Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred ICRLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United StatesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.PiperazinesNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred C3HLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Inbred LewEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Recent advances in ophthalmic drug delivery. (1/59)

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Using fewer animals to identify chemical eye hazards: revised criteria necessary to maintain equivalent hazard classification. (2/59)

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Distribution of propranolol in periocular tissues: a comparison of topical and systemic administration. (3/59)

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The relationship between glaucoma medication adherence, eye drop technique, and visual field defect severity. (4/59)

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Polymeric vectors for ocular gene delivery. (5/59)

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Brimonidine tartrate-eudragit long-acting nanoparticles: formulation, optimization, in vitro and in vivo evaluation. (6/59)

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The effect of dorzolamide 2% on circadian intraocular pressure in cats with primary congenital glaucoma. (7/59)

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Effects of unilateral topical administration of 0.5% tropicamide on anterior segment morphology and intraocular pressure in normal cats and cats with primary congenital glaucoma. (8/59)

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This independent 125 pages report guarantees you will remain better informed than your competition. With over 170 tables and figures examining the Sustained Release Ocular Drug Delivery Systems market, the report gives you a visual, one-stop breakdown of the leading products, submarkets and market leaders market revenue forecasts as well as analysis to 2025.. The report provides a basic overview of the Sustained Release Ocular Drug Delivery Systems industry including definitions, classifications, applications and industry chain structure. And development policies and plans are discussed as well as manufacturing processes and cost structures.. Primary sources are mainly industry experts from core and related industries, and suppliers, manufacturers, distributors, service providers, and organizations related to all segments of the industrys supply chain. The bottom-up approach was used to estimate the Global market size of Sustained Release Ocular Drug Delivery Systems Market based on end-use ...
Various efforts in ocular drug delivery have been made to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs applied topically onto the eye. . The present presentation includes | Basics of drug delivery systems | General aspects for design and development of DDS | General concepts of ocular drug delivery routes | various pros and cons of ocular drug therapy
This chapter aims to provide the readers a comprehensive review of the current trends and approaches used in the development of ocular drug delivery systems. After the introduction to the topic, the c
Hao, J.; Fang, X.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, J.; Guo, F.; Li, F.; Peng, X., 2011: Development and optimization of solid lipid nanoparticle formulation for ophthalmic delivery of chloramphenicol using a Box-Behnken design
Prostaglandin derivatives, parasympathomimetics, β blockers, and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are the major drug classes that are used in the management of glaucoma.4,5 Prostaglandin derivatives, such as latanoprost and bimatoprost, increase the aqueous humor (AH) outflow through the uveoscleral pathway. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how prostaglandin derivatives reduce the IOP. Relaxation of the ciliary muscles, which causes the connective tissue-filled spaces in the trabecular meshwork to widen, is thought to be a factor that is involved in the initial drop in IOP.6 Prostaglandin analogs also induce the release of matrix metalloproteinase enzymes and cause the dissolution of types I and III collagen within the connective tissue-filled spaces.7 This process also leads to an increase in the AH outflow through the trabecular meshwork. Pilocarpine is a direct-acting cholinergic parasympathomimetic agent. It directly stimulates the muscarinic receptors and smooth muscles of the ...
A topical dose of LE-MPP (35 μL) was administered in the right eye of 5- to 6-month-old female Gottingen mini-pigs (Marshall Farms USA, Inc., North Rose, NY) approximately 6 hours apart (± 20 minutes), for 4 consecutive days. On the fifth day, animals were administered only two doses, approximately 6 hours apart (±20 minutes). A total of 18 doses were administered over the study duration. The dose was administered on the top of the cornea via a calibrated positive displacement micropipette and allowed to distribute across the eye. Each animal was restrained for approximately 1 minute to prevent rubbing of the eyes. Any observed irregularities or local irritation were recorded. Three animals/time point were euthanized with sodium pentobarbital and blood was collected via cardiac puncture at 0.5, 1, and 2 hours after the last dose on day 5. Blood (approximately 10 mL) was collected into tubes containing K2EDTA and samples were maintained on wet ice until centrifuged to obtain plasma. All plasma ...
Severe vision loss from vitreoretinal (VR) diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), retinitis pigmentosa (RP), intraocular lymphoma (IOL), uveitis and proliferative retinopathy (PVR ) accounts for most cases of irreversible ocular diseases world-wide. Existing therapeutic procedures for treatment of VR diseases are limited as: 1) systemic drug therapy administered through mouth or injected into the bloodstream, and topical administration such as eye drops, fail to penetrate the physiological barriers; 2) intravitreal injections can lead to uneven drug distribution causing increased toxicity for non-target ocular tissues; and 3) in comparison to lipophilic (not water soluble) drugs, sustained release devices for hydrophilic (water soluble) drugs for treating VR diseases are difficult to fabricate, as these hydrophilic drugs do not bind well with existing FDA approved lipophilic materials. At present, research is being conducted in developing a novel polymer-based biodegradable ...
Authors: Otsuka, Makoto , Nakahigashi, Yoshinori , Matsuda, Yoshihisa , Kokubo, Tadashi , Yoshihara, Satoru , Fujita, Hiroshi , Nakamura, Takashi Article Type: Research Article Abstract: The in vivo and in vitro drug release profiles from a self-setting bioactive CaO-SiO2 -P2 O5 glass bone cement containing indomethacin as a model drug were investigated. The cement containing 2% and 5% indomethacin (IMC) powder hardened within 5 min after mixing with ammonium phosphate buffer. After setting, in vitro drug release from drug-loaded cement pellets in a simulated body fluid (SBF) at pH 7.25 and 37°C continued for two weeks. The hardened cement gradually formed low-crystallinity hydroxyapatite during the drug release test in SBF. An IMC-loaded cement device (2% and 5% drug) was implanted in the subcutaneous tissue …on the back of rats. The in vivo IMC release from the cement increased and attained maximum levels (Cmax of 2% and 5% drug-loaded cements was 0.27 and 3.37 μg/ml, respectively) at Tmax ...
Eye drops are the most acceptable dosage form by ocular route, which as has disadvantage of bioavailability. The anatomical and physiological constrains limited permeability of drug such as drug loss from the ocular surface by lachrymal drainage, blood-ocular barriers. A number of drug delivery system has been developed to improve the bioavailability and to prolong the residence time of drugs on the eye. Such as promising system for ocular drug delivery is a microemulsion. Microemulsions are clear, stable, isotropic mixtures of oil, water and surfactant, frequently in combination with a cosurfactant. This review gives an overview of the potential of microemulsions as delivery vehicles for eye. Both lipophilic and hydrophilic characteristics are present in microemulsions, so that the loaded drugs can diffuse passively as well get significantly partitioned in the variable lipophilic-hydrophilic corneal barrier.
Do all microorganisms look the same? Can they move and change shape? What do they feed on? How small are they . . . and are they actually alive? This activities looks microorganisms under a microscope using the hanging drop technique.
Publications & Citations Citations record http://scholar.google.com/citations?user=f6RQgCAAAAAJ&hl=en Papers Published in Indexed Journals Himanshu Gupta, Sanyog Jain, Rashi Mathur, A.K. Mishra, Pushpa Mishra, T.Velpandian, Sustained ocular drug delivery from a temperature and pH triggered in-situ gel system, Drug Delivery 14(8) 2007, 507-515. Himanshu Gupta, M. Aqil, R.K. Khar, Asgar Ali, Aseem Bhatnagar, Gaurav Mittal, Sanyog Jain. Development…
The Report Ocular Drug Delivery Technology Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2017 - 2025 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. - MarketResearchReports.biz". This report on the Global Ocular Drug Delivery Technology market analyzes the current and future scenario of the global market. Rise in private and public funding for R&D of novel drug delivery technologies, increase in prevalence of macular degeneration & diabetic retinopathy, and favorable regulatory scenario for introduction of innovative technologies are boosting the growth of the Global Ocular Drug Delivery Technology market. Rising demand for targeted drug delivery to the affected ocular tissue, and elimination of drug due to nasolacrimal drainage system when administered via topical route are some of the factors expected to drive the growth of Global Ocular Drug Delivery Technology market during the forecast ...
purpose. To assess the impact of an episcleral exoplant on transscleral delivery.. methods. New Zealand White rabbits were given a periocular injection of sodium fluorescein (fluorescein, 376 Da) or an episcleral exoplant loaded with fluorescein. Two types of exoplants were tested: (1) a rigid polyethylene device, impermeable on one side and open to the sclera on the other, that contained compressed pellets of fluorescein and was sutured loosely (apposition group) or tightly to indent the sclera (indentation group) and (2) flexible refillable silicone exoplants also open to the sclera that were secured by suturing, to form a sealed episcleral chamber that was filled with a fluorescein solution. Ocular and plasma fluorophotometry were performed at several time points, and histology was performed to evaluate the effect of exoplants on the periocular tissue.. results. Within 20 minutes of a periocular injection of fluorescein, peak fluorescence was visible in the anterior chamber (AC) and at later ...
BOSTON - For nearly half a century, contact lenses have been proposed as a means of ocular drug delivery that may someday replace eye drops, but achieving controlled drug release has been a significant challenge. Researchers at Massachusetts Eye and Ear/Harvard Medical School Department of Ophthalmology, Boston Childrens Hospital, and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology are one step closer to an eye drop-free reality with the development of a drug-eluting contact lens designed for prolonged delivery of latanoprost, a common drug used for the treatment of glaucoma, the leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. "In general, eye drops are an inefficient method of drug delivery that has notoriously poor patient adherence. This contact lens design can potentially be used as a treatment for glaucoma and as a platform for other ocular drug delivery applications," said Joseph Ciolino, M.D, Mass. Eye and Ear cornea specialist and lead author of the paper. The contacts were designed with ...
Development of newer drug carrier systems by the researchers has resulted in numerous breakthroughs in the development and manufacturing of ocular products. The ocular bioavailability of drugs at the posterior segment of the eye is a challenging task in the present scenario. Naturally derived macromolecular carriers are widely used to increase the efficacy of ocular drugs. They provide enhanced corneal permeability and retention effect at the surface of cornea for a prolonged period of time. In this regimen the present review focuses towards the major ocular diseases and their prevalence and development of efficient drug carrier systems utilizing various naturally derived macromolecules for improved delivery of drugs to treat ocular diseases ...
The objective of the present study was to prepare controlled release formulation of Moxifloxacin hydrochloride ocular nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were prepared by solvent displacement method using Eudragit RL 100 as a polymer. Different formulations were prepared by varying the ratios of drug and polymer and varying the ratios of organic and aqueous phase. The formulations were evaluated in terms of particle size, FTIR, drug entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release profile was examined. The anti bacterial activity against gram positive and gram negative bacteria were determined. In vivo studies were carried out by Draize test. The mean particle size for drug loaded formulations was found to be below 200 nm. The zeta potential remained in the range of positive values for all batches +10 mV to +40mV. The formulation possesses good antibiotic activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilus and Staphylococcus aureus microorganism and no eye irritation on in-vivo testing.
Objectives Flavonoids are a common group of plant polyphenols that give colour and flavour to fruits and vegetables. In recent years, flavonoids have gained importance in the pharmaceutical field through their beneficial effects on human health and are widely available as nutritional supplements. Several pharmacological actions of the bioflavonoids may be useful in the prevention or treatment of ocular diseases responsible for vision loss such as diabetic retinopathy, macular degeneration and cataract. This review aims to summarize the potential therapeutic applications of various bioflavonoids in different ocular diseases and also discusses delivery of these agents to the ocular tissues.. Key findings It is apparent that the flavonoids are capable of acting on various mechanisms or aetiological factors responsible for the development of different sight threatening ocular diseases. From a drug delivery perspective, ocular bioavailability depends on the physicochemical and biopharmaceutical ...
A sympathomimetic with alpha-adrenergic activity. It has a vasoconstrictor effect that reduces mucosal swelling and congestion. Topical nasal use (single dose) or ophthalmological (2-4 times a day). Since the last update we have not found published data in relation to breastfeeding. The small dose and the low plasma absorption of most topical nasal or ophthalmological preparations make transfer into breastmilk in significant amounts unlikely. Do not exceed the recommended dose and time periods in order to avoid undesirable side effects and the possible decrease in milk cited by some authors (Nice 2000) for other similar drugs, although not proven in practice. It is a product which has very little literature and almost none related to pharmacokinetics. As a nasal decongestant, it is discouraged by some authors (Nice 2000), with better known drugs from the same group being preferred (Anderson 2000). Ophthalmic administration is fully compatible with breastfeeding. Absorption can be
A sympathomimetic with alpha-adrenergic activity. It has a vasoconstrictor effect that reduces mucosal swelling and congestion. Topical nasal use (single dose) or ophthalmological (2-4 times a day). Since the last update we have not found published data in relation to breastfeeding. The small dose and the low plasma absorption of most topical nasal or ophthalmological preparations make transfer into breastmilk in significant amounts unlikely. Do not exceed the recommended dose and time periods in order to avoid undesirable side effects and the possible decrease in milk cited by some authors (Nice 2000) for other similar drugs, although not proven in practice. It is a product which has very little literature and almost none related to pharmacokinetics. As a nasal decongestant, it is discouraged by some authors (Nice 2000), with better known drugs from the same group being preferred (Anderson 2000). Ophthalmic administration is fully compatible with breastfeeding. Absorption can be
The stacking of discotic molecules (hexakis(alkoxy)diquinoxalino[2,3-a:2,3-c]phenazines) in the columnar phase sandwiched between two flat glass substrates has been studied. The surface free energy of the substrates, measured by means of sessile drop technique, is found to have significant influence on the way that the discotic molecules anchor on the surface, and a steady thermal state of the system is crucial for a homogenous orientation of the discotic columns. On a surface of high free energy, the discotic molecules anchor with their disc-face toward the surface. A decrease in the surface free energy of the substrate causes the discotic columns to tilt away from the normal of the substrate.
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This is an open-label study in patients who are currently using either a topical prostaglandin as sole ocular hypotensive medical therapy q.d., or a topical prostaglandin plus an adjunctive topical ocular hypotensive marketed product either q.d., or b.i.d. in the same eye(s). Compliance will be measured over the two months of participation ...
Ohr Pharmaceutical, Inc. is a pharmaceutical company focused on the development of therapeutics and delivery technologies for the treatment of ocular disease. The Companys development pipeline consists of several programs and indications at various stages of development. Its product pipeline includes Squalamine Lactate Ophthalmic Solution 0.2% (Squalamine, also known as OHR-102), SKS Sustained Release Ocular Drug Delivery Platform Technology, Animal Model for Dry- Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Non-Ophthalmology Assets. OHR-102 is a therapeutic product that provides a non-invasive therapy to improve vision outcomes. The SKS sustained release technology is designed to develop drug formulations for ocular disease. In the Companys animal model for dry-AMD, mice are immunized with a carboxyethylpyrrole, which is bound to mouse serum albumin. It also owns various other compounds in earlier stages of development, including the PTP1b inhibitor Trodusquemine and related analogs.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Comparison of the Uptake and Retention of Carcinogen by Breast and Fat (after Feeding) and Skin (after Topical Administration). by Fred G. Bock
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Title:Betaxolol Hydrochloride Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery and their Anti-glaucoma Efficacy. VOLUME: 10 ISSUE: 5. Author(s):Kunal Jain, R. Suresh Kumar, Sumeet Sood and G. Dhyanandhan. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutics, J.S.S College of Pharmacy, Udhagamandalam, India.. Keywords:Betaxolol, glaucoma, chitosan, nanoparticles, ocular delivery.. Abstract:Many effective anti-glaucoma drugs available for the treatment of ocular hypertension and open angle glaucoma are associated with rapid and extensive precorneal loss caused by the drainage and high tear fluid turnover. The present study involved design of mucoadhesive nanoparticulate carrier system containing betaxolol hydrochloride for ocular delivery to improve its corneal permeability and precorneal residence time. Nanoparticles were prepared by spontaneous emulsification method and had a particle size of 168-260nm with zeta potential of 25.2-26.4 mV. The in vitro release studies in simulated tear fluid exhibited ...
Some of the key players operating in the global Ophthalmic Drugs Market are ALLERGAN, Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Pfizer Inc., Valeant Pharmaceuticals International, Inc., Bayer AG, Genentech, Inc., Novartis AG , Regeneron Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Shire, and Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. Novartis, of them, is a leading player, which held a share of 12% in the market in 2012.. Noticeable trends in the global ophthalmic drugs market are keen players entering into co-development agreements to formulate novel biological agents having lesser treatment durations, emerging market players focusing on unmet medical needs in ophthalmology, and generic manufacturers bolstering their distribution networks of affordable drugs in rural areas of developing regions, having maximum visually challenged people.. As per a report by Transparency Market Research, the global ophthalmic drugs market will likely attain a value of US$34.3 bn by 2025 from US$24.4 bn in 2016 by registering a tepid CAGR of 4.0% from 2017 ...
Non-aqueous oil delivery system for ophthalmic drugs - The present invention relates to a delivery system for ophthalmic drugs, and more particularly, to a non aqueous oil delivery system. Low concentrations of ophthalmic drugs suspended in an oil vehicle delivery system are as therapeutically effective in man and animals as the corresponding higher concentrations of ophthalmic drugs that are commercially used in aqueous solutions. Eye drops that utilize this nonaqueous oil delivery system, when used in man, are comfortable to use and produce little ocular irritation, have a longer shelf-life, low systemic toxic potential, and only short term blurring of vision. Using this nonaqueous oil delivery system, a single drop of ophthalmic drug with a concentration that is 10 times less than the same drug used in commercially available aqueous eye drops is as effective as the commercially available aqueous ophthalmic eye drops that require many applications to be effective. In addition, utilizing the ...
The global ophthalmic drugs market size was valued at USD 31.0 billion in 2019 and is expected to expand at a CAGR of 5.0% from 2019 to 2027. Rising prevalence of eye diseases and disorders along with presence of robust pipeline of molecules are some of the key factors driving the growth
Research Report on Asia-Pacific Ophthalmic Drugs Market Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Research Report on Global Ophthalmic Drugs Sales Market Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Study Flashcards On Module 5/Pharmacology and Disease/Section 9/Pharmacology/Ophthalmic Drugs at Cram.com. Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. Cram.com makes it easy to get the grade you want!
Ophthalmic Drugs Market will likely attain a value of US$34.3 bn by 2025 from US$24.4 bn in 2016 by registering a tepid CAGR of 4.0% from 2017 to 2025.
This is the business view business. Photokeratitis or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition, caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the ultraviolet (UV) rays from either natural or artificial sources. Photokeratitis is akin to a sunburn of the cornea and conjuncti...
Binary methanol/water mixture bubble point tests involving three samples of fine-mesh, stainless steel screens as porous liquid acquisition devices are presented in this article. Contact angles are measured as a function of methanol mass fraction using the Sessile Drop technique. Pretest predictions are based on a Langmuir isotherm fit. Predictions and data match for methanol mole fractions greater than 50% when pore diameters are based on pure liquid tests. For all three screens, bubble point is shown to be a maximum at a methanol mole fraction of 50%. Model and data are in disagreement for mole fractions less than 50%, which is attributed to variations between surface and bulk fluid properties. A critical Zisman surface tension value of 23.2 mN/m is estimated, below which contact angles can be assumed to be zero. Solid/vapor and solid/liquid interfacial tensions are also estimated using the equation of state analysis from Neumann and Good. Published 2013 American Institute of Chemical ...
Brinzolamide reduces the amount of fluid in the eye, which decreases pressure inside the eye. Brinzolamide ophthalmic (for the eyes) is used to treat certain types of glaucoma and other causes of high pressure inside the eye. Brinzolamide ophthalmic may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.
This is especially important for a chronic condition such as glaucoma, for example. When it comes to treating glaucoma, healthcare providers have a broad array of increasingly invasive treatments for managing intraocular pressure (IOP), starting with simple topical drug formulations before moving up to stents and possibly even surgery. Therefore, if a patient has compliance and adherence issues with their initial topical treatments, it increases the probability that IOP will not be well-managed and that more drops would have to be prescribed to try to manage IOP before moving on to increasingly invasive, surgical treatments.. AcuStreams clear benefits position it for success in the topical ophthalmic market, in the treatment of conditions such as glaucoma, dry eye, uveitis, allergic disease and infections. Additionally, the regulatory pathway to approval for AcuStream combined with approved drugs can follow streamlined processes such as the US FDAs 505(b)(2) approval pathway. Because of its ...
In a growing trend towards streamlining and standardization of quality control and compliance methodologies, HUD has introduced a Defect Taxonomy in its "FHAs Single Family Housing Loan Quality Assessment Methodology". This document lays out the methodology that the FHA plans to adopt to improve its own QA efforts.. Knowing how FHA will be evaluating loans is helpful in designing your own QA program. Particularly useful is the definition of nine defect categories, numerous sources/causes for the defects, and four levels of defect severity. These can be roughly translated in Cogentspeak to audit question categories, preset comments, and findings levels respectively.. For those configuring their Cogent FHA audit shells: your work has just become easier and more complex at the same time.. ...
Meet top and best Ophthalmologist, Optometrists, Eye surgeons and Medical professionals from Europe, USA, middle-east, Asia pacific, at Ophthalmology conferences, Eye care Conferences scheduled during October 28-29, 2020 in Amsterdam, Netherlands
View drug interactions with ophthalmic irrigation, extraocular ophthalmic. This medication may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
I want to credit the insight given to me from Dr. Doug Rett, OD, FAAO:. "In 1958 Muro Pharmacal Labs was founded and it manufactured ophthalmic drugs. It was named Muro for the Italian word for "wall," which I think is fitting given the barrier that the cornea plays in penetration of ocular drugs. With tight junctions, pH sensitivity and the hydrophobic nature of the epithelium and hydrophilic nature of the stroma, its difficult for modern-day drug companies to pass medication through the cornea, let alone in the 1950s. In 1968 Muro was sold to George Behrakis, a pharmacist from Lowell, […]. ...
By Abhirup Mandal and Ashim K. Mitra Ocular delivery of biologics has been challenging. It has been a constant source of exasperation for ophthalmologists and formulation experts over the last few decades. High-molecular weight, short half-lives, structural complexity, and poor permeability render biologics as the most challenging molecules to formulate and deliver across ocular barriers. Since…
The EpiCorneal 3D human tissue model provides a highly predictive non-animal alternative to assess ophthalmic drug delivery, wound healing and tissue regeneration, disease modeling (e.g. dry eye) and corneal infection.. Details ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Ophthalmic Drugs Chapter 18. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
Transscleral delivery of triamcinolone acetonide into the vitreous using sub-Tenons injections may be a safer alternative to reduce the sight-threatening complications of direct intravitreal injections. However, sub-Tenons injections have demonstrated low and poorly sustained vitreous drug levels in animal studies. To improve our understanding of the clearance mechanisms of corticosteroids, we evaluated vitreous drug levels following sub-Tenons injection of triamcinolone acetonide in rabbits with selective elimination of conjunctival lymphatic/blood vessels and the choroid. Pigmented rabbits were given a sub-Tenons injection of a preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide formulation of either a 10- or 20-mg dose in the superotemporal quadrant. The effect eliminating both conjunctival and choroidal clearance was evaluated by injecting the drug, followed by immediate euthanasia, effectively terminating both lymph and blood flow in the conjunctiva and choroid. To inhibit only the clearance from ...
Incorporating a balance of insights into innovative therapies and solutions to existing challenges, the 2nd Annual Ophthalmic Drug Development Summit will bring together leading pharma, biotech, and i…
In a case report published online Jan. 19 in Pediatrics, iatrogenic Cushings syndrome (CS) is described in a 9-year-old girl who received topical ocular glucocorticoid (GC) treatment for bilateral iridocyclitis.
Professional bodies and Institutes CPD schemes are either structured as Input or Output based. Input based schemes list a precise number of CPD hours that individuals must achieve within a given time period. These schemes can also use different currencies such as points, merits, units or credits, where an individual must accumulate the number required. These currencies are usually based on time i.e. 1 CPD point = 1 hour of learning. Output based schemes are learner centred. They require individuals to set learning goals that align to professional competencies, or personal development objectives. These schemes also list different ways to achieve the learning goals e.g. training courses, seminars or e:learning, which enables an individual to complete their CPD through their preferred mode of learning. The majority of Input and Output based schemes actively encourage individuals to seek appropriate CPD activities independently. As a formal provider of CPD certified activities, SMI Group ...
Over the years, stakeholders engaged in drug development have invested significant capital towards opthalmic drugs contract manufacturing...
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has no "tanning pills" approved for sale in the United States. In spite of this, there ... Ophthalmic Research. 46 (2): 103-106. doi:10.1159/000323813. "Warning Letters Cite Cosmetics as Adulterated Due to Violative ... "Sun Safety: Protect the Skin You're In!". FDA & You, Issue #3. Food and Drug Administration. Spring-Summer 2003. Archived from ... "Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, 1 April 2012". Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2013-06-21. "Feeds Regulations, ...
978-0-683-08363-7. United States Food and Drug Administration (Nov. 2006). Xalatan® (latanoprost ophthalmic solution) 0.005% ( ... In animal studies, using four times the therapeutic concentration of the ophthalmic solution Latanoprost, the size of the ...
Ophthalmic Practice 1995; 13:126-133. Burnstein Y, Hersh PS. Photorefractive keratectomy following radial keratotomy. J Refract ... "ViewPoint™ CK System - P010018". Food and Drug Administration. Hersh, Peter. "Optics of Conductive Keratoplasty: Implications ... "Summary minutes of the ophthalmic devices panel meeting" (PDF). www.fda.gov. Retrieved November 30, 2001. " ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the excimer laser for the correction of nearsightedness in the United States. Hersh was ...
The limb center, mental hospital and ophthalmic hospital were brought under Medical College administration. Later in 1990s the ... The Mental Health Center is in Oolampara, Peroorkada and is under the administration of the college. With more than 150 inmates ... It was originated as a government ophthalmic hospital in 1905 and brought into the National Programme for Control of Blindness ... Expertise of the faculty and able administration with aids from the Central and State governments have helped maintain this ...
Oral or intravenous; dosing varies by purpose and route of administration as well as patient weight. Melphalan Prescribing ... This is accomplished via transarterial catheter based slow pulsed infusion into the ophthalmic artery. ...
Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) The Food and Drug Administration is responsible for mercury in food, drugs, and ... Yellow mercuric oxide is not recognized as a safe and effective ophthalmic anti-infective ingredient. The FDA also regulates ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as well as a variety of State and local authorities. Mercury occurs naturally in the ...
In China it is sold in tablet as well as in eye drop formulations.Ophthalmic anti-infectives are generally well tolerated. The ... Jerry Gurwitz in the same issue called for the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to consider giving Tequin a black box warning ... Given as an eye drop, Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Solution 0.3% & 0.5% cause very low systemic exposures. Therefore, the systemic ... certain adverse side effects Hypersensitivity Gatifloxacin is currently available in the US and Canada only as an ophthalmic ...
Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however ... Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal ...
It is primarily used for various ophthalmic purposes, such as for treating glaucoma, or for use during ophthalmic surgery. It ... Topical ocular administration is used to decrease intraocular pressure in people with primary open-angle glaucoma. Intraocular ... Carbachol is primarily used in the treatment of glaucoma, but it is also used during ophthalmic surgery. Carbachol eyedrops are ... In topical ocular and intraocular administration its principal effects are miosis and increased aqueous humour outflow. In the ...
Ophthalmic Devices Panel" (PDF). www.fda.gov. FDA Division of Ophthalmic and Ear, Nose and Throat Devices. p. 97. Archived from ... Soft contact lenses are one of several types on the U.S. Market approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) classifies soft contact lenses into four groups for the U.S. Market. They are also ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) states that: Soft contact lenses are made of soft, flexible plastics that allow ...
"Ophthalmic". St John Ambulance Australia. Retrieved 28 April 2009. "Community Care". St John Ambulance Australia. Retrieved 28 ... and analgesic administration (including entinox gas and methoxyflurane analgesics). St John Ambulance in Australia raises funds ... and recruits staff for the St John Ophthalmic Eye Hospital in Jerusalem. Funds are raised through public donations, and income ...
In 1983, ophthalmic surgeon Stephen Trokel approached Srinivasan about the possibility of using APD for surgery of the cornea. ... In 1995, a commercial system for laser refractive surgery was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Srinivasan has ...
... liquid chromatography-gas chromatography of the beta-blocker levomoprolol in plasma following ophthalmic administration". ...
There he became the University's first Professor of Social Administration. He authored many papers in British and overseas ... Kaim-Caudle, Peter (1970). Ophthalmic Services in Ireland. The Economic and Social Research Institute. Kaim-Caudle, Peter (1973 ...
His brother Squier Littell was a physician who eventually became surgeon to the Wills Ophthalmic Hospital of Philadelphia 1834- ... Congress during the administration of President Jackson. ...
D (Injection, Inhalation); B (Ophthalmic) (US). Routes of. administration. IV, IM, inhalation, ophthalmic. ... Ophthalmic (tobramycin only, Tobrex, or combined with dexamethasone, sold as TobraDex) and nebulised formulations both have low ... tobramycin sterile ophthalmic solution is produced by Bausch & Lomb Pharmaceuticals. Benzalkonium chloride 0.01% is added as a ...
... ophthalmic research and hospital administration. The institution offers wide-ranging programmes including allied health ... Sankara Nethralaya (SN) is a not-for-profit missionary institution for ophthalmic care (i.e., an eye hospital) in Chennai, ... Hospital Administration (MHA), etc... Vision Research Foundation (VRF) has, over the last two decades, been doing premier work ... the C U Shah Ophthalmic Postgraduate Training Center has been offering fellowship programmes in Vitreo-Retinal Surgery and ...
The eye drop was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on May 29, 2009 and marketed under the trade ... SSP licensed U.S. and European rights to SS734 for ophthalmic use to InSite Vision Incorporated (OTC Pink: INSV) in 2000. ... Malhotra R, Ackerman S, Gearinger LS, Morris TW, Allaire C (December 2013). "The safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension ... Majmudar PA, Clinch TE (May 2014). "Safety of besifloxacin ophthalmic suspension 0.6% in cataract and LASIK surgery patients". ...
... after either ophthalmic or intravenous administration. However, ophthalmic use is done with sterile filtered drugs that is ... it does not correct hyponatremia as rapidly as administration of hypertonic saline does. Due to hypertonicity, administration ... Water privation combined with diuretic block does not produce as much risk of CPM as saline administration does; however, ... or ophthalmic, which is compared to intravenous use; By demonstration, the elimination of latanoprost acid from plasma is rapid ...
William Stirling, Jr., his son, became an ophthalmic surgeon in Manchester. A text-book of practical histology, 1881 Outlines ... administration, and writing. He translated Leonard Landois's Lehrbuch der Physiologie des Menschen in 1884, and wrote Outlines ...
... due to variable absorption from the stomach mucosa and an increased side-effect profile versus ophthalmic administration. The ... Sall KN, Greff LJ, Johnson-Pratt LR, et al.: Dorzolamide/timolol combination versus concomitant administration of brimonidine ... wheezing or trouble breathing Hypersensitivity to other sulfonamides Acute angle-closure glaucoma Concomitant administration of ...
Kumar, R. (1992) Social and preventive health administration p.357. APH Publishing ISBN 81-7024-454-4 Retrieved June 2011 ... Jaypee Brothers Publishers ISBN 81-7179-738-5 Retrieved June 2011 Norton, A. B. (1997) Ophthalmic Diseases & their Homeopathic ...
In 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration approved riboflavin ophthalmic solution and KXL system for crosslinking based on ... Ophthalmic Hosp Rep and J R Lond Ophthalmic Hosp. 1859;9:157. Horner JF, Zur Behandlung des Keratoconus. Klinische ... Keratoconus is amongst the ophthalmic conditions that exhibit a scissor reflex action of two bands moving toward and away from ... Rubinfeld RS, Traboulsi EI, Arentsen JJ, Eagle RC (June 1990). "Keratoconus after penetrating keratoplasty". Ophthalmic Surgery ...
Combigan has a fast onset of action, and the peak IOP lowering effect occurs at two hours after administration. No carcinogenic ... Both brimonidine 0.2% and timolol 0.5% are commonly used ophthalmic solutions for lowering IOP. Timolol 0.5% is dosed one drop ... The New Drug Application (NDA) for Combigan was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2007. Allergan ... Allergan is the New Drug Application (NDA) holder of brimonidine tartrate/timolol maleate ophthalmic solution 0.2%/0.5%, which ...
In addition to the residency program, Wills offers fellowships in each ophthalmic subspecialty. At the present time there are ... the Wills Eye administration, and the medical staff. Overall policy - including matters pertaining to selection, direction, and ... Wills Eye built its outstanding reputation as a pioneer in ophthalmic education by establishing the first ophthalmology ... Bernard Becker Collection in Ophthalmology Walton, Henry Haynes and Littell, Squier, "A Treatise on Operative Ophthalmic ...
... begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage; this causes an expansion in the chest cavity. Then takes place the onset of contraction of the diaphragm, which results in expansion of the intrapleural space and an increase in negative pressure according to Boyle's law. This negative pressure generates airflow because of the pressure difference between the atmosphere and alveolus. Air enters, inflating the lung through either the nose or the mouth into the pharynx (throat) and trachea before entering the alveoli.[citation needed] Other muscles that can be involved in inhalation include:[2] ...
By requiring systemic administration in cyclosporin treatment of opthalmic diseases not limited to the eye surface, a patient ... The cyclosporin may be topically administered as an ophthalmic drop or ophthalmic ointment containing an effective amount of ... Ophthalmic compositionn and method of using same. US4937078 *. Aug 26, 1988. Jun 26, 1990. Mezei Associates Limited. Liposomal ... Veterinary treatment of ophthalmic disease in animals using toptical tacrolimus. US20040121944 *. Dec 20, 2002. Jun 24, 2004. ...
Long Term Administration Study of OPC-12759 Ophthalmic Suspension. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Long Term Administration Study of OPC-12759 Ophthalmic Suspension in Dry Eye Patients. ... Experimental: OPC-12759 Ophthalmic suspension Instillation, 4times/day. Drug: OPC-12759 Ophthalmic suspension Instillation, ... The purpose of this study is to evaluate safety and efficacy of OPC-12759 ophthalmic suspension during 52 weeks in dry eye ...
... dextran ophthalmic kit) comes in different strengths and amounts. The appearance of Photrexa Viscous can differ based on the ...
Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%.. The safety and ... Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution 0.025%. ... Study of the Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Safety Following Topical Administration of Brimonidine Tartrate Ophthalmic Solution ... One drop of brimonidine tartrate ophthalmic solution 0.025% in each eye once at Visit 2 (Day 1) then four times daily (QID) ...
Safety of Polyhexanide (PHMB) 0.08% ophthalmic solution after 26-week repeated-dose ocular administration in rabbits. ... Safety of Polyhexanide (PHMB) 0.08% ophthalmic solution after 26-week repeated-dose ocular administration in rabbits. ... ophthalmic solution after 26-week repeated-dose ocular administration in rabbits.. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 2017;58(8): ... These favourable results strengthen our plan to develop PHMB 0.08% ophthalmic solution as a novel orphan drug for the treatment ...
Comparison of Drug Concentrations in Human Aqueous Humor after the Administration of 0.3% Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Gel, 0.3% ... Purpose: To investigate the penetration of 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic gel, 0.3% gatifloxacin ophthalmic solution and 0.5% ... Keywords: aqueous humor, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, ophthalmic gel, ophthalmic solution This is an open access article ... Gatifloxacin Ophthalmic Gel, 0.3% Gatifloxacin and 0.5% Levofloxacin Ophthalmic Solutions. Int J Med Sci 2015; 12(6):517-523. ...
Single Administration Sustained Release Formats for Administration of Ophthalmic Medications to the Ocular Surface, Cornea and ... Single Administration Sustained Release Formats for Administration of Ophthalmic Medications to the Ocular Surface, Cornea and ... Shikha P Barman, Koushik Barman, Kevin Ward; Single Administration Sustained Release Formats for Administration of Ophthalmic ...
Ophthalmic). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Separate administration of other ophthalmic agents by at least 5 minutes. Do not touch the tip of the dropper to the eye, ... ophthalmic glaucoma agents latanoprost ophthalmic, timolol ophthalmic, epinephrine ophthalmic, Lumigan, Travatan, Xalatan ... Glaucoma, Open Angle latanoprost ophthalmic, timolol ophthalmic, epinephrine ophthalmic, Lumigan, Travatan, Xalatan, More... ...
Ophthalmic). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Administration. For topical ophthalmic use only; not for injection into the eye. Avoid contaminating tip of the solution ... ophthalmic anti-infectives azithromycin ophthalmic, ciprofloxacin ophthalmic, levofloxacin ophthalmic, erythromycin ophthalmic ... erythromycin ophthalmic, gentamicin ophthalmic, bacitracin ophthalmic, moxifloxacin ophthalmic, tobramycin ophthalmic, TobraDex ...
Isopto Atropine Sterile Topical Ophthalmic Solution (Atropine Sulfate) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, ... In a study of healthy subjects, after topical ocular administration of 30 μL of atropine sulfate ophthalmic solution, 1%, the ... atropine sulfate) Sterile Topical Ophthalmic Solution 1%. DESCRIPTION. ISOPTO® Atropine 1% is a sterile topical ophthalmic ... after topical ocular administration of 40 μL of atropine sulfate ophthalmic solution, 1%, the mean (± SD) plasma Cmax of l- ...
Epinastine HCl Ophthalmic Solution) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, ... Lenses may be reinserted after 10 minutes following administration of ELESTAT® .. Topical Ophthalmic Use Only. For topical ... Topical Ophthalmic Use Only. ELESTAT® is for topical ophthalmic use only and not for injection or oral use. ... epinastine HCl) Ophthalmic Solution. DESCRIPTION. ELESTAT® (epinastine HCl ophthalmic solution) 0.05% is a clear, colorless, ...
Search for Administration Assistant job opportunities in Montana and apply for the job thats right for you. ... Administration Assistant Jobs in Montana 91 Montana Administration Assistant jobs found on Monster. 91 jobs ... Ophthalmic Assistant. * Show More *Assistant Store Manager. *Chief Administrative Officer *Human Resources Assistant ... Find Montana Administration Assistant jobs on Monster. ... Get Administration Assistant jobs in Montana as soon as theyre ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Desonide lotion should be applied to the affected areas as a thin film two or three times daily ... Not for Ophthalmic Use. DESCRIPTION. Desonide Lotion 0.05% contains desonide, USP (Pregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione,11,21- dihydroxy ... It is not known whether topical administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION:. Usual Dosage: Removal of foreign bodies and sutures, and for tonometry, 1 to 2 drops (in single ... Fluorescein Sodium and Proparacaine Hydrochloride Ophthalmic Solution, USP (Sterile) is a sterile ophthalmic solution combining ... Deep Ophthalmic Anesthesia: 1 drop in each eye every 5 to 10 minutes for 5-7 doses. ... Although exceedingly rare with ophthalmic application of local anesthetics, it should be borne in mind that systemic toxicity ...
Consumer information about the drug atropine ophthalmic used to treat inflammatory conditions of the eye, and is used prior to ... In clinical studies, use of a single topical administration of atropine 1% ophthalmic solution (eye drops) resulted in maximal ... Ophthalmic solution: 1%. How should I keep atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic stored?. Atropine ophthalmic solution can be ... atropine ophthalmic. *What is atropine sulfate ointment-ophthalmic, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? ...
Read more about the prescription drug ECHOTHIOPHATE SOLUTION - OPHTHALMIC. ... OPHTHALMIC (Phospholine Iodide), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... GENERIC NAME: ECHOTHIOPHATE SOLUTION - OPHTHALMIC (eck-oh-THIGH-oh-fate). BRAND NAME(S): Phospholine Iodide. Medication Uses , ...
Dosage and administration. For external use only. Evert the lower eyelid and instil the ointment liberally into the lower ... Orbenin Ophthalmic Eye Ointment is for the treatment of a range of bacterial infections in the eyes of cattle, sheep, horses, ... Orbenin Ophthalmic Eye Ointment 16.67% w/w is a sterile off-white, viscous stable suspension of Cloxacillin Benzathine in a non ... Orbenin Ophthalmic Eye Ointment is effective against a range of bacteria (including Moraxella spp.) commonly isolated from the ...
... by Joseph ONeill - March 7, 2017. ... Home / Expert Case Studies / Negligent Administration of Ophthalmic Anesthesia Causes Permanent Loss of Vision ... Administration Anesthesiology Blindness Cataract Surgery CRNA Medical Medical Malpractice Optometrist Optometry Retina Vision ... 1. Do you routinely administer ophthalmic anesthesia to patients like the one described above? ...
... phosphate ophthalmic), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... Administration. Topical Ophthalmic Administration. For topical ophthalmic use only; do not inject ... encoded search term (riboflavin 5-phosphate ophthalmic (Photrexa%2C Photrexa Viscous)) and riboflavin 5-phosphate ophthalmic ... topical ophthalmic solution in 3mL glass syringe *0.146% (ie, 1.46mg/mL) in 20% dextran (Photrexa Viscous) ...
Patient Administration Risk Management Resource Library - Ophthalmic Mutual Insurance Company. Comprehensive collection of loss ... Ophthalmic Surgical Task Force Surgery Checklist. Wrong Site/Wrong IOL Surgery Performance Improvement Course - American ... This paper outlines which patient safety incidents to report and analyze in ophthalmic practice and how to do so. ... Methods to reduce prescription errors in ophthalmic medication - Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology. The authors determined the ...
The global ophthalmic drugs market size was valued at USD 31.0 billion in 2019 and is expected to expand at a CAGR of 5.0% from ... Route of Administration Insights. Based on route of administration, the market is segmented into topical, local ocular and ... Ophthalmic Drugs Market Size, Share, Industry Growth Report, 2027 Ophthalmic Drugs Market Size, Share & Trends Analysis Report ... The global ophthalmic drugs market size was valued at USD 31.0 billion in 2019 and is expected to expand at a CAGR of 5.0% from ...
PRNewswire/ -- http://www.visiongain.com/Report/784/Ophthalmic-Drugs-World-Market-Prospects-2012-2022 A new report by ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) [US]. Fovea Pharmaceuticals. Galderma International SA (Nestlé and LOréal). Genentech. ... Ophthalmic Drugs: World Market Prospects 2012-2022 adds to visiongains range of analytical reports on industries and markets ... That revenue forecast appears in Ophthalmic Drugs: World Market Prospects 2012-2022, published in March 2012. Visiongain is a ...
Acute Macular Neuroretinopathy Following the Administration of an Influenza Vaccination Parth Shah, BSc; Jill S. Zaveri, MD; ... Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina. 2018;49(10):e114-e121 https://doi.org/10.3928/23258160-20181002-13 ... Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina. 2018;49(10):e122-e128 https://doi.org/10.3928/23258160-20181002-14 ... Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers and Imaging Retina. 2018;49(10):e129-e134 https://doi.org/10.3928/23258160-20181002-15 ...
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.. ...
  • The report provides value (USD million), volume (units) and average price (USD) data for each segment and sub-segment within seven market categories - Cataract Surgery Devices, Glaucoma Surgery Devices, Intraocular Lens (IOL), Ophthalmic Diagnostic Equipment, Refractive Surgery Devices, Vision Care and Vitreo Retinal Surgery Devices. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Market size and company share data for Ophthalmic Devices market categories - Cataract Surgery Devices, Glaucoma Surgery Devices, Intraocular Lens (IOL), Ophthalmic Diagnostic Equipment, Refractive Surgery Devices, Vision Care and Vitreo Retinal Surgery Devices. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The CoQun ® study is a multicenter, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Coqun ® , an ophthalmic solution of Coenzyme q10 (CoQ10) and Vitamin E (VitE), in patients affected by primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). (springer.com)
  • When multiple doses of cromolyn sodium ophthalmic solution are instilled into normal rabbit eyes, less than 0.07% of the administered dose of cromolyn sodium is absorbed into the systemic circulation (presumably by way of the eye, nasal passages, buccal cavity and gastrointestinal tract). (nih.gov)
  • A phase I/II study of direct intraarterial (ophthalmic artery) chemotherapy with melphalan for intraocular retinoblastoma initial results. (nih.gov)
  • An intravenous administration set assembly (10) is disclosed which is capable of introducing fluid from a plurality of sources of intravenous fluids into a patient and which allows the various sources of fluid to be easily attached and detected from the assembly without the necessity for intravening. (google.com.au)
  • An intravenous administration set assembly (10) is disclosed which is capable of introducing fluid from a plurality of sources of intravenous fluids into a patient and which allows the various sources of fluid to be easily attached and detected from the assembly without the necessity for intravening safety steps, such as purging the system, and yet without any possibility of air or bacteria being introduced through the system into the patient. (google.com.au)
  • 2. An intravenous administration set assembly as claimed in claim 1 wherein the tubing means (38, 46, 56) connected between the air-eliminating filter (32) and the adapter (58) includes at least one fitting (52) having an injection site (54) provided therein so that injections of medication to the patient can easily be made in the course of intravenous administrations of fluid to a patient. (google.com.au)
  • 3. An intravenous administration set assembly as claimed in claim 2 wherein the tubing means (38, 46, 56) further includes a second fitting (40) having an inlet adapter (43) provided thereon which is capable of being locked to a source of biological fluid for introduction to a patient which may not pass through an air-eliminating filter. (google.com.au)
  • Patients with gonorrheal infections, neonates with infections, and patients who are immunocompromised should be admitted for administration of intravenous antibiotics. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, it has been discovered that natural occurring compounds alone and in combination with chemical agents can be used in ophthalmic solutions such as contact lens solution to enhance and complement their anti-microbial, cleaning and wetting activity or to reduce irritation to the eye. (google.co.uk)
  • KC Pharmaceuticals is a leading and trusted supplier in the private store brand category offering a full range of ophthalmic eye drop formulas and contact lens solutions. (biospace.com)
  • for Bepotastine Besilate Ophthalmic Solutions Study Group. (bausch.com)
  • As with other ophthalmic solutions containing benzalkonium chloride, soft contact lenses should not be worn during the treatment period. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Mobius Therapeutics™ is a commercial stage venture focused on ophthalmic surgery solutions. (prweb.com)
  • Alcon, which has been dedicated to the ophthalmic industry for 65 years, researches, develops, manufactures and markets pharmaceuticals, surgical equipment and devices, contacts lens solutions and other vision care products that treat diseases, disorders and other conditions of the eye. (businesswire.com)
  • Ciprofloxacin ophthalmic is a bactericidal antibiotic that inhibits bacterial DNA synthesis and, consequently, growth by inhibiting DNA-gyrase in susceptible organisms. (medscape.com)
  • Adverse events were observed following systemic administration of gentamicin in animal reproduction studies. (drugs.com)
  • NORTH BRUNSWICK, N.J.--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- Ascendia Pharmaceuticals , a specialty pharmaceutical company engaged in nano-formulation design, formulation, and manufacture of poorly soluble molecules, today announced that it has entered into a collaboration with KC Pharmaceuticals for the development of five over-the-counter (OTC) sterile ophthalmic drop medicines. (biospace.com)
  • KC Pharmaceuticals, located in Pomona, California for the past 30 years, also offers industry leading contract ophthalmic product manufacturing services. (biospace.com)
  • This new edition has been revised to make the text even clearer and bring all the guidance up to date, covering communication, visual acuity testing, ocular medications, the ophthalmic outpatient department, biometry, the ophthalmic accident and emergency department, the slit lamp and tonometry, additional standards using specific equipment, and suggested documentation for providing evidence of development and competence. (ellibs.com)
  • Scopolamine ophthalmic blocks the action of acetylcholine at parasympathetic sites in smooth muscle, producing pupillary dilation (mydriasis) and paralysis of accommodation (cycloplegia). (medscape.com)