Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.
Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

Complement fixation titers in cattle following intranasal inoculation of Hemophilus somnus. (1/2093)

Five bulls were inoculated intranasally with a live culture of Hemophilus somnus originally isolated from a clinical case of Hemophilus septicemia. Preinoculation and postinoculation blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for nine weeks for measuring complement fixation titers and daily postinoculation temperatures were taken for one week. Three animals had transient fever and slight lethargy was observed in two animals had a transitory rise in complement fixation titers in the second to fifth weeks postexposure while one animal which had been seronegative on preinoculation testing produced little serological response to the organism. The experiment demonstrated that the nasal instillation of young cattle using an originally pathogenic H. somnus isolate is capable of stimulating only transitory complement fixation antibody titer.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (2/2093)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (3/2093)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI. (4/2093)

Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes.  (+info)

Central nervous system effects of intranasally administered insulin during euglycemia in men. (5/2093)

Insulin receptors have been detected in several structures of the brain, yet the biological significance of insulin acting on the brain remains rather unclear. In humans, direct central nervous effects of insulin are difficult to distinguish from alterations in neuronal functions because of insulin-induced decrease in blood glucose levels. Since several intranasally administered viruses, peptides, and hormones have been shown to penetrate directly from the nose to the brain, we tested whether insulin after intranasal administration likewise has access to the brain. After a 60-min baseline period, insulin (20 IU H-Insulin 100 Hoechst) or vehicle (2.7 mg/ml m-Cresol) was intranasally administered every 15 min to 18 healthy subjects according to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) indexing cortical sensory processing were recorded while the subjects performed a vigilance task (oddball paradigm) during the baseline phase and after 60 min of intranasal treatment with insulin or placebo. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were not affected by intranasal insulin. Compared with placebo, intranasal administration of insulin reduced amplitudes of the N1 (P < 0.005) and P3 (P < 0.02) components of the AEP and increased P3 latency (P < 0.05). The reduction in P3 amplitude was most pronounced over the frontal recording site (2.42 +/- 1.00 vs. 4.92 +/- 0.79 microV, P < 0.0005). At this site, after insulin administration, a broad negative shift developed in the AEP between 280 and 500 ms poststimulus (area under the curve -166.0 +/- 183.8 vs. 270.8 +/- 138.7 microV x ms after placebo, P < 0.01). The results suggest that after intranasal administration, insulin directly enters the brain and exerts distinct influences on central nervous functions in humans.  (+info)

Lesions and transmission of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer fawns. (6/2093)

Adenovirus infection was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California during the latter half of 1993. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. To study transmission of adenovirus infection in deer and susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) fawns to adenovirus infection, six 3-6-month-old black-tailed fawns were divided into two treatment groups. One group was inoculated intravenously and the other group was inoculated through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with purified adenovirus. Each treatment group also included two additional fawns (four total) that were not inoculated but were exposed to inoculated animals (contact animals). One fawn served as a negative control. Between 4 and 16 days postinoculation, 8/10 fawns developed systemic or localized infection with lesions identical to lesions seen in animals with natural disease that died during the epizootic. Transmission was by direct contact, and the route of inoculation did not affect the incubation period or the distribution of the virus (systemic or the localized infection). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antiserum against bovine adenovirus type 5 demonstrated staining in endothelial cells of vessels in numerous tissues in animals with systemic infection and endothelial staining only in vessels subtending necrotic foci in the upper alimentary tract in animals with the localized form of the disease. All inoculated or exposed animals had staining in the tonsillar epithelium. Transmission electron microscopic examination of lung and ileum from two fawns with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy demonstrated endothelial necrosis and adenovirus virions in endothelial cell nuclei. Adenovirus was reisolated in black-tailed deer pulmonary artery endothelial cells using lung homogenate of the first fawn that developed systemic adenovirus infection. Serum virus neutralization test results suggest that this deer adenovirus is a new serotype.  (+info)

Intranasally inoculated Mycoplasma hyorhinis causes eustachitis in pigs. (7/2093)

Specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally inoculated with Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Pasteurella multocida, or both bacterial isolates to evaluate the role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 4.4 X 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of M. hyorhinis. Twenty-one days later, three of these six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 5.0 X 10(8) CFU of P. multocida. Three additional pigs were also inoculated intranasally at the time with P. multocida alone. Two pigs served as uninoculated controls. Seven days later, all pigs were euthanatized. Histologically, subacute inflammation was found in 10 auditory tubes of six pigs and two tympanic cavities of two pigs inoculated with M. hyorhinis. Immunohistochemically, M. hyorhinis antigens were detected on the luminal surface of eight of 10 inflamed auditory tubes, and ultrastructural examination confirmed mycoplasmal organisms in two pigs. M. hyorhinis was isolated from the inflamed tympanic cavities of two pigs. None of the pigs inoculated only with P. multocida had otitis, and P. multocida was not isolated from the tympanic cavity. These findings indicate that M. hyorhinis can cause eustachitis but rarely otitis media in specific-pathogen-free pigs.  (+info)

Comparison of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide with oral loratadine in the treatment of seasonal ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis. (8/2093)

A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group controlled study compared the efficacy and safety of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide (220 micrograms/day) and oral loratadine (10 mg/day) in patients with at least two seasons of ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. A 28-day screening period, including a 5-day baseline period, preceded a 4-week treatment period. Reduction in rhinitis symptom scores was evident in both groups as early as day 1, with no significant between-group differences during week 1. At weeks 2, 3, and 4, patients treated with triamcinolone acetonide were significantly (P < 0.05) more improved in total nasal score, nasal itch, nasal stuffiness, and sneezing than were patients treated with loratadine. At weeks 3 and 4, rhinorrhea and ocular symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) more improved from baseline among triamcinolone acetonide patients compared with loratadine patients. There was no significant between-group difference in relief from postnasal drip at any time point. Physicians' global evaluations significantly (P = 0.002) favored triamcinolone acetonide at the final visit, with moderate to complete relief of symptoms attained by 68% of triamcinolone acetonide patients and 59% of loratadine patients. Over the 4-week treatment period, triamcinolone acetonide patients had significantly greater improvement in total nasal score, nasal itch, nasal stuffiness, sneezing, and ocular symptoms. Both treatments were well tolerated, with headache being the most frequently reported drug-related adverse effect in both the triamcinolone acetonide (15%) and loratadine (11%) groups. These results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide is more effective than oral loratadine in relieving the symptoms of ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis.  (+info)

A portion of nasal venous blood is indeed diverted to intracranial veins via direct communication between the ophthalmic veins, pterygoid plexus, and cavernous sinus, but the other portion of blood is drained extracranially by facial veins directly into the IJV. Stated differently, the cavernous sinus receives only a portion of xenon-enriched blood from the nasal space, but the IJV collects almost all the blood from it. Therefore, a steady concentration of xenon in the IJV 10 min after intranasal application in volunteers is more a reflection of saturation of the nasal mucosa and nasal (not cranial) venous vascular beds with xenon. The actual concentration of xenon in the cavernous sinus is probably less than 500 nl/ml because the latter collects only a portion of nasal venous blood. Furthermore, although the cavernous sinus does communicate with basilar and superficial cortical veins, it is a blood collector that is ultimately drained into the IJV, and retrograde flow of xenon-containing ...
TAMPA, Fla .- (BUSINESS WIRE) - Oragenics, Inc.. (American NYSE: OGEN) (Oragenics or the Firm) introduced that it has entered into a fabric switch settlement with Biodextris Inc. for using three intranasal mucosal adjuvants within the Firms Terra CoV-2 vaccine towards COVID- 19. Adjuvants are added to vaccines to enhance their immunogenicity. BDX100, BDX300, and BDX301 are proteosome-based adjuvants composed of proteins and lipopolysaccharides with enhanced attributes together with enhanced immune response, manufacturing effectivity, and advantages of intranasal vaccine supply.. The preliminary settlement gives for using the three intranasal adjuvants together with Oragenics antigenic vaccine candidate as a part of the preclinical immunological analysis of Terra CoV-2, for the prevention of coronavirus illness attributable to an infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The data generated by research using the brand new intranasal vaccine candidate may probably help america Meals and Drug ...
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs such as decongestants for cold and allergy treatment, whose systemic effects are usually minimal. Examples of systemically active drugs available as nasal sprays are migraine drugs, nicotine replacement, and hormone treatments. The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised. Therefore, a drug molecule can be transferred quickly across the single epithelial cell layer directly to the systemic blood circulation without first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism. The effect is often reached within 5 min for smaller drug molecules. Nasal administration can therefore be used as an alternative to oral administration of for example tablets and capsules if a fast effect is ...
Patient information for FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE AQUEOUS NASAL SPRAY 50 MICROGRAMS Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Patient information for BUDESONIDE 64 MICROGRAMS/ACTUATION AQUEOUS NASAL SPRAY Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
The blood-brain barrier is a substantial obstacle for delivering anticancer agents to brain tumors, and new strategies for bypassing it are sorely needed for brain tumor therapy. Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain. Intranasal application of nano-sized micelles that have been modified with Tat peptide facilitates brain delivery of fluorescent model materials. In this study, we evaluated a nose-to-brain delivery system for brain tumor therapy. We nasally administered the anti-tumor drug camptothecin (CPT) in solution and in methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)/poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) amphiphilic block copolymers (MPEG-PCL) and cell penetrating peptide, Tat analog-modified MPEG-PCL (MPEG-PCL-Tat) MPEG-PCL-Tat to rats bearing intracranial glioma tumors and quantified the cytotoxicity against glioma cells, and the therapeutic effects. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL. CPT-free MPEG
The findings support the hypothesis that the frequency of severe adverse events following intranasal administration of NeuroEPO would be less than 10% since no severe events occurred. This is in accordance with the literature since the use of rHu-EPO in healthy subjects apparently does not affect physiological indexes and its use is safe for experimental purposes [34].. The current first NeuroEPO-in-human trial demonstrated the absence of hematopoietic activity according to the safety profile. This result is expected due to this EPO possesses a low content of sialic acid, a component that plays a key role in the preservation of EPO structure thereby avoiding its destruction by the liver. Low sialic acid content rHu-EPO molecules are rapidly metabolized by the liver and therefore eliminated without being able to exert their hematopoietic action [3]. This is the main expected safety benefit of NeuroEPO and has already been demonstrated in laboratory animals since the product did not modify ...
Ischemic stroke-induced neuronal cell death results in the permanent disabling of brain function. Apoptotic mechanisms are thought to play a prominent role in neuronal injury and ample evidence implicates Fas signaling in mediating cell death. In this study, we describe the neuroprotective effects of a Fas-blocking peptide (FBP) that by obstructing Fas signaling in cerebral ischemia inhibits apoptosis. Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery of FBP after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery results in the delivery and retention of FBP in Fas-expressing ischemic areas of the brain. A single intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg FBP resulted in significantly reduced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Fas-mediated apoptosis leading to decreased infarct volumes, reduced neurologic deficit scores and recovery from cerebral ischemia. Intranasally delivered FBP might be a promising strategy for the treatment of
Central insulin resistance is common to both Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that investigated the effects of intranasally administered insulin, have highlighted the involvement of insulin in homeostatic, hedonic and to a lesser extent cognitive regulation of appetite control. This thesis documents a study that set out to explore the effects of intranasal insulin on brain function, using a pharmacological MRI protocol that probed the effects of insulin on resting state connectivity, resting state cerebral perfusion and the cerebral reward response to a food administration paradigm. This study was conducted in a group of healthy, male individuals, with normal and overweight participants. A drug delivery device optimised for efficient nasal delivery of insulin, was employed. A customised, long-label pseudo continuous arterial spin labelling sequence was employed. It was shown that intranasal insulin leads to decreases in cerebral blood flow in the left insula, ...
This invention provides MAbs for blocking and alleviating nasal colonization by staphylococci and methods for their use in the anterior nares.
Influenza viruses have sporadically caused pandemics during the last century, with the most severe occurring in 1918 when the Spanish flu, an A/H1N1 influenza virus, passed around the globe killing about 20-100 million people. Today 250 000-500 000 deaths occur annually due to influenza virus or secondary infection after influenza, e.g. pneumonia. Influenza viruses cause severe infections in susceptible age groups like children and elderly and in individuals with impaired immune response due to other medical conditions. The best way to prevent an influenza epidemic is by vaccination. Since the 1950´s we have vaccines against seasonal flu, but vaccine efficacy is not 100 % and there is a need to develop better and more effective vaccines, especially for the risk groups. Since the virus enters the host through the nasal cavity, nasal vaccination is a good approach. By stimulating a mucosal immune response already in the nasal cavity, the goal with nasal vaccination is to stop the virus before ...
Mustapic, M, et al. (2019) Extracellular Vesicle Biomarkers Track Cognitive Changes Following Intranasal Insulin in Alzheimers Disease. J. Alzheimers Dis.. 2019 Apr 1;. PM ID: ...
One of the major challenges for the development of an HIV vaccine is to induce potent virus-specific immune responses at the mucosal surfaces where transmission of virus occurs. Intranasal delivery of classical vaccines has been shown to induce good mucosal antibody responses, but so far for genetic vaccines the success has been limited. This study shows that young individuals are sensitive to nasal immunization with a genetic vaccine delivered in a formulation of a lipid adjuvant, the Eurocine N3. Intranasal delivery of a multiclade/multigene HIV-1 genetic vaccine gave rise to vaginal and rectal IgA responses as well as systemic humoral and cellular responses. As electroporation might become the preferred means of delivering genetic vaccines for systemic HIV immunity, nasal delivery by droplet formulation in a lipid adjuvant might become a means of priming or boosting the mucosal immunity. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
8. Ellis, J., Gow, S., West, K., Waldner, C., Rhodes, C., Mutwiri, G., and Rosenberg, H.; Response of calves to challenge esposure with virulent bovine respiratory syncytial virus following intranasal administration of vaccines formulated for parenteral administraction. 2007. JAVMA. 230, 2:233-244 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Smart polymers in nasal drug delivery. AU - Chonkar, Ankita. AU - Nayak, Usha. AU - Udupa, N.. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. N2 - Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several ...
A single-center pilot study at the Veterans Affairs Hospital/University of Washington in Seattle reported improved verbal memory retention and attention after a three-week test of 20 international units (IU) daily of intranasal insulin compared with placebo in 24 people with amnestic memory impairment (aMCI) or mild Alzheimers disease. The insulin was delivered with an electronic atomizer (Reger et al., 2008).. A separate small trial comparing different doses in 33 people with aMCI or early AD reported differential effects by ApoE genotype (Reger et al., 2008).. Intranasal insulin appeared safe in a subsequent four-month course of 20 or 40 IUs of intranasal insulin or placebo given to a larger group of 104 people with aMCI or mild to moderate AD. Called SNIFF-120, this single-center study reported some preservation of cognition in younger participants and some preservation of function. The study reported no change in the CSF biomarkers between the groups, but some signals on subgroup analysis ...
Nanoemulsion based intranasal delivery of antimigraine drugs for nose to brain targeting, RS Bhanushali1, MM Gatne2, RV Gaikwad3, AN Bajaj1, MA Morde1
Ag delivery via the nasal route typically induces tolerance or fails to polarize CD4+ T cell responses unless an adjuvant is provided. To better understand this process, we assessed the effects of two mucosal adjuvants, Escherichia coli LPS and cholera toxin (CT), on Ag passage and T cell activation in the draining lymph nodes (DLN) of BALB/c mice following per nasal administration of the model protein allergen, OVA. We found a range of cell types acquired small amounts of fluorescent OVA in the DLN 4 h after per nasal administration. However, this early uptake was eclipsed by a wave of OVA+CD8alpha(low) dendritic cells that accumulated in the DLN over the next 20 h to become the dominant OVA-processing and -presenting population. Both LPS and CT stimulated increases in CD80 and CD86 expression on OVA+CD8alpha(low) DC. LPS also increased the number of OVA+CD8alpha(low) dendritic cells accumulating in the DLN. When the primary T cell response was examined after adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells ...
Objective: Neural stem cells (NSC) have an inherent brain tumor tropism that can be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to invasive gliomas. Here, we demonstrate that the non-invasive intranasal administration of tumor-targeting NSC is able to deliver a novel suicide gene (TK007) to intracerebrally growing human glioblastoma xenografts.. Method: Murine NSC were genetically modified to express the novel herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase variant (TK007). The biological activity of the NSC-mediated TK007/ganciclovir (GCV) system was assessed in cell survival and bystander assays using various human glioma cell lines. Therapeutic effects of intratumoral (3x105 cells) and intranasal (1.5x106) NSC-TK007 application alone and the sequential combination of both was tested using an intracranial U87 human glioblastoma model in nude mice. All animals received 50 mg/kg GCV i.p. for five consecutive days. Two control groups received either NaCl instead of GCV or NSC containing the empty ...
Cytomegalovirus vectors are promising delivery vehicles for vaccine strategies that aim to elicit effector CD8+ T cells. To determine how the route of immunization affects CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs of mice vaccinated with a murine cytomegalovirus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus matrix (M) protein, we infected CB6F1 mice via the intranasal or intraperitoneal route and evaluated the M-specific CD8+ T cell response at early and late time points. We found that intranasal vaccination generated robust and durable tissue-resident effector and effector memory CD8+ T cell populations that were undetectable after intraperitoneal vaccination. The generation of these antigen-experienced cells by intranasal vaccination resulted in earlier T cell responses, interferon gamma secretion, and viral clearance after respiratory syncytial virus challenge. Collectively, these findings validate a novel approach to vaccination that emphasizes the route of delivery as a key determinant of ...
Buy Ciclesonide from GlobalDiscountDrugs.com, we are an online drug store offering medications at low price. We serve safe, effective medications and consider your health more than you. Order Now.
Professor Len Harrison from the institutes Immunology division and Professor Peter Colman and Dr Spiros Fourlanos from the hospitals Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology have demonstrated that the nasal insulin vaccine desensitises the human immune system, suppressing its reaction against insulin. Their research was published in the April issue of the journal Diabetes.. Their research provides proof-of-principle for the type 1 diabetes prevention trial, also called the intranasal insulin trial II (INIT II), which is being conducted in Australia and New Zealand and soon in Germany.. Previous research by Professor Harrison showed in laboratory mice that a nasal insulin vaccine was successful in preventing type 1 diabetes.. These latest results encourage us that we are on the right track to finding a vaccine for type 1 diabetes, Professor Harrison said.. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the bodys immune system attacks and kills beta cells - the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. ...
BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.. RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p,0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide ...
BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.. RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p,0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide ...
A nasal delivery device for and a method of delivering substance to a nasal airway of a subject, the nasal delivery device comprising : a mouthpiece (|b|519|/b|) through which the subject in use exhal
Because peptides are most often labile in the GI tract they are usually administered by injection. The principal fragment of interest, D-Leu-OB-3, has been shown to induce significant weight loss upon i.p injection, nasal administration and oral administration. A non-invasive format is preferred in terms of patient compliance, convenience, ease of self administration, and avoidance of needle stick injuries for patients or care givers. While intranasal administration of protein and peptide drugs has shown some limited success with small peptides such as desmopressin and calcitonin, Aegis Intravail® absorption enhancement agents provide unmatched bioavailabilities - bioavailabilities comparable to injection for small as well as much larger proteins. Our studies have shown that OB-3 peptide formulated with Intravail® excipients induces significant weight loss upon nasal administration with bioavailability comparable to injection approaching or exceeding 100% compared to s.c. injection. Intravail ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Collagen type II (CII) is one of the autoantigens associated with RA. CII263-272 is a predominant CII antigenic peptide that can induce T-cell activation upon binding to MHC and interaction with the appropriate T-cell receptor (TCR). Altered CII263-272 peptides with substitution of specific amino acids could bind to RA-associated HLA-DR4/1 with no T cell stimulating effects and could inhibit T cell activation in RA. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of mucosal administration and to explore the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of altered CII263-272 peptide (267Q --> A, 270K --> A and 271G --> A) on collagen induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine CII. Altered CII263-272 peptide was given intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Wild CII263-272 peptide or PBS was administered as controls. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by arthritis scores, body weight ...
Zelos Therapeutics, Inc. (West Conshohocken, PA) and Aegis Therapeutics LLC (San Diego, CA) have announced a collaboration for the development of an intranasal spray formulation of the proprietary parathyroid hormone (PTH) analog ZT-031 [Ostabolin-C, cyclic PTH-(1-31)].
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel glycocluster molecule prevents timothy-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice. AU - Lehto, M.. AU - Wolff, H.. AU - Leino, Reko. AU - Alenius, H.. AU - Savolainen, J.. N1 - iok. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - BackgroundAllergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) effectively alleviates type I allergic diseases characterized by T helper (Th)2-type immunity. Our recent studies have shown that a synthetic trivalent glycocluster, triacedimannose (TADM), suppresses the Th2-type allergic inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare TADM with two well-known adjuvants, unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipidA (MPLA) in a grass allergen-induced chronic allergic inflammation model in mice.MethodsFemale BALB/c mice were intranasally sensitized with 50L of timothy grass pollen extract (TE) twice a week for a period of 15weeks. Therapeutic intranasal treatments were then performed once a week after the tenth intranasal TE ...
GHRP-2 is one of the few peptides that offer intranasal application. It is known for its extreme effects on human growth hormone making it one of the most effective peptides to date.
Article by Vaxinano about Crossing the mucus barrier with a nasal vaccine: a strong breakthrough by Vaxinano. (Fasquelle F. & al. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2020 )
TY - JOUR. T1 - An intranasal selective antisense oligonucleotide impairs lung cyclooxygenase-2 production and improves inflammation, but worsens airway function, in house dust mite sensitive mice. AU - Torres, Rosa. AU - Herrerias, Aida. AU - Serra-Pagès, Mariona. AU - Roca-Ferrer, Jordi. AU - Pujols, Laura. AU - Marco, Alberto. AU - Picado, César. AU - de Mora, Fernando. PY - 2008/11/12. Y1 - 2008/11/12. N2 - Background: Despite its reported pro-inflammatory activity, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been proposed to play a protective role in asthma. Accordingly, COX-2 might be down-regulated in the airway cells of asthmatics. This, together with results of experiments to assess the impact of COX-2 blockade in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice in vivo, led us to propose a novel experimental approach using house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized mice in which we mimicked altered regulation of COX-2.Methods: Allergic inflammation was induced in BALBc mice by intranasal exposure to HDM for 10 consecutive ...
Pneumonia can be produced in mice, which have not been previously prepared, by intranasal inoculation of broth cultures of certain strains of pneumococci.. Lesions which are quantitatively different can be produced in different breeds of mice by inoculation of the same type of pneumococcus. Similar inoculation of different types of pneumococci into one breed of mice results in lesions which are qualitatively different.. In general, these lesions are as follows: a diffuse pneumonia and an acute glomerular nephritis in unselected mice receiving Type I strains; a confluent pneumonia and a tubular nephritis in the case of Type II strains; and as result of Type III strains, an interstitial pneumonia with extensive gelatinous pleurisy, together with necrosis and abscess formation in the spleen and cervical lymph nodes. Resistant strains of mice with Type III pneumococci show slight changes in the lungs, but marked lesions in the spleen and cervical nodes, while susceptible mice with the same type of ...
Clin infect dis suppl s. Omahony c. Genital warts current and future management options am j roentgenol. In recent studies, intranasal influenza vaccine for plague. Ii. Mitral valve area and no family history of penicillin allergy should carry selfinjectable epinephrine see section on the number of basophils and eosinophils, liver function may be associated with mitral insufficiency. Cochrane database systematic rev cd. If hbsag has not been rigorously verified in a infertility rate. There are profound changes in the brain is highly successful in neonatal period, and azathioprine is the best resource for such therapy causes a slowly developing hematoma over the past months, high-dose amoxicillinclavulanate is appropriate. Prog neuropsychopharmacol biol psychiatry. Symptomatic infections should be referred to as systolic-click-murmur syn-drome, floppy mitral valve disease or as a tiger in order to maximize the efficacy of phosphate plays an invaluable support strategy. Prolonged sitting or ...
Licensed Canadian pharmacy. Nasal Delivery Viagra. Medication itself does not cause an erection, but sets the stage, so to speak. Search Over 500 medications.
Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. ..
Extension trial showed striking results at 18 months in patients with mild cognitive impairment or dementia using a particular insulin delivery device.
This study is a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study designed to assess the safety of intranasally (IN) delivered glulisine versus placebo in patients with DS. Subjects will be randomized into this cross-over study and within subject comparisons conducted between single treatment of intranasal insulin glulisine and single treatment of intranasal placebo. All subjects will also receive a single treatment of placebo prior to randomization to ensure adherence to study procedures ...
City Health Director Dr. Johnnie Lee said the MedImmune intranasal vaccine will only be administered to healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.|br/||br/|Because its an inhalant, the nasal vaccine can exacerbate some respiratory conditions, so only healthy children are eligible, Lee said.|br/||br/|By mid-December, the vaccine should be available for anyone who is interested.|br/||br/|Since the beginning of the year, the city has seen about 245 people with laboratory confirmed H1N1, though medical officials warn this is only the tip of the iceberg, because most people get better on their own, Stamford Hospitals director of infectious diseases, Dr. Michael Parry, said.|br/||br/|
The city health director Dr. Johnnie Lee said the MedImmune intranasal vaccine will only be administered to healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.|br/||br/|Because its an inhalant, the nasal vaccine can exacerbate some respiratory conditions, so only healthy children are eligible, Lee said.|br/||br/|By mid-December, the vaccine should be available for anyone who is interested.|br/||br/|Since the beginning of the year, the city has seen about 245 people with laboratory confirmed H1N1, though medical officials warn this is only the tip of the iceberg, because most people get better on their own, Stamford Hospitals director of infectious diseases Dr. Michael Parry said.|br/||br/|
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
The IP Industry Base is a public available database about the global market of IP practitioners. Currently is provides high-quality profiles of more than 4910 companies, 15690 professionals and 4260 places. The service of the IP Industry Base is dedicated to technology managers, IP professionals and IPR academia. The open data of the IP Industry Base aims to create transparency for the market of IP practitioners.
SHERMAN, TX -- The Grayson County Health Department will provide Flu Mist, the 2009 H1N1 influenza live, attenuated intranasal vaccine (LAIV/the nasal spray vaccine) to people 2 through 49 years of age who are not pregnant and do not have certain health conditions listed below.
Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Akl on how can i get rid of nasal swelling: Intranasal steroids.
AdCOVID COVID-19 vaccine candidate is based on Altimmune Inc.s adenovirus-based intranasal vaccine platform and expresses the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.Read more.... ...
Vaccines are improving in their spectrum of protection, length of protection, and quickness of protection all the time. Most research and effort is against protection of respiratory disease. This is where most antimicrobials are used. There is no doubt in the beef production chain that the first one to two months after arrival at the feedlot is where most antimicrobials are used. Preventing disease has been the focus of research. There has been more intranasal vaccines which give local immunity in the windpipe and nasopharynx. This occurs very rapidly. Some are developed for respiratory viruses and others for the respiratory bacteria. This quicker protection should also cut down on the incidence of respiratory disease. Whenever vaccinating make sure and store properly (keep refrigerated until use), rehydrate and use modified vaccines within one hour, give in the proper locations, and have epinephrine on hand in case of a rare allergic reaction. Proper application of vaccines means the herd will ...
1999 - Flu-Avert™ developed in conjunction with Heska provided an intranasal vaccine for equine subtype 2 influenza virus. The modified-live virus vaccine was licensed in 1999 by the USDA. Work on maternal antibody interference by researchers in the department led to new recommendations for foal vaccination schedules by the American Association of Equine Practitioners. ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Chronic neck and shoulder pain (CNSP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder in adults, which is linked to hypersensitivity to noxious stimuli. The hormone oxytocin has been implicated as a potential therapeutic for the management of chronic pain disorders, and has been suggested to have sex-specific effects on the salience of threatening stimuli. This study investigated the influence of intranasal oxytocin on the perception of noxious thermal stimuli. Participants were 24 individuals with CNSP lasting |12months (eight women), and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy, pain-free controls. In a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, participants attended two sessions, self-administering intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in one session, and placebo in another. Participants rated intensity and unpleasantness of thermal heat stimuli at three body sites: the cervical spine, deltoid, and tibialis anterior, on 11-point numerical rating scales. Compared with placebo, intranasal oxytocin increased the
Correction of the deficiency of early meal-time insulin secretion, using intravenous insulin in patients with Type 2 diabetes causes substantial improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia. The present study was designed to determine whether similar benefit would result from physiological supplementation using intranasal insulin delivery. Six patients with Type 2 diabetes were studied twice during a standard mixed meal. At the start of the meal they received a single intranasal spray containing either 15 units of insulin in 1% sodium glycocholate (adjuvant agent) or glycocholate alone (placebo) in a single-blind fashion. Intranasal insulin delivery resulted in rapid absorption of insulin with peak levels (92 +/- 8 (+/- SE) mU l-1) within 5-10 min. Peak insulin levels were at least equal to those in non-diabetic subjects, though occurring at an earlier time-point. However, no significant improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen (peak blood glucose increment 4.9 +/- 0.6 vs 5.4 +/- 0.5 mmol l-1
A common cause of clogged ears with inability to pop them easily is due to eustachian tube dysfunction. There are a number of ways to address this annoying problem, but one of the first steps to try is intranasal medications whether in nasal spray form or nasal drop form.
A common cause of clogged ears with inability to pop them easily is due to eustachian tube dysfunction. There are a number of ways to address this annoying problem, but one of the first steps to try is intranasal medications whether in nasal spray form or nasal drop form.
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial to evaluate the effects of nasally applied xenon on intraoperative and postoperative opioid requirement and postoperative evaluated pain scores. Because there were only two treatment arms (air, xenon) with an a priori fixed number of patients (20 per each arm), a simple randomization scheme was used with a vector of random numbers to generate an a priori list for randomized treatment assignments. According to this randomization list, patients received either xenon or air. The study supervisor, who did not participate in the assessment, prepared an unlabeled gas reservoir filled with either the colorless and odorless xenon or air as placebo. The anesthetists who provided the anesthesia and the intensive care unit (ICU) staff participating in the pain assessments were blinded for individual treatments. Patients were also blinded for group assignment and both blindings were maintained until the end of the study. The patients ...
Compared with patients not treated with intranasal corticosteroids, those who receive them have greater improvement or resolution of symptoms at two to three weeks, regardless of whether antibiotics are used. In a single head-to-head study, patients taking intranasal corticosteroids alone fared slightly better than those taking antibiotics alone. Higher doses of intranasal corticosteroids work better than lower doses.
The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermosensitive gel containing chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM)-loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of...
Buy the Paperback Book Nasal Administration Of Nitrous Oxide... - Primary Source Edition by Frank Coleman at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on History books over $25!
The main goal of the study is to look at the effects of intranasal oxytocin on the brain in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Oxytocin is a hormone that exists
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of mucoadhesive excipient on the nasal retention time of and the antibody responses induced by an intranasal influenza vaccine. AU - Saito, Shinji. AU - Ainai, Akira. AU - Suzuki, Tadaki. AU - Harada, Norihiro. AU - Ami, Yasushi. AU - Yuki, Yoshikazu. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. AU - Kiyono, Hiroshi. AU - Tsukada, Hideo. AU - Hasegawa, Hideki. N1 - Funding Information: The work described in this report was supported by the grants of the Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (H25-Shinkou-Ippan-018) from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. PY - 2016/2/24. Y1 - 2016/2/24. N2 - Introduction: Recently, we reported that intranasal vaccination of humans with whole inactivated influenza vaccine in the absence of mucosal adjuvant induced neutralizing antibody responses in the serum and nasal mucus. The mucoadhesive excipient carboxy-vinyl polymer (CVP) increases the viscosity and therefore mucoadhesiveness of intranasal medicaments and is ...
Nobody likes getting a shot, especially children. However, US health guidelines recommend annual influenza vaccination of children, especially those with asthma, and including those with egg allergy. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is an intranasal vaccine administered via the nose licensed for use in children. However, this vaccine contains egg protein and it is currently suggested that it not be used on children with egg allergy. Furthermore, North American guidelines recommend against its use in children with asthma. Thus, asthmatic or egg allergic children receive a traditional flu shot ...
Pertussis disease remains an important public health issue given the global rise of pertussis cases during the past decades (2). There is therefore a critical need for improved pertussis vaccines with high efficacy and low reactogenicity. The live BPZE1 vaccine has been tested in different animal models and demonstrated mucosal and systemic immune responses, long-lasting protection, and blocking of nasal colonization upon infection (20, 22). In human clinical trials, BPZE1 showed excellent safety profiles (24). In this study, we performed multiple assays to obtain mechanistic insight into the immune responses in humans generated by BPZE1 as compared with aPV. We found that a single intranasal administration of BPZE1 was able to induce well-detectable plasmablasts, activated cTfh1 cells, vaccine-specific CD4+ cells, memory B cells and, ultimately, robust levels of Th1-type antibodies with potent bacterial opsonizing activity. We observed a much wider range of antigen specificities recognized by ...
To assess the effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroids in the management of NAR compared with no therapy, placebo or other topical or systemic medications, or two or more of the above therapies in combination, or different intranasal corticosteroids regimens.. ...
A concentrated DDAVP intranasal spray is available for outpatient use. Its effectiveness is similar to that of the intravenous preparation, although its peak effect is observed later, at 60-90 minutes... more
Buy nasomist-x nasal drops 10 ml nasal drops pack online at discounted price. visit 1mg.com to know price, benefits and product information of nasomist-x nasal drops.
Buy nazoden nasal drops 10 ml nasal drops pack online at discounted price. visit 1mg.com to know price, benefits and product information of nazoden nasal drops.
Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to invade host cells. TgADF was a promising vaccine candidate. To observe the immunological changes and protective efficacy of recombinant TgADF protein (rTgADF) against T. gondii infection, we optimized the intranasal immunization dose of rTgADF and analyzed the survival rate and tachyzoite loads in mouse tissues after oral challenge with T. gondii tachyzoites. rTgADF was prepared, purified, and combined with mouse anti-His antibody and rabbit anti-T. gondii serum. After intranasal immunization with 10 μg, 20 μg, 30 μg, or 40 μg of rTgADF, the 30-μg group elicited high levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) in nasal, intestinal, and vesical washes, raised IgG titres in the sera, strong proliferation of splenocytes, and increased secretion of IL-2 and IFN
A composition and method for nasal administration of pharmaceuticals utilizes glycyrrhetinic acid as an absorption enhancer. The composition comprises an effective amount of the pharmaceutically active substance, glycyrrhetinic acid, in an amount effective for enhancing permeation of the active substance across the nasal membrane, and a basic salt of an amino acid as an adjuvant. The composition may be administered to the nasal cavity in the form of a spray by using an atomizer, nebulizer, spayer, dropper or other device which ensures contact of the composition with the nasal mucus membrane.
Purpose: Antipsychotics are versatile drugs. Intranasal route could provide efficient delivery for certain therapeutic agents; however, studies on intranasal antipsychotics are limited. Moreover, the systemic and central nervous system (CNS) dispositions of active metabolites after intranasal drug administration are seldom investigated. The current project aims to 1) identify the antipsychotics that are more suitable to be developed into intranasal medications; and 2) characterize the CNS pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of the selected antipsychotic delivered by intranasal route, with a special attention to the role of drug metabolism in PK and PD outcomes.. Methods: To select an antipsychotic with greater potential for intranasal delivery, a systematic approach was adopted to screen antipsychotic candidates with in silico evaluations and then in vitro permeability assays. The systemic and CNS PK and PD profiles of the selected antipsychotic would be investigated in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and pathologic characteristics of intranasal abuse of combined opioid-acetaminophen medications. AU - Vosler, Peter S.. AU - Contreras, Jorge I.. AU - Wang, Eric W.. AU - Schaitkin, Barry M.. AU - Lee, Stella. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Background: The nonmedical abuse of prescription opioids via intranasal administration is a growing problem. The objective of this study is to investigate of the typical presentation of intranasal opioid-acetaminophen abuse and outline optimal therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review. Patients with intranasal pathology from inhalation of combined opioid-acetaminophen medications (COAMs) from 3 academic otolaryngology practices in western Pennsylvania from January 2012 to October 2012 were included in the review. Results: Seven adults ranging in age from 23 to 46 years were identified with nasal complaints from the intranasal inhalation of COAMs. All patients presented with nasal pain and were found to have ...
Subunit intranasal vaccines offer the prospect of inducing combined systemic-mucosal immunity against mucosally transmitted infections such as human immunodeficiency virus. However, although human studies have demonstrated the induction of active immunity, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses are variable, and no study has demonstrated protection by accepted vaccine-licensing criteria as measured by direct toxin-neutralizing activity. Using the genetically inactivated mutant diphtheria toxoid CRM197 in a bioadhesive polycationic polysaccharide chitosan delivery system, we found that a single nasal immunization was well tolerated and boosted antitoxin neutralizing activity in healthy volunteers, which could be further boosted by a second immunization. The neutralizing activity far exceeded accepted protective levels and was equivalent to that induced by standard intramuscular vaccine and significantly greater than intranasal immunization with CRM197 in the absence of chitosan. A striking ...
Hi all, episodic cluster sufferer here. I have had cluster headaches on the left-side of my head for about 9 years now. I have tried everything from triptan medication to prescription medical oxygen. The only thing that has really worked to abort the attacks is the oxygen, and that is only convenient when it is available and works completely. Recently, I have been doing a bit of research and experimentation regarding the trigeminal nerve and intranasal application of capsaicin (hot pepper extract). I have had great success with this, and my cluster headaches have been less frequent, as well as the pain of attacks has been reduced greatly. For a high level overview of why/how this works, please reference this video. Also, here and here are published studies. Method: The method that I use to accomplish this is relatively simple - Instead of using pure capsaicin extract, I use really hot peppers and a Q-tip. Lately, I have been using birds eye chilies, but really any hot pepper hotter than a ...
Dear doctor, I have an ENT problem - sneezing. I am using |b|nasal spray(Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray)|/b|for 2 months as per doctors advice. Now I am completely ok. But kindly let me know the following: 1. Can I use this spray for a long period say one year; 2. Does this have any side effects in the long run;and 3. Is there any harm in using this medicine?
Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection in dogs has been associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis characterized by bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, depression, leukopenia, pyrexia, dehydration, with very high mortality rate. Puppies below 6 months of age are severely affected and adult dogs having inadequate immunity suffer from the disease. Interference of maternal antibodies, long survival rate of the virus in the environment, high infectious /contagious nature of the virus and susceptibility of the pups and weak animals are the factors that propagate the disease. Contaminated surroundings especially in kennels make it a difficult disease to control. Mortality rates are very high in affected dogs. Effective immunization is essential for the protection of the individual pet and the decrease of virus population. Live attenuated vaccines are currently used worldwide affording prolonged immunity that would confer protection against disease ...
Canadian pharmacy viagra legal - Mens health. Nasal Delivery Viagra. It helps to achieve and keep an erection sufficient for sexual activity. Buy Viagra Online and Order Cheap Viagra Prescription with Guaranteed lowest prices.
The pressurized delivery solution working with a neutral Propellant agent (nitrogen) or liquid gases. Valves for nasal drug delivery system
Abstract:The Asia Pacific Nasal Drug Delivery Systems market size is $XX million USD in 2018 with XX CAGR from 2014 to 2018, and it is expected to reach $XX million.
This project proposes to optimize, manufacture, and clinically evaluate an intranasally delivered prophylactic Entamoeba histolytica vaccine (NIAID Category B pathogen) containing adjuvant. The proposed vaccine consists of a synthetic recombinant protein antigen (LecA) and a synthetic dual TLR ligand adjuvant formulation (GLA-3M052 liposomes) administered by nasal spray. The scope of work is designed to optimize dose and excipient composition and intranasal administration of the candidate product in preclinical models followed by cGMP manufacture and a Phase 1 clinical trial. By implementing critical product enhancement strategies and cutting edge adjuvant technology early in development, a vaccine against the enteric Category B pathogen E. histolytica will be developed that is able to overcome many of the challenges associated with traditional enteric vaccine approaches. In particular, we will seek to establish the safety and immunogenicity of intranasal delivery of a recombinant antigen-based ...
Global Nasal Drug Delivery Technologies Market key players are Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG, J & J, Pfizer Inc., AstraZeneca, AptarGroup and others.
The global nasal drug delivery technology market is projected to reach USD 64.20 billion by 2021 from USD 44.00 billion in 2016, at a CAGR of 6.5%
Angus, D., Herd, C., Stone, C., Stout, Julie, Wieler, Marguerite, Reilmann, Ralf, Ritchie, C. W., Dorsey, Earl Ray, Helles, K., Kayson, Elise, Oakes, David, Rosas, Herminia Diana, Vaughan, Carr J., Panegyres, Peter K., Ames, David J., Goh, Anita, Agarwal, Pinky, Churchyard, Andrew, Murathodizic, M., ... Targum, S.. (2015) Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of PBT2 in Huntingtons disease: A phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurology. 14(1), pp. 39 - 47. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1474-4422(14)70262-5 ...
One of the biggest questions on everyones mind throughout the conference was: why dont we have more drugs for neurodegenerative diseases? One obvious answer is that it is hard to get drugs across the blood-brain barrier. Dr. Bruce Morimoto of Allon Therapeutics Inc. in his talk Peptide Therapeutics and Mechanisms for Intranasal Delivery suggested that one solution to this problem is to use intranasal delivery, which allows drugs to bypass the blood-brain barrier entirely. Another answer for why there are so few drugs for CNS diseases is that many neurodegenerative diseases are protein-aggregation diseases, and protein-protein interactions are notoriously difficult to target. Dr. Jim Wells, Professor in the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of California, San Francisco, discussed two key limitations to targeting protein-protein interactions in his talk entitled Challenges of Protein-Protein/Protein-Peptide Targets. First, proteins often associate with one another ...
415 Ala Gln Lys Asp Ser Met Gln Asp Glu Ser Ser Gln Thr Ser Leu Gln 420 425 430 Lys Glu Ile Ser Thr Glu Glu Gln Leu Arg Arg Leu Gln Glu Glu Lys 435 440 445 Leu Cys Lys Ile Cys Met Asp Arg Asn Ile Ala Ile Val Phe Val Pro 450 455 460 Cys Gly His Leu Val Thr Cys Lys Gln Cys Ala Glu Ala Val Asp Lys 465 470 475 480 Cys Pro Met Cys Tyr Thr Val Ile Thr Phe Lys Gln Lys Ile Phe Met 485 490 495 Ser 151403PRTHomo sapiens 15Met Ala Thr Gln Gln Lys Ala Ser Asp Glu Arg Ile Ser Gln Phe Asp 1 5 10 15 His Asn Leu Leu Pro Glu Leu Ser Ala Leu Leu Gly Leu Asp Ala Val 20 25 30 Gln Leu Ala Lys Glu Leu Glu Glu Glu Glu Gln Lys Glu Arg Ala Lys 35 40 45 Met Gln Lys Gly Tyr Asn Ser Gln Met Arg Ser Glu Ala Lys Arg Leu 50 55 60 Lys Thr Phe Val Thr Tyr Glu Pro Tyr Ser Ser Trp Ile Pro Gln Glu 65 70 75 80 Met Ala Ala Ala Gly Phe Tyr Phe Thr Gly Val Lys Ser Gly Ile Gln 85 90 95 Cys Phe Cys Cys Ser Leu Ile Leu Phe Gly Ala Gly Leu Thr Arg Leu 100 105 110 Pro Ile Glu Asp His Lys Arg Phe His Pro Asp Cys Gly Phe Leu Leu 115 120 125 ...
There is an overall lack of knowledge about how vaccines work. Here we propose the combined use of reverse genetics and bone marrow...
Mild nasopharyngeal irritation following the use of beclomethasone aqueous nasal spray has been reported in up to 24% of patients treated, including occasional sneezing attacks (about 4%) occurring immediately following use of the spray. In patients
A total of 29 million confirmed cases of Covid-19 have been reported worldwide, with the number of deaths approaching one million: 925,000 to be exact, as of 15 September 2020. With these numbers continuing to rise, new approaches are being explored for a therapeutic or vaccine for Covid-19. This now includes nasal sprays for delivering a vaccine. Approval was granted in China on 9 September 2020, to initiate a Phase I clinical trial with a nasal spray vaccine against Covid-19. The intranasal spray is being
Mild nasopharyngeal irritation following the use of beclomethasone aqueous nasal spray has been reported in up to 24% of patients treated, including occasional sneezing attacks (about 4%) occurring immediately following use of the spray. In patients
This medicine comes with a patient information leaflet. Read and follow the instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions. This medicine is only used in the nose. Do not get it in your eyes. If it does get in the eyes, rinse them with water right away and call your doctor. In order for this medicine to help you, it must be used on a regular basis as ordered by your doctor. This medicine usually begins to work in about 2 days, but up to 2 weeks may pass before you feel its full effects. Do not use this medicine for any other nose problem without checking with your doctor first. To use the spray:. ...
A controlled release device useful for the release of vapors or liquids to the surrounding of the user is described. The device is a multilayered laminate consisting of a reservoir layer which incorporates an active compound, such as a nasally delivered therapeutic medication or insect repellant, an impermeable membrane layer adjacent the reservoir layer and a diffusion rate limiting membrane layer adjacent the reservoir layer. The device preferably includes an adhesive layer for adhering the device to skin or a surface and an ornamental decorative layer.
Our previous studies identified a long-term population of plasma cells in the NALT after influenza virus infection that may have an important role in protection from re-infection 4. However, long-term virus-specific plasma cells do not appear to be induced after RSV infection in the NALT, even though serum antibody was clearly detectable 5, leading us to propose that this NALT population may be important in protection from RSV infection. Our results demonstrate that the mucosal response, as indicated by the levels of IgA in the lung, seems to fall rapidly after RSV infection but is boosted and maintained to higher levels after immunisation with iRSV + DOMV. Furthermore, an increased frequency of RSV-specific plasma cells is apparent within the D-NALT after iRSV + DOMV immunisation. Immunisation with iRSV + OMV also generates complete protection against viral replication after live RSV challenge.. Immunisation with iRSV + DOMV generated few splenic IFN-γ-producing cells, indicating that the MHC ...
... Data published in February issue of Clinical and Vaccine Immunolog...ANN ARBOR Mich. Feb. 26 /- Scientists at NanoBioCorpor...The new vaccine confers a high level of safety because it containsina...The current study in mice demonstrates that NanoBios killed-virusvac...,Nasal,Vaccine,for,Smallpox,Confers,High,Levels,of,Immunity,Without,Safety,Risks,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
administration. Oral, intranasal, intravenous. Legal status. Legal status. *CA: Schedule I *DE: Anlage II (Authorized trade ...
administration. intranasal (spray or drops). ATC code. *R01AA07 (WHO) S01GA03 (WHO). Legal status. ... and when the administration of the drug is ceased, chronic congestion can occur; this is called rhinitis medicamentosa, ...
Laron, Z.; Frenkel, J.; Deghenghl, R.; Anin, S.; Klinger, B.; Siibergeld, A. (1995). "Intranasal administration of the GHRP". ... Frenkel, J.; Silbergeld, A.; Deghenghi, R.; Laron, Z. (1995). "Short Term Effect of Intranasal Administration of Hexarelin". ... "Short-term administration of intranasal or oral Hexarelin, a synthetic hexapeptide, does not desensitize the growth hormone ... intranasal, and oral administration in man". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 78 (3): 693-8. doi:10.1210/ ...
Intranasal insulin is being investigated. A randomized controlled trial that will determine whether intranasal insulin can ... In 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of Exubera, the first inhalable insulin. It was withdrawn from ... The insulin administration aspect remains experimental, but the blood glucose test aspect of "wrist appliances" is commercially ... There are several challenges involved in the use of insulin as a clinical treatment for diabetes: Mode of administration. ...
Increased levels of OT can be found in salivary samples after intranasal administration of the neuropeptide. Salivary OT levels ... Weisman, O., Zagoory-Sharon, O., & Feldman, R. (2012). Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva. ... Intranasal (IN) administration, as opposed to more conventional routes, such as oral or intravenous infusion, offers an ... A review of 38 randomized and controlled trials suggests that short-term use of intranasal oxytocin appears to have few side- ...
In addition, also unlike the case of peripheral administration, intranasal oxytocin has a central duration of at least 2.25 ... "Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37 (9): 1582-6. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Salivary levels of oxytocin remain elevated for more than two hours after intranasal oxytocin administration". Neuro ... Following i.v. administration, the terminal half-life is the time required for plasma/blood concentration to decrease by 50% ...
Fischer-Shofty M, Shamay-Tsoory SG, Harari H, Levkovitz Y (2010). "The effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin on fear ... "Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37 (9): 1582-86. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Salivary levels of oxytocin remain elevated for more than two hours after intranasal oxytocin administration". Neuro ... Intranasal oxytocin has a central duration of at least 2.25 hours and as long as 4 hours. Oral: Oxytocin is destroyed in the ...
... since intranasal administration of oxytocin also increases envy and Schadenfreude.[79] Individuals who receive an intranasal ... Shamay-Tsoory SG, Fischer M, Dvash J, Harari H, Perach-Bloom N, Levkovitz Y (November 2009). "Intranasal administration of ... Fischer-Shofty M, Shamay-Tsoory SG, Harari H, Levkovitz Y (January 2010). "The effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin ... Weisman O, Zagoory-Sharon O, Feldman R (2012). "Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". ...
... with rectal administration yielding the same results; intranasal varies between individuals with a mean of 46%. After a dose of ... Therapeutic Goods Administration (June 2008). Standard for the uniform scheduling of drugs and poisons no. 23 (PDF). Canberra: ... When first introduced in Germany during World War I, both IV and IM administrations of oxycodone were commonly used for ... Drug Enforcerment Administration. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. "DEA Diversion ...
Common routes of administration include sublingual, buccal, and intranasal. For sublingual and buccal administration, 25I-NBOMe ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on ... Drug Enforcement Administration (November 2015). "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Extension of Temporary Placement of Three ... "Three More Synthetic Drugs Become Illegal for at Least Two Years". United States Drug
Preventing Anosmia from Intranasal Zinc Administration[unreliable medical source?] Maruyama T, Yasuda S, Odashiro K, Kaji Y, ... Intranasal drug use Samter's triad also known as AERD (aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease) Foster Kennedy syndrome Cadmium ... Sarcoidosis Zinc-based intranasal cold products, including remedies labelled as "homeopathic" Chronic atrophic rhinitis Paget's ...
Shamay-Tsoory SG, Fischer M, Dvash J, Harari H, Perach-Bloom N, Levkovitz Y (November 2009). "Intranasal administration of ... Some researchers have argued oxytocin has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions, since intranasal administration of ... 19 (7). Wudarczyk, O. A.; Earp, B. D.; Guastella, A; Savulescu, J (2013). "Could intranasal oxytocin be used to enhance ...
"Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized estradiol-17beta". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45 (6): ... This route of administration is thus preferred in women with a history of thromboembolic disease. Estrogen is also used in the ... However, such risks have been found to vary depending on the type of estrogen and the route of administration. The risk of VTE ... It was only until 1941 when estrogen therapy was finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment ...
Estradiol can be taken by a variety of different routes of administration. These include oral, buccal, sublingual, intranasal, ... "Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized estradiol-17beta". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 45 (6): ... Sublingual administration of estradiol was first described in the early 1940s. Buccal estradiol tablets were marketed by ... In addition to the route of administration, the type of estrogen influences VTE risk. Oral conjugated estrogens are associated ...
There are several methods of administration, including parenteral and intranasal. However, the intranasal method has been ... Several intranasal vaccines have been developed that contain canine adenovirus in addition to B. bronchiseptica and canine ... Administration of B. bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza vaccines may then be continued routinely, especially during ... Adverse effects of vaccinations are mild, but the most common effect observed up to 30 days after administration is nasal ...
Comparing Intranasal Administration to Intramuscular Administration in Healthy Human Volunteers." University of Kentucky ... "A single dose, Open Label, Randomized Three Way Crossover, Bioavailability Study of 1.0 mg and 2.0 Intranasal Butorphanol ... "A single Dose, Randomized Two Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study of 2.0 mg Intranasal Hydromorphone Hydrochloride In ...
... is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. It is distributed to most ... Methamphetamine is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. Due to the high ... Repeated administration or self administration of METH has been shown to upregulate σ-1 receptor protein and mRNA in various ... The lack of effect of administration of neomycin to one patient indicates that the hydroxylation occurs in body tissues. ... a ...
Wolfe TR, Bernstone T (April 2004). "Intranasal drug delivery: an alternative to intravenous administration in selected ... Administration of naloxone intranasally is recommended for people who are unconscious or unresponsive. While the onset of ... "Pharmacokinetic properties of intranasal and injectable formulations of naloxone for community use: a systematic review". Pain ... While the onset is achieved fastest through IV than through other routes of administration, it may be difficult to obtain ...
Testosterone can be used by intranasal administration (e.g., brand name Natesto). Testosterone is available for transdermal ... Rectal administration of testosterone avoids the first-pass effect with oral administration similarly to other non-oral routes ... As a result, it requires administration several times per day in divided doses. Due to its limitations, such as the high doses ... Oral testosterone undecanoate is provided as 40 mg oil-filled capsules and requires administration 2 to 4 times per day (i.e., ...
Intranasal administration of pregnenolone was found to have low bioavailability of around 23%. Sripada et al. reported that ... Unlike the case of oral administration, transdermal administration of 30 mg/day pregnenolone cream has not been found to affect ... "Brain distribution and behavioral effects of progesterone and pregnenolone after intranasal or intravenous administration". Eur ... Oral administration of 50 or 100 mg pregnenolone has been found to have minimal or negligible effect on urinary levels of ...
The elimination half-life of nafarelin is 2.5 to 3.0 hours by intranasal administration, whereas the half-life of nafarelin and ... The bioavailability of nafarelin with intranasal administration is 2.8% on average, with a range of 1.2 to 5.6%. The plasma ... Nafarelin is not available for use by any other routes than intranasal administration. Side effects of nafarelin are related to ...
The bioavailability of doxylamine is 24.7% for oral administration and 70.8% for intranasal administration. The Tmax of ... "Comparative pharmacokinetics of single doses of doxylamine succinate following intranasal, oral and intravenous administration ... Doxylamine succinate is generally safe for administration to healthy adults. The median lethal dose (LD50) is estimated to be ~ ... Allison M, Hale C (June 2018). "A Phase I Study of the Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Intranasal Doxylamine in ...
Its bioavailability is 2.5 to 3.3% by intranasal administration and 70% by subcutaneous injection. The plasma protein binding ... "Inhibition of serum androgen levels by chronic intranasal and subcutaneous administration of a potent luteinizing hormone- ... Intranasal buserelin was the first GnRH agonist demonstrated to achieve medical castration in humans. This was initially ... With chronic administration of buserelin however, the GnRH receptor becomes desensitized and completely stops responding both ...
"Brain distribution and behavioral effects of progesterone and pregnenolone after intranasal or intravenous administration". ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers it to be a first-in-class medication. The long administration time, as ... The REMS requires that patients be enrolled in the program prior to administration of the drug. It is given continuously by ... In accordance, acute administration of low doses of micronized progesterone (which reliably elevates allopregnanolone levels) ...
Levine, A. I., & Bryson, E. O. (2010). Intranasal self-administration of remifentanil as the foray into opioid abuse by an ... Panlilio, L. V., & Schindler, C. W. (2000). Self-administration of remifentanil, an ultra-short acting opioid, under continuous ... Comparison of remifentanil or fentanyl administration during isoflurane anesthesia for coronary artery bypass surgery. Med Sci ... US Food and Drug Administration. (2010). Orange book: approved drug products with therapeutic equivalence evaluations. Silver ...
Vincent AL, Ma W, Lager KM, Janke BH, Webby RJ, Garcia-Sastre A, Richt JA (2007). "Efficacy of intranasal administration of a ...
In 2019, the FDA approved the use of Esketamine for intranasal use for Major depressive disorder (MDD), and Treatment-resistant ... No complications of LSD administration were observed. As of 2016, Johns Hopkins University and New York University have ... Bahr R, Lopez A, Rey JA (2019). "Intranasal Esketamine (SpravatoTM) for Use in Treatment-Resistant Depression In Conjunction ... "Breakthrough Therapy". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 10 April 2021. "FDA Calls Psychedelic Psilocybin a ' ...
Taking ATS orally is the most common route of administration. The response time and other pharmacokinetics profile of ATS ... ATS can be administered via oral (swallowing), intranasal (inhaling vapour or snorting), and intravenous routes. ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US). "WHO Multi-Site Project on Methamphetamine-Induced Psychosis: A ... varies for different routes of administration. ATS are metabolised by liver enzymes especially cytochrome P450 2D6, producing ...
"Intranasal administration of the peptide Selank regulates BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus in vivo". Doklady Biological ...
"Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37 (9): 1582-6. doi:10.1016/j. ... Time between drug dose administrations.. τ. {\displaystyle \tau }. s. {\displaystyle \mathrm {s} }. Design parameter 24 h ... The peak plasma concentration of a drug after administration.. C. max. {\displaystyle C_{\text{max}}}. M. {\displaystyle \ ... also unlike the case of peripheral administration, intranasal oxytocin has a central duration of at least 2.25 hours and as ...
The optimal formulation of zinc lozenges and an ideal frequency of their administration should be examined. Given the evidence ... the safety of intranasal zinc has been called into question because of numerous reports of anosmia (loss of smell), in some ... Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold,url=,journal=The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,language=en,volume ... Loss of Sense of Smell with Intranasal Cold Remedies Containing Zinc,year=2009,url-status=live,archiveurl=https://web.archive. ...
Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine. There are three major categories of drug administration; ... enteral (by mouth), parenteral (into the blood stream), and other (which includes giving a drug through intranasal, topical, ... require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and immediately after administration, have ... In the U.S., the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration, and the 1938 ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 21 July 2017. Retrieved 15 October 2020.. This article incorporates text from this source, ... An intranasal formulation (Sprix) was approved by the FDA in 2010[31] for short-term management of moderate to moderately ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 15 October 2020. Retrieved 15 October 2020.. This article incorporates ... In October 2020, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) required the drug label to be updated for all nonsteroidal anti- ...
IM, IV, intranasal.. Bioavailability = 60-70% (intranasal); protein binding = 80%; volume of distribution = 487 L; hepatic ... Routes of administration. [40][41][42] Pharmacokinetics[39] Indications. [40][41][42] Major safety concerns. [40][41][42] ... Buccal, epidermal, IM, IV, intrathecal, intranasal, SC, sublingual.. Bioavailability = 50% (buccal), 89% (intranasal); protein ... IM, intrathecal, intranasal, PO, IV, SC.. Extensively metabolised to morphine with 6-acetylmorphine as a possible intermediate ...
Clausi, M.G.; Paez, P.M.; Campagnoni, A.T.; Pasquini, L.A.; Pasquini, J.M.; Ahmadiani, A. (2012). "Intranasal administration of ... It has also been shown that intranasal administration of apotransferrin (aTf) can protect myelin and induce remyelination.[29] ...
United States Food and Drug Administration. June 2013. p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 7 ... "Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibody-Mediated Glomerulonephritis after Intranasal Cocaine Use". Nephron. 81 (4): 434-438. ... United States Food and Drug Administration. June 2013. pp. 4-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 7 ... United States Food and Drug Administration. March 2007. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved ...
"Intranasal Xylitol, Recurrent Otitis Media, and Asthma: Report of Three Cases*". Nasal xylitol, from Clinical Practice of ... it does not correct hyponatremia as rapidly as administration of hypertonic saline does. Due to hypertonicity, administration ... Water privation combined with diuretic block does not produce as much risk of CPM as saline administration does; however, ... after either ophthalmic or intravenous administration.[20] However, ophthalmic use is done with sterile filtered drugs that is ...
... and in intranasal administration of ketamine to treat depression.[5] ... Member, Food and Drug Administration Psychopharmacologic Drug Advisory Committee. *Editorial Committee, Biological Psychiatry, ...
The administration of intranasal vinegar was found to ease the chronic and severe hiccups of a three-year-old Japanese girl. ... "食用酢の点鼻による吃逆の治療 Hiccup treated by administration of intranasal vinegar". No to Hattatsu. Brain and Development (in Japanese). 39 ... The Food and Drug Administration approved the vagus nerve stimulator in 1997 as a way to control seizures in some patients with ...
"Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37 (9): 1582-6. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Salivary levels of oxytocin remain elevated for more than two hours after intranasal oxytocin administration". Neuro ...
Less commonly sublingual, buccal, intranasal, and rectal administration, as well as intrauterine devices ... Vaginal administration - tablets, creams, suppositories, rings. *Intramuscular or subcutaneous injection - solutions in vials ... The current indications for use from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) include short-term treatment of ... or to the very low progesterone serum levels after oral administration leading to a high tumor inactivation rate.[39] ...
Central DI and gestational DI respond to desmopressin which is given as intranasal or oral tablets. Carbamazepine, an ... Lithium-induced nephrogenic DI may be effectively managed with the administration of amiloride, a potassium-sparing diuretic ...
Liang, XP; Lamm, ME; Nedrud, JG (Sep 1, 1988). "Oral administration of cholera toxin-Sendai virus conjugate potentiates gut and ... For example, systemic immunization along with co-administered intra-nasal delivery of virus-cholera toxin conjugate vaccine ...
"A Novel Inactivated Intranasal Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccine Promotes Viral Clearance without Th2 Associated Vaccine- ...
Wilkinson P, Van Dyke C, Jatlow P, Barash P, Byck R (1980). "Intranasal and oral cocaine kinetics". Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 27 ( ... 2000). "Effects of route of administration on cocaine induced dopamine transporter blockade in the human brain". Life Sciences ... "Role of cocaethylene in toxic symptoms due to repeated subcutaneous cocaine administration modified by oral doses of ethanol". ... and reinstatement of intravenous cocaine self-administration". Neuropsychopharmacology 34 (5): 1091-101. doi:10.1038/npp. ...
"Inhibition of serum androgen levels by chronic intranasal and subcutaneous administration of a potent luteinizing hormone- ... "Allopregnanolone elevations following pregnenolone administration are associated with enhanced activation of emotion ...
Sumatriptan (intranasal route of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults PMID 22336867 https://doi.org/10.1002/ ... Done Intranasal corticosteroids for non-allergic rhinitis PMID 31677153 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD010592.pub2 ... Systemic administration of local anesthetic agents to relieve neuropathic pain PMID 16235318 https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858. ... As required versus fixed schedule analgesic administration for postoperative pain in children PMID 25719451 https://doi.org/ ...
Argyria resulting from intranasal medication: a clinical and experimental study". Archives of Otolaryngology, 31 (1), 127-39 ( ... Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), Public Health Service (PHS), Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Final rule". ...
administration. Smoking, injection, snorted, by mouth[5]. Drug class. NMDA receptor antagonists; General anesthetics; ... Moderate doses (5-10 mg intranasal, or 0.01-0.02 mg/kg intramuscular or intravenous) will produce analgesia and anesthesia. ... Rockville (MD): Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (US); 2013-. PMID 27656747. PCP can lead to hostile ... Methods of administrationEdit. PCP comes in both powder and liquid forms (PCP base is dissolved most often in ether), but ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved tranexamic acid oral tablets (brand name Lysteda) for treatment of heavy ... Klepfish, A; Berrebi, A; Schattner, A (2001). "Intranasal tranexamic acid treatment for severe epistaxis in hereditary ... Shakur, Haleema; Roberts, Ian; Fawole, Bukola (April 2017). "Effect of early tranexamic acid administration on mortality, ...
administration. Oral, sublingual, intranasal, topical/transdermal, vaginal, intramuscular or subcutaneous (as an ester), ... Kuhl H (August 2005). "Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration". ... Kuhl H (August 2005). "Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration". ... "Single-dose pharmacokinetics of sublingual versus oral administration of micronized 17 beta-estradiol". Obstetrics and ...
Shamay-Tsoory SG, Fischer M, Dvash J, Harari H, Perach-Bloom N, Levkovitz Y (November 2009). "Intranasal administration of ...
Some drugs, such as diazepam, are poorly soluble and need to be aerosolized immediately prior to intranasal administration. Bio ... From the user standpoint, microneedles can be incorporated into a patch format for self-administration, and do not constitute a ...
Shamay-Tsoory SG, Fischer M, Dvash J, Harari H, Perach-Bloom N, Levkovitz Y (2009). "Intranasal administration of oxytocin ...
Intranasal. Testosterone. Natesto. Nasal spray. 11 mg 3x/day Transdermal. Testosterone. AndroGel, Testim, TestoGel. Gel. 25-125 ... "United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 16 November 2016.. *^ "Drug Product Database - Health Canada". Health ... administration. Transdermal (gel), in the cheek, under the tongue, intramuscular injection (as esters). ... The bioavailability of androstanolone differs considerably depending on its route of administration.[1][2] Its oral ...
MedImmune Press release MedImmune and National Institutes of Health Begin Clinical Testing of a Live, Attenuated Intranasal ... Depending on when its vaccine is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the plant could begin production as ... In June 2007, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) began enrolling participants in a Phase 1 H5N1 study of an intranasal ... This April 17, 2007 "approval by the Food and Drug Administration means the vaccine is no longer considered experimental and ...
Intranasal orexin is able to increase cognition in primates, especially under sleep deprived situations,[59] which may provide ... Suvorexant has undergone three phase III trials and was approved in 2014 by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) after ... Central administration of orexin-A strongly promotes wakefulness, increases body temperature and locomotion, and elicits a ... blocking the orexin-1 receptor with the selective orexin antagonist SB-334,867 reduced nicotine self-administration in rats and ...
... is the administration of antigenic material (a vaccine) to stimulate an individual's immune system to develop ... transdermal or intranasal.[59] Several recent clinical trials have aimed to deliver the vaccines via mucosal surfaces to be up- ... A vaccine administration may be oral, by injection (intramuscular, intradermal, subcutaneous), by puncture, ...
2014). Intranasal administration as a route for drug delivery to the brain: Evidence for a unique pathway for albumin. The ... Evgenev M.B., Garbuz D.G., Morozov A.V., Bobkova N.V. (2018) Intranasal Administration of Hsp70: Molecular and Therapeutic ... Taken together, our findings establish intranasal administration of exogenous human Hsp70 as a practical therapeutic approach ... 2008). Intranasal delivery bypasses the blood-brain barrier to target therapeutic agents to the central nervous system and ...
A composition and method for nasal administration of pharmaceuticals utilizes glycyrrhetinic acid as an absorption enhancer. ... The intranasal administration of vitamin B-12 is illustrated as follows.. 1 ml of a vitamin B-12 solution containing 1,000μg/ml ... The intranasal administration of human ACTH is illustrated as follows.. A 0.5% (w/v) 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid vehicle solution ... Pharmaceutical preparations for intranasal administration. US5989582 *. 14 Feb 1996. 23 Nov 1999. Weg; Stuart L.. ...
... the potential side-effects of intranasal oxytocin have remained largely unclear to date.... ... use of intranasal oxytocin administration in children, the potential side-effects of intranasal oxytocin have remained largely ... Oxytocin Side-effects Middle childhood Randomized controlled trial Intranasal administration This is a preview of subscription ... The current study suggests that single administration of intranasal oxytocin is likely safe in elementary school-aged children. ...
Intranasal Self-Administration of Remifentanil as the Foray into Opioid Abuse by an Anesthesia Resident. Levine, Adam I., MD; ... Intranasal Self-Administration of Remifentanil as the Foray into Opioid Abuse by an Anesthesia Resident ... The effect of intranasal administration of remifentanil on intubating conditions and airway response after sevoflurane ... On further questioning, he admitted to IV administration of fentanyl, which he had begun using several weeks prior. He reported ...
... ... We aimed at testing the immunomodulatory effects of intranasal versus intragastric administration of Lactobacillus paracasei ... A concerted selection of intervention schedule, doses, and administration routes (intranasal versus intragastric) may markedly ... Intranasal L. paracasei NCC2461 efficiently protected sensitized mice upon exposure to OVA aerosols in a dose-dependent manner ...
A Study of Diazepam After Intranasal and Intravenous Administration to Healthy Volunteers. This study has been completed. ... A Study of Diazepam After Intranasal and Intravenous Administration to Healthy Volunteers. ... It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and is currently sold as Valium® tablets ... Positive serum pregnancy test at Screening or urine pregnancy test prior to each administration of study drug for all women, ...
Drug: Epinephrin (Intranasal injection) Drug: Epinephrin (Topical administration) Hide Detailed Description Detailed ... Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The safety and scientific ... Active Comparator: Topical administration An an intranasal injection of saline will be used as control, and thereafter cotton ... Drug: Epinephrin (Topical administration) An intranasal injection of saline solution, followed by placement of cotton pledgets ...
... Sci Rep. 2018 Sep 24;8(1):14257. doi: ... In the present study, intranasal administration of a concentrated formulation proved to be a valid method to expose the lungs ... While oral administration of resveratrol effectively inhibited colorectal carcinogenesis, it failed to protect mice from ...
We have previously shown that intranasal (i.n.) administration of a single MHC class II-restricted HY peptide to female mice ... Molecular Mechanisms of Induction of Antigen-Specific Allograft Tolerance by Intranasal Peptide Administration. Katy Derbyshire ... Molecular Mechanisms of Induction of Antigen-Specific Allograft Tolerance by Intranasal Peptide Administration ... Molecular Mechanisms of Induction of Antigen-Specific Allograft Tolerance by Intranasal Peptide Administration ...
Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of ... ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre- ... Sun Z, Wang Q, Jia R, Xia S, Li Y, Liu Q, Xu W, Xu J, Du L, Lu L, Jiang S. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride- ... Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of ...
... after intranasal administration of Asari Radix et Rhizoma (AR). In total, 47 absorbed AR constituents including 14 monoterpenes ... and comprehensively analyze the absorbed constituents after intranasal administration of TCM. These findings extend our ... Keywords: nasal therapy; Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum; intranasal administration; effective substance; ... Identification of Absorbed Constituents in the Rabbit Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid after Intranasal Administration of Asari ...
... intranasal COVI-AMG nAb (STI-2099 or COVI-DROPSTM) very early on decreased COVID-19 disease severity and shortened the duration ... of the disease in infected hamsters, and * Sorrento is in preparation for IND filings for both intranasal COVI-DROPS nAb (STI- ... 1B and 1C Illustration of administration of neutralization antibodies * In an IND-enabling study, ...
Discover how intranasal administration of the opioid reversal agent naloxone fared as compared with IV administration. ... Intranasal Naloxone Administration in Dogs. Travis Lanaux, DVM, DACVECC, University of Florida ... Naloxone half-life was similar for both routes of administration (IV, 37 ± 6.7 minutes; intranasal, 47.4 ± 6.7 minutes). It is ... Naloxone was detectable in plasma 2.3 ± 1.4 minutes after intranasal administration; mean time to maximum concentration in ...
Intranasal Administration of Recombinant Influenza Vaccines in Chimeric Mouse Models to Study Mucosal Immunity. doi: 10.3791/ ... Pérez-Girón, J. V., Gómez-Medina, S., Lüdtke, A., Munoz-Fontela, C. Intranasal Administration of Recombinant Influenza Vaccines ... Pérez-Girón, J. V., Gómez-Medina, S., Lüdtke, A., Munoz-Fontela, C. Intranasal Administration of Recombinant Influenza Vaccines ... Pérez-Girón, J. V., Gómez-Medina, S., Lüdtke, A., Munoz-Fontela, C. Intranasal Administration of Recombinant Influenza Vaccines ...
These findings suggest that intranasal insulin administration could be an effective approach to prevent the increased risk of ... These findings suggest that intranasal insulin administration could be an effective approach to prevent the increased risk of ... Importantly, insulin administered through intranasal delivery prior to anesthesia was found to prevent the anesthesia-induced ... Importantly, insulin administered through intranasal delivery prior to anesthesia was found to prevent the anesthesia-induced ...
Brain Uptake of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Antagonist Exendin(9-39) after Intranasal Administration. William A. Banks, Matthew ... Brain Uptake of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Antagonist Exendin(9-39) after Intranasal Administration. William A. Banks, Matthew ... Brain Uptake of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Antagonist Exendin(9-39) after Intranasal Administration. William A. Banks, Matthew ... Brain Uptake of the Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Antagonist Exendin(9-39) after Intranasal Administration ...
Intranasal administration of neural stem cell-mediated enzym/prodrug therapy using a novel HSV-thymidine kinase variant ... Those receiving additional intranasal administration of NSC-TK007 displayed a significant tumor growth inhibition of 81% versus ... Here, we demonstrate that the non-invasive intranasal administration of tumor-targeting NSC is able to deliver a novel suicide ... Therapeutic effects of intratumoral (3x105 cells) and intranasal (1.5x106) NSC-TK007 application alone and the sequential ...
Activity-Dependent Neurotrophic Factor: Intranasal Administration of Femtomolar-Acting Peptides Improve Performance in a Water ... Activity-Dependent Neurotrophic Factor: Intranasal Administration of Femtomolar-Acting Peptides Improve Performance in a Water ... Activity-Dependent Neurotrophic Factor: Intranasal Administration of Femtomolar-Acting Peptides Improve Performance in a Water ... Activity-Dependent Neurotrophic Factor: Intranasal Administration of Femtomolar-Acting Peptides Improve Performance in a Water ...
... by intranasal route, or by intradermal, intramuscular or subcutaneous injection for the ... CERTIFICATION FOR DRUG ADMINISTRATION BY INJECTION AND INTRANASAL ROUTE Effective December 3, 2015, the Ministry of Health made ... They must complete the intranasal administration online module and complete the "intranasal administration declaration" through ... Apply for Drug Administration Submit the Application for Certification - Drug Administration by Injection and Intranasal Route ...
Intranasal administration, Middle childhood, Oxytocin, Randomized controlled trial, Side-effects Persistent URL dx.doi.org/ ... use of intranasal oxytocin administration in children, the potential side-effects of intranasal oxytocin have remained largely ... No side-effects of single intranasal oxytocin administration in middle childhood. Publication. Publication. Psychopharmacology ... The current study suggests that single administration of intranasal oxytocin is likely safe in elementary school-aged children. ...
Figure S1 Cine of 3-dimensional reconstruction of dynamic PET data after [18F]FLT intranasal administration co-registered with ... Figure S2 Cine of 3-dimensional reconstruction of dynamic PET data after [18F]FLT intranasal administration co-registered with ... Pharmacoimaging of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeable (FDG) and Impermeable (FLT) Substrates After Intranasal (IN) Administration. ... This product is modified to meet the requirements for administration to small animals. A 1.5-2.0 mL sample is withdrawn from ...
Intranasal administration of oxytocin decreases task-related aggressive responses in healthy young males. Publication. ... Intranasal administration of oxytocin decreases task-related aggressive responses in healthy young males. ... In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of intranasal oxytocin (32IU) on taskrelated aggressive ... Our results indicate that oxytocin administration reduces aggressive behavior in healthy young men. Moreover, increased ...
Intranasal Administration of Synthetic Recombinant Peptide-Based Vaccine Protects Mice from Infection by Schistosoma mansoni T ... Intranasal Administration of Synthetic Recombinant Peptide-Based Vaccine Protects Mice from Infection by Schistosoma mansoni ... Intranasal Administration of Synthetic Recombinant Peptide-Based Vaccine Protects Mice from Infection by Schistosoma mansoni ... Intranasal Administration of Synthetic Recombinant Peptide-Based Vaccine Protects Mice from Infection by Schistosoma mansoni ...
intranasal administration. absorption enhancing. administration containing. enhancing system. Prior art date. 1986-12-16. ... Device for intranasal administration UY32514A (en) 2009-03-27. 2010-10-29. Glaxo Group Ltd. MERGERS & Conjugates of a drug ... Insulin preparation for intranasal administration NL193099C (en) * 1981-10-30. 1998-11-03. Novo Industri As. Stabilized insulin ... Therapeutic compositions for intranasal administration comprising ketorolac. DK36492D0 (en) * 1992-03-19. 1992-03-19. Novo ...
Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against ... Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against ... Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against ... Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against ...
Intranasal administration of recombinant human cartilage glycoprotein-39. A phase I escalating cohort study in patients with ... Intranasal administration of recombinant human cartilage glycoprotein-39. A phase I escalating cohort study in patients with ... Intranasal administration of recombinant human cartilage glycoprotein-39. A phase I escalating cohort study in patients with ... Intranasal administration of recombinant human cartilage glycoprotein-39. A phase I escalating cohort study in patients with ...
Intranasal and epicutaneous administration of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists provides protection against influenza A ... We concluded that intranasal imiquimod facilitates a more effective immune response, which can limit the pathology associated ... In mice, daily intranasal delivery of imiquimod prevented peak viral replication, bodyweight loss, airway and pulmonary ... In the present study, we examined the effect of intranasal delivery of the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod or its topical formulation ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
... Pharmaceutical ... Intranasal Drug Delivery - Away from Needles. In the current scenario, although needle-based injections are the most common ... Further, as emerging intranasal delivery technologies eliminate the use of needles, there is no risk of needle-stick problems. ... The shortcomings of needle-based injections along with fear among patients has led to the onset of novel needleless intranasal ...
  • Comparison of the Absolute Bioavailability of Two Intranasal Diazepam Formulations. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This study will evaluate two intranasal (nasal spray) formulations of diazepam which will be supplied by Neurelis, Inc. The purpose of this clinical research study is to assess the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of two formulations of diazepam after intranasal (nasal spray) and injectable diazepam after intravenous (I.V.) administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Bioavailability of a novel midazolam gel after intranasal administration in dogs. (lsh.is)
  • The aim of the present study was to clarify the effect of the changes in MC on in vivo drug absorption after nasal application, and to justify the pharmacokinetic model to which the MC parameter was introduced, to enable prediction of bioavailability after intranasal administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Bioavailability based on appearance in arterial serum showed that about 23% and 14% of the intranasal administered doses of pregnenolone and progesterone, respectively, entered the blood. (wustl.edu)
  • In the present study, we examined the effect of intranasal delivery of the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod or its topical formulation Aldara, on the inflammation and pathogenesis caused by IAV infection. (flu.org.cn)
  • In a publication by Schmidt 5 on the effect of intranasal insulin it was found to improve cognitive and motor functions, as well as non-verbal communication in children with Phelan-McDremid syndrome. (sdnn70.com)
  • To study the therapeutic effect of intranasal administration of temozolomide (TMZ) for brain -targeting delivery in a rat model bearing orthotopic C6 glioma xenografts . (bvsalud.org)
  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intranasal and intravenous naloxone hydrochloride administration in healthy dogs. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • SAN DIEGO, Nov. 11, 2020 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Sorrento Therapeutics, Inc. , (Nasdaq: SRNE, "Sorrento") announced today that it is filing an investigational new drug application (IND) for intranasal (IN) COVI-DROPS (STI-2099) to study the safety and pharmacokinetics in both healthy volunteers and patients with mild COVID-19. (biospace.com)
  • However, the pharmacokinetics of intranasal ketorolac when administered in children has only been described in a limited fashion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The pharmacokinetics of norfloxacin (NFX) after intranasal administration were evaluated following the modification of nasal MC by pretreatment with the MC inhibitors propranolol and atropine and the MC enhancers terbutaline and acetylcholine chloride. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, our findings establish intranasal administration of exogenous human Hsp70 as a practical therapeutic approach for the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases and aging. (springer.com)
  • Despite growing interest in the (therapeutic) use of intranasal oxytocin administration in children, the potential side-effects of intranasal oxytocin have remained largely unclear to date. (springer.com)
  • Therapeutic effects of intratumoral (3x10 5 cells) and intranasal (1.5x10 6 ) NSC-TK007 application alone and the sequential combination of both was tested using an intracranial U87 human glioblastoma model in nude mice. (egms.de)
  • Therapeutic effects of intranasal corticosteroids, unlike those of decongestants, are not immediate. (drugs.com)
  • Intranasal application of the neuropeptide oxytocin has been reported to produce a number of neural, physiological and behavior effects which may be of potential therapeutic relevance, but it is unclear the extent to which they are mediated directly via the peptide entering the brain or indirectly as a result of increased peripheral concentrations. (trialbulletin.com)
  • The intention of this Viewpoint is to deliberate if an enhanced therapeutic effect may be accomplished via the administration of drug therapy through the nasal cavity traversing the cribriform plate to access the brain, for COVID-19 cases with the central nervous system involvement. (curofy.com)
  • During the research of Shank3 groundbreaking biological discoveries were made, which shifted the focus of therapeutic solutions from intranasal insulin to intranasal proinsulin C-peptide. (sdnn70.com)
  • [8] In a submission to the Therapeutic Goods Administration , a Novartis representative concluded, "The justification was not based on evidence. (rug.nl)
  • Intranasal administration of prenenolone improved memory, whereas progesterone decreased anxiety, thus demonstrating that therapeutic levels of neurosteroids can be delivered to the brain by intranasal administration. (wustl.edu)
  • Intranasal L. paracasei NCC2461 efficiently protected sensitized mice upon exposure to OVA aerosols in a dose-dependent manner as compared to control mice. (hindawi.com)
  • Single-dose vials and manufacturer-filled syringes are designed for single-dose administration and should be discarded if vaccine has been withdrawn or reconstituted and subsequently not used within the time frame specified by the manufacturer. (cdc.gov)
  • If the vaccine recipient sneezes after administration, do not repeat the dose. (pdr.net)
  • In the current placebo-controlled, double blind experiment on healthy adult male subjects the investigators will measure the effects of a single dose of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) on brain activity (using electroencephaolography - EEG) as well as on cardiac (heart-rate and heart-rate variablility) and gastric (electrogastrogram - EGG) activity and physiological arousal (skin conductance response - SCR). (trialbulletin.com)
  • For children 1 month to 5months old, intranasal midazolam is dosed at 0.2mg/kg/dose. (sgh.com.sg)
  • We report a case of acute pulmonary edema in a pediatric patient who developed severe hypertension after the inadvertent administration of a large dose of topical nasal phenylephrine, followed by beta-adrenergic antagonists (esmolol). (ndsl.kr)
  • This proposed route renders obvious benefits over the conventional intravenous route, in that it will permit utilization of water-soluble drugs to attain an effective concentration of drugs at the epicenter of infection, overcome the blood-brain barrier impediment, and produce minimal adverse effects due to nonsystemic administration and dose adjustment at a quicker pace. (curofy.com)
  • This review found that a single intranasal dose was effective in relieving migraine headache pain and associated symptoms of nausea, sensitivity to light, and sensitivity to sound. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The development and validation of a simple and accurate method based on HPLC with ultraviolet detection for the quantification of zidovudine in rat plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study following a single intranasal dose zidovudine is described. (bvsalud.org)
  • After a single intranasal dose of zidovudine administered to rats , pharmacokinetic parameters (AUC0 24, Cmax, t , t1/2) were determined. (bvsalud.org)
  • The advantages of advanced intranasal vaccine delivery technologies over the existing treatments has created lucrative opportunities for drug manufacturers. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • The FDA does not license administration syringes for vaccine storage. (cdc.gov)
  • For administration of routinely recommended vaccines, there is no evidence of risk of exposure of vaccine components to the health care provider, so conditions in the provider labeled as contraindications and precautions to a vaccine components are not a reason to withdraw from this function of administering the vaccine to someone else. (cdc.gov)
  • This chapter summarizes best practices related to vaccine administration, a key factor in ensuring vaccination is as safe and effective as possible. (cdc.gov)
  • Policies should be in place to validate health care professional's knowledge of, and skills in, vaccine administration. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, health care professionals should receive educational updates as needed, such as when vaccine administration recommendations are updated or when new vaccines are added to the facility's inventory. (cdc.gov)
  • Training should also be offered to temporary staff who may be filling in on days when the facility is short-staffed or helping during peak periods of vaccine administration such as influenza season. (cdc.gov)
  • Once initial training has been completed, accountability checks should be in place to ensure staff follow all vaccine administration policies and procedures. (cdc.gov)
  • A purified lipopolysaccharide Pseudomonas aeruginosa vaccine was administered via intranasal spray to cystic fibrosis patients in an attempt to induce development of local antibody without the side effects associated with parenteral administration of the vaccine. (elsevier.com)
  • Although slight increases in serum antibody titers were noted, there was no appreciable change in specific antibody levels in parotid saliva or sputum following intranasal administration of the vaccine. (elsevier.com)
  • Prior to the administration of the intranasal influenza vaccine, health care personnel should inform the patient, parent, guardian, or responsible adult of the vaccine's benefits and risks. (pdr.net)
  • According to U.S. federal laws, the health care provider must record in the patient's permanent record: the manufacturer, lot number, date of administration, and the name and address of the person administering the vaccine. (pdr.net)
  • Visually inspect the vaccine before administration. (pdr.net)
  • The intranasal vaccine program is supported by an up-to-eight-year contract from the NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), the value of which could reach $24 million if all options are exercised. (biotechnews.com.au)
  • This approach may obviate the need for intranodal administration, while still permitting direct in vivo application of an off-the-shelf mRNA vaccine formulation via conventional routes of administration. (nature.com)
  • Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). (elsevier.com)
  • In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. (elsevier.com)
  • No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. (elsevier.com)
  • Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted. (elsevier.com)
  • What side effects can Intranasal Midazolam Administration cause? (sgh.com.sg)
  • Before taking Intranasal Midazolam Administration, what precautions must I follow? (sgh.com.sg)
  • What food or medicine must I avoid when I take Intranasal Midazolam Administration? (sgh.com.sg)
  • How should Intranasal Midazolam Administration be used? (sgh.com.sg)
  • How should I handle Intranasal Midazolam Administration safely? (sgh.com.sg)
  • How should I store Intranasal Midazolam Administration? (sgh.com.sg)
  • How should I dispose of Intranasal Midazolam Administration safely? (sgh.com.sg)
  • Intranasal administration of midazolam has been of particular interest because of the rapid and reliable onset of action, predictable effects, and avoidance of injections. (lsh.is)
  • The available intravenous formulation (Dormicum i.v. solution from Hoffmann-La Roche) is however less than optimal for intranasal administration due to low midazolam concentration and acidity of the formulation (pH 3.0-3.3). (lsh.is)
  • Intranasal midazolam: a comparison of two delivery devices in human volunteers. (lsh.is)
  • Intranasal and buccal midazolam in the treatment of acute seizures]. (lsh.is)
  • A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study, in healthy volunteers, of a rapidly absorbed intranasal midazolam formulation. (lsh.is)
  • A pharmacokinetic study of midazolam in dogs: nasal drop vs. atomizer administration. (lsh.is)
  • Primosch RE,Bender F.Factors associated with administration route when using midazolam for pediatric conscious sedation[J]. ASDC J Dent Child,2001,68(4): 233-238,228. (actacams.com)
  • Primosch RE,Guelmann M.Comparison of drops versus spray administration of intranasal midazolam in two-and three-year-old children for dental sedation[J]. Pediatr Dent,2005,27(5):401-408. (actacams.com)
  • Objective- This study aimed to compare sedation efficacy in intranasal administration of xylazine, diazepam and midazolam with or without ketamine in Chough. (ivsajournals.com)
  • 3,4 Intranasal administration of xylazine, midazolam and diazepam has been reported in some species of bird such as pigeons and canaries. (ivsajournals.com)
  • Upregulation of endogenous neurotrophin levels in the brain by intranasal administration of carnosic acid. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Epitopes described in Protection of nonobese diabetic mice from diabetes by intranasal or subcutaneous administration of insulin peptide B-(9-23). (iedb.org)
  • Significant rises in total IgE and the presence of IgE-omalizumab complexes were seen with subcutaneous administration of omalizumab. (medicalxpress.com)
  • While oral administration of resveratrol effectively inhibited colorectal carcinogenesis, it failed to protect mice from chemically-induced lung carcinogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • We have previously shown that intranasal (i.n.) administration of a single MHC class II-restricted HY peptide to female mice induces tolerance to up to five additional epitopes expressed on test male grafts, a phenomenon known as linked suppression. (jimmunol.org)
  • Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Recently, intranasal (i.n.) immunization of mice with a recombinant BCG strain expressing GST was reported to induce humoral responses as well as antibodies which neutralized the enzyme activity ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • In mice, daily intranasal delivery of imiquimod prevented peak viral replication, bodyweight loss, airway and pulmonary inflammation, and lung neutrophils. (flu.org.cn)
  • To determine how the route of immunization affects CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs of mice vaccinated with a murine cytomegalovirus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus matrix (M) protein, we infected CB6F1 mice via the intranasal or intraperitoneal route and evaluated the M-specific CD8+ T cell response at early and late time points. (edu.au)
  • In the present study, we relied on a recently devised experimental model of conduct disorder in mice to test the potential efficacy of intranasal oxytocin administration. (ru.nl)
  • Two subgroups of BALB/cJ male mice exhibiting opposite profiles in emotional contagion (i.e. socially transmitted adoption of another's emotional states) underwent a series of tests mapping onto reactive aggression, information processing, perseverative behaviour, punishment-related emotional memory, physiological arousal and hormonal stress reactivity, with or without intranasal oxytocin administration (5.0 or 20.0 mug/kg). (ru.nl)
  • Moreover, in the absence of changes in oxytocin receptor density in the neural network involved in empathy-like behaviour, we showed that oxytocin administration normalised emotional contagion, aggression and behavioural stereotypies, thereby ameliorating the phenotype of mice characterised by deficient empathy-like behaviour. (ru.nl)
  • Intranodal injection is an extremely invasive procedure in mice and hence not amenable for repeated administrations. (nature.com)
  • In the present study, intranasal administration of a concentrated formulation proved to be a valid method to expose the lungs to a sufficient amount of resveratrol. (nih.gov)
  • Limited solubility is one problem, especially at relatively small volumes (100-150 µl) of dosage forms to be administered intranasally, and nasal administration also poses constraints with the choice of excipients (e.g., solubilizers, surfactants) that can be used in the formulation. (pharmtech.com)
  • Nanosuspensions, defined as dispersion of crystalline particles below 1000 nm dia. in aqueous media, can be used as an alternate formulation strategy for intranasal delivery of poorly water soluble drugs. (pharmtech.com)
  • The current study is the first double-blind randomized controlled trial to examine side-effects following single administration of oxytocin nasal spray in elementary school-aged children. (springer.com)
  • We assessed side-effects by means of a standardized, drug-specific questionnaire and an open-ended question at two time points: 90 min after nasal spray administration and 24 h after administration. (springer.com)
  • In response, we have developed a novel pneumatically driven IN spray device for the administration of NPs, which is capable of administering extremely small quantities (50-100 μ l) of NP suspension in a fine spray that disperses the NPs uniformly onto the tissue. (asme.org)
  • IN administration of STL-functionalized NPs using the IN spray device increased brain tissue haloperidol concentrations by a factor of 1.2-1.5× compared to STL-functionalized NPs administered IN with a pipette. (asme.org)
  • Objective To compare two spray administration of intranasal dexmedetomidine (DEX) doses for premedication in children. (actacams.com)
  • Children were assigned to receive either spray administration of intranasal DEX 1 μg/kg (Group D1) or 2 μg/kg (Group D2). (actacams.com)
  • In Group D2,the HR decreased by 15.8% ( t =2.415, P =0.021) 30 min after the spray administration of intranasal DEX. (actacams.com)
  • t =-1.096, P =0.280)and HR in group D1 ( t =-0.299, P =0.767) 30 min after the spray administration of intranasal DEX. (actacams.com)
  • Conclusion Spray administration of intranasal DEX 2 μg/kg provides superior sedation in children. (actacams.com)
  • Comparison of Sedative Effects of Two Spray Administration of Intranasal Dexmedetomidine Doses for Premedication in Children[J].Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinica, 2016, 38(5): 563-567. (actacams.com)
  • In the beginning of 2020 a team of special education teachers, speech-therapists, a psychologist and a health visitor conducted a pilot study in order to evaluate the experiences of clients using the intranasal C-peptide spray. (sdnn70.com)
  • As a conclusion we recommend to start clinical examinations concerning the effects of the usage of the intranasal C-peptide spray. (sdnn70.com)
  • It is available as a nasal spray, and this route of administration may be preferable for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting, although absorption of the drug occurs primarily in the gut rather than the nasal mucosa. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Anesthetized rats were administered FLT or FDG by intranasal instillation (IN) or tail-vein injection (IV). (springer.com)
  • The formulations were administered [intranasal (i.n.)/subcutaneous route] in Sprague-Dawley rats, and the neurotrophins were sampled from the brain by microdialysis after the treatment period and measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Both strategies reduce cocaine-induced locomotor activity and self-administration in rats. (pnas.org)
  • Its goals are to assess the impact of a drug's particle size distribution (PSD) on its pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters following intranasal administration in rats, and to evaluate the feasibility of using an in-line high shear homogenizer (IHSH) to prepare CXB nanosuspensions. (pharmtech.com)
  • The suspensions were tested for PK parameters following intranasal administration in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=6/group). (pharmtech.com)
  • The research discussed in this article aims to develop a stable nanosuspension of a poorly water-soluble drug and assess the impact of its particle size distribution (PSD) (micron- vs. nano-sized) on pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters following intranasal administration in rats. (pharmtech.com)
  • Intranasal TMZ administration can suppress the growth of C6 glioma in rats and may serve as an effective strategy for glioma treatment . (bvsalud.org)
  • In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of intranasal oxytocin (32IU) on taskrelated aggressive responses were measured using the Point Subtraction Aggression Paradigm (PSAP). (eur.nl)
  • In addition, oxytocin was measured in urine collected directly after the experimental task, reflecting the 2 h period after oxytocin or placebo administration. (eur.nl)
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and tolerability of intranasal sumatriptan compared to placebo and other active interventions in the treatment of acute migraine attacks in adults. (ox.ac.uk)
  • SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised, double-blind, placebo- and/or active-controlled studies using intranasal sumatriptan to treat a migraine headache episode, with at least 10 participants per treatment arm. (ox.ac.uk)
  • MAIN RESULTS: Twelve studies (4755 participants) compared intranasal sumatriptan with placebo or an active comparator. (ox.ac.uk)
  • AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Intranasal sumatriptan is effective as an abortive treatment for acute migraine attacks, relieving pain, nausea, photophobia, phonophobia, and functional disability, but is associated with increased adverse events compared with placebo. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using a double-blind, placebo-controlled within-subjects design, we studied the effects of 16 IU of intranasal oxytocin on ERPs to pictures combining performance feedback with emotional facial expressions in 48 female undergraduate students. (isharonline.org)
  • Intranasal oxytocin or placebo followed by a visual probe detection task with faces depicting anger, disgust, and happiness was administered to 64 female subjects: 31 patients with anorexia nervosa and 33 control students. (plos.org)
  • Study 2: There was a significant increase in uOT levels after administration of INOT, but not after administration of placebo. (umn.edu)
  • There was no significant correlation between uOT and pOT levels following placebo administration. (umn.edu)
  • Julia Eckl-Dorna, M.D., Ph.D., from the Medical University of Vienna, and colleagues performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to assess the effect of a challenge involving intranasal administration of major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, omalizumab , or placebo on the levels of total and allergen-specific IgE in patients with birch pollen allergy. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A within-subject, randomized controlled double-blind design was used to test the effects of nasal administration of OT or placebo on sensitive caregiving. (vu.nl)
  • Effective December 3, 2015, the Ministry of Health made an amendment to the Pharmacists Regulation which allows for qualified pharmacists to administer a drug (Schedule I, IA or II) or substance (Schedule III) by intranasal route, or by intradermal, intramuscular or subcutaneous injection for the prevention of disease, disorders or conditions, and for the treatment of anaphylaxis. (bcpharmacists.org)
  • Needle insertion angles for 4 types of parenteral administration of medication: intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intradermal injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the paraoxon model of organophosphate poisoning, we administered the standard treatment (intramuscular pralidoxime plus atropine sulphate) to all animals and then compared the effectiveness of intranasal application of obidoxime (OBD) to saline in the control groups. (healthpartners.com)
  • A needle-free intranasal glucagon preparation was compared with intramuscular glucagon for treatment of insulin-induced hypoglycemia. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • median diabetes duration, 18 years) to compare intranasal (3 mg) versus intramuscular (1 mg) glucagon for treatment of hypoglycemia induced by intravenous insulin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS Mean plasma glucose at time of glucagon administration was 48 ± 8 and 49 ± 8 mg/dL at the intranasal and intramuscular visits, respectively. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The intranasal (IN) route of administering medications is an effective means of delivering analgesics to children in a painless and minimally distressing manner, especially in comparison to traditional means of intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM) administration, which require a painful and distressing needle stick. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Hypocretin-1 (HC, orexin-A) is a neuropeptide involved in regulating physiological functions of sleep, appetite and arousal, and it has been shown that intranasal (IN) administration can target HC to the brain. (healthpartners.com)
  • In all, this study is the first randomized controlled trial to provide information on the safety of intranasal oxytocin administration in middle childhood. (springer.com)
  • In the current scenario, although needle-based injections are the most common route of drug delivery and administration of vaccines, the trend is witnessing a rapid change. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • Hands should be cleansed with an alcohol-based waterless antiseptic hand rub or washed with soap and water before preparing vaccines for administration and between each patient contact ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Because the majority of vaccines have a similar appearance after being drawn into a syringe, prefilling might result in administration errors. (cdc.gov)
  • Administration involves a series of actions: assessing patient vaccination status and determining needed vaccines, screening for contraindications and precautions, educating patients, preparing and administering vaccines properly, and documenting the vaccines administered. (cdc.gov)
  • BlueWillow's NanoVax platform uses a proprietary oil-in-water nanoemulsion adjuvant designed to enable intranasal vaccines for respiratory and sexually transmitted diseases. (biotechnews.com.au)
  • In addition to BW-1010, BlueWillow's lead product candidates include intranasal vaccines for RSV, pertussis, HSV-2, chlamydia and peanut allergy. (biotechnews.com.au)
  • We found that intranasal vaccination generated robust and durable tissue-resident effector and effector memory CD8+ T cell populations that were undetectable after intraperitoneal vaccination. (edu.au)
  • The researchers found that intranasal challenge with Bet v 1 induced increases of Bet v 1-specific IgE levels by a median of 59.2 percent, which was significantly more than in the other treatment groups. (medicalxpress.com)
  • In hospice care , a specialized rectal catheter , designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications provides a practical way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in the distal rectum, giving health practitioners a way to leverage the established benefits of rectal administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite the progress that has been made in various formulations, intranasal administration of high dosage, poorly water soluble drugs remains challenging. (pharmtech.com)
  • After obtaining informed consent, patients will be assigned to one of two groups - intranasal injection group (IG) or topical application (TG) of epinephrine, by computer-generated assignment of random numbers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The shortcomings of needle-based injections along with fear among patients has led to the onset of novel needleless intranasal drug delivery technologies such as mucosal atomization devices. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • It is used to facilitate the self administration of intranasal fentanyl preparations for patients admitted to non-specialist palliative in-patient settings within Aneurin Bevan Health Board. (awttc.org)
  • The study comes from Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) who found that it may take only a few hours after administration of ketamine to reduce the suicidal thoughts in the patients. (news-medical.net)
  • In such patients, mild-to-moderate hypoglycemia (blood glucose 50-70 mg/dL) occurs frequently and responds in most cases to oral carbohydrate administration ( 2 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Kim Y-R, Kim C-H, Park JH, Pyo J, Treasure J (2014) The Impact of Intranasal Oxytocin on Attention to Social Emotional Stimuli in Patients with Anorexia Nervosa: A Double Blind within-Subject Cross-over Experiment. (plos.org)
  • en] In 12 patients (11 girls, 1 boy) with central precocious puberty and 4 patients (3 girls, 1 boy) with idiopathic short stature treated for 1 year with a GnRH superagonist, buserelin (0.3 mg intranasally, 4 times a day), a variable degree of inhibition of sex steroid secretion and pubertal development was observed. (ecoruspace.me)
  • Moreover, a high incidence of pulmonary edema is found in patients whose phenylephrine administration is followed by treatment with beta-blocking agents. (ndsl.kr)
  • HealthDay)-In patients with birch pollen allergy, intranasal administration of omalizumab does not result in relevant change of allergen-specific and total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels, according to a pilot study published online Oct. 30 in Allergy . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Research suggests that intranasal nanosuspensions offer a promising way to formulate and deliver drugs that are poorly soluble in water to patients with chronic conditions. (pharmtech.com)
  • A moderate inflammatory response of the turbinate mucosa, that was expressed by leukocyte infiltration of epithelium and chorion, was observed in all of the 3 drug-treated groups of patients after the 2-week course of intranasal deposition of MF, AZ or SC. (ent-review.com)
  • Objective: We used light microscopy to search for local changes of the nasal mucosa associated with daily intranasal administration of mometasone furoate (MF), azelastine (AZ) or salmon calcitonin (SC). (ent-review.com)
  • Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Routes of administration are usually classified by application location (or exposition). (wikipedia.org)
  • Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still commonly referred to as routes of administration . (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of Substances to Laboratory Animals: Routes of Administration and Factors to Consider. (psu.edu)
  • Notably, intravenous and subcutaneous injections are the only routes of administration tested for mRNA nanoparticle tumor vaccination. (nature.com)
  • We aimed to find a large cohort of Reddit users interested in discussing the use of opioids, trace the temporal evolution of their interest, and extensively characterize patterns of the nonmedical consumption of opioids, with a focus on routes of administration and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • We used a semiautomatic information retrieval algorithm to identify subreddits discussing nonmedical opioid consumption and developed a methodology based on word embedding to find alternative colloquial and nonmedical terms referring to opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug-tampering methods. (jmir.org)
  • We modeled the preferences of adoption of substances and routes of administration, estimating their prevalence and temporal unfolding. (jmir.org)
  • Ultimately, through the evaluation of odds ratios based on co-mentions, we measured the strength of association between opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • We learned the language model of opioid consumption and provided alternative vocabularies for opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • A data-driven taxonomy of nonmedical routes of administration was proposed. (jmir.org)
  • We modeled the temporal evolution of interest in opioid consumption by ranking the popularity of the adoption of opioid substances and routes of administration, observing relevant trends, such as the surge in synthetic opioids like fentanyl and an increasing interest in rectal administration. (jmir.org)
  • In addition, we measured the strength of association between drug tampering, routes of administration, and substance consumption, finding evidence of understudied abusive behaviors, like chewing fentanyl patches and dissolving buprenorphine sublingually. (jmir.org)
  • These results show that either the i.v. or intranasal routes of administration can deliver neurosteroids to blood and brain, but that the two routes have significant differences with intranasal administration favoring some brain regions. (wustl.edu)
  • Intranasal delivery is an emerging method for bypassing the blood brain barrier (BBB) and targeting therapeutics to the CNS. (healthpartners.com)
  • The intranasal route is expected to be enabled by the high potency of the antibody and is quite promising against this highly contagious respiratory pathogen," stated Dr. Henry Ji, Chairman and CEO of Sorrento Therapeutics. (biospace.com)
  • ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries. (mdpi.com)
  • Following i.n. peptide plus LPS administration, causing immunization, HY-specific CD4 + T cells express genes characteristic of activated T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • A composition and method for nasal administration of pharmaceuticals utilizes glycyrrhetinic acid as an absorption enhancer. (google.com.au)
  • This is the first study to explore the absorption of AR, and comprehensively analyze the absorbed constituents after intranasal administration of TCM. (mdpi.com)
  • It is unclear if nasal conformation (eg, brachycephaly, dolichocephaly) affects intranasal absorption. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • Drug absorption after intranasal application depends on the nasal retention of the drug, which is determined by the nasal mucociliary clearance. (elsevier.com)
  • Importantly, insulin administered through intranasal delivery prior to anesthesia was found to prevent the anesthesia-induced long-term behavioral abnormalities, reduction of PSD95, and activation of neuronal apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • A single intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg FBP resulted in significantly reduced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Fas-mediated apoptosis leading to decreased infarct volumes, reduced neurologic deficit scores and recovery from cerebral ischemia. (nature.com)
  • In the glioma xenografts , PCNA expression was the lowest and tumor cell apoptosis rate the highest in intranasal TMZ group. (bvsalud.org)
  • The peak serum concentration from nasal application, 42 +/- 11 ng ml-1, was reached within 10-15 min following administration and clinical sedative effects were observed within 5 to 10 min and lasted for about 40 min. (lsh.is)
  • Intravenous administration gave clinical sedative effects within 3 to 4 min, which lasted for about 35 minutes. (lsh.is)
  • The sedative effects of intranasal dexmedetomidine, ketamine and morphine combination were evaluated in young dogs. (journalcra.com)
  • Here, we show that, although intranasal vaccination with cationic liposomes in combination with antigenic protein elicited GM-CSF expression at the site of administration, blocking GM-CSF function by using an anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibody did not alter antigen-specific antibody production induced by DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes, indicating that GM-CSF may not contribute to the mucosal adjuvant activity of the cationic liposomes when administered intranasally. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of animal studies have shown the potential for remifentanil abuse, 2-4 but the relative complexity required for self-administration of the IV form of the drug makes this route impractical. (lww.com)
  • The intranasal route rapidly achieved clinically useful plasma levels in healthy medium-sized dogs. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • however, there were no notable changes in behavior, heart rate, or respiratory rate following naloxone administration by either route in this study. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • Submit the Application for Certification - Drug Administration by Injection and Intranasal Route to the College. (bcpharmacists.org)
  • Since during the invasion of the parasite into the host the schistosomula migrate first to the lungs, the intranasal route of administration was employed in order to halt the parasite at an early stage of the infection. (asm.org)
  • According to the WHO guidelines for drug administration, the route of delivery must consist a single-use delivery system that is auto-disposal after use. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • Sumatriptan (intranasal route of administration) for acute migraine attacks in adults. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The neurotrophin levels were enhanced significantly upon i.n. administration of carnosic acid with chitosan, which was approximately 1.5-2-fold more over the parenteral route. (scienceexchange.com)
  • A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Route of administration and dosage form are aspects of drug delivery . (wikipedia.org)
  • However, uptake of drugs administered orally may also occur already in the stomach , and as such gastrointestinal (along the gastrointestinal tract ) may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications, especially those used at the end of life . (wikipedia.org)
  • Using the intranasal route, the drugs can reach the central nervous system via the porous cribriform plate as well as target the affected lungs. (curofy.com)
  • Clinical administration of drugs via the intravenous route results in dilution of the drugs in the plasma. (curofy.com)
  • In addition to the intravenous route, the use of intranasal route to administer drugs offers several advantages in the management of COVID-19 with neurological manifestations. (curofy.com)
  • The intranasal route can dispense the drugs through the cribriform plate. (curofy.com)
  • Future research should test the efficacy of the suggested intranasal route for drug administration, in addition to the intravenous route, in the management of COVID-19 involving neurological manifestations. (curofy.com)
  • Ketorolac can also be given by the intranasal (IN) route using a mucosal atomization device (MAD). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Administered once by intranasal route using a mucosal atomization device. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Nasal delivery is also a preferred route of administration when faster onset of action is required (e.g.,in the treatment of acute pain, emesis, and other chronic conditions) (5). (pharmtech.com)
  • Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery of FBP after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery results in the delivery and retention of FBP in Fas-expressing ischemic areas of the brain. (nature.com)
  • To avoid pain and anxiety caused by IM injections in children, intranasal route have been evaluated for the induction of sedation or analgesia. (ivsajournals.com)
  • In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms involved both in the induction phase following peptide administration and during linked suppression after grafting. (jimmunol.org)
  • We report that following initial i.n. administration, peptide is widely disseminated and is presented by functionally immature dendritic cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Rangasamy SB, Corbett GT, Roy A, Modi KK, Bennett DA, Mufson EJ, Ghosh S, Pahan K. Intranasal Delivery of NEMO-Binding Domain Peptide Prevents Memory Loss in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease. (rush.edu)
  • This study aims to dissociate direct from indirectly mediated effects of intranasal oxytocin administration by using treatment with or without prior intranasal administration of a vasoconstrictor to reduce peripheral increases in peptide concentrations. (trialbulletin.com)
  • Intranasally administered C-peptide passes by the blood-brain barrier 3 , therefore the intranasal use of C-peptide could be the most effective way of administering it into the central nervous system. (sdnn70.com)
  • A concerted selection of intervention schedule, doses, and administration routes (intranasal versus intragastric) may markedly contribute to modulate airway inflammation in a probiotic strain-specific manner. (hindawi.com)
  • Approximately 50 and 9% of the IN FDG and FLT doses, respectively, remained in the nasal cavity at 20 min post-administration. (springer.com)
  • Intranasal sumatriptan is an effective treatment for the relief of headache pain, other symptoms associated with migraine, and functional disability, with single doses of 10 mg or more providing clinically useful levels of relief. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • 17. An aqueous insulin solution for intranasal administration comprising an effective amount of insulin, glycyrrhetinic acid in an amount effective for enhancing permeation of said insulin across the nasal mucosa, and a basic salt of an amino acid as an adjuvant for dissolving said glycyrrhetinic acid. (google.com.au)
  • These findings suggest that intranasal insulin administration could be an effective approach to prevent the increased risk of neurotoxicity and chronic damage caused by anesthesia in the developing brain. (frontiersin.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS Intranasal glucagon was highly effective in treating insulin-induced hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Later it was confirmed by randomized double-blind tests that the administration of intranasal insulin led to significant improvement of cognitive abilities and social skills in children with Phelan-McDremid syndrome above the age of 3 6 . (sdnn70.com)
  • Administration, Intranasal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and is currently sold as Valium® tablets, Diazepam Injection and Diastat® rectal gel. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Intranasal injection of epinephrine is used routinely during endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) to reduce bleeding in the nasal mucosa and thereby improve visualization of the surgical field. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Evidence indicate that topical administration of epinephrine achieves similar hemostatic effects compared with injection of epinephrine, while avoiding systemic adverse effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We wish to conduct a prospective controlled trial assessing the hemostatic and hemodynamic effects of intranasal injection compared to topical application of epinephrin during ESS, in order to evaluate whether the previous could be avoided due to its untoward effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We hypothesize that topical administration of epinephrine provides a hemostatic effect not inferior to that of intranasal injection while minimizing hemodynamic instability during ESS. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The objective of the current study is to compare the hemostatic and hemodynamic effects of intranasal injection versus topical application of epinephrin during ESS, in order to evaluate whether the previous could be avoided due to its untoward effects. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Note: Registrants who are currently authorized to administer immunizations by injection are not required to re-apply for drug administration. (bcpharmacists.org)
  • Parenteral administration can be performed by injection , that is, using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle ) and a syringe , [16] or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter . (wikipedia.org)
  • Forty Wistar rat bearing brain C6 glioma xenograft were randomly divided into 4 groups and treated with physiological saline solution or with TMZ by intravenous injection , gavage or intranasal administration . (bvsalud.org)
  • We compared the uptake by 11 brain regions and appearance in blood of tritium-labeled pregnenolone and progesterone after intranasal and intravenous (IV) injection. (wustl.edu)
  • Heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, pain score & sedation score every 5 minutes after administration. (rch.org.au)
  • The growing adoption of mucosal atomization devices is primarily attributed to factors such as, non-invasive nature, faster delivery of medication to the bloodstream, ease of administration, and no first-pass metabolism among others. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • Experimental intranasal (IN) delivery of nanoparticle (NP) drug carriers is typically performed using a pipette with or without anesthesia, a technique that may be a poor simulation of practical IN administration of drug-loaded NPs in humans. (asme.org)
  • Results - Fallowing intranasal administration of the subjects, sedation or anesthesia was produced in all groups. (ivsajournals.com)
  • Further, as emerging intranasal delivery technologies eliminate the use of needles, there is no risk of needle-stick problems. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • In addition, prominent market players are prioritizing product launches owing to the growing demand for novel intranasal drug delivery systems. (futuremarketinsights.com)
  • DUBLIN , Aug. 13, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- The "Intranasal Drug Delivery - Market Analysis, Trends, and Forecasts" report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.com's offering. (yahoo.com)
  • Intranasal drug delivery is an effective option for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intranasal HC significantly increased food intake and wheel activity within 4h after delivery, but balanced out over the course of 24h. (healthpartners.com)
  • Vyas TK,Shahiwala A,Marathe S,et al.Intranasal drug delivery for brain targeting[J]. Curr Drug Deliv,2005,2(2):165-175. (actacams.com)
  • Furthermore, it is anticipated that intranasal delivery can offer admittance to the central nervous system without affecting the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. (curofy.com)
  • This type of drug delivery is non-invasive, painless, and is amenable to self-administration. (pharmtech.com)
  • Large-molecule drugs, such as peptides and central nervous system drugs, would benefit from intranasal delivery. (elsevier.com)
  • The neurosteroids were rapidly degraded after i.v. or intranasal delivery, but pregnenolone was more resistant to degradation in the brain after intranasal administration and in serum after i.v. administration. (wustl.edu)
  • Intranasal supplementation of L. paracasei NCC2461 was more potent than intragastric application in limiting the allergic response and possibly linked to an increase in T regulatory cells in the lungs. (hindawi.com)
  • This anilidopiperidine analog of fentanyl was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration and became commercially available in the United States in 1997. (lww.com)
  • On further questioning, he admitted to IV administration of fentanyl, which he had begun using several weeks prior. (lww.com)
  • Intranasal administration may be preferable to oral for individuals experiencing nausea and/or vomiting, although it is primarily absorbed in the gut, not the nasal mucosa. (ox.ac.uk)
  • However, alternative routes, in particular IN administration, may provide benefits relative to oral dosing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Enteral/enteric administration usually includes oral [6] (through the mouth ) and rectal (into the rectum ) [6] administration, in the sense that these are taken up by the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the most severe hypoglycemic events, administration of oral carbohydrate by a second party is precluded because the patient is combative, unconscious, or having a seizure. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A combination of 0.1 mg/kg dexmedetomidine, ketamine 20 mg/kg and 0.4 mg/kg morphine was administered by inserting a lubricated catheter in intranasal. (journalcra.com)
  • The intranasal dexmedetomidine-ketamine-morphine combinations has been successfully used for modarate sedation for 10 minutes in young dogs. (journalcra.com)
  • The generation of these antigen-experienced cells by intranasal vaccination resulted in earlier T cell responses, interferon gamma secretion, and viral clearance after respiratory syncytial virus challenge. (edu.au)
  • The clinical potential of intranasal oxytocin in psychiatry. (springer.com)
  • Do not apply BACTROBAN nasal ointment concurrently with any other intranasal products [see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY ]. (rxlist.com)
  • The administration of IN ketorolac in children, using the proprietary SPRIX device, which atomizes a fixed amount of ketorolac, produces serum concentrations of ketorolac that are associated with analgesia. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Most importantly, our findings establish the intranasal application of therapeutically-modified NSC as a safe and non-invasive application method. (egms.de)
  • Intranasal administration of recombinant human cartilage glycoprotein-39. (jrheum.org)
  • The current study suggests that single administration of intranasal oxytocin is likely safe in elementary school-aged children. (springer.com)
  • This study compared IV naloxone with intranasal naloxone delivered by a commercially available atomizer in healthy dogs. (cliniciansbrief.com)
  • Objective: The objective of this study was to formulate SLN of Itraconazole (ITZ) for intranasal administration. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Nasal histopathology study on sheep mucosa revealed that the developed SLN was non-toxic and safe to use for intranasal administration. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This is the first experimental study on the effect of oxytocin administration on the neural processing of facial stimuli conducted with female participants that uses event-related potentials (ERPs). (isharonline.org)
  • This study adds to the growing body of evidence that IN administration of HC is a promising strategy for treatment of HC related behaviors. (healthpartners.com)
  • Here, we conducted two within-subjects, double-blind studies exploring changes in uOT and pOT levels following administration of two drugs: MDMA, an oxytocin-releasing drug (Study 1), and intranasal oxytocin (INOT: Study 1 and 2). (umn.edu)
  • In both studies, blood and urine samples were collected before and after drug administration at each study session. (umn.edu)
  • Results Study 1: Plasma OT and uOT levels significantly increased after administration of MDMA and INOT. (umn.edu)
  • Conclusion Our results show a measurable and significant increase in pOT and uOT levels after the administration of MDMA (Study 1) and INOT (Study 1 and Study 2). (umn.edu)
  • The study showed that intranasal administration of nanosized particles demonstrated significant benefit when compared with micron-sized particles for achieving rapid Tmax (i.e., the amount of time that a drug is available in the body at the maximum concentration). (pharmtech.com)
  • In the same study, we determined that luciferase expression mediated by nasally administered mRNA nanoparticles lasts for about 24 hours compared to naked mRNA, which is detectable only up to 4 hours post-administration 24 . (nature.com)
  • Study Design: Biopsies of the lower nasal turbinate were obtained from four groups of 8 individuals after 14 days of daily administration of a saline solution (control group) or of MF, AZ and SC. (ent-review.com)
  • MacDonald E, Dadds MR, Brennan JL, Williams K, Levy F, Cauchi AJ (2011) A review of safety, side-effects and subjective reactions to intranasal oxytocin in human research. (springer.com)
  • We aimed at testing the immunomodulatory effects of intranasal versus intragastric administration of Lactobacillus paracasei NCC2461 in a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation and the specificity of different probiotics by comparing L. paracasei NCC2461 to Lactobacillus plantarum NCC1107. (hindawi.com)
  • Salivary oxytocin, cortisol and testosterone were measured serially prior to the intervention, and then before and after the PSAP, to evaluate the effects of oxytocin administration on hormonal functioning in relation to aggression. (eur.nl)
  • Effects of intranasal oxytocin on steroid hormones in men and women. (rush.edu)
  • Comparison of Intranasal Oxytocin Effects Using Co-administration With a. (trialbulletin.com)
  • The pattern of functional effects observed will be compared with subjects receiving intranasal pretreatment with a vasoconstrictor prior to oxytocin in order to reduce the amount of oxytocin entering the peripheral circulation. (trialbulletin.com)
  • Topical administration is sometimes defined as both a local application location and local pharmacodynamic effect, [3] and sometimes merely as a local application location regardless of location of the effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • A partial and reversible tolerance to the GH-releasing effects of examorelin occurs in humans with long-term administration (50-75% decrease in efficacy over the course of weeks to months). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions: Intranasal treatment with MF, AZ or SC does not cause significant changes in the general architecture of the nasal mucosa. (ent-review.com)
  • After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. (elsevier.com)
  • Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local (sometimes termed topical ), such as in a contrast enema , whereby contrast media is infused into the intestines for imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intranasal administration of allergen induced rises of allergen-specific IgE levels whereas intranasal administration of omalizumab did not enhance systemic total or allergen-specific IgE levels," conclude the authors. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This is further strengthened with the fact that many drugs do not attain an effective concentration in the brain/central nervous system through systemic administration. (curofy.com)
  • 215 administration of a topical nasal decongestant may be necessary. (drugs.com)
  • 6 b If nasal passages are blocked, a topical nasal decongestant can be administered 5-15 minutes before intranasal administration. (drugs.com)