Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Vaginal Douching: The washing of the VAGINA cavity or surface with a solution. Agents or drugs can be added to the irrigation solution.Vaginal Creams, Foams, and Jellies: Medicated dosage forms for topical application in the vagina. A cream is a semisolid emulsion containing suspended or dissolved medication; a foam is a dispersion of a gas in a medicated liquid resulting in a light, frothy mass; a jelly is a colloidal semisolid mass of a water soluble medicated material, usually translucent.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Contraceptive Devices, Female: Contraceptive devices used by females.Spermatocidal Agents: Chemical substances that are destructive to spermatozoa used as topically administered vaginal contraceptives.Estrus Synchronization: Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Flurogestone Acetate: A synthetic fluorinated steroid that is used as a progestational hormone.Insemination, Artificial: Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Mucous Membrane: An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina characterized by pain and a purulent discharge.Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal: Infection of the VULVA and VAGINA with a fungus of the genus CANDIDA.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Herpes Genitalis: Infection of the genitals (GENITALIA) with HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS in either the males or the females.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Cervix Mucus: A slightly alkaline secretion of the endocervical glands. The consistency and amount are dependent on the physiological hormone changes in the menstrual cycle. It contains the glycoprotein mucin, amino acids, sugar, enzymes, and electrolytes, with a water content up to 90%. The mucus is a useful protection against the ascent of bacteria and sperm into the uterus. (From Dictionary of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 1988)Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Genitalia, Female: The female reproductive organs. The external organs include the VULVA; BARTHOLIN'S GLANDS; and CLITORIS. The internal organs include the VAGINA; UTERUS; OVARY; and FALLOPIAN TUBES.Nonoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Nonoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide, formulated primarily as a component of vaginal foams and creams.Pessaries: Devices worn in the vagina to provide support to displaced uterus or rectum. Pessaries are used in conditions such as UTERINE PROLAPSE; CYSTOCELE; or RECTOCELE.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Premature Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN and seminal fluid during the act of preparation for sexual intercourse, i.e. before there is penetration, or shortly after penetration.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Gels: Colloids with a solid continuous phase and liquid as the dispersed phase; gels may be unstable when, due to temperature or other cause, the solid phase liquefies; the resulting colloid is called a sol.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Misoprostol: A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.Reproductive Tract Infections: Infections of the genital tract in females or males. They can be caused by endogenous, iatrogenic, or sexually transmitted organisms.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Chlamydia muridarum: Species of CHLAMYDIA causing pneumonitis in mice and hamsters. These isolates formerly belonged to CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.Drug Implants: Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Simian immunodeficiency virus: Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.Intrauterine Devices, Medicated: Intrauterine devices that release contraceptive agents.Abortifacient Agents: Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Thymidine Monophosphate: 5-Thymidylic acid. A thymine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the deoxyribose moiety.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Dinoprost: A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.Feminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Melengestrol Acetate: A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.Gonadotropins, Equine: Gonadotropins secreted by the pituitary or the placenta in horses. This term generally refers to the gonadotropins found in the pregnant mare serum, a rich source of equine CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. Unlike that in humans, the equine LUTEINIZING HORMONE, BETA SUBUNIT is identical to the equine choronic gonadotropin, beta. Equine gonadotropins prepared from pregnant mare serum are used in reproductive studies.Mice, Inbred BALB CCervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Follicular Cyst: Cyst due to the occlusion of the duct of a follicle or small gland.Contraceptive Agents, Female: Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.PolyvinylsHerpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with viruses from the genus SIMPLEXVIRUS. This includes vaccines for HSV-1 and HSV-2.Genital Diseases, Female: Pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Clostridium sordellii: A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, found in INTESTINES and SOIL.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Oxytocics: Drugs that stimulate contraction of the myometrium. They are used to induce LABOR, OBSTETRIC at term, to prevent or control postpartum or postabortion hemorrhage, and to assess fetal status in high risk pregnancies. They may also be used alone or with other drugs to induce abortions (ABORTIFACIENTS). Oxytocics used clinically include the neurohypophyseal hormone OXYTOCIN and certain prostaglandins and ergot alkaloids. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p1157)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal: Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Pregnenediones: Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Therapeutic Irrigation: The washing of a body cavity or surface by flowing water or solution for therapy or diagnosis.Luteolysis: Degradation of CORPUS LUTEUM. In the absence of pregnancy and diminishing trophic hormones, the corpus luteum undergoes luteolysis which is characterized by the involution and cessation of its endocrine function.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Thiourea: A photographic fixative used also in the manufacture of resins. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 9th ed). Many of its derivatives are ANTITHYROID AGENTS and/or FREE RADICAL SCAVENGERS.Luteal Phase: The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.Progesterone Congeners: Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Herpesvirus Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection by any virus from the family HERPESVIRIDAE.Trichomonas Vaginitis: Inflammation of the vagina, marked by a purulent discharge. This disease is caused by the protozoan TRICHOMONAS VAGINALIS.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Dideoxynucleotides: The phosphate esters of DIDEOXYNUCLEOSIDES.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Superovulation: Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Medroxyprogesterone Acetate: A synthetic progestin that is derived from 17-hydroxyprogesterone. It is a long-acting contraceptive that is effective both orally or by intramuscular injection and has also been used to treat breast and endometrial neoplasms.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Oviducts: Ducts that serve exclusively for the passage of eggs from the ovaries to the exterior of the body. In non-mammals, they are termed oviducts. In mammals, they are highly specialized and known as FALLOPIAN TUBES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Corpus Luteum: The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.SAIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent SAIDS; (SIMIAN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME); and containing inactivated SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS or type D retroviruses or some of their component antigens.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Ejaculation: The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Progestins: Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.Uterus: The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.Hysterectomy: Excision of the uterus.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Semen: The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Sexual Behavior: Sexual activities of humans.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Mice, Inbred ICRNeisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the THORACIC CAVITY from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity aiding INHALATION.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Prostitution: The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.

Women's interest in vaginal microbicides. (1/486)

CONTEXT: Each year, an estimated 15 million new cases of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV, occur in the United States. Women are not only at a disadvantage because of their biological and social susceptibility, but also because of the methods that are available for prevention. METHODS: A nationally representative sample of 1,000 women aged 18-44 in the continental United States who had had sex with a man in the last 12 months were interviewed by telephone. Analyses identified levels and predictors of women's worry about STDs and interest in vaginal microbicides, as well as their preferences regarding method characteristics. Numbers of potential U.S. microbicide users were estimated. RESULTS: An estimated 21.3 million U.S. women have some potential current interest in using a microbicidal product. Depending upon product specifications and cost, as many as 6.0 million women who are worried about getting an STD would be very interested in current use of a microbicide. These women are most likely to be unmarried and not cohabiting, of low income and less education, and black or Hispanic. They also are more likely to have visited a doctor for STD symptoms or to have reduced their sexual activity because of STDs, to have a partner who had had other partners in the past year, to have no steady partner or to have ever used condoms for STD prevention. CONCLUSIONS: A significant minority of women in the United States are worried about STDs and think they would use vaginal microbicides. The development, testing and marketing of such products should be expedited.  (+info)

Mucosal vaccination strategies for women. (2/486)

Women were immunized orally, rectally, or vaginally with a recombinant cholera toxin B-containing vaccine to determine which of these mucosal immunization routes generate the greatest levels of antibody in the female genital tract and rectum. ELISA was used to measure concentrations of cholera toxin B-specific IgA and IgG antibody in serum and secretions before and after three immunizations. Each immunization route similarly increased specific IgG in serum and specific IgA in saliva. Only the vaginal route increased IgA antibodies in genital tract secretions and could be shown to induce a local IgG response. However, vaginal immunization failed to produce antibody in the rectum. In a similar fashion, rectal immunization elicited highest concentrations of locally derived IgA and IgG antibody in the rectum but was ineffective for generating antibody in the genital tract. The data suggest that local immunization may induce the greatest immune responses in the female genital tract and rectum of humans.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the form of a vaginal tablet. (3/486)

Our study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of natural progesterone administered in the novel formula of an effervescent vaginal tablet. Fifty post-menopausal women, with a median age of 43.5 years (range 28-55), volunteered to participate in the research. All women discontinued their hormonal replacement therapy 1 month prior to the study. The pharmacokinetics of 50 and 100 mg of progesterone administered as a vaginal tablet were evaluated. After the initial administration of 50 mg or 100 mg, a mean serum Cmax of 20.43 +/- 8.01 nmol/l and 31.61 +/- 12.62 nmol/l (P < 0.0004) was reached at a Tmax of 6.1 +/- 2.63 and 6.4 +/- 3.35 h respectively. The terminal half-life was 13.18 +/- 1.3 and 13.7 +/- 1.05 h respectively. Continuous use of the 100-mg tablet resulted in a mean serum progesterone concentration of 26.08 +/- 13.96 nmol/l and 21.42 +/- 16.32 nmol/l after 14 and 30 days respectively. Women >40 years were found to have a significantly lower Tmax compared to younger women (P = 0.02). The continuous use of vaginal progesterone did not influence the hormonal, liver or lipid profiles evaluated. Only three (6%) women suffered from mild vaginal irritation. Natural progesterone given as a vaginal tablet is well tolerated, safe and an easily administered treatment. Even in a non-oestrogenized vagina the absorption was efficient and the 100 mg dosage resulted in adequate serum progesterone concentrations.  (+info)

Estradiol with or without progesterone and ambulatory blood pressure in postmenopausal women. (4/486)

The purpose of this study was to determine whether transdermal estradiol and intravaginal progesterone given in doses to mimic the premenopausal state would lower blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women. Fifteen healthy postmenopausal women were studied in each of 3 conditions: on placebo, after 8 weeks of transdermal estradiol 0.2 mg twice per week, and again 2 weeks after addition of intravaginal progesterone 300 mg/d. Women were studied at each point after 2 days of 100 mmol/d sodium intake. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory BP monitoring was performed, and blood was assayed for estradiol, progesterone, and hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). ANOVA with pairwise comparisons was used for analysis. Urinary sodium excretion was similar at each time point. Levels of estrogen and progesterone similar to those in premenopausal women were achieved. On estradiol, nocturnal systolic BP (110+/-3 mm Hg), diastolic BP (63+/-2 mm Hg), and mean BP (77+/-2 mm Hg) fell significantly (P<0.02) compared with placebo systolic BP (116+/-2 mm Hg), diastolic BP (68+/-2 mm Hg), and mean BP (82+/-2 mm Hg). Daytime BP followed the same trend but was significantly lower only for mean BP. There was no activation of the RAAS. The addition of progesterone resulted in no further fall in BP but a significant activation of the RAAS. Thus, contrary to what is often assumed, administration of estradiol with or without progesterone not only did not raise BP but rather substantially lowered BP. This BP-lowering effect may be responsible for the lower incidence of hypertension in premenopausal than in postmenopausal women.  (+info)

Does an acidic medium enhance the efficacy of vaginal misoprostol for pre-abortion cervical priming? (5/486)

Absorption pharmacokinetics reveal a relationship between plasma concentrations of misoprostol and its therapeutic effect. To achieve a constant plasma profile and optimal efficacy, it is important to develop a medium that ensures complete dissolution of vaginal misoprostol tablets. Vaginal misoprostol is said to liquefy better in an acidic medium; thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether a 200 microg misoprostol tablet dissolved in acetic acid would be more efficacious than 200 microg misoprostol dissolved in water for pre-abortion cervical priming. A total of 120 healthy nulliparous women requesting legal termination of pregnancy between 6-12 weeks gestation were allocated randomly to either of the study groups. Vacuum aspiration was performed 3-4 h after insertion of the misoprostol tablet. Using Hegar's dilator, the degree of cervical dilatation before operation was measured. Of 60 women, 14 (23%) achieved a cervical dilatation of >/=8 mm when the misoprostol dose was dissolved in acetic acid; 12 (20%) achieved a similar cervical dilatation when the dose was dissolved in water. The mean cervical dilatation for the acid and water media used was 6.3 mm and 6.2 mm respectively; these differences were not statistically significant, neither were pre-operative and intra-operative blood losses statistically different between the two groups. Twenty-four (40%) and four (7%) respectively of women in whom a water medium was used experienced vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain; 20 (33%) and 0 women respectively among those in whom an acetic acid medium was used experienced vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain. These differences in side effects were not statistically significant. Our study shows that the use of acetic acid to dissolve vaginal misoprostol does not improve the efficacy in achieving successful cervical dilatation for pre-abortion cervical priming.  (+info)

Persistent dominant follicle alters pattern of oviductal secretory proteins from cows at estrus. (6/486)

The experimental objective was to compare synthesis of oviductal secretory proteins of dairy cows bearing a persistent dominant follicle (PDF) versus a fresh dominant follicle (FDF) at estrus. On Day 7 after synchronized estrus (Day 0), cows received an intravaginal progesterone device and injection of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha). On Day 9, cows received an injection of a GnRH agonist (FDF group; n = 3) or received no injection (PDF group, n = 3). On Day 16, all cows received PGF2alpha, and progesterone devices were removed. At slaughter on Day 18 or Day 19, oviducts ipsilateral and contralateral to the dominant follicle were divided into infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus regions. Explants from oviductal regions were cultured in minimal essential medium supplemented with [3H]leucine for 24 h. Two-dimensional fluorographs of proteins in conditioned media were analyzed by densitometry. Rate of incorporation of [3H]leucine into macromolecules was greater in the infundibulum, ampulla, and isthmus of FDF cows (p < 0.01). Overall, intensities of radiolabeled secretory protein (P) 2 and P13 were greater for FDF than for PDF. In the ampulla, P14 was more intense for FDF while P7 was more intense for PDF. Abundance of P1 in the isthmus was greater for PDF cows. Across regions, P5, P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for PDF than for FDF in the ipsilateral side. In the contralateral side, P19 was more intense for PDF than for FDF, whereas P6, P8, P9, and P11 were more intense for FDF. Differences in biosynthetic activity and in secreted oviductal proteins from cows bearing a PDF may contribute to the decrease in fertility associated with a PDF.  (+info)

Ovulation and estrus characteristics in crossbred Brahman heifers treated with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert in combination with prostaglandin F2alpha and estradiol benzoate. (7/486)

Crossbred Brahman heifers (n = 60) were studied to determine the effect of a 7-d intravaginal progesterone-releasing insert (INSERT) in combination with PG (Lutalyse; 25 mg i.m.) and estradiol benzoate (EB; .5 mg i.m.) on time of ovulation and estrous behavior. In Phase I, heifers at unknown stages of the estrous cycle were assigned by BW and body condition score to one of the three treatments on d 0: 1) INSERT for 7 d and PG on d 7 (CONTROL; n = 10); 2) INSERT for 7 d, PG on d 7, and EB 24 h after INSERT removal (EB24; n = 10); or 3) INSERT for 7 d, PG on d 7, and EB 48 h after INSERT removal (EB48; n = 10). Blood samples were collected every 8 h after INSERT removal. Also, blood sampling and ultrasonography began 8 h after the onset of estrus, determined with HeatWatch devices, and every 4 h thereafter to detect ovulation. In Phase II, Phase-I treatments (n = 10/treatments) were replicated, but only behavioral estrus data were collected to minimize handling of heifers. Frequent handling of heifers did not influence (P > .1) the interval from INSERT removal to the onset of HeatWatch and visual estrus and duration of estrus, so behavioral estrus data were combined for Phases I and II. Interval from INSERT removal to HeatWatch estrus was decreased (P < .05) in EB24 (45.5 h) vs EB48 (55.9 h) and CONTROL (59.2 h). Interval from INSERT removal to ovulation differed (P < .04) between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (93.5, 74.5, and 78.9 h, respectively). Ovulatory follicle size was similar (P > .1) between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (14.4, 12.5, and 14.1 mm, respectively). Duration of estrus was similar for CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (14.0, 15.1, and 17.6 h, respectively). No difference (P > . 1) was observed in number of mounts received between CONTROL, EB24, and EB48 (28.0, 25.7, and 39.4, respectively), but number of mounts received increased in Phase II vs Phase I (40.0 and 22.2, respectively; P < .05). In conclusion, EB hastened the interval from INSERT removal to ovulation without altering duration of estrus or number of mounts received. Frequent handling of heifers did not affect interval to first mount received after INSERT removal or duration of estrus, but it decreased the total number of mounts received.  (+info)

Luteal support with micronized progesterone following in-vitro fertilization using a down-regulation protocol with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist: a comparative study between vaginal and oral administration. (8/486)

This study aimed to compare the efficacy of micronized progesterone administered as luteal support following ovulation induction for in-vitro fertilization (IVF)- embryo transfer in cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist, either orally (200 mgx4/day) or vaginally (100 mgx2/day) and to characterize the luteal phase hormonal profile during such treatments. A total of 64 high responder patients requiring intracytoplasmic sperm injection due to male factor infertility were prospectively randomized into two treatment groups. Patients treated orally or vaginally were comparable in age (31.9 +/- 6.1 versus 30.6 +/- 5.2; mean +/- SD), number of oocytes retrieved (17 +/- 8.2 versus 18 +/- 7.0), and number of embryos transferred (3.1 +/- 1.2 versus 2.7 +/- 0.9) per cycle. Following low dose vaginal treatment, a significantly higher implantation rate (30.7 versus 10.7%, P < 0.01), but similar clinical pregnancy rate (47.0 versus 33.3%) and ongoing pregnancy rate (41.1 versus 20.0%) was observed, compared with oral treatment. In conception cycles, luteal serum progesterone and oestrogen concentrations did not differ between the treatment groups. In non-conception cycles, late luteal progesterone concentrations were significantly lower following vaginal treatment. As low dose micronized progesterone administered vaginally is simple, easy and well tolerated, it could be recommended as the method of choice for luteal support, especially for high responder patients at risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome.  (+info)

Impact of level of researcher support on coital diary results and acceptability among women at high risk of HIV in the microbicides development programme feasibility study in Mwanza, Tanzania ...
A new intravaginal ring enables the long-lasting vaginal delivery of tenofovir (TFV) shows to be effective in HIV prevention, say scientists.
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The Penn Medicine Womens Health Clinical Research Center is a division of the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania. This Center is a non-profit organization designed to assist investigators in conducting high quality patient oriented research in womens health. ...
In the absence of an efficient vaccine, prevention of HIV transmission remains the primary and economically feasible infection prevention method available to da...
While the male condom is effective in preventing sexual transmission of HIV, its use is hampered by deeply rooted cultural and social barriers. About half of all HIV infections worldwide occur in women, yet the only available female-controlled method of HIV prevention is the female condom. Alternative prevention tools, such as vaginal microbicides, are urgently needed to slow the rapid spread of heterosexual HIV infection.. This study will last 24 weeks, with an additional 10 weeks of follow-up for participants with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Participants will be randomly assigned to one of four arms. Arm A participants will insert a vaginal tenofovir 1% gel two hours prior to vaginal intercourse for a maximum of two daily applications. Arm B participants will insert a vaginal placebo gel two hours prior to vaginal intercourse for a maximum of two daily applications. Arm C participants will insert a vaginal tenofovir 1% gel once daily at bedtime or during the longest period of ...
In todays research we investigate the impact of a variety of TLR ligands and chitosan as potential adjuvants for different routes of mucosal immunisation (sublingual (SL), intranasal (IN), intravaginal (IVag) and a parenteral route (subcutaneous (SC)) in the murine model. to antigen by itself SL>IN?=?SC. A genuine variety of adjuvants elevated particular systemic IgA replies where generally IN>SL>SC immunisation, while for mucosal replies IN?=?SL>SC. On the other hand, immediate intravaginal immunisation didnt induce any detectable systemic or mucosal replies to gp140 also in the current presence of adjuvant. Nevertheless, significant systemic IgG replies to TT had been induced by intravaginal immunisation with or without adjuvant, and detectable mucosal responses IgA and IgG had been observed when TT was administered with FSL-1 or Poly IC. Oddly enough some TLRs shown differential activity influenced by the path of administration. MPLA (TLR4) suppressed systemic replies to SL immunisation ...
Introduction Definition of the Prevention Area Microbicides are products formulated for individuals to apply topically (vaginally or rectally) to reduce their risk of HIV and possibly other sexually transmitted infections. At present, this approach is experimental, although several broad-spectrum microbicides have been clinically evaluated. Microbicides comprise a subset of approaches to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP); oral approaches to PrEP are addressed in a separate entry. Epidemiological Justification for the Prevention Area In generalized epidemics, women are at a disproportionate risk of HIV infection for biological as well as social reasons. Although condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission, it can be difficult for women to negotiate safer sex because the male partner often controls whether a condom is used. Microbicides were initially proposed as a woman-controlled or -initiated prevention method for vaginal application, something a woman could use to protect herself. The
Vaginal rings (also known as intravaginal rings , or V-Rings ) are polymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of drugs for intravaginal administration over extended...
Vaginal progesterone in women with an asymptomatic sonographic short cervix in the midtrimester decreases preterm delivery and neonatal morbidity: a systematic
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For prevention of HIV, genital herpes and HPV. VivaGel® is being developed as a vaginal microbicide to offer safer sex by preventing transmission of genital herpes (HSV-2), HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including human papillomavirus (HPV), the causative agent of cervical cancer.. There is an enormous global need for a vaginal microbicide offering protection of this kind. For example:. ...
The authors report the results of evaluation of the effectiveness of extracorporeal fertilization after the transfer of vitrified blastocysts in the natural cycle and with the use of hormone replacement therapy. It was found that the most effective is the protocol, in which the transfer of vitrified blastocysts occurs in a modified natural menstrual cycle with the support of the luteal phase by intravaginal administration of 90 mg of progesterone in the form of a gel for 2 weeks ...
Flow cytometric analysis of TLR expression in rabbit CVE cells after intravaginal administration of placebo, nisin (15.15 mM in 2 mL of 1% polycarbophil gel) SD
More than 28 years since the first cases of HIV/AIDS, there is still no cure or vaccine. The worst affected region is sub-Saharan Africa and, increasingly, it is young women who are bearing the brunt of the epidemic. Consequently, there is an urgent need for HIV prevention options for women in developing countries. Microbicides are topical products that can be used vaginally by women to impede sexual transmission of HIV and thus represent one of the most promising prevention strategies. Efficacy trials with early nonspecific microbicide gels have so far been unsuccessful, but the field has now switched its focus to products containing highly potent and highly specific antiretroviral drugs that are easier to use, and can be formulated in a variety of dosage forms to suit individual and regional preferences. However, these products have their own challenges, with a greater likelihood of absorption, and the potential for systemic toxicities or the development of resistance in infected individuals ...
... Foamix Offers New Intravaginal Foam Technology with Improved Usabili... Compliance ...NESS ZIONA Israel May 13 /- Despite the high incidence...Findings show that the majority of females who have used intravaginal...,72%,of,Women,Are,Dissatisfied,With,Their,Current,Treatment,of,Vaginal,Infection,,Survey,Finds,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Baloglu E., Şenyiğit Ay Z., Karavana S. Y., Vetter A., Metin D. Y., Hilmioğlu Polat S., Güneri T., Bernkop-Schnurch A., In Vitro Evaluation of Mucoadhesive Vaginal Tablets of Antifungal Drugs Prepared with Thiolated Polymer and Development of a New Dissolution Technique for Vaginal Formulations, Chem. Pharm. Bull. 59, 952-958 (2011 ...
My 26 years old wife is 161 cm tall and weighs 56 kg. She has been diagnosed with PCOD. The gynaecologist asked her to take Nacfil 600 twice a day for three months and last month she was prescribed Siphene 50 for ovulation. My wife is pregnant now and her doctor has asked her to take folic acid and progestone 100 by vaginal administration. But I have read that progestone vaginal administration is not advisable for patients having cystic problems. Please tell whether or not is my wife on right treatment ...
Systemic CD4+ T Cell Loss Resulting from Intravaginal HIV-1 Infection in Humanized BLT Mice(A) Comparison of the levels of CD4+ or CD8+ human T cells in the ind
We thank Dimitrios Papoutsis and Angeliki Antonakou and John OBrien for their comments on our OPPTIMUM trial.1 We are somewhat surprised that Papoutsis and Antonakou describe the editorial accompanying OPPTIMUM as expressing "scepticism"-that was not our interpretation.2 However, we agree that further subgroup analyses might be helpful.. ...
Hi I was just put on progesterone inserts as I had a miscarriage a few months ago and have found out I am expecting again... could you please help me in letting me know if this made anyone sick or had awful side effects?
The field of rectal and vaginal microbicides is a new therapeutic area with several candidates in clinical trials and no registered products. Many of these candidates, with the exception of a 1% tenofovir gel evaluated in the recent CAPRISA 004 trial (1), have failed to demonstrate safety or efficacy. Despite these setbacks, the field is still progressing rapidly due to the pressing need for prophylactic technologies and the advantages of vaginal route of delivery for antiretroviral drugs (9, 16). Typically, drugs delivered through the vaginal route encounter an acidic environment with pH ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 (37, 40). However, soon after intercourse, the vaginal pH increases to a neutral pH due to the introduction of semen. The vaginal environment also hosts several Lactobacillus strains that constantly generate lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide, maintaining an acidic pH in the vaginal cavity (37, 40). Therefore, successful development of a vaginal microbicide product requires an active ...
Human Trial of Vaginal Microbicide Gel PRO 2000 Finds Some Level of HIV Protection, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
Use of the intravaginal progesterone insert (CIDR) along with PGF2a effectively synchronizes estrus in dairy heifers. It is expected to be available in 2001; however, approval for use in lactating cows is not being sought at this time. Approval for use is lactating cows is expected to be sought after approval is acquired for its use in heifers. During 2001 there will be procedures to synchronize estrus in dairy heifers: PGF2a, MGA and PGF2a (discussed in another article within this publication), and the concurrent use of CIDRs and PGF2a. Producers should obtain the advantages of AI and reduce the reliance on estrus detection as heifers are an easy to bred female.. ...
HIV/AIDS is a global pandemic that has claimed the lives of 39 million people and currently afflicts 36.9 million more. These effects are disproportionately felt in sub-Saharan Africa which has almost 70% of those current cases and where women account for 59% of current infections. These numbers are even more disproportionate for young women and complications associated with HIV/AIDS are the leading cause of death in women aged 15-44. This creates a need for female-controlled tools to prevent infection. Microbicides are one such tool. Microbicides are vaginally-delivered topical products that combine a therapeutic agent with activity against HIV and a delivery vehicle. The delivery vehicle can consist of many different formulations, depending on the therapeutic agent used and the delivery mechanism desired. Polymer solutions (known as "gels" in the microbicide field) have received the most attention and have been incorporated into the most formulations for use in clinical trial evaluations. ...
Comparison of two intravaginal progesterone releasing devices in lactating dairy cows: blood progesterone profile and field fertility. ...
Thesis, English, Sublingual versus intravaginal misoprostol for treatment of missed abortion a double blind study for Ziena Heba Hamid Morsy
TY - JOUR. T1 - Changing dose of progesterone results in sudden changes in frequency of luteinizing hormone pulses and secretion of 17β-estradiol in bovine females. AU - Bergfeld, E. G.M.. AU - Kojima, F. N.. AU - Cupp, A. S.. AU - Wehrman, M. E.. AU - Peters, K. E.. AU - Mariscal, V.. AU - Sanchez, T.. AU - Kinder, J. E.. PY - 1996/3/1. Y1 - 1996/3/1. N2 - The aim of the present study was to elucidate the time course according to which changes in circulating concentrations of progesterone influence pulsatile secretion of LH and secretion of 17β-estradiol. Our working hypothesis was that changing the dose of progesterone would result in changes in frequency of LH pulses and secretion of 17β-estradiol within 72 h. Five days after behavioral estrus, thirty-three cows were randomly assigned to one of five groups: 1) control, no treatment (CONT, n = 5); 2) treatment with two progesterone-releasing intravaginal devices (PRIDs) for 11 days (2PRID, 5-6 ng/ml plasma progesterone, n = 7); 3) treatment ...
The MHRP applauds results announced today that the Center for the AIDS Program of Research in South Africa (CAPRISA) 004 trial showed that a vaginal microbicide gel could safely and effectively reduce the risk of heterosexual transmission of HIV from men to vulnerable women. The microbicide containing 1% tenofovir-an antiretroviral drug widely used in the treatment of HIV-was
Le misoprostol est plus efficace que la sonde de Foley pour déclencher le travail sur un col non favorable. Le fait que cela augmente lincidence des hypertonies ne semble pas affecter les auteurs.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacokinetic study to compare the absorption and tolerability of two doses of levonorgestrel following single vaginal administration of levonorgestrel in Carraguard® gel. T2 - a new formulation for "dual protection" contraception. AU - Sitruk-Ware, Regine. AU - Brache, Vivian. AU - Maguire, Robin. AU - Croxatto, Horacio. AU - Kumar, Narender. AU - Kumar, Sushma. AU - Montero, Juan Carlos. AU - Salvatierra, Ana Maria. AU - Phillips, David. AU - Faundes, Anibal. PY - 2007/6/1. Y1 - 2007/6/1. N2 - Objective: The study was conducted to assess levonorgestrel (LNG) serum levels achieved after a single administration of two different doses of Carraguard vaginal gel containing LNG (CARRA/LNG), designed for use as microbicide and contraceptive for potential dual protection. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized double-blind pharmacokinetic study conducted in 12 subjects enrolled at two centers. Each subject received a single vaginal administration of CARRA/LNG containing either ...
Approximately 40% of HIV-1 infections occur in the female genital tract (FGT), primarily through heterosexual transmission. FGT factors determining outcome of HIV-1 exposure are incompletely understood, limiting prevention strategies. Here, humanized NOD-Rag1(-/-) γc(-/-) mice differentially reconstituted with human CD34+ -enriched hematopoietic stem cells (Hu-mice), were used to assess target cell frequency and viral inoculation dose as determinants of HIV-1 infection following intravaginal (IVAG) challenge. Results revealed a significant correlation between HIV-1 susceptibility and hCD45+ target cells in the blood, which correlated with presence of target cells in the FGT, in the absence of local inflammation. HIV-1 plasma load was associated with viral dose at inoculation and frequency of target cells. Events following IVAG HIV-1 infection; viral dissemination and CD4 depletion, were not affected by these parameters. Following IVAG inoculation, HIV-1 titres peaked, then declined in vaginal ...
Abstract Intravaginal drug delivery can elicit a local effect, or deliver drugs systemically without hepatic first pass metabolism. There are a number of emerging areas in intravaginal drug delivery, but the vagina is a challenging route of administration, due to the clearance mechanisms present which result in poor retention of dosage forms, and the potential for irritation and other adverse reactions. Gel formulations are desirable due to the ease of application, spreading and that they cause little to no discomfort to the patient. However, these dosage forms, in particular, are poorly retained and traditional gels typically have little control over drug release rates. This has led to a large number of studies on improving the retention of vaginal gels and modulating the controlled release of drugs from the gel matrix. This review outlines the anatomy and physiology of the vagina, focussing on areas relevant to drug delivery. Medical applications of vaginally administered medicines is then ...
An experimental vaginal microbicide applied daily protected female monkeys against simian HIV (SHIV) infection, even hours after application, according to ...
Dapivirine, also known as TMC120, is a non-nucleoside inhibitor for HIV reverse transcriptase with IC50 of 24 nM. The HIV-1 replication inhibitor dapivirine (DPV) is one of the most promising drug candidates being used in topical microbicide products for prevention of HIV-1 sexual transmission. [last updated: 10/9/2015)
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0119] Not being bound by any particular theory, the process of the present invention can be optimized based on the plastic and elastic properties of the mixture. The plastic and elastic properties of the mixture are substantially inversely related to one another. Thus, as the plasticity of a mixture increases, its elasticity decreases. During compression, the plasticity of the substantially homogeneous mixture permits the mixture to retain the shape that is formed by compressing the mixture. Generally, the plasticity of a mixture increases as the temperature of the mixture is increased, and in particular, the plasticity can increase rapidly above the Tg of a mixture. Thus, one of ordinary skill in the art of compression would expect that a more efficient compression process would occur at a temperature above the Tg of a plastic mixture. However, the process of the present invention compresses a mixture at a temperature below the Tg of the mixture. While controlling the temperature in this manner ...
We have recently reported that the intravaginal instillation of synthetic Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) or TLR9 agonists after a subcutaneous vaccination against human papillomavirus E7 highly increases (~5-fold) the number of vaccine-specific CD8+ T cells in the genital mucosa of Dabigatran mice without affecting E7-specific systemic responses. via bacterial components including lipopolysaccharide (LPS a TLR4 agonist) 5 flagellin (a TLR5 agonist)6 and/or bacterial DNA (TLR9 agonist) not only when delivered orally (their normal route of infection) but also when administered in vagina.7 In addition attenuated can be easily engineered to deliver heterologous antigens8 9 and is used as a vaccine (strain Ty21a 10 Vivotif?) against typhoid fever by the oral route since decades with an excellent safety record.11 Here we have investigated whether attenuated serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains would act as an IVAG immunostimulant after E7 vaccination in mice. Result and Discussion Intravaginal ...
To many scientists, it may seem that HIV prevention research has succeeded - large clinical trials of oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and vaginal formulations of antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) demonstrated that these products can indeed prevent HIV infection when used [1-3]. This is great news! But the problem we face as a global HIV prevention community is not whether or not we have efficacious products. The problem is whether or not the products will appropriately meet womens needs and lifestyles and thus whether or not women will use them. Adherence to product use is quite possibly the biggest issue blocking the eradication of sexual HIV transmission [4].
1 Answer (question resolved) - Posted in: estrace, estrace vaginal cream - Answer: No. Estrace is the only approved form of estradiol vaginal cream ...
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This invention is directed to a method and device for treating a female patients uterine disorder by occluding one or both of the patients uterine artery. The treatment embodying features of the invention basically involves occluding one or both of the patients uterine arteries with an intravaginal device to form a thrombus within the occluded artery or arteries and administering an agent which will prolong the occlusion of the artery or arteries after removal of the occluding device or initiate or accelerate fibroid cell apoptosis (programmed cell death). The intravaginal device has a pair of pivotally connected occluding members, with at least one of the occluding member having a movable occluding element on a distal shaft section of the occluding member.
Flucos 0.5 % Gel is an anti-fungal drug. It is used to prevent and treat infections caused by fungi and yeasts. It acts by stopping the growth and multiplication of these organisms.Know Flucos 0.5 % Gel uses, side-effects, composition, substitutes, drug interactions, precautions, dosage, warnings only on | Practo
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The Global Campaign for Microbicides advocates worldwide for user-controlled HIV and STD prevention tools; microbicides, female condoms and cervical barriers. We work to promote their development, assure access and protect users needs and interests.
<p>Scientists who developed tenofovir, the vaginal gel that could transform AIDS protection for women, are struggling to fund the final trials.</p>
Women who fail to respond to such measures and who request further, non-surgical treatment can be considered for a variety of intravaginal or intraurethral devices. The Conveen Continence Guard(TM) (Coloplast Ltd) is an example of an intravaginal device (see Figure 1). The shape of the device is such that, when it is placed in the vagina, it supports the bladder neck and thus prevents or reduces leaking during physical activity. It is inserted into the vagina with the use of an applicator (see Figure 2) and can be used for up to 16 hours per day.. [[NIP02_fig1_84]]. [[NIP02_fig2_84]]. There is no pharmacological agent currently available that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of patients with genuine stress incontinence. However, randomised placebo-controlled trails are in progress that aim to assess the efficacy of an alpha-adrenergic agonist as well as a 5-HT reuptake inhibitor for the treatment of such patients ...
An experimental vaginal gel has yielded promising results in preventing HIV infection in women, according to clinical trials conducted in Africa and the United States, the US National
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Intravaginal administration is preferred to taking them by mouth. Prolonged repetitive courses of treatment appear to be more ... VandeVusse, L; Hanson, L; Safdar, N (2013). "Perinatal outcomes of prenatal probiotic and prebiotic administration: an ...
Rigg LA, Milanes B, Villanueva B, Yen SS (1977). "Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized ... This route of administration is thus preferred in women with a history of thrombo-embolic disease. Estrogen is also used in the ... However, such risks have been found to vary depending on the type of estrogen or progestogen and the route of administration. ... It was only until 1941 when estrogen therapy was finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment ...
... is a form of estrogen that is delivered by intravaginal administration. Vaginally administered estrogens are ...
They also allow administration of a natural form of hormone, as opposed to the potent analogues used in sponges. A dose of 550 ... Previously, intravaginal progestogen sponges were a common method of estrus manipulation in ewes. The development and success ... Unlike intravaginal progestogen sponges, CIDRs do not absorb or impede drainage of natural vaginal secretions, offering a ... CIDRs are similar to the progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID), also used for synchronization of estrous cycles in ...
"Effects of vardenafil administration on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in men with lifelong premature ejaculation". ... On 18 October 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that a warning about possible deafness (sudden ... Food and Drug Administration. 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2009-08-06. Kloner, Robert A. (2005-12-26). "Pharmacology and drug ...
Advantages of intravaginal progesterone over oral administration include high bioavailability, rapid absorption, avoidance of ... In contrast to oral administration, parenteral progesterone, such as with vaginal administration, avoids the first-pass effect ... Administration of as much as 1,000 mg progesterone via intramuscular injection in humans was uneventful in terms of toxicity, ... Progesterone for vaginal administration is available in the form of a gel or insert (suppository). With vaginal and rectal ...
Intravaginal preparations of fenticonazole may damage latex contraceptives and additional contraceptive measures are therefore ... necessary during local administration. The Merck Index, 12th Edition. 4047. ...
A recent meta-analysis showed that the intravaginal route with an appropriate dose and dosing frequency is equivalent to daily ... A duration of progesterone administration of 11 days results in almost the same birth rates as longer durations. Patients are ... While daily intramuscular injections of progesterone-in-oil (PIO) have been the standard route of administration, PIO ... beneficial to administer an additional drug that suppresses hormone production by the ovaries such as continuous administration ...
Intravaginal, endocervical or extra-amniotic administration of prostaglandin, such as dinoprostone or misoprostol. ... Intravenous administration of synthetic oxytocin preparations. A high dose does not seem to have greater benefits than a ...
For vaginal delivery in pharmacology, see Intravaginal administration.. Sequence of images showing the stages of a normal ...
... are polymeric drug delivery devices designed to provide controlled release of drugs for intravaginal administration over ... Vaginal rings (also known as intravaginal rings, or V-Rings) ...
Formulations for intramuscular administrations Vaginal tablets or other inserts for intravaginal administration, such as ... A Cochrane review in 2011 found no evidence favoring a specific route of administration, dosage or duration of progesterone for ... Luteal support is the administration of medication, generally progesterone, progestins or GnRH agonists, to increase the ... but the evidence suggested the route of progesterone administration did not matter. ...
Estrogen - intravaginal administration helps to prevent pelvic muscle atrophy The surgery to repair the anterior vaginal wall ...
... is most commonly used for spinal anesthesia and chemotherapy Intrauterine intravaginal administration, in the vagina ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes nasal administration (through the nose) can be used ... Parenteral administration generally acts more rapidly than topical or enteral administration, with onset of action often ...
... prostaglandin E2 Intravaginal or oral administration of misoprostol Cervical insertion of a 30-mL Foley catheter Rupturing the ...
... is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina. Pharmacologically, ... Drugs primarily delivered by intravaginal administration include vaginally administered estrogens and progestogens (a group of ... It is a potential means of artificial insemination (referred to as intravaginal insemination or IVI), sometimes used at home ... Woolfson, A. David; Malcolm, R. Karl; Gallagher, Rory (2000-01-01). "Drug Delivery by the Intravaginal Route". Critical Reviews ...
July 2009). "Effects of vardenafil administration on intravaginal ejaculatory latency time in men with lifelong premature ... "Food and Drug Administration. 2007-10-18. Retrieved 2009-08-06.. *^ Kloner, Robert A. (2005-12-26). "Pharmacology and drug ... "United States Food and Drug Administration.. *^ Tucker, Jenna; Fischer, Tessa; Upjohn, Laurence; Mazzera, David; Kumar, Madhur ... On 18 October 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that a warning about possible deafness (sudden ...
In 2011, Davis voted against a bill to require physicians to conduct intra-vaginal sonograms, prior to even pharmaceutically ... In 2013, she voted against a bill that increases abortion facility requirements, regulates the administration of abortion ...
... 60 mg significantly improves the mean intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) compared to that of dapoxetine 30 ... Johnson in 2003 and submitted as a New Drug Application to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of PE in ...
Food and Drug Administration: Parts 500-599, Revised April 1, 2012. Government Printing Office. pp. 359-. ISBN 978-0-16-090718- ... is a steroidal progestin of the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone group which is used in veterinary medicine as an intravaginal sponge ...
intravaginal administration, in the vagina. *intravenous (into a vein), e.g. many drugs, total parenteral nutrition ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes. *nasal administration (through the nose) can be ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ' ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ...
Kishi A, Uno K, Matsubara Y, Okuda C, Kishida T (August 1996). "Effect of the oral administration of Lactobacillus brevis subsp ... Raz, R., & Stamm, W. E. (1993). A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract ...
In particular, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was found to increase with 6-13-fold, which was somewhat longer ... On June 28, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved low-dose paroxetine for the treatment of moderate-to-severe ... Paroxetine is well-absorbed following oral administration.[61] It has an absolute bioavailability of about 50%, with evidence ... Plasma, serum, or blood concentrations of paroxetine may be measured to monitor therapeutic administration, confirm a diagnosis ...
Food and Drug Administration (2011). Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations - FDA Orange Book 31st ... In particular, intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) was found to increase with 6-13-fold, which was somewhat longer ... Food and Drug Administration (2011). Approved Drug Products with Therapeutic Equivalence Evaluations - FDA Orange Book 31st ... On June 28, 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved low-dose paroxetine for the treatment of moderate-to-severe ...
Kusiak V (2013-02-13). "NDA Approval" (PDF). U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Unkila M, Kari S, Yatkin E, Lammintausta R ( ... and ospemifene administered as an intravaginal suppository. Estradiol was used as a positive control and raloxifene was used ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2013-02-26. "Ospemifene: Indications, Side Effects, Warnings". Drugs.com. EP application ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Bachmann GA, Komi JO (2010). "Ospemifene effectively treats vulvovaginal atrophy in ...
for buccal administration when solution for oromucosal administration is not available *^ The presence of both 25 mg/5 mL and ... Intravaginal contraceptives[edit]. *Progesterone vaginal ring[note 85]. Ovulation inducers[edit]. *Clomifeneα ... cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are preferred for oral administration due to better bioavailability. ...
Intravaginal administration is a route of administration where the substance is applied inside the vagina. Pharmacologically, ... Drugs primarily delivered by intravaginal administration include vaginally administered estrogens and progestogens (a group of ... It is a potential means of artificial insemination (referred to as intravaginal insemination or IVI), sometimes used at home ... Woolfson, A. David; Malcolm, R. Karl; Gallagher, Rory (2000-01-01). "Drug Delivery by the Intravaginal Route". Critical Reviews ...
... prospective randomized study was conducted to evaluate the use of adding oestradiol valerate 6 mg per os daily to intravaginal ... Administration, Intravaginal. Biopsy. Buserelin / therapeutic use*. Clinical Protocols. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives*, ... A prospective randomized study on oestradiol valerate supplementation in addition to intravaginal micronized progesterone in ... whether or not oestradiol valerate was added to intravaginal progesterone. Eighteen out of twenty-two endometrial biopsies were ...
Group 2: Intravaginal Placebo Gel. 4mL placebo gel (K-Y Jelly) for vaginal self-administration ... Intravaginal insertion of 4ml of placebo gel (K-Y Jelly) Participant Flow: Overall Study Group 1: Intravaginal 2% Lidocaine Gel ... Group 1: Intravaginal 2% Lidocaine Gel. 4mL of 2% lidocaine gel for vaginal self-administration ... Group 1: Intravaginal 2% Lidocaine Gel Group 2: Intravaginal Placebo Gel Total ...
Although not addressed specifically in this paper, it is a further assumption that the phagocyte depletion after intravaginal ... 1 prior to intravaginal challenge by HSV-2 on day 0. ~80% of the macrophages and dendritic cells were depleted from the vagina ... could be depleted by direct intravaginal instillation of clodronate liposomes. ...
Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Prevents Intravaginal HIV-1 Transmission in Humanized BLT Mice(A) Kaplan-Meier plot of the time course ... Adenine/administration & dosage/analogs & derivatives*/therapeutic use. *Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage/therapeutic ... Adenine/administration & dosage/analogs & derivatives*/therapeutic use. *Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage/therapeutic ... pmed-0050016-g002: Pre-exposure Prophylaxis Prevents Intravaginal HIV-1 Transmission in Humanized BLT Mice(A) Kaplan-Meier plot ...
This invention relates to biphasic lipid-vesicle compositions and methods for treating cervical displasia by intravaginal ... by intravaginal administration, particularly in the treatment of cervical dysplasia. [0025] A preferred method of preparing a ... Pharmaceutical compositions for parenteral or local administration US6193997B1 (en) 2001-02-27. Proteinic drug delivery system ... Composition for transdermal and dermal administration of interferon-α WO1997030695A1 (en) 1997-08-28. Drug delivery ...
After drugs administration, cervical canal will be again evaluated with above mentioned way by bougie before hysteroscopy, ... Intravaginal Misoprostol Versus Dinoprostone Before Diagnostik Hysteroscopy. The safety and scientific validity of this study ... After drugs administration, cervical canal will be again evaluated with above mentioned way by bougie before hysteroscopy ... Comparison of intravaginal misoprostol and dinoprostol for the purpose of cervical ripening before diagnostic hysteroscopy in ...
The composition is administered by topical or local administration to the uterus or vaginal tissues of a women in need thereof ... Intravaginal Administration. A composition of this invention, such as the formulations of Example 1, may be delivered via a ... The method of administration is therefore significantly more selective than oral administration and, as a result, smaller ... Administration of Composition for Reducing or Alleviating Menstrual Pain. The following example illustrates the administration ...
A process for making a multicomponent microbicidal contraceptive intravaginal ringed-mesh device that includes forming a ... Pharmaceutical dosage form for ocular administration and preparation process Deysine 1998. Pathophysiology, prevention, and ... Platinum-catalyzed intravaginal rings JP6139408B2 (en) 2010-11-12. 2017-05-31. ザ ユニバーシティ オブ ユタ リサーチ ファウンデーション. Intravaginal ... A multicomponent contraceptive intravaginal ringed-mesh device was prepared as in Example 1. To prepare an intravaginal ringed- ...
Intravaginal administration is preferred to taking them by mouth. Prolonged repetitive courses of treatment appear to be more ... VandeVusse, L; Hanson, L; Safdar, N (2013). "Perinatal outcomes of prenatal probiotic and prebiotic administration: an ...
Daily intravaginal DHEA suppositories give relief to postmenopausal women for whom sex is painful, but who cannot or do not ... In an earlier interview with Reuters Health, Dr Labrie said he expects approval by the US Food and Drug Administration this ... Cite this: Intravaginal DHEA Eases Postmenopausal Vaginal Dryness, Pain - Medscape - Jan 06, 2016. ... Nonhormonal creams and lubricants are also alternatives to intravaginal estrogen and can temporarily ease pain with sex, but ...
For vaginal delivery in pharmacology, see Intravaginal administration.. Sequence of images showing the stages of a normal ...
c) Intravaginal administration Five female Fischer 344 rats received a single dose of 0.5 mg of 14C-labelled polyvinyl alcohol ... Two groups of 50 female B6C3F1 mice received 20 l of a 25% aqueous solution of polyvinyl alcohol by intravaginal administration ... The Committee also noted a report that more polyvinyl alcohol was absorbed after intravaginal than oral administration, and ... polyvinyl alcohol by intravaginal administration, 5 days per week for 104 105 weeks. A second control group of 100 animals were ...
Metronidazole: pseudomembranous colitis following intravaginal administration. J Medicina Clinica. 1987; 88:652. ... Metronidazole Hydrochloride Dosage and Administration. Administration. Administer orally152 197 430 or by continuous or ... Efficacy of intravaginal 0.75% metronidazole gel for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis. Obstet Gynecol. 1993; 81:963-7. http ... Oral Administration. Administer extended-release tablets at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.430 ...
Administration, Intravaginal. Adolescent. Adult. Arteries / physiology*, ultrasonography. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. ... Misoprostol / administration & dosage*, adverse effects. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Pulsatile Flow / drug effects. ... Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal / administration & dosage*, adverse effects. Abortion, Induced. Abortion, Missed. ... RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: All Doppler indices increased significantly after misoprostol administration (p , 0.0001), suggesting ...
Intravaginal Device The Food and Drug Administration has given the go-ahead to a new device to control female urinary ...
Administration. For topical use only; not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. Prior to use, prime pump several times ... Appropriate use: For topical use only; not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use; avoid contact with eyes and lips. Do not ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Apply a thin layer to the affected areas two times daily and rub in gently. Discontinue use when ... Not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use.. HOW SUPPLIED. Dosage Forms And Strengths. Gel, 0.05%; (0.5mg/g) desonide in a ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... It is not known whether topical administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce ...
Intravaginal administration of lactobacilli has been found to reduce the number of coliform bacteria in the periurethral area ... A controlled trial of intravaginal estriol in postmenopausal women with recurrent urinary tract infections. N Engl J Med 1993; ... Fecal recovery following oral administration of Lactobacillus strain GG (ATCC 53103) in gelatine capsules to healthy volunteers ...
Intravaginal administration of drugs requires the development of formulations suited to the area and adherence to the treatment ... patient preference for the route of administration and consequent adherence to treatment, presence of pregnancy and the ...
The foams may be used for oral, cutaneous or intravaginal administration. The surfactants may be ionic or preferably nonionic. ... The dispensed foam is suitable for self-administration of the anti-plaque formulation. ...
optimise standard operating procedures of needle-free method of intravaginal mucosal administration of vaccines,. • advance ... The results from this study showed that biodistribution of the plasmid is restricted to the site of administration and that ... understand skin and mucosal mode of administration for the development of new needle-free vaccination strategies against HIV in ... CUTHIVAC-001 is using a HIV multi-clade DNA-GTU® strategy applied or injected by differential routes of administration ...
... is intended for intravaginal administration only. Applicators should be opened just prior to administration to prevent ... These effects did not occur following intravaginal administration of approximately 10 mg/kg/day in a 2% cream. There was no ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. VAGISTAT-1 (tioconazole) has been found to be effective as a single- dose treatment for vulvovaginal ... Administration of VAGISTAT-1 (tioconazole) just prior to bedtime may be preferred. The VAGISTAT-1 (tioconazole) ointment base ...
Administration, Intravaginal; Antigens, Bacterial /therapeutic use; Bacterial Vaccines /administration & Chemoprevention / ...
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS 4.1 Hypersensitivity 4.2 Colitis/Enteritis 5 ... Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel, 1.2%/5% is not for oral, ophthalmic, or intravaginal use. ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Apply a thin layer of Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel, 1.2%/5% to the face once ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION •. Apply a thin layer of Clindamycin Phosphate and Benzoyl Peroxide Gel, 1.2%/5% to the face once ...
  • Both parties will leverage each other's drug development and manufacturing strengths: Particle Sciences has a proven track record and extensive expertise in the development and manufacturing of intravaginal ring devices and complex formulations, while Encube Ethicals has strong capabilities in developing complex topical and transdermal delivery systems, with two decades of experience in commercial manufacturing of Topical products for a variety of markets, including women's health for multiple countries. (scientistlive.com)
  • Intravaginal administration of drugs requires the development of formulations suited to the area and adherence to the treatment can be increased if mucoadhesive formulations are obtained which avoid discomfort and provide adequate release of the active compounds. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We are working with major pharma companies to co-develop and market new intravaginal and dermal foam formulations," says Dr. Dov Tamarkin, CEO of Foamix Ltd. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Natural progesterone is obtained primarily from plant sources and is currently available in injectable, intravaginal and oral formulations. (aafp.org)
  • This new method of self-administration, either with fingers or with an applicator, could help solve several problems inherent with other antiretroviral formulations. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
  • Past research using the menopause-specific quality of life (MENQUOL) and abbreviated sexual function (ASF) questionnaires showed that intravaginal prasterone could improve different domains of female sexual function. (issm.info)
  • This invention relates to biphasic lipid-vesicle compositions and methods for treating cervical displasia by intravaginal delivery. (google.com)
  • After drugs administration, cervical canal will be again evaluated with above mentioned way by bougie before hysteroscopy, patients whose cervixes were easily passed via 5.5 no-hegar bougie, haven't cervical dislocation requirement and then directly hysteroscopy will be applied to them. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • A lot of evidences have highlighted the importance of prostaglandins for initiation and normal progress of labor (7) as well as to induce cervical ripening and stimulate uterine contractions at a variety of doses and routes of administration i.e. orally or vaginally (8, 9). (bioline.org.br)
  • The case of acute hemoperitoneum after intravaginal administration of PGE 2 for cervical ripening has been rarely reported. (hindawi.com)
  • Such ring system can be used for the intravaginal, intraperitoneal, and subcutaneous delivery of at least one bioactive agent, including those used as contraceptives. (google.com)
  • Animal studies involving rats revealed embryofetal toxicities (embryofetal deaths, decreased live fetuses, placental effects) following subcutaneous administration of doses 559-times the maximum recommended human dose. (pdr.net)
  • Pharmacologically, it has the potential advantage to result in effects primarily in the vagina or nearby structures (such as the vaginal portion of cervix) with limited systemic adverse effects compared to other routes of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of GSK744 LA as PrEP against repeat high-dose intravaginal SHIV challenge in female rhesus macaques treated with Depo-Provera (depot medroxyprogesterone acetate), which promotes viral transmission vaginally. (sciencemag.org)
  • We show that the female reproductive tract of humanized bone marrow-liver-thymus (BLT) mice is reconstituted with human CD4+ T and other relevant human cells, rendering these humanized mice susceptible to intravaginal infection by HIV-1. (nih.gov)
  • The fact that humanized BLT mice are susceptible to intravaginal infection makes this system an excellent candidate for preclinical evaluation of both microbicides and pre-exposure prophylactic regimens. (nih.gov)
  • In (D), note that in seven of eight tested BLT mice, a single exposure to HIV-1 led to intravaginal transmission and an initial drop, with subsequent stabilization, in the levels of peripheral blood CD4+ human T cells. (nih.gov)
  • Intravaginal administration of SAF could lead to infertility in Balb/c mice. (hindawi.com)
  • the timing of administration mice needed to have intact cellular immunity (5). (cdc.gov)
  • Female B6C3F 1 mice received polyvinyl alcohol (approximately 99% pure) in deionized water by intravaginal administration for 30 days or 2 years. (nih.gov)
  • Three groups of 50 female B6C3F 1 mice were used in this intravaginal study. (nih.gov)
  • Three groups of 100 female B6C3F 1 mice were used in this intravaginal study: an untreated control group, a vehicle control group receiving 20 µL deionized water vehicle only, and a dosed group receiving 20 µL 25% polyvinyl alcohol in deionized water. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, intravaginal pretreatment of mice with a gel formulation containing SLS, completely protected animals against Herpes simplex virus type-2 infection. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 wherein (S)-desethyloxybutynin is administered by inhalation or by parenteral, transdermal, rectal or oral administration. (google.com.au)
  • The only oral azole agent approved for this indication by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is fluconazole, which also achieves a high cure rate. (medscape.com)
  • Compositions for oral administration of zoledronic acid or related compounds for treating complex regional pain. (patents.com)
  • No. 637,363 describes paper films coated with pharmaceutically active medicinal compounds suitable for oral administration. (google.ca)
  • 88 women were selected for the study where 44 were randomised in the oral group (group A) and the remaining in the intravaginal group B. All of the women were recruited at Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, a 1300 bedded tertiary referral center with an average annual delivery rate of 2500. (bioline.org.br)
  • Acute and residual interactive effects of repeated administrations of oral methamphetamine and alcohol in humans. (medscape.com)
  • 2.4 First aid measures and management principles In case of oral overdosage the common measures to limit the absorption of the drug from gastrointestinal tract, such as emesis, gastric lavage or administration of activated charcoal, should be performed, if patient seen early after ingestion. (intox.org)
  • Hiroi M, Stanczyk FZ, Goebelsmann U, Brenner PF, Lumkin ME, Mishell DR, Jr. Radioimmunoassay of serum medroxyprogesterone acetate (Provera) in women following oral and intravaginal administration. (springer.com)
  • We show that these properties can be exploited to both protect and adjuvant vaccine antigens for oral administration. (nature.com)
  • The partnership will focus on rings for the administration of existing approved drugs, improving drug effectiveness and patient compliance. (scientistlive.com)
  • The project is Particle Sciences' latest in the complex generics space using the 505(b)(2) US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulatory pathway to develop new drugs that better meet the requirements of patients and physicians. (scientistlive.com)
  • Foamix is currently collaborating with 10 pharmaceutical companies on 11 projects in the development of proprietary dermal and intravaginal drugs, and has its own in-house pipeline of dermatological and gynecological drugs in foam presentation. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Maternal treatment can often result in the fetus being unnecessarily treated and conversely, attempts to treat the fetus in utero by maternal administration of drugs can vary greatly depending on the placental transfer of the chosen compound ( Pacifici, 2006 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Intravaginal drug delivery is particularly appropriate for drugs associated with women's health issues but may also have applications in general drug delivery within the female population. (begellhouse.com)
  • In an earlier interview with Reuters Health, Dr Labrie said he expects approval by the US Food and Drug Administration this year. (medscape.com)
  • The Food and Drug Administration has given the go-ahead to a new device to control female urinary incontinence. (kcbd.com)
  • On July 16, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Ruconest, the first recombinant C1-Esterase Inhibitor product for the treatment of acute attacks in adult and adolescent patients with hereditary angioedema. (americannursetoday.com)
  • On June 13, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) a new use for Lymphoseek (technetium 99m tilmanocept) Injection, a radioactive diagnostic imaging agent used to help determine the extent that squamous cell carcinoma has spread in the body's head and neck region. (americannursetoday.com)
  • On March 19, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Impavido (miltefosine) to treat a tropical disease called leishmaniasis. (americannursetoday.com)
  • On Nov. 6, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Xeljanz (tofacitinib) to treat adults with moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis who have had an inadequate response to, or who are intolerant of, methotrexate. (americannursetoday.com)
  • Treatment should not exceed 4 consecutive weeks [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION ]. (rxlist.com)
  • 14. The pharmaceutical unit dosage form of claim 10 wherein said table or capsule is formulated for controlled release upon administration. (google.com.au)
  • Pharmaceutical composition unit dosage forms adapted for enteral or topical administration are described, comprising a safe and effective amount of a pharmaceutically active medicament compound dissolved or uniformly dispersed in a flexible, water-soluble film carrier therefor. (google.ca)
  • This invention relates to pharmaceutical compositions in unit dosage form comprising a pharmaceutically active medicament compound and a flexible, water-soluble film carrier therefor adapted for enteral or topical administration. (google.ca)
  • Clinical trials will be implemented with last cutting-edge generation of HIV DNA-GTU® candidate applied by transcutaneous, intradermal routes and/or mucosal administration of HIV-envelop protein-based vaccine. (europa.eu)
  • Under the partnership the two companies will develop innovative intravaginal rings with the intent to out-license to biopharmaceutical marketing partners. (scientistlive.com)
  • MEDFORD, Mass. , Jan. 14, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- INVO Bioscience, Inc. (OTCQB: IVOB), developers of the INVOcell intravaginal culture (IVC) system, and Ferring Pharmaceuticals, a specialty biopharmaceutical group committed to helping people around the world build families and live better lives, announced today the closing of the previously announced exclusive U.S. commercialization rights agreement for INVOcell. (prnewswire.com)
  • A WHO III multicentered trial comparing the use, effectiveness, side effects and bleeding patterns of Depo-Provera and norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) was terminated after only 1 year because of excessively high pregnancy rates with NET-EN. (popline.org)
  • The present invention relates to methods for treating and/or preventing metabolic diseases comprising the combined administration of a GLP-1 receptor agonist. (patents.com)
  • There is also clear evidence that administration of DES in large doses during pregnancy increases the subsequent risk of breast cancer and that DES increases the risk of testicular cancer in males exposed in utero . (inchem.org)
  • Participants were instructed to insert one intravaginal ovule (suppository) each day before bedtime for twelve weeks. (issm.info)
  • A novel intravaginal ring implanted with anti-retroviral drug tablets, or pods, demonstrated sustained and controlled drug release and safety over 28 days, according to a paper published ahead of print in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • The invention is directed to a family of bioactive intravaginal ring devices formed of at least two polymeric materials, at least one bioactive agent capable of exhibiting antibacterial, antifugal, and/or antiviral activity in the vagina and surrounding tissues of animals and humans without comprising the function of useful microflora therein. (google.com)
  • Direct instillation of clodronate liposomes into the vagina has been reported in only 1 paper and until these results were published, it was only an assumption that local vaginal phagocytes (macrophages and dendritic cells) could be depleted by direct intravaginal instillation of clodronate liposomes. (liposomes.org)
  • In order to deplete the local phagocyte population, 10 μl of clodronate liposomes was instilled intravaginally (ivag) and 250 μl of clodronate liposomes was injected i.v. on days -4 and -1 prior to intravaginal challenge by HSV-2 on day 0. (liposomes.org)