The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Glucose in blood.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
The consumption of edible substances.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.

Mucosal delivery of human papillomavirus pseudovirus-encapsidated plasmids improves the potency of DNA vaccination. (1/29)

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Assessment of route of administration and dose escalation for an adenovirus-based influenza A Virus (H5N1) vaccine in chickens. (2/29)

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Development and characterization of mucoadhesive in situ nasal gel of midazolam prepared with Ficus carica mucilage. (3/29)

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Intragastric self-infusion of ethanol in high- and low-drinking mouse genotypes after passive ethanol exposure. (4/29)

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LT-IIc, a new member of the type II heat-labile enterotoxin family, exhibits potent immunomodulatory properties that are different from those induced by LT-IIa or LT-IIb. (5/29)

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Immunization with a ZmpB-based protein vaccine could protect against pneumococcal diseases in mice. (6/29)

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A mucosal vaccination approach for herpes simplex virus type 2. (7/29)

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Characterization and evaluation of the Moraxella catarrhalis oligopeptide permease A as a mucosal vaccine antigen. (8/29)

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OBJECTIVE: The objective of this selective EBM review is to determine whether or not a once daily topical application of fixed-dose combination gel containing adapalene 0.1%-benzoyl peroxide (BPO) 2.5% (adapalene-BPO) is effective at treating mild to moderate acne. STUDY DESIGN: Three multi-center double blind randomized control studies published in the English language between 2007-2013. STUDY SOURCES: Three peer-reviewed RCTS were found using Pubmed. These studies compared the same fixed-dose combination gel adapalene-BPO against placebo vehicles. Two studies also compared to additional groups receiving monotherapies. OUTCOMES MEASURED: Outcomes measured were improvement of participants acne according to the Investigators Global Assessment of Acne Severity (IGS), percentage change in acne lesions from baseline to post treatment, safety and tolerability assessment scales, participants assessment of their acne improvement, and Childrens Dermatology Life Quality Index. RESULTS: The fixed-dose
Mucoadhesive patch releasing the drug in the oral cavity at predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as tablets, gels and solutions. The present study was concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches of nifedipine as its half life is 2hr and drug has high first pass metabolism. A buccal patch for systemic administration of nifedipine in the oral cavity has been developed using two different mucoadhesive polymers namely HPMC K4M and Carbapol 974. The developed patches were evaluated for the physicochemical, mechanical and drug release characteristics. The formulations were tested for Patch thickness, Surface pH, Folding endurance, Swelling index, Residence time, in vitro drug permeation studies, moisture absorption studies and in vitro bioadhesion studies. The patches showed good mechanical and physicochemical properties to withstand environment of oral cavity. The in-vitro release study showed that patches could deliver drug
Zianasultana. 0 bath, 1932 sqft single family that sold on 3/17/ 15 for $439000. 0 bath, 2365 sqft single family home located at 3844 ziana rd, cameron park, ca 95682 built in 1992. 0 out of 5 on makeupalley. 025% as its active ingredients (i copied and pasted that; 9 jun 2015 product questionvisited a derm for the first time and was prescribed ziana tretinoin . 025% gel ( ziana), an 80-mg dose strength for morphine sulfate; ziana pet care social media. 025% tube of gel ; ziana ; clindamycin; tretinoin is a; the latest tweets from ziana mahmood; (@latishaziana). 025%) gel an average of 3. 025%) gel company: medicis pharmaceutical corporation nda: 050802. 025%) gel, is an antibiotic and retinoid combination gel product with two active ingredients ...
Early-stage development of a topical tofacitinib, fingolimod fixed-dose combination. FMX114 is VYNEs proprietary tofacitinib and fingolimod combination gel formulation under investigation for the treatment of mild to moderate atopic dermatitis. FMX114 attempts to address both the source and cause of inflammation in AD by developing a distinct combination of tofacitinib (a Janus kinase Inhibitor aimed at reducing inflammation by inhibiting cytokine release from inflammatory cells) and fingolimod (Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator) which approaches the reduction of inflammation by inhibiting migration of inflammatory cells and in addition may also directly support skin barrier recovery.6,7,8. A proof of concept study was conducted with FMX114 in a well-known animal model of AD. Two doses of FMX114 (0.6% tofacitinib + 0.01% fingolimod and 0.3% tofacitinib + 0.02% fingolimod) were compared with tofacitinib monotherapy, fingolimod monotherapy, triamcinolone (steroid) 0.1%, and ...
RECALL OR REMOVE ZICAM NASAL GEL FROM THE SHELVES ZICAM COLD REMEDY (a Matrixx Initiative, Inc. product) a homeopathic cold remedy (not approved by the FDA) NASAL GEL (nasal spray) has had thousands of complaints.
Visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks on your progress. They will need to check the level of testosterone in your blood.. This medicine is only approved for use in men who have low levels of testosterone related to certain medical conditions. Heart attacks and strokes have been reported with the use of this medicine. Notify your doctor or health care professional and seek emergency treatment if you develop breathing problems; changes in vision; confusion; chest pain or chest tightness; sudden arm pain; severe, sudden headache; trouble speaking or understanding; sudden numbness or weakness of the face, arm or leg; loss of balance or coordination. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits of this medicine.. This medicine may affect blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, check with your doctor or health care professional before you change your diet or the dose of your diabetic medicine.. Ask your doctor or pharmacist before applying other medicines in the ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Oral HIVacc: Oral Mucosal Immunization Approaches for HIV Prevention (R01) RFA-DE-16-006. NIDCR
Mucosal vaccines Most infectious agents enter the body through the mucosae that line the extensive surface of the digestive, pulmonary and genito-urinary
Mucosal vaccines Most infectious agents enter the body through the mucosae that line the extensive surface of the digestive, pulmonary and genito-urinary
Adjuvants for administration, particularly for mucosal administration, of an antigen, are described, as well as compositions comprising the described adjuvant in combination with an antigen and a phys
Inmunotek is developing MV 140, a sublingually administered bacterial polyvalent vaccine, for the prevention of urinary tract infections. Phase III development
We like it because it debunks a lot of the theories that are floating around these days on messaging boards. One that cites an email from Professor Thomas Burris and his supposed warning against using SR9009. The other theory being that it has zero bioavailability when dosed orally, which has prompted people to mix it with DMSO and dose it sublingually. Some have even gone to the extent of injecting themselves with self-made concoctions. Having used SR9009 in five cycles so far, thee cutting cycles and two bulking cycles, we can vouch for the fact that it is not ineffective. Not by a long shot. We dont disagree to the theory that the bioavailability is debatable. Just because its debatable does not mean that its zero. There is a difference. SR9009 makes us more active, improves our cardio performance and cuts fat. That has been consistent across all the cycles that weve used it for. If you are looking to improve your cardio vascular performance and endurance for any kind of fitness ...
Health,...Company Disagrees with the FDA on Product Safety Concerns Continues t... ...SCOTTSDALE Ariz. June 24 /- Matrixx Initiativ... ...,Matrixx,Initiatives,Confirms,Voluntary,Recall,of,Zicam,Cold,Remedy,Nasal,Gel,,Zicam,Cold,Remedy,Gel,Swabs,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Due to the coronavirus outbreak worldwide, global demand for some personal protective equipment (PPE) is exceeding supply. In addition, manufacturing of PPE and many other wound care and infection prevention products have been impacted by global response to coronavirus. While you may see product availability reduction in the near-term, please be assured Medline continues to work to diversify production and provide your supply needs. As always, please reach out to your Medline sales representative with any specific questions or follow up. ...
Buying direct from our website provides you an additional 15% savings compared to prices at the retail stores.. Made of the highest quality and highest concentration CBD sold anywhere. DioLieve™ 750mg CBD Tincture can be taken orally, sublingually, topically on the skin, mixed in foods or drinks or given to pets. Regular use should reach maximum results in 3-5 days of regular use. ...
New research confirms the efficacy of zincum gluconicum nasal gel in reducing the severity and duration of common cold symptoms when treatment is star
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Collagen type II (CII) is one of the autoantigens associated with RA. CII263-272 is a predominant CII antigenic peptide that can induce T-cell activation upon binding to MHC and interaction with the appropriate T-cell receptor (TCR). Altered CII263-272 peptides with substitution of specific amino acids could bind to RA-associated HLA-DR4/1 with no T cell stimulating effects and could inhibit T cell activation in RA. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of mucosal administration and to explore the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of altered CII263-272 peptide (267Q --> A, 270K --> A and 271G --> A) on collagen induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine CII. Altered CII263-272 peptide was given intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Wild CII263-272 peptide or PBS was administered as controls. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by arthritis scores, body weight ...
Natesto: Testosterone nasal gel is used to treat testosterone deficiency. Testosterone nasal gel should only be used if testosterone deficiency has been confirmed by symptoms and blood tests.
Buy the Hardcover Book Mucosal Vaccines by Hiroshi Kiyono at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on Science and Nature books over $25!
Origin and meaning of sublingual: 1660s; see sub- + lingual. Compare French sublingual (15c.). Related: Sublingually. ... See more.
Philips Respironics has taken the DreamWear Mask to a whole new level by giving the user the option to use both nasal cushions, and now the New Nasal Gel Pillow Cushions in one mask! The DreamWear Gel Nasal Pillow CPAP Mask with Headgear offers an alternative therapy option to the original nasal DreamWear. Instead of t
Hugh Pickens writes The FDA has advised consumers to stop using Matrixx Initiatives Zicam Cold Remedy nasal gel marketed over-the-counter as a cold remedy because it is associated with the loss of sense of smell (anosmia) that may be long-lasting or permanent. The FDA says about 130 consumers hav...
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ABSTRACT. Buccal administration of drug provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. The preferred site for retentive oral transmucosal delivery systems and for sustained and controlled release delivery device is the buccal mucosa. Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of such drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drug from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. The objective of this article ...
Administration; Oral, Animals, Antibodies; Bacterial/blood, Bacterial Proteins/*immunology, Diphtheria/*prevention & control, Diphtheria Toxin/*immunology, Female, Immunity; Mucosal, Immunization, Immunoglobulin E/blood, Immunoglobulin G/blood, Mice, Mice; Inbred BALB C, Starch/administration & dosage, Vaccination ...
The basic premise of vaccinology is to achieve strong protective immunity against defined infectious agents by a vaccine mimicking the effects of natural primary exposure to a pathogen. Because an exposure of humans and animals to microbes occurs mostly through mucosal surfaces, targeting the mucosa seems a rational and efficient vaccination strategy. Many experimental and clinical data confirmed that mucosal immunization offers many advantages over widely used in human and veterinary medicine subcutaneous or intramuscular immunization. In the present article selected aspects regarding mucosal vaccination are discussed. The structure and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), comprised of four main mucosal compartments forming a structural and functional unity as well as pivotal cellular MALT components (dendritic and M cells) were briefly characterized. Particular attention was focused on the mode of simple but efficacious delivery of vaccine antigens to mucosal surfaces. A few trials to
Enhancement of Antituberculosis Immunity in a Humanized Model System by a Novel Virus-Vectored Respiratory Mucosal Vaccine Academic Article ...
There are quite a few ways to consume CBD. Youve got tinctures, capsules, and gummies galore. Then theres the option of vaping CBD…which is something many people swear by. This is because vaping CBD allows for almost immediate relief. It all comes down to bioavailability. Basically, when you consume CBD only a percentage of what you take actually makes it into the bloodstream. This percentage is what bioavailability refers to. Different consumption methods contain different bioavailability levels. When you consume CBD orally (think in the form of a capsule or edible), it must pass through the digestive tract and liver, where much of it is absorbed by the bodys fatty tissues and is then further broken down by the enzymes of the liver before making its way into the bloodstream.. Taking CBD sublingually (a tincture under the tongue) offers a bit more bioavailability than oral consumption. Rather than making its way through the digestive tract and liver, its absorbed by the mucous membranes ...
Despite the threat of the many lawsuits Matrixx Initiatives is up against, its Web site noted that No plaintiff has ever won a court case, because there is no known causal link between the use of Zicam Cold Remedy nasal gel and impairment of smell ...
Medterras Pets CBD Tincture is made with 99%+ pure CBD and MCT oil in strengths of 150mg, 300mg and 750mg. Safe, affordable, easy to use, and legal. Each CBD tincture contains 30 servings that should be given to your pet sublingually. Time spent with pe
Evaluation of adjuvants at the mucosal area for the development of innovative mucosal vaccine against PRRS. Presented at USDA and NPB meeting - Invited Presentation, Des Moines, IA, US,USA. (June 2009). Alternative models for study of respiratory diseases: Pig is a useful animal model to address both infectious and non-infectious lung diseases. Presented at Immunologists Round Table meeting - Invited Presentation, Columbus, OH, US,USA. (November 2010). A non-radioactive colorimetric assay to detect Natural Killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Presented at Immunologists Round Table Meeting - Invited Presentation, Wooster, OH, US,USA. (February 2010). Development of novel mucosal vaccines for the control of PRRS outbreaks.. Presented at USDA NPB meeting - Invited Presentation, Des Moines, IA, US,USA. (June 2010). Mucosal vaccine to protect against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome: a new perspective. Presented at 9th International Veterinary Immunology Society (IVIS) meeting - ...
B-12-SL B-12 SL is a tasty chewable tablet, allowing the vitamin B-12 to dissolve sublingually. Nutrition Info Calories 0 Protein 0g Carbohydrates 0
If you search online for CBD products, you can find gummies, oils, capsules, tinctures, and different products that you need to use. As with the oil, its most likely best to make use of, and some would say its better, but thats questionable. To use the Health Naturals CBD Oil, just use underneath the tongue.. Also had to cancel my debit card and order a brand new one. Anxiety is an issue for many individuals and can significantly influence their day by day lives. To use CBD tinctures, apply beneath the tongue, additionally known as sublingually, for optimum results.. You can even purchase their tinctures in a plethora of sizes, ranging from 50 mg to 1,000 mg and even 1,500 mg tinctures for the seasoned professionals. Every dropper can be utilized for approximately 10 mg. For instance, a person can take pleasure in roughly one hundred drops after purchasing a 1,000 mg bottle of real CBD. Supplement Police is a growing group of heavy-handed natural health advocates determined to highlight and ...
Ursula Wiedermann is an Austrian medical scientist who has made significant contributions in the field of allergies and of cancer immunotherapy. She is currently Professor of Vaccinology at the Medical University of Vienna. Wiedermanns work in the field of B cell peptide vaccines led to the creation of HER-Vaxx, an immunotherapy for the treatment of HER-2-positive cancers. This vaccine is currently being taken into mid-stage clinical development in gastric cancer by the biotech company Imugene, where Wiedermann is Chief Scientific Officer. After obtaining an MD degree from the Medical University of Vienna, Wiedermann gained a PhD in Immunology at the University of Gothenburg in Sweden, where the focus of her PhD work was mucosal immunity and vaccination. After returning to the Medical University of Vienna Wiedermann researched mucosal vaccination against allergic diseases and later began to look at vaccine development against infectious diseases and tumours as well as explore the issues of ...
I have hypothyroidism (1953), diabetes type 2 (1976), high cholesterol (1989), gastroparesis (1990), FMS (1995), and GERD (2006). I am on these meds for FMS: Prozac 20 mg., Xanax .5 mg., Diclofenac 100 mg., Cytotec 200 mcg. (stomach med to go with Diclofenac), Lortab 10/500 mg. I am also on the other meds for various reasons: Nexium 40 mg., Cytomel 50 mcg., Detrol 2 mg., Reglan 10 mg., Novolog insulin, Novolin N insulin, Bumex 1 mg., Lipitor 80 mg. & WelChol 625 mg. 3 a day with dinner. Also on B12 sublingually, magnesium, Centrum Silver Vitamin, CoQ10 ...
Day1 of pulse 7 and, so far, i can feel the abxi! Which, i guess, is a good sign!. But, in truth, i wanted to post about vitamin B12, and, strangely, just saw Ricas response to a different post,, mentioning her intake of it.. I first contacted David Wheldoni after learning how similar the effects of pernicious anaemia are to MSi, including demyelinationi! I was sure I had it and that the blood readings saying my levels were fine were wrong. All my paternal relatives had or have it, and, based on symptoms, such as my Nana going totally white haired, at the age of 14, think it was in my maternal line also, but DW was the only one saying i could have it too. I followed his advice, tp take 20,000 mcg, sublingually, per day.and, within a week or two, felt, almodt, normal. Talking to my step daughter about her severe respitory problems, which she doesnt believe are caused by asthmai, i had a duh! Moment and re-started the huge B12 doses. Within days my orthostatic hypotension, which had become ...
CBD medication products are manufactured from 100% natural and organic as well as terpene vibrant organic halter get! If we as of the moment suggested, CBD would be the practically all abounding cannabinoid throughout hempen necktie herb - by 0,5 to 3% of CBD can be bought in (industrial) hangmans rope vegetation. You can analyze all the ever-growing choice of edibles, provided by THC-infused honies sticks to help personal very worthwhile caress herbal oils, and also concentrates including natural skin oils, crumbles, waxes and additionally shatters. CBD lube, normally often known as any instill, is generally a the liquid which includes a strong amount of cannabidiol. A big caveat to the telltale benefits is undoubtedly that does not unquestionably all of the solutions of which bring in side effects with animal discomfort reviews are going to go on to be employed in humans. Cannabidiol may very well be obtainable because CBD energy resource specifically sublingually applied. Things including ...
HIV-1 infection and mucosal immunity are intimately interrelated. Since the acquisition of HIV-1 primarily occurs through mucosal routes, local immunity at the...
Nasal administration Mucosal immunology Scherließ, Regina (2014). "15. Nasal administration of vaccines". In Foged, Camilla; ...
The increment in mucosal blood flow with troxipide is more pronounced in the gastric antrum than in the gastric corpus. ... Troxipide administration caused a marked reduction in clinical (abdominal pain, bloating, belching, nausea, vomiting, loss of ... Troxipide enhances mucosal blood flow, which is the secondary defense barrier of gastric mucosa that supplies nutrients and ... Matsui H, Murata Y, Kobayashi F, Shiba R, Momo K, Kondo Y, Nakahara A, Muto H (2001). "Diclofenac-induced gastric mucosal ...
"Miltefosine (Impravido) for the Treatment of Visceral, Mucosal and Cutaneous Leishmaniasis" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration ... This includes the three forms of leishmaniasis: cutaneous, visceral and mucosal. It may be used with liposomal amphotericin B ... "FDA approves Impavido to treat tropical disease leishmaniasis". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 19 ... launches Impavido (miltefosine), the first and only oral Rx treatment for visceral, mucosal and cutaneous leishmaniasis, in the ...
This route of administration is used for the therapy of bladder cancer and interstitial cystitis. The retention of dosage forms ... Some mucoadhesive materials are able to stick to mucosal lining in the bladder, resist urine wash out effects and provide a ... Consequently, direct administration through the fibrous tunic is common. This is made difficult due to the numerous defense ... With a 0.1-0.7 mm thick mucus layer, the oral cavity serves as an important route of administration for mucoadhesive dosages. ...
This route of administration is beneficial for mucosal administration and transmucosal administration. Buccal tablets are ... While it has a less permeable effect than sublingual administration, buccal administration is still capable of creating local ... Oral mucosal pathology, Routes of administration, Dosage forms, Gingiva). ... After the administration of the buccal tablet, it must transport either through the epithelial layers to achieve its effect on ...
Data indicates that COVI-VAC is well tolerated, with no significant adverse events reported and that administration of the ... Furthermore, COVI-VAC was shown to stimulate both serum and mucosal antibody immune responses. The vaccine is administered ...
"Mucosal Administration of Collagen V Ameliorates the Atherosclerotic Plaque Burden by Inducing Interleukin 35-dependent ...
Other physical mucosal alterations are sometimes associated with candida overgrowth, such as fissured tongue (rarely), tongue ... depending on the route of administration. Topically administered corticosteroids in the mouth may take the form of mouthwashes ... Naglik JR, Moyes DL, Wächtler B, Hube B (November 2011). "Candida albicans interactions with epithelial cells and mucosal ... ISBN 978-0-443-06839-3. Scully C. "Mucosal Candidiasis (Medscape)". WebMD LLC. Retrieved 8 September 2013. Wikimedia Commons ...
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set the legal limit (permissible exposure limit) for wood dust ... Breathing airborne wood dust may cause allergic respiratory symptoms, mucosal and non-allergic respiratory symptoms, and cancer ... United States Department of Labor: Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Wood Dust. Baran, S., & Teul, I. 2007. Wood ... the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH ...
A transdermal patch is classified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration as a combination product, consisting of a medical ... "Vaccine Delivery to the Oral Cavity Using Coated Microneedles Induces Systemic and Mucosal Immunity". Pharmaceutical Research. ... "Patches, Pumps and Timed Release: New Ways to Deliver Drugs". Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 2007- ... The first commercially available prescription patch was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in December 1979. ...
"Intragastric and intraperitoneal administration of Cry1Ac protoxin from Bacillus thuringiensis induces systemic and mucosal ... Cry1Ac is also a mucosal adjuvant (an immune-response enhancer) for humans. It has been used in research to develop a vaccine ... Pabst R (2015). "Mucosal vaccination by the intranasal route. Nose-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT)-Structure, function and ...
Rhee JH (2020). "Current and New Approaches for Mucosal Vaccine Delivery". Mucosal Vaccines. Mucosal Vaccines. Elsevier. pp. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has now authorized bivalent vaccines to protect against the original COVID ... Intranasal vaccines target mucosal immunity in the nasal mucosa which is a portal for viral entrance to the body. These ... Mudgal R, Nehul S, Tomar S (December 2020). "Prospects for mucosal vaccine: shutting the door on SARS-CoV-2". Human Vaccines & ...
"Mucosal Administration of Ag85B-ESAT-6 Protects against Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Boosts Prior Bacillus ...
Distribution: It has been reported that after cefuroxime axetil administration, it can be found in tonsil tissue, sinus tissue ... Absorption: Once consumed, cefuroxime axetil is converted to the active compound cefuroxime by esterases of mucosal cells in ...
April 2006). "Type I IFN as a vaccine adjuvant for both systemic and mucosal vaccination against influenza virus". Vaccine. 24 ... July 2008). "Effect of sublingual administration of interferon-alpha on the immune response to influenza vaccination in ... "Systemic effects of interferons after oral administration in animals and humans" (PDF). American Journal of Veterinary Research ...
Travis CR (2020-09-30). "As Plain as the Nose on Your Face: The Case for A Nasal (Mucosal) Route of Vaccine Administration for ... It has been demonstrated that intranasally administered SeV can elicit strong mucosal immunity. Thus, mucosal vaccination with ... Sendai virus administration to non-natural hosts results in shedding virions in the airways. Thus, 10 hours later after ... After the second administration, the expression of trans genes is getting reduced by 60% when compared with levels achieved ...
... allowing extension of mucosal immunity. The same probably occurs for cells mediating mucosal immune tolerance. Oral tolerance ... Repeated administration of the allergen in slowly increasing doses, subcutaneously or sublingually appears to be effective for ... Repeated administration of antibiotics, which can form haptens to cause allergic reactions, can also reduce antibiotic ... The systemic effects of oral tolerance may be explained by the extensive recirculation of immune cells primed in one mucosal ...
Multiple routes of drug administration results in varying degrees of efficacy. Topical administration has been shown to have a ... Another study found no significant difference from placebo regarding buccal mucosal bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated ... Oral administration was shown to produce negligible results in laboratory tests. In vitro studies have suggested a theoretical ... In a limited number of human studies of small sample sizes, administration of Yunnan Baiyao has been shown to correlate with " ...
The United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration warns that, "Breathing these particles may cause allergic ... respiratory symptoms, mucosal and non-allergic respiratory symptoms, and cancer." Livestock branding Marking axe Hamerton, ...
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 27 May 2014. Retrieved 8 March 2017. "Information for ... Over 50% of patients who take NSAIDs have sustained some mucosal damage to their small intestine. The risk and rate of gastric ... In October 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required the drug label to be updated for all nonsteroidal anti- ... In October 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required the drug label to be updated for all nonsteroidal anti- ...
Fish have large mucosal surfaces, so the preferred route is immersion, intraperitoneal and oral respectively. Nanoparticles are ... Studies in rabies has shown that efficacy depends on dose and route of administration. These are still in infancy. In 2014, the ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration reviewed the AquAdvantage salmon in a draft environmental assessment and determined that ... FAO: 'Fish farming is the way forward.'(Big Picture)(Food and Agriculture Administration's 'State of Fisheries and Aquaculture ...
Distribution of cyclosporine A in ocular tissues after topical administration of cyclosporine A cationic emulsions to pigmented ... Mucosal delivery of biopharmaceuticals, Springer Science New York 2014 Daull P, Lallemand F, Philips B, Lambert G, Buggage R, ...
... by IL-33 in vivo is believed to induce the severe pathological changes observed in mucosal organs following administration of ... Current treatment includes administration of anti-VEGF but is not sufficient. Retinal pigment epithelial cells can express IL- ... In a mouse model of chronic asthma, anti-IL-33 administration decreased antigen-induced immune response. Similar results were ...
Food and Drug Administration. "Flublok Quadrivalent (Influenza Vaccine)". Food and Drug Administration. "SHINGRIX (Zoster ... the carrier or genetically engineered to be expressed on the surface of the vectors for efficient presentation to the mucosal ... "ENGERIX-B [Hepatitis B Vaccine (Recombinant)]" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. Van Den Ende C, Marano C, Van Ahee A, Bunge ... Recombinant subunit vaccines are safe for administration. However, mild local reactions, including induration and swelling of ...
... and topical administration of pDNA to the eye and vaginal mucosa. Mucosal surface delivery has also been achieved using ... It can also be accomplished by the co-administration of plasmid DNA encoding immune regulatory molecules, i.e. cytokines, ... This concept was applied in topical administration of pDNA encoding IL-10. Plasmid encoding B7-1 (a ligand on APCs) ... The advantages of genetic adjuvants are their low cost and simple administration, as well as avoidance of unstable recombinant ...
The mucosal surface is usually intact except for areas of ulceration, which are generally present in 50% of GISTs. Ulcerations ... 5 cm), heterogeneous enhancement after contrast administration, and ulcerations. Also, overtly malignant behavior (in ... Mucosal ulcerations may also be present. In contrast-enhanced CT images, large GISTs appear as heterogeneous masses due to ... are high signal intensity on T2-weighted images and enhanced after administration of gadolinium. Signal-intensity voids are ...
... and prostaglandin E2 that assist in sustaining host mucosal homeostasis. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has granted pig ... During the next 5 weeks, the larvae undergo four molts (J2, J3, J4, J5) to the adult stage within the mucosal layers. The ... improving mucosal barrier function". Trends in Parasitology. 28 (5): 187-94. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2012.02.008. PMC 4015520. PMID ... while the thin anterior two-thirds remains embedded in the mucosal layers. Adults can be recovered from the distal ileum to the ...
Several recent clinical trials have aimed to deliver the vaccines via mucosal surfaces to be up-taken by the common mucosal ... Vaccination is the administration of a vaccine to help the immune system develop immunity from a disease. Vaccines contain a ... The administration protocols, efficacy, and adverse events of vaccines are monitored by organizations of the US federal ... A vaccine administration may be oral, by injection (intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous), by puncture, transdermal or ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). "FDA approves two therapies to treat IBS-D" (Press release). U.S. Food and Drug ... This in turn results in a reduction of bacteria populations, including gas-producing bacteria, which may reduce mucosal ... It has very low bioavailability due to its poor absorption after oral administration. Because of this local action within the ... Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 2018-01-26. Retrieved 2019-12-16. Linnane C. "Bausch Health stock soars 8.6 ...
Medicinal uses of peppermint have not been approved as effective or safe by the US Food and Drug Administration. With caution ... Menthol activates cold-sensitive TRPM8 receptors in the skin and mucosal tissues, and is the primary source of the cooling ... High oral doses of peppermint oil (500 mg) can cause mucosal irritation and mimic heartburn. Peppermint roots bioaccumulate ...
Kumar N, Mittal M, Sinha M, Thukral B «Neural fibrolipoma in pharyngeal mucosal space: A rare occurrence» (en anglès). Indian J ... A Case Report on a Rare but Serious Debilitating Side-Effect of Fluoroquinolone Administration» (en anglès). J Investig Med ...
The administration of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) has had some success in treating neutropenias of alloimmune and ... the compromise of mucosal, mucociliary and cutaneous barriers; a rapid decline in absolute neutrophil count, duration of ... reduce the occurrence of chemotherapy-induced neutropenia and the associated need for interventions such as the administration ...
Dietrich, J., Andersen, C., Rappuoli, R., Doherty, T. M., Jensen, C. G., Andersen, P. Mucosal Administration of Ag85B-ESAT-6 ...
"Mucosal Immunology. 15 (5): 799-808. doi:10.1038/s41385-022-00511-0. ISSN 1935-3456. PMC 9037584. PMID 35468942. S2CID ... It can be diagnosed by measuring the amount of IgG in a newborn's blood, and is treated with intravenous administration of ... This displays the administration of diphtheria antitoxin from horse serum to young child, dated 1895. ... The administration of horse antitoxin remains the only specific pharmacologic treatment available for botulism.[21] Antitoxin ...
Leon, Juan (2008). "Chapter 9". In Vajdy, Michael (ed.). Immunity Against Mucosal Pathogens. Springer. p. 232. ISBN 978-1-4020- ... polymerase chain reaction are being employed by governmental laboratories such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the ...
"YF-Vax". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 6 August 2019. Retrieved 28 December 2019. World Health Organization (July ... February 2011). "A nasally administered trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is well tolerated, stimulates both mucosal and ... Rutkowski K, Ewan PW, Nasser SM (2013). "Administration of yellow fever vaccine in patients with egg allergy". International ...
The administration of anesthesia causes suppression of protective reflexes, most importantly the gag reflex. As a result, ... disrupted normal mucosal barrier, impaired mucociliary clearance, alter cellular and humoral immunity, obstruction of the ...
The administration of the vaccine to adults confers additional indirect protection (herd immunity) to children. The World ... The anti-toxin intestinal antibodies prevent the cholera toxin from binding to the intestinal mucosal surface, thereby ... In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Vaxchora, a single-dose oral vaccine to prevent cholera for ... "Vaxchora (Cholera vaccine, Live, Oral)" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 March ...
... is a normal part of mucosal microflora in the upper respiratory and genital tract of bovine and ovine animals ... There are many constraints to vaccine use on top of ineffectiveness, including the timeliness of administration, adverse ... there are conflicting effects due to herd vaccination and there is asymptomatic colonization at mucosal sites. Histophilosis is ...
Intranasal administration of PGLYRP3 protects mice from lung infection with S. aureus and E. coli, but PGLYRP3-deficient mice ... Igartua C, Davenport ER, Gilad Y, Nicolae DL, Pinto J, Ober C (February 2017). "Host genetic variation in mucosal immunity ...
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to co-sponsor a one-day workshop on biofilms. The resulting workshop, "Biofilms, Medical ... "Mucosal biofilm formation on middle-ear mucosa in the chinchilla model of otitis media". JAMA. 287 (13): 1710-1715. doi:10.1001 ...
Secretolytic (mucus-liquefying) action: A mucus-liquefying effect has been observed in mice under administration of ELOM-080. ... of the mucosal cells assist in clearance of mucus from the airways. The beat frequency of these cilia is accelerated by ELOM- ... Smaller capsules with an active ingredient content of 120 mg contain the medicinal product Myrtol® for administration to ...
During a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) COX-2 advisory committee meeting, doctors have underlined the important role ... "Dose-effect comparisons of the CINOD AZD3582 and naproxen on upper gastrointestinal tract mucosal injury in healthy subjects". ... Food and Drug Administration determined that further clinical trials would be needed to obtain approval. Many people are ...
Bals R, Lang C, Weiner DJ, Vogelmeier C, Welsch U, Wilson JM (March 2001). "Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) mucosal ... These qualities also limit routes of administration, typically to injection, infusion, or slow release therapy. Antimicrobial ...
The Food and Drug Administration began to review the safety of triclocarban and triclosan in the 1970s, but due to the ... Triclocarban acts to treat both initial bacterial skin and mucosal infections as well as those infections at risk for ... In December 2013, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required all companies to prove within the next year, that ... On September 2, 2016, the Food and Drug Administration announced that triclosan and triclocarban must be removed from all ...
... but other mucosal exposures, such as dental procedures, can also produce systemic reactions. Latex and banana sensitivity may ... is the only specific IgE assay to receive Food and Drug Administration approval to quantitatively report to its detection limit ...
Crosby was invited by the Veterans Administration to become one of 11 professors in its nationwide Distinguished Physicians ... 1963;14:349-70 Intestinal Mucosal Mechanisms Controlling Iron Absorption. Blood. 1963 Oct;22:406-15 Iron Absorption: The Effect ...
Smith AC, Molyneux K, Feehally J, Barratt J (2006). "O-glycosylation of serum IgA1 antibodies against mucosal and systemic ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 17 December 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2021. This article incorporates text from this ... Dietary gluten restriction, used to reduce mucosal antigen challenge, also has not been shown to preserve kidney function. ... This strongly suggests degalactosylation of IgA1 is a result of an underlying phenomenon (abnormal mucosal antigen handling) ...
Some live attenuated vaccines have additional common, mild adverse effects due to their administration route. For example, the ... Mucosal: Nasal (e.g. live attenuated influenza vaccine) Oral (e.g. oral polio vaccine, recombinant live attenuated cholera ... Herzog, Christian (2014). "Influence of parenteral administration routes and additional factors on vaccine safety and ...
Potential vaccines using gas vesicle as an antigen display can be given via the mucosal route as an alternative administration ...
Scott, Kevin G.-E.; Yu, Linda C. H.; Buret, André G. (June 2004). "Role of CD8+ and CD4+ T Lymphocytes in Jejunal Mucosal ... "Metronidazole Prescribing Information" (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Pfizer. June 2015. pp. 6-7. Archived ... Eckmann, Lars (May 2003). "Mucosal defences against Giardia". Parasite Immunology. 25 (5): 259-270. doi:10.1046/j.1365- ... "Tinidazole Prescribing Informatiuon" (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. Mission Pharma. May 2007. p. 1. ...
July 2009). "Systemic administration of an antagonist of the ATP-sensitive receptor P2X7 improves recovery after spinal cord ... Kurashima Y, Kiyono H (March 2014). "New era for mucosal mast cells: their roles in inflammation, allergic immune responses and ...
"FDA approves new eczema drug Dupixent". US Food & Drug Administration. 28 March 2017. Archived from the original on 28 March ... About 30% of patients' allergies with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and mucosal lesions, but negative results from serologic ( ... "FDA Approves Eucrisa for Eczema". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 14 December 2016. "Eucrisa (crisaborole) Ointment, 2%, for ... "Public Health Advisory: Elidel (pimecrolimus) Cream and Protopic (tacrolimus) Ointment". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 10 ...
A less-invasive treatment option is the administration of butyrate-as oral supplements or enemas-which has been shown to be ... Mucosal Immunology. 11 (3): 785-796. doi:10.1038/mi.2017.75. PMID 29067994. Furusawa, Yukihiro; Obata, Yuuki; Fukuda, Shinji; ...
"Hepatitis B Archived 2010-03-15 at the Wayback Machine". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "World Hepatitis Day 2012". WHO. ... skin and mucosal contact. 'High risk' types of HPV cause almost all cervical cancers, as well as some anal, penile, and vulvar ... skin and mucosal, transmissible with or without visible blisters HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus)-venereal fluids, semen, ...
Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes. British J ... Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes ... Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes ... Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes was of high ...
Mucosal stimulation following oral administration of emu oil represents a process of normal intestinal growth in rats. ... Dive into the research topics of Mucosal stimulation following oral administration of emu oil represents a process of normal ...
Treatment of primary Sjögrens syndrome with low-dose natural human interferon-alpha administered by the oral mucosal route: a ... Administration, Oral * Adult * Aged * Aged, 80 and over * Dose-Response Relationship, Drug ...
Veterans Administration Clinic. Joseph L Jorizzo, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of ... encoded search term (Mucosal Candidiasis) and Mucosal Candidiasis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Mucosal Candidiasis Treatment & Management. Updated: May 26, 2022 * Author: John R Edminister, MD; Chief Editor: William D ... In the setting of mucosal erosions, appropriate treatment of the primary disorder (e.g. oral lichen planus, pemphigus vulgaris ...
Veterans Administration Clinic. Joseph L Jorizzo, MD is a member of the following medical societies: American Academy of ... encoded search term (Mucosal Candidiasis) and Mucosal Candidiasis What to Read Next on Medscape ... Mucosal Candidiasis Clinical Presentation. Updated: May 26, 2022 * Author: John R Edminister, MD; Chief Editor: William D James ... Angular cheilitis is not specific for mucosal candidiasis. It can also be seen with vitamin B-12 or iron deficiency, Down ...
Administration Details for administration of cidofovir are included with the medication and IND materials that are shipped by ... 2 mucosal surfaces (31) or 10% of body surface area. This condition requires hospitalization and supportive care (30) (Figure ... Administration Detailed instructions regarding the administration of IM and IV VIG are included in the Investigators Brochure ... Contraindications to VIG administration include an acute allergic reaction to thimerosal (for VIGIM) or a history of a severe ...
Administration. Avoid eating or drinking for at least 30-60 minutes after use ... Examples of etiologies causing oral mucosal pain. *Oral mucositis/stomatitis (eg, chemotherapy or radiation therapy) ... Administration. Avoid eating or drinking for at least 30-60 minutes after use ... Examples of etiologies causing oral mucosal pain. *Oral mucositis/stomatitis (eg, chemotherapy or radiation therapy) ...
Interestingly, the mechanism that drive the adjuvant activity of flagellin is influenced by the route of administration. Recent ... 1. Mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin is dependent on Tlr5 signaling and antigen specific CD4+T cells.. To determine ... 6. In vivo neutralization of GM-CSF abrogates the mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin.. In order to determine the role of GM ... In this study, we sought to investigate how the lung epithelial cells regulate the mucosal adjuvanticity of flagellin. The data ...
Nasal administration Mucosal immunology Scherließ, Regina (2014). "15. Nasal administration of vaccines". In Foged, Camilla; ...
... and protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine using mucosal administration and ... Acyltransferases, Adjuvants, Immunologic, Administration, Intranasal, Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Antigens, Bacterial, BCG ... and protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine using mucosal administration and ...
This symposium will evaluate emerging research investigating the benefits of achieving mucosal healing in the treatment of ... He also serves as a member of the board of directors for the Connecticut Veterans Administration Research and Education ... Mucosal Barrier and Entero-hepatic Tissue Engineering. Linda G. Griffith, PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 3:30 PM. ... Mucosal Barrier and Entero-hepatic Tissue Engineering. Linda Griffith, PhD, Massachusetts Institute of Technology. "Mice are ...
In mice, intranasal administration of IFN-α and IFN-γ prevents lethal vaccinia infection (3). IFN-α, IFN-γ, and an IFN inducer ... Modulating innate mucosal immunity is promising as a rapid-acting, broad-spectrum approach to combat bioterrorism (1). Innate ... Tolerance and efficacy of intranasal administration of recombinant beta serine interferon in healthy adults. J Infect Dis. 1988 ... Others drugs are being tested for aerosolized delivery to modulate mucosal immunity of the respiratory tract. All could be ...
5.3 Global Mucosal Market by Region. 5.4 Global Oral Route Market by Region. 5.5 Global Others Market by Region. Chapter 6. ... Chapter 5. Global Peptide Therapeutics Market by Route of Administration. 5.1 Global Parenteral Route Market by Region. 5.2 ... By Route of Administration, By Synthesis Technology, By Type of Manufacturers, By Application, By Regional Outlook and Forecast ...
Almost all bladder cancers originate in the urothelium, which is a 3- to 7-cell mucosal layer within the muscular bladder. ... The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved a FISH assay for the detection of recurrent bladder cancer in voided ... CIS is characterized by full mucosal thickness and high-grade dysplasia of the bladder epithelium and is associated with a ... Irregular areas on images, which may appear to represent mucosal abnormalities, are often artifacts of incomplete bladder ...
Anti-metastatic immunotherapy based on mucosal administration of flagellin and immunomodulatory P10. Immunol Cell Biol 2015; 93 ... Co-administration of flagellin with MHC class II-restricted P1053 or E6/E7 peptides54 or with an adenovirus expressing the MUC- ... Induction of NF-κB activity in reporter mice after administration of M-VM3. (a) M-VM3 induces long-term activation of NF-κB in ... Acute systemic inflammatory response induced following systemic administration of TLR agonists has prevented development of a ...
Moreover, the toxicity that accompanies the use of CT by other routes of administration is not apparent following ... Sera (A and D), mucosal lung (B and E), and stool (C and F) Ab responses to CT after TCI. A and D, C57BL/6 mice (17-22 animals ... In this study, we present data indicating that TCI with CT can induce Abs detectable both in the systemic and mucosal ... The toxicity of CT administered via the mucosal route has limited its use as a vaccine component; consequently, studies on the ...
The risk of AIDS transmission to health-care workers through percutaneous or mucosal inoculation of blood or body fluids from ... Lukes Hospital, Bethlehem, C Legaspi, MD, Veterans Administration Medical Center, Lebanon, Pennsylvania; D Silverman, MD, ... The types of exposures were: needlestick injuries (65%); cuts with sharp instruments (16%); mucosal exposure (14%); and ... administration of hepatitis B immune globulin (HBIG) alone or in combination with immune globulin (IG) or tetanus (Td) ...
Risk Associated with Mucosal Use: Mupirocin ointment is not formulated for use on mucosal surfaces. A separate formulation, ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION •. For Topical Use Only. •. Apply a small amount of mupirocin ointment, with a cotton swab or gauze ... 5.6 Risk Associated with Mucosal Use Mupirocin ointment is not formulated for use on mucosal surfaces. Intranasal use has been ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION •. For Topical Use Only. (2) •. Apply a small amount of mupirocin ointment, with a cotton swab or ...
By Route of Administration, By Synthesis Technology, By Type of Manufacturers, By Application, By Country and Growth Forecast, ... Based on Route of Administration, the market is segmented into Parenteral Route, Pulmonary, Mucosal, Oral Route, and Others. ... Chapter 5. LAMEA Peptide Therapeutics Market by Route of Administration. 5.1 LAMEA Parenteral Route Market by Country. 5.2 ... 5.3 LAMEA Mucosal Market by Country. 5.4 LAMEA Oral Route Market by Country. 5.5 LAMEA Others Market by Country. ...
Richard V, Dahiya D, Kaman L, Raj P and Behera A: Effect of perioperative glutamine administration on C-reactive protein and ... When the intestinal mucosal barrier function is impaired, the connection between intestinal mucosal cells is disturbed and ... This amino acid is indispensible for intestinal mucosal epithelial cell metabolism as it improves intestinal mucosal repair and ... Shu XL, Yu TT, Kang K and Zhao J: Effects of glutamine on markers of intestinal inflammatory response and mucosal permeability ...
Intrapharyngeal mucosal edema and glottal edema were ruled out. The ACE inhibitor was discontinued, a 250 mg bolus of ... Cite this as: Bellmann B, Deppe I: Angioedema two weeks after the initial administration of an ACE inhibitor. Dtsch Arztebl Int ... Angioedema Two Weeks After the Initial Administration of an ACE Inhibitor. Dtsch Arztebl Int 2018; 115: 142. DOI: 10.3238/ ... D internationalArchive9/2018Angioedema Two Weeks After the Initial Administration of an ACE Inhibitor ...
Personal and area air monitoring for aerosolized ribavirin was conducted during administration by different administration ... Health care workers with pentamidine-isethionate exposure often reported symptoms of mucosal or upper respiratory irritation. ... Personal and area samples were collected during the administration of pentamidine- isethionate. The effects of the use of ... Occupational exposure of health care workers during the administration of aerosolized pharmaceutical agents to patients was ...
If coadministration unavoidable, separate administration by at least 6 hr before or after administration of P-gp substrates ... If coadministration unavoidable, separate administration by at least 6 hr before or after administration of P-gp substrates ... Comment: Palifermin should not be administered within 24 hrbefore, during infusion of, or within 24 hr after administration of ... Comment: Palifermin should not be administered within 24 hrbefore, during infusion of, or within 24 hr after administration of ...
The skin and mucosal surfaces of vertebrates contain a wide collection of microorganisms (collectively named microbiota) which ... It has been shown that the oral administration of specific strains of Lactobacillus induces the expression of opioids-μ ... It has been proposed that CRFR2 may have a key role in stress-induced patency dysfunction and in mucosal immune modulation and ... Teitelbaum, A.A.; Gareau, M.G.; Jury, J.; Yang, P.C.; Perdue, M.H. Chronic peripheral administration of corticotropin-releasing ...
... the IOP increase was controlled via the administration of anti-glaucoma eye drops. In the remaining one eye, trabeculotomy was ... Oral mucosal graft with amniotic membrane transplantation for total limbal stem cell deficiency. Am J Ophthalmol 2011;152:739- ... Results of buccal mucosal grafting for patients with medically controlled ocular Cicatricial pemphigoid. Ophthalmology 1992;99: ... Persistence of transplanted oral mucosal epithelial cells in human cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2009;50:4660-8.doi:10.1167 ...
Endoscopic administration has the added benefit of being able to do a mucosal assessment and rule out other GI pathology. This ... Capsule administration did not result in increase in GI symptoms post-FMT compared with lower GI administration, alleviating ... Concomitantly, administration of oral vancomycin (125 mg every 6 hours) or fidaxomicin (200 mg every 12 hours) should be ... Post-antibiotic gut mucosal microbiome reconstitution is impaired by probiotics and improved by autologous FMT. Cell 2018;174: ...
Group 1 received no treatment for 28 days followed by administration of omeprazole (4 mg/kg [1.8 mg/lb], PO, once daily) for 28 ... Animals-60 Thoroughbreds in race training with gastric squamous mucosal ulceration. Procedure-Horses were randomly allocated ... for 28 days followed by administration of omeprazole (4 mg/kg, PO, once daily) for 28 days. Ulceration was assessed ... Abstract Objective-To compare the effects of oral administration of omeprazole and ranitidine on gastric squamous ulceration in ...
  • The research article in the BJSM(1)this month entitled 'Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VRI-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes' was of high quality in terms of the study design, apart from the small number of subjects. (bmj.com)
  • Thus, clinically relevant immunity against mucosal toxin challenge can be achieved via the transcutaneous route. (jimmunol.org)
  • In the present study, we show that protective immunity to toxin-mediated mucosal disease can be induced transcutaneously. (jimmunol.org)
  • The National Institutes of Health and Department of Defense have funded developing novel biodefense medications designed to stimulate innate mucosal immunity by using interferons (IFNs) and interferon inducers. (cdc.gov)
  • Modulating innate mucosal immunity is promising as a rapid-acting, broad-spectrum approach to combat bioterrorism ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Others drugs are being tested for aerosolized delivery to modulate mucosal immunity of the respiratory tract. (cdc.gov)
  • Hence, we suggest that anti-H5N1 prophylaxis by IFN-stimulated innate mucosal immunity is a promising therapy worth immediate investigation in animal models. (cdc.gov)
  • Although systemic immunity is needed, the oral and nasal routes claim to offer systemic immunity in addition to mucosal immunity. (verywellfamily.com)
  • Gram-positive enhancer matrix particles, or so-called bacterium like particles (BLPs), obtained from the bacterium Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), have demonstrated an adjuvancy effect by providing demanding mucosal and humoral immune responses, as well as a protective cellular immunity whenever delivered admixed with a vaccine via intranasal or intraocular administration. (tubitak.gov.tr)
  • Previously, we showed that nasal administration of a naked cDNA plasmid expressing Flt3 ligand (FL) cDNA (pFL) enhanced CD4+ Th2-type, cytokine-mediatcd mucosal immunity and increased lymphoid-type dendritic cell (DC) numbers. (uab.edu)
  • In this study, we investigated whether targeting nasopharyngeal-associated lymphoreticular tissue (NALT) DCs by a different delivery mode of FL, i.e., an adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 vector expressing FL (Ad-FL), would provide Ag-specific humoral and cell-mediated mucosal immunity. (uab.edu)
  • As well, as a live, replicating whole virus formulation administrated intranasally, it elicits mucosal immunity which may more closely mimic natural infection and contribute to the superior efficacy compared to TIV. (canada.ca)
  • however, they are often associated with cell-mediated immunity, as well as the generation of mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies and nAbs. (babiesbooksandbeyond.com)
  • Treatment of primary Sjögren's syndrome with low-dose natural human interferon-alpha administered by the oral mucosal route: a phase II clinical trial. (nih.gov)
  • Background/aims To investigate the long-term outcomes of cultivated oral mucosal epithelial transplantation (COMET) for fornix reconstruction in eyes with chronic cicatrising disease. (bmj.com)
  • Oral-mucosal drugs are absorbed directly into the blood vessels in the mouth and under the tongue. (projectcbd.org)
  • Oral mucosal tinctures usually come in one of two forms: an under-the-tongue spray or a dropper with a marking at a specific volume (usually 0.5 ml or 1.0 ml). (projectcbd.org)
  • A typical day at his practice is to see 15-20 patients per day, diagnosing and treating inflammatory and pre-cancer oral mucosal conditions, TMJ problems, and orofacial pain, analysis of surgical specimens and radiographs (x-rays), and legal independent examinations for medical and dental cases. (aaom.com)
  • The present project aims at identifying (i) signals from flagellin-stimulated epithelial cells that are of paramount importance in the transactivation of dendritic cells, (ii) how these dendritic cells condition T lymphocytes to produce specific mucosal immune responses. (europa.eu)
  • A vaccination strategy that aims to induce the optimal mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract is urgently needed. (usda.gov)
  • The application of probiotics could influence microbiota composition and intestinal barrier function and alter mucosal immune responses ( 20 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • 2017. Changes in the growth, humoral and mucosal immune responses following β-glucan and vitamin C administration in red sea bream, Pagrus major . (unibo.it)
  • Influenza vaccines administered intramuscularly exhibit poor mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract which is the prime site of the infection. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Intranasal vaccination is a potential route for vaccine delivery which has been demonstrated effective in inducing protective immune responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Future correlation analyses between specific gene expression patterns and distinct mucosal and systemic immune responses induced will be highly informative for TB vaccine development. (nottingham.edu.cn)
  • Kinetics of viral shedding and immune responses in adults following administration of cold-adapted influenza vaccine. (ucdenver.edu)
  • While there is this need, most HIV vaccines have been developed and tested for their ability to drive systemic immune responses and not for mucosal responses. (grantome.com)
  • Given that systemic immunization generally does not provoke potent mucosal protection, this project will develop adenoviral gene delivery vectors targeted to specifically drive potent mucosal immune responses. (grantome.com)
  • This project will test both traditional replication-defective adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) vectors and Ad vectors engineered with reovirus sigma 1 protein (Ad-Sigma1) for their ability to drive mucosal immune responses against HIV-1 gag. (grantome.com)
  • Zinc is an essential mineral that supports the health and integrity of skin and mucosal membranes. (swansonvitamins.com)
  • DEB is a rare and severe disease that affects the skin and mucosal tissues. (tmcnet.com)
  • Investigators will assess whether Tpoxx helps heal the skin and mucosal lesions produced by the disease, as well as the time it takes infected people to test negative for the virus. (seattletimes.com)
  • Both adults and children with laboratory-confirmed monkeypox infections and active skin and mucosal lesions are eligible for participation in the study. (seattletimes.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus commonly causes recurrent infections involving the skin and mucosal surfaces, including the mouth, lips, eyes, and genitals. (lecturio.com)
  • Most vaccines against respiratory infections are designed for the parenteral routes of administration, consequently, they provide relatively minimal protection in the respiratory tract. (usda.gov)
  • When one thinks of drug administration, one usually thinks of swallowing pills (oral administration) or getting an injection (parenteral administration). (ondrugdelivery.com)
  • Compared with the conventional oral and parenteral routes, it is claimed that topical administration offers the advantages of being non-invasive and avoiding first-pass metabolism in the liver by enabling the drug to enter directly into the circulatory system. (ondrugdelivery.com)
  • Effective parenteral or mucosal administration. (desertking.com)
  • It is also a proven means to provide parenteral administration routes for generally insoluble drug products in solution. (lubrizolcdmo.com)
  • To determine the effects of 12 weeks administration of different dose levels of ALV003 on the mucosal lining of the small intestine and symptoms in celiac disease patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • It is of interest to know how the mucosal microbiome in the small intestine is changed post the ETEC infection given ETEC attaches to the intestine mucosa. (researchsquare.com)
  • The lesions stained with Evans blue in the small intestine are smaller in Colchicine-treated mice than those in vehicle-treated mice 24 h after indomethacin administration. (chem960.com)
  • Systemic administration of polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), mimics virally-induced activation of TLR3 signalling causing acute small intestine damage, but whether and how mucosal administration of poly I:C causes enteropathy is less clear. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Our results indicate that small intestine pathology can be induced in mice by intraluminal administration of poly I:C and that this is exacerbated by subsequent oral delivery of a relevant dietary antigen. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Moreover, the toxicity that accompanies the use of CT by other routes of administration is not apparent following transcutaneous immunization (TCI). (jimmunol.org)
  • This study further supports our view that FcRn-mediated mucosal immunization can be a universal delivery platform for vaccines against common respiratory pathogens. (usda.gov)
  • Nasal immunization of mice with OVA plus Ad-FL as mucosal adjuvant elicited high levels of OVA-specific Ab responses in external secretions and plasma as well as significant levels of OVA-specific CD4+ T cell proliferative responses and OVA-induced IFN-γ and IL-4 production in NALT, cervical lymph nodes, and spleen. (uab.edu)
  • Dendritic cell-mediated induction of mucosal cytotoxic responses following intravaginal immunization with the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) is really a mucosal adjuvant with the capacity of inducing strong defense replies to co-administered antigens following mouth or intranasal immunization of mice. (researchreport-digital.com)
  • Open in another window Shape 1 Dental administration em B. subtilis /em -RC considerably advertised piglets intestinal advancement and schematic diagram from the immunization(A,B) The region of PPs and the space of ileum villus had been counted from eight discontinuous HE staining pieces which were chosen from each group. (ische2014.org)
  • Test Ad-Sigma Vaccines for Their Ability to Enhance Mucosal Immunization Specific Aim 3. (grantome.com)
  • This project will test if Ad-Sigma1 is able to enhance mucosal immunization after administration by intranasal and oral administration by virtue of its ability to target junctional adhesion molecule 1 (JAM1) and sialic acid, two receptors that are expressed on mucosal surfaces and on M cells. (grantome.com)
  • Risk Associated with Mucosal Use: Mupirocin ointment is not formulated for use on mucosal surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • With the dynamic boronate esters reversibly formed by phenylboronic acid and diols on nasal mucosal epithelial cell surfaces, we herein developed phenylboronic-acid-functionalized dextran nanoplatforms to enhance the permeability of cargos and boost penetration. (jascoinc.com)
  • The mucosal surfaces primarily affected by candidiasis are the oral cavity, esophagus, angles of the mouth, and genitals (causing vulvovaginitis in females, balanitis in males). (medscape.com)
  • Even certain topical applications require that essential oils should be added to a carrier oil to dilute it and ease its absorption through the skin or mucosal surfaces of the nostrils. (progressivehealth.com)
  • Mucosal surfaces are the entry point and the major regions of HIV-replication. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The majority of HIV-1 infections occur at mucosal surfaces in the body. (grantome.com)
  • There is therefore an immediate need for potent HIV vaccines that can provide barrier protection at mucosal surfaces. (grantome.com)
  • Lesions in sensitive areas (including mucosal surfaces such as, oropharynx, urethra, rectum, vagina) resulting in severe pain that interferes with activities of daily living. (cdc.gov)
  • CT induces Ab responses against both itself and coadministered proteins and is thus considered a potent mucosal adjuvant ( 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we report that depletion of gut bacteria significantly decreased mucosal and systemic Ab responses in mice orally immunized with OVA and CT. (listlabs.com)
  • Furthermore, when infected with Citrobacter rodentium, GPR43-/- mice exhibited decreased Ab responses and were more susceptible to infection, whereas the administration of SCFAs promoted intestinal Ab responses in wild-type mice. (listlabs.com)
  • The sneezing and vomiting responses of the body may risk the ejection of mucosal vaccines. (verywellfamily.com)
  • The company, in its fact-sheet mentioned, iNCOVACC is an intranasal vaccine that "stimulated a broad immune response", neutralising IgG, mucosal IgA, and T cell responses. (thehindubusinessline.com)
  • The use of the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) as mucosal adjuvant and carrier-delivery system for inducing secretory Ab responses has been documented previously with different soluble Ags. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • In contrast, ivag administration of OVA alone or coadministered with CTB failed to induce such responses. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • In contrast, stronger mucosal responses (TB-specific secretory IgA and bronchoalveolar lavage T cells) were induced by PO BCG vaccination. (nottingham.edu.cn)
  • Shedding of live vaccine virus, comparative safety, and influenza-specific antibody responses after administration of live attenuated and inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines to HIV-infected children. (ucdenver.edu)
  • T cell responses of HIV-infected children after administration of inactivated or live attenuated influenza vaccines. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Anti-influenza serum and mucosal antibody responses after administration of live attenuated or inactivated influenza vaccines to HIV-infected children. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Consequently, is trusted as a highly effective vaccine delivery program to induce mucosal immune system responses and displays unique influence on the disease fighting capability. (ische2014.org)
  • These responses were dependent on the use of mCT as a mucosal adjuvant. (uab.edu)
  • These results show that intranasal administration of PspA together with mCT S61F is an effective mucosal vaccine against pneumococcal infection and induces CD4+ Th2-type cells, which provide help for both mucosal and systemic Ab responses. (uab.edu)
  • An intranasal vaccine stimulates a broad immune response thus, neutralizing IgG, mucosal IgA, and T-cell responses. (clearias.com)
  • We assess the association between mode of delivery, gut microbiota development in the first year of life, and mucosal antigen-specific antibody responses against pneumococcal vaccination in 101 infants at age 12 months and against meningococcal vaccination in 66 infants at age 18 months. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, it prevents bacterial translocation and contributes to maintaining the intestinal mucosal barrier ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • It was revealed that IIR led to severe intestinal injury (as determined by significant increases in intestinal Chiu scores), which was accompanied with disruptions in the integrity of the intestinal mucosal barrier. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Flagellin, a TLR5 agonist, is a leading candidate that is being developed as a potent adjuvant in mucosal vaccines. (europa.eu)
  • Current vaccines against respiratory infections are designed for non-respiratory route administration, resulting in minimal protection. (usda.gov)
  • There has been a persistent interest in developing more vaccines that are given by a mucosal route," says Zhengrong Cui , PhD, professor of molecular pharmaceutics and drug delivery at the University of Texas. (verywellfamily.com)
  • Mucosal vaccines combine both oral and intranasal vaccines under this umbrella term. (verywellfamily.com)
  • The reason is that both vaccines work on inducing a mucosal immune response as well as a systemic immune response. (verywellfamily.com)
  • Test Methods to Maximize Mucosal Prime-Boost Strategies with Ad-Sigma Vaccines. (grantome.com)
  • There are alternative administration methods as well, like for infants, giving the liquid solution orally rather than intravenously for some vaccines. (clearias.com)
  • Nasal vaccines will activate the B cells residing near the mucosal lining tissues. (clearias.com)
  • The gut microbiota has been shown critical for mucosal adjuvant activity of cholera toxin (CT), a potent mucosal adjuvant. (listlabs.com)
  • Cry1Ac itself has been identified as a potent systemic and mucosal immunogen [5] and adjuvant comparable to cholera toxin [6]. (lobbywatch.org)
  • Health care workers with pentamidine-isethionate exposure often reported symptoms of mucosal or upper respiratory irritation. (cdc.gov)
  • Rectal administration of undiluted MD-Gastroview in any patient, particularly with large doses and/or in those with overdistention, has been reported to be associated with mucosal irritation. (guerbet.com)
  • 1) It causes burning and irritation of mucosal membranes. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • The present meta-analysis was carried out to determine whether supplementation with glutamine (Gln) would reduce the intestinal inflammatory response and mucosal permeability in patients undergoing abdominal surgery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In conclusion, Gln appears to effectively reduce the inflammatory response and intestinal mucosal permeability in patients after abdominal surgery. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that Gln increases the height of intestinal villi, reduces intestinal mucosal permeability and enhances intestinal immune function ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The effects of Gln on intestinal inflammatory response and mucosal permeability remain to be elucidated. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Summary Background Data: Thermal injuries and endotoxemia have been shown to induce ischemia and reperfusion injury to the intestine, leading to increased mucosal permeability and bacterial translocation. (utmb.edu)
  • HIV is associated with dramatic loss of gastrointestinal Th17 cells, high mucosal permeability, and chronic inflammation. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Effect of topical histamine on mucosal microvascular permeability and acid. (sfparish.org)
  • Enhanced immunogenicity and protective efficacy against Mycobacterium tuberculosis of bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccine using mucosal administration and boosting with a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The project may involve the use of different instrumental techniques including different spectroscopies, thermal analysis, chromatographic techniques, mechanical and texture analysis, electron and fluorescent microscopy and work with freshly excised animal mucosal tissues. (findaphd.com)
  • Ileal tissues were obtained 48 h after the ETEC challenge for both proteomic and mucosal microbiomic analyses. (researchsquare.com)
  • Furthermore, in June 1994, the International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group stated , " H. pylori plays a causal role in the chain of events leading to cancer," referring to adenocarcinoma and lymphoma of the stomach as well as to the more benign mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues (MALT) ( 11 - 13 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Ileal tissues have been collected at both 24 or 72 h after administration. (molvisindex.org)
  • These DCs migrated from the NALT to mucosal effector lymphoid tissues. (uab.edu)
  • Interestingly, the mechanism that drive the adjuvant activity of flagellin is influenced by the route of administration. (europa.eu)
  • A local route of adenovirus administration in mice with experimental colitis induced by the hapten reagent trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid was next evaluated. (bmj.com)
  • the resultant dosage form determines the route of administration and the clinical efficacy and safety of the drug. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Insulin injection causes great pain to the patient, and nasal mucosal administration of insulin is a novel route for the treatment of diabetes. (jascoinc.com)
  • Depending on the route of administration, the formulation and the dosage, a delivery device may be needed to properly administer the drug. (ondrugdelivery.com)
  • Nasal intake, also called sniffing (or snorting): this is the classical route of administration for cocaine, but also sometimes heroin and certain medicines. (u-bordeaux2.fr)
  • This route of administration is rarely used in the context of abuse, but used therapeutically (e.g.: nicotine, fentanyl, etc. (u-bordeaux2.fr)
  • Route of administration: injectable, topical. (sfparish.org)
  • Mucosal immunotherapy studies in adults and children with allergic diseases that use different types of allergens and different routes of administration and evaluate the side effects from each route will improve our knowledge on this issue. (shelu.xyz)
  • A route that begins on the surface of mucosal tissue and has the propensity for systemic absorption via the submucosa. (cdc.gov)
  • Intestinal GVHD is characterized by apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells, and mucosal inflammation. (fredhutch.org)
  • In conclusion, ETEC infection caused inflammation and impaired the circulation of bile acids, and the mucosal microbiome may affect the expression of intestinal proteins. (researchsquare.com)
  • The different types of chronic gastric mucosal inflammation can have different complications. (electronicsmatter.com)
  • These actions of IL-33 seem to be particularly strong and dominant in models with mucosal inflammation. (uzh.ch)
  • In addition, histological examination shows that Colchicine-treated mice have less mucosal inflammation and ulceration and a decrease in the size and numbers of lesions compared with vehicle-treated mice. (chem960.com)
  • Intraluminal poly I:C induced rapid mucosal immune activation in C57BL/6 mice involving IFNb and the CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, that may drive inflammation towards a Th1 profile. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • Modulen IBD has been shown in multiple clinical studies to reduce the inflammation in the gut and promote gut mucosal healing. (nestlehealthscience.com)
  • All could be expeditiously tested with inhalational or intranasal administration in H5N1 models with mice, ferrets, pigs, and monkeys. (cdc.gov)
  • In mice, intranasal administration of IFN-α and IFN-γ prevents lethal vaccinia infection ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Prevention of influenza virus infection and transmission by intranasal administration of a porous maltodextrin nanoparticle-formulated vaccine. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The objective of this second initiative is to demonstrate to what extent a systemic immune response against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern may be generated via an intranasal administration and whether a bona fide mucosal immune response is elicited. (swissbiotech.org)
  • The migration design, amount of order LY404039 antigen-specific T cells as well as the kinetics of antigen-specific Compact disc4+ T cell department in response to dental or intranasal administration of antigen and CT had been examined. (researchreport-digital.com)
  • For intranasal administration, the vaccine is sprayed into the nostrils and inhaled nasally. (clearias.com)
  • To determine whether Tlr5 signaling is required for flagellin's mucosal adjuvant activity, mice were immunized on day 0 and day 21 with ovalbumin and flagellin that is defective in Tlr5 signaling. (europa.eu)
  • Interestingly, rectal administration of AdCMVβGal caused a higher β-galactosidase activity in isolated lamina propria cells from infected mice with experimental colitis than in those from controls. (bmj.com)
  • An attenuated herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) encoding the HIV-1 Tat protein protects mice from a deadly mucosal HSV1 challenge. (wjgnet.com)
  • Intraluminal poly I:C also caused enteropathy and gut dysfunction in gliadin-sensitive NOD-DQ8 mice, and this was prolonged by concomitant oral administration of gliadin. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • The recommended dose of Numbrino ranges from 40 mg to 160 mg, depending on the nasal mucosal area to be anesthetized and the procedure to be performed. (drugs.com)
  • This study aims to investigate the change of ileal mucosal microbiome and ileal protein expression as well as their correlation in pigs by E. coli K88 (ETEC). (researchsquare.com)
  • Bombesin prevented jejunal mucosal atrophy and significantly increased ileal mucosal growth (compared with control). (utmb.edu)
  • Neurotensin prevented the jejunal, but not the ileal, mucosal atrophy produced by ED. Pentagastrin had no effect on gut mucosa. (utmb.edu)
  • Recent results have suggested that cross talk between epithelial cells and mucosal dendritic cells drives flagellin's adjuvant activity. (europa.eu)
  • 1. Mucosal adjuvant activity of flagellin is dependent on Tlr5 signaling and antigen specific CD4+T cells. (europa.eu)
  • Our study thereby demonstrated a critical role of gut microbiota and their metabolite SCFAs in promoting mucosal adjuvant activity of CT through GPR43. (listlabs.com)
  • After the administration of local anesthesia, Dr. Sasha will reconstruct the hymen tissue and will then use dissolvable sutures. (spamedica.com)
  • it facilitates the healing and function of mucosal tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Administration of specially processed formulations consisting of PS conjugated to omega-3 fatty acids was found to significantly increase DHA levels in the brain tissue of rats 10 . (drugbank.com)
  • In some cases, remodeling the gut microbiota by antibiotic administration and microbiota transfer therapy reportedly alleviated the symptoms of ASD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Perturbations of the gut microbiota, as occur upon antibiotic administration, lead to loss of CR and an increased susceptibility to infections by enteropathogens. (microbial-ecology.net)
  • Treatment of immunosuppressed patients with severely disrupted mucosal barrier exposed to the luminal microbiota is extremely challenging. (fredhutch.org)
  • Sucralfate administration can, however, reduce acquisition of alimentary colonization with potential pathogens, perhaps by interfering with adherence to mucosal membranes. (duke.edu)
  • A formulation combining split Udorn virus antigens with NPL and the mucosal protein adjuvant CTA1-DD was administered intranasally and resulted in an enhanced specific humoral immune response. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Objective -To compare the effects of oral administration of omeprazole and ranitidine on gastric squamous ulceration in Thoroughbreds in race training. (avma.org)
  • Animals -60 Thoroughbreds in race training with gastric squamous mucosal ulceration. (avma.org)
  • Endoscopy may detect esophageal mucosal damage because Arry-520 of GERD (erosive esophagitis, ulceration, stricture, Barrett's esophagus). (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • We undertook a prospective, endoscopic study to evaluate gastro-duodenal mucosal lesions produced by low-dose aspirin. (who.int)
  • Nevertheless, at least in animal models, pre-infection administration of exogenous IFN can reduce deaths and poxvirus viral load. (cdc.gov)
  • have CTL epitope expressed in host cells by infection with live viruses, or by Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) administration of an expression plasmid class I - restricted, CD8+ cytotoxic T vector (i.e. (who.int)
  • These results demonstrate that an intranasal delivery system combining NPL, mucosal adjuvant CTA1-DD and split virus antigens confers robust protection against influenza infection and inhibits virus transmission. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • It is believed that steroid treatment for any purpose may increase the risk of invasion of the mucosa by endogenous enteric bacterial flora and gastrointestinal mucosal damage via rotavirus infection. (who.int)
  • Mucosal infection rewires TNFa signaling dynamics to skew susceptibility to recurrence. (wustl.edu)
  • Since intramuscular vaccinations rely on immune cells that have been mobilized from elsewhere in the body to swarm to the site of infection, they typically fail to trigger this mucosal response. (clearias.com)
  • It is important to evaluate the mucosal response by colonoscopy on completion of TAC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The purpose of this experiment was to evaluate absorption following the sublingual administration of VMP35 SK713 encapsulated nutraceutical formulation. (chestervetclinic.com)
  • Angular cheilitis is not specific for mucosal candidiasis. (medscape.com)
  • Patients should be counseled about smoking, and they should be warned about the risk of developing mucosal candidiasis after taking medications that impair salivation, antibiotics, corticosteroids, and other immunosuppressants. (medscape.com)
  • Substantial differences exist in the pharmacokinetic profile of fentanyl buccal tablets compared to other fentanyl products that result in clinically important differences in the extent of absorption of fentanyl and that could result in fatal overdose [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION , WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • When prescribing, do not convert patients on a mcg per mcg basis from any other fentanyl products to fentanyl buccal tablets [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ]. (rxlist.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to formulate ketoprofen (KET)-loaded Eudragit L and Eudragit S nanofibers (NFs) by the electrospinning technique for buccal administration to treat oral mucositis as a safe alternative to orally administered KET, which causes gastrointestinal tract (GIT) side effects. (dovepress.com)
  • Mucosal (buccal, vaginal, nasal etc. (seqens.com)
  • Intestinal mucosal therapeutic is the first therapeutic objective of medical therapies for inflammatory bowel illness (IBD). (molvisindex.org)
  • Our aim was to investigate the inflammatory pathways elicited after intraluminal administration of poly I:C and determine acute and delayed consequences of this locally induced immune activation. (conicet.gov.ar)
  • In contrast, local administration of AdCMVβGal resulted in high reporter gene expression in colonic epithelial cells and lamina propria mononuclear cells. (bmj.com)
  • Mucosal samples were obtained during sigmoidoscopy from the colons of 17 subjects with a history of colonic cancer prior to and following 60 days of self-administration of 325 mg aspirin/day and again 60 days after administration of 650 mg aspirin/day. (crohnsforum.com)
  • Increased risk of colonic mucosal ulcerations or ischemic colitis with stimulant laxatives. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
  • Many studies, however, have shown that the long-term administration of NSAIDs has the potential for significant side effects on the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). (hindawi.com)
  • If cells of the gastrointestinal tract are targeted it can lead to severe mucosal injury or denudation causing significant, often fatal, complications. (fredhutch.org)
  • Conclusions: Rebamipide can prevent gastric ulcers when used with NSAIDs and can decrease the gastrointestinal symptoms associated with NSAID administration. (elsevier.com)
  • The anatomical study of the gastrointestinal tract revealed that the stomach was located on the left side and had two parts, one a large pouch, and another pyloric region that transversely progressed to the right and had longitudinal mucosal folds. (ivsajournals.com)
  • Our data indicate that the lung epithelial cell derived GM-CSF orchestrates the cross talk between cDC2 and CD4+ T cells to drive the mucosal adjuvant effect of flagellin. (europa.eu)
  • To generate preliminary data comparing the early gene signatures induced by mucosal and systemic BCG vaccination, CD4 + memory T cells were isolated from subsets of BCG vaccinated subjects pre- (Day 0) and post-vaccination (Days 7 and 56), rested or stimulated with BCG infected dendritic cells, and then studied by Illumina BeadArray transcriptomal analysis. (nottingham.edu.cn)
  • We will test if this mucosal-targeting vaccine targets immunologically-relevant mucosal dendritic cells, mucosal epithelial cells, and M cells to maximize mucosal vaccine efficacy and reduce side effects due to interactions with cells that do not contribute to vaccination. (grantome.com)
  • We seek to understand how C. difficile utilizes host mucosal sugars to establish and survive in the gut and how the presence of commensal bacteria competing for these mucosal sugars modify the outcome of C. difficile infections. (microbial-ecology.net)
  • Oral administration of Ig preparations from human serum as well as bovine colostrum and serum have been tested and proven to be safe as well as effective in human clinical trials for a variety of enteric microbial infections and other conditions which cause diarrhea. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It should be kept in mind that serious or anaphylactoid reactions that may occur with intravascular administration of radiopaque contrast agents are theoretically possible following administration by other routes. (guerbet.com)
  • Dr Jitendra Singh said that in recent years, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have been applied to intranasal drug delivery to overcome various limitations that occur during mucosal administration, and advances have been made to the stage where effective drug delivery is possible. (dailyexcelsior.com)
  • Objective: To investigate the role of angiotensin II as a mediator of burn- and sepsis-induced gut ischemia and reperfusion injury and to determine whether treatment with the angiotensin II inhibitor DuP753 can attenuate mucosal injury and bacterial translocation in a burn/endotoxemia porcine model. (utmb.edu)
  • Gln is a precursor for protein synthesis and is a preferential energy source for immune and mucosal cells. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • On p.7, it states (emphasis added): "Acute oral administration of transgenic Bt brinjal expressing CrylAc protein to Sprague Dawley rats at the limiting dose of 5000mg/kg did not cause any toxicity. (lobbywatch.org)
  • The next paragraph reports the results of subchronic oral toxicity study, where it states that "the no-observed-adverse-effect (NOAEL) of transgenic Bt brinjal expressing Cry1Ac protein in Sprague Dawley rat, following oral administration for 90 days was found to be more than 1000 mg/kg body weight. (lobbywatch.org)
  • This study further supports development of a universal vaccine delivery platform against common respiratory or mucosal pathogens. (usda.gov)
  • Dr. Steinbach said, "GVHD could be viewed as a barrier dysfunction disorder requiring a new approach to treatment focused on restoration of mucosal barrier function in addition to immunosuppression. (fredhutch.org)
  • In addition, neutralizing GM-CSF modulates the functions of lung cDC2 that result in diminished antigen specific CD4+ T cell driven antibody response thus effecting flagellin's mucosal adjuvanticity. (europa.eu)
  • This scholarly study utilized the adoptive transfer order LY404039 of transgenic T cells to review antigen-specific, Compact disc4+ T cell replies in the current presence of the mucosal adjuvant CT. (researchreport-digital.com)
  • Open in a separate window Physique 1 Oral administration order LY404039 of CT increases the number of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells without altering their migration pattern (Physique 1), the effect of orally administered CT around the kinetics of antigen-specific T cell division was decided. (researchreport-digital.com)
  • Here in this study changes of ileal proteins and the mucosal microbiome in the ileum post ETEC challenge in weaned pigs were profiled by untargeted proteomics and 16S amplicon sequencing, respectively. (researchsquare.com)
  • It has proven difficult to determine the links between the microbiome and human health, and until recently, no microbiome-based therapies were approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or the European Medicines Agency. (cdc.gov)
  • Conventional IFN administration by injection often results in low concentrations at target sites and high concentrations in circulation, which may cause serious side effects. (cdc.gov)
  • The team is also investigating administration via injection. (eurekalert.org)
  • 2- 3 ml of oily phenol injection into the sub-mucosal layer at the base of the haemorrhoid. (medthority.com)
  • If successful, this initiative may pave the way toward the development of a rapid vaccine formulation platform where essentially any combination of viral antigens may be attached to Novochizol nanoparticles for intranasal, oral or rectal administration. (swissbiotech.org)
  • By reducing the administration time, this new Tecentriq formulation could help save time for patients and healthcare systems," said Levi Garraway, M.D., Ph.D., Roche's Chief Medical Officer and Head of Global Product Development. (worldpharmanews.com)
  • Pre-existing oral disease or disability that would impair oral-administration or mucosal absorption. (who.int)
  • Use of adjunctive medications should not delay epinephrine administration. (chop.edu)
  • Mucosal atomizer devices improve administration of intranasal medications. (pemsource.org)
  • Some references can be recommended for modified live antigens, and for mucosal administration (poultry, fish, etc). (seppic.com)
  • Recently, we reported that topical administration of CT to the skin induces a systemic Ab response to vaccine Ags and consequently acts as an adjuvant for coadministered Ags on the skin ( 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • CONCLUSION: Administration of low-dose aspirin, either plain or enteric-coated, induces endoscopic gastro-duodenal mucosal lesions in a large majority of patients. (who.int)
  • In addition, the liposome structure can be adequately and rapidly absorbed by the sublingual mucosal membrane. (chestervetclinic.com)
  • Each 1 mL of the 4% solution contains 40 mg of cocaine hydrochloride, equivalent to 35.7 mg of cocaine free base as aqueous solution, for topical nasal administration. (drugs.com)
  • Bombesin and NT may have important regulatory functions in the adaptive growth of small bowel mucosa and in the maintenance of gut mucosal integrity. (utmb.edu)
  • Intratracheal administration of OVA-pulsed DCs with IL-33 significantly enhances eosinophil numbers and mucous secretion. (uzh.ch)
  • Occupational exposure of health care workers during the administration of aerosolized pharmaceutical agents to patients was investigated. (cdc.gov)
  • HBV is transmitted through percutaneous (through the skin), mucosal, or non-intact skin exposure to infectious blood or body fluids. (immunize.org)
  • Most samples showed total and respirable dust measurements well below Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure limits for nuisance dusts. (cdc.gov)
  • Explain the possibility of abdominal muscles and relax the infundibulum, and administration of aerosol exposure such as rounded face, ulcer formation, poor cell restitution, excessive acid secretion, stress, excessive alcohol (particularly in the preceding procedure is quicker and less than 10% total blood volume and urinary incontinence. (doceremedspa.com)
  • Rebamipide is known to increase the mucosal generation of prostaglandins and to eliminate free oxygen radicals, thus enhancing the protective function of the gastric mucosa. (elsevier.com)
  • Gastric, small intestinal and total transit times were defined as the time from initial contrast administration to its first appearance in the duodenum, cecum, and cloaca, respectively. (ivsajournals.com)
  • Although other "mucosal protectants" have questionable efficacy, bismuth subsalicylate is considered by many human gastroenterologists to be the symptomatic treatment of choice for acute diarrhea. (msdvetmanual.com)
  • Protective efficacy of Bacillus Calmette-Gué rin (BCG) may be affected by the methods and routes of vaccine administration. (nottingham.edu.cn)
  • Effective treatments or prophylaxis at the mucosal level are much needed. (eurekaselect.com)
  • During the past 20 years, advances in drug formulations and innovative routes of administration have been made. (elsevier.com)
  • Over the past decades, drug delivery has evolved and new routes of administration have emerged. (ondrugdelivery.com)