was designed to evaluate the suppressive effects of the oral administration of paramylon on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions induced by repeated application of 2,4,6-trinitrochlorobenzene (TNCB) in sensitized NC/Nga mice. (go.jp)
  • Stable, soluble solutions of 2-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine are described, some of which are suitable for oral and others for parenteral administration. (patentgenius.com)
  • No. 3,546,226 specifically discloses2-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine, its nontoxic pharamaceutically acceptable acid addition salts, their parenteral administration and their utility as central nervous system agents. (patentgenius.com)
  • Clinical studies described an increase of insulin sensitivity after acute and short-term (10 d) parenteral administration of ALA. The effects of a 4-week oral treatment with alpha-lipoic acid were evaluated in a placebo-controlled, multicenter pilot study to determine see whether oral treatment also improves insulin sensitivity. (chiro.org)
  • Oral administration of paramylon inhibited the development of AD-like skin lesions as exemplified by a significant decrease in dermatitis scores for the back, ear swelling and hypertrophy of the skin, infiltration of inflammatory cells in the skin, and serum IgE levels. (go.jp)
  • In vivo evaluation of paclitaxel-loaded lipid nanocapsules after intravenous and oral administration on resistant tumor. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • 1. The contraction and relaxation responses to the polyoxyethylated vehicles currently used for the intravenous and oral administration of cyclosporin A in allograft recipients were studied in isolated rat aorta. (portlandpress.com)
  • These molecules, which have exhibited no evidence of toxicity, have been administered systemically (oral ingestion), and locally to the tumor site in the hamster cheek pouch. (springer.com)
  • Specifically, the cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and beta, have been immunohistochemically localized to the site of regressed oral carcinoma. (springer.com)
  • These results suggest that long-term ARA administration has an inhibitory effect on the tumor cytotoxicity of NK cells in rat spleen lymphocytes owing to the enhanced synthesis of PGE 2 and PGD 2 from ARA because of the elevated plasma ARA levels in young rats. (mdpi.com)
  • After 10 min of the final dose of DW or each herbal medication, baclofen (1 mg/kg) was given by oral administration and plasma concentrations of baclofen were determined by LC/MS/MS. The plasma baclofen concentration-time profiles were then analyzed by noncompartmental analysis and a population PK model was developed. (hindawi.com)
  • Conclusions and clinical relevance: Twice-daily oral administration of zonisamide to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots resulted in plasma concentrations known to be therapeutic in dogs without evidence of adverse effects on body weight, attitude, and urofeces or clinically relevant changes to hematologic and biochemical variables. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our results show that concentrations of praziquantel and fenbendazole reach their maximum in the body within 24 hours of administration, with concentrations dropping sharply over the following 24 hours. (nel.edu)
  • Following oral administration in fed cats, lotilaner was readily absorbed and peak blood concentrations reached within four hours. (springer.com)
  • Following oral administration to fed dogs, lotilaner displayed a terminal half-life (T 1/2z ) of 30.7 days and maximum blood concentrations were reached within two hours. (springer.com)
  • After a single‐dose oral administration, urinary T concentrations still exceeded the MRPL after 24 hours. (separationsnow.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: ALNY), the leading RNAi therapeutics company, announced today new advances in its RNAi therapeutics platform, including preclinical results demonstrating oral delivery of GalNAc-conjugated small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) - the molecules that mediate RNAi - directed to a liver target. (businesswire.com)
  • Oral delivery could broaden the clinical and commercial opportunities for RNAi therapeutics, which are currently administered with intravenous or subcutaneous dose administration. (businesswire.com)
  • These new preclinical data are the first demonstration of functional delivery of GalNAc-siRNA conjugates via the oral route of administration, representing an important step forward in potentially advancing and expanding the clinical and commercial potential of RNAi therapeutics. (businesswire.com)
  • Preclinical studies were performed to investigate the potential for oral administration of investigational RNAi therapeutics. (businesswire.com)
  • Given the natural biology of milk exosomes, the Calix technology may be uniquely positioned to permit oral administration of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics and other nucleic acid-based therapeutics such as mRNA," said Dr. Joseph Bolen, Chief Scientific Officer of PureTech Health. (biospace.com)
  • Inspired by the unique attributes of milk exosomes, PureTech Health is harnessing the underlying biology to achieve oral administration of proteins, peptides and nucleic acids therapeutics as well as small molecule drugs that are currently classified as non-orally bioavailable. (biospace.com)
  • 0.05) compared to control and the number of dead sperms increased although there was no significant change in the total sperm count after twice daily oral administration of the drug for a period of seven consecutive days[Table 5]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present invention comprises novel oral rapamycin formulations which have, per 100 ml of formulation, from about 0.05 to about 10.0 grams of rapamycin, from about 0.1 to about 25 ml of N,N-dimethylacetamide, from about 0.1 to about 10 ml of surfactant, and from about 65 to about 99.8 ml of PEG 400. (google.com)
  • 0.05) and for (DSPE-PEG-NH2) LNCs after intravenous administration. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • These results, together with the previously reported kinetic data of paeoniflorin after oral administration of Paeoniae Radix extract alone, indicated that absorption of paeoniflorin after oral administration of SGT was significantly greater than that after oral administration of Paeoniae Radix alone. (nii.ac.jp)
  • It may be that because we are unable to regulate and estimate absorption of transdermal medication as well as oral medication some animals will get more than they should from a transdermal form and so will show more side effects. (vetinfo.com)
  • Compound 1 is relatively insoluble which limits absorption after oral dosing. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Despite good absorption, (DSPE-PEG-NH2) LNCs failed to remain efficient after oral route. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • 4, 5 In addition, there is a marked interindividual and a moderate intraindividual variability in the extent of absorption of oral MTX. (bmj.com)
  • No. 3,412,193 discloses the oral administration of2-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-dibenz[b,f][1,4]-oxazepine in propylene glycol for the purpose of testing anti-fertility efficacy. (patentgenius.com)
  • Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) is a natural precursor of creatine, yet the potential use of GAA as a nutritional additive for restoring creatine availability in humans has been limited by unclear efficacy and safety after exogenous GAA administration. (medsci.org)
  • This gave us the opportunity to evaluate the difference in efficacy of parenteral versus oral administration of low dose MTX. (bmj.com)
  • The insulin AUC was decreased 21% with fructose administration ( P = 0.2). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS -Low-dose fructose improves the glycemic response to an oral glucose load in adults with type 2 diabetes, and this effect is not a result of stimulation of insulin secretion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For the last 4 wk of a 9-wk period of each diet, a subgroup of each group of animals was treated daily with the oral A-1317 (CTL-A or FFR-A) or with vehicle (CTL-V or FFR-V). Rats were subjected to oral glucose tolerance test (2 g/Kg body weight) concomitantly with the evaluation of plasma insulin levels. (ahajournals.org)
  • Once a day administration of A-1317 ameliorated all metabolic conditions altered by fructose-feed, including the glucose tolerance with less release of insulin and the decreased in the basal insulinemia. (ahajournals.org)
  • This placebo-controlled explorative study confirms previous observations of an increase of insulin sensitivity in type-2 diabetes after acute and chronic intravenous administration of ALA. The results suggest that oral administration of alpha-lipoic acid can improve insulin sensitivity in patients with type-2 diabetes. (chiro.org)
  • Conclusively, the proposed formulation is expected to be a cost effective and easily scalable approach for oral insulin delivery. (rsc.org)
  • In the FHT's opinion, the oral administration of essential oils is a potentially high-risk practice, particularly if the individual recommending or administering essential oils is not medically qualified to diagnose or has a lack of knowledge regarding essential oil pharmacology. (fht.org.uk)
  • In recent weeks, the FHT has received an increasing number of queries from members, asking what our position is on the oral administration (ingestion) of essential oils. (fht.org.uk)
  • Reported are case histories of three infants with congenital malformations (including defective formation of the nose and hands) associated with ingestion of oral anticoagulants during the first trimester of pregnancy. (ed.gov)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Five adults with type 2 diabetes underwent an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) on two separate occasions, at least 1 week apart. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • An oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) was performed at 0 and 10 weeks. (rsc.org)
  • Furosemide injection solution for subcutaneous administration (80 mg) over 5 hours followed by Oral Furosemide tablets (80 mg) in second period. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Statistical summaries with a graphical presentation will show mean and individual diuresis and natriuresis time profiles such as time to first void, volume of first void, diuresis and natriuresis measured at 60 minute intervals up to 480 minutes following furosemide injection solution for subcutaneous administration or oral tablets. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Visual inspection of injection site, 5-point Draize Scale and Visual Analog pain assessment recorded during subcutaneous administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The knockdown effect was sustained for over 40 days with a durability profile on par with that achieved via subcutaneous administration. (businesswire.com)
  • The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic parameters of a novel furosemide formulation administered subcutaneously as compared to oral furosemide. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The phase I clinical trial is an open label safety and pharmacokinetic study designed to assess the delivery of prGCD after oral administration of Oral GCD in 12 Gaucher patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pharmacokinetic, tissue distribution, and excretion studies were also performed after single-dose oral administration , aiming at understanding the relationships between toxicity potential of LDH nanoparticles and their kinetic behaviors in the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pharmacokinetic parameters for Moxifloxacin hydrochloride following oral administration of Moxifloxacin. (nih.gov)
  • Bioquivalence of generic and branded products is based on two key pharmacokinetic (PK) measures: area under the concentration- time curve (AUC) and maximal concentration (C max ) ( US Food and Drug Administration ). (frontiersin.org)
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was conducted to investigate whether food and gender could influence pharmacokinetic profiles of paeoniflorin after oral administration of Samul-tang. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Plasma samples collected up to 48 hours post-administration were analysed by high pressure liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) followed by non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. (thepigsite.com)
  • Twenty-six adult cats were enrolled in a pharmacokinetic study evaluating either intravenous or oral administration of lotilaner. (springer.com)
  • However, the data about the urinary excretion of T after oral administration is limited. (separationsnow.com)
  • This license, together with additional PureTech Health-generated intellectual property, establishes the company as a leader in the application of milk exosomes for the oral administration of therapeutic molecules. (biospace.com)
  • Building on Dr. Gupta's pioneering work, we plan to advance our industry-leading exosome platform and develop a robust therapeutic pipeline for the oral administration of macromolecules. (biospace.com)
  • To investigate the therapeutic effect of oral statins on airway hyperresponsiveness and allergic reaction. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Oral administration of pravastatin or atorvastatin not only was able to inhibit T(H)1 inflammatory responses but also had therapeutic effects on airway hyperresponsiveness and T(H)2 allergic responses. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Rats were pretreated with distilled water (DW), OY, or AB extract by oral administration every day for 7 days. (hindawi.com)
  • The recommendations cover the choice, administration and complications (relative and absolute) of the different oral bowel-cleansing agents, with specific guidance provided for different patient groups. (bsg.org.uk)
  • This document provides an outline of the different available oral bowel-cleansing agents and the complications that may arise. (bmj.com)
  • The majority of these incidents were reported as relating to the administration (56%) and prescription (21%) of the oral bowel-cleansing agents. (bmj.com)
  • Lynparza tablets for oral administration contain 100 mg or 150 mg of olaparib. (rxlist.com)
  • Zolpidem tartrate tablets are available in 5 mg and 10 mg strength tablets for oral administration. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • Zolpidem tartrate is a non-benzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class and is available in 5 mg and 10 mg strength tablets for oral administration. (prescriptiondrugs.com)
  • However, isobolographic analysis has never been done to confirm a synergy between delta(9)-THC and morphine or codeine via oral routes of administration. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Researchers at Kansas State University and Iowa State University have collaborated to study the pharmacokinetics of the analgesic, flunixin meglumine, administered to mature pigs by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM) and oral (PO) routes. (thepigsite.com)
  • No adverse effects were observed with flunixin meglumine administration for all routes. (thepigsite.com)
  • Does anyone know what CPT code I would use for the administration of a theraputic drug given orally? (aapc.com)
  • "[Ibogaine:] Clinical Observations of Safety after Single Oral Dose Administration" College on Problems of Drug Dependence (CPDD) . (erowid.org)
  • We report here preliminary observations on the safety of single oral dose administration of ibogaine to cocaine and heroin dependent subjects. (erowid.org)
  • We investigate the elimination profile and determine whether single‐dose administration of T would cause a positive doping result. (separationsnow.com)
  • Select patients with g BRCA m advanced epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube or primary peritoneal cancer for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for Lynparza [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Select patients for therapy based on an FDA-approved companion diagnostic for Lynparza [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Effects of acute oral administration of lithium compounds on multiple schedule performance in rats. (cdc.gov)
  • Is it possible to completely inhibit retinal neovascularization using drug treatment with a mode of administration that is feasible to use in patients? (nih.gov)
  • The most frequent side effects were nausea and mild tremor at early time points after drug administration. (erowid.org)
  • Mammalian-derived exosomes have attractive potential as vehicles for the administration of a variety of drug payloads, especially nucleic acids, since their natural composition will likely provide superior tolerability over the variety of synthetic polymers currently in use. (biospace.com)
  • Oral dosing with URB597 achieved significant, albeit transient, drug levels in plasma, inhibited brain FAAH activity, and elevated spinal cord anandamide content. (aspetjournals.org)
  • According to the results of a year-long randomized controlled trial, starting a long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic after a first episode of schizophrenia is more effective than starting an oral antipsychotic. (medscape.com)
  • A growing body of literature, based on mouse studies, indicates that oral administration of probiotic bacteria prior to influenza viral infection results in a protective effect against viral-induced damage. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The researchers conclude from their results that PO administration of flunixin meglumine is not the most effective route for mature swine when compared to IV and IM. (thepigsite.com)
  • The results were compared with those obtained with commercially available cyclosporin A for intravenous administration. (portlandpress.com)
  • According to the results, oral consumption of Aloe vera gel can be effective in improving the nutritional performance and reduce the physiological sugar and lipids of blood, and it is recommended during the period of breeding mentioned fish. (magiran.com)
  • Dramatic inhibition of retinal and choroidal neovascularization by oral administration of a kinase inhibitor. (nih.gov)
  • Oral administration of Ile-thiazolidide resulted in rapid inhibition of circulating DP IV levels by 65% in obese and lean Zucker rats. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Study data showed that the LAI formulation of risperidone proved superior to oral risperidone on measures of relapse and symptom control. (medscape.com)
  • Since oral delivery of GalNAc-conjugate siRNAs was achieved with use of a proprietary formulation containing a permeation enhancer, we believe that this approach can be applied to existing and future pipeline liver-directed programs, potentially creating a relatively near-term opportunity for Alnylam," said Kevin Fitzgerald, Ph.D., Senior Vice President and Chief Scientific Officer of Alnylam. (businesswire.com)
  • Oral administration of URB597 (1-50 mg/kg, once daily) for 4 days produced a dose-dependent reduction in nocifensive responses to thermal and mechanical stimuli, which was prevented by a single i.p. administration of the cannabinoid CB 1 receptor antagonist rimonabant (1 mg/kg). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Researchers at Germany's Federal Institute for Risk Assessment in Berlin including first-named author, Celine Simoneit, undertook a systematic review to assess the effects of oral administration of antimicrobials on the development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) from chickens. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • Numerous investigations have examined the effect of oral fructose, either given alone or as part of a meal, on carbohydrate metabolism in normal and diabetic individuals. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • According to research in rodents [ 8 ] short-term oral administration of GAA increases the serum level of creatine to a similar extent like an equimolar dose of creatine, thus showing an impact on creatine metabolism. (medsci.org)
  • Disposition and metabolism of [2-14C]epichlorohydrin after oral administration to rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • BOSTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )--PureTech Health plc ("PureTech Health" or the "Company", LSE: PRTC), an advanced, clinical-stage biopharmaceutical company, today announced an exclusive licensing agreement with 3P Biotechnologies, Inc., via University of Louisville, for an exosome-based technology (Calix) for the oral administration of biologics, nucleic acids, and complex small molecules. (biospace.com)
  • Furthermore, Buckle (2015) highlights in Clinical Aromatherapy that the Royal College of Nursing (UK) and most State Boards of Nursing in the United States accept all other methods of aromatherapy as part of nursing care, apart from oral use. (fht.org.uk)
  • Among the 20 patients, 14 had clinical resolution of diarrhea after the first administration of capsules (70 percent) and remained symptom free at 8 weeks. (fiercepharma.com)
  • The oral application of GAA is not a new concept and several studies evaluated the metabolic and clinical effects of GAA. (medsci.org)
  • The only observed clinical signs attributable to thalidomide administration were green-colored urine, white-colored fecal residue presumed to be unchanged thalidomide, enlarged and/or blue coloration of female mammary tissue, and prolonged estrus. (ovid.com)
  • Oral bowel-cleansing preparations are used before colonic surgery and endoscopic and radiological assessment of the intestine to minimise faecal contamination. (bsg.org.uk)
  • Due to the compound's low solubility in water, it is difficult to formulate in conventional pharmaceutical forms such asparenteral and oral liquid preparations employing, for example, water for injection. (patentgenius.com)
  • However, in February 2009, the UK National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) issued a Rapid Response Report alerting healthcare providers to the potential risk of harm associated with the use of oral bowel-cleansing preparations and reporting one death and 218 patient safety incidents occurring over a 5-year period. (bmj.com)
  • Higher IPNV uptake by the oral compared to anal route suggests that both the anterior and posterior intestines are important for the uptake of the virus and that IPNV is resistant to gastric degradation of the Atlantic salmon stomach. (mdpi.com)
  • Chen L, Evensen Ø, Mutoloki S. IPNV Antigen Uptake and Distribution in Atlantic Salmon Following Oral Administration. (mdpi.com)
  • Recently, liposomes composed of phosphaditylcholine, phosphaditylserine, and phosphodityelanolamine were combined with beta carotene and injected locally to oral squamous cell carcinoma of the hamster. (springer.com)
  • To investigate whether ethanol administration disturbs the tear film and ocular surface. (nih.gov)
  • This invention relates to formulations containing rapamycin, or pharmaceutically acceptable salts of rapamycin, which are useful in oral administrations for inducing immunosuppression and for treating transplantation rejection, host vs. graft disease, autoimmune diseases, diseases of inflammation, solid tumors, fungal infections, adult T-cell leukemia/lymphomas and hyperproliferative vascular disorders. (google.com)
  • This invention is concerned with stable oral concentrates and parenteral solutions of 2-chloro-11-(4-methyl-1-piperazinyl)dibenz[b,f][1,4]oxazepine base and its non-toxic pharmaceutically acceptable acid addition salts. (patentgenius.com)
  • Particularly, the administration of exogenous IFN-γ or IL-12 appears to inhibit such IL-4/IL-5-associated allergic asthma responses in patients and allergic animal models ( 6 , 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • We analyzed the oral microbiota at initiation and 48 and 96 h later using next-generation sequencing. (nih.gov)
  • It should be noted that jitteriness/anxiety syndrome may develop rapidly after the initiation of oral administration of even low-dose sertraline. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Micelles of TPGS modified apigenin phospholipid complex for oral administration: preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Buccal administration of human colostrum: impact on the oral microbiota of premature infants. (nih.gov)
  • To determine whether the administration of mother's colostrum into the buccal pouch in the first days of life alters the oral microbiota compared with control infants. (nih.gov)
  • Buccal administration of mother's colostrum to VLBW infants influenced the colonization of the oral cavity with differences persisting 48 h after completion of the intervention. (nih.gov)
  • Acetylcysteine Solution will be available in the coming weeks as a 20% concentration for inhalation or oral administration in 30mL vials. (empr.com)
  • Bronchodilating treatment was used as an example to illustrate how sustained duration of effect can be achieved by two different approaches: oral administration of the terbutaline prodrug bambuterol and inhalation of formoterol. (diva-portal.org)
  • The introduction of the first oral JAK inhibitor for RA in China, XELJANZ ® , builds upon Pfizer's legacy as an innovator in inflammation and immunology and provides a new option for physicians and adult patients with moderately to severely active RA who may prefer an oral treatment for this chronic condition," said Mr. Guohong Shan, China Country Lead, Pfizer Innovative Health. (pfizer.com)
  • This effect was better in the vaginal method compared with oral administration (P = 0.03). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The effect of formoterol is reached within a few minutes, but administration must occur via the lungs, often twice daily. (diva-portal.org)
  • Simoneit and colleagues concluded that the limited number of studies for each antimicrobial agent and the high variability in the resistance effect call for more well-designed studies on the impact of oral administration on AMR development and spread. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • However, the milk-derived exosomes that form the basis for the Calix technology have evolved specifically to accomplish the task of oral transport of complex biological molecules. (biospace.com)
  • Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored for 5 hours after administration of a single dose of A-1317-HPβCD in conscious SHR. (ahajournals.org)
  • Oral nasturtium intake resulted in an increased release of PYY over a time period of 6 h whereas circulating levels of other hormones were not changed. (ovid.com)
  • Longer period of oral administration of aspartame on cytokine response in Wistar albino rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Furthermore, the inflammatory cytokine levels were not affected by the administration of ARA or DHA. (mdpi.com)
  • A graphical presentation showing mean and individual plasma furosemide concentration-time profiles for comparison between subcutaneous or oral administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)