Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred ICRLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United StatesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.PiperazinesNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred C3HLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Inbred LewEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Mucosal delivery of human papillomavirus pseudovirus-encapsidated plasmids improves the potency of DNA vaccination. (1/29)

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Assessment of route of administration and dose escalation for an adenovirus-based influenza A Virus (H5N1) vaccine in chickens. (2/29)

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Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage. (3/29)

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Intragastric self-infusion of ethanol in high- and low-drinking mouse genotypes after passive ethanol exposure. (4/29)

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LT-IIc, a new member of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family, exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties that are different from those induced by LT-IIa or LT-IIb. (5/29)

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Immunization with a ZmpB-based protein vaccine could protect against pneumococcal diseases in mice. (6/29)

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A mucosal vaccination approach for herpes simplex virus type 2. (7/29)

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Characterization and evaluation of the Moraxella catarrhalis oligopeptide permease A as a mucosal vaccine antigen. (8/29)

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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not a once daily topical application of fixed-dose combination gel containing adapalene 0.1%-benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% (adapalene-BPO) is effective at treating mild to moderate acne. STUDY DESIGN: Three multi-center double blind randomized control studies published in the English language between 2007-2013. STUDY SOURCES: Three peer-reviewed RCTS were found using Pubmed. These studies compared the same fixed-dose combination gel adapalene-BPO against placebo vehicles. Two studies also compared to additional groups receiving monotherapies. OUTCOMES MEASURED: Outcomes measured were improvement of participants acne according to the Investigators Global Assessment of Acne Severity (IGS), percentage change in acne lesions from baseline to post treatment, safety and tolerability assessment scales, participants assessment of their acne improvement, and Childrens Dermatology Life Quality Index. RESULTS: The fixed-dose
Zianasultana. 0 bath, 1932 sqft single family that sold on 3/17/ 15 for $439000. 0 bath, 2365 sqft single family home located at 3844 ziana rd, cameron park, ca 95682 built in 1992. 0 out of 5 on makeupalley. 025% as its active ingredients (i copied and pasted that; 9 jun 2015 product questionvisited a derm for the first time and was prescribed ziana tretinoin . 025% gel ( ziana), an 80-mg dose strength for morphine sulfate; ziana pet care social media. 025% tube of gel ; ziana ; clindamycin; tretinoin is a; the latest tweets from ziana mahmood; (@latishaziana). 025%) gel an average of 3. 025%) gel company: medicis pharmaceutical corporation nda: 050802. 025%) gel, is an antibiotic and retinoid combination gel product with two active ingredients ...
RECALL OR REMOVE ZICAM NASAL GEL FROM THE SHELVES ZICAM COLD REMEDY (a Matrixx Initiative, Inc. product) a homeopathic cold remedy (not approved by the FDA) NASAL GEL (nasal spray) has had thousands of complaints.
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks on your progress. They will need to check the level of testosterone in your blood.. This medicine is only approved for use in men who have low levels of testosterone related to certain medical conditions. Heart attacks and strokes have been reported with the use of this medicine. Notify your doctor or health care professional and seek emergency treatment if you develop breathing problems; changes in vision; confusion; chest pain or chest tightness; sudden arm pain; severe, sudden headache; trouble speaking or understanding; sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg; loss of balance or coordination. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of this medicine.. This medicine may affect blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, check with your doctor or health care professional before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetic medicine.. Ask your doctor or pharmacist before applying other medicines in the ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Oral HIVacc: Oral Mucosal Immunization Approaches for HIV Prevention (R01) RFA-DE-16-006. NIDCR
... Most infectious agents enter the body through the mucosae that line the extensive surface of the digestive, pulmonary and genito-urinary
Mucosal vaccines Most infectious agents enter the body through the mucosae that line the extensive surface of the digestive, pulmonary and genito-urinary
Adjuvants for administration, particularly for mucosal administration, of an antigen, are described, as well as compositions comprising the described adjuvant in combination with an antigen and a phys
Inmunotek is developing MV 140, a sublingually administered bacterial polyvalent vaccine, for the prevention of urinary tract infections. Phase III development
We like it because it debunks a lot of the theories that are floating around these days on messaging boards. One that cites an email from Professor Thomas Burris and his supposed warning against using SR9009. The other theory being that it has zero bioavailability when dosed orally, which has prompted people to mix it with DMSO and dose it sublingually. Some have even gone to the extent of injecting themselves with self-made concoctions. Having used SR9009 in five cycles so far, thee cutting cycles and two bulking cycles, we can vouch for the fact that it is not ineffective. Not by a long shot. We dont disagree to the theory that the bioavailability is debatable. Just because its debatable does not mean that its zero. There is a difference. SR9009 makes us more active, improves our cardio performance and cuts fat. That has been consistent across all the cycles that weve used it for. If you are looking to improve your cardio vascular performance and endurance for any kind of fitness ...
Health,...Company Disagrees with the FDA on Product Safety Concerns Continues t... ...SCOTTSDALE Ariz. June 24 /- Matrixx Initiativ... ...,Matrixx,Initiatives,Confirms,Voluntary,Recall,of,Zicam,Cold,Remedy,Nasal,Gel,,Zicam,Cold,Remedy,Gel,Swabs,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Due to the coronavirus outbreak worldwide, global demand for some personal protective equipment (PPE) is exceeding supply. In addition, manufacturing of PPE and many other wound care and infection prevention products have been impacted by global response to coronavirus. While you may see product availability reduction in the near-term, please be assured Medline continues to work to diversify production and provide your supply needs. As always, please reach out to your Medline sales representative with any specific questions or follow up. ...
New research confirms the efficacy of zincum gluconicum nasal gel in reducing the severity and duration of common cold symptoms when treatment is star
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Collagen type II (CII) is one of the autoantigens associated with RA. CII263-272 is a predominant CII antigenic peptide that can induce T-cell activation upon binding to MHC and interaction with the appropriate T-cell receptor (TCR). Altered CII263-272 peptides with substitution of specific amino acids could bind to RA-associated HLA-DR4/1 with no T cell stimulating effects and could inhibit T cell activation in RA. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of mucosal administration and to explore the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of altered CII263-272 peptide (267Q A, 270K A and 271G A) on collagen induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine CII. Altered CII263-272 peptide was given intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Wild CII263-272 peptide or PBS was administered as controls. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by arthritis scores, body weight ...
Natesto: Testosterone nasal gel is used to treat testosterone deficiency. Testosterone nasal gel should only be used if testosterone deficiency has been confirmed by symptoms and blood tests.
Buy the Hardcover Book Mucosal Vaccines by Hiroshi Kiyono at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Science and Nature books over $25!
Hugh Pickens writes The FDA has advised consumers to stop using Matrixx Initiatives Zicam Cold Remedy nasal gel marketed over-the-counter as a cold remedy because it is associated with the loss of sense of smell (anosmia) that may be long-lasting or permanent. The FDA says about 130 consumers hav...
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ABSTRACT. Buccal administration of drug provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. The preferred site for retentive oral transmucosal delivery systems and for sustained and controlled release delivery device is the buccal mucosa. Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of such drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drug from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. The objective of this article ...
Administration; Oral, Animals, Antibodies; Bacterial/blood, Bacterial Proteins/*immunology, Diphtheria/*prevention & control, Diphtheria Toxin/*immunology, Female, Immunity; Mucosal, Immunization, Immunoglobulin E/blood, Immunoglobulin G/blood, Mice, Mice; Inbred BALB C, Starch/administration & dosage, Vaccination ...
The basic premise of vaccinology is to achieve strong protective immunity against defined infectious agents by a vaccine mimicking the effects of natural primary exposure to a pathogen. Because an exposure of humans and animals to microbes occurs mostly through mucosal surfaces, targeting the mucosa seems a rational and efficient vaccination strategy. Many experimental and clinical data confirmed that mucosal immunization offers many advantages over widely used in human and veterinary medicine subcutaneous or intramuscular immunization. In the present article selected aspects regarding mucosal vaccination are discussed. The structure and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), comprised of four main mucosal compartments forming a structural and functional unity as well as pivotal cellular MALT components (dendritic and M cells) were briefly characterized. Particular attention was focused on the mode of simple but efficacious delivery of vaccine antigens to mucosal surfaces. A few trials to
Despite the threat of the many lawsuits Matrixx Initiatives is up against, its Web site noted that "No plaintiff has ever won a court case, because there is no known causal link between the use of Zicam Cold Remedy nasal gel and impairment of smell ...
Evaluation of adjuvants at the mucosal area for the development of innovative mucosal vaccine against PRRS." Presented at USDA and NPB meeting - Invited Presentation, Des Moines, IA, US,USA. (June 2009). "Alternative models for study of respiratory diseases: Pig is a useful animal model to address both infectious and non-infectious lung diseases." Presented at Immunologists Round Table meeting - Invited Presentation, Columbus, OH, US,USA. (November 2010). "A non-radioactive colorimetric assay to detect Natural Killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity." Presented at Immunologists Round Table Meeting - Invited Presentation, Wooster, OH, US,USA. (February 2010). "Development of novel mucosal vaccines for the control of PRRS outbreaks.." Presented at USDA NPB meeting - Invited Presentation, Des Moines, IA, US,USA. (June 2010). "Mucosal vaccine to protect against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: a new perspective." Presented at 9th International Veterinary Immunology Society (IVIS) meeting - ...
B-12-SL B-12 SL is a tasty chewable tablet, allowing the vitamin B-12 to dissolve sublingually. Nutrition Info Calories 0 Protein 0g Carbohydrates 0
If you search online for CBD products, you can find gummies, oils, capsules, tinctures, and different products that you need to use. As with the oil, its most likely best to make use of, and some would say its better, but thats questionable. To use the Health Naturals CBD Oil, just use underneath the tongue.. Also had to cancel my debit card and order a brand new one. Anxiety is an issue for many individuals and can significantly influence their day by day lives. To use CBD tinctures, apply beneath the tongue, additionally known as sublingually, for optimum results.. You can even purchase their tinctures in a plethora of sizes, ranging from 50 mg to 1,000 mg and even 1,500 mg tinctures for the seasoned professionals. Every dropper can be utilized for approximately 10 mg. For instance, a person can take pleasure in roughly one hundred drops after purchasing a 1,000 mg bottle of real CBD. Supplement Police is a growing group of heavy-handed natural health advocates determined to highlight and ...
Ursula Wiedermann is an Austrian medical scientist who has made significant contributions in the field of allergies and of cancer immunotherapy. She is currently Professor of Vaccinology at the Medical University of Vienna. Wiedermanns work in the field of B cell peptide vaccines led to the creation of HER-Vaxx, an immunotherapy for the treatment of HER-2-positive cancers. This vaccine is currently being taken into mid-stage clinical development in gastric cancer by the biotech company Imugene, where Wiedermann is Chief Scientific Officer. After obtaining an MD degree from the Medical University of Vienna, Wiedermann gained a PhD in Immunology at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, where the focus of her PhD work was mucosal immunity and vaccination. After returning to the Medical University of Vienna Wiedermann researched mucosal vaccination against allergic diseases and later began to look at vaccine development against infectious diseases and tumours as well as explore the issues of ...
I have hypothyroidism (1953), diabetes type 2 (1976), high cholesterol (1989), gastroparesis (1990), FMS (1995), and GERD (2006). I am on these meds for FMS: Prozac 20 mg., Xanax .5 mg., Diclofenac 100 mg., Cytotec 200 mcg. (stomach med to go with Diclofenac), Lortab 10/500 mg. I am also on the other meds for various reasons: Nexium 40 mg., Cytomel 50 mcg., Detrol 2 mg., Reglan 10 mg., Novolog insulin, Novolin N insulin, Bumex 1 mg., Lipitor 80 mg. & WelChol 625 mg. 3 a day with dinner. Also on B12 sublingually, magnesium, Centrum Silver Vitamin, CoQ10 ...
Day1 of pulse 7 and, so far, i can feel the abxi! Which, i guess, is a good sign!. But, in truth, i wanted to post about vitamin B12, and, strangely, just saw Ricas response to a different post,, mentioning her intake of it.. I first contacted David Wheldoni after learning how similar the effects of pernicious anaemia are to MSi, including demyelinationi! I was sure I had it and that the blood readings saying my levels were fine were wrong. All my paternal relatives had or have it, and, based on symptoms, such as my Nana going totally white haired, at the age of 14, think it was in my maternal line also, but DW was the only one saying i could have it too. I followed his advice, tp take 20,000 mcg, sublingually, per day.and, within a week or two, felt, almodt, normal. Talking to my step daughter about her severe respitory problems, which she doesnt believe are caused by asthmai, i had a duh! Moment and re-started the huge B12 doses. Within days my orthostatic hypotension, which had become ...
This route of administration is used for the therapy of bladder cancer and interstitial cystitis. The retention of dosage forms ... Some mucoadhesive materials are able to stick to mucosal lining in the bladder, resist urine wash out effects and provide a ... Consequently, direct administration through the fibrous tunic is common. This is made difficult due to the numerous defense ... With a 0.1-0.7 mm thick mucus layer, the oral cavity serves as an important route of administration for mucoadhesive dosages. ...
The increment in mucosal blood flow with troxipide is more pronounced in the gastric antrum than in the gastric corpus. ... Troxipide administration caused a marked reduction in clinical (abdominal pain, bloating, belching, nausea, vomiting, loss of ... Troxipide enhances mucosal blood flow, which is the secondary defense barrier of gastric mucosa that supplies nutrients and ... Matsui H, Murata Y, Kobayashi F, Shiba R, Momo K, Kondo Y, Nakahara A, Muto H (2001). "Diclofenac-induced gastric mucosal ...
Other physical mucosal alterations are sometimes associated with candida overgrowth, such as Fissured tongue (rarely), or ... depending on the route of administration. Topically administered corticosteroids in the mouth may take the form of mouthwashes ... Endocrine disorders, e.g., diabetes (when poorly controlled). Presence of certain other mucosal lesions, especially those that ... dissolving lozenges or mucosal gels; sometimes being used to treat various forms of stomatitis. Systemic corticosteroids may ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for wood dust ... Breathing airborne wood dust may cause allergic respiratory symptoms, mucosal and non-allergic respiratory symptoms, and cancer ... the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH ... United Startes Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Wood Dust. http://www.osha.gov/SLTC/wooddust ...
... allowing extension of mucosal immunity.[26] The same probably occurs for cells mediating mucosal immune tolerance. ... Repeated administration of the allergen in slowly increasing doses, subcutaneously or sublingually appears to be effective for ... Usually, Treg cells, TR1, and Th3 cells at mucosal surfaces suppress type 2 CD4 helper cells, mast cells, and eosinophils, ... Peripheral mucosal immune tolerance, in particular mediated by iTreg cells and tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is thought ...
"Intragastric and intraperitoneal administration of Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis induces systemic and mucosal ... Cry1Ac is a mucosal adjuvant (an immune-response enhancer). It has been used in research to develop a vaccine against the ... CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) Pabst R (2015). "Mucosal vaccination by the intranasal route. Nose-associated lymphoid ...
In response to the growing base of literature on this association, the United States Food and Drug Administration issued a ... Patients with removable prostheses should be examined for areas of mucosal irritation. Procedures which are likely to cause ... the risk for BRONJ is high even after stopping the administration of the medication for several years. Dentoalveolar surgery is ... Jaw pain and neuropathy Loose teeth Mucosal swelling Erythema Suppuration Soft tissue ulceration persisting for more than 8 ...
United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 8 March 2017.. *^ "Information for Healthcare Professionals: Valdecoxib ( ... Over 50% of patients who take NSAIDs have sustained some mucosal damage to their small intestine.[58] ... Such damage occurs irrespective of the route of administration of the NSAID (e.g., oral, rectal, or parenteral) and can occur ... US Food and Drug Administration. 15 April 2003. Retrieved 24 July 2010.. ...
On October 23, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued an Emergency Use Authorization for Peramivir (now expired), ... April 2006). "Type I IFN as a vaccine adjuvant for both systemic and mucosal vaccination against influenza virus". Vaccine. 24 ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) - see also "Systemic effects of interferons after oral administration in animals ... July 2008). "Effect of sublingual administration of interferon-alpha on the immune response to influenza vaccination in ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 30 May 2018. Retrieved 31 May 2018.. ... The theory of sulfur as an etiological factor is related to the gut microbiota and mucosal sulfide detoxification in addition ... A formulation of budesonide was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of active ulcerative ... Mahadeva U, Martin JP, Patel NK, Price AB (July 2002). "Granulomatous ulcerative colitis: a re-appraisal of the mucosal ...
... allowing extension of mucosal immunity. The same probably occurs for cells mediating mucosal immune tolerance. Oral tolerance ... Repeated administration of the allergen in slowly increasing doses, subcutaneously or sublingually appears to be effective for ... Peripheral mucosal immune tolerance, in particular mediated by iTreg cells and tolerogenic antigen-presenting cells, is thought ... Repeated administration of antibiotics, which can form haptens to cause allergic reactions, can also reduce antibiotic ...
The oral administration of tomatine in doses of 15-30 mg/kg or the intramuscular administration in the dose range of 1-10 mg/kg ... In vitro studies showed that tomatine increased the permeability of the small intestinal mucosal cell, resulting in inhibition ... Oral administration of tomatine to frogs induces a cationic effect on cardiac contraction, producing symptoms of tachycardia. ... In a research on frogs, oral administration of low-concentration tomatine has a cationic effect on cardiac contractions. It is ...
If there is an abnormally large drop in white blood cell count, or any blood cell count, administration of the drug should be ... Physicians first direct treatment to inducing a remission which involves relief of symptoms and mucosal healing of the lining ... Frequent blood cell counts are also recommended during administration of mercaptopurine. The drug may be toxic to bone marrow, ... The goal is to induce remission initially with medications, followed by the administration of maintenance medications to ...
... phthalate and ethanol after oral administration in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract or in the intestinal mucosal cells. ... In rats, for instance, repeated administration of DEP results in loss of germ cell populations in the testis. However, diethyl ...
Distribution of cyclosporine A in ocular tissues after topical administration of cyclosporine A cationic emulsions to pigmented ... Mucosal delivery of biopharmaceuticals, Springer Science New York 2014 Daull P, Lallemand F, Philips B, Lambert G, Buggage R, ...
A theme of Wiedermann's allergy research has been the treatment of allergies via mucosal tolerance induction with recombinant ... "Perinatal maternal administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC 2461 prevents allergic inflammation in a mouse model of birch ... After returning to the Medical University of Vienna Wiedermann researched mucosal vaccination against allergic diseases and ... Wiedermann U. (October 1, 2005). "Prophylaxis and therapy of allergy by mucosal tolerance induction with recombinant allergens ...
... and topical administration of pDNA to the eye and vaginal mucosa. Mucosal surface delivery has also been achieved using ... It can also be accomplished by the co-administration of plasmid DNA encoding immune regulatory molecules, i.e. cytokines, ... This concept was applied in topical administration of pDNA encoding IL-10. Plasmid encoding B7-1 (a ligand on APCs) ... The advantages of genetic adjuvants are their low cost and simple administration, as well as avoidance of unstable recombinant ...
... by IL-33 in vivo is believed to induce the severe pathological changes observed in mucosal organs following administration of ...
Dietrich, J., Andersen, C., Rappuoli, R., Doherty, T. M., Jensen, C. G., Andersen, P. Mucosal Administration of Ag85B-ESAT-6 ...
The mucosal surface is usually intact except for areas of ulceration, which are generally present in 50% of GISTs. Ulcerations ... 5 cm), heterogeneous enhancement after contrast administration and ulcerations. Also, overtly malignant behavior (in ... Mucosal ulcerations may also be present. In contrast enhanced CT images, large GISTs appear as heterogeneous masses due to ... are high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and enhance after administration of gadolinium. Signal-intensity voids are ...
Such damage occurs irrespective of the route of administration of the NSAID (e.g., oral, rectal, or parenteral) and can occur ... Recent studies show that over 50% of patients who take NSAIDs have sustained some mucosal damage to their small intestine. ... United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 2017-03-08. "Information for Healthcare Professionals: Valdecoxib ( ... route of administration, and tolerability profile. Regarding adverse effects, selective COX-2 inhibitors have lower risk of ...
Medicinal uses of peppermint have not been approved as effective or safe by the US Food and Drug Administration. With caution ... High oral doses of peppermint oil (500 mg) can cause mucosal irritation and mimic heartburn. As an aroma, peppermint may have ... Menthol activates cold-sensitive TRPM8 receptors in the skin and mucosal tissues, and is the primary source of the cooling ...
Potential vaccines using gas vesicle as an antigen display can be given via the mucosal route as an alternative administration ...
IgA antibodies commonly reside in mucosal linings which coincides with the site of vaccine delivery. However, a significant ... Food and Drug Administration (2002) GRAS Notification for Spirulina Microalgae Specht, Elizabeth A.; Mayfield, Stephen P. " ... the completion of a market ready edible algae vaccine would have a profound impact in the administration and distribution of ... of a foot-and-mouth disease antigen complexed with the cholera toxin subunit B which delivered the antigen to digestion mucosal ...
Several recent clinical trials have aimed to deliver the vaccines via mucosal surfaces to be up-taken by the common mucosal ... Vaccination is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop ... A vaccine administration may be oral, by injection (intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous), by puncture, transdermal or ... "Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity". Expert Review of Vaccines. 11 (3): 367-79. doi:10.1586/ ...
The mucosal lining of the bladder could also be involved in approximately 5 percent of the children undergoing hematopoietic ... Prior to the administration of new cells (engraftment) patients may go for several weeks without appreciable numbers of white ... The injury of the mucosal lining of the mouth and throat is a common regimen-related toxicity following ablative HSCT regimens ...
Dry powder vaccines for mucosal administration: Critical factors in manufacture and delivery. In Mucosal Vaccines Modern ... Dry powder vaccines for mucosal administration Critical factors in manufacture and delivery. ...
... Infect ... We conclude that i.n vaccination in the presence of IL-12 is able to enhance systemic and mucosal immune responses to ... as a mucosal adjuvant. Immunized mice treated with IL-12 demonstrated increased expression of lung and splenic gamma interferon ...
... that oral administration of BBG9-1 palliated diarrhea partly through protection against RV-induced lesions by inducing mucosal ... As well as prophylactic oral administration of BBG9-1 from 2 days before RV infection, therapeutic oral administration of BBG9- ... Oral administration of BBG9-1 is thought to be an efficient method for management of an RV epidemic for both prophylactic and ... Therapeutic administration of BBG9-1 reduced various types of damage in the small intestine, such as epithelial vacuolization ...
Flagellin administration protects gut mucosal tissue from irradiation-induced apoptosis via MKP-7 activity ... Flagellin administration protects gut mucosal tissue from irradiation-induced apoptosis via MKP-7 activity ... Hence, the optimal time for flagellin administration is at a time window 2 h before ionising radiation insult. Flagellin ... Results Flagellin pretreatment protected mice from radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis via a Toll-like ...
Anti-inflammatory capacity of lactobacilli peptidoglycan: mucosal and systemic routes of administration promote similar effects ... Anti-inflammatory capacity of lactobacilli peptidoglycan: mucosal and systemic routes of administration promote similar effects ... Lactic Acid Bacteria and Mucosal Immunity, Center for Infection and Immunity of Lille (CIIL), INSERM U1019-CNRS UMR 8204, ... We totally agree, however, that the relevant way of probiotic administration for clinical application is indeed the oral route ...
Mucosal or Parenteral Administration of Microsphere-Associated Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Protects against Anthrax ... Mucosal or Parenteral Administration of Microsphere-Associated Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Protects against Anthrax ... Mucosal or Parenteral Administration of Microsphere-Associated Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Protects against Anthrax ... Mucosal or Parenteral Administration of Microsphere-Associated Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen Protects against Anthrax ...
Lethal gastric mucosal necrosis due to administration of oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate to suckling piglets ... Download PDF Lethal gastric mucosal necrosis due to administration of oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate to suckling piglets. ... Lethal gastric mucosal necrosis due to administration of oral ferrous bisglycinate chelate to suckling piglets. Journal of ... demonstrated severe gastric mucosal ulceration and necrosis. Due to the presence of crystalline iron surface coating within the ...
More specifically, the invention relates to mucosal adm ... Immunization of Avians by Mucosal Administration of Non- ... Immunization of Avians by Mucosal Administration of Non-Replicating Vectored Vaccines*. Posted by Kelsye on Friday, 20 June ... More specifically, the invention relates to mucosal administration via aerosol spray to avians of immunogenic and vaccine ... The invention also provides methods and apparatus for use in such administration. ...
The mucosal atomization devices market is expected to grow at a CAGR of ~7% during the forecast period 2019-2029. North America ... Europe are likely to hold a collective revenue share of ~60% in the global market for mucosal atomization devices, through the ... The global mucosal atomization devices market was valued at ~US$ 400 Mn in the year 2018. ... Mucosal Atomization Devices Market - Delivering a Revolutionary Solution to Intranasal Drug Administration. Pharmaceutical ...
Intravenous administration of l-NNA (3 mg/kg i.v.) resulted in a slight increase of ethanol-induced gastric mucosal damage. ... Investigations on gastric mucosal protective mechanisms are focused mainly on the local mucosal processes. Much less is known ... Administration.. The opioid peptides given either i.c.v. or i.c. inhibited the gastric mucosal lesions induced by acidified ... administration. The results suggest that activation of supraspinal δ- and μ-opioid receptors may induce gastric mucosal ...
Particularly mucosal vaccination is a promising approach to fight against most infectious diseases, because mucosal surfaces ... which was reported to act as a mucosal adjuvant, on the mucosal adjuvant activities of DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes when ... We recently developed an effective mucosal adjuvant of cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane ... underlying the mucosal adjuvant effects exerted by the cationic liposomes have been unclear. In this study, we investigated the ...
This review describes the effectiveness and mode of action of an immunostimulating particle derived from bacteria in mucosal ... This review describes the effectiveness and mode of action of an immunostimulating particle derived from bacteria in mucosal ... The successful development of a mucosal vaccine critically depends on the use of a safe and effective immunostimulant and/or ... The successful development of a mucosal vaccine critically depends on the use of a safe and effective immunostimulant and/or ...
NCU116 isolated from pickled vegetables on intestine mucosal immunity in cyclophosphamide treated mice were investigated. ... Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage * Cytokines / analysis * Cytokines / genetics * Female * GATA3 Transcription Factor ... Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum NCU116 on Intestine Mucosal Immunity in Immunosuppressed Mice J Agric Food Chem. 2015 Dec 30 ... The effects of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) NCU116 isolated from pickled vegetables on intestine mucosal immunity in ...
Coupling of antigens to a transmucosal carrier therefore is a promising tool to improve the efficacy of vaccination via mucosal ... Coupling of antigens to a transmucosal carrier therefore is a promising tool to improve the efficacy of vaccination via mucosal ... In this study we report improved efficacy of oral tolerance induction by coupling antigen with the newly identified mucosal ... demonstrating a moderate tolerogenic effect of mucosal treatment with 13C coupled antigen. ...
In this prospective study, 6 of 220 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis were diagnosed with mucosal involvement by ... Detection of early ML may represent an important strategy in preventing severe mucosal destruction in human leishmaniasis. ... Mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) is often clinically silent until reaching a highly advanced state. ... New supplement articles online: Mass Drug Administration for Malaria: The Zambia Southern Province Trial. ...
1996) Oral administration of Interferon Alpha and The Mucosal Immune System. In: 1996 Federation of Immunological Societies of ...
Oral Mucosal Immunization Approaches for HIV Prevention (R01) RFA-DE-16-006. NIDCR ... Award Administration Information. Section VII. Agency Contacts. Section VIII. Other Information. Part 2. Full Text of ... As most HIV infections begin at mucosal surfaces, induction of innate as well as mucosal humoral and cellular immunity post- ... Mucosal adjuvants to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. *Immune control of HIV infection, replication and spread upon ...
Mucosal administration, and specifically nasal route, constitutes an alternative and promising strategy for drug and vaccine ... imaging and administration devices. A notable increase in the number of approved drugs for nasal administration is envisaged. ... Head of Mucosal Immunology Project, Vaccine Division, Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 6162, Havana ... After systemic administration, lipid vesicles are covered by plasma proteins forming a biomolecular coating, referred to as the ...
Weekly fluconazole for the prevention of mucosal candidiasis in women with HIV infection. A randomized, double-blind, placebo- ... Veterans Administration Med Ctr / Regional AIDS Program. Washington, District of Columbia, United States, 20422 ... Patients undergo follow-up every 3 months or more often if signs and symptoms of mucosal candidiasis occur. ... Double-Blind Study Comparing Fluconazole With Placebo for Primary and Secondary Prophylaxis of Mucosal Candidiasis in HIV- ...
Direct immunization of relevant mucosal surfaces with a vectored vaccine may stimulate mucosal immunity. The ALVAC-HIV vCP205 ... Patients are randomly assigned to 1 of 7 drug administration routes as follows:. Group A: Intramuscular Group B: Oral Group C: ... Direct immunization of relevant mucosal surfaces with a vectored vaccine may stimulate mucosal immunity. The ALVAC-HIV vCP205 ... To compare the safety of ALVAC-HIV vCP205 to that of ALVAC-RG vCP65 rabies glycoprotein, delivered by a variety of mucosal ...
Regarding another feature on mucosal physiology, we studied the effect of L. kefiri administration on the expression of mucin ... Figure 4: Gene expression ratio of Lk group versus control group after 21 days of L. kefiri administration. The x-axis of the ... Ex Vivo Mice Intestinal Explants to Study Mucosal Anti-Inflammatory Effect of L. kefiri. To analyze the ability of L. kefiri ... The administration of L. kefiri for a longer period, 21 days, produced higher expression levels of IL-10, CXCL-1, and mucin 6 ...
RRR-α-tocopherol (RRR-α-Toc) used for VE administration and 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine were purchased from Sigma (St. Louis ... Gastric Mucosal NPSH, VC, and VE Concentrations. Rats with 6 h of WIRS alone had significantly lower gastric mucosal NPSH, VC, ... Y. Ohta, Y. Kamiya, Y. Imai, T. Arisawa, and H. Nakano, "Role of gastric mucosal ascorbic acid in gastric mucosal lesion ... The amount of gastric mucosal LPO is expressed as that of malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents. Gastric mucosal NOx (nitrite/ ...
GENERAL DISORDERS AND ADMINISTRATION SITE CONDITIONS. Mucosal inflammation. 82 (25). 14 (4). 53(16). 1 ( , 1). ... Skin and ocular/visual changes [see BOXED WARNING, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS] ... Dermatologic and Soft Tissue Toxicity [see BOXED WARNING, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] ... Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Skin necrosis, angioedema [see BOXED WARNING, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and WARNINGS ...
Mucosal Immunol. 2013;6(4):678-691.. View this article via: PubMed CrossRef Google Scholar ... Antigen-loaded monocyte administration induces potent therapeutic antitumor T cell responses. Min-Nung Huang,1,2 Lowell T. ... For cellular vaccine administration, Ag-loaded myeloid or lymphoid cells were either SQ injected at the left flank or IV ... Administration of Ag-loaded monocytes offers several potential advantages as a vaccine platform. First, it is extremely simple ...
Intranasal formulations provide systemic and mucosal immune protection, but they have the potential for more serious side ... they do not confer the mucosal immunity needed for more thorough prevention of the spread of respiratory disease. ... mucosal administration; immunomodulation; nanovaccines polymeric vaccines; respiratory infections; mucosal administration; ... Intranasal formulations provide systemic and mucosal immune protection, but they have the potential for more serious side ...
  • In this study, we investigated the efficacy of intranasal (i.n.) conjugate vaccine delivery using interleukin-12 (IL-12) as a mucosal adjuvant. (nih.gov)
  • We recently developed an effective mucosal adjuvant of cationic liposomes composed of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) and 3β-[ N -( N ′, N ′-dimethylaminoethane)-carbamoyl] (DC-chol) (DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the mechanism(s) underlying the mucosal adjuvant effects exerted by the cationic liposomes have been unclear. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the role of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), which was reported to act as a mucosal adjuvant, on the mucosal adjuvant activities of DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes when administered intranasally to mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that, although intranasal vaccination with cationic liposomes in combination with antigenic protein elicited GM-CSF expression at the site of administration, blocking GM-CSF function by using an anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibody did not alter antigen-specific antibody production induced by DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes, indicating that GM-CSF may not contribute to the mucosal adjuvant activity of the cationic liposomes when administered intranasally. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although the molecular mechanisms underlying the mucosal adjuvant effects exerted by cationic liposomes was unclear, we revealed that these cationic liposomes promote the uptake of antigenic proteins by dendritic cells (DCs) in nasal-associated lymphoid tissues (NALTs) in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These views led us to investigate the role of cytokines in the mucosal adjuvant activity of DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the present study, we hypothesized that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) might be associated with the mucosal adjuvant effects of DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes administered intranasally to mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evaluate the safety of intranasal administration of Vacc-4x with Endocine as adjuvant at three different dose levels [ Time Frame: 2 months after completion of last patient. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We show that these properties can be exploited to both protect and adjuvant vaccine antigens for oral administration. (nature.com)
  • Mucosal vaccination against diphtheria using starch microparticles as adjuvant for cross-reacting material (CRM197) of diphtheria toxin. (diva-portal.org)
  • Safety And Immunogenicity Of A Prototype Oral Whole-Cell Killed Campylobacter Vaccine Administered With A Mucosal Adjuvant In Non-Human Primates," Vaccine, 13(1):22-28 (1995). (patentgenius.com)
  • I. European Patent No. 0 732 937 (application No. 95 903 889.4) with the title 'Non-toxic mucosal adjuvant' was granted with 14 claims. (epo.org)
  • 1. A pharmaceutical composition comprising a non-toxic mucosal adjuvant in admixture with a second antigen, characterised in that (a) said non-toxic mucosal adjuvant is a detoxified bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxin having a mutant A subunit, wherein said bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxin is E.coli heat labile toxin (LT), and (b) said second antigen is a viral or bacterial antigen derived from a pathogenic organism. (epo.org)
  • 4. Use of a detoxified bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxin having a mutant A subunit as a mucosal adjuvant in the preparation of a composition for mucosal administration, wherein said bacterial ADP-ribosylating toxin is cholera toxin (CT) or E.coli heat labile toxin (LT). (epo.org)
  • At the moment there is no licensed mucosal adjuvant for human use. (diva-portal.org)
  • In this thesis nasal vaccination with influenza antigen together with the mucosal adjuvant Endocine™ and other mucosal adjuvants has been evaluated. (diva-portal.org)
  • For HIV, DNA-vaccination has been evaluated together with a plasmid encoding Salmonella typhimurium flagellin C and the mucosal adjuvant N3. (diva-portal.org)
  • These claims provide patent protection for the oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT) platform. (cnbc.com)
  • Oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT) uses a proprietary, specially formulated toothpaste to incorporate and stabilize allergenic proteins that are administered while a user brushes their teeth, delivering key agents to the areas of the oral cavity with the highest density of the immune cells responsible for initiating desensitization. (cnbc.com)
  • Accelerated tooth socket healing and oral mucosal healing are important for masticatory functions. (dovepress.com)
  • However, the investigators of these studies did not deliver the IFNα by the oral mucosal route. (mdpi.com)
  • The presence of detectable IFNα in the blood may not be required or even desired for IFNα administered by the oral mucosal route to activate systemic host protective mechanisms. (mdpi.com)
  • Analysis of the molecular form of genital IgA indicated that the majority of both total IgA and specific IgA antibody was polymeric, and likely derived from the common mucosal immune system. (asm.org)
  • Conventionally, the genital tract has been considered a component of the common mucosal immune system (CMIS), and there is much evidence to sustain that concept, especially with respect to the female tract. (asm.org)
  • Effective intranasal immunisation strategies suggest the prospect of protection from inhaled antigens within the respiratory and nasal mucosa and also throughout other mucosal tissues that together comprise the common mucosal immune system 1 , 2 . (wiley.com)
  • Since gastric acid is not involved in the pathomechanism of mucosal damage induced by ethanol, the protective effect is likely to be due to an increase of mucosal defense but not to inhibition of acid secretion. (aspetjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, studies done on the effects of stress on the mucosal immunesystem have focused almost exclusively in relation to inflammatory diseases of the intestineand the secretion of IgA in saliva.The abundant information available confirms that psychological stress plays a fundamentalrole in the physiopathology and clinical symptoms of intestinal inflammatory diseases inhumans [9, (slideshare.net)
  • These results suggest 4-week ingestion of a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increases salivary SIgA secretion and possibly improves mucosal immune function in humans. (wellnessresources.com)
  • The present study was conducted to clarify the protective effect of Brazilian propolis ethanol extract (BPEE) against stress-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. (hindawi.com)
  • The protective effect of BPEE against gastric mucosal lesions in male Wistar rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) for 6 h was compared between its repeated preadministration (50 mg/kg/day, 7 days) and its single preadministration (50 mg/kg). (hindawi.com)
  • The repeated BPEE preadministration attenuated WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions and gastric mucosal oxidative stress more largely than the single BPEE preadministration. (hindawi.com)
  • The protective effect of the repeated preadministration of BPEE against WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions was similar to that of a single preadministration of vitamin E (250 mg/kg) in terms of the extent and manner of protection. (hindawi.com)
  • From these findings, it is concluded that BPEE preadministered in a repeated manner protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats exposed to WIRS more effectively than BPEE preadministered in a single manner possibly through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. (hindawi.com)
  • It has been reported that the hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian green propolis, the main phenolic acids in the extract, and Baccharis dracunculifolia , the main botanical source of Brazilian green propolis, protect against gastric mucosal lesions induced by ethanol, indomethacin, or water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) in rats [ 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • NO) produced via increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) contribute to the development of WIRS-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats [ 9 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our previous report has shown that a single oral preadministration of the ethanol extract of Brazilian green propolis protects against gastric mucosal lesions in rats with 6 h of WIRS through its antioxidant properties, although the protective effect of the extract is lower at its dose of 100 mg/kg than at its dose of 50 mg/kg [ 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • It is used for the management of gastric ulcers, and amelioration of gastric mucosal lesions in acute gastritis and acute exacerbation of chronic gastritis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results Flagellin pretreatment protected mice from radiation-induced intestinal mucosal injury and apoptosis via a Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)-dependent mechanism. (bmj.com)
  • Studies were performed to evaluate the role of epithelial CD47 expression in models of intestinal mucosal injury and repair in vivo. (nature.com)
  • Our results prompted us to propose at best a prospective multicenter study evaluating the role of mucosal affection in toxic epidermal necrolysis. (egms.de)
  • To reach this goal, a translational research is critical to propose innovative approaches for an HIV vaccine enhancing broadly cross-reactive mucosal, humoral and cellular immune responses specific to HIV antigens. (europa.eu)
  • To assess whether FDG-avidity and KIT phosphorylation responses after treatment with dasatinib predicts prolonged time to recurrence and/or overall survival in patients with completely resectable acral, CSD, and mucosal melanomas 6. (mdanderson.org)
  • Serum and salivary antibodies were also evaluated as measures of disseminated mucosal and systemic responses. (asm.org)
  • The potatoes produced blood serum and mucosal immune responses in the mice to which they were fed, reducing cholera-related diarrhea in the mice by about 60 percent (T. Arakawa et al. (the-scientist.com)
  • Additionally, Dex blocked mucosal and lethargic responses and attenuated LPS-induced increases in TNF-alpha. (usda.gov)
  • However, induction of genital tract and rectal Ab responses of the magnitude generated by local V-FP imm or R imm will likely require administration of comparably high nasal vaccine dosages. (jimmunol.org)
  • Genetic and immunological studies point to defective responses of lung resident cells, especially those associated with the mucosal epithelium, as crucial elements in the pathogenesis of asthma. (scribd.com)
  • However, there is a paucity of studies done with individuals suffering from diseases that may influence the induction of mucosal immune responses. (asm.org)
  • 2009) Efficient Colonic Mucosal Wound Repair Requires Trem2 Signaling. (scirp.org)
  • This study was designed to investigate whether supplemental oral calcium has a suppressant effect on colonic mucosal ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and tyrosine kinase activities in patients with adenomatous polyps or a history of adenomatous polyps and whether this is affected by age. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We further demonstrate a critical role of epithelial expressed CD47, as mice selectively deficient in intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) CD47 expression did not display abnormalities under resting conditions but exhibited profound defects in closure of biopsy-induced mucosal wounds as well as markedly impaired colonic mucosal wound repair from cyclic exposure to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced injury. (nature.com)
  • Microencapsulation of vaccine antigens offers a number of advantages over traditional vaccine formulations, including stability without refrigeration and the potential for utilizing less invasive routes of administration. (asm.org)
  • More specifically, the invention relates to mucosal administration via aerosol spray to avians of immunogenic and vaccine compositions, including those comprising recombinant human adenovirus vectors for delivery of genes encoding avian immunogens or antigens, such as genes encoding avian influenza virus. (gallusimmunotech.com)
  • Notably, oral administration of soluble antigens has been shown to induce systemic unresponsiveness and can be mediated by the induction of regulatory cells or by clonal deletion and/or induction of anergy in effector cells, a response designated as oral tolerance ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • It seems clear that both male and female tracts lack true mucosal inductive sites, which are collectively known as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) and are typified by intestinal Peyer's patches and similar organized lymphoepithelial structures in the lower bowel and upper respiratory tract. (asm.org)
  • Therefore, the effect of the olfactory mucosa due to the respiratory mucosal remodeling was indicated that the possibility of dysfunction of the olfactory mucosa was due to the secretory change. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The results indicate that 1) activation of supraspinal δ- and μ-opioid receptors induces gastric mucosal protection, 2) integrity of vagal nerve is necessary for the gastroprotective action of opioids, and 3) mucosal nitric oxide and prostaglandins may be involved in the opioid-induced gastroprotection. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The shortcomings of needle-based injections along with fear among patients has led to the onset of novel needleless intranasal drug delivery technologies such as mucosal atomization devices. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • In this prospective study, 6 of 220 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis were diagnosed with mucosal involvement by otorhinolaryngological examination (a rate similar to the reported rate of late ML). Detection of early ML may represent an important strategy in preventing severe mucosal destruction in human leishmaniasis. (ajtmh.org)
  • Patients undergo follow-up every 3 months or more often if signs and symptoms of mucosal candidiasis occur. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Dermatologic toxicities occurred in 90% of patients and were severe (NCI-CTC grade 3 and higher) in 15% of patients receiving Vectibix monotherapy [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , and ADVERSE REACTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Vectibix is not indicated for the treatment of patients with KRAS-mutant mCRC or for whom KRAS mutation status is unknown [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS , and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ]. (rxlist.com)
  • Randomized patients received daily oral administration of 4.5-mg naltrexone or placebo. (nih.gov)
  • To compare the biological response of tumors harboring exon 11 or 13 KIT mutations versus tumors without exon 11 or 13 KIT mutations from patients with acral, or mucosal melanomas after treatment with dasatinib. (mdanderson.org)
  • To evaluate molecular changes of tumors harboring exon 11 or 13 KIT mutations versus tumors without KIT exon 11 or 13 mutations from patients with acral or mucosal melanomas after treatment with dasatinib by assessing apoptosis, autophagy and cell proliferation markers 3. (mdanderson.org)
  • To assess the median time to recurrence and overall survival of patients with completely resectable acral, CSD, and mucosal melanoma treated with dasatinib 5. (mdanderson.org)
  • To assess whether exon 11 or 13 KIT mutation status predicts prolonged time to recurrence and/or overall survival in patients with completely resectable acral, CSD, and mucosal melanomas treated with dasatinib Not Completely Resectable Acral, CSD, and Mucosal Melanoma: 7. (mdanderson.org)
  • To assess the response rate, progression free survival, and overall survival of patients with acral, CSD, and mucosal melanoma treated with dasatinib 8. (mdanderson.org)
  • 1) Patients must have primary, recurrent or metastatic melanoma with one of the following pathology or characteristics: i) acral lentiginous melanoma ii) mucosal melanoma iii) any known KIT mutation. (mdanderson.org)
  • These patients also had a corresponding decrease in their rectal mucosal ODC activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alternatively, patients whose ODC was not affected by calcium showed no apparent change in the relative concentration of rectal mucosal phosphotyrosine membrane proteins. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our data indicate that there is an age-related increase in basal rectal mucosal ODC activity in patients with adenomatous polyps which can be suppressed with calcium supplementation p.o., suggesting a role for dietary calcium in the chemoprevention of colorectal neoplasia. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In patients, children or adults with severe congenital, cyclic, or idiopathic neutropenia with an absolute neutrophil count (ANC) of ≤ 0.5 x 10 9 /L, and a history of severe or recurrent infections, long term administration of Accofil is indicated to increase neutrophil counts and to reduce the incidence and duration of infection-related events. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Intravenous administration of the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine has been tested in patients with ARDS, with contradictory results regarding survival ( 9 - 11 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • On the other hand, oral and intravenous administration of ascorbic acid has been shown to decrease the severity of ALI in patients with severe burns ( 12 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Mucosal affection was seen in 16 out of 25 patients. (egms.de)
  • Nine out of ten (90%) of the dead patients showed mucosal affections (p=0,027) with a mean age of 70 23 years and a mean TBSA of 71 27% (p=0,01). (egms.de)
  • Troxipide enhances mucosal blood flow, which is the secondary defense barrier of gastric mucosa that supplies nutrients and oxygen to the epithelium, and removes, dilutes and neutralizes toxic substances that have diffused into the mucosa from the lumen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conversely, local V imm was found more effective than O imm or R imm for generating mucosal IgA Ab in cervical and vaginal secretions ( 7 , 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • b Histology scores to assess microscopic inflammation and structural architecture were determined at baseline and after 12 weeks of either naltrexone therapy or placebo by mucosal biopsy samples obtained during colonoscopies. (nih.gov)
  • In particular, we recently reported that the PC pathway controls microvascular inflammation by down-regulating endothelial EPCR and TM expression, thereby impairing activation of PC by the inflamed mucosal microvasculature ( 5 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • Administration of ascorbate and deferoxamine reduces mortality and decreases lung injury through reduction of alveolar-capillary permeability, inflammation, and epithelial sloughing and lipid peroxidation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Our studies show that administration of ascorbate and deferoxamine reduced mortality and decreased lung injury through reduction of alveolar-capillary permeability, inflammation, and epithelial sloughing and lipid peroxidation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the multitude of mechanisms involved in the development of gastric mucosal inflammation, derangement of the microcirculatory system is a common initial pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro, treatment of epithelial cells with activated PC led to protection of tight junction disruption induced by TNF-α, and in vivo, topical treatment with activated PC led to mucosal healing and amelioration of colitis. (pnas.org)
  • This study evaluated the contribution of supraspinal opioid receptors to gastric mucosal protection in the rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore we examined the effect of centrally administered different opioid peptides on an ethanol ulcer model where the gastric mucosal lesion is due to peripheral mechanisms and central components are not likely to be involved in the lesion formation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therapy with the opioid antagonist naltrexone promotes mucosal healing in active Crohn's disease: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. (nih.gov)
  • Necropsy examination of suckling piglets (n = 12), selected randomly from the test farms with increased death rates, demonstrated severe gastric mucosal ulceration and necrosis. (uzh.ch)