Carcinoma, Transitional Cell
Urinary Bladder, Neurogenic
Urinary Bladder, Overactive
Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction
Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
Drug Administration Schedule
Tuberculosis, Male Genital
Carcinoma in Situ
Disease Models, Animal
Urologic Surgical Procedures
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
United States Food and Drug Administration
Drugs used for their actions on skeletal muscle. Included are agents that act directly on skeletal muscle, those that alter neuromuscular transmission (NEUROMUSCULAR BLOCKING AGENTS), and drugs that act centrally as skeletal muscle relaxants (MUSCLE RELAXANTS, CENTRAL). Drugs used in the treatment of movement disorders are ANTI-DYSKINESIA AGENTS.
Drug Administration Routes
Botulinum Toxins, Type A
Urinary Bladder Calculi
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Combined Modality Therapy
Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.
The association between CD2+ peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets and the relapse of bladder cancer in prophylactically BCG-treated patients. (1/242)We investigated the potential existence of differences in the distribution of T-lymphocyte subsets and in the proliferative response of these CD2+ cells to polyclonal mitogens in patients with transitional cell bladder carcinoma (SBTCC) treated with prophylactic intracavitary instillations of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) according to their clinical response to this treatment. Before BCG treatment, different subset distribution (CD8+ and CD3+ CD56+), activation antigen expression (CD3+ HLA- DR+) and proliferative response to mitogenic signals were found in CD2+ cells from SBTCC patients prophylactically treated with BCG who remained free of disease or those who had recurrence of tumour. Otherwise, the prophylactic intracavitary BCG instillations in SBTCC patients are associated with a transitory variation of T-lymphocyte subset distribution (CD4 and CD8) and activation antigens expression (CD25). (+info)
Mycobacterium bovis BCG causing vertebral osteomyelitis (Pott's disease) following intravesical BCG therapy. (2/242)We report a case of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vertebral osteomyelitis in a 79-year-old man 2.5 years after intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer. The recovered isolate resembled M. tuberculosis biochemically, but resistance to pyrazinamide (PZA) rendered that diagnosis suspect. High-pressure liquid chromatographic studies confirmed the diagnosis of M. bovis BCG infection. The patient was originally started on a four-drug antituberculous regimen of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and PZA. When susceptibility studies were reported, the regimen was changed to isoniazid and rifampin for 12 months. Subsequently, the patient was transferred to a skilled nursing facility for 3 months, where he underwent intensive physical therapy. Although extravesical adverse reactions are rare, clinicians and clinical microbiologists need to be aware of the possibility of disseminated infection by M. bovis BCG in the appropriate setting of clinical history, physical examination, and laboratory investigation. (+info)
Toxicology and pharmacokinetics of intravesical gemcitabine: a preclinical study in dogs. (3/242)More active and well-tolerated agents are needed for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. This study investigated intravesical gemcitabine to establish the toxicology and pharmacokinetics necessary for clinical trials. Beagle dogs (in groups of 2; n = 6) received 100 mg, 350 mg, or 1 g of drug by intravesical administration on alternate days three times/week for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical signs of toxicity; gemcitabine levels and peripheral blood counts were taken three times weekly. The dogs were euthanized, and a full necropsy was performed at days 1 and 14 after the last dose. Intravesical gemcitabine was given at 100 mg (n = 2), 350 mg (equivalent to the 1000 mg/m2 human dose; n = 3), and 3.5 g (n = 1). i.v. gemcitabine was given at 350 mg (n = 2). Plasma samples drawn at time points up to 8 h were analyzed for systemic absorption and clearance of drug. Doses of 100 and 350 mg were well tolerated with no clinical side effects. Necropsies revealed normal bone marrow cellularity and normal bladder histology. At 1 g, signs of severe clinical toxicity were evident, and after only three doses, necropsies demonstrated severe bone marrow hypoplasia, cystitis, and intestinal necrosis. At all intravesical doses, significant systemic absorption was seen. The T1/2 (+/- SD) for intravesical and i.v. administration of 350 mg was 328 (+/-6.8) min and 99.3 (+/-5.2) min, respectively (P<0.001). Intravesical gemcitabine is well tolerated and has no direct bladder toxicity at doses up to 1000 mg/m2. Higher doses result in gastrointestinal, bladder, and bone marrow toxicity. (+info)
Role of IL-12 in the induction and potentiation of IFN-gamma in response to bacillus Calmette-Guerin. (4/242)Although Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) has been accepted as the most effective agent in clinical use against superficial bladder cancer, its mechanism of action remains incompletely understood. A kinetic analysis in assessing the potential role of cytokines from BCG-stimulated murine splenocytes showed that IL-12 expression preceded that of other cytokines. Experiments subtracting endogenous BCG-driven IL-12 using neutralizing Ab or augmenting its activity with supplemental rIL-12 revealed not only that IL-12 plays a dominant role in IFN-gamma induction but also that it is normally dose limiting. A striking increase in IFN-gamma production could be generated in both mouse and human immunocompetent cell culture by the addition of even a small amount of rIL-12. Moreover, this same synergistic effect could be replicated during in vivo administration of BCG plus rIL-12 into the mouse bladder and was observed in a patient receiving intravesical combination therapy. In costimulation cultures, this synergy appeared to partially rely on IL-18 and IL-2 and could be down-regulated by IL-10. This suggests that a dynamic interplay between Th1 and Th2 cytokines is responsible for net IFN-gamma production. The ability of supplemental exogenous IL-12 to strongly shift this balance toward Th1 provides an immunological basis for using it in conjunction with intravesical BCG for bladder cancer immunotherapy. (+info)
Primary lymphoma of the bladder treated successfully with mitozantrone gel. (5/242)We describe a young man who presented with a short history of painless haematuria. Subsequent investigations and biopsy of lesions found in his bladder at cystoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of primary lymphoma of the bladder. Computed tomography studies confirmed the disease was localised to his bladder. Unfortunately, the tumour was not eradicated by radiotherapy. However, it was successfully treated with intravesical mitozantrone given in a novel gel formation. Three years after diagnosis the patient remains well with no evidence of recurrence. (+info)
Targeting superficial bladder cancer by the intravesical administration of copper-67-labeled anti-MUC1 mucin monoclonal antibody C595. (6/242)PURPOSE: More effective intravesical agents are required to limit the recurrence and progression of superficial bladder cancer. This study assessed the ability of copper-67 ((67)Cu)-C595 murine antimucin monoclonal antibody to bind selectively to superficial bladder tumors when administered intravesically, with a view to its development for therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Approximately 20 MBq of (67)Cu-C595 monoclonal antibody was administered intravesically to 16 patients with a clinical indication of superficial bladder cancer. After 1 hour, the bladder was drained and irrigated. Tissue uptake was assessed by imaging and by the assay of tumor and normal tissues obtained by endoscopic resection. RESULTS: Tumor was correctly identified in the images of 12 of 15 patients who were subsequently found to have tumors. Assay of biopsy samples at 2 hours showed a mean tumor uptake of 59.4% of the injected dose per kilogram (SD = 48.0), with a tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 14.6:1 (SD = 20). After 24 hours (n = 5), this decreased to 4.3% of the injected dose per kilogram (SD = 2.9), with a tumor-to-normal tissue ratio of 1.8:1 (SD = 0.8). CONCLUSION: This study indicates a promising method for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Although the mean initial tumor uptake was high, effective therapy of bladder tumors will require an increased retention of the cytotoxic radionuclide in tumor tissue. (+info)
Intravesical liposome-mediated interleukin-2 gene therapy in orthotopic murine bladder cancer model. (7/242)Using a novel orthotopic MBT-2 murine bladder tumor model, we evaluated the feasibility of intravesical gene therapy utilizing a cationic liposome, DMRIE/DOPE. Superficial bladder tumors were consistently established by intravesical instillation of 5x10(5) MBT-2 cells in syngeneic C3H female mice. In situ gene transfer to bladder tumors was accomplished via intravesical instillation of plasmid DNA/DMRIE/DOPE lipoplex. Beta-Galactosidase (beta-gal) gene expression was preferentially evident in bladder tumors and was present for at least 7 days after a single 30 min in situ transfection. Murine interleukin-2 (IL-2) gene was used for treatment of 3-day-old pre-established bladder tumors. Forty percent of animals treated with IL-2 gene were completely free of tumors by 60 days following the initial tumor implantation, while all control groups treated with beta-gal gene died. Those animals initially cured of pre-established tumors were completely resistant to a subsequent tumor re-challenge and their splenocyte-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes were shown to be specific to MBT-2 cells, indicating that immunological memory against MBT-2 tumors was elicited by the treatment. These results demonstrate the possibility of an effective clinical application of this in situ intravesical IL-2 gene delivery system to high-risk superficial bladder tumors, obviating a need for tumor procurement and ex vivo gene transfer. (+info)
Mechanisms of action of intravesical bacille Calmette-Guerin: local immune mechanisms. (8/242)The local immune response to mycobacteria is complex, but mycobacterial antigen presentation by phagocytes to T helper cells is the pivotal interaction. Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) vaccination is associated with the development of antituberculosis immunity but not necessarily with antitumor immunity. Animal studies have shown that an intact host immune system is required for the antitumor activity of BCG. Immunosuppressed and, particularly, T cell-depleted individuals fail to respond to BCG immunotherapy. Clinical and laboratory evidence suggest that the antitumor activity is concentrated at the site of BCG administration, which reinforces the view that local immune mechanisms are responsible for this phenomenon. (+info)
A prospective randomized trial of maintenance versus nonmaintenance intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy of...
A prospective randomized trial of maintenance versus nonmaintenance intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy of superficial bladder cancer Academic Article ...
The effect of mitomycin C on superficial bladder cancer<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of mitomycin C on superficial bladder cancer. AU - Soloway, M. S.. AU - Murphy, W. M.. AU - DeFuria, M. D.. AU - Crooke, S.. AU - Finebaum, P.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - A course of intravesical mitomycin C, consisting of 8 weekly doses of 30 or 40 mg., was evaluated in 16 patients with superficial bladder cancer (stages O and A). Cystoscopically documented tumor was destroyed completely in 11 patients (69 per cent), while 3 patients exhibited partial tumor regression. Two patients had only multifocal, grade 3 carcinoma in situ and both had a complete response with negative biopsies and cytology at the 12-week evaluation. Toxicity was minimal. Further data, including longer followup, are needed to define the potentially promising role of this agent in the over-all management of superficial bladder cancer.. AB - A course of intravesical mitomycin C, consisting of 8 weekly doses of 30 or 40 mg., was evaluated in 16 patients with superficial bladder cancer ...
Intravesical gemcitabine for high risk, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer after bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment failure
Intravesical gemcitabine for high risk, nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer after bacillus Calmette-Guérin treatment failure Academic Article ...
Altmetric - Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin with interferon-alpha versus intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin for...
Despite local therapies, commonly transurethral resection (TUR) followed by adjuvant treatments, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) has a high rate of recurrence and progression. Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been shown to reduce recurrence and progression in people with NMIBC following TUR, however many people do not respond to treatment, have recurrence shortly after, or cannot tolerate standard-dose therapy. The potential for synergistic antitumour activity of interferon (IFN)-alpha (α) and BCG provides some rationale for combination therapy for people who do not tolerate or respond to standard-dose BCG therapy. To assess the effects of intravesically administered BCG plus IFN-α compared with BCG alone for treating non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Issue 8, 2016), MEDLINE (OvidSP) (1946 to 2016), Embase (OvidSP) (1974 to 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov, the World Health Organization ...
Clinical Application of the Adenosine Triphosphate-based Response Assay in Intravesical Chemotherapy for Superficial Bladder...
Clinical Application of the Adenosine Triphosphate-based Response Assay in Intravesical Chemotherapy for Superficial Bladder Cancer Adenosine triphosphate;chemotherapy response assay;superficial bladder cancer; Objective: To investigate correlations between adenosine triphosphate chemotherapy response assay (ATP-CRA) and clinical outcomes after ATP-CRA-based chemotherapy for drug selection in patients receiving intravesical chemotherapy to prevent recurrence of superficial bladder cancer after surgery. Methods: The chemosensitivities of 12 anticancer drugs were evaluated, including 5-Fu ADM, and EPI, using ATP-CRA and primary tumor cell culture in 54 patients. In addition, a further 58 patients were treated according to clinical experience. Differences in post-chemotherapeutical effects between drug sensitivity assay and experience groups were compared. Results: The evaluable rate of the test was 96.3%, the clinical effective rate was 80.8%, the sensitivity rate was 97.6% (41/42), the specificity was
Emerging Immunotherapy Options for BCG-unresponsive Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer
Request a copy of Emerging Immunotherapy Options for BCG-unresponsive Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer., a 21st Century Oncology physician publication.
Intravesical Ty21a for the Treatment of Patients With Non-muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) - Full Text View -...
Bladder cancer is the fourth and eighth most common malignancy among men and women, respectively. About 75% of bladder cancers are diagnosed as non muscle-invasive and according to specific tumor-stage and grade characteristics, intravesical immunotherapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used to prevent recurrence and/or progression. However, BCG immunotherapy is associated with significant adverse events and treatment failure may occur in 30-40% of cases, hence the necessity for alternative therapies. In an orthotopic MB49 mouse bladder cancer model, another bacterial vaccine (Ty21a/Vivotif) turned out to be more effective than BCG for inducing tumor regression and mice survival upon intravesical instillation; and potentially safer because Ty21a bacteria did not infect/persist in any mice tissues nor in human bladder explants or cell lines, in contrast to BCG. Ty21a/Vivotif has been used in the last 30 years in millions of individuals as an oral typhoid vaccine with a high safety record. ...
Safety and Tolerability Study Which Evaluate Intravesical Instillation With Mitomycin C Mixed With TC-3 Drug Retaining Hydrogel...
Non-muscle-Invasive Bladder cancer is mainly treated by tumor resection (Trans Urethral Resection - TUR), followed by series of intravesical instillations of prophylactic chemotherapeutic drugs as Mitomycin C (MMC).This treatment approach is limited due to rapid dilution the chemotheraputic drug by the incoming urine and clearance by urination.. TheraCoat core technology is based on a reverse thermal (low viscosity at 5°C) degradable gel (TC-3)for MMC retention in the urinary bladder.. Prior to instillation, the TC-3 hydrogel,in a liquid state, is mixed with MMC.TC-3 mixed with MMC is instilled to the bladder by a catheter.Following gel insertion to the bladder, the gel solidifies and forms a drug reservoir inside the bladder. Upon contact with urine the gel dissolves and is cleared out from the bladder.. Intravesical MMC using TheraCoat gel is expected to increase treatment efficiency due to prolongation of treatment duration and consequently improving bladder exposure to MMC. ...
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used as first-line intravesical therapy following tumor resection of non-muscle-invasive...
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is used as first-line intravesical therapy following tumor resection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Primary producers of BCG announced shortages within the last decade, leading to a worldwide shortage. We review the literature examining the BCG shortage and propose solutions to cope with this problem.
Best Intravesical Chemotherapy Doctor in Delhi NCR, Intravesical Chemotherapy Doctors | Credihealth
Find the best intravesical chemotherapy doctors in Delhi NCR. Get guidance from medical experts to select intravesical chemotherapy specialist in Delhi NCR from trusted hospitals - credihealth.com
Prevention of recurrent bacterial cystitis by intravesical administration of hyaluronic acid: a pilot study
In this preliminary study, bladder instillations of HA had a significant effect on the rate of UTI in women with a history of recurrent UTIs. The bladder instillation of HA is an acceptable and promising therapeutic alternative in patients with recurrent UTI. Expanded placebo controlled clinical tri …
SIU 2019: Changing the Paradigm in Intravesical Therapy for NMIBC
SIU 2019 intravesical therapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, BCG treatment, Hyperthermic intravesical chemotherapy, TURBT, KEYNOTE 057 trial, VISTA trial, gemcitabine and docetaxel, NMIBC patients, Instiladrin, Nadofaragene firadenovec, Adstiladrin
Enhanced urothelial ATP release and contraction following intravesical by Stanley Kang, Catherine M. McDermott et al.
Intravesical administration of the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin is a common treatment for superficial carcinoma of the bladder, but it is associated with significant urological adverse effects. The aim of this study was to identify doxorubicin-induced changes in the local mechanisms involved in regulating bladder function. As a model of intravesical doxorubicin administration in patients, doxorubicin (1 mg/mL) was applied to the luminal surface of porcine bladders for 60 min. Following treatment, the release of urothelial/lamina propria mediators (acetylcholine (Ach), ATP and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and contractile responses of isolated tissue strips was investigated. Doxorubicin pretreatment did not affect contractile responses of detrusor muscle to carbachol, but did enhance neurogenic detrusor responses to electrical field stimulation (219 % at 5 Hz). Contractions of isolated strips of urothelium/lamina propria to carbachol were also enhanced (30 %) in tissues from doxorubicin pretreated bladders.
Intravesical treatment of superficial bladder cancer is done to prevent tumor recurrence after successful local surgical resection and to eradicate residual disease. Various intravesical chemotherapeutic agents, such as thiotepa, doxorubicin, and mitomycin, have been the therapeutic treatment of choice for years; however, these agents achieved short remissions with a net durable benefit for ∼7% to 14% of patients ( 26). More unconventional forms of treatment, such as immunotherapy, were introduced in the last few decades due to unsatisfactory chemotherapy results, where one of the most successful therapies for superficial bladder cancer and carcinoma in situ of the bladder is intravesical administration of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG; ref. 27). However, this therapy has also displayed limited success because 25% to 40% of the patients never respond to BCG ( 28, 29). The development of therapeutic regimens that offer potent tumoricidal activity but no toxic side effects to ...
Evaluating the Effect of Pre-TURBT Intravesical Instillation of Mitomycin C (MMC) Mixed With TC-3 Gel in Patients With Non...
A look at the following clinical trial: Evaluating the Effect of Pre-TURBT Intravesical Instillation of Mitomycin C (MMC) Mixed With TC-3 Gel in Patients With Non Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (NMIBC) (NMIBC TURBT HG).
Background This study aimed to judge the behavior of non-muscle-invasive bladder - Engineering a Therapeutic Lectin by...
Background This study aimed to judge the behavior of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) in patients submitted to transurethral bladder resection (TURB) comparing subjects in chronic therapy with aspirin, statins, or both drugs to untreated ones. high stage disease (T1) attained the amount of unbiased risk aspect for the incident of the recurrence. When sufferers were stratified based on the different treatment; sufferers treated with statins (Group B) provided an higher level of failing (56/91 sufferers; 61.5%) in comparison with Group A (42/98 sufferers; 42.9%), Group C (56/98; 57.1%) and (133/287 sufferers; 46.3%). This difference corresponds to a big change in recurrence failing free success (p?=?0.01). Conclusions Our outcomes claim that long-term treatment with aspirin in sufferers with NMIBC might are likely involved on reducing the chance of tumor recurrence. On the other hand, in our analysis data from statins and mixture treatment groups demonstrated increased recurrence prices. ...
Effect of Intravesical Instillation of Gemcitabine vs Saline Immediately Following Resection of Suspected Low-Grade Non-Muscle...
This randomized clinical trial compares the effect of immediate postresection intravesical instillation of gemcitabine vs instillation of saline on cancer recur
Sequential BCG and electromotive mitomycin versus BCG alone for high- risk superficial bladder cancer: a randomised controlled...
Background The rationale for combining anticancer drugs has not been applied consistently to use of intravesical agents for treatment of superficial bladder cancer, for which immunotherapeutic BCG and chemotherapeutic mitomycin seem to be a potentially effective combination. We aimed to do a prospective, randomised comparison of BCG alone with that of sequential BCG and electromotive mitomycin in patients with stage pT1 bladder cancer. Methods After transurethral resection and multiple biopsies, 212 patients with stage pT1 bladder cancer were randomly assigned to: 81 mg BCG infused over 120 min once a week for 6 weeks (n=105); or to 81 mg BCG infused over 120 min once a week for 2 weeks, followed by 40 mg electromotive mitomycin (intravesical electric current 20 mA for 30 min) once a week as one cycle for three cycles (n=107). Complete responders underwent maintenance treatment: those assigned BCG alone had one infusion of 81 mg BCG once a month for 10 months, and those assigned BCG and ...
Long-term results of intravesical chemoprophylaxis of superficial bladder cancer: experience of the Japanese urological cancer...
Long-term results were analyzed in terms of tumor progression and survival in patients with superficial bladder cancer who were enrolled in the second intravesical chemoprophylactic study of the...
Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer
Intravesical therapy is a treatment that is put directly into the bladder (through a catheter) rather than being given by mouth or injected into a vein.
Bay Urology, Tauranga : Managing all Urological Conditions : Intravesical BCG Treatment
Intravesical BCG Treatment BCG placed into the bladder following the diagnosis of bladder cancer has been shown to decrease the rate of tumour recurrence but more importantly it decreases the rate of tumour progression - ie: it can prevent a superficial cancer from turning into a more serio
Obesity is associated with worse outcomes in patients with T1 high grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Obesity is associated with worse outcomes in patients with T1 high grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. AU - Kluth, Luis A.. AU - Xylinas, Evanguelos. AU - Crivelli, Joseph J.. AU - Passoni, Niccolo. AU - Comploj, Evi. AU - Pycha, Armin. AU - Chrystal, James. AU - Sun, Maxine. AU - Karakiewicz, Pierre I.. AU - Gontero, Paolo. AU - Lotan, Yair. AU - Chun, Felix K H. AU - Fisch, Margit. AU - Scherr, Douglas S.. AU - Shariat, Shahrokh F.. PY - 2013/8. Y1 - 2013/8. N2 - Purpose: To our knowledge the impact of body mass index on oncologic outcomes in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer has not been evaluated. We hypothesized that higher body mass index is associated with worse outcomes in patients with clinical primary T1 high grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed data from 892 patients with primary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer from 7 centers. Patients were treated with transurethral resection of the bladder with or ...
Effect of Supplemental Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Patients with Superficial Bladder Cancer After Transurethral Resection: A...
P.I.: Satia, Jessie A Department: Nutrition and Epidemiology Title: Effect of Supplemental Omega-3 Fatty Acids in Patients with Superficial Bladder Cancer After Transurethral Resection: A Randomized Trial
A RARE COMPLICATION OF BCG IMMUNOTHERAPY | CBU International Conference Proceedings
Barmoshe S, et al. (2004). Prognosis of T1G3 tumors: clinical factors. Eur Urol Suppl. 3:73-8. Bernini L, et al (2013). Reactive arthritis induced by intravesical BCG therapy for bladder cancer: our clinical experience and systematic review of the literature. Autoimmun Rev. 12(12):1150-1159 Brausi M, et al. (2014). Side effects of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) in the treatment of intermediate- and high-risk Ta, T1 papillary carcinoma of the bladder: results of the EORTC genito-urinary cancers group randomised phase 3 study comparing one-third dose with full dose and 1 year with 3 years of maintenance BCG. Eur Urol. 65(1):69-76. Decaestecker K, et al. (2015). Managing the adverse events of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy. Res Rep Urol. 7: 157-163. Herr HW, et al (1989). Superficial bladder cancer treated with bacillus Calmette-Guérin: A multivariate analysis of factors affecting tumor progression. J Urol. 141:22-9 Hogarth M B, et al. (2000). Reiters syndrome following ...
Combination of intravesical chemotherapy and hyperthermia for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer: preliminary clinical...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Urinary IL-2 assay for monitoring intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin response of superficial bladder cancer during induction...
Lamm DL, Blumenstein BA, Crissman JD, Montie JE, Gottesman JE, Lowe BA, Sarosdy MF, Bohm RD, Grossman HB, Beck TM, Leimert JT, Crawford ED. Maintenance bacillus Calmette-Guérin immunotherapy for recurrent Ta, T1 and carcinoma in situ transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder: a randomized Southwest Oncology Group study. J Urol 2000; 163: 1124-9 ...
Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Diagnosis and management of superficial bladder cancer. AU - Soloway, M. S.. PY - 1989/1/1. Y1 - 1989/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0024435009&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0024435009&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 2549605. AN - SCOPUS:0024435009. VL - 5. SP - 247. EP - 254. JO - Journal of Surgical Oncology. JF - Journal of Surgical Oncology. SN - 0022-4790. IS - 4. ER - ...
Bladder Cancer - Clinical Pain Advisor
New chemotherapeutic agents undergoing evaluation in prospective clinical trials include vinflunine, ixabepilone as well as others. 3. Immunotherapy for patients with metastatic or unresectable bladder cancer The role of immunotherapy has long been established in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. The localized inflammatory response to intravesical BCG appears to be the source of its anti-tumor activity. For advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinomas, there is now an established role for immune checkpoint inhibitors. Currently, 5 antibodies targeting the PD1/PD-L1 axis are FDA approved for this indication. The PD-1 inhibitor pembrolizumab is approved for the treatment of patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinomas who have progressed on or following prior platinum-containing chemotherapy, or within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant platinum-containing chemotherapy. This approval is based on improved overall survival (OS) with pembrolizumab compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. ...
Immuno-Oncology | The MD Anderson Manual of Medical Oncology, 3e | AccessHemOnc | McGraw-Hill Medical
The ability of the immune system to recognize and eradicate cancer was first postulated in the 19th century; however, proof of principle remained elusive until the 20th century. The effect of infection on tumor regression was observed as early as 1884 by Anton Chekov (1); following this, William Coley developed a mixture of killed bacteria that were used to treat various types of cancer between the 1890s and 1960s with mixed clinical benefit. In addition, the concept of using bacterial elements was validated with Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of intravesical administration of BCG, which is an FDA-approved therapy that leads to nonspecific inflammatory immune responses and clinical benefit for patients with superficial bladder cancer (2). The discovery of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and T-cell receptor (TCR) in the 1980s provided insight into T-cell function that led to a number of clinical trials (3,4). Unfortunately, many of the early clinical trials failed due to ...
MP08-11: Switching of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) stra ... ide effects in patients with BCG-relapsing tumor | AUA University
View Poster. INTRODUCTION. To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of switching of BCG strain at the second BCG therapy in patients with BCG-relapsing non-muscle-invasive bladder tumor, defined as recurrence after achieving a disease-free status for 6 months.. METHODS. We retrospectively reviewed the clinicopathological characteristics of 97 patients treated with a second BCG therapy for BCG-relapsing tumor. At the initial BCG therapy, Tokyo-172 strain and Connaught strain were given in 71 (73.2%) and 26 (26.8%) patients, respectively. At the second BCG therapy, Tokyo-172 strain and Connaught strain were given in 56 (78.9%) and 15 (21.1%) patients who were initially treated with Tokyo-172 strain, and in 13 (50.0%) and 13 (50.0%) patients who were initially treated with Connaught strain, respectively. In other words, 28 (28.9%) patients were given a different BCG strain from a BCG strain given during initial BCG therapy (switching group), and 69 (71.1%) patients were given the same BCG ...
Carcinoma in Situ | Profiles RNS
Boorjian SA, Alemozaffar M, Konety BR, Shore ND, Gomella LG, Kamat AM, Bivalacqua TJ, Montgomery JS, Lerner SP, Busby JE, Poch M, Crispen PL, Steinberg GD, Schuckman AK, Downs TM, Svatek RS, Mashni J, Lane BR, Guzzo TJ, Bratslavsky G, Karsh LI, Woods ME, Brown G, Canter D, Luchey A, Lotan Y, Krupski T, Inman BA, Williams MB, Cookson MS, Keegan KA, Andriole GL, Sankin AI, Boyd A, ODonnell MA, Sawutz D, Philipson R, Coll R, Narayan VM, Treasure FP, Yla-Herttuala S, Parker NR, Dinney CPN. Intravesical nadofaragene firadenovec gene therapy for BCG-unresponsive non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer: a single-arm, open-label, repeat-dose clinical trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 01; 22(1):107-117 ...
Long-lasting breaches in the bladder epithelium lead to storage dysfunction with increase in bladder PGE2 levels in the rat. -...
Increase in bladder mucosal permeability can be reproduced by intravesical administration of protamine sulfate (PS); however, the influence of PS once administered into the bladder disappears within several days. We developed a chronic animal model of urothelial injury using PS. Insertion of a polyethylene catheter through the bladder dome was performed in female Wistar rats. The other end of the catheter was connected to an osmotic pump for continuous delivery of PS or vehicle for 2 wk. Urinary frequency (UF) and voided volume (VV) were measured in the metabolic cage. The fifth group of rats received a high dose of PS (10 mg/ml) for 2 wk and were followed for a further 2 wk without PS. The sixth group received a high dose of PS for 2 wk and loxoprofen (0.1 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) for 4 wk. UF was increased, and VV was reduced in rats treated with a high dose of PS but not changed in rats treated with a vehicle or a low dose of PS (1 mg/ml). UF was further increased in the fifth group, while unchanged in the
Bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy after the second transurethral resection significantly decreases recurrence in patients with...
Open peer review is a system where authors know who the reviewers are, and the reviewers know who the authors are. If the manuscript is accepted, the named reviewer reports are published alongside the article. Pre-publication versions of the article and author comments to reviewers are available by contacting [email protected] All previous versions of the manuscript and all author responses to the reviewers are also available.. You can find further information about the peer review system here.. ...
Concomitant carcinoma in situ is a feature of aggressive disease in patients with organ confined urothelial carcinoma following...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Concomitant carcinoma in situ is a feature of aggressive disease in patients with organ confined urothelial carcinoma following radical nephroureterectomy. AU - Wheat, Jeffery C.. AU - Weizer, Alon Z.. AU - Wolf, J. Stuart. AU - Lotan, Yair. AU - Remzi, Mesut. AU - Margulis, Vitaly. AU - Wood, Christopher G.. AU - Montorsi, Francesco. AU - Roscigno, Marco. AU - Kikuchi, Eiji. AU - Zigeuner, Richard. AU - Langner, Cord. AU - Bolenz, Christian. AU - Koppie, Theresa M.. AU - Raman, Jay D.. AU - Fernández, Mario. AU - Karakiewizc, Pierre. AU - Capitanio, Umberto. AU - Bensalah, Karim. AU - Patard, Jean Jacques. AU - Shariat, Shahrokh F.. PY - 2012/5. Y1 - 2012/5. N2 - Objective: Carcinoma in situ (CIS) is associated with increased risk of progression when found with high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, yet its impact is less clear in the upper urinary tract. In the current study, we evaluated the impact of concomitant CIS on recurrence-free survival and cancer-specific ...
ASCO 2018: PECULIAR: An Open Label, Multicenter, Single-arm, Phase 2 Study of Neoadjuvant Pembrolizumab and Epacadostat,...
ASCO 2018 Genitourinary poster session, PECULIAR study, non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, bladder cancer targeted treatments, metastatic urothelial carcinoma,
Kirkby Malzeard & Masham Surgeries - Library - Health A-Z
People with intermediate-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer should be offered a course of at least six doses of chemotherapy. The liquid is placed directly into your bladder, using a catheter, and kept there for around an hour before being drained away.. You should be offered follow-up appointments at three months, nine months, 18 months, then once every year. At these appointments, your bladder will be checked using a cystoscopy. If your cancer returns within five years, youll be referred back to a specialist urology team.. Some residue of the chemotherapy medication may be left in your urine after treatment, which could severely irritate your skin. It helps if you urinate while sitting down and that youre careful not to splash yourself or the toilet seat. After passing urine, wash the skin around your genitals with soap and water.. If youre sexually active, its important to use a barrier method of contraception, such as a condom. This is because the medication may be present in your ...
Background: Current treatment options for metastatic UC remain limited, and tolerability is a concern in many patients. Alterations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) pathway are implicated in development of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer; FGFR3 mutations or FGFR translocations are present in ∼10-20% of patients with metastatic UC. Treatment with pan-FGFR (FGFR1-4) inhibitor JNJ-42756493 resulted in promising antitumor activity in a phase 1 trial in patients with advanced solid tumors, including 3 partial responses among 8 patients with UC (Tabernero J, et al. J Clin Oncol. 2015). Safety was manageable and as anticipated with a potent FGFR inhibitor. This phase 2 open-label study of JNJ-42756493 (NCT02365597) is being conducted to determine efficacy and safety of 2 different dose regimens in patients with metastatic or unresectable UC with specific FGFR translocations or mutations.. Methods: Eligible patients must have disease progression following chemotherapy for metastatic ...
Role of IL-12 in the Induction and Potentiation of IFN-γ in Response to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin | The Journal of Immunology
BCG has been used as an antitumor agent for bladder cancer immunotherapy for over 2 decades (30). Although BCG antitumor activity has been clinically demonstrated, its successful use has been tempered by its systemic toxicity, unreliable efficacy, and prognostic unpredictability (4, 31). However, since BCG remains the most efficacious topical therapy for superficial bladder cancer, additional efforts to define an improved BCG regimen in both efficacy and safety should be pursued. Although the precise mechanism of BCG action remains to be defined, observations from both clinical and experimental studies suggest that BCG therapy requires an intact immune system, works via a localized process of stimulation, mediates an interacting network of immune cells and cytokines, and induces a nonspecific immune response (4, 31, 32, 33). As a potent immune stimulator, BCG elicits both humoral and cellular responses. However, antitumor immunity induced by intravesical BCG in bladder cancer therapy appears to ...
Diphtheria Toxin-Epidermal Growth Factor Fusion Protein DAB389EGF for the Treatment of Bladder Cancer | Clinical Cancer Research
In this work, we present a novel use of an EGFR-directed fusion protein with a modified DT. Bladder cancer frequently overexpresses EGFR on the luminal surface, whereas such expression is uncommon on the normal urothelium. Using an orthotopic, xenograft model of bladder cancer, we showed a difference in the elimination of the implanted tumor after 2 weeks of intravesical treatment with DAB389EGF, as compared with the control DT chimeric protein (DAB388GM-CSF). Importantly, in immunocompetent mice, there was clear, generalized toxicity with the intravenous DAB389EGF treatment, but there was no evidence of histologic or generalized toxicity in the intravesically treated mice at equal doses.. While targeted agents have made significant inroads into the clinical management of most common cancer types, there is no integration of such agents into the routine treatment of urothelial carcinoma. Importantly, in most cases, the use of inhibiting a particular molecular pathway is dependent on pathway ...
The predictive value of purified protein derivative results on complications and prognosis in patients with bladder cancer...
Purpose: We investigate the correlation of purified protein derivative (PPD) results before intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) instillations with prognosis and complications of BCG. ...
Optical diagnostics in urology: current applications and future prospects - Crow - 2003 - BJU International - Wiley Online...
In vivo studies have been undertaken by several groups. The equipment used is generally less complicated than for the LIAFS studies, in that the fluorescence is assessed with a standard video camera, negating the need for a fluorescence detector. Some of the early studies used a photosensitizer (Photophrin™) to induce fluorescence , but more recent studies have used 5-ALA, hexyl-ALA or hypericin. The route by which the agent was administered has also varied. Some authors used systemic administration of the agent, hoping that the greater tumour penetration achieved would aid the assessment of adequate resection . However, the systemic use of photosensitizers is limited by skin photosensitivity and thus most studies have used intravesical instillation of the agent, which obviates this problem. 5-ALA for use by the intravesical route must be prepared freshly each day and instilled 3 h before cystoscopy. Other than occasional reports of urgency or mild bladder discomfort, the intravesical ...
Sodium hyaluronate & Sodium chondroitin sulphate bladder instillation - Lancashire and South Cumbria Medicines Management Group
The purpose of the LMMG Lancashire Medicines Management Group is to provide a platform for a consensus decision making process relating to the use of medicines across the Lancashire NHS footprint, to ensure equity in access to medicines and optimisation of medicines use.
The most effective form of immunotherapy for solid tumours is still poorly understood. The main risks from superficial bladder cancer are that it may recur or that it may progress to invasive disease with a high mortality. Immunotherapy with live BCG vaccine was shown to be an effective treatment as long ago as 1976,1 and the vaccine is still the only intravesical agent to have been shown to reduce both of these risks.2. Factors that increase the risk of progression are high tumour grade, invasion of the lamina propria, and the presence of carcinoma in situ.3 The main indications for the use of BCG vaccine in Britain are treatment of carcinoma in situ of the bladder; treatment of residual superficial papillary tumour; and prophylaxis against recurrence of superficial tumours and against progression after resection of a tumour.. No one questions the use of BCG vaccine for diffuse carcinoma in situ. This condition is difficult to eradicate by resection--indeed, if treated by surgery alone it ...
The Promise of Immune Checkpoint Blockade in Cancer Therapy - The ASCO Post
The concept of using activation of the innate immune system and an inflammatory response against a bacterial component to instigate an antitumor response was studied in the 1960s, which led to the development of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin, now used in the treatment of superficial bladder cancer. Over the following decades, the promise of immunotherapy ebbed and flowed until a couple of decades ago, when researchers saw promise in T-cell activation, paving the way for a revival of immunotherapy. Today, one of the most exciting areas in immunotherapy is checkpoint blockade.. The ASCO Post recently spoke with James P. Allison, PhD, who received the 2015 Lasker-DeBakey Clinical Medical Research Award for his pioneering work in enabling T cells to attack cancer cells by removing checkpoints that normally inhibit T-cell activity.. A Career-Changing Period. Please tell the readers a bit about your career and your current position.. I came from a small town in south Texas and received both ...
Universal Pharmacy: Viagra patong thailand best ED treatment
Tea leaves contain fluoride; and a bad thailand patong viagra family history affect almost half of the characteristic signs of anemia. Explosive disorder see pervasive developmental disorder characterized by misuse of industrial glycerol contaminated with small bowel can be obtained by bladder instillation for superficial bladder tumours. Birth defects are left in the evening. Acetylcholine, by acting on the left interstitium, separate from each other, to create a tissue seal. The grafts have been reported in the liver converts the cis form which is expected to produce an electrosurgical plume. [french: Literally beautiful indifference] labia majora and can be caused by blood vessels that respond to lithium. Clin chest med 2008a;26:699. May be seen. (courtesy of medgyn products.) 483 figure 14.4 comparison of various types. Tonic-clonic diagnosis are that urgent referral to a diagnosis. No studies have noted decreased perioperative morbidity and mortality. Endometrial hyperplasia with atypia, ...
Most recent papers with the keyword Oxygen delivery | Read by QxMD
New intravesical treatment approaches for bladder cancer are needed as currently approved treatments show several side effects and high tumor recurrence rate. Our study used MB49 murine urothelial carcinoma model to evaluate oxygen encapsulated cellulosic nanobubbles as a novel agent for imaging and ultrasound guided drug delivery. In this study, we show that oxygen nanobubbles (ONB) can be propelled (up to 40 mm/s) and precisely guided in vivo to the tumor by an ultrasound beam. Nanobubble velocity can be controlled by altering the power of the ultrasound Doppler beam, while nanobubble direction can be adjusted to different desired angles by altering the angle of the beam ...
Impact of ABO blood type on outcomes in patients with primary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Impact of ABO blood type on outcomes in patients with primary nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer. AU - Klatte, Tobias. AU - Xylinas, Evanguelos. AU - Rieken, Malte. AU - Kluth, Luis A.. AU - Rouprêt, Morgan. AU - Pycha, Armin. AU - Fajkovic, Harun. AU - Seitz, Christian. AU - Karakiewicz, Pierre I.. AU - Lotan, Yair. AU - Babjuk, Marko. AU - De Martino, Michela. AU - Scherr, Douglas S.. AU - Shariat, Shahrokh F.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2014/5. Y1 - 2014/5. N2 - Purpose ABO blood type is an established prognostic factor for several malignancies but its role in bladder urothelial carcinoma is largely unknown. We determined whether ABO blood type is associated with the outcome of transurethral resection of nonmuscle invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma. Materials and Methods We retrospectively studied ABO blood types in 931 patients with primary nonmuscle invasive bladder urothelial carcinoma treated with transurethral bladder ...
Bladder Cancer | DASPITE
Treatment depends on the grade and extent of invasion of the bladder cancer. In most cases, an urgent transurethral resection of bladder tumour (TURBT) is carried out, and intravesical chemotherapy to reduce the risk of recurrence.. . Low grade, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (Ta). TURBT + intravesical mitomycin C at the same time. Follow-up cystoscopy 3 months and then 12 months and discharge if no recurrence. If intermediate risk, follow-up cystoscopy at 3, 9, 18 months then yearly. If recurring ,12 months, give course of 6 doses intravesical mitomycin C. . High grade, non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (T1). TURBT. Either intravesical BCG immunotherapy or radical cystectomy. Cystectomy if poor response to ,2 sets BCG. Follow-up cystoscopy every 3 months for 2 years, then every 6 months for 2 years, then yearly. . Muscle invasive bladder cancer (T2-T4). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Radical cystectomy or radiotherapy. Follow-up: yearly imaging and monitoring of kidney function, ...
Granulomatous hepatitis, choroiditis and aortoduodenal fistula complicating intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy: Case...
Intravesical instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the treatment of choice for superficial bladder carcinoma. Complications of BCG therapy include local infections and disseminated BCG infection with multiple endorgan complications. We report a case of disseminated, post-treatment BCG infection that initially presented with granulomatous hepatitis and choroiditis. After successful anti-mycobacterial therapy and resolution of the hepatic and ocular abnormalities, the patient developed an acute upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage from an aortoduodenal fistula that required emergency surgery. The resection specimen revealed multifocal, non-caseating granulomas, indicating mycobacterial involvement. This case highlights the varied end organ complications of disseminated BCG infection, and the need for vigilance even in immuno-competent patients with a history of intravesical BCG treatment.
Intravesical Gemcitabine and Docetaxel for BCG na ve Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer | Clinical Research Trial Listing (...
Clinical trial for Urothelial Carcinoma Bladder | bladder cancer | bladder disorder | transitional cell carcinoma of bladder | Urothelial Cancer | carcinoma of the bladder | Bladder Carcinoma | bladder tumor | urinary tract neoplasm | Urologic Cancer | Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Bladder | Bladder Disorders , Intravesical Gemcitabine and Docetaxel for BCG na ve Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer
Global Intravesical Bacillus Calmette Market Research Report 2017
Global Intravesical Bacillus Calmette Market Research Report 2017 Global Intravesical Bacillus Calmette Market Research Report 2017 This report studies Intravesical Bacillus Calmette in Global market, especially - Market research report and industry analysis - 10750434
Table 1 | Prosthetic Joint Infection due to Mycobacterium bovis after Intravesical Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin ...
Table 1: Prosthetic Joint Infection due to |i|Mycobacterium bovis|/i| after Intravesical Instillation of Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)
Recurrent verrucous carcinoma of the urinary bladder after transurethral resection followed by intravesical mitomycin, and a...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recurrent verrucous carcinoma of the urinary bladder after transurethral resection followed by intravesical mitomycin, and a review of the literature. AU - Hassan, Masroor. AU - Qureshi, Asim. AU - Nasir, Humaira. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a locally invasive, nonmetastasising well differentiated variant of squamous cell carcinoma. It is very rare in the urinary bladder and mostly associated with schistosomiasis. It has a characteristic multilobular appearance with small surface projections on contrast cystogram. Owing to its bland cytology, it is a challenging diagnosis. We report a case of VC of the bladder-unrelated to schistosomiasis and involving the prostate-that recurred after transurethral resection of the tumour and prostate followed by six doses of intravesical mitomycin. To the best of our knowledge, no such case has been reported from Pakistan.. AB - Verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a locally invasive, nonmetastasising well differentiated ...
MP08-04: Purified protein derivative skin test prio ... ts with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (APL - 2018) | AUA University
View Poster. INTRODUCTION. Little is known about the clinical impact of the purified protein derivative (PPD) skin test prior to BCG therapy in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) treated with adjuvant BCG therapy.. METHODS. A total of 498 NMIBC patients initially treated with adjuvant BCG therapy at our institute between 1990 and 2015 were included. Of them, 320 (64.3%) had received the PPD skin test prior to BCG therapy (PPD group), while 178 (35.7%) patients had not (non-PPD group). The PPD skin test was performed 1 to 2 weeks prior to the start of adjuvant BCG therapy. We evaluated the association between PPD skin test performed or not performed and clinical outcomes including oncological outcomes and the incidence of BCG-related side effects in NMIBC patients treated with BCG therapy. RESULTS. Patients in the PPD group had a significantly higher incidence of pT1 (40.6%) and lower incidence of concomitant CIS (16.9%) as compared to those in the non-PPD group (28.1% and ...
Mitomycin instillation medac - Slimming tea mustika ratu
The Dangers of Using Mitomycin-C The potent agent that has the power to banish haze may be able to make endothelial cells disappear, as well.. Mitomycin is FDA approved for the...Mitomycin C: mechanism of action, usefulness and limitations.. Intravesicular mitomycin is an antitumor antibiotic treatment given directly into the bladder. However, it can occur with any instillation.The purpose of this study is to compare the bladder cancer treatments, Mitomycin C (MMC) and Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG), to find out which is better.Mitomycin - Drug Info, Side Effects, Research, Clinical Trials. will be scheduled to receive monthly intravesical instillation for 10 months,.Mitomycin C is given as a chemotherapy,. mitomycin c intravesical Instillation. here in video we have instilled 40 mg of Mitomycin,.Mitomycin C is a mitomycin that is used as a chemotherapeutic agent by virtue of its antitumour. as well as by bladder instillation for superficial bladder tumours.. EAUN15 Guideline Intravesical ...
Influences of Different Operative Methods on the Recurrence Rate of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer | Urology Journal...
Maurice MJ, Vricella GJ, MacLennan G, Buehner P, Ponsky LE. Endoscopic snare resection of bladder tumors: evaluation of an alternative technique for bladder tumor resection. Journal of endourology. 2012;26:614-7. Bai Y, Liu L, Yuan H, et al. Safety and efficacy of transurethral laser therapy for bladder cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World journal of surgical oncology. 2014;12:301. Lopez-Beltran A, Montironi R. Non-invasive urothelial neoplasms: according to the most recent WHO classification. European urology. 2004;46:170-6. DUTTA SC, SMITH JA, SHAPPELL SB, COFFEY CS, CHANG SS, COOKSON MS. Clinical under staging of high risk nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma treated with radical cystectomy. The Journal of urology. 2001;166:490-3. Suer E, Hamidi N, Gokce MI, et al. Significance of second transurethral resection on patient outcomes in muscle-invasive bladder cancer patients treated with bladder-preserving multimodal therapy. World journal of urology. 2016;34:847-51. Chen J, ...
Restaging Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumours after BCG Immunotherapy Induction in Patients with T1 Non-Muscle-Invasive...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Restaging Transurethral Resection of Bladder Tumours after BCG Immunotherapy Induction in Patients with T1 Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer Might not Be Associated with Oncologic Benefit.. AU - Krajewski, Wojciech AU - Moschini, Marco AU - Nowak, Łukasz AU - Poletajew, Sławomir. AU - Tukiendorf, Andrzej AU - Afferi, Luca AU - Teoh, Jeremy AU - Muilwijk, Tim AU - Joniau, Steven AU - Tafuri, Alessandro AU - Antonelli, Alessandro AU - Gozzo, Alessandra AU - Mari, Andrea. AU - Di Trapani, Ettore. AU - Hendricksen, Kees AU - Alvarez-Maestro, Mario AU - Rodriguez Serrano, Andrea. AU - Simone, Giuseppe AU - Zamboni, Stefania AU - Simeone, Claudio AU - Marconi, Maria Cristina. AU - Mastroianni, Riccardo AU - Ploussard, Guillaume AU - Rajwa, Paweł AU - Laukhtina, Ekaterina AU - Zdrojowy-Wełna, Aleksandra. AU - Kołodziej, Anna AU - Paradysz, Andrzej AU - Tully, Karl AU - Krajewska, Joanna AU - Piszczek, Radosław AU - Xylinas, Evanguelos AU - Zdrojowy, Romuald PY - 2020/10/15. Y1 - ...
Preoperative predictive factors of carcinoma in situ in the normal-appearing mucosa in patients who underwent an initial...
BACKGROUND: Although few studies evaluated the significance of random biopsies under white light cystoscopy (WLC) in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC), the findings are controversial.. AIM: This aim of this study was to evaluate what kind of preoperative covariates were useful as predictive factors in detecting carcinoma in situ (CIS) from normal-appearing mucosa using random bladder biopsies under WLC.. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 229 patients with NMIBC underwent initial TUR followed by random biopsies under WLC at Red Cross Takayama Hospital between 2007 and 2016. These patients underwent TUR with complete resection of intravesical visible tumors followed by random biopsies of normal-appearing mucosa. In this study, random bladder biopsies of normal-appearing urothelial mucosa, excluding abnormal mucosa, were carried out with a cold punch in the selected intravesical sites. The covariates included age, gender, the urine cytology result, presence of an abnormal ...
G9a Inhibition Has Antitumor Activity in Bladder Cancer | Cancer Discovery
There are limited established therapies for bladder cancer, which can be lethal if it reaches advanced stages and invades surrounding muscle tissue. Segovia, San José-Enériz, Munera-Maravilla, and colleagues found that expression of the histone methyltransferase G9a, suggested in prior studies to be a bladder cancer oncoprotein, was higher in human non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer tumors than in adjacent healthy tissue, and higher levels of the G9a mRNA and protein were correlated with increased chance of bladder cancer recurrence. CM-272, a G9a/DNMT inhibitor, inhibited cell proliferation in some bladder cancer cell lines, and cell lines resistant to CM-272 had mutations in PIK3CA. Because G9a and EZH2 coregulate H3K27me3 and activating mutations in PIK3CA reduce EZH2 and H3K27me3 in bladder cancer, CM-272 resistance may be related to EZH2 activity; supporting this, PIK3CA-mutant bladder cancer cells had decreased EZH2 levels, and PIK3CA-mutant bladder cancer cells exhibited EZH2 ...
An Orthotopic Bladder Tumor Model and the Evaluation of Intravesical saRNA Treatment | Protocol (Translated to Spanish)
El establecimiento de un modelo de tumor de vejiga ortotópica para evaluar los efectos antitumorales de SARNA intravesical entrega y el ...
Supplementary Material for: Efficacy and Safety of Transurethral Laser Surgery Versus Transurethral Resection for Non-Muscle...
Supplementary Material for: Efficacy and Safety of Transurethral Laser Surgery Versus Transurethral Resection for Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
Intravesical hyaluronic acid - effective option in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis | Instylan
Hemorrhagic cystitis - an inflammatory disease of the bladder with a complex etiology. The frequency of this pathology has increased substantially due to the increase in the number of patients undergoing radiation therapy for malignant neoplasms of the pelvic organs. The development of rational treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis is a difficult problem. Given the pathogenetic basis of disease, it is assumed that the optimal methods of treatment should be aimed at the regeneration of glycosaminoglycan mucosal layer of the bladder. The article presents the results of a study of effectiveness of intravesical instillation of hyaluronic acid in the treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis. ...
Basic Concepts in Bladder Cancer Immunotherapy | Gotoper.com
Introduction. On May 18, 2016, atezolizumab became the first anti-PD-L1 inhibitor to gain FDA approval for use in patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. Approval of an additional 4 anti-PD-1/ PD-L1 inhibitors would follow.1 These exciting new treatments take advantage of interactions between cancer cells and their hosts immune system, thereby offering patients an alternative to cytotoxic therapies. Widespread use of these novel agents requires that clinicians gain familiarity with the growing field of immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss basic concepts for understanding the immune systems interactions with malignant cells, as well as report on the currently available immunotherapies in the treatment of bladder cancer.. The susceptibility of bladder cancer to immune-mediated destruction is not a new concept, as demonstrated by the use, decades ago, of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) by urologists for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Based on an observation that tuberculosis ...
Autophagy and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder: A review<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Autophagy and urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. T2 - A review. AU - Chandrasekar, Thenappan. AU - Evans, Christopher P. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. N2 - The incidence of urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (bladder cancer) remains high. While other solid organ malignancies have seen significant improvement in morbidity and mortality, there has been little change in bladder cancer mortality in the past few decades. The mortality is mainly driven by muscle invasive bladder cancer, but the cancer burden remains high even in nonmuscle invasive bladder cancer due to high recurrence rates and risk of progression. While apoptosis deregulation has long been an established pathway for cancer progression, nonapoptotic pathways have gained prominence of late. Recent research in the role of autophagy in other malignancies, including its role in treatment resistance, has led to greater interest in the role of autophagy in bladder cancer. Herein, we summarize the literature regarding the ...
Browse In pH (blood), Hyperkalaemia | EDM Case Reports
Durvalumab, a human immunoglobulin G1 kappa monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) with the PD-1 and CD80 (B7.1) molecules, is increasingly used in advanced neoplasias. Durvalumab use is associated with increased immune-related adverse events. We report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented to our emergency room with hyperglycaemia after receiving durvalumab for urothelial high-grade non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. On presentation, he had polyuria, polyphagia, nausea and vomiting, and laboratory test revealed diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Other than durvalumab, no precipitating factors were identified. Pre-durvalumab blood glucose was normal. The patient responded to treatment with intravenous fluids, insulin and electrolyte replacement. Simultaneously, he presented a thyroid hormone pattern that evolved in 10 weeks from subclinical hyperthyroidism (initially attributed to iodinated contrast used in a previous computerised tomography) to ...
Intravesical therapy | Jeremy Ockrim - Consultant Urological Surgeon
As specialists in the treatment of bladder problems, Mr Jeremy Ockrim offers medically advanced treatments, many of which are not widely available in the UK. This means Mr Jeremy Ockrim is able to find effective solutions for patients whose previous treatment may not have been successful.
Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics of Intravesical Gemcitabine: A Preclinical Study in Dogs | Clinical Cancer Research
It is estimated that the incidence of bladder cancer in the United States in 1999 will be ∼54,200 new cases with an expected mortality of 12,100 (1) . In men, bladder cancer remains the fourth most common malignancy and will account for 6% of all cancer cases, whereas in women, it is the eighth most common malignancy and will account for 3% of all cancers (1) . Furthermore, the incidence of bladder cancer has increased in the United States by 36% from 1956 to 1990 (2) . Presently, 74% of bladder cancers are superficial at initial diagnosis, 18% are advanced but confined to the pelvis, whereas only 3% have metastasized (2) . However, up to 30% of all patients with superficial disease will develop muscle invasive tumors within 5 years (3 , 4) .. Treatment of superficial disease aims to eradicate existing disease and to prevent tumor recurrence and/or progression to muscle invasion and metastasis. Patients treated by transurethral resection alone have only a 49% chance of remaining free of ...
April 2015 ~ Valley OBGYN
During a bladder instillation, also called a bladder wash or bath, the bladder is filled with a solution that is held for varying periods of time, averaging 10 to 15 minutes, before being emptied. The only drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for bladder instillation is Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO, RIMSO-50). DMSO treatment involves guiding a narrow tube called a catheter up the urethra into the bladder. A measured amount of DMSO is passed through the catheter into the bladder, where it is retained for about 15 minutes before being expelled. Treatments are given every week or two for 6 to 8 weeks and repeated as needed. Most people who respond to DMSO notice improvement 3 or 4 weeks after the first 6- to 8-week cycle of treatments. Highly motivated patients who are willing to catheterize themselves may, after consultation with their doctor, be able to have DMSO treatments at home. Self-administration is less expensive and more convenient than going to the doctors office. ...
Intravesical Cabazitaxel, Gemcitabine, and Cisplatin (CGC) in the Treatment Urothelial Carcinoma of the Bladder - CareAcross
The investigators intend to evaluate the safety and toxicity proﬁle of intravesically administered multidrug regimen of Cabazitaxel, Cisplatin and Gemcitabine in treatment refractory Transitional Cell Carcinoma.The investigators propose to conduct a combined phase I trial to assess the safety, toxicity, and efﬁcacy of a novel multidrug intravesical regimen consisting of Cabazitaxel, Gemcitabine, and Cisplatin (CGC) in the treatment of BCG resistant non-muscle invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. This phase I trial will have a combined dose and cycle-escalation scheme with enrollment of up to 24 patients.
Mitomycin C - Wikipedia
Mitomycin C is a mitomycin that is used as a chemotherapeutic agent by virtue of its antitumour activity. It is given intravenously to treat upper gastro-intestinal cancers (e.g. esophageal carcinoma), anal cancers, and breast cancers, as well as by bladder instillation for superficial bladder tumours. It causes delayed bone marrow toxicity and therefore it is usually administered at 6-weekly intervals. Prolonged use may result in permanent bone-marrow damage. It may also cause lung fibrosis and renal damage. Mitomycin C has also been used topically rather than intravenously in several areas. The first is cancers, particularly bladder cancers and intraperitoneal tumours. It is now well known that a single instillation of this agent within 6 hours of bladder tumor resection can prevent recurrence. The second is in eye surgery where mitomycin C 0.02% is applied topically to prevent scarring during glaucoma filtering surgery and to prevent haze after PRK or LASIK; mitomycin C has also been shown to ...
Antibiotic prophylaxis with 3-day course of prulifoxacin 600 mg in superficial bladder cancer patients undergoing Bacillus...
Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you dont have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...
Patients diagnosed with bladder cancer are examined cystoscopically and transurethral tumor resection (TUR) is performed. This procedure is totally endoscopic without any incision to the body. Pathologic specimen is examined by pathologists. This will identify the tumor depth and its histopathological subtype.. Before making any decision on the treatment plan, the tumor location, its pathological grade, the presence of perivesical invasion, the patient age and other comorbidites should be evaluated.. Most bladder cancers are limited to the inner epithelial layer without muscular layer involvement at the time of diagnosis. Those are called the superficial tumors of bladder. High-grade superficial tumors require additional intravesical immune therapies such as BCG (tuberculosis vaccine) or chemotherapy. Intravesical BCG treatment will trigger immunity against tumor cells. With regards to recurrence, periodical cystoscopy and imaging studies are needed in terms of follow-up.. Muscle-invasive ...
Paper Alert 7 | Bladder Cancer
Between 15 and 20% of patients with newly diagnosed urothelial cancer (UC) of the bladder will have high grade (HG) non-muscle invasive (NMI) disease including carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) and stage Ta and T1 tumors . After transurethral resection of the cancer (TURBT), patients may undergo re-TURBT, but if no muscle invasive (MI) cancer is found most will receive an induction course of 6 weekly intravesical instillations of Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG).
Bladder cancer poses a serious public health challenge, given the high rate of incidence and the cost for managing this disease. Muscle-invasive tumors are the most difficult to treat and pose a significant threat to life, due to their metastatic nature. Approximately 80% of human bladder cancers are non-muscle invasive when first diagnosed and are usually treated by transurethral tumor resection. But 50% to 80% of patients experience cancer recurrence. To prevent or delay tumor recurrence, intravesical therapy with Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is frequently used as an adjunctive after TUR. Other agents such as mitomycin, gemcitabine, and pirarubicin are being investigated clinically (27-29). However, BCG may not be effective in all patients, have significant side effects such as infection by BCG, and require urethral catheterization. Therefore, there is a need to identify agents for primary and secondary prevention of bladder cancer. There has been significant progress in the molecular ...
Main Drugstore: Viagra not working first time express pills!
Rarely, more serious, first working viagra not time some- possible. Receiving large doses it is thought to play in the plasma. In some instances, relatively selective for when using them. Left ventricle: Receives the blood infection pulmonary aspiration circulation is bypassed by the lateral 60 decubitus position. Providing access catheter, ensuring the patient that these drugs are vastly different from the superolateral portion of the needle are generally thought to be made superiorly or inferiorly. Ligament and the left (s1). Each of the dvc is beneficial for surgeons in an use of prokinetic ment. The vessels scopic heminephrectomy has not yet been published), where most initial catheterizations are attempted by use if a short-acting 5 more marked in the lumbar plexus of the , this is not limited to, general malaise, abdominal or anterior tennis-racket. Intravesical agents in hypertension-prone dahl s rats. This figure 36.1 mechanisms of reprogramming, and matogenic cells. Different oral ...
Trust Pharmacy: Levitra dose response graph best price guaranteed!
Levitra dose response graph - Freeman a, rowbotham c, parkinson mc: The possible use of an levitra dose response graph adenoviral lium after intravesical bcg for prophylaxis should pies. Some have advocated polysomnography to diagnose cns infection who are unable to tolerate who have kidney disease (ckd) by stage 3 hypertension, consider initiating empiric treatment without urine culture is expen- abnormalities may be caused by igg smear. Damico av, whittington r, malkomicz sb, et al: Neo- for transitional cell carcinoma of the g1 and s pneumoniae. Delirium is an increased risk moreover, treatment with appropriate antibiotics effective against the biologic p53 protein has also been reported.
Private Drugstore: Buspar dosing no prescription brand store!
Buspar dosing no prescription - Uip can be obtained from figure 16-1 demonstrating a interleukin-3 and cytokine-primed or cd9(+) selected prolongation in time but may lead to a vaccine contains formalin-inactivated virus may be extremely cated in patients with hypertension or helpful family member. Marked fundal abnor- valganciclovir 930 mg $1.73/180 mg $837.7 fluphenazine 4 3 11 days. N engl j med. 2016 aug 4. [epub ahead of print] [pmid: B. Secondary pigmentary disorders include life-threatening electrolyte dis- replacement therapy for superficial bladder cancer.
Multiple bladder biopsies under intravesical lignocaine anaesthesia. - PubMed - NCBI
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Massive haematuria successfully managed by intravesical ankaferd in a haemodialysis patient complicated with disseminated...
Applications filed at Jun 08 2017 | CANNULA STABILIZATION DEVICE | Patents.com
LATERAL ARTICULATION ANCHORS FOR CATHETERS AND OTHER USES | CATHETER WITH MULTI-FUNCTIONAL CONTROL HANDLE HAVING LINEAR MECHANISM | INPUT AND ARTICULATION SYSTEM FOR CATHETERS AND OTHER USES | INTRAVESICAL DRUG DELIVERY METHODS AND DEVICES | Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy Medical Devices, Kits, and Methods |
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Muthiah Manoharan (Translated to Korean)
Muthiah Manoharan is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Orthotopic 방광 종양 모델 및 Intravesical saRNA 트리 트먼트의 평가
Intravesical botulinum toxin is also useful. Liver toxicity of ketamine also involves higher doses and repeated administration ... March 2017). "Administration of ketamine for unipolar and bipolar depression". International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical ... However, the antidepressant action of a single administration of ketamine wanes with time, and the effects of repeated use have ... Moyse DW, Kaye AD, Diaz JH, Qadri MY, Lindsay D, Pyati S (March 2017). "Perioperative Ketamine Administration for Thoracotomy ...
Route of administration
Intravesical infusion is into the urinary bladder.. *intravitreal, through the eye. *Subcutaneous (under the skin). This ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes. *nasal administration (through the nose) can be ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ' ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ...
Intravesical drug administration is the delivery of pharmaceuticals to the urinary bladder through a catheter. This route of ... Consequently, direct administration through the fibrous tunic is common. This is made difficult due to the numerous defense ... With a 0.1-0.7 mm thick mucus layer, the oral cavity serves as an important route of administration for mucoadhesive dosages. ... With an active surface area of 160 cm2, the nasal cavity is another noteworthy route of mucoadhesive administration. Due to the ...
Di Stasi SM, Riedl C (June 2009). "Updates in intravesical electromotive drug administration of mitomycin-C for non-muscle ... TURBT with intravesical therapy is indicated after treatment failure for non-muscle invasive disease. In people with solitary ... Salvage therapy include intravesical chemotherapy with agents such as valrubicin, gemcitabine or docetaxel, chemoradiation or ... The induction course consists of 6-week course of intravesical and percutaneous BCG. This is followed by a maintenance course. ...
Route of administration
Intravesical infusion is into the urinary bladder. Intravitreal, through the eye. Subcutaneous (under the skin). This generally ... Oral administration is often denoted "PO" from "per os", the Latin for "by mouth". The bioavailability of oral administration ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ... Extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes. Nasal administration (through the nose) can be used ...
BCG therapy is done by intravesical instillation (drug administration into the urinary bladder via a catheter) and has been ... "Phase I Study of the Intravenous Administration of Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to Patients With Metastatic Melanoma". ...
In 1959, thiotepa was registered with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as a drug therapy for several solid cancers. On ... Thiotepa is used as intravesical chemotherapy in bladder cancer. It may be used prophylactically to prevent seeding of tumor ... "Urgent, Thiotepa update" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 5 April 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2011. Maanen MJ, ... "Early onset life-threatening myelosuppression after low dose of intravesical thiotepa". Postgraduate Medical Journal. 58 (680 ...
List of MeSH codes (E05)
... administration, intravaginal MeSH E05.300.120.505 - administration, intravesical MeSH E05.300.120.610 - administration, rectal ... administration, buccal MeSH E05.300.100.878 - administration, sublingual MeSH E05.300.120.040 - administration, buccal MeSH ... E05.300.120.060 - administration, cutaneous MeSH E05.300.120.080 - administration, intranasal MeSH E05.300.120.500 - ...
After administration of apaziquone directly into the urinary bladder (intravesically), the drug and its active metabolite were ... October 2006). "Phase I/II pilot study of intravesical apaziquone (EO9) for superficial bladder cancer". J. Urol. 176 (4 Pt 1 ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track review status to apaziquone for this indication. "UvA ...
It was originally launched as Valstar in the U.S. in 1999 for intravesical therapy of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-refractory ... Food and Drug Administration News. The MQN Weekly Bulletin, Jan. 11, 2008 "Endo Pharmaceuticals launches VALSTAR for treating ...
... , literally "under the lip", from Latin, refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which ... Upper lip administration. Some drugs are inactive in the digestive tract, but this can be avoided if held between the ... Sublabial administration should not be confused with sublingual administration, which is under the tongue. The frenulum of the ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sublabial_administration&oldid=735203906" ...
Intravitreal is a route of administration of a drug or other substance, in which the substance is delivered into the eye. ... Intravitreal administration of drugs is used to treat various conditions of the eye. ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Intravitreal_administration&oldid=836379009" ...
... has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster,[quantify] and ... Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by ... Sublingual Drug Administration at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... This may be a preferred method to simple oral administration, because MAO is known to oxidize many drugs (especially the ...
... is a route of administration of medication, nutrition or other substance into the circulatory system so ... Contrast with topical administration where the effect is generally local. References. *^ Hunnius Pharmazeutisches ... "Enteral administration - pharmacology". britannica.com. Retrieved 19 April 2018.. *^ Hunnius Pharmazeutisches Wörterbuch (in ... Administration can take place via enteral administration (absorption of the drug through the gastrointestinal tract) or ...
... (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater) is a medical route of administration in which a drug ... Epidural administration. A freshly inserted lumbar epidural catheter. The site has been prepared with tincture of iodine, and ... This article is about the route of administration and anaesthetic technique. For the anatomical site, see Epidural space. For ... Techniques such as epidural analgesia and epidural anaesthesia employ this route of administration. The epidural route is ...
Treatment of cancer
The Veterans administration and an adjuvant trial found that there were no evidence to support racial differences in treating ... Contemporary methods for generating an immune response against tumours include intravesical BCG immunotherapy for superficial ... In certain cancers, administration of hormone agonists, such as progestogens may be therapeutically beneficial. Angiogenesis ... Other problems include route of administration, maintenance of stability and activity and targeting at the tumor vasculature. ...
"Filling in Wrinkles Safely". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2016-12-20. Wickens JM, Alsaab HO, Kesharwani P, Bhise K, Amin ... "Intravesical sodium hyaluronate inhibits the rat urinary mast cell mediator increase triggered by acute immobilization stress ... "Soft Tissue Fillers Approved by the Center for Devices and Radiological Health". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2015-07-27 ...
Transurethral resection of the prostate syndrome
Concurrently the slow administration of intravenous diuretics such as furosemide can correct the sodium by diuresis, however ... reduces the intra-vesical pressure required to initiate absorption, and therefore increases the risk of irrigation fluid ...
Food and Drug Administration. 39 (4): 16-7. PMID 16252396. Archived from the original on 1 March 2009. McConnell PI, ... Ureteral reimplantation - alternative to the open intravesical or extravesical surgery. Ureteroureterostomy - alternative to ...
Ohmori H, Tsushima T, Kobashi K (April 1996). "[Experimental studies on intravesical instillation of SM-5887, a novel ...
... intravesical bacillus Calmette Guerin, intravesical resiniferatoxin), high-pressure and long-duration hydrodistention, and ... "Policy Interpretation Ruling Titles II and XVI: Evaluation of Interstitial Cystitis". Social Security Administration. Archived ... Tyagi P, Kashyap MP, Kawamorita N, Yoshizawa T, Chancellor M, Yoshimura N (January 2014). "Intravesical liposome and antisense ...
In case of oral administration this 'enzymatic barrier' is even more pronounced as an additional degradation caused by ... "Development of pre-activated α-cyclodextrin as a mucoadhesive excipient for intra-vesical drug delivery". Int. J. Pharm. 534 (1 ... Madgulkar, AR; Bhalekar, MR; Kadam, AA (2017). "Improvement of oral bioavailability of lopinavir without co-administration of ...
Tata Memorial Centre
... and the role of urinary cytokines in intravesical BCG therapy in superficial bladder cancer. The biology of HIV-2, the virus ... Government of India which also oversees the administration of institute since 1962. The Tata Memorial Hospital was initially ...
Studies have shown injector pens to be at least as effective as vial and syringe administration, and surveys have shown that a ... Pen needles generally do not require pinching of the skin for proper administration, unlike historically used syringes. Pen ... After a slow uptake in the United States, injector pens have surpassed vial and syringe administration of insulin in type 2 ... The primary difference between injector pens and traditional vial and syringe administration is the easier use of an injector ...
Vaporizer (inhalation device)
Grotenhermen F (June 2001). "Harm Reduction Associated with Inhalation and Oral Administration of Cannabis and THC". Journal of ... September 2008). "Effect of intrapulmonary tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 22 (7 ... for the pulmonary administration of tetrahydrocannabinol". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 95 (6): 1308-17. doi:10.1002/jps ... Regulated US Food and Drug Administration nicotine replacement products may be safer than e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes ...
Self-microemulsifying drug delivery system
Administration of lipid-based formulations to minipigs in the fasted and fed state". Eur J Pharm Sci. 31 (1): 8-15. PMID ... Within the last years SMEDDS were also utilized for the oral administration of biologics. Due to ion pairing with appropriate ... Gibaud, S. P.; Attivi, D. (2012). "Microemulsions for oral administration and their therapeutic applications". Expert Opinion ... for oral administration containing medium and long chain triglycerides". Eur J Pharm Sci. 28 (3): 233-42. PMID 16650738. doi: ...
A new method of drug administration". Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia. 26 (6): 221-230. PMID 18917536.. ... August 14, 2014: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of the PharmaJet Stratis 0.5ml Needle-free Jet ... Warren, J; Ziherl, FA; Kish, AW; Ziherl, LA (1955). "Large-scale administration of vaccines by means of an automatic jet ... Needle-free Injector Receives WHO PQS Certification as a Pre-qualified Delivery Device for Vaccine Administration". ...
United States Food and Drug Administration.. *^ "Adamis Pharmaceuticals Provides Update on U.S. Retail Launch of SYMJEPI". ... Autoinjectors were originally developed for the rapid administration of nerve gas antidotes in kits like the Mark I NAAK. The ... Annex I: List of the names, pharmaceutical form(s), strength(s) of the medicinal product(s), route(s) of administration, ... The intramuscular route is preferred over subcutaneous administration because the latter may have delayed absorption. ...
This would be used when administration by mouth was not possible because of the condition of the patient. The Murphy drip ... Yung-Feng Hung, Automatically closed dripping apparatus for intravenous administration, US patent 5 234 414, filed 28 September ... administration of strong coffee through the rectum via a Murphy drip. When the attack got underway, Miller was joined by his ...
Oxygen helmets are used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for oxygen administration. They are transparent, lightweight plastic ... Oxygen helmets are often preferred for oxygen administration in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for children and patients that are ... and hyperbaric chamber and other patients who require administration of pure oxygen, such as carbon monoxide poisoning and ...
... begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage; this causes an expansion in the chest cavity. Then takes place the onset of contraction of the diaphragm, which results in expansion of the intrapleural space and an increase in negative pressure according to Boyle's law. This negative pressure generates airflow because of the pressure difference between the atmosphere and alveolus. Air enters, inflating the lung through either the nose or the mouth into the pharynx (throat) and trachea before entering the alveoli. Other muscles that can be involved in inhalation include: ...
Some feel that the term tisane is more correct than herbal tea or that the latter is even misleading, but most dictionaries record that the word tea is also used to refer to other plants beside the tea plant and to beverages made from these other plants. In any case, the term herbal tea is very well established and much more common than tisane. The word tisane was rare in its modern sense before the 20th century, when it was borrowed in the modern sense from French. (This is why some people feel it should be pronounced /tɪˈzɑːn/ as in French, but the original English pronunciation /tɪˈzæn/ continues to be more common in US English and especially in UK English). The word had already existed in late Middle English in the sense of "medicinal drink" and had already been borrowed from French (Old French). The Old French word came from the Latin word ptisana, which came from the Ancient Greek word πτισάνη (ptisánē), which meant "peeled" barley, in other words pearl barley, ...
Many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the blood stream (air embolism), and ... Compared with other routes of administration, such as oral medications, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver ... One reason veins are preferred over arteries for intravascular administration is because the flow will pass through the lungs ... The intravenous route of administration can be used for injections (with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically ...
If defined strictly as having local effect, the topical route of administration can also include enteral administration of ... Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via ... The definition of the topical route of administration sometimes states that both the application location and the ... The patch is labelled with the time and date of administration as well as the administrator's initials. ...
A softgel is an oral dosage form for medicine similar to capsules. They consist of a gelatin based shell surrounding a liquid fill. Softgel shells are a combination of gelatin, water, opacifier and a plasticiser such as glycerin or sorbitol. Softgels are produced in a process known as encapsulation using the Rotary Die Encapsulation process invented by Robert Pauli Scherer. The encapsulation process has been described as a form/fill/seal process. Two flat ribbons of shell material are manufactured on the machine and brought together on a twin set of rotating dies. The dies contain recesses in the desired size and shape, which cut out the ribbons into a two-dimensional shape, and form a seal around the outside. At the same time a pump delivers a precise dose of fill material through a nozzle incorporated into a filling wedge whose tip sits between the two ribbons in between two die pockets at the point of cut out. The wedge is heated to facilitate the sealing process. The wedge injection causes ...
... s are commonly used on horses following exercise, applied either by rubbing on full-strength, especially on the legs; or applied in a diluted form, usually added to a bucket of water and sponged on the body. They are used in hot weather to help cool down a horse after working, the alcohol cooling through rapid evaporation, and counterirritant oils dilating capillaries in the skin, increasing the amount of blood releasing heat from the body. Many horse liniment formulas in diluted form have been used on humans, though products for horses which contain DMSO are not suitable for human use, as DMSO carries the topical product into the bloodstream. Horse liniment ingredients such as menthol, chloroxylenol, or iodine are also used in different formulas in products used by humans. Absorbine, a horse liniment product manufactured by W.F. Young, Inc., was reformulated for humans and marketed as Absorbine Jr. The company also acquired other liniment brands including Bigeloil and ...
The main ingredient in a standard lollipop is sugar. Sugars are fully hydrated carbon chains meaning that there is a water molecule attached to each carbon. Sugars come in two forms; straight-chain and ring form. When sugars are in straight-chain form, aldehyde and ketone groups are open which leaves them very susceptible to reaction. In this state, sugars are unstable. In ring form, sugars are stable and therefore exist in this form in most foods, including lollipops.. Sugar is a very versatile ingredient and is used in many of food and products we consume every single day. What makes sugar different is the way it interacts with the other ingredients and systems within the food as well as how it is treated. When it is heated enough to break the molecules apart, it generates a complex flavor, changes the color, and creates a pleasing aroma. Sugar can form two types of solids in foods; crystalline and glassy amorphous. Crystalline solids can be found in food products like fondant, fudge, and ...
... or lip salve is a wax-like substance applied topically to the lips of the mouth to moisturize and relieve chapped or dry lips, angular cheilitis, stomatitis, or cold sores. Lip balm often contains beeswax or carnauba wax, camphor, cetyl alcohol, lanolin, paraffin, and petrolatum, among other ingredients. Some varieties contain dyes, flavor, fragrance, phenol, salicylic acid, and sunscreens. The primary purpose of lip balm is to provide an occlusive layer on the lip surface to seal moisture in lips and protect them from external exposure. Dry air, cold temperatures, and wind all have a drying effect on skin by drawing moisture away from the body. Lips are particularly vulnerable because the skin is so thin, and thus they are often the first to present signs of dryness. Occlusive materials like waxes and petroleum jelly prevent moisture loss and maintain lip comfort while flavorants, colorants, sunscreens, and various medicaments can provide additional, specific benefits. Lip balm can be ...
... and their intended route of administration. The first 5 are topical dosage forms, and may be used on the surface of the ...
It is recognized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an approved over-the-counter (OTC) skin protectant and ...
The intravenous route of administration can be used both for injections, using a syringe at higher pressures; as well as for ... Many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the bloodstream (air embolism), and ... Compared with other routes of administration, such as oral medications, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver ... If intravenous access is unavailable, an intraosseous infusion may be used as an alternative route of administration. ...
Wegner, HE; Franke M; Schick V. (May 1997). "Endoscopic removal of intravesical pencils using percutaneous nephrolithotomy ... led to the dismissal of US Surgeon General Joycelyn Elders during the Clinton administration. Masturbation among adolescents ...
It gained regulatory approval in 2005 from China's State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) for the treatment of head and neck ... "Viral targeting of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer and priming of anti-tumour immunity following intravesical Coxsackievirus ...
A Pilot Study on Intravesical Administration of Curcumin for Cystitis Glandularis
Prevention of recurrent bacterial cystitis by intravesical administration of hyaluronic acid: a pilot study
Intravesical Administration of rAd-IFN/Syn3 in Patients With BCG-Refractory or Relapsed Bladder Cancer - Full Text View -...
Subjects who cannot tolerate intravesical dosing or intravesical surgical manipulation. *Intravesical therapy within 6 weeks of ... Intravesical Administration of rAd-IFN/Syn3 in Patients With BCG-Refractory or Relapsed Bladder Cancer. The safety and ... The total dose will be given as a single, one-hour intravesical administration which may, depending on clinical response, be ... The total dose will be given as a single, one-hour intravesical administration which may, depending on clinical response, be ...
1B Intravesical Administration of SCH 721015 (Ad-IFNa) in Admixture With SCH 209702 (Syn3) for The Treatment of BCG Refractory...
1B Intravesical Administration of SCH 721015 (Ad-IFNa) in Admixture With SCH 209702 (Syn3) for The Treatment of BCG Refractory ... 1B Intravesical Administration of SCH 721015 (Ad-IFNa) in Admixture With SCH 209702 (Syn3) for The Treatment of BCG Refractory ... Phase 1B Intravesical Administration of SCH 721015 (Ad-IFNa) in Admixture With SCH 209702 (Syn3) for The Treatment of BCG ... Subjects who have a complete response to treatment at Week 12 in Part 1 receive second regimen of intravesical administration ...
Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography with intravesical administration of a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent for...
To evaluate the safety of intravesical administration of a second-generation ultrasound (US) contrast agent for the diagnosis ... Thus, ce-VUS with intravesical administration of the second-generation US contrast agent (SonoVue®) for vesicoureteral reflux ... Contrast-enhanced voiding urosonography with intravesical administration of a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent for ...
Phase II Trial of Concurrent Administration of Intravesical BCG & Interferon in the Treatment and Prevention of Recurrence of...
Cysview (Hexaminolevulinate Hydrochloride Intravesical Solution): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses
Hexaminolevulinate Hydrochloride Intravesical Solution) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, ... Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) for Intravesical Solution is intended for intravesical administration only after ... malignant lesions may not fluoresce following Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) administration, ... administration and are removed following the Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) instillation. ...
Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics of Intravesical Gemcitabine: A Preclinical Study in Dogs | Clinical Cancer Research
At all intravesical doses, significant systemic absorption was seen. The T1/2 (±SD) for intravesical and i.v. administration of ... We have demonstrated a markedly prolonged half-life after intravesical administration when compared with i.v. administration. ... Intravesical Administration.. Animals (n = 6) were initially treated with 350 mg (n = 1) and 3.5 g (n = 1) of drug, and blood ... Serum gemcitabine levels after 350 mg (n = 2) of drug by i.v. (♦; X) administration and by intravesical (. , , ▪) ...
Pancreatic and psoas abscesses as a late complication of intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guerin for bladder...
This case illustrates the fact that although intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guerin is generally considered to ... diagnosed 5 years after intravesical treatment with bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for bladder cancer. An 83-year-old ... two transurethral resections for high-grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and had received 12 intravesical ... Intravesical administration of BCG has proved to be an effective form of treatment for some stages of bladder cancer . There ...
Thiotepa (Thiotepa Injection): Uses, Dosage, Side Effects, Interactions, Warning
Intravesical Administration. Patients with papillary carcinoma of the bladder are dehydrated for 8 to 12 hours prior to ... Intravenous Administration. Thiotepa may be given by rapid intravenous administration in doses of 0.3 to 0.4 mg/kg. Doses ... It is supplied as a non-pyrogenic, sterile Iyophilized powder for intravenous, intracavitary or intravesical administration, ... Intracavitary Adminis tration: The dosage recommended is 0.6 to 0.8 mg/kg. Administration is usually effected through the same ...
Tice BCG (BCG intravesical live) dosing, indications, interactions, adverse effects, and more
BCG intravesical live), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation ... Administration. Intravesicular Bladder Administration. Patients should not drink fluids for 4 hours before treatment and should ... encoded search term (BCG intravesical live (Tice BCG)) and BCG intravesical live (Tice BCG) What to Read Next on Medscape ... Capable of infection dissemination when administered by intravesical route; serious infections, including fatal infections, ...
Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer
Intravesical therapy is a treatment that is put directly into the bladder (through a catheter) rather than being given by mouth ... Intravesical Administration of Therapeutic Medication. Jointly developed with the Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates ( ... Intravesical Therapy for Bladder Cancer. With intravesical therapy, the doctor puts a liquid drug right into your bladder ... When is intravesical therapy used?. After TURBT. Intravesical therapy is commonly used after transurethral resection of bladder ...
PDF] Intravesical administration of small interfering RNA targeting PLK-1 successfully prevents the growth of bladder cancer. |...
This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of inhibition of cancer growth in the murine bladder by intravesical siRNA/ ... We believe intravesical siRNA instillation against bladder cancer will be useful as a therapeutic tool. ... We investigated the use of intravesical PLK-1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) against bladder cancer. Patients with bladder ... Intravesical administration of small interfering RNA targeting PLK-1 successfully prevents the growth of bladder cancer.. @ ...
Epididymo-orchitis following intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy.
To describe a case of epididymo-orchitis that developed four years after treatment with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin ( ... Administration, Intravesical. Aged. BCG Vaccine / adverse effects*, therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / ... OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of epididymo-orchitis that developed four years after treatment with intravesical bacillus ...
Role of IL-12 in the Induction and Potentiation of IFN-γ in Response to Bacillus Calmette-Guérin | The Journal of Immunology
Intravesical drug administration and urine recovery in mice. Mice were anesthetized by the i.p. administration of ketamine/ ... Induction of elevated serum IFN-γ by intravesical administration of IL-12 plus BCG. Mice were treated intravesically every ... Synergy of intravesical IL-12 with BCG in inducing urinary and serum IFN-γ. The ability of rIL-12 to synergize with BCG to ... Synergy of intravesical IL-12 with BCG in inducing urinary IFN-γ. Mice were treated intravesically every other day with either ...
Route of Administration | FDA
Intravesical gentamicin is a winner - Page 2
Current version of study NCT00406068 on ClinicalTrials.gov
Patients who cannot tolerate intravesical administration or intravesical surgical manipulation (cystoscopy or biopsy); ... Intravesical drug administration. Neoplasm recurrence, local. Transitional cell, carcinoma. Carcinoma in situ. Mycobacterium. ... 8 mg MCC, intravesical - Induction Phase (6 weekly intravesical instillations) and Maintenance Phase (3 weekly instillations at ... The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of intravesical Mycobacterial Cell Wall-DNA Complex (MCC) in ...
Route of administration - Wikipedia
Intravesical infusion is into the urinary bladder.. *intravitreal, through the eye. *Subcutaneous (under the skin). This ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes. *nasal administration (through the nose) can be ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ...
DailyMed - CYSVIEW- hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride kit
Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) for Intravesical Solution is intended for intravesical administration only after ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.1 Recommended Dose 2.2 Reconstitution of Cysview 2.3 Bladder Instillation of Cysview 2.4 Use of ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Training in blue light cystoscopy with the Karl Storz D-Light C PDD system is essential prior to the ... Systemic absorption following administration of Cysview is expected to be minimal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The lack ...
Botulinum Toxin Type A Therapy: Intravesical Injection or Electromotive Drug Administration. Empty * Print ... To compare the outcomes of intravesical injection of botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) with intravesical electromotive drug ... administration (EMDA) of BoNTA on urinary incontinence secondary to neuropathic detrusor overactivity (NDO) in children with ...
Intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of female recurrent...
Intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of female recurrent ... Intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of female recurrent ... Objectives: To compare the clinical effectiveness of the intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid and ... Interventions: Patients treated with either intravesical administration of HA+CS or standard of care (antimicrobial/ ...
Intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid (HA) and chondroitin sulfate (CS) for the treatment of female recurrent...
DailyMed - THIOTEPA injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
Intravesical Administration: Patients with papillary carcinoma of the bladder are dehydrated for 8 to 12 hours prior to ... Deaths have occurred after intravesical administration, caused by bone-marrow depression from systemically absorbed drug. ... Intravenous Administration: Thiotepa may be given by rapid intravenous administration in doses of 0.3 to 0.4 mg/kg. Doses ... It is supplied as a non-pyrogenic, sterile Iyophilized powder for intravenous, intracavitary or intravesical administration, ...
Botulinum Toxin Articles
Intravesical Electromotive Botulinum Toxin Type A (Dysport®) Administration in Children with Myelomeningocele. Electromotive ... OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT-A) intravesical injection is a treatment choice for patients who are intolerant of or refractory to ... drug administration (EMDA) presents a minimally-invasive method of intravesical instillation of therapeutic agents without the ... Intravesical instillation of liposomal botulinum toxin has recently shown promise in the treatment of overactive bladder and ...
ACETIC ACID INDUCED BLADDER PAIN RESPONSES IN RATS 24H AFTER INTRAVESICAL ADMINISTRATION. Ratna Ganabathi*, Pradeep Tyagi, ... INTRAVESICAL ELECTROMOTIVE DRUG ADMINISTRATION.... (EXPERIMENTAL STUDY). Tevlin K1, Korsunskaya I 2, Pushkar D2, 1. Moscow ... ELECTROMOTIVE DRUG ADMINISTRATION (EMDA).... OF PENTOSAN POLYSULFATE (PPS) IN THE THERAPY OF INTERSTITIAL CYSTITIS (IC). Loch A ... INTRAVESICAL RESINIFERATOXIN (RTX) IMPROVES.... LOWER URINARY TRACT SYMPTOMS (LUTS) AND URODYNAMIC PARAMETERS IN PATIENTS WITH ...
Tetracaine attenuates irritancy without attenuating desensitization produced by intravesical resiniferatoxin in the rat
Administration, Intravesical * Animals * Diterpenes / antagonists & inhibitors* * Diterpenes / pharmacology* * Dose-Response ... Tetracaine attenuates irritancy without attenuating desensitization produced by intravesical resiniferatoxin in the rat Pain. ... A model of visceral nociception in which irritants are instilled directly into the bladder (intravesical, i.ves.) of awake, ...
Management options for bladder dysfunction in patients with multiple sclerosis | Clinical | Nursing Times
Intravesical medication. There is some evidence that introducing agents such as oxybutynin and atropine into the bladder will ... However this route of administration requires regular intermittent catheterisation (Fader et al, 2007). ... Fader, M. et al (2007) Intravesical atropine compared to oral oxybutynin for neurogenic detrusor overactivity: a double-blind, ...
The Cancer Immunotherapy Market was Worth $ 62 Billion in 2016 and Estimated to Reach $ 111.23 Billion by the end of 2021 With...
Advanced Practice | Society of Urologic Nurses and Associates
Joint Statement on Intravesical Administration of Therapeutic Medication SUNA and the American Urological Association (AUA) ... Read more about Joint Statement on Intravesical Administration of Therapeutic Medication. Consensus Statement on Advanced ... developed a joint Statement of Practice on Intravesical Administration of Therapeutic Medication. The purpose of the statement ... is to define the performance guidelines surrounding the instillation of intravesical cytotoxic, immunotherapeutic, and/or ...
ImmunotherapyInstillationsBacillus CalmettDoxorubicinIntravenousSystemicEpirubicinPatientsGemcitabineRecurrenceTherapyCarcinoma inMycobacterial cell wall-DNAToxicityCystitisHexaminolevulinate hydrochlorideReconstitutionTumorInfusionDoseINDICATIONSDirectly into the bladderParenteralCavityDrugsRecurrentSuperficial bladderBotulinumRatsCatheterTherapeutic MedicationDosageNeuromodulationInjectionPharmacologySurgicalClinicalOralBone marrowMouse bladder
- Intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy have resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of disease recurrence. (aacrjournals.org)
- Intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy may used for intermediate non-invasive bladder cancers. (cancer.org)
- They're treated with induction intravesical immunotherapy. (cancer.org)
- The ability of supplemental exogenous IL-12 to strongly shift this balance toward Th1 provides an immunological basis for using it in conjunction with intravesical BCG for bladder cancer immunotherapy. (jimmunol.org)
- Intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer is a well established treatment for preventing or delaying tumour recurrence following tumour resection. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- A randomized clinical trial of intravesical doxorubicin immunotherapy with Bacille Calmette-Guerin for transitional carcinoma of the bladder. (swog.org)
- For intermediate-risk patients, clinicians should consider administration of a 6 week course of induction intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The majority of patients with a new diagnosis of bladder cancer have non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, which requires adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
- NMIBC requires adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy. (biomedcentral.com)
- We report the case of a 50 year-old female patient known with bladder tumor operated in January 2014 followed by 4 weeks of intravesical BCG immunotherapy, one administration per week. (biomedcentral.com)
- There are two types of intravesical therapy: chemotherapy and immunotherapy. (urologyhealth.org)
- Forty women (mean age 35 years) with a history of recurrent UTI received intravesical instillations of HA (40 mg in 50 mL phosphate-buffered saline) once weekly for 4 weeks then once monthly for 4 months. (nih.gov)
- The total dose will be given as a single, one-hour intravesical administration which may, depending on clinical response, be repeated every 3 months up to a maximum of 4 instillations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- He had previously undergone two transurethral resections for high-grade transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder and had received 12 intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin instillations without any complications. (biomedcentral.com)
- The patient had previously undergone two transurethral resections for high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, receiving 12 intravesical BCG instillations without any complications. (biomedcentral.com)
- During this time, patients will receive 6 weekly intravesical instillations of 8 mg MCC. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- 8 mg MCC, intravesical - Induction Phase (6 weekly intravesical instillations) and Maintenance Phase (3 weekly instillations at months 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The benefit of intravesical HA+CS therapy improves when the number of instillations is ≥5. (unibocconi.it)
- PURPOSE After transurethral resection, we compared the efficacy and side effects of weekly intravesical instillations of epirubicin, bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), and BCG plus isoniazid during a 6-week interval followed by 3 weekly maintenance instillations at months 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 in patients with intermediate and high risk Ta, T1 bladder cancer. (semanticscholar.org)
- The type and number of intravesical instillations given depend on numerous factors, including grade, stage, multifocality of the tumor, and tolerability. (biomedcentral.com)
- Epididymo-orchitis following intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
- OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of epididymo-orchitis that developed four years after treatment with intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and to review the incidence of this adverse effect. (biomedsearch.com)
- Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) 3 is the most effective intravesical agent for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer and prophylaxis against recurrent disease ( 1 , 2 , 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
- Kelley DR, Ratliff TL, Catalona WJ, Shapiro A, Lage JM, Bauer WC, Haaff EO, Dresner SM (1985) Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy for superficial bladder cancer: effect of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin viability on treatment results. (springer.com)
- Managing the adverse events of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
- In a patient with NMIBC, a clinician may use biomarkers to assess response to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) and adjudicate equivocal cytology. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Regional chemotherapy for bladder neoplasms using continuous intravesical infusion of doxorubicin: impact of concomitant administration of dimethyl sulfoxide on drug absorption and antitumor activity. (wikigenes.org)
- Adverse reactions to the intravesical administration of doxorubicin hydrochloride: report of 6 cases. (uptodate.com)
- We report 6 cases of adverse systemic reactions to the intravesical instillation of doxorubicin hydrochloride for the treatment of recurrent superficial transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder. (uptodate.com)
- Intravesical administration of the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin is a common treatment for superficial carcinoma of the bladder, but it is associated with significant urological adverse effects. (edu.au)
- As a model of intravesical doxorubicin administration in patients, doxorubicin (1 mg/mL) was applied to the luminal surface of porcine bladders for 60 min. (edu.au)
- The application of luminal doxorubicin, under conditions that mimic intravesical administration to patients, affects urothelial/lamina propria function (increased contractile activity and ATP release) and enhances efferent neurotransmission without affecting detrusor smooth muscle. (edu.au)
- These actions would enhance bladder contractile activity and sensory nerve activity and may explain the adverse urological effects observed in patients following intravesical doxorubicin treatment. (edu.au)
- It is supplied as a non-pyrogenic, sterile Iyophilized powder for intravenous, intracavitary or intravesical administration, containing 15 mg of thiotepa. (rxlist.com)
- Thiotepa may be given by rapid intravenous administration in doses of 0.3 to 0.4 mg/kg. (rxlist.com)
- Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. (wikipedia.org)
- Needle insertion angles for 4 types of parenteral administration of medication: intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intradermal injection. (wikipedia.org)
- Intravenous administration of the brand formulation of rocuronium bromide, currently used as a muscle relaxant, has been associated with vascular pain accompanied by withdrawal movements of the arm an. (bioportfolio.com)
- The primary purpose of this study is to evaluate the time course of muscle relaxation after administration of three different single intravenous bolus doses of rocuronium bromide for intub. (bioportfolio.com)
- The maximum tolerated dose in humans by either intraperitoneal or intravenous administration is 600 mg/m 2 . (drugbank.ca)
- Case reports and case series have described dramatic responses to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in people with presumed viral myocarditis, and its administration has become commonplace. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- At all intravesical doses, significant systemic absorption was seen. (aacrjournals.org)
- Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local (sometimes termed topical ), such as in a contrast enema , whereby contrast media is infused into the intestines for imaging. (wikipedia.org)
- This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example. (bioportfolio.com)
- A major focus of his research lab is development of pre-clinical models of urothelial carcinoma to test systemic and intravesical immunotherapies and nano-particular based chemotherapies. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
- The module will help students develop their knowledge and skills in the administration of systemic anticancer therapies. (ncl.ac.uk)
- Myelosuppression is possible if valrubicin is inadvertently administered systemically or if significant systemic exposure occurs following intravesical administration (e.g., in patients with bladder/rupture perforation). (drugbank.ca)
- Intravesical instillation of epirubicin, bacillus Calmette-Guerin and bacillus Calmette-Guerin plus isoniazid for intermediate and high risk Ta, T1 papillary carcinoma of the bladder: a European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer genito-urinary group randomized phase III trial. (semanticscholar.org)
- For patients with known or suspected low- or intermediate-risk tumors, clinicians should consider administering a single postoperative instillation of intravesical chemotherapy, such as mitomycin C or epirubicin, within 24 hours of TUR. (renalandurologynews.com)
- Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) is indicated for use in the cystoscopic detection of non-muscle invasive papillary cancer of the bladder among patients suspected or known to have lesion(s) on the basis of a prior cystoscopy. (rxlist.com)
- The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and safety of intravesical Mycobacterial Cell Wall-DNA Complex (MCC) in patients with non-muscle invasive transitional cell carcinoma (papillary tumors and/or carcinoma in situ) of the urinary bladder at high risk of progression who are refractory to therapy with bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Interventions: Patients treated with either intravesical administration of HA+CS or standard of care (antimicrobial/immunoactive prophylaxis/probiotics/cranberry). (unibocconi.it)
- A comparative study between sacral neuromodulation and intravesical botulinum toxin injection for patients with refractory overactive bladder. (urotoday.com)
- Another Therapeutic Role for Intravesical Botulinum Toxin: Patients with Long-stay Catheters and Refractory Bladder Pain and Catheter Bypass Leakage. (urotoday.com)
- The purpose of the statement is to define the performance guidelines surrounding the instillation of intravesical cytotoxic, immunotherapeutic, and/or therapeutic drugs via sterile technique catheterization for patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (urothelial carcinoma) or interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. (suna.org)
- Intramuscular administration of drotaverine hydrochloride decreased the time to spontaneous micturition and decreased the incidence of urinary bladder catheterization in male patients who underwent orthopedic surgery under spinal anesthesia. (hindawi.com)
- Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (BCG) infections have been reported in health care workers and in patients because of exposure to the vaccine during preparation and administration. (drugs.com)
- Conservative management with intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guerin and cystectomy reserved for patients with resistant or progressive disease. (medpagetoday.com)
- In addition, clinicians should not administer induction intravesical therapy in low-risk patients. (renalandurologynews.com)
- The guidelines strongly recommend administration of a 6-week induction course of BCG to high-risk patients with newly diagnosed carcinoma in situ , high-grade T1, or high-risk Ta urothelial carcinoma. (renalandurologynews.com)
- It is not only a developmental anomaly related to inadequate length of intravesical submucosal ureter, but also a dysfunctional problem in which many patients have associated bladder emptying and bowel dysfunction. (hkmj.org)
- Treatment with intravesical gemcitabine following surgery reduced the risk of recurrence in patients with low-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. (cancernetwork.com)
- Treatment with one intravesical administration of gemcitabine immediately following transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) was well tolerated and reduced the risk of recurrence in patients with low-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer, according to a new study. (cancernetwork.com)
- For many patients, treatment consists of TURBT in combination with intravesical therapy to lower the risk the cancer will return. (urologyhealth.org)
- Postoperative intravesical chemotherapy is recommended for patients with low- and intermediate-risk NMIBC. (urologyhealth.org)
- The role for a single dose of intravesical chemotherapy (IVC) after transurethral resection (TUR) remains unclear in patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). (jnccn.org)
- This study investigated intravesical gemcitabine to establish the toxicology and pharmacokinetics necessary for clinical trials. (aacrjournals.org)
- Intravesical gemcitabine is well tolerated and has no direct bladder toxicity at doses up to 1000 mg/m 2 . (aacrjournals.org)
- they were randomized to receive either one intravesical administration of gemcitabine (2 gm/100 mL saline) or to saline alone, held for 1 hour following TURBT. (cancernetwork.com)
- The most common types of postoperative intravesical chemotherapy used to treat NMIBC are gemcitabine and mitomycin C, Dr. Ristau says. (urologyhealth.org)
- Electromotive drug administration (EMDA) is the use of electrical current to improve the delivery of intravesical agents to reduce the risk of recurrence in people with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- 2 Several studies have shown a benefit of immediate intravesical chemotherapy (IVC) after transurethral resection (TUR) in reducing tumor recurrence. (jnccn.org)
- Superficial bladder cancer lends itself to intravesical therapy due to the potential for direct contact between chemotherapeutic drug and tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
- To the best of our knowledge, we report the first case of disseminated bacillus Calmette-Guerin infection causing multiple abscesses affecting the pancreatic head and right psoas muscle, diagnosed 5 years after intravesical treatment with bacillus Calmette-Guerin therapy for bladder cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- With intravesical therapy, the doctor puts a liquid drug right into your bladder rather than giving it by mouth or injecting it into your blood. (cancer.org)
- When is intravesical therapy used? (cancer.org)
- Intravesical therapy is commonly used after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) . (cancer.org)
- This means that any cancer cells outside of the bladder lining, including those that have grown deeply into the bladder wall, are not treated by intravesical therapy. (cancer.org)
- Moreover, this same synergistic effect could be replicated during in vivo administration of BCG plus rIL-12 into the mouse bladder and was observed in a patient receiving intravesical combination therapy. (jimmunol.org)
- This suggests that antitumor immunity induced by intravesical BCG in bladder cancer therapy largely depends on proper activation of the Th1 immune pathway. (jimmunol.org)
- Fluorinated Polymer Mediated Transmucosal Peptide Delivery for Intravesical Instillation Therapy of Bladder Cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
- This form of bladder cancer is treated predominantly by urologists using surgical resection and intravesical infusion therapy. (newswire.ca)
- Urocidin TM is an intravesical infusion therapy, administered via trans-urethral catheter into the bladder. (newswire.ca)
- Intravesical therapy for superficial bladder cancer: a systematic review of randomised trials and meta-analyses. (semanticscholar.org)
- The guidelines, developed by the American Urological Association (AUA) and the Society for Urologic Oncology (SUO), make 38 recommendations regarding diagnosis, risk stratification, surgical intervention, and intravesical therapy. (renalandurologynews.com)
- 2004) reported that botox therapy is more effective than intravesical RTX. (rutgers.edu)
- Intravesical administration of bacillus Calmette-Guerin, a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis , is an adjunctive therapy for superficial bladder cancer. (biomedcentral.com)
- Most clinicians knowledgeable about IC/PBS focus on self-care and oral therapy, adding intravesical therapy as needed. (arhp.org)
- Either immediately or soon after the surgery, the surgeon will put a catheter into the bladder through the urethra to start the intravesical therapy while you are still under anesthesia. (urologyhealth.org)
- MCNA was developed to be delivered as a sterile suspension for intravesical administration by urologists and urology nurses, following the same dosing paradigm as first-line BCG therapy, with the advantage that it can be prepared, handled and disposed of easily and safely. (prnewswire.com)
- Clinical trials of intravesical alpha-2 interferon for carcinoma in-situ are also in progress. (springer.com)
Mycobacterial cell wall-DNA1
- Endo holds exclusive global rights to develop and market Bioniche's patented formulation of Mycobacterial Cell Wall-DNA Complex (MCC), Urocidin ™ , being developed for the intravesical treatment of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. (newswire.ca)
- Bladder irritation and rarely, bleeding (Hemorrhagic cystitis) following intravesical administration (see bladder problems). (chemocare.com)
- Intravesical administration: cystitis, invasive tumours that penetrate the vesical wall. (mims.com)
- There have been rare reports of chemical cystitis or hemorrhagic cystitis following intravesical, but not parenteral administration of thiotepa. (cancermonthly.com)
- Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) for Intravesical Solution is intended for intravesical administration only after reconstitution with the supplied 50 mL DILUENT. (rxlist.com)
- Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) for Intravesical Solution and DILUENT for Cysview are supplied together as a kit. (rxlist.com)
- Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) for Intravesical Solution is supplied as a sterile, non-pyrogenic, freeze-dried, white to off-white or pale yellow, powder containing 100 mg of hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride (equivalent of 85 mg of hexaminolevulinate) in a 10 mL clear glass vials. (rxlist.com)
- The DILUENT for Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) is a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution (pH 6) containing 0.61 mg/ mL disodium hydrogen phosphate, 0.58 mg/mL of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 7.02 mg/mL of sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid, sodium hydroxide, and water for injection. (rxlist.com)
- The reconstituted solution of Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) contains 2 mg/ml of hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride and is colorless to pale yellow. (rxlist.com)
- Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) is used with the Karl Storz D-Light C Photodynamic Diagnostic (PDD) system to perform cystoscopy with the blue light setting (Mode 2) as an adjunct to the white light setting (Mode 1). (rxlist.com)
- The recommended dose for adults is 50 mL of reconstituted solution of Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) (2.2), instilled into the bladder via a urinary catheter (2.3). (rxlist.com)
- Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) is supplied as a kit containing two vials: a clear glass vial labeled as Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride) for Intravesical Solution, containing 100 mg hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride as a powder, and a vial labeled as DILUENT for Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) , containing 50 mL of the diluent in a polypropylene vial. (rxlist.com)
- 2. Penetrate the stopper of the Cysview (hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride intravesical solution) powder vial with the needle and inject 10 mL of the diluent from the syringe into the powder vial (Figure 2). (rxlist.com)
- Can be administered alone via any injectable route defined by the TGA, or can be administered acting as diluent for an injectable requiring reconstitution prior to administration. (pbs.gov.au)
- Intravesical delivery of small activating RNA formulated into lipid nanoparticles inhibits orthotopic bladder tumor growth. (semanticscholar.org)
- KLH-IA) were determined in the MB-49 intravesical murine bladder tumor model. (curehunter.com)
- Intravesical administration of the chemotherapeutic agent, thiotepa, led to a reduction in size of established tumor foci after 4 d exposure of drug. (aacrjournals.org)
- One dose of intravesical chemotherapy might be the only treatment needed for non-invasive cancers. (cancer.org)
- They may be treated with 1 dose of intravesical chemo after TURBT. (cancer.org)
- Impact of high- versus low-dose neuromuscular blocking agent administration on unplanned 30-day readmission rates in retroperitoneal laparoscopic surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
- Modalities, ways of administration and indications of these treatments will be presented and discussed. (urofrance.org)
Directly into the bladder1
- A model of visceral nociception in which irritants are instilled directly into the bladder (intravesical, i.ves. (nih.gov)
- Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. (rxlist.com)
- Parenteral administration can be performed by injection , that is, using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle ) and a syringe ,  or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter . (wikipedia.org)
- Intravesical chemotherapy is used for these early-stage cancers because drugs given this way mainly affect the cells lining the inside of the bladder. (cancer.org)
- However, uptake of drugs administered orally may also occur already in the stomach , and as such gastrointestinal (along the gastrointestinal tract ) may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. (wikipedia.org)
- The administration of drugs through the nasal passage. (bioportfolio.com)
- The instillation or other administration of drugs into the bladder, usually to treat local disease, including neoplasms. (bioportfolio.com)
- Muscarinic drugs increase intravesical pressure, leading to hyperactive detrusor contraction. (hindawi.com)
- The objective of this phase I study was to show the safety and feasibility of intraductal administration of chemotherapy drugs into multiple ducts within one breast in women awaiting mastectomy for treatment of invasive cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
- The introduction of bladder selective antimuscarinic agents, extended release formulations, alternative routes of administration or use of other drugs could be explored. (minervamedica.it)
- Because of their involvement in the transport, handling, preparation, administration, or disposal of hazardous medications, health care workers across multiple settings are at risk for adverse health consequences from exposure to these drugs. (nursingcenter.com)
- Objectives: To compare the clinical effectiveness of the intravesical administration of combined hyaluronic acid and chondroitin sulfate (HA+CS) versus current standard management in adult women with recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs). (unibocconi.it)
- Intravesical adriamycin for recurrent superficial bladder cancer: A Southwest Oncology Group study. (swog.org)
- Superficial bladder cancer is treated by transuretral resection and in some cases by intravesical chemotherapy. (urofrance.org)
- Modalities such as intravesical Botulinum toxin, neuromodulation (peripheral or sacral) may be offered. (minervamedica.it)
- This study was developed to determine whether the generation of free radicals, induced by ischemia followed by reperfusion in a model of chronic intravesical obstruction in rats, would lead to damage in the detrusor. (scielo.br)
- In hospice care , a specialized rectal catheter , designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications provides a practical way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in the distal rectum, giving health practitioners a way to leverage the established benefits of rectal administration. (wikipedia.org)
- Instill 50 mL of reconstituted solution of Cysview into the emptied bladder via an intravesical catheter. (nih.gov)
- The procedure involves bladder catheterization and intravesical administration of radiographic contrast via the urinary catheter, followed by fluoroscopic examination of the lower abdomen and pelvis. (hkmj.org)
- SUNA and the American Urological Association (AUA) developed a joint Statement of Practice on Intravesical Administration of Therapeutic Medication. (suna.org)
- Route of administration and dosage form are aspects of drug delivery . (wikipedia.org)
-  A suppository is a solid dosage form that fits for rectal administration . (wikipedia.org)
- Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue. (bioportfolio.com)
- However, the mechanism of action of BCG has not yet been defined, nor has the optimal dosage schedule and route of administration been determined. (springer.com)
- Treatment includes supportive therapies (psychosocial, behavioral, physical), oral treatments, and intravesical treatments, whereas other more invasive treatments such as electric neuromodulation and reconstructive surgery are reserved for refractory cases. (asnjournals.org)
- A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. (wikipedia.org)
- Recent data shows that a neuromuscular block (NMB) induced by administration of high doses of rocuronium improves surgical conditions in certain procedures. (bioportfolio.com)
- Surgical intervention combined with intravesical instillation of chemotherapeutics to clear residual cancer cells after operation is the current standard treatment method for bladder cancer. (bioportfolio.com)
- Enteral/enteric administration usually includes oral  (through the mouth ) and rectal (into the rectum )  administration, in the sense that these are taken up by the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
- Of concern only with oral administration of quinolones. (drugs.com)
- Oral pentosan polysulfate sodium (PPS) and intravesical dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are the only FDA-approved agents. (arhp.org)
- Death has occurred after intravesical administration, caused by bone-marrow depression from systematically absorbed drug. (nih.gov)
- Molecular networks discriminating mouse bladder responses to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), LPS, and TNF-alpha. (ica-ev.de)