The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.
Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Contraceptive devices used by females.
Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
Pathological processes of the VAGINA.
A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.
Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.
Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.
Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.
Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
The emission of SEMEN and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
Personal care items for women.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
'Polyvinyls' is a term that refers to a group of polymers synthesized from vinyl chloride, including polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC), which are widely used in various medical applications such as manufacturing of medical devices, tubing, packaging materials, and pharmaceutical containers due to their chemical resistance, durability, and versatility.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.
Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.
Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.
Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
Excision of the uterus.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Sexual activities of humans.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Inbred ICR mice are a strain of albino laboratory mice that have been selectively bred for consistent genetic makeup and high reproductive performance, making them widely used in biomedical research for studies involving reproduction, toxicology, pharmacology, and carcinogenesis.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.

Women's interest in vaginal microbicides. (1/486)

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

Mucosal vaccination strategies for women. (2/486)

Women were immunized orally, rectally, or vaginally with a recombinant cholera toxin B-containing vaccine to determine which of these mucosal immunization routes generate the greatest levels of antibody in the female genital tract and rectum. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of cholera toxin B-specific IgA and IgG antibody in serum and secretions before and after three immunizations. Each immunization route similarly increased specific IgG in serum and specific IgA in saliva. Only the vaginal route increased IgA antibodies in genital tract secretions and could be shown to induce a local IgG response. However, vaginal immunization failed to produce antibody in the rectum. In a similar fashion, rectal immunization elicited highest concentrations of locally derived IgA and IgG antibody in the rectum but was ineffective for generating antibody in the genital tract. The data suggest that local immunization may induce the greatest immune responses in the female genital tract and rectum of humans.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the form of a vaginal tablet. (3/486)

Our study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the novel formula of an effervescent vaginal tablet. Fifty post-menopausal women, with a median age of 43.5 years (range 28-55), volunteered to participate in the research. All women discontinued their hormonal replacement therapy 1 month prior to the study. The pharmacokinetics of 50 and 100 mg of progesterone administered as a vaginal tablet were evaluated. After the initial administration of 50 mg or 100 mg, a mean serum Cmax of 20.43 +/- 8.01 nmol/l and 31.61 +/- 12.62 nmol/l (P < 0.0004) was reached at a Tmax of 6.1 +/- 2.63 and 6.4 +/- 3.35 h respectively. The terminal half-life was 13.18 +/- 1.3 and 13.7 +/- 1.05 h respectively. Continuous use of the 100-mg tablet resulted in a mean serum progesterone concentration of 26.08 +/- 13.96 nmol/l and 21.42 +/- 16.32 nmol/l after 14 and 30 days respectively. Women >40 years were found to have a significantly lower Tmax compared to younger women (P = 0.02). The continuous use of vaginal progesterone did not influence the hormonal, liver or lipid profiles evaluated. Only three (6%) women suffered from mild vaginal irritation. Natural progesterone given as a vaginal tablet is well tolerated, safe and an easily administered treatment. Even in a non-oestrogenized vagina the absorption was efficient and the 100 mg dosage resulted in adequate serum progesterone concentrations.  (+info)

Estradiol with or without progesterone and ambulatory blood pressure in postmenopausal women. (4/486)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether transdermal estradiol and intravaginal progesterone given in doses to mimic the premenopausal state would lower blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women were studied in each of 3 conditions: on placebo, after 8 weeks of transdermal estradiol 0.2 mg twice per week, and again 2 weeks after addition of intravaginal progesterone 300 mg/d. Women were studied at each point after 2 days of 100 mmol/d sodium intake. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP monitoring was performed, and blood was assayed for estradiol, progesterone, and hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). ANOVA with pairwise comparisons was used for analysis. Urinary sodium excretion was similar at each time point. Levels of estrogen and progesterone similar to those in premenopausal women were achieved. On estradiol, nocturnal systolic BP (110+/-3 mm Hg), diastolic BP (63+/-2 mm Hg), and mean BP (77+/-2 mm Hg) fell significantly (P<0.02) compared with placebo systolic BP (116+/-2 mm Hg), diastolic BP (68+/-2 mm Hg), and mean BP (82+/-2 mm Hg). Daytime BP followed the same trend but was significantly lower only for mean BP. There was no activation of the RAAS. The addition of progesterone resulted in no further fall in BP but a significant activation of the RAAS. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed, administration of estradiol with or without progesterone not only did not raise BP but rather substantially lowered BP. This BP-lowering effect may be responsible for the lower incidence of hypertension in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women.  (+info)

Does an acidic medium enhance the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for pre-abortion cervical priming? (5/486)

Absorption pharmacokinetics reveal a relationship between plasma concentrations of misoprostol and its therapeutic effect. To achieve a constant plasma profile and optimal efficacy, it is important to develop a medium that ensures complete dissolution of vaginal misoprostol tablets. Vaginal misoprostol is said to liquefy better in an acidic medium; thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether a 200 microg misoprostol tablet dissolved in acetic acid would be more efficacious than 200 microg misoprostol dissolved in water for pre-abortion cervical priming. A total of 120 healthy nulliparous women requesting legal termination of pregnancy between 6-12 weeks gestation were allocated randomly to either of the study groups. Vacuum aspiration was performed 3-4 h after insertion of the misoprostol tablet. Using Hegar's dilator, the degree of cervical dilatation before operation was measured. Of 60 women, 14 (23%) achieved a cervical dilatation of >/=8 mm when the misoprostol dose was dissolved in acetic acid; 12 (20%) achieved a similar cervical dilatation when the dose was dissolved in water. The mean cervical dilatation for the acid and water media used was 6.3 mm and 6.2 mm respectively; these differences were not statistically significant, neither were pre-operative and intra-operative blood losses statistically different between the two groups. Twenty-four (40%) and four (7%) respectively of women in whom a water medium was used experienced vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain; 20 (33%) and 0 women respectively among those in whom an acetic acid medium was used experienced vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. These differences in side effects were not statistically significant. Our study shows that the use of acetic acid to dissolve vaginal misoprostol does not improve the efficacy in achieving successful cervical dilatation for pre-abortion cervical priming.  (+info)

Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus. (6/486)

The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF.  (+info)

Ovulation and estrus characteristics in crossbred Brahman heifers treated with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert in combination with prostaglandin F2alpha and estradiol benzoate. (7/486)

Crossbred Brahman heifers (n = 60) were studied to determine the effect of a 7-d intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (INSERT) in combination with PG (Lutalyse; 25 mg i.m.) and estradiol benzoate (EB; .5 mg i.m.) on time of ovulation and estrous behavior. In Phase I, heifers at unknown stages of the estrous cycle were assigned by BW and body condition score to one of the three treatments on d 0: 1) INSERT for 7 d and PG on d 7 (CONTROL; n = 10); 2) INSERT for 7 d, PG on d 7, and EB 24 h after INSERT removal (EB24; n = 10); or 3) INSERT for 7 d, PG on d 7, and EB 48 h after INSERT removal (EB48; n = 10). Blood samples were collected every 8 h after INSERT removal. Also, blood sampling and ultrasonography began 8 h after the onset of estrus, determined with HeatWatch devices, and every 4 h thereafter to detect ovulation. In Phase II, Phase-I treatments (n = 10/treatments) were replicated, but only behavioral estrus data were collected to minimize handling of heifers. Frequent handling of heifers did not influence (P > .1) the interval from INSERT removal to the onset of HeatWatch and visual estrus and duration of estrus, so behavioral estrus data were combined for Phases I and II. Interval from INSERT removal to HeatWatch estrus was decreased (P < .05) in EB24 (45.5 h) vs EB48 (55.9 h) and CONTROL (59.2 h). Interval from INSERT removal to ovulation differed (P < .04) between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (93.5, 74.5, and 78.9 h, respectively). Ovulatory follicle size was similar (P > .1) between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (14.4, 12.5, and 14.1 mm, respectively). Duration of estrus was similar for CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (14.0, 15.1, and 17.6 h, respectively). No difference (P > . 1) was observed in number of mounts received between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (28.0, 25.7, and 39.4, respectively), but number of mounts received increased in Phase II vs Phase I (40.0 and 22.2, respectively; P < .05). In conclusion, EB hastened the interval from INSERT removal to ovulation without altering duration of estrus or number of mounts received. Frequent handling of heifers did not affect interval to first mount received after INSERT removal or duration of estrus, but it decreased the total number of mounts received.  (+info)

Luteal support with micronized progesterone following in-vitro fertilization using a down-regulation protocol with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist: a comparative study between vaginal and oral administration. (8/486)

This study aimed to compare the efficacy of micronized progesterone administered as luteal support following ovulation induction for in-vitro fertilization (IVF)- embryo transfer in cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, either orally (200 mgx4/day) or vaginally (100 mgx2/day) and to characterize the luteal phase hormonal profile during such treatments. A total of 64 high responder patients requiring intracytoplasmic sperm injection due to male factor infertility were prospectively randomized into two treatment groups. Patients treated orally or vaginally were comparable in age (31.9 +/- 6.1 versus 30.6 +/- 5.2; mean +/- SD), number of oocytes retrieved (17 +/- 8.2 versus 18 +/- 7.0), and number of embryos transferred (3.1 +/- 1.2 versus 2.7 +/- 0.9) per cycle. Following low dose vaginal treatment, a significantly higher implantation rate (30.7 versus 10.7%, P < 0.01), but similar clinical pregnancy rate (47.0 versus 33.3%) and ongoing pregnancy rate (41.1 versus 20.0%) was observed, compared with oral treatment. In conception cycles, luteal serum progesterone and oestrogen concentrations did not differ between the treatment groups. In non-conception cycles, late luteal progesterone concentrations were significantly lower following vaginal treatment. As low dose micronized progesterone administered vaginally is simple, easy and well tolerated, it could be recommended as the method of choice for luteal support, especially for high responder patients at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.  (+info)

Intravaginal administration refers to the delivery of medications or other substances directly into the vagina. This route of administration can be used for local treatment of vaginal infections or inflammation, or to deliver systemic medication that is absorbed through the vaginal mucosa.

Medications can be administered intravaginally using a variety of dosage forms, including creams, gels, foams, suppositories, and films. The choice of dosage form depends on several factors, such as the drug's physicochemical properties, the desired duration of action, and patient preference.

Intravaginal administration offers several advantages over other routes of administration. It allows for direct delivery of medication to the site of action, which can result in higher local concentrations and fewer systemic side effects. Additionally, some medications may be more effective when administered intravaginally due to their ability to bypass first-pass metabolism in the liver.

However, there are also potential disadvantages to intravaginal administration. Some women may find it uncomfortable or inconvenient to use this route of administration, and there is a risk of leakage or expulsion of the medication. Additionally, certain medications may cause local irritation or allergic reactions when administered intravaginally.

Overall, intravaginal administration can be a useful route of administration for certain medications and conditions, but it is important to consider the potential benefits and risks when choosing this method.

The vagina is the canal that joins the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the outside of the body. It also is known as the birth canal because babies pass through it during childbirth. The vagina is where sexual intercourse occurs and where menstrual blood exits the body. It has a flexible wall that can expand and retract. During sexual arousal, the vaginal walls swell with blood to become more elastic in order to accommodate penetration.

It's important to note that sometimes people use the term "vagina" to refer to the entire female genital area, including the external structures like the labia and clitoris. But technically, these are considered part of the vulva, not the vagina.

Vaginal douching is the practice of cleaning out the vagina with water or a mixture of water and other substances, such as vinegar or baking soda. The solution is typically inserted into the vagina using a douche, which is a device that looks like a squeeze bottle or a syringe.

It's important to note that douching is not recommended by medical professionals. The vagina is self-cleaning and does not require any additional cleaning products. Douching can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina, which can increase the risk of infection and other health problems. It can also increase the risk of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, and low birth weight in babies born to women who douche during pregnancy.

If you have any concerns about your vaginal health or hygiene, it's best to speak with a healthcare provider for advice and recommendations tailored to your specific needs.

Vaginal creams, foams, and jellies are topical formulations specifically designed for vaginal application. These products contain various active ingredients intended to treat or manage various vaginal conditions such as infections, dryness, or irritation. The choice of formulation depends on the specific indication, patient preference, and the properties of the active ingredient.

1. Vaginal Creams: These are smooth, thick, and creamy preparations that often contain a water-in-oil or oil-in-water emulsion. They are typically used to deliver medications for treating vaginal infections like candidiasis, bacterial vaginosis, or trichomoniasis. Vaginal creams can also be used as lubricants or moisturizers to alleviate dryness and discomfort.

2. Vaginal Foams: These are aerosolized formulations that contain a propellant gas, which creates a light and airy consistency when dispensed. The foam formulation facilitates the even distribution of the active ingredient throughout the vaginal area. Vaginal foams are often used to deliver medications for treating vaginal infections or as contraceptive foams.

3. Vaginal Jellies: These are semi-solid preparations with a smooth, slippery consistency, similar to gelatin. They are typically water-based and can easily spread and coat the vaginal mucosa. Vaginal jellies are often used as lubricants or to deliver medications for local action in the vagina, such as antifungal, antibacterial, or anesthetic agents.

It is essential to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when using these products, as improper use may lead to reduced effectiveness or increased side effects.

Oral administration is a route of giving medications or other substances by mouth. This can be in the form of tablets, capsules, liquids, pastes, or other forms that can be swallowed. Once ingested, the substance is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and enters the bloodstream to reach its intended target site in the body. Oral administration is a common and convenient route of medication delivery, but it may not be appropriate for all substances or in certain situations, such as when rapid onset of action is required or when the patient has difficulty swallowing.

Contraceptive devices for females refer to medical products designed to prevent pregnancy by blocking or interfering with the sperm's ability to reach and fertilize an egg. Some common examples of female contraceptive devices include:

1. Diaphragm: A shallow, flexible dome made of silicone that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
2. Cervical Cap: Similar to a diaphragm but smaller in size, the cervical cap fits over the cervix and creates a barrier to sperm entry.
3. Intrauterine Device (IUD): A small, T-shaped device made of plastic or copper that is inserted into the uterus by a healthcare professional. IUDs can prevent pregnancy for several years and work by changing the chemistry of the cervical mucus and uterine lining to inhibit sperm movement and implantation of a fertilized egg.
4. Contraceptive Sponge: A soft, round sponge made of polyurethane foam that contains spermicide. The sponge is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse and covers the cervix to prevent sperm from entering the uterus.
5. Female Condom: A thin, flexible pouch made of polyurethane or nitrile that is inserted into the vagina before sexual intercourse. The female condom creates a barrier between the sperm and the cervix, preventing pregnancy and reducing the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
6. Vaginal Ring: A flexible ring made of plastic that is inserted into the vagina for three weeks at a time to release hormones that prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus, and thin the lining of the uterus.
7. Contraceptive Implant: A small, flexible rod made of plastic that is implanted under the skin of the upper arm by a healthcare professional. The implant releases hormones that prevent ovulation and thicken cervical mucus to prevent pregnancy for up to three years.

It's important to note that while these contraceptive devices can be highly effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against STIs. Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception is recommended to reduce the risk of both pregnancy and STIs.

Spermatocidal agents are substances or chemicals that have the ability to destroy or inhibit sperm cells, making them non-functional. These agents are often used in spermicides, which are a type of contraceptive method. Spermicides work by physically blocking the cervix and killing any sperm that come into contact with the spermicidal agent. Common spermatocidal agents include Nonoxynol-9, Benzalkonium chloride, and Chlorhexidine gluconate. It's important to note that while spermicides can provide some protection against pregnancy, they are not considered a highly effective form of birth control when used alone.

Estrus synchronization is a veterinary medical procedure used in the management of domestic animals, such as cattle and sheep. It is a process of coordinating the estrous cycles of animals so that they can be bred at the same time or have their fertility treatments performed simultaneously. This is achieved through the use of various hormonal therapies, including progestins, prostaglandins, and gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH).

The goal of estrus synchronization is to improve reproductive efficiency in animal production systems by ensuring that a larger number of animals become pregnant during a shorter breeding season. This can lead to more uniform calf or lamb crops, reduced labor and management costs, and increased profitability for farmers and ranchers.

Estrus synchronization is a complex process that requires careful planning and implementation, as well as ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the animals' reproductive performance. It is typically performed under the guidance of a veterinarian or animal reproduction specialist.

Vaginal diseases refer to various medical conditions that affect the vagina, which is the female reproductive organ that extends from the cervix (the lower part of the uterus) to the external part of the genitalia (vulva). These diseases can cause a range of symptoms, including discharge, itching, burning, pain, and discomfort. Some common vaginal diseases include:

1. Vaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of the vagina that can cause abnormal discharge, itching, and irritation. The most common causes of vaginitis are bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, and trichomoniasis.
2. Vulvovaginitis: It is an inflammation or infection of both the vagina and vulva that can cause redness, swelling, itching, and pain. The causes of vulvovaginitis are similar to those of vaginitis and include bacterial infections, yeast infections, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
3. Vaginal dryness: It is a common condition that affects many women, especially after menopause. It can cause discomfort during sexual intercourse and lead to other symptoms such as itching and burning.
4. Vaginal cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that develop in the vagina due to various reasons, including inflammation, injury, or congenital abnormalities.
5. Vaginal cancer: It is a rare type of cancer that affects the vagina. The most common symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, discharge, and pain during sexual intercourse.
6. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): Several STIs, such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus (HPV), can affect the vagina and cause various symptoms, including discharge, pain, and sores.

It is essential to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of vaginal diseases to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but I was unable to find a medical definition for "Flurogestone Acetate." It is possible that there may be a spelling error or it could be a medication that is not widely recognized in the medical field. If you have more information about this term, such as its alternate names or the context in which it's used, I might be able to provide a more accurate response.

Fluorogestone acetate is a synthetic progestogen, which is a type of hormone that is similar to the natural progesterone produced by the body. It has been used in some formulations for hormonal contraception and hormone replacement therapy. However, it's important to note that specific medications and their uses may vary depending on the country and region, so I cannot provide a definitive medical definition without more context.

If you have any concerns about your medication or its effects, please consult with a healthcare professional for accurate information tailored to your situation.

Artificial insemination (AI) is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of sperm into a female's cervix or uterus for the purpose of achieving pregnancy. This procedure can be performed using sperm from a partner or a donor. It is often used when there are issues with male fertility, such as low sperm count or poor sperm motility, or in cases where natural conception is not possible due to various medical reasons.

There are two types of artificial insemination: intracervical insemination (ICI) and intrauterine insemination (IUI). ICI involves placing the sperm directly into the cervix, while IUI involves placing the sperm directly into the uterus using a catheter. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, including the cause of infertility and the preferences of the individuals involved.

Artificial insemination is a relatively simple and low-risk procedure that can be performed in a doctor's office or clinic. It may be combined with fertility drugs to increase the chances of pregnancy. The success rate of artificial insemination varies depending on several factors, including the age and fertility of the individuals involved, the cause of infertility, and the type of procedure used.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

A mucous membrane is a type of moist, protective lining that covers various body surfaces inside the body, including the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts, as well as the inner surface of the eyelids and the nasal cavity. These membranes are composed of epithelial cells that produce mucus, a slippery secretion that helps trap particles, microorganisms, and other foreign substances, preventing them from entering the body or causing damage to tissues. The mucous membrane functions as a barrier against infection and irritation while also facilitating the exchange of gases, nutrients, and waste products between the body and its environment.

Vaginitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the vagina, often accompanied by an alteration in the normal vaginal flora and an associated discharge. It can result from infectious (bacterial, viral, or fungal) or noninfectious causes, such as chemical irritants, allergies, or hormonal changes. Common symptoms include abnormal vaginal discharge with varying colors, odors, and consistencies; itching; burning; and pain during urination or sexual intercourse. The specific diagnosis and treatment of vaginitis depend on the underlying cause, which is typically determined through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a medical condition that refers to an infection in the vagina and vulva caused by Candida fungus, most commonly Candida albicans. This type of infection is also commonly known as a yeast infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal candidiasis can include itching, redness, swelling, pain, and soreness in the affected area, as well as thick, white vaginal discharge that may resemble cottage cheese. In some cases, there may also be burning during urination or sexual intercourse. Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common condition that affects many women at some point in their lives, and it can be treated with antifungal medications.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition that occurs when there's an imbalance or overgrowth of bacteria in the vagina. It's not technically considered a sexually transmitted infection (STI), but certain activities such as unprotected sex can increase the risk of developing BV. The normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted, leading to symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge with a strong fishy odor, burning during urination, and itching or irritation around the outside of the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis is diagnosed through a pelvic examination and laboratory tests to identify the type of bacteria present in the vagina. Treatment typically involves antibiotics, either in the form of pills or creams that are inserted into the vagina. It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect you have bacterial vaginosis, as it can increase the risk of complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and preterm labor during pregnancy.

Herpes genitalis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), specifically HSV-2, and occasionally HSV-1. It primarily affects the genital area, but can also involve the anal region, thighs, and buttocks. The infection presents as painful fluid-filled blisters or lesions that may be accompanied by symptoms such as itching, tingling, or burning sensations in the affected area. After the initial outbreak, the virus remains dormant in the body and can reactivate periodically, causing recurrent episodes of genital herpes. It's important to note that while there is no cure for herpes genitalis, antiviral medications can help manage symptoms and reduce transmission risks.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. Cervical mucus is a clear or cloudy secretion produced by glands in the cervix. The amount and consistency of cervical mucus changes throughout a woman's menstrual cycle, influenced by hormonal fluctuations.

During the fertile window (approximately mid-cycle), estrogen levels rise, causing the cervical mucus to become more abundant, clear, and stretchy (often described as resembling raw egg whites). This "fertile" mucus facilitates the movement of sperm through the cervix and into the uterus, increasing the chances of fertilization.

As the menstrual cycle progresses and progesterone levels rise after ovulation, cervical mucus becomes thicker, cloudier, and less abundant, making it more difficult for sperm to penetrate. This change in cervical mucus helps prevent additional sperm from entering and fertilizing an already-fertilized egg.

Changes in cervical mucus can be used as a method of natural family planning or fertility awareness, with women checking their cervical mucus daily to identify their most fertile days. However, this method should be combined with other tracking methods for increased accuracy and reliability.

Medical Definition of "Herpesvirus 2, Human" (also known as Human Herpesvirus 2 or HHV-2):

Herpesvirus 2, Human is a double-stranded DNA virus that belongs to the Herpesviridae family. It is one of the eight herpesviruses known to infect humans. HHV-2 is the primary cause of genital herpes, a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects the mucosal surfaces and skin around the genitals, rectum, or mouth.

The virus is typically transmitted through sexual contact with an infected person, and it can also be spread from mother to child during childbirth if the mother has active genital lesions. After initial infection, HHV-2 establishes latency in the sacral ganglia (a collection of nerve cells at the base of the spine) and may reactivate periodically, leading to recurrent outbreaks of genital herpes.

During both primary and recurrent infections, HHV-2 can cause painful blisters or ulcers on the skin or mucous membranes, as well as flu-like symptoms such as fever, swollen lymph nodes, and body aches. While there is no cure for genital herpes, antiviral medications can help manage symptoms, reduce outbreak frequency, and lower the risk of transmission to sexual partners.

It's important to note that HHV-2 infection can sometimes be asymptomatic or cause mild symptoms that go unnoticed, making it difficult to determine the exact prevalence of the virus in the population. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), an estimated 491 million people worldwide aged 15 years and older have HSV-2 infection, with a higher prevalence in women than men.

Female genitalia refer to the reproductive and sexual organs located in the female pelvic region. They are primarily involved in reproduction, menstruation, and sexual activity. The external female genitalia, also known as the vulva, include the mons pubis, labia majora, labia minora, clitoris, and the external openings of the urethra and vagina. The internal female genitalia consist of the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. These structures work together to facilitate menstruation, fertilization, pregnancy, and childbirth.

Nonoxynol is a surfactant, or surface-active agent, that has been used in various medical and consumer products. It is a type of chemical compound known as a polyoxyethylene alkyl ether, which means it contains a hydrophilic (water-attracting) ethylene oxide group and a hydrophobic (water-repelling) alkyl group.

In the medical field, Nonoxynol has been used as a spermicide in various forms of birth control, such as creams, gels, films, and sponges. It works by disrupting the membrane of sperm cells, preventing them from fertilizing an egg. However, its use as a spermicide has declined due to concerns about its potential to cause irritation and inflammation in the genital area, which may increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV transmission.

It's important to note that Nonoxynol is not currently recommended for use as a spermicide or microbicide due to its potential health risks. Always consult with a healthcare professional before using any medical product.

A pessary is a medical device that is inserted into the vagina to provide support for the uterus, vaginal vault, or bladder. It is often used in the management of pelvic organ prolapse, urinary incontinence, and other gynecological conditions. Pessaries come in various shapes and sizes, and they are typically made of silicone, rubber, or plastic. They can be worn for extended periods of time and are usually removable and cleanable. The selection and fitting of a pessary should be performed by a healthcare professional, such as a gynecologist or nurse midwife.

Anestrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the period of sexual quiescence in female animals, during which they do not exhibit estrous cycles. This phase is characterized by low levels of reproductive hormones and is seen in some species as a part of their natural reproductive cycle, while in others it may indicate an abnormality or underlying health issue.

For example, in dogs, anestrus is the period between heat cycles when the reproductive system is relatively inactive. In contrast, in domestic cats, continuous estrous cycling is the norm, and they do not typically exhibit an anestrus phase.

In some cases, anestrus may be induced by factors such as poor nutrition, stress, or illness, and it can have negative consequences for an animal's reproductive health if it persists for too long. If an animal is experiencing prolonged anestrus or other reproductive issues, it is important to consult with a veterinarian for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common sexual disorder characterized by an uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration, with minimal sexual stimulation and before the person wishes it. This can cause distress, frustration, and avoidance of sexual intimacy. The exact cause of PE is not fully understood, but it can be associated with psychological factors like anxiety, depression, relationship issues, as well as biological factors such as abnormal hormone levels, genetics, or nerve damage. Treatment options may include behavioral techniques, medications, and counseling.

Intranasal administration refers to the delivery of medication or other substances through the nasal passages and into the nasal cavity. This route of administration can be used for systemic absorption of drugs or for localized effects in the nasal area.

When a medication is administered intranasally, it is typically sprayed or dropped into the nostril, where it is absorbed by the mucous membranes lining the nasal cavity. The medication can then pass into the bloodstream and be distributed throughout the body for systemic effects. Intranasal administration can also result in direct absorption of the medication into the local tissues of the nasal cavity, which can be useful for treating conditions such as allergies, migraines, or pain in the nasal area.

Intranasal administration has several advantages over other routes of administration. It is non-invasive and does not require needles or injections, making it a more comfortable option for many people. Additionally, intranasal administration can result in faster onset of action than oral administration, as the medication bypasses the digestive system and is absorbed directly into the bloodstream. However, there are also some limitations to this route of administration, including potential issues with dosing accuracy and patient tolerance.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

In medical terms, "gels" are semi-solid colloidal systems in which a solid phase is dispersed in a liquid medium. They have a viscous consistency and can be described as a cross between a solid and a liquid. The solid particles, called the gel network, absorb and swell with the liquid component, creating a system that has properties of both solids and liquids.

Gels are widely used in medical applications such as wound dressings, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering due to their unique properties. They can provide a moist environment for wounds to heal, control the release of drugs over time, and mimic the mechanical properties of natural tissues.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Estradiol is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It is the most potent and dominant form of estrogen in humans. Estradiol plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics in women, such as breast development and regulation of the menstrual cycle. It also helps maintain bone density, protect the lining of the uterus, and is involved in cognition and mood regulation.

Estradiol is produced primarily by the ovaries, but it can also be synthesized in smaller amounts by the adrenal glands and fat cells. In men, estradiol is produced from testosterone through a process called aromatization. Abnormal levels of estradiol can contribute to various health issues, such as hormonal imbalances, infertility, osteoporosis, and certain types of cancer.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "delayed-action preparations." However, in the context of pharmacology, it may refer to medications or treatments that have a delayed onset of action. These are designed to release the active drug slowly over an extended period, which can help to maintain a consistent level of the medication in the body and reduce the frequency of dosing.

Examples of delayed-action preparations include:

1. Extended-release (ER) or controlled-release (CR) formulations: These are designed to release the drug slowly over several hours, reducing the need for frequent dosing. Examples include extended-release tablets and capsules.
2. Transdermal patches: These deliver medication through the skin and can provide a steady rate of drug delivery over several days. Examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation or fentanyl patches for pain management.
3. Injectable depots: These are long-acting injectable formulations that slowly release the drug into the body over weeks to months. An example is the use of long-acting antipsychotic injections for the treatment of schizophrenia.
4. Implantable devices: These are small, biocompatible devices placed under the skin or within a body cavity that release a steady dose of medication over an extended period. Examples include hormonal implants for birth control or drug-eluting stents used in cardiovascular procedures.

Delayed-action preparations can improve patient compliance and quality of life by reducing dosing frequency, minimizing side effects, and maintaining consistent therapeutic levels.

Misoprostol is a synthetic prostaglandin E1 analog used in obstetrics and gynecology to prevent and treat ulcers caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), reduce the risk of gastric ulcers in patients taking NSAIDs long term, induce labor, manage postpartum hemorrhage, and cause abortion. It is also used off-label for cervical ripening before gynecologic surgery and to treat miscarriage.

In addition, Misoprostol has been found to be effective in reducing the risk of gastric ulcers and NSAID-induced dyspepsia (upper abdominal pain or discomfort) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions who require long-term NSAID therapy.

It is important to note that Misoprostol should not be used during pregnancy unless under the supervision of a healthcare provider for specific medical indications, such as preventing or treating stomach ulcers in pregnant women taking NSAIDs or inducing labor. It can cause miscarriage and birth defects if taken during early pregnancy.

Reproductive Tract Infections (RTIs) refer to infections that are localized in the reproductive organs, including the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, and prostate gland. These infections can be caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites.

RTIs can lead to a range of complications, including pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and increased risk of HIV transmission. They can also cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, pain during sexual intercourse, irregular menstrual bleeding, and lower abdominal pain.

RTIs are often sexually transmitted but can also be caused by other factors such as poor hygiene, use of intrauterine devices (IUDs), and invasive gynecological procedures. Prevention measures include safe sexual practices, good personal hygiene, and timely treatment of infections.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

'Chlamydia muridarum' is a species of the genus Chlamydia, which are obligate intracellular bacteria that can cause infectious diseases in humans and animals. 'Chlamydia muridarum' is closely related to 'Chlamydia trachomatis', which is a major cause of sexually transmitted infections in humans.

'Chlamydia muridarum' is primarily found in rodents, particularly mice, and can cause respiratory tract infections and reproductive tract diseases in these animals. It has been used as a model organism to study the pathogenesis and immunology of Chlamydia infections in mammals.

The medical relevance of 'Chlamydia muridarum' lies in its use as a research tool to better understand Chlamydia infections and develop new treatments and vaccines for these diseases. However, it is not considered a direct threat to human health, as it does not naturally infect humans.

A drug implant is a medical device that is specially designed to provide controlled release of a medication into the body over an extended period of time. Drug implants can be placed under the skin or in various body cavities, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. They are often used when other methods of administering medication, such as oral pills or injections, are not effective or practical.

Drug implants come in various forms, including rods, pellets, and small capsules. The medication is contained within the device and is released slowly over time, either through diffusion or erosion of the implant material. This allows for a steady concentration of the drug to be maintained in the body, which can help to improve treatment outcomes and reduce side effects.

Some common examples of drug implants include:

1. Hormonal implants: These are small rods that are inserted under the skin of the upper arm and release hormones such as progestin or estrogen over a period of several years. They are often used for birth control or to treat conditions such as endometriosis or uterine fibroids.
2. Intraocular implants: These are small devices that are placed in the eye during surgery to release medication directly into the eye. They are often used to treat conditions such as age-related macular degeneration or diabetic retinopathy.
3. Bone cement implants: These are specially formulated cements that contain antibiotics and are used to fill bone defects or joint spaces during surgery. The antibiotics are released slowly over time, helping to prevent infection.
4. Implantable pumps: These are small devices that are placed under the skin and deliver medication directly into a specific body cavity, such as the spinal cord or the peritoneal cavity. They are often used to treat chronic pain or cancer.

Overall, drug implants offer several advantages over other methods of administering medication, including improved compliance, reduced side effects, and more consistent drug levels in the body. However, they may also have some disadvantages, such as the need for surgical placement and the potential for infection or other complications. As with any medical treatment, it is important to discuss the risks and benefits of drug implants with a healthcare provider.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

"Macaca nemestrina," also known as the pig-tailed macaque, is not a medical term but a species name in biology. It refers to a specific species of monkey that is native to Southeast Asia. The pig-tailed macaque is a medium-sized monkey with a reddish-brown fur and a distinctive tail that resembles a pig's tail. They are omnivorous and live in social groups that can range from a few individuals to several hundred.

While "Macaca nemestrina" may not have a direct medical definition, these monkeys have been used as models in biomedical research due to their close genetic relationship with humans. Some studies involving pig-tailed macaques have contributed to our understanding of various human diseases and conditions, such as infectious diseases, neurological disorders, and reproductive health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic, and ethical considerations must be taken into account when conducting such studies.

Intravenous injections are a type of medical procedure where medication or fluids are administered directly into a vein using a needle and syringe. This route of administration is also known as an IV injection. The solution injected enters the patient's bloodstream immediately, allowing for rapid absorption and onset of action. Intravenous injections are commonly used to provide quick relief from symptoms, deliver medications that are not easily absorbed by other routes, or administer fluids and electrolytes in cases of dehydration or severe illness. It is important that intravenous injections are performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection.

Fertility is the natural ability to conceive or to cause conception of offspring. In humans, it is the capacity of a woman and a man to reproduce through sexual reproduction. For women, fertility usually takes place during their reproductive years, which is from adolescence until menopause. A woman's fertility depends on various factors including her age, overall health, and the health of her reproductive system.

For men, fertility can be affected by a variety of factors such as age, genetics, general health, sexual function, and environmental factors that may affect sperm production or quality. Factors that can negatively impact male fertility include exposure to certain chemicals, radiation, smoking, alcohol consumption, drug use, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

Infertility is a common medical condition affecting about 10-15% of couples trying to conceive. Infertility can be primary or secondary. Primary infertility refers to the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sexual intercourse, while secondary infertility refers to the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy.

Infertility can be treated with various medical and surgical interventions depending on the underlying cause. These may include medications to stimulate ovulation, intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilization (IVF), or surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities.

The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is a federal government agency responsible for protecting public health by ensuring the safety, efficacy, and security of human and veterinary drugs, biological products, medical devices, our country's food supply, cosmetics, and products that emit radiation. The FDA also provides guidance on the proper use of these products, and enforces laws and regulations related to them. It is part of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Organophosphonates are a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbon-phosphorus bond. They contain a phosphonic acid group, which consists of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen or nitrogen atoms, with one of those bonds being replaced by a carbon atom.

In a medical context, organophosphonates are commonly used as radiopharmaceuticals in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures, such as bone scans. These compounds have the ability to bind to hydroxyapatite, the mineral component of bones, and can be labeled with radioactive isotopes for imaging purposes. They may also be used in therapeutic settings, including as treatments for conditions such as tumor-induced hypercalcemia and Paget's disease of bone.

It is important to note that organophosphonates are distinct from organophosphates, another class of compounds that contain a phosphorus atom bonded to three oxygen or sulfur atoms and one carbon atom. Organophosphates have been widely used as pesticides and chemical warfare agents, and can pose significant health risks due to their toxicity.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

Mucosal immunity refers to the immune system's defense mechanisms that are specifically adapted to protect the mucous membranes, which line various body openings such as the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and urogenital tracts. These membranes are constantly exposed to foreign substances, including potential pathogens, and therefore require a specialized immune response to maintain homeostasis and prevent infection.

Mucosal immunity is primarily mediated by secretory IgA (SIgA) antibodies, which are produced by B cells in the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). These antibodies can neutralize pathogens and prevent them from adhering to and invading the epithelial cells that line the mucous membranes.

In addition to SIgA, other components of the mucosal immune system include innate immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils, which can recognize and respond to pathogens through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). T cells also play a role in mucosal immunity, particularly in the induction of cell-mediated immunity against viruses and other intracellular pathogens.

Overall, mucosal immunity is an essential component of the body's defense system, providing protection against a wide range of potential pathogens while maintaining tolerance to harmless antigens present in the environment.

"Macaca mulatta" is the scientific name for the Rhesus macaque, a species of monkey that is native to South, Central, and Southeast Asia. They are often used in biomedical research due to their genetic similarity to humans.

Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) is a retrovirus that primarily infects African non-human primates and is the direct ancestor of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 2 (HIV-2). It is similar to HIV in its structure, replication strategy, and ability to cause an immunodeficiency disease in its host. SIV infection in its natural hosts is typically asymptomatic and non-lethal, but it can cause AIDS-like symptoms in other primate species. Research on SIV in its natural hosts has provided valuable insights into the mechanisms of HIV pathogenesis and potential strategies for prevention and treatment of AIDS.

An intrauterine device (IUD) is a small, T-shaped birth control device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. A medicated IUD is a type of IUD that contains hormones, which are released slowly over time to provide additional benefits beyond just contraception.

There are two types of medicated IUDs available in the US market: levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) and the copper intrauterine device (Cu-IUD). The LNG-IUS releases a progestin hormone called levonorgestrel, which thickens cervical mucus to prevent sperm from reaching the egg, thins the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant, and can also inhibit ovulation in some women. The Cu-IUD is non-hormonal and works by releasing copper ions that create a toxic environment for sperm, preventing them from reaching the egg.

Medicated IUDs are highly effective at preventing pregnancy, with typical use failure rates of less than 1% per year. They can remain in place for several years, depending on the brand, and can be removed at any time by a healthcare provider if a woman wants to become pregnant or experience side effects. Common side effects of medicated IUDs may include irregular menstrual bleeding, cramping, and spotting between periods, although these tend to improve over time.

An abortifacient agent is a substance or drug that causes abortion by inducing the uterus to contract and expel a fetus. These agents can be chemical or herbal substances, and they work by interfering with the implantation of the fertilized egg in the uterine lining or by stimulating uterine contractions to expel the developing embryo or fetus.

Examples of abortifacient agents include misoprostol, mifepristone, and certain herbs such as pennyroyal, tansy, and black cohosh. It is important to note that the use of abortifacient agents can have serious health consequences, including infection, bleeding, and damage to the reproductive system. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before using any abortifacient agent.

Thymidine Monophosphate (TMP or dTMP) is a nucleotide that is a ester of phosphoric acid with thymidine, a nucleoside consisting of deoxyribose sugar linked to the nitrogenous base thymine. It is one of the four monophosphate nucleotides that are the building blocks of DNA, along with adenosine monophosphate (AMP), guanosine monophosphate (GMP), and cytidine monophosphate (CMP). TMP plays a crucial role in DNA replication and repair processes. It is also used as a marker in biochemical research and medical diagnostics.

Drug administration routes refer to the different paths through which medications or drugs are introduced into the body to exert their therapeutic effects. Understanding these routes is crucial in ensuring appropriate drug delivery, optimizing drug effectiveness, and minimizing potential adverse effects. Here are some common drug administration routes with their definitions:

1. Oral (PO): Medications are given through the mouth, allowing for easy self-administration. The drug is absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract and then undergoes first-pass metabolism in the liver before reaching systemic circulation.
2. Parenteral: This route bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and involves direct administration into the body's tissues or bloodstream. Examples include intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), subcutaneous (SC), and intradermal (ID) injections.
3. Intravenous (IV): Medications are administered directly into a vein, ensuring rapid absorption and onset of action. This route is often used for emergency situations or when immediate therapeutic effects are required.
4. Intramuscular (IM): Medications are injected deep into a muscle, allowing for slow absorption and prolonged release. Common sites include the deltoid, vastus lateralis, or ventrogluteal muscles.
5. Subcutaneous (SC): Medications are administered just under the skin, providing slower absorption compared to IM injections. Common sites include the abdomen, upper arm, or thigh.
6. Intradermal (ID): Medications are introduced into the superficial layer of the skin, often used for diagnostic tests like tuberculin skin tests or vaccine administration.
7. Topical: Medications are applied directly to the skin surface, mucous membranes, or other body surfaces. This route is commonly used for local treatment of infections, inflammation, or pain. Examples include creams, ointments, gels, patches, and sprays.
8. Inhalational: Medications are administered through inhalation, allowing for rapid absorption into the lungs and quick onset of action. Commonly used for respiratory conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Examples include metered-dose inhalers, dry powder inhalers, and nebulizers.
9. Rectal: Medications are administered through the rectum, often used when oral administration is not possible or desirable. Commonly used for systemic treatment of pain, fever, or seizures. Examples include suppositories, enemas, or foams.
10. Oral: Medications are taken by mouth, allowing for absorption in the gastrointestinal tract and systemic distribution. This is the most common route of medication administration. Examples include tablets, capsules, liquids, or chewable forms.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

Dinoprost is a synthetic form of prostaglandin F2α, which is a naturally occurring hormone-like substance in the body. It is used in veterinary medicine as a uterotonic agent to induce labor and abortion in various animals such as cows and pigs. In human medicine, it may be used off-label for similar purposes, but its use must be under the close supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and risks.

It is important to note that Dinoprost is not approved by the FDA for use in humans, and its availability may vary depending on the country or region. Always consult with a licensed healthcare professional before using any medication, including Dinoprost.

"Intramuscular injections" refer to a medical procedure where a medication or vaccine is administered directly into the muscle tissue. This is typically done using a hypodermic needle and syringe, and the injection is usually given into one of the large muscles in the body, such as the deltoid (shoulder), vastus lateralis (thigh), or ventrogluteal (buttock) muscles.

Intramuscular injections are used for a variety of reasons, including to deliver medications that need to be absorbed slowly over time, to bypass stomach acid and improve absorption, or to ensure that the medication reaches the bloodstream quickly and directly. Common examples of medications delivered via intramuscular injection include certain vaccines, antibiotics, and pain relievers.

It is important to follow proper technique when administering intramuscular injections to minimize pain and reduce the risk of complications such as infection or injury to surrounding tissues. Proper site selection, needle length and gauge, and injection technique are all critical factors in ensuring a safe and effective intramuscular injection.

Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS) is not recognized as a medical condition in humans. However, it is a disease that affects non-human primates like African green monkeys and sooty mangabeys. SAIDS is caused by the Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV), which is similar to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) that leads to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in humans.

In non-human primates, SIV infection can lead to a severe immunodeficiency state, characterized by the destruction of CD4+ T cells and impaired immune function, making the host susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers. However, it is important to note that most non-human primates infected with SIV do not develop SAIDS spontaneously, unlike humans who acquire HIV infection.

In summary, Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (SAIDS) is a disease affecting non-human primates due to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection, characterized by immunodeficiency and susceptibility to opportunistic infections and cancers. It should not be confused with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in humans.

Feminine hygiene products are personal care items specifically designed for women to manage menstruation and maintain cleanliness and freshness of the female genital area. The most common types of feminine hygiene products include:

1. Sanitary napkins or pads: These are rectangular-shaped absorbent pads worn inside underwear to absorb menstrual flow. They come in various sizes, absorbencies, and designs, including wings to secure the pad in place.
2. Tampons: A tampon is a cylindrical-shaped, compact piece of soft, absorbent material inserted into the vagina to absorb menstrual flow. They come with applicators or without, and in different absorbencies.
3. Menstrual cups: These are flexible, funnel-shaped cups made from silicone or rubber that are inserted into the vagina to collect menstrual flow. They can be reused after cleaning and are considered a more eco-friendly alternative to single-use pads and tampons.
4. Liners: Thinner and smaller than sanitary napkins, liners are used for light discharge or spotting between periods, after sexual intercourse, or during postpartum recovery.
5. Intimate wipes: These are pre-moistened towelettes designed for cleaning the external genital area. They can be useful for freshening up throughout the day, especially during menstruation, exercise, or travel.
6. Douches: A douche is a device used to introduce a stream of water or a medicated solution into the vagina to cleanse it. However, douching is not generally recommended by medical professionals as it can disrupt the natural balance of bacteria in the vagina and potentially lead to infections.

It's essential to choose feminine hygiene products that are comfortable, reliable, and safe for personal use. Always follow the manufacturer's instructions for proper usage and disposal, and consult a healthcare provider if you have any concerns or questions about your menstrual health or feminine hygiene.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Melengestrol Acetate (MGA) is a synthetic progestin, which is a type of steroid hormone. It is used primarily as a growth promoter in the livestock industry to increase weight gain and feed efficiency in beef cattle. MGA works by suppressing the animal's natural hormonal balance, particularly the levels of estrogen and testosterone, which leads to changes in metabolism and behavior that promote weight gain.

It is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States, due to concerns about potential health risks associated with its long-term use, such as reproductive and developmental effects. However, it has been used off-label in some cases to treat certain medical conditions in women, such as endometriosis or abnormal uterine bleeding, under the close supervision of a healthcare provider.

Equine Gonadotropins are glycoprotein hormones derived from the pituitary gland of horses. They consist of two subunits: a common alpha subunit and a unique beta subunit that determines the biological activity of each hormone. There are two main types of equine gonadotropins: Equine Follicle Stimulating Hormone (eFSH) and Equine Luteinizing Hormone (eLH).

eFSH plays a crucial role in the growth and development of ovarian follicles in females, while eLH stimulates ovulation and the production of sex steroids in both males and females. These hormones are often used in veterinary medicine to induce ovulation and improve fertility in horses, as well as in research to study the physiology and biochemistry of gonadotropins and reproduction. It's important to note that equine gonadotropins have limited application in human reproductive medicine due to potential immunogenic reactions and other safety concerns.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

The cervix uteri, often simply referred to as the cervix, is the lower part of the uterus (womb) that connects to the vagina. It has an opening called the external os through which menstrual blood exits the uterus and sperm enters during sexual intercourse. During childbirth, the cervix dilates or opens to allow for the passage of the baby through the birth canal.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

A Follicular Cyst is a type of cyst that forms within a follicle, which is the sac-like structure in the skin that contains and protects a hair root. In particular, it refers to a specific condition in the ovary where a follicle fails to rupture or release an egg after maturation, instead continuing to grow and fill with fluid, forming a cyst. These cysts are usually asymptomatic but can become large and cause symptoms such as pelvic pain or discomfort, irregular menstrual cycles, or abnormal vaginal bleeding. In most cases, follicular cysts resolve on their own within 2-3 menstrual cycles, but in rare cases, they may require medical intervention if they become complicated or do not resolve.

Contraceptive agents, female, are medications or devices specifically designed to prevent pregnancy in women. They work by interfering with the normal process of ovulation, fertilization, or implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus. Some common examples of female contraceptive agents include:

1. Hormonal methods: These include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, vaginal rings, and hormonal implants. They contain synthetic forms of the female hormones estrogen and/or progesterone, which work by preventing ovulation, thickening cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, or thinning the lining of the uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilized egg.
2. Intrauterine devices (IUDs): These are small, T-shaped devices made of plastic or copper that are inserted into the uterus by a healthcare provider. They release hormones or copper ions that interfere with sperm movement and prevent fertilization or implantation.
3. Barrier methods: These include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges. They work by physically preventing sperm from reaching the egg.
4. Emergency contraception: This includes medications such as Plan B or Ella, which can be taken up to 5 days after unprotected sex to prevent pregnancy. They work by delaying ovulation or preventing fertilization of the egg.
5. Fertility awareness-based methods (FABMs): These involve tracking a woman's menstrual cycle and avoiding sexual intercourse during her fertile window. Some FABMs also involve using barrier methods during this time.

It is important to note that different contraceptive agents have varying levels of effectiveness, side effects, and risks. Women should consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best method for their individual needs and circumstances.

Topical administration refers to a route of administering a medication or treatment directly to a specific area of the body, such as the skin, mucous membranes, or eyes. This method allows the drug to be applied directly to the site where it is needed, which can increase its effectiveness and reduce potential side effects compared to systemic administration (taking the medication by mouth or injecting it into a vein or muscle).

Topical medications come in various forms, including creams, ointments, gels, lotions, solutions, sprays, and patches. They may be used to treat localized conditions such as skin infections, rashes, inflammation, or pain, or to deliver medication to the eyes or mucous membranes for local or systemic effects.

When applying topical medications, it is important to follow the instructions carefully to ensure proper absorption and avoid irritation or other adverse reactions. This may include cleaning the area before application, covering the treated area with a dressing, or avoiding exposure to sunlight or water after application, depending on the specific medication and its intended use.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Adenine is a purine nucleotide base that is a fundamental component of DNA and RNA, the genetic material of living organisms. In DNA, adenine pairs with thymine via double hydrogen bonds, while in RNA, it pairs with uracil. Adenine is essential for the structure and function of nucleic acids, as well as for energy transfer reactions in cells through its role in the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the primary energy currency of the cell.

The pregnancy rate is a measure used in reproductive medicine to determine the frequency or efficiency of conception following certain treatments, interventions, or under specific conditions. It is typically defined as the number of pregnancies per 100 women exposed to the condition being studied over a specified period of time. A pregnancy is confirmed when a woman has a positive result on a pregnancy test or through the detection of a gestational sac on an ultrasound exam.

In clinical trials and research, the pregnancy rate helps healthcare professionals evaluate the effectiveness of various fertility treatments such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intrauterine insemination (IUI), or ovulation induction medications. The pregnancy rate can also be used to assess the impact of lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, or medical conditions on fertility and conception.

It is important to note that pregnancy rates may vary depending on several factors, including age, the cause of infertility, the type and quality of treatment provided, and individual patient characteristics. Therefore, comparing pregnancy rates between different studies should be done cautiously, considering these potential confounding variables.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyvinyls" is not a medical term. It is a chemical term that refers to polymers made from vinyl chloride, which is used in the production of various plastics and resins. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

Herpes simplex virus vaccines are types of vaccines that are being developed to prevent infections caused by the herpes simplex viruses (HSV), which include HSV-1 and HSV-2. These viruses can cause painful blisters or sores on the skin or mucous membranes, such as those found inside the mouth or genitals.

There are currently no approved vaccines for HSV-1 or HSV-2, although several candidates are in various stages of development. The goal of an HSV vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to produce a strong and durable response that can prevent infection with the virus or reduce the severity and frequency of outbreaks in people who are already infected.

HSV vaccines typically work by introducing a harmless piece of the virus, such as a protein or a weakened or killed virus, to the body. This triggers the immune system to produce antibodies and activate immune cells that can recognize and attack the virus if it enters the body in the future. Some HSV vaccine candidates are designed to stimulate both arms of the immune system (humoral and cell-mediated immunity), while others focus on one or the other.

While there is no cure for herpes simplex virus infections, a successful vaccine could help prevent the spread of the virus and reduce the burden of disease.

Genital diseases in females refer to various medical conditions that affect the female reproductive system, including the vulva, vagina, cervix, uterus, and ovaries. These conditions can be caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections, hormonal imbalances, or structural abnormalities. Some common examples of genital diseases in females include bacterial vaginosis, yeast infections, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and human papillomavirus (HPV), pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), endometriosis, uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, and vulvar or vaginal cancer. Symptoms of genital diseases in females can vary widely depending on the specific condition but may include abnormal vaginal discharge, pain or discomfort during sex, irregular menstrual bleeding, painful urination, and pelvic pain. It is important for women to receive regular gynecological care and screenings to detect and treat genital diseases early and prevent complications.

Clinical chemistry tests are a type of laboratory test that measure the levels of various chemicals or substances in the body. These tests can be used to help diagnose and monitor a wide range of medical conditions, including diabetes, liver disease, heart disease, and kidney disease. Some common clinical chemistry tests include:

1. Blood glucose test: Measures the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood. This test is commonly used to diagnose and monitor diabetes.
2. Electrolyte panel: Measures the levels of important electrolytes such as sodium, potassium, chloride, and bicarbonate in the blood. Imbalances in these electrolytes can indicate a variety of medical conditions.
3. Liver function tests (LFTs): Measure the levels of various enzymes and proteins produced by the liver. Abnormal results can indicate liver damage or disease.
4. Kidney function tests: Measure the levels of various substances such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in the blood. Elevated levels of these substances can indicate kidney dysfunction or disease.
5. Lipid panel: Measures the levels of different types of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood. Abnormal results can indicate an increased risk of heart disease.
6. Thyroid function tests: Measure the levels of hormones produced by the thyroid gland. Abnormal results can indicate thyroid dysfunction or disease.

Clinical chemistry tests are usually performed on a sample of blood, urine, or other bodily fluid. The results of these tests can provide important information to help doctors diagnose and manage medical conditions.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Madagascar" is not a medical term. It is actually the fourth-largest island country in the world, located in the Indian Ocean, off the southeastern coast of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those!

Anti-infective agents are a class of medications that are used to treat infections caused by various microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. These agents work by either killing the microorganism or inhibiting its growth, thereby helping to control the infection and alleviate symptoms.

There are several types of anti-infective agents, including:

1. Antibiotics: These are medications that are used to treat bacterial infections. They work by either killing bacteria (bactericidal) or inhibiting their growth (bacteriostatic).
2. Antivirals: These are medications that are used to treat viral infections. They work by interfering with the replication of the virus, preventing it from spreading and causing further damage.
3. Antifungals: These are medications that are used to treat fungal infections. They work by disrupting the cell membrane of the fungus, killing it or inhibiting its growth.
4. Antiparasitics: These are medications that are used to treat parasitic infections. They work by either killing the parasite or inhibiting its growth and reproduction.

It is important to note that anti-infective agents are not effective against all types of infections, and it is essential to use them appropriately to avoid the development of drug-resistant strains of microorganisms.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Vaginal discharge refers to the fluid that comes out of the vagina on a regular basis. It's a normal and healthy process for the body to keep the vagina clean and maintain its pH balance. The amount, color, and consistency of vaginal discharge can vary throughout a woman's menstrual cycle and can also be influenced by various factors such as pregnancy, sexual arousal, and infections.

Normal vaginal discharge is typically clear or white and may have a mild odor. However, if the discharge changes in color, consistency, or smell, or if it's accompanied by symptoms such as itching, burning, or pain, it could be a sign of an infection or other medical condition that requires treatment.

It is important to note that while vaginal discharge is a normal bodily function, any abnormal changes should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment.

Chlamydia infections are caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis and can affect multiple body sites, including the genitals, eyes, and respiratory system. The most common type of chlamydia infection is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that affects the genitals.

In women, chlamydia infections can cause symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, burning during urination, and pain in the lower abdomen. In men, symptoms may include discharge from the penis, painful urination, and testicular pain or swelling. However, many people with chlamydia infections do not experience any symptoms at all.

If left untreated, chlamydia infections can lead to serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) in women, which can cause infertility and ectopic pregnancy. In men, chlamydia infections can cause epididymitis, an inflammation of the tube that carries sperm from the testicles, which can also lead to infertility.

Chlamydia infections are diagnosed through a variety of tests, including urine tests and swabs taken from the affected area. Once diagnosed, chlamydia infections can be treated with antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline. It is important to note that treatment only clears the infection and does not repair any damage caused by the infection.

Prevention measures include practicing safe sex, getting regular STI screenings, and avoiding sharing towels or other personal items that may come into contact with infected bodily fluids.

'Clostridium sordellii' is a gram-positive, spore-forming, anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium. It is part of the normal microbiota found in the human and animal gastrointestinal tract. However, it can cause severe and potentially fatal infections in humans, such as sepsis, myonecrosis (gas gangrene), and soft tissue infections. These infections are more commonly associated with contaminated wounds, surgical sites, or drug use (particularly black tar heroin). The bacterium produces powerful toxins that contribute to its virulence and can lead to rapid progression of the infection. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment, which typically involves antibiotics, surgical debridement, and supportive care.

"Intraperitoneal injection" is a medical term that refers to the administration of a substance or medication directly into the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs contained within it. This type of injection is typically used in clinical settings for various purposes, such as delivering chemotherapy drugs, anesthetics, or other medications directly to the abdominal organs.

The procedure involves inserting a needle through the abdominal wall and into the peritoneal cavity, taking care to avoid any vital structures such as blood vessels or nerves. Once the needle is properly positioned, the medication can be injected slowly and carefully to ensure even distribution throughout the cavity.

It's important to note that intraperitoneal injections are typically reserved for situations where other routes of administration are not feasible or effective, as they carry a higher risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or injury to surrounding organs. As with any medical procedure, it should only be performed by trained healthcare professionals under appropriate clinical circumstances.

Oxytocics are a class of medications that stimulate the contraction of uterine smooth muscle. They are primarily used in obstetrics to induce or augment labor, and to control bleeding after childbirth. Oxytocin is the most commonly used oxytocic and is naturally produced by the posterior pituitary gland. Synthetic forms of oxytocin, such as Pitocin, are often used in medical settings to induce labor or reduce postpartum bleeding. Other medications with oxytocic properties include ergometrine and methylergometrine. It's important to note that the use of oxytocics should be monitored carefully as overuse can lead to excessive uterine contractions, which may compromise fetal oxygenation and increase the risk of uterine rupture.

Pharmaceutical chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with the design, synthesis, and development of chemical entities used as medications. It involves the study of drugs' physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as their interactions with living organisms. This field also encompasses understanding the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of drugs in the body, which are critical factors in drug design and development. Pharmaceutical chemists often work closely with biologists, medical professionals, and engineers to develop new medications and improve existing ones.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection is a viral illness that progressively attacks and weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to other infections and diseases. The virus primarily infects CD4+ T cells, a type of white blood cell essential for fighting off infections. Over time, as the number of these immune cells declines, the body becomes increasingly vulnerable to opportunistic infections and cancers.

HIV infection has three stages:

1. Acute HIV infection: This is the initial stage that occurs within 2-4 weeks after exposure to the virus. During this period, individuals may experience flu-like symptoms such as fever, fatigue, rash, swollen glands, and muscle aches. The virus replicates rapidly, and the viral load in the body is very high.
2. Chronic HIV infection (Clinical latency): This stage follows the acute infection and can last several years if left untreated. Although individuals may not show any symptoms during this phase, the virus continues to replicate at low levels, and the immune system gradually weakens. The viral load remains relatively stable, but the number of CD4+ T cells declines over time.
3. AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome): This is the most advanced stage of HIV infection, characterized by a severely damaged immune system and numerous opportunistic infections or cancers. At this stage, the CD4+ T cell count drops below 200 cells/mm3 of blood.

It's important to note that with proper antiretroviral therapy (ART), individuals with HIV infection can effectively manage the virus, maintain a healthy immune system, and significantly reduce the risk of transmission to others. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for improving long-term health outcomes and reducing the spread of HIV.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

An ovarian follicle is a fluid-filled sac in the ovary that contains an immature egg or ovum (oocyte). It's a part of the female reproductive system and plays a crucial role in the process of ovulation.

Ovarian follicles start developing in the ovaries during fetal development, but only a small number of them will mature and release an egg during a woman's reproductive years. The maturation process is stimulated by hormones like follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

There are different types of ovarian follicles, including primordial, primary, secondary, and tertiary or Graafian follicles. The Graafian follicle is the mature follicle that ruptures during ovulation to release the egg into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm.

It's important to note that abnormal growth or development of ovarian follicles can lead to conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and ovarian cancer.

Induced abortion is a medical procedure that intentionally terminates a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the womb. It can be performed either surgically or medically through the use of medications. The timing of an induced abortion is typically based on the gestational age of the pregnancy, with different methods used at different stages.

The most common surgical procedure for induced abortion is vacuum aspiration, which is usually performed during the first trimester (up to 12-13 weeks of gestation). This procedure involves dilating the cervix and using a vacuum device to remove the pregnancy tissue from the uterus. Other surgical procedures, such as dilation and evacuation (D&E), may be used in later stages of pregnancy.

Medical abortion involves the use of medications to induce the termination of a pregnancy. The most common regimen involves the use of two drugs: mifepristone and misoprostol. Mifepristone works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. Misoprostol causes the uterus to contract and expel the pregnancy tissue. This method is typically used during the first 10 weeks of gestation.

Induced abortion is a safe and common medical procedure, with low rates of complications when performed by trained healthcare providers in appropriate settings. Access to induced abortion varies widely around the world, with some countries restricting or prohibiting the practice entirely.

Non-steroidal abortifacient agents are medications or substances that can cause abortion by interfering with the normal functioning of the hormones in the reproductive system. These agents do not contain steroids and work primarily by preventing the implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus or by causing the shedding of the uterine lining, leading to the termination of an early pregnancy.

Examples of non-steroidal abortifacient agents include:

1. Mifepristone (RU-486): This medication works by blocking the action of progesterone, a hormone necessary for maintaining pregnancy. When used in combination with another medication called misoprostol, it can cause an abortion during the early stages of pregnancy.
2. Misoprostol: This medication is primarily used to prevent and treat stomach ulcers but can also be used as an abortifacient agent. It causes uterine contractions and cervical dilation, leading to the expulsion of the contents of the uterus.
3. High-dose estrogen and progestin: These hormones can interfere with the normal functioning of the reproductive system and cause an early abortion when taken in high doses.
4. Herbal remedies: Certain herbs, such as pennyroyal, tansy, and savin, have been used traditionally as abortifacient agents. However, their effectiveness and safety are not well-established, and they can cause serious side effects or even death when taken in large quantities.

It is important to note that the use of non-steroidal abortifacient agents for the purpose of inducing an abortion should only be done under the supervision of a licensed healthcare provider, as there are potential risks and complications associated with their use. Additionally, some of these agents may be restricted or illegal in certain jurisdictions, so it is essential to comply with local laws and regulations regarding their use.

Metronidazole is an antibiotic and antiprotozoal medication. It is primarily used to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacteria and certain parasites. Metronidazole works by interfering with the DNA of these organisms, which inhibits their ability to grow and multiply.

It is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, creams, and gels, and is often used to treat conditions such as bacterial vaginosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, amebiasis, giardiasis, and pseudomembranous colitis.

Like all antibiotics, metronidazole should be taken only under the direction of a healthcare provider, as misuse can lead to antibiotic resistance and other complications.

Pregnenediones are a class of steroid hormones that contain a pregnane structure, which is a skeleton formed by four fused cyclohexane rings. Specifically, pregnenediones are characterized by having a ketone group (a carbonyl group, -C=O) at the 20th carbon position of this pregnane structure. They can be further classified into various subgroups based on the presence and location of other functional groups in the molecule.

Pregnenediones are not typically used as medications, but they do play important roles in the human body. For example, progesterone is a naturally occurring pregnenedione that plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and preparing the uterus for childbirth. Other pregnenediones may also have hormonal activity or serve as intermediates in the synthesis of other steroid hormones.

Subcutaneous injection is a route of administration where a medication or vaccine is delivered into the subcutaneous tissue, which lies between the skin and the muscle. This layer contains small blood vessels, nerves, and connective tissues that help to absorb the medication slowly and steadily over a period of time. Subcutaneous injections are typically administered using a short needle, at an angle of 45-90 degrees, and the dose is injected slowly to minimize discomfort and ensure proper absorption. Common sites for subcutaneous injections include the abdomen, thigh, or upper arm. Examples of medications that may be given via subcutaneous injection include insulin, heparin, and some vaccines.

Therapeutic irrigation, also known as lavage, is a medical procedure that involves the introduction of fluids or other agents into a body cavity or natural passageway for therapeutic purposes. This technique is used to cleanse, flush out, or introduce medication into various parts of the body, such as the bladder, lungs, stomach, or colon.

The fluid used in therapeutic irrigation can be sterile saline solution, distilled water, or a medicated solution, depending on the specific purpose of the procedure. The flow and pressure of the fluid are carefully controlled to ensure that it reaches the desired area without causing damage to surrounding tissues.

Therapeutic irrigation is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, including infections, inflammation, obstructions, and toxic exposures. It can also be used as a diagnostic tool to help identify abnormalities or lesions within body cavities.

Overall, therapeutic irrigation is a valuable technique in modern medicine that allows healthcare providers to deliver targeted treatment directly to specific areas of the body, improving patient outcomes and quality of life.

Luteolysis is the physiological process that leads to the breakdown and regression of the corpus luteum, a temporary endocrine structure in the ovary that forms after ovulation. The corpus luteum produces progesterone, which supports pregnancy in mammals. If pregnancy does not occur, luteolysis takes place approximately 10-14 days after ovulation in humans and is characterized by the degeneration of the corpus luteum, decreased production of progesterone, and the initiation of the menstrual cycle or the onset of a new reproductive cycle.

The primary event that triggers luteolysis is the release of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) from the uterus, which reaches the corpus luteum through the systemic circulation and causes vasoconstriction, reduced blood flow, and structural damage to the corpus luteum. This results in a decline in progesterone levels, which ultimately leads to menstruation or the onset of a new reproductive cycle.

In summary, luteolysis is a crucial process in the female reproductive system that regulates hormonal balance and prepares the body for a new reproductive cycle when pregnancy does not occur.

The double-blind method is a study design commonly used in research, including clinical trials, to minimize bias and ensure the objectivity of results. In this approach, both the participants and the researchers are unaware of which group the participants are assigned to, whether it be the experimental group or the control group. This means that neither the participants nor the researchers know who is receiving a particular treatment or placebo, thus reducing the potential for bias in the evaluation of outcomes. The assignment of participants to groups is typically done by a third party not involved in the study, and the codes are only revealed after all data have been collected and analyzed.

Thiourea is not a medical term, but a chemical compound. It's a colorless crystalline solid with the formula SC(NH2)2. Thiourea is used in some industrial processes and can be found in some laboratory reagents. It has been studied for its potential effects on certain medical conditions, such as its ability to protect against radiation damage, but it is not a medication or a treatment that is currently in clinical use.

The luteal phase is the second half of the menstrual cycle, starting from ovulation (release of an egg from the ovaries) and lasting until the start of the next menstruation. This phase typically lasts around 12-14 days in a regular 28-day menstrual cycle. During this phase, the remains of the dominant follicle that released the egg transform into the corpus luteum, which produces progesterone and some estrogen to support the implantation of a fertilized egg and maintain the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum degenerates, leading to a drop in hormone levels and the start of a new menstrual cycle.

Progesterone congeners refer to synthetic or naturally occurring compounds that are structurally similar to progesterone, a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. These compounds have similar chemical structures to progesterone and may exhibit similar physiological activities, although they can also have unique properties and uses. Examples of progesterone congeners include various synthetic progestins used in hormonal contraceptives and other medical treatments.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

"Administration, Rectal" is a medical term that refers to the process of administering medication or other substances through the rectum. This route of administration is also known as "rectal suppository" or "suppository administration."

In this method, a solid dosage form called a suppository is inserted into the rectum using fingers or a special applicator. Once inside, the suppository melts or dissolves due to the body's temperature and releases the active drug or substance, which then gets absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the rectum.

Rectal administration is an alternative route of administration for people who have difficulty swallowing pills or liquids, or when rapid absorption of the medication is necessary. It can also be used to administer medications that are not well absorbed through other routes, such as the gastrointestinal tract. However, it may take longer for the medication to reach the bloodstream compared to intravenous (IV) administration.

Common examples of rectally administered medications include laxatives, antidiarrheal agents, analgesics, and some forms of hormonal therapy. It is important to follow the instructions provided by a healthcare professional when administering medication rectally, as improper administration can reduce the effectiveness of the medication or cause irritation or discomfort.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Herpesvirus vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by herpesviruses. These viruses include herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), which primarily causes oral herpes, and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), which primarily causes genital herpes. Additionally, other herpesviruses such as varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox and shingles, and cytomegalovirus (CMV), which can cause serious complications in newborns and immunocompromised individuals, are also targeted by herpesvirus vaccines.

Herpesvirus vaccines work by exposing the immune system to a weakened or inactivated form of the virus, or to specific viral proteins, which triggers an immune response. This response includes the production of antibodies and activation of T-cells that recognize and attack the virus if it enters the body in the future.

Currently, there are vaccines available for HSV-1 and HSV-2, but they are not widely used. The only FDA-approved herpesvirus vaccine is for VZV, which is marketed as Varivax and prevents chickenpox and reduces the risk of shingles. There are also several experimental vaccines in development for other herpesviruses, including HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV.

Trichomonas vaginitis is a type of vaginal infection caused by the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. It is transmitted through sexual contact and primarily affects the urogenital tract. The infection can cause various symptoms in women, such as vaginal discharge with an unpleasant smell, itching, redness, and pain during urination or sex. However, up to 50% of infected individuals may be asymptomatic. In men, it often does not cause any symptoms but can lead to urethritis (inflammation of the urethra). Diagnosis is usually made through microscopic examination of vaginal secretions or a nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Treatment typically involves prescription antibiotics like metronidazole or tinidazole, targeting both sexual partners to prevent reinfection.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

Immunization is defined medically as the process where an individual is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease, typically through the administration of a vaccine. The vaccine stimulates the body's own immune system to recognize and fight off the specific disease-causing organism, thereby preventing or reducing the severity of future infections with that organism.

Immunization can be achieved actively, where the person is given a vaccine to trigger an immune response, or passively, where antibodies are transferred to the person through immunoglobulin therapy. Immunizations are an important part of preventive healthcare and have been successful in controlling and eliminating many infectious diseases worldwide.

Lactobacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, non-spore-forming bacteria. They are part of the normal flora found in the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of humans and other animals. Lactobacilli are also commonly found in some fermented foods, such as yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

Lactobacilli are known for their ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of sugars, which contributes to their role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and lowering the pH in various environments. Some species of Lactobacillus have been shown to provide health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing infections, particularly in the urogenital and intestinal tracts. They are often used as probiotics, either in food or supplement form, to promote a balanced microbiome and support overall health.

Biological availability is a term used in pharmacology and toxicology that refers to the degree and rate at which a drug or other substance is absorbed into the bloodstream and becomes available at the site of action in the body. It is a measure of the amount of the substance that reaches the systemic circulation unchanged, after administration by any route (such as oral, intravenous, etc.).

The biological availability (F) of a drug can be calculated using the area under the curve (AUC) of the plasma concentration-time profile after extravascular and intravenous dosing, according to the following formula:

F = (AUCex/AUCiv) x (Doseiv/Doseex)

where AUCex is the AUC after extravascular dosing, AUCiv is the AUC after intravenous dosing, Doseiv is the intravenous dose, and Doseex is the extravascular dose.

Biological availability is an important consideration in drug development and therapy, as it can affect the drug's efficacy, safety, and dosage regimen. Drugs with low biological availability may require higher doses to achieve the desired therapeutic effect, while drugs with high biological availability may have a more rapid onset of action and require lower doses to avoid toxicity.

Ovulation induction is a medical procedure that involves the stimulation of ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovaries) in women who have difficulties conceiving due to ovulatory disorders. This is typically achieved through the use of medications such as clomiphene citrate or gonadotropins, which promote the development and maturation of follicles in the ovaries containing eggs. The process is closely monitored through regular ultrasounds and hormone tests to ensure appropriate response and minimize the risk of complications like multiple pregnancies. Ovulation induction may be used as a standalone treatment or in conjunction with other assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Dideoxynucleotides are analogs of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. In a nucleotide, there is a sugar molecule (deoxyribose in DNA and ribose in RNA) attached to a phosphate group and one of four nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, or thymine in DNA; adenine, guanine, cytosine, or uracil in RNA).

In a dideoxynucleotide, there are two fewer oxygen molecules on the sugar component. Specifically, instead of having a hydroxyl group (-OH) at both the 2' and 3' carbons of the sugar, a dideoxynucleotide has a hydrogen atom (-H) at the 3' carbon and a hydroxyl or another group at the 2' carbon.

Dideoxynucleotides are used in scientific research and medical diagnostics, most notably in the Sanger method of DNA sequencing. In this process, DNA polymerase adds nucleotides to a single-stranded DNA template during replication. When a dideoxynucleotide is incorporated into the growing DNA chain, it acts as a terminator because there is no 3' hydroxyl group for the next nucleotide to be added. By running multiple reactions with different dideoxynucleotides and comparing the lengths of the resulting DNA fragments, researchers can determine the sequence of the template DNA.

Dideoxynucleotides are also used as antiretroviral drugs in the treatment of HIV infection. They inhibit the reverse transcriptase enzyme that HIV uses to convert its RNA genome into DNA, thus preventing the virus from replicating. Examples of dideoxynucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (ddNRTIs) include zidovudine (AZT), didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), and lamivudine (3TC).

Ovariectomy is a surgical procedure in which one or both ovaries are removed. It is also known as "ovary removal" or "oophorectomy." This procedure is often performed as a treatment for various medical conditions, including ovarian cancer, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and pelvic pain. Ovariectomy can also be part of a larger surgical procedure called an hysterectomy, in which the uterus is also removed.

In some cases, an ovariectomy may be performed as a preventative measure for individuals at high risk of developing ovarian cancer. This is known as a prophylactic ovariectomy. After an ovariectomy, a person will no longer have menstrual periods and will be unable to become pregnant naturally. Hormone replacement therapy may be recommended in some cases to help manage symptoms associated with the loss of hormones produced by the ovaries.

An ovary is a part of the female reproductive system in which ova or eggs are produced through the process of oogenesis. They are a pair of solid, almond-shaped structures located one on each side of the uterus within the pelvic cavity. Each ovary measures about 3 to 5 centimeters in length and weighs around 14 grams.

The ovaries have two main functions: endocrine (hormonal) function and reproductive function. They produce and release eggs (ovulation) responsible for potential fertilization and development of an embryo/fetus during pregnancy. Additionally, they are essential in the production of female sex hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone, which regulate menstrual cycles, sexual development, and reproduction.

During each menstrual cycle, a mature egg is released from one of the ovaries into the fallopian tube, where it may be fertilized by sperm. If not fertilized, the egg, along with the uterine lining, will be shed, leading to menstruation.

Superovulation, also known as controlled ovarian stimulation (COS), refers to the process of inducing the development and release of multiple mature ova (eggs) from the ovaries during a single reproductive cycle. This is achieved through the administration of exogenous gonadotropins or other fertility medications, which stimulate the ovarian follicles to grow and mature beyond the normal number. Superovulation is commonly used in assisted reproductive technologies (ART) such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of successful conception by obtaining a larger number of ova for fertilization and embryo transfer.

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Drug delivery systems (DDS) refer to techniques or technologies that are designed to improve the administration of a pharmaceutical compound in terms of its efficiency, safety, and efficacy. A DDS can modify the drug release profile, target the drug to specific cells or tissues, protect the drug from degradation, and reduce side effects.

The goal of a DDS is to optimize the bioavailability of a drug, which is the amount of the drug that reaches the systemic circulation and is available at the site of action. This can be achieved through various approaches, such as encapsulating the drug in a nanoparticle or attaching it to a biomolecule that targets specific cells or tissues.

Some examples of DDS include:

1. Controlled release systems: These systems are designed to release the drug at a controlled rate over an extended period, reducing the frequency of dosing and improving patient compliance.
2. Targeted delivery systems: These systems use biomolecules such as antibodies or ligands to target the drug to specific cells or tissues, increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects.
3. Nanoparticle-based delivery systems: These systems use nanoparticles made of polymers, lipids, or inorganic materials to encapsulate the drug and protect it from degradation, improve its solubility, and target it to specific cells or tissues.
4. Biodegradable implants: These are small devices that can be implanted under the skin or into body cavities to deliver drugs over an extended period. They can be made of biodegradable materials that gradually break down and release the drug.
5. Inhalation delivery systems: These systems use inhalers or nebulizers to deliver drugs directly to the lungs, bypassing the digestive system and improving bioavailability.

Overall, DDS play a critical role in modern pharmaceutical research and development, enabling the creation of new drugs with improved efficacy, safety, and patient compliance.

Immunologic adjuvants are substances that are added to a vaccine to enhance the body's immune response to the antigens contained in the vaccine. They work by stimulating the immune system and promoting the production of antibodies and activating immune cells, such as T-cells and macrophages, which help to provide a stronger and more sustained immune response to the vaccine.

Immunologic adjuvants can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, and chemicals. Some common examples include aluminum salts (alum), oil-in-water emulsions (such as MF59), and bacterial components (such as lipopolysaccharide or LPS).

The use of immunologic adjuvants in vaccines can help to improve the efficacy of the vaccine, particularly for vaccines that contain weak or poorly immunogenic antigens. They can also help to reduce the amount of antigen needed in a vaccine, which can be beneficial for vaccines that are difficult or expensive to produce.

It's important to note that while adjuvants can enhance the immune response to a vaccine, they can also increase the risk of adverse reactions, such as inflammation and pain at the injection site. Therefore, the use of immunologic adjuvants must be carefully balanced against their potential benefits and risks.

Medroxyprogesterone Acetate (MPA) is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is often used in various medical applications. It is a white to off-white crystalline powder, slightly soluble in water, and freely soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and methanol.

Medically, MPA is used as a prescription medication for several indications, including:

1. Contraception: As an oral contraceptive or injectable solution, it can prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and alter the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT): In postmenopausal women, MPA can help manage symptoms associated with decreased estrogen levels, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. It may also help prevent bone loss (osteoporosis).
3. Endometrial hyperplasia: MPA can be used to treat endometrial hyperplasia, a condition where the lining of the uterus becomes too thick, which could potentially lead to cancer if left untreated. By opposing the effects of estrogen, MPA helps regulate the growth of the endometrium.
4. Gynecological disorders: MPA can be used to treat various gynecological disorders, such as irregular menstrual cycles, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and dysfunctional uterine bleeding.
5. Cancer treatment: In some cases, MPA may be used in conjunction with other medications to treat certain types of breast or endometrial cancer.

As with any medication, Medroxyprogesterone Acetate can have side effects and potential risks. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation, dosage, and monitoring when considering this medication.

An AIDS vaccine is a type of preventive vaccine that aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The goal of an AIDS vaccine is to induce the production of immune cells and proteins that can recognize and eliminate HIV-infected cells, thereby preventing the establishment of a persistent infection.

Despite decades of research, there is still no licensed AIDS vaccine available. This is due in part to the unique challenges posed by HIV, which has a high mutation rate and can rapidly evolve to evade the immune system's defenses. However, several promising vaccine candidates are currently being tested in clinical trials around the world, and researchers continue to explore new approaches and strategies for developing an effective AIDS vaccine.

Anti-HIV agents are a class of medications specifically designed to treat HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. These drugs work by interfering with various stages of the HIV replication cycle, preventing the virus from infecting and killing CD4+ T cells, which are crucial for maintaining a healthy immune system.

There are several classes of anti-HIV agents, including:

1. Nucleoside/Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs): These drugs act as faulty building blocks that the virus incorporates into its genetic material, causing the replication process to halt. Examples include zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and tenofovir.
2. Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs): These medications bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, altering its shape and preventing it from functioning properly. Examples include efavirenz, nevirapine, and rilpivirine.
3. Protease Inhibitors (PIs): These drugs target the protease enzyme, which is responsible for cleaving viral polyproteins into functional components. By inhibiting this enzyme, PIs prevent the formation of mature, infectious virus particles. Examples include atazanavir, darunavir, and lopinavir.
4. Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors (INSTIs): These medications block the integrase enzyme, which is responsible for inserting the viral genetic material into the host cell's DNA. By inhibiting this step, INSTIs prevent the virus from establishing a permanent infection within the host cell. Examples include raltegravir, dolutegravir, and bictegravir.
5. Fusion/Entry Inhibitors: These drugs target different steps of the viral entry process, preventing HIV from infecting CD4+ T cells. Examples include enfuvirtide (T-20), maraviroc, and ibalizumab.
6. Post-Attachment Inhibitors: This class of medications prevents the virus from attaching to the host cell's receptors, thereby inhibiting infection. Currently, there is only one approved post-attachment inhibitor, fostemsavir.

Combination therapy using multiple classes of antiretroviral drugs has been shown to effectively suppress viral replication and improve clinical outcomes in people living with HIV. Regular adherence to the prescribed treatment regimen is crucial for maintaining an undetectable viral load and reducing the risk of transmission.

Intravenous (IV) infusion is a medical procedure in which liquids, such as medications, nutrients, or fluids, are delivered directly into a patient's vein through a needle or a catheter. This route of administration allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the infused substance throughout the body. IV infusions can be used for various purposes, including resuscitation, hydration, nutrition support, medication delivery, and blood product transfusion. The rate and volume of the infusion are carefully controlled to ensure patient safety and efficacy of treatment.

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

A drug carrier, also known as a drug delivery system or vector, is a vehicle that transports a pharmaceutical compound to a specific site in the body. The main purpose of using drug carriers is to improve the efficacy and safety of drugs by enhancing their solubility, stability, bioavailability, and targeted delivery, while minimizing unwanted side effects.

Drug carriers can be made up of various materials, including natural or synthetic polymers, lipids, inorganic nanoparticles, or even cells and viruses. They can encapsulate, adsorb, or conjugate drugs through different mechanisms, such as physical entrapment, electrostatic interaction, or covalent bonding.

Some common types of drug carriers include:

1. Liposomes: spherical vesicles composed of one or more lipid bilayers that can encapsulate hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs.
2. Polymeric nanoparticles: tiny particles made of biodegradable polymers that can protect drugs from degradation and enhance their accumulation in target tissues.
3. Dendrimers: highly branched macromolecules with a well-defined structure and size that can carry multiple drug molecules and facilitate their release.
4. Micelles: self-assembled structures formed by amphiphilic block copolymers that can solubilize hydrophobic drugs in water.
5. Inorganic nanoparticles: such as gold, silver, or iron oxide nanoparticles, that can be functionalized with drugs and targeting ligands for diagnostic and therapeutic applications.
6. Cell-based carriers: living cells, such as red blood cells, stem cells, or immune cells, that can be loaded with drugs and used to deliver them to specific sites in the body.
7. Viral vectors: modified viruses that can infect cells and introduce genetic material encoding therapeutic proteins or RNA interference molecules.

The choice of drug carrier depends on various factors, such as the physicochemical properties of the drug, the route of administration, the target site, and the desired pharmacokinetics and biodistribution. Therefore, selecting an appropriate drug carrier is crucial for achieving optimal therapeutic outcomes and minimizing side effects.

Oviducts, also known as fallopian tubes in humans, are pair of slender tubular structures that serve as the conduit for the ovum (egg) from the ovaries to the uterus. They are an essential part of the female reproductive system, providing a site for fertilization of the egg by sperm and early embryonic development before the embryo moves into the uterus for further growth.

In medical terminology, the term "oviduct" refers to this functional description rather than a specific anatomical structure in all female organisms. The oviducts vary in length and shape across different species, but their primary role remains consistent: to facilitate the transport of the egg and provide a site for fertilization.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Intravenous (IV) administration is a medical procedure where medication or fluids are delivered directly into a vein. This method allows for rapid absorption and distribution of the substance throughout the body. It is commonly used to provide immediate treatment in emergency situations, administer medications that cannot be given by other routes, or deliver fluids and electrolytes when someone is dehydrated.

To perform an IV administration, a healthcare professional first prepares the necessary equipment, including a sterile needle or catheter, syringe, and the medication or fluid to be administered. The site of insertion is typically on the back of the hand, inner elbow, or forearm, where veins are more visible and accessible. After cleaning and disinfecting the skin, the healthcare professional inserts the needle or catheter into the vein, securing it in place with tape or a dressing. The medication or fluid is then slowly injected or infused through the IV line.

Possible risks associated with IV administration include infection, infiltration (when the fluid leaks into surrounding tissue instead of the vein), extravasation (when the medication leaks out of the vein and causes tissue damage), and phlebitis (inflammation of the vein). Proper technique and monitoring during and after IV administration can help minimize these risks.

Attenuated vaccines consist of live microorganisms that have been weakened (attenuated) through various laboratory processes so they do not cause disease in the majority of recipients but still stimulate an immune response. The purpose of attenuation is to reduce the virulence or replication capacity of the pathogen while keeping it alive, allowing it to retain its antigenic properties and induce a strong and protective immune response.

Examples of attenuated vaccines include:

1. Sabin oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV): This vaccine uses live but weakened polioviruses to protect against all three strains of the disease-causing poliovirus. The weakened viruses replicate in the intestine and induce an immune response, which provides both humoral (antibody) and cell-mediated immunity.
2. Measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine: This combination vaccine contains live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella viruses. It is given to protect against these three diseases and prevent their spread in the population.
3. Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine: This vaccine uses a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus, which causes chickenpox. By introducing this attenuated virus into the body, it stimulates an immune response that protects against future infection with the wild-type virus.
4. Yellow fever vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to prevent yellow fever, a viral disease transmitted by mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. The vaccine contains a weakened form of the yellow fever virus that cannot cause the disease but still induces an immune response.
5. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine: This live attenuated vaccine is used to protect against tuberculosis (TB). It contains a weakened strain of Mycobacterium bovis, which does not cause TB in humans but stimulates an immune response that provides some protection against the disease.

Attenuated vaccines are generally effective at inducing long-lasting immunity and can provide robust protection against targeted diseases. However, they may pose a risk for individuals with weakened immune systems, as the attenuated viruses or bacteria could potentially cause illness in these individuals. Therefore, it is essential to consider an individual's health status before administering live attenuated vaccines.

I believe there may be a slight confusion in your question. AIDS is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and it weakens the immune system, making people more susceptible to other infections and diseases. There is no vaccine for AIDS itself. However, there are vaccines being developed and tested to prevent HIV infection, which would help prevent AIDS from developing.

SAIDS is not a medical term. If you meant to ask about "HIV vaccines," I can provide a definition:

An HIV vaccine aims to stimulate the immune system to produce an effective response against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). An effective HIV vaccine would ideally prevent the initial infection or significantly reduce viral replication and disease progression in infected individuals. Currently, no licensed HIV vaccines are available, but research is ongoing to develop a protective vaccine against HIV infection.

A drug interaction is the effect of combining two or more drugs, or a drug and another substance (such as food or alcohol), which can alter the effectiveness or side effects of one or both of the substances. These interactions can be categorized as follows:

1. Pharmacodynamic interactions: These occur when two or more drugs act on the same target organ or receptor, leading to an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect. For example, taking a sedative and an antihistamine together can result in increased drowsiness due to their combined depressant effects on the central nervous system.
2. Pharmacokinetic interactions: These occur when one drug affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, or excretion of another drug. For example, taking certain antibiotics with grapefruit juice can increase the concentration of the antibiotic in the bloodstream, leading to potential toxicity.
3. Food-drug interactions: Some drugs may interact with specific foods, affecting their absorption, metabolism, or excretion. An example is the interaction between warfarin (a blood thinner) and green leafy vegetables, which can increase the risk of bleeding due to enhanced vitamin K absorption from the vegetables.
4. Drug-herb interactions: Some herbal supplements may interact with medications, leading to altered drug levels or increased side effects. For instance, St. John's Wort can decrease the effectiveness of certain antidepressants and oral contraceptives by inducing their metabolism.
5. Drug-alcohol interactions: Alcohol can interact with various medications, causing additive sedative effects, impaired judgment, or increased risk of liver damage. For example, combining alcohol with benzodiazepines or opioids can lead to dangerous levels of sedation and respiratory depression.

It is essential for healthcare providers and patients to be aware of potential drug interactions to minimize adverse effects and optimize treatment outcomes.

The term "Area Under Curve" (AUC) is commonly used in the medical field, particularly in the analysis of diagnostic tests or pharmacokinetic studies. The AUC refers to the mathematical calculation of the area between a curve and the x-axis in a graph, typically representing a concentration-time profile.

In the context of diagnostic tests, the AUC is used to evaluate the performance of a test by measuring the entire two-dimensional area underneath the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, which plots the true positive rate (sensitivity) against the false positive rate (1-specificity) at various threshold settings. The AUC ranges from 0 to 1, where a higher AUC indicates better test performance:

* An AUC of 0.5 suggests that the test is no better than chance.
* An AUC between 0.7 and 0.8 implies moderate accuracy.
* An AUC between 0.8 and 0.9 indicates high accuracy.
* An AUC greater than 0.9 signifies very high accuracy.

In pharmacokinetic studies, the AUC is used to assess drug exposure over time by calculating the area under a plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-t) or AUC(0-\∞)) following drug administration. This value can help determine dosing regimens and evaluate potential drug interactions:

* AUC(0-t): Represents the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to the last measurable concentration (t).
* AUC(0-\∞): Refers to the area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity, which estimates total drug exposure.

Intraventricular injections are a type of medical procedure where medication is administered directly into the cerebral ventricles of the brain. The cerebral ventricles are fluid-filled spaces within the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This procedure is typically used to deliver drugs that target conditions affecting the central nervous system, such as infections or tumors.

Intraventricular injections are usually performed using a thin, hollow needle that is inserted through a small hole drilled into the skull. The medication is then injected directly into the ventricles, allowing it to circulate throughout the CSF and reach the brain tissue more efficiently than other routes of administration.

This type of injection is typically reserved for situations where other methods of drug delivery are not effective or feasible. It carries a higher risk of complications, such as bleeding, infection, or damage to surrounding tissues, compared to other routes of administration. Therefore, it is usually performed by trained medical professionals in a controlled clinical setting.

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a type of antibody that plays a crucial role in the immune function of the human body. It is primarily found in external secretions, such as saliva, tears, breast milk, and sweat, as well as in mucous membranes lining the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. IgA exists in two forms: a monomeric form found in serum and a polymeric form found in secretions.

The primary function of IgA is to provide immune protection at mucosal surfaces, which are exposed to various environmental antigens, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and allergens. By doing so, it helps prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens into the body, reducing the risk of infections and inflammation.

IgA functions by binding to antigens present on the surface of pathogens or allergens, forming immune complexes that can neutralize their activity. These complexes are then transported across the epithelial cells lining mucosal surfaces and released into the lumen, where they prevent the adherence and invasion of pathogens.

In summary, Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is a vital antibody that provides immune defense at mucosal surfaces by neutralizing and preventing the entry of harmful antigens into the body.

Ejaculation is the discharge of semen, typically accompanied by orgasm, during sexual activity. It occurs when the male reproductive system releases semen from the penis. This process is usually brought on by sexual arousal and stimulation, which cause the sperm-carrying vas deferens to contract and push the semen into the urethra, from where it is expelled through the tip of the penis.

There are two types of ejaculation:

1. **Reflex ejaculation**: This occurs when there is a high level of sexual excitement or stimulation, leading to an involuntary and automatic response.
2. **Premature ejaculation**: This refers to the condition where ejaculation happens too quickly, often before or shortly after penetration, causing distress and affecting sexual satisfaction for both partners.

It is essential to understand that a healthy male can experience variations in the timing of ejaculation throughout their life, influenced by factors such as age, stress levels, and overall health. If you have concerns about your ejaculation patterns or any related issues, it is recommended to consult a healthcare professional for advice and treatment options.

Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is a glycoprotein hormone secreted and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In females, it promotes the growth and development of ovarian follicles in the ovary, which ultimately leads to the maturation and release of an egg (ovulation). In males, FSH stimulates the testes to produce sperm. It works in conjunction with luteinizing hormone (LH) to regulate reproductive processes. The secretion of FSH is controlled by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and its release is influenced by the levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), estrogen, inhibin, and androgens.

Synthetic vaccines are artificially produced, designed to stimulate an immune response and provide protection against specific diseases. Unlike traditional vaccines that are derived from weakened or killed pathogens, synthetic vaccines are created using synthetic components, such as synthesized viral proteins, DNA, or RNA. These components mimic the disease-causing agent and trigger an immune response without causing the actual disease. The use of synthetic vaccines offers advantages in terms of safety, consistency, and scalability in production, making them valuable tools for preventing infectious diseases.

'Chlamydia trachomatis' is a species of bacterium that is the causative agent of several infectious diseases in humans. It is an obligate intracellular pathogen, meaning it can only survive and reproduce inside host cells. The bacteria are transmitted through sexual contact, and can cause a range of genital tract infections, including urethritis, cervicitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and epididymitis. In women, chlamydial infection can also lead to serious complications such as ectopic pregnancy and infertility.

In addition to genital infections, 'Chlamydia trachomatis' is also responsible for two other diseases: trachoma and lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV). Trachoma is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide, affecting mostly children in developing countries. It is spread through contact with contaminated hands, clothing, or eye secretions. LGV is a sexually transmitted infection that can cause inflammation of the lymph nodes, rectum, and genitals.

'Chlamydia trachomatis' infections are often asymptomatic, making them difficult to diagnose and treat. However, they can be detected through laboratory tests such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) or culture. Treatment typically involves antibiotics such as azithromycin or doxycycline. Prevention measures include safe sex practices, regular screening for STIs, and good hygiene.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

HIV-1 (Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1) is a species of the retrovirus genus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It is primarily transmitted through sexual contact, exposure to infected blood or blood products, and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. HIV-1 infects vital cells in the human immune system, such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, leading to a decline in their numbers and weakening of the immune response over time. This results in the individual becoming susceptible to various opportunistic infections and cancers that ultimately cause death if left untreated. HIV-1 is the most prevalent form of HIV worldwide and has been identified as the causative agent of the global AIDS pandemic.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

Fertilization is the process by which a sperm cell (spermatozoon) penetrates and fuses with an egg cell (ovum), resulting in the formation of a zygote. This fusion of genetic material from both the male and female gametes initiates the development of a new organism. In human biology, fertilization typically occurs in the fallopian tube after sexual intercourse, when a single sperm out of millions is able to reach and penetrate the egg released from the ovary during ovulation. The successful fusion of these two gametes marks the beginning of pregnancy.

HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a species of lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time, HIV infection can lead to AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome). This virus attacks the immune system, specifically the CD4 cells, also known as T cells, which are a type of white blood cell that helps coordinate the body's immune response. As HIV destroys these cells, the body becomes more vulnerable to other infections and diseases. It is primarily spread through bodily fluids like blood, semen, vaginal fluids, and breast milk.

It's important to note that while there is no cure for HIV, with proper medical care, HIV can be controlled. Treatment for HIV is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). If taken as prescribed, this medicine reduces the amount of HIV in the body to a very low level, which keeps the immune system working and prevents illness. This treatment also greatly reduces the risk of transmission.

Viremia is a medical term that refers to the presence of viruses in the bloodstream. It occurs when a virus successfully infects a host and replicates within the body's cells, releasing new viral particles into the blood. This condition can lead to various clinical manifestations depending on the specific virus involved and the immune response of the infected individual. Some viral infections result in asymptomatic viremia, while others can cause severe illness or even life-threatening conditions. The detection of viremia is crucial for diagnosing certain viral infections and monitoring disease progression or treatment effectiveness.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "goats" is not a term commonly used in medical definitions. It is a common noun referring to the domesticated animal species Capra aegagrus hircus. If you have any questions about a specific medical condition or term, please provide that and I would be happy to help.

"Cutaneous administration" is a route of administering medication or treatment through the skin. This can be done through various methods such as:

1. Topical application: This involves applying the medication directly to the skin in the form of creams, ointments, gels, lotions, patches, or solutions. The medication is absorbed into the skin and enters the systemic circulation slowly over a period of time. Topical medications are often used for local effects, such as treating eczema, psoriasis, or fungal infections.

2. Iontophoresis: This method uses a mild electrical current to help a medication penetrate deeper into the skin. A positive charge is applied to a medication with a negative charge, or vice versa, causing it to be attracted through the skin. Iontophoresis is often used for local pain management and treating conditions like hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating).

3. Transdermal delivery systems: These are specialized patches that contain medication within them. The patch is applied to the skin, and as time passes, the medication is released through the skin and into the systemic circulation. This method allows for a steady, controlled release of medication over an extended period. Common examples include nicotine patches for smoking cessation and hormone replacement therapy patches.

Cutaneous administration offers several advantages, such as avoiding first-pass metabolism (which can reduce the effectiveness of oral medications), providing localized treatment, and allowing for self-administration in some cases. However, it may not be suitable for all types of medications or conditions, and potential side effects include skin irritation, allergic reactions, and systemic absorption leading to unwanted systemic effects.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Herpes Simplex is a viral infection caused by the Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV). There are two types of HSV: HSV-1 and HSV-2. Both types can cause sores or blisters on the skin or mucous membranes, but HSV-1 is typically associated with oral herpes (cold sores) and HSV-2 is usually linked to genital herpes. However, either type can infect any area of the body. The virus remains in the body for life and can reactivate periodically, causing recurrent outbreaks of lesions or blisters. It is transmitted through direct contact with infected skin or mucous membranes, such as during kissing or sexual activity.

Antibodies, viral are proteins produced by the immune system in response to an infection with a virus. These antibodies are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens on the surface of the virus, which helps to neutralize or destroy the virus and prevent its replication. Once produced, these antibodies can provide immunity against future infections with the same virus.

Viral antibodies are typically composed of four polypeptide chains - two heavy chains and two light chains - that are held together by disulfide bonds. The binding site for the antigen is located at the tip of the Y-shaped structure, formed by the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.

There are five classes of antibodies in humans: IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Each class has a different function and is distributed differently throughout the body. For example, IgG is the most common type of antibody found in the bloodstream and provides long-term immunity against viruses, while IgA is found primarily in mucous membranes and helps to protect against respiratory and gastrointestinal infections.

In addition to their role in the immune response, viral antibodies can also be used as diagnostic tools to detect the presence of a specific virus in a patient's blood or other bodily fluids.

Secondary immunization, also known as "anamnestic response" or "booster," refers to the enhanced immune response that occurs upon re-exposure to an antigen, having previously been immunized or infected with the same pathogen. This response is characterized by a more rapid and robust production of antibodies and memory cells compared to the primary immune response. The secondary immunization aims to maintain long-term immunity against infectious diseases and improve vaccine effectiveness. It usually involves administering additional doses of a vaccine or booster shots after the initial series of immunizations, which helps reinforce the immune system's ability to recognize and combat specific pathogens.

The uterus, also known as the womb, is a hollow, muscular organ located in the female pelvic cavity, between the bladder and the rectum. It has a thick, middle layer called the myometrium, which is composed of smooth muscle tissue, and an inner lining called the endometrium, which provides a nurturing environment for the fertilized egg to develop into a fetus during pregnancy.

The uterus is where the baby grows and develops until it is ready for birth through the cervix, which is the lower, narrow part of the uterus that opens into the vagina. The uterus plays a critical role in the menstrual cycle as well, by shedding its lining each month if pregnancy does not occur.

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus (womb). Depending on the specific medical condition and necessity, a hysterectomy may also include the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. There are different types of hysterectomies, including:

1. Total hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed.
2. Supracervical (or subtotal) hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
3. Radical hysterectomy: This procedure involves removing the uterus, cervix, surrounding tissues, and the upper part of the vagina. It is typically performed in cases of cervical cancer.
4. Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries can be performed along with a hysterectomy depending on the patient's medical condition and age.
5. Salpingectomy: The removal of one or both fallopian tubes can also be performed along with a hysterectomy if needed.

The reasons for performing a hysterectomy may include but are not limited to: uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic prolapse, cervical or uterine cancer, and chronic pelvic pain. The choice of the type of hysterectomy depends on the patient's medical condition, age, and personal preferences.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Antiviral agents are a class of medications that are designed to treat infections caused by viruses. Unlike antibiotics, which target bacteria, antiviral agents interfere with the replication and infection mechanisms of viruses, either by inhibiting their ability to replicate or by modulating the host's immune response to the virus.

Antiviral agents are used to treat a variety of viral infections, including influenza, herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, hepatitis B and C, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections.

These medications can be administered orally, intravenously, or topically, depending on the type of viral infection being treated. Some antiviral agents are also used for prophylaxis, or prevention, of certain viral infections.

It is important to note that antiviral agents are not effective against all types of viruses and may have significant side effects. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare professional before starting any antiviral therapy.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

"Africa South of the Sahara" is a term commonly used in medical and scientific literature to refer to the region of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. This region includes 48 countries, with a population of over 1 billion people, and is characterized by its tropical or subtropical climate, diverse cultures, and unique health challenges.

The term "South of the Sahara" is used to distinguish this region from North Africa, which is predominantly Arab and Berber in culture and has closer ties to the Middle East than to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert serves as a natural geographical boundary between these two regions.

In medical terms, "Africa South of the Sahara" encompasses a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola, which are prevalent in many parts of the region. The area also faces challenges related to maternal and child health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Medical research and interventions focused on "Africa South of the Sahara" aim to address these unique health challenges and improve the overall health outcomes of the population in this region.

Vaccination is a simple, safe, and effective way to protect people against harmful diseases, before they come into contact with them. It uses your body's natural defenses to build protection to specific infections and makes your immune system stronger.

A vaccination usually contains a small, harmless piece of a virus or bacteria (or toxins produced by these germs) that has been made inactive or weakened so it won't cause the disease itself. This piece of the germ is known as an antigen. When the vaccine is introduced into the body, the immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign and produces antibodies to fight it.

If a person then comes into contact with the actual disease-causing germ, their immune system will recognize it and immediately produce antibodies to destroy it. The person is therefore protected against that disease. This is known as active immunity.

Vaccinations are important for both individual and public health. They prevent the spread of contagious diseases and protect vulnerable members of the population, such as young children, the elderly, and people with weakened immune systems who cannot be vaccinated or for whom vaccination is not effective.

Semen is a complex, whitish fluid that is released from the male reproductive system during ejaculation. It is produced by several glands, including the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral glands. Semen contains several components, including sperm (the male reproductive cells), as well as various proteins, enzymes, vitamins, and minerals. Its primary function is to transport sperm through the female reproductive tract during sexual intercourse, providing nutrients and aiding in the protection of the sperm as they travel toward the egg for fertilization.

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

A cross-over study is a type of experimental design in which participants receive two or more interventions in a specific order. After a washout period, each participant receives the opposite intervention(s). The primary advantage of this design is that it controls for individual variability by allowing each participant to act as their own control.

In medical research, cross-over studies are often used to compare the efficacy or safety of two treatments. For example, a researcher might conduct a cross-over study to compare the effectiveness of two different medications for treating high blood pressure. Half of the participants would be randomly assigned to receive one medication first and then switch to the other medication after a washout period. The other half of the participants would receive the opposite order of treatments.

Cross-over studies can provide valuable insights into the relative merits of different interventions, but they also have some limitations. For example, they may not be suitable for studying conditions that are chronic or irreversible, as it may not be possible to completely reverse the effects of the first intervention before administering the second one. Additionally, carryover effects from the first intervention can confound the results if they persist into the second treatment period.

Overall, cross-over studies are a useful tool in medical research when used appropriately and with careful consideration of their limitations.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Sublingual administration refers to a route of delivering medication or other substances through placement under the tongue, allowing for rapid absorption into the bloodstream through the mucous membranes located there. This method can allow for quick onset of action and avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver that may occur with oral administration. Common examples of sublingual medications include nitroglycerin for angina pectoris and certain forms of hormone replacement therapy.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

"Inhalation administration" is a medical term that refers to the method of delivering medications or therapeutic agents directly into the lungs by inhaling them through the airways. This route of administration is commonly used for treating respiratory conditions such as asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and cystic fibrosis.

Inhalation administration can be achieved using various devices, including metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs), nebulizers, and soft-mist inhalers. Each device has its unique mechanism of delivering the medication into the lungs, but they all aim to provide a high concentration of the drug directly to the site of action while minimizing systemic exposure and side effects.

The advantages of inhalation administration include rapid onset of action, increased local drug concentration, reduced systemic side effects, and improved patient compliance due to the ease of use and non-invasive nature of the delivery method. However, proper technique and device usage are crucial for effective therapy, as incorrect usage may result in suboptimal drug deposition and therapeutic outcomes.

Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (RTIs) are a class of antiretroviral drugs that are primarily used in the treatment and management of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. They work by inhibiting the reverse transcriptase enzyme, which is essential for the replication of HIV.

HIV is a retrovirus, meaning it has an RNA genome and uses a unique enzyme called reverse transcriptase to convert its RNA into DNA. This process is necessary for the virus to integrate into the host cell's genome and replicate. Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors interfere with this process by binding to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, preventing it from converting the viral RNA into DNA.

RTIs can be further divided into two categories: nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). NRTIs are analogs of the building blocks of DNA, which get incorporated into the growing DNA chain during replication, causing termination of the chain. NNRTIs bind directly to the reverse transcriptase enzyme, causing a conformational change that prevents it from functioning.

By inhibiting the reverse transcriptase enzyme, RTIs can prevent the virus from replicating and reduce the viral load in an infected individual, thereby slowing down the progression of HIV infection and AIDS (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome).

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Parenteral infusions refer to the administration of fluids or medications directly into a patient's vein or subcutaneous tissue using a needle or catheter. This route bypasses the gastrointestinal tract and allows for rapid absorption and onset of action. Parenteral infusions can be used to correct fluid and electrolyte imbalances, administer medications that cannot be given orally, provide nutritional support, and deliver blood products. Common types of parenteral infusions include intravenous (IV) drips, IV push, and subcutaneous infusions. It is important that parenteral infusions are administered using aseptic technique to reduce the risk of infection.

I must clarify that the term "Guinea Pigs" is not typically used in medical definitions. However, in colloquial or informal language, it may refer to people who are used as the first to try out a new medical treatment or drug. This is known as being a "test subject" or "in a clinical trial."

In the field of scientific research, particularly in studies involving animals, guinea pigs are small rodents that are often used as experimental subjects due to their size, cost-effectiveness, and ease of handling. They are not actually pigs from Guinea, despite their name's origins being unclear. However, they do not exactly fit the description of being used in human medical experiments.

Disease susceptibility, also known as genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, refers to the increased likelihood or risk of developing a particular disease due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations. These genetic factors can make an individual more vulnerable to certain diseases compared to those who do not have these genetic changes.

It is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will definitely develop the disease. Other factors, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and additional genetic variations, can influence whether or not the disease will manifest. In some cases, early detection and intervention may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease in individuals with a known genetic susceptibility.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) is a soluble cytokine that is primarily produced by the activation of natural killer (NK) cells and T lymphocytes, especially CD4+ Th1 cells and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of the immune response against viral and intracellular bacterial infections, as well as tumor cells. IFN-γ has several functions, including activating macrophages to enhance their microbicidal activity, increasing the presentation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules on antigen-presenting cells, stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of T cells and NK cells, and inducing the production of other cytokines and chemokines. Additionally, IFN-γ has direct antiproliferative effects on certain types of tumor cells and can enhance the cytotoxic activity of immune cells against infected or malignant cells.

Reproduction, in the context of biology and medicine, refers to the process by which organisms produce offspring. It is a complex process that involves the creation, development, and growth of new individuals from parent organisms. In sexual reproduction, this process typically involves the combination of genetic material from two parents through the fusion of gametes (sex cells) such as sperm and egg cells. This results in the formation of a zygote, which then develops into a new individual with a unique genetic makeup.

In contrast, asexual reproduction does not involve the fusion of gametes and can occur through various mechanisms such as budding, fragmentation, or parthenogenesis. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism.

Reproduction is a fundamental process that ensures the survival and continuation of species over time. It is also an area of active research in fields such as reproductive medicine, where scientists and clinicians work to understand and address issues related to human fertility, contraception, and genetic disorders.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Bacterial vaccines are types of vaccines that are created using bacteria or parts of bacteria as the immunogen, which is the substance that triggers an immune response in the body. The purpose of a bacterial vaccine is to stimulate the immune system to develop protection against specific bacterial infections.

There are several types of bacterial vaccines, including:

1. Inactivated or killed whole-cell vaccines: These vaccines contain entire bacteria that have been killed or inactivated through various methods, such as heat or chemicals. The bacteria can no longer cause disease, but they still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response.
2. Subunit, protein, or polysaccharide vaccines: These vaccines use specific components of the bacterium, such as proteins or polysaccharides, that are known to trigger an immune response. By using only these components, the vaccine can avoid using the entire bacterium, which may reduce the risk of adverse reactions.
3. Live attenuated vaccines: These vaccines contain live bacteria that have been weakened or attenuated so that they cannot cause disease but still retain the ability to stimulate an immune response. This type of vaccine can provide long-lasting immunity, but it may not be suitable for people with weakened immune systems.

Bacterial vaccines are essential tools in preventing and controlling bacterial infections, reducing the burden of diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumococcal disease, meningococcal disease, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease. They work by exposing the immune system to a harmless form of the bacteria or its components, which triggers the production of antibodies and memory cells that can recognize and fight off future infections with that same bacterium.

It's important to note that while vaccines are generally safe and effective, they may cause mild side effects such as pain, redness, or swelling at the injection site, fever, or fatigue. Serious side effects are rare but can occur, so it's essential to consult with a healthcare provider before receiving any vaccine.

Drug tolerance is a medical concept that refers to the decreased response to a drug following its repeated use, requiring higher doses to achieve the same effect. This occurs because the body adapts to the presence of the drug, leading to changes in the function or expression of targets that the drug acts upon, such as receptors or enzymes. Tolerance can develop to various types of drugs, including opioids, benzodiazepines, and alcohol, and it is often associated with physical dependence and addiction. It's important to note that tolerance is different from resistance, which refers to the ability of a pathogen to survive or grow in the presence of a drug, such as antibiotics.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

Morphine is a potent opioid analgesic (pain reliever) derived from the opium poppy. It works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals and reducing the perception of pain. Morphine is used to treat moderate to severe pain, including pain associated with cancer, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It can also be used as a sedative and cough suppressant.

Morphine has a high potential for abuse and dependence, and its use should be closely monitored by healthcare professionals. Common side effects of morphine include drowsiness, respiratory depression, constipation, nausea, and vomiting. Overdose can result in respiratory failure, coma, and death.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "seasons" is not a term that has a medical definition. Seasons refer to the four divisions of the year (spring, summer, autumn or fall, and winter) based on the position of the earth in its orbit around the sun. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer those!

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

A plant extract is a preparation containing chemical constituents that have been extracted from a plant using a solvent. The resulting extract may contain a single compound or a mixture of several compounds, depending on the extraction process and the specific plant material used. These extracts are often used in various industries including pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals, cosmetics, and food and beverage, due to their potential therapeutic or beneficial properties. The composition of plant extracts can vary widely, and it is important to ensure their quality, safety, and efficacy before use in any application.

An injection is a medical procedure in which a medication, vaccine, or other substance is introduced into the body using a needle and syringe. The substance can be delivered into various parts of the body, including into a vein (intravenous), muscle (intramuscular), under the skin (subcutaneous), or into the spinal canal (intrathecal or spinal).

Injections are commonly used to administer medications that cannot be taken orally, have poor oral bioavailability, need to reach the site of action quickly, or require direct delivery to a specific organ or tissue. They can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as drawing blood samples (venipuncture) or injecting contrast agents for imaging studies.

Proper technique and sterile conditions are essential when administering injections to prevent infection, pain, and other complications. The choice of injection site depends on the type and volume of the substance being administered, as well as the patient's age, health status, and personal preferences.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Sexual behavior refers to any physical or emotional interaction that has the potential to lead to sexual arousal and/or satisfaction. This can include a wide range of activities, such as kissing, touching, fondling, oral sex, vaginal sex, anal sex, and masturbation. It can also involve the use of sexual aids, such as vibrators or pornography.

Sexual behavior is influenced by a variety of factors, including biological, psychological, social, and cultural influences. It is an important aspect of human development and relationships, and it is essential to healthy sexual functioning and satisfaction. However, sexual behavior can also be associated with risks, such as sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and unintended pregnancies, and it is important for individuals to engage in safe and responsible sexual practices.

It's important to note that sexual behavior can vary widely among individuals and cultures, and what may be considered normal or acceptable in one culture or context may not be in another. It's also important to recognize that all individuals have the right to make informed decisions about their own sexual behavior and to have their sexual rights and autonomy respected.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Spinal injections, also known as epidural injections or intrathecal injections, are medical procedures involving the injection of medications directly into the spinal canal. The medication is usually delivered into the space surrounding the spinal cord (the epidural space) or into the cerebrospinal fluid that surrounds and protects the spinal cord (the subarachnoid space).

The medications used in spinal injections can include local anesthetics, steroids, opioids, or a combination of these. The purpose of spinal injections is to provide diagnostic information, therapeutic relief, or both. They are commonly used to treat various conditions affecting the spine, such as radicular pain (pain that radiates down the arms or legs), disc herniation, spinal stenosis, and degenerative disc disease.

Spinal injections can be administered using different techniques, including fluoroscopy-guided injections, computed tomography (CT) scan-guided injections, or with the help of a nerve stimulator. These techniques ensure accurate placement of the medication and minimize the risk of complications.

It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for specific information regarding spinal injections and their potential benefits and risks.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

CD8-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD8+ T cells or cytotoxic T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the adaptive immune system. They are named after the CD8 molecule found on their surface, which is a protein involved in cell signaling and recognition.

CD8+ T cells are primarily responsible for identifying and destroying virus-infected cells or cancerous cells. When activated, they release cytotoxic granules that contain enzymes capable of inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in the target cells. They also produce cytokines such as interferon-gamma, which can help coordinate the immune response and activate other immune cells.

CD8+ T cells are generated in the thymus gland and are a type of T cell, which is a lymphocyte that matures in the thymus and plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. They recognize and respond to specific antigens presented on the surface of infected or cancerous cells in conjunction with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules.

Overall, CD8+ T cells are an essential component of the immune system's defense against viral infections and cancer.

High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a type of chromatography that separates and analyzes compounds based on their interactions with a stationary phase and a mobile phase under high pressure. The mobile phase, which can be a gas or liquid, carries the sample mixture through a column containing the stationary phase.

In HPLC, the mobile phase is a liquid, and it is pumped through the column at high pressures (up to several hundred atmospheres) to achieve faster separation times and better resolution than other types of liquid chromatography. The stationary phase can be a solid or a liquid supported on a solid, and it interacts differently with each component in the sample mixture, causing them to separate as they travel through the column.

HPLC is widely used in analytical chemistry, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, and other fields to separate, identify, and quantify compounds present in complex mixtures. It can be used to analyze a wide range of substances, including drugs, hormones, vitamins, pigments, flavors, and pollutants. HPLC is also used in the preparation of pure samples for further study or use.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Africa" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located at the southernmost tip of the African continent. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

ICR (Institute of Cancer Research) is a strain of albino Swiss mice that are widely used in scientific research. They are an outbred strain, which means that they have been bred to maintain maximum genetic heterogeneity. However, it is also possible to find inbred strains of ICR mice, which are genetically identical individuals produced by many generations of brother-sister mating.

Inbred ICR mice are a specific type of ICR mouse that has been inbred for at least 20 generations. This means that they have a high degree of genetic uniformity and are essentially genetically identical to one another. Inbred strains of mice are often used in research because their genetic consistency makes them more reliable models for studying biological phenomena and testing new therapies or treatments.

It is important to note that while inbred ICR mice may be useful for certain types of research, they do not necessarily represent the genetic diversity found in human populations. Therefore, it is important to consider the limitations of using any animal model when interpreting research findings and applying them to human health.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae is a species of gram-negative, aerobic diplococcus that is the etiologic agent of gonorrhea, a sexually transmitted infection. It is commonly found in the mucous membranes of the reproductive tract, including the cervix, urethra, and rectum, as well as the throat and eyes. The bacterium can cause a range of symptoms, including discharge, burning during urination, and, in women, abnormal menstrual bleeding. If left untreated, it can lead to more serious complications, such as pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. It is important to note that N. gonorrhoeae has developed resistance to many antibiotics over time, making treatment more challenging. A culture or nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is used for the diagnosis of this infection.

A diaphragm is a thin, dome-shaped muscle that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity. It plays a vital role in the process of breathing as it contracts and flattens to draw air into the lungs (inhalation) and relaxes and returns to its domed shape to expel air out of the lungs (exhalation).

In addition, a diaphragm is also a type of barrier method of birth control. It is a flexible dome-shaped device made of silicone that fits over the cervix inside the vagina. When used correctly and consistently, it prevents sperm from entering the uterus and fertilizing an egg, thereby preventing pregnancy.

'Candida albicans' is a species of yeast that is commonly found in the human body, particularly in warm and moist areas such as the mouth, gut, and genital region. It is a part of the normal microbiota and usually does not cause any harm. However, under certain conditions like a weakened immune system, prolonged use of antibiotics or steroids, poor oral hygiene, or diabetes, it can overgrow and cause infections known as candidiasis. These infections can affect various parts of the body including the skin, nails, mouth (thrush), and genital area (yeast infection).

The medical definition of 'Candida albicans' is:

A species of yeast belonging to the genus Candida, which is commonly found as a commensal organism in humans. It can cause opportunistic infections when there is a disruption in the normal microbiota or when the immune system is compromised. The overgrowth of C. albicans can lead to various forms of candidiasis, such as oral thrush, vaginal yeast infection, and invasive candidiasis.

A lung is a pair of spongy, elastic organs in the chest that work together to enable breathing. They are responsible for taking in oxygen and expelling carbon dioxide through the process of respiration. The left lung has two lobes, while the right lung has three lobes. The lungs are protected by the ribcage and are covered by a double-layered membrane called the pleura. The trachea divides into two bronchi, which further divide into smaller bronchioles, leading to millions of tiny air sacs called alveoli, where the exchange of gases occurs.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Prostitution is not typically defined in medical terms, but it is a social and legal issue. However, in the context of public health, prostitution might be defined as the act or practice of engaging in sexual activity for payment, which can carry significant risks to physical and mental health, including exposure to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), violence, and psychological trauma.

Prostitution is often associated with marginalization, poverty, and social inequality, and it can be a complex issue that involves questions of personal autonomy, consent, and human rights. It's important to note that the legal and cultural approaches to prostitution vary widely around the world, ranging from criminalization to decriminalization and legalization.

Analgesics, opioid are a class of drugs used for the treatment of pain. They work by binding to specific receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals to the brain. Opioids can be synthetic or natural, and include drugs such as morphine, codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, fentanyl, and methadone. They are often used for moderate to severe pain, such as that resulting from injury, surgery, or chronic conditions like cancer. However, opioids can also produce euphoria, physical dependence, and addiction, so they are tightly regulated and carry a risk of misuse.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Self-administration, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refers to the act of an individual administering medication or treatment to themselves. This can include various forms of delivery such as oral medications, injections, or topical treatments. It is important that individuals who self-administer are properly trained and understand the correct dosage, timing, and technique to ensure safety and effectiveness. Self-administration promotes independence, allows for timely treatment, and can improve overall health outcomes.

Ethanol is the medical term for pure alcohol, which is a colorless, clear, volatile, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor and burning taste. It is the type of alcohol that is found in alcoholic beverages and is produced by the fermentation of sugars by yeasts.

In the medical field, ethanol is used as an antiseptic and disinfectant, and it is also used as a solvent for various medicinal preparations. It has central nervous system depressant properties and is sometimes used as a sedative or to induce sleep. However, excessive consumption of ethanol can lead to alcohol intoxication, which can cause a range of negative health effects, including impaired judgment, coordination, and memory, as well as an increased risk of accidents, injuries, and chronic diseases such as liver disease and addiction.

Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, often expressed as beats per minute (bpm). It can vary significantly depending on factors such as age, physical fitness, emotions, and overall health status. A resting heart rate between 60-100 bpm is generally considered normal for adults, but athletes and individuals with high levels of physical fitness may have a resting heart rate below 60 bpm due to their enhanced cardiovascular efficiency. Monitoring heart rate can provide valuable insights into an individual's health status, exercise intensity, and response to various treatments or interventions.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

The endometrium is the innermost layer of the uterus, which lines the uterine cavity and has a critical role in the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. It is composed of glands and blood vessels that undergo cyclic changes under the influence of hormones, primarily estrogen and progesterone. During the menstrual cycle, the endometrium thickens in preparation for a potential pregnancy. If fertilization does not occur, it will break down and be shed, resulting in menstruation. In contrast, if implantation takes place, the endometrium provides essential nutrients to support the developing embryo and placenta throughout pregnancy.

Antineoplastic agents are a class of drugs used to treat malignant neoplasms or cancer. These agents work by inhibiting the growth and proliferation of cancer cells, either by killing them or preventing their division and replication. Antineoplastic agents can be classified based on their mechanism of action, such as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, topoisomerase inhibitors, mitotic inhibitors, and targeted therapy agents.

Alkylating agents work by adding alkyl groups to DNA, which can cause cross-linking of DNA strands and ultimately lead to cell death. Antimetabolites interfere with the metabolic processes necessary for DNA synthesis and replication, while topoisomerase inhibitors prevent the relaxation of supercoiled DNA during replication. Mitotic inhibitors disrupt the normal functioning of the mitotic spindle, which is essential for cell division. Targeted therapy agents are designed to target specific molecular abnormalities in cancer cells, such as mutated oncogenes or dysregulated signaling pathways.

It's important to note that antineoplastic agents can also affect normal cells and tissues, leading to various side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hair loss, and myelosuppression (suppression of bone marrow function). Therefore, the use of these drugs requires careful monitoring and management of their potential adverse effects.

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

Preclinical drug evaluation refers to a series of laboratory tests and studies conducted to determine the safety and effectiveness of a new drug before it is tested in humans. These studies typically involve experiments on cells and animals to evaluate the pharmacological properties, toxicity, and potential interactions with other substances. The goal of preclinical evaluation is to establish a reasonable level of safety and understanding of how the drug works, which helps inform the design and conduct of subsequent clinical trials in humans. It's important to note that while preclinical studies provide valuable information, they may not always predict how a drug will behave in human subjects.

Analgesics are a class of drugs that are used to relieve pain. They work by blocking the transmission of pain signals in the nervous system, allowing individuals to manage their pain levels more effectively. There are many different types of analgesics available, including both prescription and over-the-counter options. Some common examples include acetaminophen (Tylenol), ibuprofen (Advil or Motrin), and opioids such as morphine or oxycodone.

The choice of analgesic will depend on several factors, including the type and severity of pain being experienced, any underlying medical conditions, potential drug interactions, and individual patient preferences. It is important to use these medications as directed by a healthcare provider, as misuse or overuse can lead to serious side effects and potential addiction.

In addition to their pain-relieving properties, some analgesics may also have additional benefits such as reducing inflammation (like in the case of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or causing sedation (as with certain opioids). However, it is essential to weigh these potential benefits against the risks and side effects associated with each medication.

When used appropriately, analgesics can significantly improve a person's quality of life by helping them manage their pain effectively and allowing them to engage in daily activities more comfortably.

Combination drug therapy is a treatment approach that involves the use of multiple medications with different mechanisms of action to achieve better therapeutic outcomes. This approach is often used in the management of complex medical conditions such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, and cardiovascular diseases. The goal of combination drug therapy is to improve efficacy, reduce the risk of drug resistance, decrease the likelihood of adverse effects, and enhance the overall quality of life for patients.

In combining drugs, healthcare providers aim to target various pathways involved in the disease process, which may help to:

1. Increase the effectiveness of treatment by attacking the disease from multiple angles.
2. Decrease the dosage of individual medications, reducing the risk and severity of side effects.
3. Slow down or prevent the development of drug resistance, a common problem in chronic diseases like HIV/AIDS and cancer.
4. Improve patient compliance by simplifying dosing schedules and reducing pill burden.

Examples of combination drug therapy include:

1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV treatment, which typically involves three or more drugs from different classes to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
2. Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where multiple cytotoxic agents are used to target various stages of the cell cycle and reduce the likelihood of tumor cells developing resistance.
3. Cardiovascular disease management, which may involve combining medications such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-blockers, diuretics, and statins to control blood pressure, heart rate, fluid balance, and cholesterol levels.
4. Treatment of tuberculosis, which often involves a combination of several antibiotics to target different aspects of the bacterial life cycle and prevent the development of drug-resistant strains.

When prescribing combination drug therapy, healthcare providers must carefully consider factors such as potential drug interactions, dosing schedules, adverse effects, and contraindications to ensure safe and effective treatment. Regular monitoring of patients is essential to assess treatment response, manage side effects, and adjust the treatment plan as needed.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Virus replication is the process by which a virus produces copies or reproduces itself inside a host cell. This involves several steps:

1. Attachment: The virus attaches to a specific receptor on the surface of the host cell.
2. Penetration: The viral genetic material enters the host cell, either by invagination of the cell membrane or endocytosis.
3. Uncoating: The viral genetic material is released from its protective coat (capsid) inside the host cell.
4. Replication: The viral genetic material uses the host cell's machinery to produce new viral components, such as proteins and nucleic acids.
5. Assembly: The newly synthesized viral components are assembled into new virus particles.
6. Release: The newly formed viruses are released from the host cell, often through lysis (breaking) of the cell membrane or by budding off the cell membrane.

The specific mechanisms and details of virus replication can vary depending on the type of virus. Some viruses, such as DNA viruses, use the host cell's DNA polymerase to replicate their genetic material, while others, such as RNA viruses, use their own RNA-dependent RNA polymerase or reverse transcriptase enzymes. Understanding the process of virus replication is important for developing antiviral therapies and vaccines.

Intra-arterial injection is a type of medical procedure where a medication or contrast agent is delivered directly into an artery. This technique is used for various therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

For instance, intra-arterial chemotherapy may be used to deliver cancer drugs directly to the site of a tumor, while intra-arterial thrombolysis involves the administration of clot-busting medications to treat arterial blockages caused by blood clots. Intra-arterial injections are also used in diagnostic imaging procedures such as angiography, where a contrast agent is injected into an artery to visualize the blood vessels and identify any abnormalities.

It's important to note that intra-arterial injections require precise placement of the needle or catheter into the artery, and are typically performed by trained medical professionals using specialized equipment.

Buccal administration refers to the route of delivering a medication or drug through the buccal mucosa, which is the lining of the inner cheek in the mouth. This route allows for the medication to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract and liver metabolism, which can result in faster onset of action and potentially higher bioavailability.

Buccal administration can be achieved through various forms of dosage forms such as lozenges, tablets, films, or sprays that are placed in contact with the buccal mucosa for a certain period of time until they dissolve or disintegrate and release the active ingredient. This route is commonly used for medications that require a rapid onset of action, have poor oral bioavailability, or are irritating to the gastrointestinal tract.

It's important to note that buccal administration may not be appropriate for all medications, as some drugs may be inactivated by saliva or may cause local irritation or discomfort. Therefore, it's essential to consult with a healthcare professional before using any medication through this route.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Piperidines are not a medical term per se, but they are a class of organic compounds that have important applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Medically relevant piperidines include various drugs such as some antihistamines, antidepressants, and muscle relaxants.

A piperidine is a heterocyclic amine with a six-membered ring containing five carbon atoms and one nitrogen atom. The structure can be described as a cyclic secondary amine. Piperidines are found in some natural alkaloids, such as those derived from the pepper plant (Piper nigrum), which gives piperidines their name.

In a medical context, it is more common to encounter specific drugs that belong to the class of piperidines rather than the term itself.

A prodrug is a pharmacologically inactive substance that, once administered, is metabolized into a drug that is active. Prodrugs are designed to improve the bioavailability or delivery of a drug, to minimize adverse effects, or to target the drug to specific sites in the body. The conversion of a prodrug to its active form typically occurs through enzymatic reactions in the liver or other tissues.

Prodrugs can offer several advantages over traditional drugs, including:

* Improved absorption: Some drugs have poor bioavailability due to their chemical properties, which make them difficult to absorb from the gastrointestinal tract. Prodrugs can be designed with improved absorption characteristics, allowing for more efficient delivery of the active drug to the body.
* Reduced toxicity: By masking the active drug's chemical structure, prodrugs can reduce its interactions with sensitive tissues and organs, thereby minimizing adverse effects.
* Targeted delivery: Prodrugs can be designed to selectively release the active drug in specific areas of the body, such as tumors or sites of infection, allowing for more precise and effective therapy.

Examples of prodrugs include:

* Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), which is metabolized to salicylic acid in the liver.
* Enalapril, an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used to treat hypertension and heart failure, which is metabolized to enalaprilat in the liver.
* Codeine, an opioid analgesic, which is metabolized to morphine in the liver by the enzyme CYP2D6.

It's important to note that not all prodrugs are successful, and some may even have unintended consequences. For example, if a patient has a genetic variation that affects the activity of the enzyme responsible for converting the prodrug to its active form, the drug may not be effective or may produce adverse effects. Therefore, it's essential to consider individual genetic factors when prescribing prodrugs.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

Intestinal absorption refers to the process by which the small intestine absorbs water, nutrients, and electrolytes from food into the bloodstream. This is a critical part of the digestive process, allowing the body to utilize the nutrients it needs and eliminate waste products. The inner wall of the small intestine contains tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase the surface area for absorption. Nutrients are absorbed into the bloodstream through the walls of the capillaries in these villi, and then transported to other parts of the body for use or storage.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

"Drug approval" is the process by which a regulatory agency, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), grants formal authorization for a pharmaceutical company to market and sell a drug for a specific medical condition. The approval process is based on rigorous evaluation of clinical trial data to ensure that the drug is safe and effective for its intended use.

The FDA's approval process typically involves several stages, including preclinical testing in the lab and animal studies, followed by three phases of clinical trials in human subjects. The first phase tests the safety of the drug in a small group of healthy volunteers, while the second and third phases test the drug's efficacy and side effects in larger groups of patients with the medical condition for which the drug is intended.

If the results of these studies demonstrate that the drug is safe and effective, the pharmaceutical company can submit a New Drug Application (NDA) or Biologics License Application (BLA) to the FDA for review. The application includes data from the clinical trials, as well as information about the manufacturing process, labeling, and proposed use of the drug.

The FDA reviews the application and may seek input from independent experts before making a decision on whether to approve the drug. If approved, the drug can be marketed and sold to patients with the medical condition for which it was approved. The FDA continues to monitor the safety and efficacy of approved drugs after they reach the market to ensure that they remain safe and effective for their intended use.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAIDs) are a class of medications that reduce pain, inflammation, and fever. They work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes, which are involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that contribute to inflammation and cause blood vessels to dilate and become more permeable, leading to symptoms such as pain, redness, warmth, and swelling.

NSAIDs are commonly used to treat a variety of conditions, including arthritis, muscle strains and sprains, menstrual cramps, headaches, and fever. Some examples of NSAIDs include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and celecoxib.

While NSAIDs are generally safe and effective when used as directed, they can have side effects, particularly when taken in large doses or for long periods of time. Common side effects include stomach ulcers, gastrointestinal bleeding, and increased risk of heart attack and stroke. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and consult with a healthcare provider if you have any concerns about using NSAIDs.

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Intravaginal administration, in the vagina. Intravenous (into a vein), e.g. many drugs, total parenteral nutrition. ... Oral administration is often denoted "PO" from "per os", the Latin for "by mouth". The bioavailability of oral administration ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ... Extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes. Nasal administration (through the nose) can be used ...
Bäckström T, von Schoultz B, Toivonen J (1979). "Plasma progesterone concentrations after administration via intravaginal rings ... The mean values of TT, FT, SHBG, DHEAS, A4, and 17-OHP did not change with OMP administration. However, a higher 17-OHP level ... In contrast, exogenous administration of progesterone to pregnant rodents and monkeys has resulted in minimal abnormality in ... In addition, a study found that administration of 1,000 mg/day oral progesterone for 3 months had no significant effect on ...
Intravaginal administration is preferred to taking them by mouth. Prolonged repetitive courses of treatment appear to be more ... Intravaginal boric acid in conjunction with other medications may be helpful in the treatment of recurrent BV. TOL-463, a ... LACTIN-V is not yet Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or commercially available. Topical antiseptics, for example ... VandeVusse L, Hanson L, Safdar N (2013). "Perinatal outcomes of prenatal probiotic and prebiotic administration: an integrative ...
Rigg LA, Milanes B, Villanueva B, Yen SS (1977). "Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized ... This route of administration is thus preferred in women with a history of thromboembolic disease. Estrogen is also used in the ... However, such risks have been found to vary depending on the type of estrogen and the route of administration. The risk of VTE ... It was only until 1941 when estrogen therapy was finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment ...
"Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized estradiol-17beta". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology ... Sublingual administration of estradiol was first described in the early 1940s. Buccal estradiol tablets were marketed by ... Sahin FK, Koken G, Cosar E, Arioz DT, Degirmenci B, Albayrak R, Acar M (2008). "Effect of Aerodiol administration on ocular ... "First Generic Drug Approvals 2023". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 30 May 2023. Archived from the original on 30 June ...
A weekly vaginal ring is an effective and safe method for intravaginal administration. Intramuscular administration. Daily ... Intravaginal administration of gel, tablets or other inserts, such as endometrin. ... The main ones are: Oral administration of progesterone or progestin pills. Oral administration of progestins provides at least ... Luteal support is the administration of medication, generally progesterone, progestins, hCG or GnRH agonists, to increase the ...
Intravaginal, endocervical or extra-amniotic administration of prostaglandin, such as dinoprostone or misoprostol. ... administration of synthetic oxytocin preparations is used to artificially induce labor if it is deemed medically necessary. A ...
... is a form of estrogen that is delivered by intravaginal administration. Vaginally administered estrogens are ... Pharmacokinetics of estradiol § Vaginal administration Estrogen (Vaginal Route) from Mayo Clinic / Thomson Healthcare Inc. ...
... in women following oral and intravaginal administration". Steroids. 26 (3): 373-386. doi:10.1016/0039-128X(75)90082-3. PMID ... Overdose is not described in the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) product labels for injected MPA (Depo-Provera or Depo-SubQ ... On 17 November 2004, the United States Food and Drug Administration put a black box warning on the label, indicating that there ... Administration of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) to certain sex offenders". Louisiana Revised Statutes. Retrieved 8 July ...
They also allow administration of a natural form of hormone, as opposed to the potent analogues used in sponges. A dose of 550 ... Previously, intravaginal progestogen sponges were a common method of estrus manipulation in ewes. The development and success ... Unlike intravaginal progestogen sponges, CIDRs do not absorb or impede drainage of natural vaginal secretions, offering a ... CIDRs are similar to the progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID), also used for synchronization of estrous cycles in ...
Luteal phase supplementation consists of daily intravaginal administration of 600 µg of natural micronized progesterone. ... Transvaginal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval is scheduled 36 hours after hCG administration. ...
"Effects of vardenafil administration on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in men with lifelong premature ejaculation". ... In October 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that a warning about possible deafness (sudden hearing ... The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has found vardenafil and other synthetic PDE5 inhibitors in numerous products ... Food and Drug Administration. 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2009-08-06. Kloner RA (December 2005). "Pharmacology and drug interaction ...
Burning and itching have been reported after the application of fenticonazole nitrate.[citation needed] Intravaginal ... Oral administration of Fenticonazole in rats has been reported to produce prolonged gestation and embryotoxic effects after ... may damage latex contraceptives and additional contraceptive measures are therefore necessary during local administration.[ ...
Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the medication is inserted into the vagina as a creme or tablet ... An applicator is inserted into the vagina to allow the administration of radiation as close to the site of the cancer as ... "The Benefits of Vaginal Drug Administration-Communicating Effectively With Patients: The Vagina: New Options for the ... with limited systemic adverse effects compared to other routes of administration. Medications used to ripen the cervix and ...
A recent meta-analysis showed that the intravaginal route with an appropriate dose and dosing frequency is equivalent to daily ... A duration of progesterone administration of 11 days results in almost the same birth rates as longer durations. Patients are ... While daily intramuscular injections of progesterone-in-oil (PIO) have been the standard route of administration, PIO ... beneficial to administer an additional drug that suppresses hormone production by the ovaries such as continuous administration ...
DPV, an HIV-1 non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), is slowly released via local intravaginal administration ... However, women younger than 21 years old are less likely to adhere to the intravaginal HIV microbicide regimen. From 2016 to ... A number of alternative intravaginal rings made by IPM are under further testing or in preclinical developmental delay due to ... Woolfson, A. David; Malcolm, R. Karl; Morrow, Ryan J.; Toner, Clare F.; McCullagh, Stephen D. (2006-11-15). "Intravaginal ring ...
In 2017, the Trump administration issued a ruling letting insurers and employers refuse to provide birth control if doing so ... and intravaginal ring (NuvaRing). Progestin only methods include an injectable form (Depo-Provera), a subdermal implant ( ... Pear, Robert; Ruiz, Rebecca R.; Goodstein, Laurie (2017-10-06). "Trump Administration Rolls Back Birth Control Mandate". The ... it would need to go through a rigorous check by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and be approved on the basis of safety, ...
Transvaginal mesh has recently come under scrutiny due to controversy relating to the Food and Drug Administration. Initially, ... is called intravaginal slingplasty (IVS).[medical citation needed] The procedure of choice for stress urinary incontinence in ... is called intravaginal slingplasty (IVS).[medical citation needed] The transobturator tape (TOT or Monarc) sling procedure aims ...
... are polymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of drugs for intravaginal administration over ... Vaginal rings (also known as intravaginal rings, or V-Rings) ...
However, the guidelines also noted that LACTIN-V is not yet Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved or commercially ... noted that intravaginal LACTIN-V produced a considerably lower recurrence of BV following initial antibiotic treatment with ...
Advantages of intravaginal progesterone over oral administration include high bioavailability, rapid absorption, avoidance of ... However, the duration was short, with levels of less than 5 ng/mL at 6 hours, and re-administration had to be done two or three ... With oral administration, progesterone accounts for less than 20% of the dose in circulation while 5α- and 5β-reduced products ... 5-year) administration. This is potentially consistent with a weak proliferative effect of oral progesterone on the breasts ...
... administration, intravaginal MeSH E05.300.120.505 - administration, intravesical MeSH E05.300.120.610 - administration, rectal ... administration, buccal MeSH E05.300.100.878 - administration, sublingual MeSH E05.300.120.040 - administration, buccal MeSH ... E05.300.120.060 - administration, cutaneous MeSH E05.300.120.080 - administration, intranasal MeSH E05.300.120.500 - ...
Estrogen - intravaginal administration helps to prevent pelvic muscle atrophy The surgery to repair the anterior vaginal wall ...
Intravaginal administration Vaginal rings Capsules and tablets Suppositories Rectal administration (enteral) Suppositories ... The route of administration (ROA) for drug delivery is dependent on the dosage form of the substance in question. Various ... Depending on the method/route of administration, dosage forms come in several types. These include many kinds of liquid, solid ... Intraosseous administration (IO) Intraperitoneally-administered (IP) intravenously-administered (IV) Intracavernously- ...
... prostaglandin E2 Intravaginal or oral administration of misoprostol Cervical insertion of a 30-mL Foley catheter Rupturing the ... February 2005). "Pre-induction cervical ripening: transcervical foley catheter versus intravaginal misoprostol". Journal of ...
Avoid intravaginal preparations (particularly those that require the use of an applicator) in young girls who are not sexually ... Nystatin is the only polyene antifungal that is available for topical administration. The drug is derived from Streptomyces ... Benitez, Lydia L.; Carver, Peggy L. (2019-06-01). "Adverse Effects Associated with Long-Term Administration of Azole Antifungal ... Patients who are concurrently using latex contraceptives should be reminded that some intravaginal preparations of nystatin may ...
Steady-state concentrations of NOMAC are achieved after five days of repeated administration. As Zoely (2.5 mg/day NOMAC), the ... "Estradiol/Nomegestrol intravaginal ring". AdisInsight. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. "Estradiol/Nomegestrol continuous". ... "Drugs@FDA: FDA Approved Drug Products". United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 9 December 2016. Croxatto HB ( ... Kuhl H (August 2005). "Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration". ...
In 2011, Davis voted against a bill to require physicians to conduct intra-vaginal sonograms, prior to even pharmaceutically ... In 2013, she voted against a bill that increases abortion facility requirements, regulates the administration of abortion ...
There are already intravaginal rings on the market that act solely as contraceptives, but intravaginal rings that can act as ... However, an applicator is needed for administration which increases the cost. There are already vaginal tablets and inserts ... MPT products in clinical development: Intravaginal rings - Intravaginal rings are polyermic and flexible rings that are ... They dissolve in the vaginal cavity after administration. Vaginal tablets and inserts contain hydrophilic polymers such as ...
Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina. Pharmacologically, ... Medicines primarily delivered by intravaginal administration include vaginally administered estrogens and progestogens (a group ... It is a potential means of artificial insemination (referred to as intravaginal insemination or IVI), sometimes used at home ... It is used as an administration method for contraception. Alexander, Nancy J.; Baker, Edward; Kaptein, Marc; Karck, Ulrich; ...
... thus confirming the previously observed benefits of intravaginal DHEA on female sexual dysfunction by an action exerted ... Dehydroepiandrosterone / administration & dosage* * Double-Blind Method * Dyspareunia / drug therapy* * Dyspareunia / etiology ... Effect of Intravaginal Prasterone on Sexual Dysfunction in Postmenopausal Women with Vulvovaginal Atrophy J Sex Med. 2015 Dec; ... Aims: To confirm in a placebo-controlled, prospective, double-blind and randomized study the benefits of daily intravaginal ...
Food and Drug Administration. FDA Public Health Advisory: sepsis and medical abortion. Rockville, Maryland: Food and Drug ... On July 19, 2005, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health advisory regarding the deaths of four women in ... Clostridium sordellii Toxic Shock Syndrome After Medical Abortion with Mifepristone and Intravaginal Misoprostol --- United ... and intravaginal misoprostol (1). Two of these deaths occurred in 2003, one in 2004, and one in 2005. Two of these U.S. cases ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. For topical use only. Not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. ... Important Administration Instructions. *Advise patients to apply ACZONE Gel, 7.5%, once daily to the entire face [see DOSAGE ... Not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. After the skin is gently washed and patted dry, apply approximately a pea-sized ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ...
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Tazarotene gel is for topical use only. Tazarotene gel is not for ophthalmic, oral, or intravaginal ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 2.1 Psoriasis 2.2 Acne 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION *Apply a thin layer of tazarotene gel only to the affected area once daily in the evening. ( 2.1, 2.2 ... A long-term study with topical administration of up to 0.1% tazarotene in a gel formulation in mice terminated at 88 weeks ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION *Not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. (1.2) *Spray directly onto the affected skin areas ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS 5.1 Effects on the ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Clobetasol Propionate Spray, 0.05% is for topical use only, and not for ophthalmic, oral or ... This Patient Information and Instructions for Use have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. ...
dapivirine intravaginal. dapivirine intravaginal, betibeglogene autotemcel. Other (see comment). Avoid or Use Alternate Drug. ... Administration. IV Preparation. Coordinate timing of thawing betibeglogene autotemcel and infusion. Confirm infusion time in ... dapivirine intravaginal. Serious - Use Alternative (1)dapivirine intravaginal, betibeglogene autotemcel. Other (see comment). ... IV Administration For autologous use only; patients identity must match the patient identifiers on the betibeglogene ...
Intravaginal clindamycin cream is preferred in case of allergy or intolerance to metronidazole or tinidazole. Intravaginal ... A glass of water can be taken after administration to aid in swallowing. ... Studies have evaluated the clinical and microbiologic efficacy of intravaginal Lactobacillus and other probiotic formulations ... oral or intravaginal) (1016). In a phase 3 clinical trial of secnidazole 2 g oral granules versus placebo, BV clinical cure ...
Elazab N, Mendy A, Gasana J, Vieira ER, Quizon A, Forno E. Probiotic administration in early life, atopy, and asthma: a meta- ... Bruce AW, Reid G. Intravaginal instillation of Lactobacilli for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections. Can J ... Effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis subsp. coagulans on interferon-alpha producing capacity in humans. J ... Elimination of vaginal colonization with Escherichia coli by administration of indigenous flora. Infect Immun 1989;57:2447-51. ...
Serum steroid levels during 12-week intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone administration. Menopause. 2009;16(5):897-906. ... Intravaginal Use Multiple studies have shown that intravaginal preparations of DHEA improve dyspareunia, vaginal tissue atrophy ... Effect of Intravaginal Prasterone on Sexual Dysfunction in Postmenopausal Women with Vulvovaginal Atrophy. J Sex Med. 2015;12( ... Efficacy of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, symptoms of ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Locoid Lipocream (hydrocortisone butyrate) is not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. ... It is not known whether topical administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce ... A dose at which no treatment related effects on embryofetal toxicity were observed in rabbits after topical administration of ...
Studies in mice have demonstrated a TLR9-, MyD88-dependent protective role of local CpG administration following intravaginal ... Interestingly, an intra-vaginal challenge with HSV-2 also leads to a pDC-dependent IFN-I production, but only locally as the ... through the local administration of TLR7 or 9 agonists, can lead to efficient control of the virus, cure of the disease through ... or the administration of agonistic antibodies to the LILRA4 or CLEC4C receptors which are selectively expressed in pDCs, ...
Abdellah MS, Hussien M, Aboalhassan A. Intravaginal administration of isosorbide mononitrate and misoprostol for cervical ... Ferguson et al showed this method to be comparable to intravaginal misoprostol for cervical priming. [18] Because of the ease ... Note that the US Food and Drug Administration classifies Cytotec as a pregnancy category X drug. The manufacturer has been ... Labor induction with intravaginal misoprostol compared with the dinoprostone vaginal insert: a systematic review and ...
Preparations for intravaginal administration of both miconazole and clotrimazole are now available over-the-counter (OTC { ... Current studies are evaluating weekly intravaginal administration of clotrimazole, as well as oral therapy with itraconazole ... mean peak serum concentrations of metronidazole following intravaginal administration are less than 2% those of standard 500 mg ... The ease of administration of oral agents is an advantage over topical therapies. However, the potential for toxicity ...
... rings are polymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of drugs for intravaginal administration over ... Furthermore, the estradiol molecule may be linked to an alkyl group at C3 position to facilitate the administration. Such ... Therefore, alternative routes of administration that bypass the liver before primary target organs are hit have been developed ...
Administration. Intravaginal Administration. Intravaginal ring. *Insert in upper third of vaginal vault; the ring is to remain ... System absorption occurs with intravaginal administration; consider warnings, precautions, and adverse effects associated with ... Estrogen administration leads to increased thyroid-binding globulin (TBG) levels; women with normal thyroid function can ... Should not be used during lactation; estrogen administration to nursing women has been shown to decrease the quantity and ...
i ,Conclusion,/i,. Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley&# ... i ,Objectives,/i,. To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour ... However, there remains some controversy concerning the dosage, the mode, and interval of administration of misoprostol. ... As shown in Table 2 the induction to delivery interval (mean ± SD) in women induced with intravaginal misoprostol was hours ...
CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are semisolid, white to off-white suppositories for intravaginal administration. Each 2.5 g suppository ... The translation of the Route Code submitted by the firm, indicating route of administration. The complete list of codes and ... the type of dosage form and route of administration to which the label applies, qualitative and quantitative ingredient ...
General disorders and administration site conditions: Fatigue.. Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders: Myalgia, back ... Not indicated for urethral, intravaginal, cervical, rectal, or intra-anal human papilloma viral disease. Pregnancy and ...
Not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. Avoid use on face, axilla, or groin. Do not use on pre-existing skin atrophy. ... Desoximetasone 0.25% Dosage and Administration. Adults and Children Oint: ,10yrs: not established. Apply thin film to affected ...
Intravaginal Administration of Human Type III Collagen-Derived Biomaterial with High Cell-Adhesion Activity to Treat Vaginal ...
... which consists of administration of PG (500 [mu]g cloprostenol) and insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert ... and insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (CIDR) on Day -10, and administration of prostaglandin F2[alpha ... Cows assigned to 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR (n = 769) received administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ... and randomly assigned to receive FTAI at 66 or 72 h after administration of prostaglandin F2[alpha] (PG). Estrus was synchrized ...
Intravaginal. Oral. Topical. clindamycin phosphate injection 6 mg/ml. Cleocin cream 2%. clindamycin capsule 75 mg. Evoclin foam ... Some people can also take clindamycin for uses that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not formally approved. Sometimes ... There are four forms of clindamycin: injectable, intravaginal, oral, and topical.. The following table lists the forms of ...
Patient(s): A 35-year-old primigravid female who developed acute eosinophilic pneumonia after administration of IM P in oil as ... Intervention(s): Corticosteroid therapy; replacement of IM P with intravaginal preparation. Main Outcome Measure(s): Evaluation ... Patient(s): A 35-year-old primigravid female who developed acute eosinophilic pneumonia after administration of IM P in oil as ... Patient(s): A 35-year-old primigravid female who developed acute eosinophilic pneumonia after administration of IM P in oil as ...
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Apply VECTICAL Ointment to affected areas twice daily, morning and evening. Adults:. • The maximum ... Not for ophthalmic, oral or intravaginal use.. Usual dosage: Apply to affected areas twice daily. See package insert for ... This Patient Information has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Revised: 10/2022. ... It is not known whether topical administration of calcitriol could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce ...
In October 2021, the US Food and drug administration (FDA) granted Orphan Drug Designation (ODD) to posoleucel (ViralymM, ... HDAC Inhibitor Route of Administration. HDAC Inhibitor pipeline report provides the therapeutic assessment of the pipeline ... HDAC Inhibitor Drugs under development based on the stage of development, route of administration, target receptor, monotherapy ... Route of Administration by DelveInsight. Back To Homepage Subscribe To RSS Feed ...
Intravaginal. Estrogens for intravaginal administration are available as tablets, creams, and vaginal rings. The tablets [ ... Intravaginal Ring.. Instruct the patient to insert the ring as deeply as possible, and to leave it in place for 3 months, after ... Intravaginal Tablet.. Inform patients that dosing consists of 1 tablet daily for 2 weeks, followed by 1 tablet twice a week ... Intravaginal Cream.. Instruct the patient to apply estrogen cream high into the vagina, usually at bedtime, using the ...
  • Danco Laboratories, New York, New York) and intravaginal misoprostol ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT To assess the effectiveness of intravaginal misoprostol for second trimester uterine evacuation, we studied 70 women with singleton pregnancies complicated by fetal malformation or dead fetuses. (who.int)
  • Administration of misoprostol is an effective clinical method to terminate second trimester, complicated pregnancy. (who.int)
  • RÉSUMÉ Afin d'évaluer l'efficacité du misoprostol intravaginal pour une évacuation utérine au deuxième trimestre, nous avons examiné 70 femmes ayant une grossesse unique compliquée par une malformation ou une mort foetale. (who.int)
  • To compare the efficacy and safety of intravaginal misoprostol with transcervical Foley catheter for labour induction. (hindawi.com)
  • Intravaginal misoprostol is associated with a shorter induction to delivery interval as compared to Foley's catheter and it increases the rate of vaginal delivery in cases of unripe cervix at term. (hindawi.com)
  • The most common methods of labour induction when the status of cervix is unfavourable involve intravaginal use of misoprostol, transcervical insertion of Foley's catheter, and insertion of prostaglandin gel whereas with a ripe cervix oxytocin may be administered intravenously. (hindawi.com)
  • However, there remains some controversy concerning the dosage, the mode, and interval of administration of misoprostol. (hindawi.com)
  • Expectant management of missed spontaneous abortion has variable success rates, but medical therapy with intravaginal misoprostol has an 80 percent success rate. (pdffox.com)
  • Administración terapéutica de una mezcla de ozono por vía subcutánea, intramuscular, intradiscal, intracavitaria (espacios peritoneal y pleural), intravaginal, intrauretral y vesical, así como por medio de la autohemoterapia. (bvsalud.org)
  • CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are semisolid, white to off-white suppositories for intravaginal administration. (hipaaspace.com)
  • Clobetasol Propionate Spray, 0.05% is for topical use only, and not for ophthalmic, oral or intravaginal use. (nih.gov)
  • Most of these treat-ments increase the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) and patient satisfaction scores,with the most convincing evidence for SSRIs and topical creams. (onlinepdfcatalog.com)
  • Not for oral, ophthalmic , or intravaginal use. (rxlist.com)
  • Tomar L. acidophilus por vía oral durante el embarazo, durante la lactancia o dárselo a los recién nacidos no parece prevenir las alergias en los niños. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Locoid Lipocream (hydrocortisone butyrate) is not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. (globalrph.com)
  • In terms of route of administration, therapies designed for delivery via the oral route are expected to capture the majority share of the market. (blavida.com)
  • In sum, weekly administration of long-acting antiretrovirals via a novel oral dosage form is a promising intervention to help control the HIV epidemic worldwide. (nature.com)
  • The efficacy and safety of clindamycin in intravaginal application in children has not been established. (pharmru.com)
  • Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina. (wikipedia.org)
  • however there are ongoing trials regarding optimal dose, dosing regimen, and route of administration. (hindawi.com)
  • General information about the drug product, including the proprietary and established name of the drug, the type of dosage form and route of administration to which the label applies, qualitative and quantitative ingredient information, the pharmacologic or therapeutic class of the drug, and the chemical name and structural formula of the drug. (hipaaspace.com)
  • Las Vegas, Nevada, United States) As per DelveInsight's assessment, globally, HDAC Inhibitor pipeline constitutes 50+ key companies continuously working towards developing 50+ HDAC Inhibitor treatment therapies, analysis of Clinical Trials, Therapies, Mechanism of Action, Route of Administration, and Developments analyzes DelveInsight. (sharemarketnewspaper.com)
  • HDAC Inhibitor pipeline report provides the therapeutic assessment of the pipeline drugs by the Route of Administration. (sharemarketnewspaper.com)
  • Some people can also take clindamycin for uses that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not formally approved. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pharmacokinetics after single intravaginal administration of 100 mg of clindamycin, an average of 4% of the administered dose undergoes systemic absorption. (pharmru.com)
  • It is not known whether clindamycin is released from the mother's milk in intravaginal application, therefore it is necessary to compare the benefits of the drug during breast-feeding and the potential risk to the infant. (pharmru.com)
  • Medicines primarily delivered by intravaginal administration include vaginally administered estrogens and progestogens (a group of hormones including progesterone), and antibacterials and antifungals to treat bacterial vaginosis and yeast infections respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study was primarily aimed to evaluate the effects of vaginal administration of conjugated estrogens tablet on postmenopausal FSD using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cows assigned to 7-day CO-Synch + CIDR (n = 769) received administration of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and insertion of an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (CIDR) on Day -10, and administration of prostaglandin F2[alpha] (PG) coincident with CIDR removal on Day -3. (umsystem.edu)
  • Conclusion(s): Although allergic reactions to IM P-in-oil administration are exceedingly rare, clinicians caring for patients using these products should be aware of potential adverse reactions and subsequent management. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Conclusion: While the use of CPAP and the administration of surfactant clearly show improved survival among very low birth weight babies who are at increased risk of death from RDS, this was not the case for extreme low birth weight babies. (bvsalud.org)
  • the timing of administration mice needed to have intact cellular immunity (5). (cdc.gov)
  • We previously reported a C. abortus (Cab) vaccine comprising recombinant Vibrio cholerae ghosts (rVCG) expressing the conserved and immunogenic N-terminal region of the Cab polymorphic membrane protein D (rVCG-Pmp18.1) protein that protected mice against intravaginal challenge. (cdc.gov)
  • Since overuse of antibiotics is a major factor in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria and about 25 per cent of all antibiotic prescriptions are for UTIs, researchers recommend that antibiotic administration should be used once all non-antibiotic treatment options have been exhausted. (biospectrumindia.com)
  • The most recommended non-antibiotic prevention and treatment options for recurrent UTIs include cranberries, intravaginal probiotics, D-mannose, oestrogen-releasing vaginal ring in postmenopausal women, and immunostimulants, to name a few. (biospectrumindia.com)
  • Pharmacologically, it has the potential advantage to result in effects primarily in the vagina or nearby structures (such as the vaginal portion of cervix) with limited systemic adverse effects compared to other routes of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • General physical symptoms which can result from administration of radiation can include: fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting and frequent voiding, pubic and cephalic hair loss. (sdsm.info)
  • One example is single-tablet regimens, such as Atripla ® , Complera ® , and Stribild ® , although these still require daily pill administration. (nature.com)
  • Intravaginal implants of medroxyprogesterone were used for follicular wave induction, and parenteral equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) were administered for ovarian stimulation. (unesp.br)
  • Thus, the groups treated with a single-douse of 80 mg of FSH or on a fractional administration regimen possibly did not achieve sufficient serum levels for adequate follicular growth. (unesp.br)
  • También tenga en cuenta que el género Lactobacillus se dividió en 25 géneros diferentes en abril de 2020. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Food and Drug Administration. (cdc.gov)
  • In October 2021, the US Food and drug administration (FDA) granted Orphan Drug Designation (ODD) to posoleucel (ViralymM, ALVR105) for the treatment of virus-associated hemorrhagic cystitis (HC). (sharemarketnewspaper.com)
  • GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists, such as liraglutide and exenatide are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). (justia.com)
  • Overdosing When drug overdose intravaginal application is not installed. (pharmru.com)
  • The foamable therapeutic composition of the current invention is suitable for facile administration into the rectum, bladder, the cavity between the uterus and the fallopian tubes, the ovaries and different body areas, which may accept topically-applied products. (lacomunidadfitness.com)
  • To confirm in a placebo-controlled, prospective, double-blind and randomized study the benefits of daily intravaginal DHEA for 12 weeks on sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. (nih.gov)
  • It is a potential means of artificial insemination (referred to as intravaginal insemination or IVI), sometimes used at home without the presence of a professional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not recommended for use concomitantly with other intravaginal means. (pharmru.com)
  • For instance, GLP-1R agonist administration decreased TNFα and IL-6 production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of obese patients with T2D and diabetic mouse adipose tissue. (justia.com)
  • Previous data have shown that intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, prasterone) improved all the domains of sexual function, an effect most likely related to the local formation of androgens from DHEA. (nih.gov)
  • Intravaginal administration in humans has not shown prolonged gestation or other adverse reproductive effects attributable to econazole nitrate therapy. (com.bd)
  • and a worldwide are the first cells infected after intravaginal inoculation (3), retrospective case-control study. (cdc.gov)
  • Concomitant administration of econazole and warfarin has resulted in enhancement of anticoagulation effect. (com.bd)
  • The present data show that all the six domains of the FSFI are improved over placebo (from P = 0.047 to 0.0005), thus confirming the previously observed benefits of intravaginal DHEA on female sexual dysfunction by an action exerted exclusively at the level of the vagina, in the absence of biologically significant changes of serum steroids levels. (nih.gov)
  • In group GCI, the animals received only intravaginal implants. (unesp.br)
  • and in Group G160M they received 4 administrations of 40 mg FSH). (unesp.br)
  • Results showed that intravaginal administration with lactobacillus plantarum P17630 was capable of reducing the re occurrence of VVC compared to controls. (markhincheynaturopathy.com)
  • PRP was tested in vivo , after bovine intrauterine administration, and in vitro on endometrial cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Patient(s): A 35-year-old primigravid female who developed acute eosinophilic pneumonia after administration of IM P in oil as luteal-phase support after IVF. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Disposable applicators supplied with the package with Klindatsinom® designed for proper administration of the cream into the vagina. (pharmru.com)