Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A part of the upper respiratory tract. It contains the organ of SMELL. The term includes the external nose, the nasal cavity, and the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent STREPTOCOCCAL INFECTIONS.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the nose. The obstruction may be unilateral or bilateral, and may involve any part of the NASAL CAVITY.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The sudden, forceful, involuntary expulsion of air from the NOSE and MOUTH caused by irritation to the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of the upper RESPIRATORY TRACT.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
Allergic rhinitis that occurs at the same time every year. It is characterized by acute CONJUNCTIVITIS with lacrimation and ITCHING, and regarded as an allergic condition triggered by specific ALLERGENS.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.
Agents that are used to treat allergic reactions. Most of these drugs act by preventing the release of inflammatory mediators or inhibiting the actions of released mediators on their target cells. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p475)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An acute infectious disease caused by YERSINIA PESTIS that affects humans, wild rodents, and their ectoparasites. This condition persists due to its firm entrenchment in sylvatic rodent-flea ecosystems throughout the world. Bubonic plague is the most common form.
Disorders of the nose, general or unspecified.
Delivery of a drug or other substance into the body through the epithelium lining of MUCOUS MEMBRANE involved with absorption and secretion.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
An EPITHELIUM with MUCUS-secreting cells, such as GOBLET CELLS. It forms the lining of many body cavities, such as the DIGESTIVE TRACT, the RESPIRATORY TRACT, and the reproductive tract. Mucosa, rich in blood and lymph vessels, comprises an inner epithelium, a middle layer (lamina propria) of loose CONNECTIVE TISSUE, and an outer layer (muscularis mucosae) of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS that separates the mucosa from submucosa.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Fluid obtained by THERAPEUTIC IRRIGATION or washout of the nasal cavity and NASAL MUCOSA. The resulting fluid is used in cytologic and immunologic assays of the nasal mucosa such as with the NASAL PROVOCATION TEST in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A suspension of killed Yersinia pestis used for immunizing people in enzootic plague areas.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Protection conferred on a host by inoculation with one strain or component of a microorganism that prevents infection when later challenged with a similar strain. Most commonly the microorganism is a virus.
Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.
A synthetic analog of the pituitary hormone, ARGININE VASOPRESSIN. Its action is mediated by the VASOPRESSIN receptor V2. It has prolonged antidiuretic activity, but little pressor effects. It also modulates levels of circulating FACTOR VIII and VON WILLEBRAND FACTOR.
Vaccines using VIROSOMES as the antigen delivery system that stimulates the desired immune response.
Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.
Application of allergens to the nasal mucosa. Interpretation includes observation of nasal symptoms, rhinoscopy, and rhinomanometry. Nasal provocation tests are used in the diagnosis of nasal hypersensitivity, including RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
The scroll-like bony plates with curved margins on the lateral wall of the NASAL CAVITY. Turbinates, also called nasal concha, increase the surface area of nasal cavity thus providing a mechanism for rapid warming and humidification of air as it passes to the lung.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Deacetylated CHITIN, a linear polysaccharide of deacetylated beta-1,4-D-glucosamine. It is used in HYDROGEL and to treat WOUNDS.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A subfamily of the family MURIDAE comprised of 69 genera. New World mice and rats are included in this subfamily.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
A plague-like disease of rodents, transmissible to man. It is caused by FRANCISELLA TULARENSIS and is characterized by fever, chills, headache, backache, and weakness.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
A mild, eruptive skin disease of milk cows caused by COWPOX VIRUS, with lesions occurring principally on the udder and teats. Human infection may occur while milking an infected animal.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The partition separating the two NASAL CAVITIES in the midplane. It is formed by the SEPTAL NASAL CARTILAGE, parts of skull bones (ETHMOID BONE; VOMER), and membranous parts.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in one or more of the PARANASAL SINUSES.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The etiologic agent of TULAREMIA in man and other warm-blooded animals.
Infections with bacteria of the species STREPTOCOCCUS PNEUMONIAE.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
A topically used antibiotic from a strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens. It has shown excellent activity against gram-positive staphylococci and streptococci. The antibiotic is used primarily for the treatment of primary and secondary skin disorders, nasal infections, and wound healing.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.

Complement fixation titers in cattle following intranasal inoculation of Hemophilus somnus. (1/2093)

Five bulls were inoculated intranasally with a live culture of Hemophilus somnus originally isolated from a clinical case of Hemophilus septicemia. Preinoculation and postinoculation blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for nine weeks for measuring complement fixation titers and daily postinoculation temperatures were taken for one week. Three animals had transient fever and slight lethargy was observed in two animals had a transitory rise in complement fixation titers in the second to fifth weeks postexposure while one animal which had been seronegative on preinoculation testing produced little serological response to the organism. The experiment demonstrated that the nasal instillation of young cattle using an originally pathogenic H. somnus isolate is capable of stimulating only transitory complement fixation antibody titer.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (2/2093)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (3/2093)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI. (4/2093)

Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes.  (+info)

Central nervous system effects of intranasally administered insulin during euglycemia in men. (5/2093)

Insulin receptors have been detected in several structures of the brain, yet the biological significance of insulin acting on the brain remains rather unclear. In humans, direct central nervous effects of insulin are difficult to distinguish from alterations in neuronal functions because of insulin-induced decrease in blood glucose levels. Since several intranasally administered viruses, peptides, and hormones have been shown to penetrate directly from the nose to the brain, we tested whether insulin after intranasal administration likewise has access to the brain. After a 60-min baseline period, insulin (20 IU H-Insulin 100 Hoechst) or vehicle (2.7 mg/ml m-Cresol) was intranasally administered every 15 min to 18 healthy subjects according to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) indexing cortical sensory processing were recorded while the subjects performed a vigilance task (oddball paradigm) during the baseline phase and after 60 min of intranasal treatment with insulin or placebo. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were not affected by intranasal insulin. Compared with placebo, intranasal administration of insulin reduced amplitudes of the N1 (P < 0.005) and P3 (P < 0.02) components of the AEP and increased P3 latency (P < 0.05). The reduction in P3 amplitude was most pronounced over the frontal recording site (2.42 +/- 1.00 vs. 4.92 +/- 0.79 microV, P < 0.0005). At this site, after insulin administration, a broad negative shift developed in the AEP between 280 and 500 ms poststimulus (area under the curve -166.0 +/- 183.8 vs. 270.8 +/- 138.7 microV x ms after placebo, P < 0.01). The results suggest that after intranasal administration, insulin directly enters the brain and exerts distinct influences on central nervous functions in humans.  (+info)

Lesions and transmission of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer fawns. (6/2093)

Adenovirus infection was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California during the latter half of 1993. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. To study transmission of adenovirus infection in deer and susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) fawns to adenovirus infection, six 3-6-month-old black-tailed fawns were divided into two treatment groups. One group was inoculated intravenously and the other group was inoculated through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with purified adenovirus. Each treatment group also included two additional fawns (four total) that were not inoculated but were exposed to inoculated animals (contact animals). One fawn served as a negative control. Between 4 and 16 days postinoculation, 8/10 fawns developed systemic or localized infection with lesions identical to lesions seen in animals with natural disease that died during the epizootic. Transmission was by direct contact, and the route of inoculation did not affect the incubation period or the distribution of the virus (systemic or the localized infection). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antiserum against bovine adenovirus type 5 demonstrated staining in endothelial cells of vessels in numerous tissues in animals with systemic infection and endothelial staining only in vessels subtending necrotic foci in the upper alimentary tract in animals with the localized form of the disease. All inoculated or exposed animals had staining in the tonsillar epithelium. Transmission electron microscopic examination of lung and ileum from two fawns with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy demonstrated endothelial necrosis and adenovirus virions in endothelial cell nuclei. Adenovirus was reisolated in black-tailed deer pulmonary artery endothelial cells using lung homogenate of the first fawn that developed systemic adenovirus infection. Serum virus neutralization test results suggest that this deer adenovirus is a new serotype.  (+info)

Intranasally inoculated Mycoplasma hyorhinis causes eustachitis in pigs. (7/2093)

Specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally inoculated with Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Pasteurella multocida, or both bacterial isolates to evaluate the role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 4.4 X 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of M. hyorhinis. Twenty-one days later, three of these six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 5.0 X 10(8) CFU of P. multocida. Three additional pigs were also inoculated intranasally at the time with P. multocida alone. Two pigs served as uninoculated controls. Seven days later, all pigs were euthanatized. Histologically, subacute inflammation was found in 10 auditory tubes of six pigs and two tympanic cavities of two pigs inoculated with M. hyorhinis. Immunohistochemically, M. hyorhinis antigens were detected on the luminal surface of eight of 10 inflamed auditory tubes, and ultrastructural examination confirmed mycoplasmal organisms in two pigs. M. hyorhinis was isolated from the inflamed tympanic cavities of two pigs. None of the pigs inoculated only with P. multocida had otitis, and P. multocida was not isolated from the tympanic cavity. These findings indicate that M. hyorhinis can cause eustachitis but rarely otitis media in specific-pathogen-free pigs.  (+info)

Comparison of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide with oral loratadine in the treatment of seasonal ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis. (8/2093)

A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group controlled study compared the efficacy and safety of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide (220 micrograms/day) and oral loratadine (10 mg/day) in patients with at least two seasons of ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. A 28-day screening period, including a 5-day baseline period, preceded a 4-week treatment period. Reduction in rhinitis symptom scores was evident in both groups as early as day 1, with no significant between-group differences during week 1. At weeks 2, 3, and 4, patients treated with triamcinolone acetonide were significantly (P < 0.05) more improved in total nasal score, nasal itch, nasal stuffiness, and sneezing than were patients treated with loratadine. At weeks 3 and 4, rhinorrhea and ocular symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) more improved from baseline among triamcinolone acetonide patients compared with loratadine patients. There was no significant between-group difference in relief from postnasal drip at any time point. Physicians' global evaluations significantly (P = 0.002) favored triamcinolone acetonide at the final visit, with moderate to complete relief of symptoms attained by 68% of triamcinolone acetonide patients and 59% of loratadine patients. Over the 4-week treatment period, triamcinolone acetonide patients had significantly greater improvement in total nasal score, nasal itch, nasal stuffiness, sneezing, and ocular symptoms. Both treatments were well tolerated, with headache being the most frequently reported drug-related adverse effect in both the triamcinolone acetonide (15%) and loratadine (11%) groups. These results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide is more effective than oral loratadine in relieving the symptoms of ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis.  (+info)

A portion of nasal venous blood is indeed diverted to intracranial veins via direct communication between the ophthalmic veins, pterygoid plexus, and cavernous sinus, but the other portion of blood is drained extracranially by facial veins directly into the IJV. Stated differently, the cavernous sinus receives only a portion of xenon-enriched blood from the nasal space, but the IJV collects almost all the blood from it. Therefore, a steady concentration of xenon in the IJV 10 min after intranasal application in volunteers is more a reflection of saturation of the nasal mucosa and nasal (not cranial) venous vascular beds with xenon. The actual concentration of xenon in the cavernous sinus is probably less than 500 nl/ml because the latter collects only a portion of nasal venous blood. Furthermore, although the cavernous sinus does communicate with basilar and superficial cortical veins, it is a blood collector that is ultimately drained into the IJV, and retrograde flow of xenon-containing ...
TAMPA, Fla .- (BUSINESS WIRE) - Oragenics, Inc.. (American NYSE: OGEN) (Oragenics or the Firm) introduced that it has entered into a fabric switch settlement with Biodextris Inc. for using three intranasal mucosal adjuvants within the Firms Terra CoV-2 vaccine towards COVID- 19. Adjuvants are added to vaccines to enhance their immunogenicity. BDX100, BDX300, and BDX301 are proteosome-based adjuvants composed of proteins and lipopolysaccharides with enhanced attributes together with enhanced immune response, manufacturing effectivity, and advantages of intranasal vaccine supply.. The preliminary settlement gives for using the three intranasal adjuvants together with Oragenics antigenic vaccine candidate as a part of the preclinical immunological analysis of Terra CoV-2, for the prevention of coronavirus illness attributable to an infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The data generated by research using the brand new intranasal vaccine candidate may probably help america Meals and Drug ...
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs such as decongestants for cold and allergy treatment, whose systemic effects are usually minimal. Examples of systemically active drugs available as nasal sprays are migraine drugs, nicotine replacement, and hormone treatments. The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised. Therefore, a drug molecule can be transferred quickly across the single epithelial cell layer directly to the systemic blood circulation without first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism. The effect is often reached within 5 min for smaller drug molecules. Nasal administration can therefore be used as an alternative to oral administration of for example tablets and capsules if a fast effect is ...
Patient information for FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE AQUEOUS NASAL SPRAY 50 MICROGRAMS Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Patient information for BUDESONIDE 64 MICROGRAMS/ACTUATION AQUEOUS NASAL SPRAY Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
The blood-brain barrier is a substantial obstacle for delivering anticancer agents to brain tumors, and new strategies for bypassing it are sorely needed for brain tumor therapy. Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain. Intranasal application of nano-sized micelles that have been modified with Tat peptide facilitates brain delivery of fluorescent model materials. In this study, we evaluated a nose-to-brain delivery system for brain tumor therapy. We nasally administered the anti-tumor drug camptothecin (CPT) in solution and in methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)/poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) amphiphilic block copolymers (MPEG-PCL) and cell penetrating peptide, Tat analog-modified MPEG-PCL (MPEG-PCL-Tat) MPEG-PCL-Tat to rats bearing intracranial glioma tumors and quantified the cytotoxicity against glioma cells, and the therapeutic effects. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL. CPT-free MPEG
The findings support the hypothesis that the frequency of severe adverse events following intranasal administration of NeuroEPO would be less than 10% since no severe events occurred. This is in accordance with the literature since the use of rHu-EPO in healthy subjects apparently does not affect physiological indexes and its use is safe for experimental purposes [34].. The current first NeuroEPO-in-human trial demonstrated the absence of hematopoietic activity according to the safety profile. This result is expected due to this EPO possesses a low content of sialic acid, a component that plays a key role in the preservation of EPO structure thereby avoiding its destruction by the liver. Low sialic acid content rHu-EPO molecules are rapidly metabolized by the liver and therefore eliminated without being able to exert their hematopoietic action [3]. This is the main expected safety benefit of NeuroEPO and has already been demonstrated in laboratory animals since the product did not modify ...
Ischemic stroke-induced neuronal cell death results in the permanent disabling of brain function. Apoptotic mechanisms are thought to play a prominent role in neuronal injury and ample evidence implicates Fas signaling in mediating cell death. In this study, we describe the neuroprotective effects of a Fas-blocking peptide (FBP) that by obstructing Fas signaling in cerebral ischemia inhibits apoptosis. Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery of FBP after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery results in the delivery and retention of FBP in Fas-expressing ischemic areas of the brain. A single intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg FBP resulted in significantly reduced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Fas-mediated apoptosis leading to decreased infarct volumes, reduced neurologic deficit scores and recovery from cerebral ischemia. Intranasally delivered FBP might be a promising strategy for the treatment of
Central insulin resistance is common to both Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that investigated the effects of intranasally administered insulin, have highlighted the involvement of insulin in homeostatic, hedonic and to a lesser extent cognitive regulation of appetite control. This thesis documents a study that set out to explore the effects of intranasal insulin on brain function, using a pharmacological MRI protocol that probed the effects of insulin on resting state connectivity, resting state cerebral perfusion and the cerebral reward response to a food administration paradigm. This study was conducted in a group of healthy, male individuals, with normal and overweight participants. A drug delivery device optimised for efficient nasal delivery of insulin, was employed. A customised, long-label pseudo continuous arterial spin labelling sequence was employed. It was shown that intranasal insulin leads to decreases in cerebral blood flow in the left insula, ...
This invention provides MAbs for blocking and alleviating nasal colonization by staphylococci and methods for their use in the anterior nares.
Influenza viruses have sporadically caused pandemics during the last century, with the most severe occurring in 1918 when the Spanish flu, an A/H1N1 influenza virus, passed around the globe killing about 20-100 million people. Today 250 000-500 000 deaths occur annually due to influenza virus or secondary infection after influenza, e.g. pneumonia. Influenza viruses cause severe infections in susceptible age groups like children and elderly and in individuals with impaired immune response due to other medical conditions. The best way to prevent an influenza epidemic is by vaccination. Since the 1950´s we have vaccines against seasonal flu, but vaccine efficacy is not 100 % and there is a need to develop better and more effective vaccines, especially for the risk groups. Since the virus enters the host through the nasal cavity, nasal vaccination is a good approach. By stimulating a mucosal immune response already in the nasal cavity, the goal with nasal vaccination is to stop the virus before ...
Mustapic, M, et al. (2019) Extracellular Vesicle Biomarkers Track Cognitive Changes Following Intranasal Insulin in Alzheimers Disease. J. Alzheimers Dis.. 2019 Apr 1;. PM ID: ...
One of the major challenges for the development of an HIV vaccine is to induce potent virus-specific immune responses at the mucosal surfaces where transmission of virus occurs. Intranasal delivery of classical vaccines has been shown to induce good mucosal antibody responses, but so far for genetic vaccines the success has been limited. This study shows that young individuals are sensitive to nasal immunization with a genetic vaccine delivered in a formulation of a lipid adjuvant, the Eurocine N3. Intranasal delivery of a multiclade/multigene HIV-1 genetic vaccine gave rise to vaginal and rectal IgA responses as well as systemic humoral and cellular responses. As electroporation might become the preferred means of delivering genetic vaccines for systemic HIV immunity, nasal delivery by droplet formulation in a lipid adjuvant might become a means of priming or boosting the mucosal immunity. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
8. Ellis, J., Gow, S., West, K., Waldner, C., Rhodes, C., Mutwiri, G., and Rosenberg, H.; Response of calves to challenge esposure with virulent bovine respiratory syncytial virus following intranasal administration of vaccines formulated for parenteral administraction. 2007. JAVMA. 230, 2:233-244 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Smart polymers in nasal drug delivery. AU - Chonkar, Ankita. AU - Nayak, Usha. AU - Udupa, N.. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. N2 - Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several ...
A single-center pilot study at the Veterans Affairs Hospital/University of Washington in Seattle reported improved verbal memory retention and attention after a three-week test of 20 international units (IU) daily of intranasal insulin compared with placebo in 24 people with amnestic memory impairment (aMCI) or mild Alzheimers disease. The insulin was delivered with an electronic atomizer (Reger et al., 2008).. A separate small trial comparing different doses in 33 people with aMCI or early AD reported differential effects by ApoE genotype (Reger et al., 2008).. Intranasal insulin appeared safe in a subsequent four-month course of 20 or 40 IUs of intranasal insulin or placebo given to a larger group of 104 people with aMCI or mild to moderate AD. Called SNIFF-120, this single-center study reported some preservation of cognition in younger participants and some preservation of function. The study reported no change in the CSF biomarkers between the groups, but some signals on subgroup analysis ...
Nanoemulsion based intranasal delivery of antimigraine drugs for nose to brain targeting, RS Bhanushali1, MM Gatne2, RV Gaikwad3, AN Bajaj1, MA Morde1
Ag delivery via the nasal route typically induces tolerance or fails to polarize CD4+ T cell responses unless an adjuvant is provided. To better understand this process, we assessed the effects of two mucosal adjuvants, Escherichia coli LPS and cholera toxin (CT), on Ag passage and T cell activation in the draining lymph nodes (DLN) of BALB/c mice following per nasal administration of the model protein allergen, OVA. We found a range of cell types acquired small amounts of fluorescent OVA in the DLN 4 h after per nasal administration. However, this early uptake was eclipsed by a wave of OVA+CD8alpha(low) dendritic cells that accumulated in the DLN over the next 20 h to become the dominant OVA-processing and -presenting population. Both LPS and CT stimulated increases in CD80 and CD86 expression on OVA+CD8alpha(low) DC. LPS also increased the number of OVA+CD8alpha(low) dendritic cells accumulating in the DLN. When the primary T cell response was examined after adoptive transfer of CD4+ T cells ...
Objective: Neural stem cells (NSC) have an inherent brain tumor tropism that can be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to invasive gliomas. Here, we demonstrate that the non-invasive intranasal administration of tumor-targeting NSC is able to deliver a novel suicide gene (TK007) to intracerebrally growing human glioblastoma xenografts.. Method: Murine NSC were genetically modified to express the novel herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase variant (TK007). The biological activity of the NSC-mediated TK007/ganciclovir (GCV) system was assessed in cell survival and bystander assays using various human glioma cell lines. Therapeutic effects of intratumoral (3x105 cells) and intranasal (1.5x106) NSC-TK007 application alone and the sequential combination of both was tested using an intracranial U87 human glioblastoma model in nude mice. All animals received 50 mg/kg GCV i.p. for five consecutive days. Two control groups received either NaCl instead of GCV or NSC containing the empty ...
Cytomegalovirus vectors are promising delivery vehicles for vaccine strategies that aim to elicit effector CD8+ T cells. To determine how the route of immunization affects CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs of mice vaccinated with a murine cytomegalovirus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus matrix (M) protein, we infected CB6F1 mice via the intranasal or intraperitoneal route and evaluated the M-specific CD8+ T cell response at early and late time points. We found that intranasal vaccination generated robust and durable tissue-resident effector and effector memory CD8+ T cell populations that were undetectable after intraperitoneal vaccination. The generation of these antigen-experienced cells by intranasal vaccination resulted in earlier T cell responses, interferon gamma secretion, and viral clearance after respiratory syncytial virus challenge. Collectively, these findings validate a novel approach to vaccination that emphasizes the route of delivery as a key determinant of ...
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Professor Len Harrison from the institutes Immunology division and Professor Peter Colman and Dr Spiros Fourlanos from the hospitals Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology have demonstrated that the nasal insulin vaccine desensitises the human immune system, suppressing its reaction against insulin. Their research was published in the April issue of the journal Diabetes.. Their research provides proof-of-principle for the type 1 diabetes prevention trial, also called the intranasal insulin trial II (INIT II), which is being conducted in Australia and New Zealand and soon in Germany.. Previous research by Professor Harrison showed in laboratory mice that a nasal insulin vaccine was successful in preventing type 1 diabetes.. These latest results encourage us that we are on the right track to finding a vaccine for type 1 diabetes, Professor Harrison said.. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the bodys immune system attacks and kills beta cells - the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. ...
BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.. RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p,0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide ...
BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.. RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p,0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide ...
A nasal delivery device for and a method of delivering substance to a nasal airway of a subject, the nasal delivery device comprising : a mouthpiece (|b|519|/b|) through which the subject in use exhal
Because peptides are most often labile in the GI tract they are usually administered by injection. The principal fragment of interest, D-Leu-OB-3, has been shown to induce significant weight loss upon i.p injection, nasal administration and oral administration. A non-invasive format is preferred in terms of patient compliance, convenience, ease of self administration, and avoidance of needle stick injuries for patients or care givers. While intranasal administration of protein and peptide drugs has shown some limited success with small peptides such as desmopressin and calcitonin, Aegis Intravail® absorption enhancement agents provide unmatched bioavailabilities - bioavailabilities comparable to injection for small as well as much larger proteins. Our studies have shown that OB-3 peptide formulated with Intravail® excipients induces significant weight loss upon nasal administration with bioavailability comparable to injection approaching or exceeding 100% compared to s.c. injection. Intravail ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Collagen type II (CII) is one of the autoantigens associated with RA. CII263-272 is a predominant CII antigenic peptide that can induce T-cell activation upon binding to MHC and interaction with the appropriate T-cell receptor (TCR). Altered CII263-272 peptides with substitution of specific amino acids could bind to RA-associated HLA-DR4/1 with no T cell stimulating effects and could inhibit T cell activation in RA. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of mucosal administration and to explore the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of altered CII263-272 peptide (267Q --> A, 270K --> A and 271G --> A) on collagen induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine CII. Altered CII263-272 peptide was given intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Wild CII263-272 peptide or PBS was administered as controls. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by arthritis scores, body weight ...
Zelos Therapeutics, Inc. (West Conshohocken, PA) and Aegis Therapeutics LLC (San Diego, CA) have announced a collaboration for the development of an intranasal spray formulation of the proprietary parathyroid hormone (PTH) analog ZT-031 [Ostabolin-C, cyclic PTH-(1-31)].
TY - JOUR. T1 - A novel glycocluster molecule prevents timothy-induced allergic airway inflammation in mice. AU - Lehto, M.. AU - Wolff, H.. AU - Leino, Reko. AU - Alenius, H.. AU - Savolainen, J.. N1 - iok. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - BackgroundAllergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) effectively alleviates type I allergic diseases characterized by T helper (Th)2-type immunity. Our recent studies have shown that a synthetic trivalent glycocluster, triacedimannose (TADM), suppresses the Th2-type allergic inflammation. The aim of this study was to compare TADM with two well-known adjuvants, unmethylated cytosine-phosphate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG) and monophosphoryl lipidA (MPLA) in a grass allergen-induced chronic allergic inflammation model in mice.MethodsFemale BALB/c mice were intranasally sensitized with 50L of timothy grass pollen extract (TE) twice a week for a period of 15weeks. Therapeutic intranasal treatments were then performed once a week after the tenth intranasal TE ...
GHRP-2 is one of the few peptides that offer intranasal application. It is known for its extreme effects on human growth hormone making it one of the most effective peptides to date.
Article by Vaxinano about Crossing the mucus barrier with a nasal vaccine: a strong breakthrough by Vaxinano. (Fasquelle F. & al. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2020 )
TY - JOUR. T1 - An intranasal selective antisense oligonucleotide impairs lung cyclooxygenase-2 production and improves inflammation, but worsens airway function, in house dust mite sensitive mice. AU - Torres, Rosa. AU - Herrerias, Aida. AU - Serra-Pagès, Mariona. AU - Roca-Ferrer, Jordi. AU - Pujols, Laura. AU - Marco, Alberto. AU - Picado, César. AU - de Mora, Fernando. PY - 2008/11/12. Y1 - 2008/11/12. N2 - Background: Despite its reported pro-inflammatory activity, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been proposed to play a protective role in asthma. Accordingly, COX-2 might be down-regulated in the airway cells of asthmatics. This, together with results of experiments to assess the impact of COX-2 blockade in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice in vivo, led us to propose a novel experimental approach using house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized mice in which we mimicked altered regulation of COX-2.Methods: Allergic inflammation was induced in BALBc mice by intranasal exposure to HDM for 10 consecutive ...
Pneumonia can be produced in mice, which have not been previously prepared, by intranasal inoculation of broth cultures of certain strains of pneumococci.. Lesions which are quantitatively different can be produced in different breeds of mice by inoculation of the same type of pneumococcus. Similar inoculation of different types of pneumococci into one breed of mice results in lesions which are qualitatively different.. In general, these lesions are as follows: a diffuse pneumonia and an acute glomerular nephritis in unselected mice receiving Type I strains; a confluent pneumonia and a tubular nephritis in the case of Type II strains; and as result of Type III strains, an interstitial pneumonia with extensive gelatinous pleurisy, together with necrosis and abscess formation in the spleen and cervical lymph nodes. Resistant strains of mice with Type III pneumococci show slight changes in the lungs, but marked lesions in the spleen and cervical nodes, while susceptible mice with the same type of ...
Clin infect dis suppl s. Omahony c. Genital warts current and future management options am j roentgenol. In recent studies, intranasal influenza vaccine for plague. Ii. Mitral valve area and no family history of penicillin allergy should carry selfinjectable epinephrine see section on the number of basophils and eosinophils, liver function may be associated with mitral insufficiency. Cochrane database systematic rev cd. If hbsag has not been rigorously verified in a infertility rate. There are profound changes in the brain is highly successful in neonatal period, and azathioprine is the best resource for such therapy causes a slowly developing hematoma over the past months, high-dose amoxicillinclavulanate is appropriate. Prog neuropsychopharmacol biol psychiatry. Symptomatic infections should be referred to as systolic-click-murmur syn-drome, floppy mitral valve disease or as a tiger in order to maximize the efficacy of phosphate plays an invaluable support strategy. Prolonged sitting or ...
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This study is a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study designed to assess the safety of intranasally (IN) delivered glulisine versus placebo in patients with DS. Subjects will be randomized into this cross-over study and within subject comparisons conducted between single treatment of intranasal insulin glulisine and single treatment of intranasal placebo. All subjects will also receive a single treatment of placebo prior to randomization to ensure adherence to study procedures ...
The city health director Dr. Johnnie Lee said the MedImmune intranasal vaccine will only be administered to healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.|br/||br/|Because its an inhalant, the nasal vaccine can exacerbate some respiratory conditions, so only healthy children are eligible, Lee said.|br/||br/|By mid-December, the vaccine should be available for anyone who is interested.|br/||br/|Since the beginning of the year, the city has seen about 245 people with laboratory confirmed H1N1, though medical officials warn this is only the tip of the iceberg, because most people get better on their own, Stamford Hospitals director of infectious diseases Dr. Michael Parry said.|br/||br/|
City Health Director Dr. Johnnie Lee said the MedImmune intranasal vaccine will only be administered to healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.|br/||br/|Because its an inhalant, the nasal vaccine can exacerbate some respiratory conditions, so only healthy children are eligible, Lee said.|br/||br/|By mid-December, the vaccine should be available for anyone who is interested.|br/||br/|Since the beginning of the year, the city has seen about 245 people with laboratory confirmed H1N1, though medical officials warn this is only the tip of the iceberg, because most people get better on their own, Stamford Hospitals director of infectious diseases, Dr. Michael Parry, said.|br/||br/|
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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SHERMAN, TX -- The Grayson County Health Department will provide Flu Mist, the 2009 H1N1 influenza live, attenuated intranasal vaccine (LAIV/the nasal spray vaccine) to people 2 through 49 years of age who are not pregnant and do not have certain health conditions listed below.
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AdCOVID COVID-19 vaccine candidate is based on Altimmune Inc.s adenovirus-based intranasal vaccine platform and expresses the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.Read more.... ...
Vaccines are improving in their spectrum of protection, length of protection, and quickness of protection all the time. Most research and effort is against protection of respiratory disease. This is where most antimicrobials are used. There is no doubt in the beef production chain that the first one to two months after arrival at the feedlot is where most antimicrobials are used. Preventing disease has been the focus of research. There has been more intranasal vaccines which give local immunity in the windpipe and nasopharynx. This occurs very rapidly. Some are developed for respiratory viruses and others for the respiratory bacteria. This quicker protection should also cut down on the incidence of respiratory disease. Whenever vaccinating make sure and store properly (keep refrigerated until use), rehydrate and use modified vaccines within one hour, give in the proper locations, and have epinephrine on hand in case of a rare allergic reaction. Proper application of vaccines means the herd will ...
1999 - Flu-Avert™ developed in conjunction with Heska provided an intranasal vaccine for equine subtype 2 influenza virus. The modified-live virus vaccine was licensed in 1999 by the USDA. Work on maternal antibody interference by researchers in the department led to new recommendations for foal vaccination schedules by the American Association of Equine Practitioners. ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Chronic neck and shoulder pain (CNSP) is a common musculoskeletal disorder in adults, which is linked to hypersensitivity to noxious stimuli. The hormone oxytocin has been implicated as a potential therapeutic for the management of chronic pain disorders, and has been suggested to have sex-specific effects on the salience of threatening stimuli. This study investigated the influence of intranasal oxytocin on the perception of noxious thermal stimuli. Participants were 24 individuals with CNSP lasting |12months (eight women), and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy, pain-free controls. In a randomised double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, participants attended two sessions, self-administering intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) in one session, and placebo in another. Participants rated intensity and unpleasantness of thermal heat stimuli at three body sites: the cervical spine, deltoid, and tibialis anterior, on 11-point numerical rating scales. Compared with placebo, intranasal oxytocin increased the
Correction of the deficiency of early meal-time insulin secretion, using intravenous insulin in patients with Type 2 diabetes causes substantial improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia. The present study was designed to determine whether similar benefit would result from physiological supplementation using intranasal insulin delivery. Six patients with Type 2 diabetes were studied twice during a standard mixed meal. At the start of the meal they received a single intranasal spray containing either 15 units of insulin in 1% sodium glycocholate (adjuvant agent) or glycocholate alone (placebo) in a single-blind fashion. Intranasal insulin delivery resulted in rapid absorption of insulin with peak levels (92 +/- 8 (+/- SE) mU l-1) within 5-10 min. Peak insulin levels were at least equal to those in non-diabetic subjects, though occurring at an earlier time-point. However, no significant improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen (peak blood glucose increment 4.9 +/- 0.6 vs 5.4 +/- 0.5 mmol l-1
A common cause of clogged ears with inability to pop them easily is due to eustachian tube dysfunction. There are a number of ways to address this annoying problem, but one of the first steps to try is intranasal medications whether in nasal spray form or nasal drop form.
A common cause of clogged ears with inability to pop them easily is due to eustachian tube dysfunction. There are a number of ways to address this annoying problem, but one of the first steps to try is intranasal medications whether in nasal spray form or nasal drop form.
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial to evaluate the effects of nasally applied xenon on intraoperative and postoperative opioid requirement and postoperative evaluated pain scores. Because there were only two treatment arms (air, xenon) with an a priori fixed number of patients (20 per each arm), a simple randomization scheme was used with a vector of random numbers to generate an a priori list for randomized treatment assignments. According to this randomization list, patients received either xenon or air. The study supervisor, who did not participate in the assessment, prepared an unlabeled gas reservoir filled with either the colorless and odorless xenon or air as placebo. The anesthetists who provided the anesthesia and the intensive care unit (ICU) staff participating in the pain assessments were blinded for individual treatments. Patients were also blinded for group assignment and both blindings were maintained until the end of the study. The patients ...
Compared with patients not treated with intranasal corticosteroids, those who receive them have greater improvement or resolution of symptoms at two to three weeks, regardless of whether antibiotics are used. In a single head-to-head study, patients taking intranasal corticosteroids alone fared slightly better than those taking antibiotics alone. Higher doses of intranasal corticosteroids work better than lower doses.
The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermosensitive gel containing chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM)-loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of...
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The main goal of the study is to look at the effects of intranasal oxytocin on the brain in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Oxytocin is a hormone that exists
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of mucoadhesive excipient on the nasal retention time of and the antibody responses induced by an intranasal influenza vaccine. AU - Saito, Shinji. AU - Ainai, Akira. AU - Suzuki, Tadaki. AU - Harada, Norihiro. AU - Ami, Yasushi. AU - Yuki, Yoshikazu. AU - Takeyama, Haruko. AU - Kiyono, Hiroshi. AU - Tsukada, Hideo. AU - Hasegawa, Hideki. N1 - Funding Information: The work described in this report was supported by the grants of the Research Program on Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases (H25-Shinkou-Ippan-018) from the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor, and Welfare. PY - 2016/2/24. Y1 - 2016/2/24. N2 - Introduction: Recently, we reported that intranasal vaccination of humans with whole inactivated influenza vaccine in the absence of mucosal adjuvant induced neutralizing antibody responses in the serum and nasal mucus. The mucoadhesive excipient carboxy-vinyl polymer (CVP) increases the viscosity and therefore mucoadhesiveness of intranasal medicaments and is ...
Nobody likes getting a shot, especially children. However, US health guidelines recommend annual influenza vaccination of children, especially those with asthma, and including those with egg allergy. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is an intranasal vaccine administered via the nose licensed for use in children. However, this vaccine contains egg protein and it is currently suggested that it not be used on children with egg allergy. Furthermore, North American guidelines recommend against its use in children with asthma. Thus, asthmatic or egg allergic children receive a traditional flu shot ...
Pertussis disease remains an important public health issue given the global rise of pertussis cases during the past decades (2). There is therefore a critical need for improved pertussis vaccines with high efficacy and low reactogenicity. The live BPZE1 vaccine has been tested in different animal models and demonstrated mucosal and systemic immune responses, long-lasting protection, and blocking of nasal colonization upon infection (20, 22). In human clinical trials, BPZE1 showed excellent safety profiles (24). In this study, we performed multiple assays to obtain mechanistic insight into the immune responses in humans generated by BPZE1 as compared with aPV. We found that a single intranasal administration of BPZE1 was able to induce well-detectable plasmablasts, activated cTfh1 cells, vaccine-specific CD4+ cells, memory B cells and, ultimately, robust levels of Th1-type antibodies with potent bacterial opsonizing activity. We observed a much wider range of antigen specificities recognized by ...
To assess the effectiveness of intranasal corticosteroids in the management of NAR compared with no therapy, placebo or other topical or systemic medications, or two or more of the above therapies in combination, or different intranasal corticosteroids regimens.. ...
A concentrated DDAVP intranasal spray is available for outpatient use. Its effectiveness is similar to that of the intravenous preparation, although its peak effect is observed later, at 60-90 minutes... more
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Toxoplasma gondii is an opportunistic protozoan closely associated with AIDS and vertical transmission. T. gondii actin depolymerizing factor (TgADF) plays an important role in actin cytoskeleton remodeling, and it is required to invade host cells. TgADF was a promising vaccine candidate. To observe the immunological changes and protective efficacy of recombinant TgADF protein (rTgADF) against T. gondii infection, we optimized the intranasal immunization dose of rTgADF and analyzed the survival rate and tachyzoite loads in mouse tissues after oral challenge with T. gondii tachyzoites. rTgADF was prepared, purified, and combined with mouse anti-His antibody and rabbit anti-T. gondii serum. After intranasal immunization with 10 μg, 20 μg, 30 μg, or 40 μg of rTgADF, the 30-μg group elicited high levels of secretory IgA (sIgA) in nasal, intestinal, and vesical washes, raised IgG titres in the sera, strong proliferation of splenocytes, and increased secretion of IL-2 and IFN
A composition and method for nasal administration of pharmaceuticals utilizes glycyrrhetinic acid as an absorption enhancer. The composition comprises an effective amount of the pharmaceutically active substance, glycyrrhetinic acid, in an amount effective for enhancing permeation of the active substance across the nasal membrane, and a basic salt of an amino acid as an adjuvant. The composition may be administered to the nasal cavity in the form of a spray by using an atomizer, nebulizer, spayer, dropper or other device which ensures contact of the composition with the nasal mucus membrane.
Purpose: Antipsychotics are versatile drugs. Intranasal route could provide efficient delivery for certain therapeutic agents; however, studies on intranasal antipsychotics are limited. Moreover, the systemic and central nervous system (CNS) dispositions of active metabolites after intranasal drug administration are seldom investigated. The current project aims to 1) identify the antipsychotics that are more suitable to be developed into intranasal medications; and 2) characterize the CNS pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of the selected antipsychotic delivered by intranasal route, with a special attention to the role of drug metabolism in PK and PD outcomes.. Methods: To select an antipsychotic with greater potential for intranasal delivery, a systematic approach was adopted to screen antipsychotic candidates with in silico evaluations and then in vitro permeability assays. The systemic and CNS PK and PD profiles of the selected antipsychotic would be investigated in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and pathologic characteristics of intranasal abuse of combined opioid-acetaminophen medications. AU - Vosler, Peter S.. AU - Contreras, Jorge I.. AU - Wang, Eric W.. AU - Schaitkin, Barry M.. AU - Lee, Stella. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Background: The nonmedical abuse of prescription opioids via intranasal administration is a growing problem. The objective of this study is to investigate of the typical presentation of intranasal opioid-acetaminophen abuse and outline optimal therapy. Methods: This study was a retrospective chart review. Patients with intranasal pathology from inhalation of combined opioid-acetaminophen medications (COAMs) from 3 academic otolaryngology practices in western Pennsylvania from January 2012 to October 2012 were included in the review. Results: Seven adults ranging in age from 23 to 46 years were identified with nasal complaints from the intranasal inhalation of COAMs. All patients presented with nasal pain and were found to have ...
Subunit intranasal vaccines offer the prospect of inducing combined systemic-mucosal immunity against mucosally transmitted infections such as human immunodeficiency virus. However, although human studies have demonstrated the induction of active immunity, secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) responses are variable, and no study has demonstrated protection by accepted vaccine-licensing criteria as measured by direct toxin-neutralizing activity. Using the genetically inactivated mutant diphtheria toxoid CRM197 in a bioadhesive polycationic polysaccharide chitosan delivery system, we found that a single nasal immunization was well tolerated and boosted antitoxin neutralizing activity in healthy volunteers, which could be further boosted by a second immunization. The neutralizing activity far exceeded accepted protective levels and was equivalent to that induced by standard intramuscular vaccine and significantly greater than intranasal immunization with CRM197 in the absence of chitosan. A striking ...
Hi all, episodic cluster sufferer here. I have had cluster headaches on the left-side of my head for about 9 years now. I have tried everything from triptan medication to prescription medical oxygen. The only thing that has really worked to abort the attacks is the oxygen, and that is only convenient when it is available and works completely. Recently, I have been doing a bit of research and experimentation regarding the trigeminal nerve and intranasal application of capsaicin (hot pepper extract). I have had great success with this, and my cluster headaches have been less frequent, as well as the pain of attacks has been reduced greatly. For a high level overview of why/how this works, please reference this video. Also, here and here are published studies. Method: The method that I use to accomplish this is relatively simple - Instead of using pure capsaicin extract, I use really hot peppers and a Q-tip. Lately, I have been using birds eye chilies, but really any hot pepper hotter than a ...
Dear doctor, I have an ENT problem - sneezing. I am using |b|nasal spray(Fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray)|/b|for 2 months as per doctors advice. Now I am completely ok. But kindly let me know the following: 1. Can I use this spray for a long period say one year; 2. Does this have any side effects in the long run;and 3. Is there any harm in using this medicine?
Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection in dogs has been associated with outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis characterized by bloody diarrhoea, vomiting, depression, leukopenia, pyrexia, dehydration, with very high mortality rate. Puppies below 6 months of age are severely affected and adult dogs having inadequate immunity suffer from the disease. Interference of maternal antibodies, long survival rate of the virus in the environment, high infectious /contagious nature of the virus and susceptibility of the pups and weak animals are the factors that propagate the disease. Contaminated surroundings especially in kennels make it a difficult disease to control. Mortality rates are very high in affected dogs. Effective immunization is essential for the protection of the individual pet and the decrease of virus population. Live attenuated vaccines are currently used worldwide affording prolonged immunity that would confer protection against disease ...
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Abstract:The Asia Pacific Nasal Drug Delivery Systems market size is $XX million USD in 2018 with XX CAGR from 2014 to 2018, and it is expected to reach $XX million.
This project proposes to optimize, manufacture, and clinically evaluate an intranasally delivered prophylactic Entamoeba histolytica vaccine (NIAID Category B pathogen) containing adjuvant. The proposed vaccine consists of a synthetic recombinant protein antigen (LecA) and a synthetic dual TLR ligand adjuvant formulation (GLA-3M052 liposomes) administered by nasal spray. The scope of work is designed to optimize dose and excipient composition and intranasal administration of the candidate product in preclinical models followed by cGMP manufacture and a Phase 1 clinical trial. By implementing critical product enhancement strategies and cutting edge adjuvant technology early in development, a vaccine against the enteric Category B pathogen E. histolytica will be developed that is able to overcome many of the challenges associated with traditional enteric vaccine approaches. In particular, we will seek to establish the safety and immunogenicity of intranasal delivery of a recombinant antigen-based ...
Global Nasal Drug Delivery Technologies Market key players are Merck & Co., Inc., Novartis AG, J & J, Pfizer Inc., AstraZeneca, AptarGroup and others.
The global nasal drug delivery technology market is projected to reach USD 64.20 billion by 2021 from USD 44.00 billion in 2016, at a CAGR of 6.5%
Angus, D., Herd, C., Stone, C., Stout, Julie, Wieler, Marguerite, Reilmann, Ralf, Ritchie, C. W., Dorsey, Earl Ray, Helles, K., Kayson, Elise, Oakes, David, Rosas, Herminia Diana, Vaughan, Carr J., Panegyres, Peter K., Ames, David J., Goh, Anita, Agarwal, Pinky, Churchyard, Andrew, Murathodizic, M., ... Targum, S.. (2015) Safety, tolerability, and efficacy of PBT2 in Huntingtons disease: A phase 2, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Neurology. 14(1), pp. 39 - 47. ...
One of the biggest questions on everyones mind throughout the conference was: why dont we have more drugs for neurodegenerative diseases? One obvious answer is that it is hard to get drugs across the blood-brain barrier. Dr. Bruce Morimoto of Allon Therapeutics Inc. in his talk Peptide Therapeutics and Mechanisms for Intranasal Delivery suggested that one solution to this problem is to use intranasal delivery, which allows drugs to bypass the blood-brain barrier entirely. Another answer for why there are so few drugs for CNS diseases is that many neurodegenerative diseases are protein-aggregation diseases, and protein-protein interactions are notoriously difficult to target. Dr. Jim Wells, Professor in the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of California, San Francisco, discussed two key limitations to targeting protein-protein interactions in his talk entitled Challenges of Protein-Protein/Protein-Peptide Targets. First, proteins often associate with one another ...
415 Ala Gln Lys Asp Ser Met Gln Asp Glu Ser Ser Gln Thr Ser Leu Gln 420 425 430 Lys Glu Ile Ser Thr Glu Glu Gln Leu Arg Arg Leu Gln Glu Glu Lys 435 440 445 Leu Cys Lys Ile Cys Met Asp Arg Asn Ile Ala Ile Val Phe Val Pro 450 455 460 Cys Gly His Leu Val Thr Cys Lys Gln Cys Ala Glu Ala Val Asp Lys 465 470 475 480 Cys Pro Met Cys Tyr Thr Val Ile Thr Phe Lys Gln Lys Ile Phe Met 485 490 495 Ser 151403PRTHomo sapiens 15Met Ala Thr Gln Gln Lys Ala Ser Asp Glu Arg Ile Ser Gln Phe Asp 1 5 10 15 His Asn Leu Leu Pro Glu Leu Ser Ala Leu Leu Gly Leu Asp Ala Val 20 25 30 Gln Leu Ala Lys Glu Leu Glu Glu Glu Glu Gln Lys Glu Arg Ala Lys 35 40 45 Met Gln Lys Gly Tyr Asn Ser Gln Met Arg Ser Glu Ala Lys Arg Leu 50 55 60 Lys Thr Phe Val Thr Tyr Glu Pro Tyr Ser Ser Trp Ile Pro Gln Glu 65 70 75 80 Met Ala Ala Ala Gly Phe Tyr Phe Thr Gly Val Lys Ser Gly Ile Gln 85 90 95 Cys Phe Cys Cys Ser Leu Ile Leu Phe Gly Ala Gly Leu Thr Arg Leu 100 105 110 Pro Ile Glu Asp His Lys Arg Phe His Pro Asp Cys Gly Phe Leu Leu 115 120 125 ...
There is an overall lack of knowledge about how vaccines work. Here we propose the combined use of reverse genetics and bone marrow...
Mild nasopharyngeal irritation following the use of beclomethasone aqueous nasal spray has been reported in up to 24% of patients treated, including occasional sneezing attacks (about 4%) occurring immediately following use of the spray. In patients
A total of 29 million confirmed cases of Covid-19 have been reported worldwide, with the number of deaths approaching one million: 925,000 to be exact, as of 15 September 2020. With these numbers continuing to rise, new approaches are being explored for a therapeutic or vaccine for Covid-19. This now includes nasal sprays for delivering a vaccine. Approval was granted in China on 9 September 2020, to initiate a Phase I clinical trial with a nasal spray vaccine against Covid-19. The intranasal spray is being
Mild nasopharyngeal irritation following the use of beclomethasone aqueous nasal spray has been reported in up to 24% of patients treated, including occasional sneezing attacks (about 4%) occurring immediately following use of the spray. In patients
This medicine comes with a patient information leaflet. Read and follow the instructions carefully. Ask your doctor if you have any questions. This medicine is only used in the nose. Do not get it in your eyes. If it does get in the eyes, rinse them with water right away and call your doctor. In order for this medicine to help you, it must be used on a regular basis as ordered by your doctor. This medicine usually begins to work in about 2 days, but up to 2 weeks may pass before you feel its full effects. Do not use this medicine for any other nose problem without checking with your doctor first. To use the spray:. ...
A controlled release device useful for the release of vapors or liquids to the surrounding of the user is described. The device is a multilayered laminate consisting of a reservoir layer which incorporates an active compound, such as a nasally delivered therapeutic medication or insect repellant, an impermeable membrane layer adjacent the reservoir layer and a diffusion rate limiting membrane layer adjacent the reservoir layer. The device preferably includes an adhesive layer for adhering the device to skin or a surface and an ornamental decorative layer.
Our previous studies identified a long-term population of plasma cells in the NALT after influenza virus infection that may have an important role in protection from re-infection 4. However, long-term virus-specific plasma cells do not appear to be induced after RSV infection in the NALT, even though serum antibody was clearly detectable 5, leading us to propose that this NALT population may be important in protection from RSV infection. Our results demonstrate that the mucosal response, as indicated by the levels of IgA in the lung, seems to fall rapidly after RSV infection but is boosted and maintained to higher levels after immunisation with iRSV + DOMV. Furthermore, an increased frequency of RSV-specific plasma cells is apparent within the D-NALT after iRSV + DOMV immunisation. Immunisation with iRSV + OMV also generates complete protection against viral replication after live RSV challenge.. Immunisation with iRSV + DOMV generated few splenic IFN-γ-producing cells, indicating that the MHC ...
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Laron, Z.; Frenkel, J.; Deghenghl, R.; Anin, S.; Klinger, B.; Siibergeld, A. (1995). "Intranasal administration of the GHRP". ... Frenkel, J.; Silbergeld, A.; Deghenghi, R.; Laron, Z. (1995). "Short Term Effect of Intranasal Administration of Hexarelin". ... "Short-term administration of intranasal or oral Hexarelin, a synthetic hexapeptide, does not desensitize the growth hormone ... intranasal, and oral administration in man". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 78 (3): 693-8. doi:10.1210/ ...
Intranasal insulin is being investigated. A randomized controlled trial that will determine whether intranasal insulin can ... Text ISBN 978-I-62429-391-77 In 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Exubera, the first ... The insulin administration aspect remains experimental, but the blood glucose test aspect of "wrist appliances" is commercially ... "FDA approval of Exubera inhaled insulin". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 2008-12-26. ...
Increased levels of OT can be found in salivary samples after intranasal administration of the neuropeptide. Salivary OT levels ... Weisman, O., Zagoory-Sharon, O., & Feldman, R. (2012). Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva. ... Intranasal (IN) administration, as opposed to more conventional routes, such as oral or intravenous infusion, offers an ... A review of 38 randomized and controlled trials suggests that short-term use of intranasal oxytocin appears to have few side- ...
"A Study of Intranasal ChAdOx1 nCOV-19". United States National Library of Medicine. 25 March 2021. ... This was due to a separate investigation by the Food and Drug Administration surrounding a patient illness that triggered a ... The deal was part of the Trump administration's Operation Warp Speed initiative to develop and rapidly scale production of ... Beginning 14 days following timely administration of a second dose, with different duration from the first dose depending on ...
"Phase 1 Intranasal Parainfluenza Virus Type 5-SARS CoV-2 S Vaccine in Healthy Adults (CVXGA1-001)". 8 July ... In July 2021, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) issued a ... "Intranasal COVID-19 vaccine Phase 2 study in Healthy volunteers". Clinical Trials Registry India. Retrieved 3 ... The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) set a cutoff of 50% as the efficacy required ...
Food and Drug Administration, Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 2007-07-09. "Warnings on Three Zicam ... Instances of anosmia (loss of smell) have been reported with intranasal use of some products containing zinc gluconate. In ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) considers zinc gluconate to be generally recognized as safe (GRAS) when used in ... On 16 June 2009 the FDA "warned consumers to stop using and discard three zinc-containing Zicam intranasal products. The ...
In addition, also unlike the case of peripheral administration, intranasal oxytocin has a central duration of at least 2.25 ... "Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37 (9): 1582-6. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Salivary levels of oxytocin remain elevated for more than two hours after intranasal oxytocin administration". Neuro ... Following i.v. administration, the terminal half-life is the time required for plasma/blood concentration to decrease by 50% ...
... since intranasal administration of oxytocin also increases envy and Schadenfreude. Individuals who receive an intranasal dose ... Theodoridou A, Penton-Voak IS, Rowe AC (2013). "A direct examination of the effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin on ... Shamay-Tsoory SG, Fischer M, Dvash J, Harari H, Perach-Bloom N, Levkovitz Y (November 2009). "Intranasal administration of ... Fischer-Shofty M, Shamay-Tsoory SG, Harari H, Levkovitz Y (January 2010). "The effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin ...
Fischer-Shofty M, Shamay-Tsoory SG, Harari H, Levkovitz Y (2010). "The effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin on fear ... "Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37 (9): 1582-86. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Salivary levels of oxytocin remain elevated for more than two hours after intranasal oxytocin administration". Neuro ... Intranasal oxytocin has a central duration of at least 2.25 hours and as long as 4 hours. Oral: Oxytocin is destroyed in the ...
... with rectal administration yielding the same results; intranasal varies between individuals with a mean of 46%. After a dose of ... Therapeutic Goods Administration (June 2008). Standard for the uniform scheduling of drugs and poisons no. 23 (PDF). Canberra: ... When first introduced in Germany during World War I, both IV and IM administrations of oxycodone were commonly used for ... Drug Enforcerment Administration. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015. Retrieved 23 November 2015. "DEA Diversion ...
Common routes of administration include sublingual, buccal, and intranasal. For sublingual and buccal administration, 25I-NBOMe ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on ... Drug Enforcement Administration (November 2015). "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Extension of Temporary Placement of Three ... "Three More Synthetic Drugs Become Illegal for at Least Two Years". United States Drug
Preventing Anosmia from Intranasal Zinc Administration[unreliable medical source?] Maruyama T, Yasuda S, Odashiro K, Kaji Y, ... Intranasal drug use Samter's triad also known as AERD (aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease) Foster Kennedy syndrome Cadmium ... Sarcoidosis Zinc-based intranasal cold products, including remedies labelled as "homeopathic" Chronic atrophic rhinitis Paget's ...
Intranasal administration results in maximal plasma concentrations in 2-3 hours. ... The half-life of the parent compound is 22 ... doi:10.1016/b978-0-323-04404-2.10089-2. After intranasal administration, its systemic bioavailability is approximately 40%. ... ISBN 978-3-030-54087-6. Intranasal H1 antihistamines such as azelastine are effective for controlling nasal symptoms. They need ... "Optivar- azelastine hydrochloride solution/ drops". McNeely, W; Wiseman, LR (July 1998). "Intranasal azelastine. A review of ...
Shamay-Tsoory SG, Fischer M, Dvash J, Harari H, Perach-Bloom N, Levkovitz Y (November 2009). "Intranasal administration of ... Some researchers have argued oxytocin has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions, since intranasal administration of ... 19 (7). Wudarczyk, O. A.; Earp, B. D.; Guastella, A; Savulescu, J (2013). "Could intranasal oxytocin be used to enhance ...
Rigg LA, Milanes B, Villanueva B, Yen SS (1977). "Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized ... This route of administration is thus preferred in women with a history of thromboembolic disease. Estrogen is also used in the ... However, such risks have been found to vary depending on the type of estrogen and the route of administration. The risk of VTE ... It was only until 1941 when estrogen therapy was finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment ...
Estradiol can be taken by a variety of different routes of administration. These include oral, buccal, sublingual, intranasal, ... "Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized estradiol-17beta". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology ... Sublingual administration of estradiol was first described in the early 1940s. Buccal estradiol tablets were marketed by ... Sahin FK, Koken G, Cosar E, Arioz DT, Degirmenci B, Albayrak R, Acar M (2008). "Effect of Aerodiol administration on ocular ...
There are several methods of administration, including parenteral and intranasal. However, the intranasal method has been ... Several intranasal vaccines have been developed that contain canine adenovirus in addition to B. bronchiseptica and canine ... Administration of B. bronchiseptica and canine parainfluenza vaccines may then be continued routinely, especially during ... Adverse effects of vaccinations are mild, but the most common effect observed up to 30 days after administration is nasal ...
Comparing Intranasal Administration to Intramuscular Administration in Healthy Human Volunteers." University of Kentucky ... "A single dose, Open Label, Randomized Three Way Crossover, Bioavailability Study of 1.0 mg and 2.0 Intranasal Butorphanol ... "A single Dose, Randomized Two Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study of 2.0 mg Intranasal Hydromorphone Hydrochloride In ...
"Loss of Sense of Smell with Intranasal Cold Remedies Containing Zinc". Food and Drug Administration. 2009. Archived from the ... Intranasal corticosteroids have not been found to be useful. In adults short term use of nasal decongestants may have a small ... The optimal formulation of zinc lozenges and an ideal frequency of their administration should be examined. Given the evidence ... AlBalawi ZH, Othman SS, Alfaleh K (June 2013). "Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold". The Cochrane Database of ...
A variety of intranasal COVID-19 vaccines are undergoing clinical trials. One is in use in China. Examples include a vaccine ... The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has now authorized bivalent vaccines to protect against the original COVID ... Intranasal vaccines target mucosal immunity in the nasal mucosa which is a portal for viral entrance to the body. These ... "The drug development process". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 4 January 2018. Archived from the original on 22 ...
... is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. It is distributed to most ... Methamphetamine is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. Because of the high ... Repeated administration or self administration of METH has been shown to upregulate σ-1 receptor protein and mRNA in various ... Administration of methamphetamine to rodents causes DNA damage in their brain, particularly in the nucleus accumbens region. ...
Intranasal administration of naloxone via nasal spray has likewise been found to rapidly occupy brain MORs, with peak occupancy ... Wolfe TR, Bernstone T (April 2004). "Intranasal drug delivery: an alternative to intravenous administration in selected ... A single administration of naloxone at a relatively high dose of 2 mg by intravenous injection has been found to produce brain ... Administration of naloxone intranasally is recommended for people who are unconscious or unresponsive. While the onset of ...
Testosterone can be used by intranasal administration (e.g., brand name Natesto). Testosterone is available for transdermal ... Rectal administration of testosterone avoids the first-pass effect with oral administration similarly to other non-oral routes ... As a result, it requires administration several times per day in divided doses. Due to its limitations, such as the high doses ... Oral testosterone undecanoate is provided as 40 mg oil-filled capsules and requires administration 2 to 4 times per day (i.e., ...
Additional administration of epinephrine, often in the form of an autoinjector, is required by people with such ... ISBN 978-3-030-54087-6. Intranasal H1 antihistamines such as azelastine are effective for controlling nasal symptoms. They need ... ". "OTC Active Ingredients" (PDF). United States Food and Drug Administration. 7 April 2010. Antihistaminics,+H1 at the US ...
Routes of administration of midazolam can be oral, intranasal, buccal, intravenous, and intramuscular. Benzodiazepines require ... Paradoxical reactions are particularly associated with intravenous administration. After nighttime administration of midazolam ... It is not clear whether his death was caused by one or more of the drugs or by a problem in the administration procedure, nor ... Buccal and intranasal midazolam may be both easier to administer and more effective than rectally administered diazepam in the ...
Intranasal administration of pregnenolone was found to have low bioavailability of around 23%. Sripada et al. reported that ... Unlike the case of oral administration, transdermal administration of 30 mg/day pregnenolone cream has not been found to affect ... "Brain distribution and behavioral effects of progesterone and pregnenolone after intranasal or intravenous administration". Eur ... Oral administration of 50 or 100 mg pregnenolone has been found to have minimal or negligible effect on urinary levels of ...
The elimination half-life of nafarelin is 2.5 to 3.0 hours by intranasal administration, whereas the half-life of nafarelin and ... The bioavailability of nafarelin with intranasal administration is 2.8% on average, with a range of 1.2 to 5.6%. The plasma ... Nafarelin is not available for use by any other routes than intranasal administration. Side effects of nafarelin are related to ...
The bioavailability of doxylamine is 24.7% for oral administration and 70.8% for intranasal administration. The Tmax of ... "Comparative pharmacokinetics of single doses of doxylamine succinate following intranasal, oral and intravenous administration ... Office of the Federal Register, National Archives and Records Service, General Services Administration. 1978. pp. 25584-. OCLC ... Doxylamine is generally safe for administration to healthy adults. Doses of doxylamine of up to 1,600 mg/day for 6 months have ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of 4 injectable H1N1 monovalent vaccines and 1 intranasal H1N1 ... Meanwhile, the live attenuated virus vaccine usually comes in trivalent or quadrivalent forms for intranasal administration. ... Meanwhile, the common adverse effects for intranasal H1N1 vaccine for adults includes sore throat, runny nose and coughing. On ... Both intramuscular injection or intranasal spray are available on market. Unlike the seasonal influenza vaccines which are used ...
De Buck E, Borra V, Carlson JN, Zideman DA, Singletary EM, Djärv T (April 2019). "First aid glucose administration routes for ... When there is no intravenous access, intramuscular or intra-nasal glucagon may be administered. While the treatment of ... how to administer injectable or intra-nasal glucagon, and how use a glucose meter. Family, friends, and co-workers of those ... also referred to as sublingual administration. For example, a hard candy can be dissolved under the tongue, however the best ...
Coda BA, Rudy AC, Archer SM, Wermeling DP: Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of single-dose intranasal hydromorphone ... Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of hydromorphone following intravenous and oral administration to human subjects. J Clin ...
administration. Oral, sublingual, intranasal, topical/transdermal, vaginal, intramuscular or subcutaneous (as an ester), ... Uterine weight = Percentage change in uterine wet weight of ovariectomized rats after 72 hours with continuous administration ... Kuhl H (August 2005). "Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration". ... Luteinizing hormone levels relative to baseline of ovariectomized rats after 24 to 72 hours of continuous administration via ...
"Increased neostriatal dopamine activity after intraperitoneal or intranasal administration of L-DOPA: on the role of ... Apomorphine had limited use since it had considerable side effects and difficulty with administration. In 1974 bromocriptine ...
Smoking problems: Any route of administration poses its own set of health risks; in the case of crack cocaine, smoking tends to ... Psychosis is more closely associated with smoking crack cocaine than intranasal and intravenous use.[24] ... "DEA, Drug Information, Cocaine", United States DOJ Drug Enforcement Administration, 2008, webpage: DEA-cocaine Archived 2008- ...
"Inhibition of serum androgen levels by chronic intranasal and subcutaneous administration of a potent luteinizing hormone- ... "Allopregnanolone elevations following pregnenolone administration are associated with enhanced activation of emotion ...
United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) memperingatkan konsumen untuk berhenti menggunakan seng intranasal.[160] ... US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) menyatakan bahwa seng dapat merusak reseptor saraf di hidung, menyebabkan anosmia. ... Penggunaan intranasal penyemprot hidung yang mengandung seng telah dikaitkan dengan hilangnya indra penciuman;[160] akibatnya, ... FDA memerintahkan penghapusan produk dingin intranasal berbasis seng dari rak-rak toko. FDA mengatakan hilangnya penciuman ...
Slow intravenous administration of physostigmine may reverse some of the toxic effects of overdose such as anticholinergic ... "Doxepin intranasal - Winston Pharmaceuticals". Retrieved 16 March 2019. Casale R, Symeonidou Z, ... Management of overdose is mostly supportive and symptomatic, and can include the administration of a gastric lavage so as to ... Doxepin was under development by Winston Pharmaceuticals in an intranasal formulation for the treatment of headache. As of ...
Intranasal administration of PGLYRP3 protects mice from lung infection with S. aureus and E. coli, but PGLYRP3-deficient mice ...
Flibanserin is delivered through oral administrations on a half-life of 11 hours. A steady state can be achieved after three ... Marked as VyleesiTM, it was primarily designed for both men and women in the form of an intranasal formulation, particularly ... Bremelanotide is exposed through a single subcutaneous administration. With a half-life of an hour, the drug is excreted ... The United States Food and Drug Administration, FDA (March 2012). "LUPRON DEPOT® -3 Month 11.25 mg" (PDF). Retrieved 2021-03-28 ...
The Muslim Council of Britain argued against the use of intranasal influenza vaccine in 2019 due to the presence of gelatin in ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. April 5, 2019. Wakefield AJ, Murch SH, Anthony A, Linnell J, Casson DM, Malik M, Berelowitz ... Despite this, his parents declined the administration of subsequent tetanus boosters or other vaccinations. As of September ... "Thimerosal in vaccines". Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. June 3, 2008. ...
The most common indication for butorphanol is management of migraine using the intranasal spray formulation. It may also be ... United States Drug Enforcement Administration. Compendium of Data sheets for Animal Medicines. 2005. National Office of Animal ... Butorphanol is available as the tartrate salt in injectable, tablet, and intranasal spray formulations. The tablet form is only ...
The Food and Drug Administration approved benzhydrocodone and acetaminophen (Apadaz) for the short-term (no more than 14 days) ... a lower Drug Liking in the first two hours after intranasal abuse (snorting), and the conversion of benzhydrocodone to ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. "2016 Meeting Materials, Anesthetic and Analgesic Drug Products Advisory Committee". U.S. ... Food and Drug Administration. (Drugs missing an ATC code, Drugs with no legal status, Articles containing unverified chemical ...
... has a rapid onset of action and has been detected in the brain as early as within 5 minutes of intranasal administration. On ... Following administration of cimetidine, the half-life and AUC of zolmitriptan and its active metabolites were approximately ... and 2.4L/kg after intravenous administration. Zolmitriptan is metabolized into three major metabolites by the human hepatic ... average, zolmitriptan has an oral bioavailability of 40%, a mean volume of distribution of 8.3 L/kg after oral administration, ...
Routes of administration that progesterone has been used by include oral, intranasal, transdermal, vaginal, rectal, ... Intranasal progesterone as a nasal spray has been found to be effective in achieving therapeutic levels, and was not associated ... However, the duration was short, with levels of less than 5 ng/mL at 6 hours, and re-administration had to be done two or three ... With oral administration, progesterone accounts for less than 20% of the dose in circulation while 5α- and 5β-reduced products ...
Use of intranasal decongestants (such as oxymetazoline) for more than three days leads to tachyphylaxis of response and rebound ... sudden decrease in response to a drug after its administration; i.e. a rapid and short-term onset of drug tolerance. It can ... Oxymetazoline-induced tachyphylaxis and rebound congestion are reversed by intranasal fluticasone. Desensitization (medicine) ... is more apparent in Arg-16 individuals because their receptors have not been downregulated prior to agonist administration. ...
The route of administration is important as well. Whether a drug is ingested orally, injected into a muscle or vein, absorbed ... Intranasal: the vaccine is sprayed into the nose and absorbed through the nasal passage. Oral: the vaccine is swallowed and ... of the drug after its administration[citation needed]. This is in contrast to their interchangeable use in other fields. A ' ... through a mucous membrane, or any of the other types of administration routes, affects how quickly the substance will be ...
Following IV administration of a 14C-labeled prodrug of aprepitant (L-758298), which is converted rapidly and completely to ... on response to oral and intranasal oxycodone in prescription opioid abusers". Addiction Biology. 18 (2): 332-43. doi:10.1111/j. ... It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2003. In 2008, fosaprepitant, an intravenous form of aprepitant ... "FDA Advisory Committee Background Package" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 May 2017 ...
This practice is an off label use of IV ketamine in the United States, though the intranasal version of esketamine has been ... In 2003, the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration conducted Operation TKO, a probe into the quality of ketamine being imported ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved 17 January 2012. " - The Mexican Connection - Jul 18 ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Retrieved 17 January 2012. "Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2009: ...
Estradiol can be taken by a variety of different routes of administration. These include oral, buccal, sublingual, intranasal, ... Tullner WW, Young JP, Hertz R (1952). "Administration of Massive Dosage of Oestrogen to Breast and Prostatic Cancer Patients; ... Al-Futaisi AM, Al-Zakwani IS, Almahrezi AM, Morris D (December 2006). "Subcutaneous administration of testosterone. A pilot ... Hertz R, Tullner WW (October 1949). "Intravenous administration of massive dosages of estrogen to the human subject; blood ...
Thus, 10 hours later after intranasal SeV administration, infectious virions carrying foreign trans genes can be detected in ... After the second administration, the expression of trans genes is getting reduced by 60% when compared with levels achieved ... Travis CR (2020-09-30). "As Plain as the Nose on Your Face: The Case for A Nasal (Mucosal) Route of Vaccine Administration for ... Only 10% mortality rate was observed in C57BL/6 mice after the administration of very high virulent dose of 1*105 TCID50. It ...
Clausi, M.G.; Paez, P.M.; Campagnoni, A.T.; Pasquini, L.A.; Pasquini, J.M.; Ahmadiani, A. (2012). "Intranasal administration of ... It has also been shown that intranasal administration of apotransferrin (aTf) can protect myelin and induce remyelination. ...
The company later began producing nasal administration and pulmonary drug delivery devices such as nasal spray systems and ... Biotech and pharmaceutical companies use Aptar's different Unidose and Bidose devices for the single or two-shot intranasal ...
... indicates that an enhanced protection from HSV-2 is a result of mucosal immunity which can be elicited by their intranasal ... efficacy of Vitaherpavac vaccine was demonstrated after allergometry-based tailored choice of vaccine administration regimen. ...
... patents in dopamine and noradrenergic reuptake inhibitors in the treatment of schizophrenia and in intranasal administration of ... His intranasal ketamine treatment was approved by the FDA in 2019 and now produced under the brand name Spravato. Scientific ... A Randomized Controlled Trial of Repeated Ketamine Administration for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Am J Psychiatry. ... Member, Food and Drug Administration Psychopharmacologic Drug Advisory Committee Editorial committee, Biological Psychiatry, a ...
Phil Murphy's administration reported that mortality from opioid overdoses had increased 20%. To counter the trend, the state ... fearing that his first responders risk COVID-19 infection exposure by dispensing the intra-nasal drug. The Indiana Department ... "Hogan-Rutherford Administration Declares State of Emergency, Announces Major Funding to Combat Heroin and Opioid Crisis in ... In 2012, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rescheduled it from a Schedule III drug to a Schedule II drug, recognizing its ...
US-2016235512-A1 chemical patent summary.
Intranasal vaccination is a potential route for vaccine delivery which has been demonstrated effective in inducing protective ... Prevention of influenza virus infection and transmission by intranasal administration of a porous maltodextrin nanoparticle- ... Intranasal vaccination is a potential route for vaccine delivery which has been demonstrated effective in inducing protective ... These results demonstrate that an intranasal delivery system combining NPL, mucosal adjuvant CTA1-DD and split virus antigens ...
Vaccine Administration: General Best Practice Guidelines for Immunization. Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) ... Intranasal Route. Live attenuated influenza vaccine is approved for healthy nonpregnant persons aged 2-49 years and is the only ... TABLE 6-1. Dose and route of administration for selected vaccines. Dose and route of administration for selected vaccines. ... Route of Administration. Injectable Route. Routes of administration are recommended by the manufacturer for each immunobiologic ...
... intranasal), frequency-based adverse effects, comprehensive interactions, contraindications, pregnancy & lactation schedules, ... Administration. Intranasal Administration. Administer at beginning of influenza season. Each sprayer contains a single dose ( ... Intranasal administration for age ≥50 years: Safety and efficacy not established. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) not ... Not absorbed systemically following intranasal administration and maternal use is not expected to result in fetal exposure to ...
... Biol Psychiatry. 2009 ... Administration, Intranasal * Adult * Communication* * Conflict, Psychological* * Double-Blind Method * Family Characteristics* ...
New formulation of combined intranasal steroids and intranasal antihistamines. More effective than using intranasal steroids or ... 92, 93, 94, 95, 96] Administration at bedtime may help with drowsiness, but sedation and impairment of cognition may continue ... Ocular antihistamine drops (for eye symptoms), intranasal antihistamine sprays, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal anticholinergic ... Intranasal anticholinergic agents. Class Summary. Used for reducing rhinorrhea in patients with allergic or vasomotor rhinitis ...
New formulation of combined intranasal steroids and intranasal antihistamines. More effective than using intranasal steroids or ... 92, 93, 94, 95, 96] Administration at bedtime may help with drowsiness, but sedation and impairment of cognition may continue ... Ocular antihistamine drops (for eye symptoms), intranasal antihistamine sprays, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal anticholinergic ... Intranasal anticholinergic agents. Class Summary. Used for reducing rhinorrhea in patients with allergic or vasomotor rhinitis ...
Intranasal administration of fusidic acid cream in leprosy. Indian Journal of Leprosy. 2000 Oct-Dec; 72(4): 451-5. ...
Intranasal (i.n.) administration is a relatively novel technique to target therapeutics to the central nervous system for the ... Delivery of therapeutics via the intranasal route for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases [abstract] Abstract Overview ... Foremost is intranasal deferoxamine (i.n. DFO), which has shown efficacy in rodent models of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. ... These studies demonstrate that i.n. administration also has potential for the treatment of Huntington disease (HD). Indeed, ...
New formulation of combined intranasal steroids and intranasal antihistamines. More effective than using intranasal steroids or ... 92, 93, 94, 95, 96] Administration at bedtime may help with drowsiness, but sedation and impairment of cognition may continue ... Ocular antihistamine drops (for eye symptoms), intranasal antihistamine sprays, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal anticholinergic ... Intranasal anticholinergic agents. Class Summary. Used for reducing rhinorrhea in patients with allergic or vasomotor rhinitis ...
Changes in OTM concentrations after intranasal treatment were detected reliably. The Arbor assay met requirements of a ... Intranasal oxytocin administration. To physiologically validate the assay at hand, we administered 12 international units (IU) ... Specifically, urinary OTM concentrations increased significantly following intranasal OT administration but not when a PL ... assay36 and thus both assays appear suitable to determine administration success in studies using intranasal OT administration ...
... intranasal administration; -, not detected; +, ++, +++, increasing levels of antigen.. †Died 96 h after experimental infection ...
Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women. / Palgi, Sharon; Klein, Ehud; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G. ... Palgi, S., Klein, E., & Shamay-Tsoory, S. G. (2013). Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women. ... Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience. 2013 Sep ... title = "Intranasal administration of oxytocin increases compassion toward women",. abstract = "It has been suggested that the ...
Global Coronavirus Vaccine Market, By Route of Administration:. *Intramuscular *Oral *Intranasal. Global Coronavirus Vaccine ... T-COVIDTM, AdCOVID and COVI-VAC are intranasal COVID-19 vaccines which are under pre-clinical and phase 1 trials.. The Global ... By Route of Administration, By Patient Type, By End User, By Region, Competition Forecast & Opportunities, 2026" report has ... Coronavirus Vaccine Market is segmented based on infection type, vaccine type, product type, route of administration, patient ...
... Author(s): Bleske BE, ... Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine if intranasal administration of epinephrine during CPR would provide an ... seven intranasal epinephrine). Baseline coronary perfusion pressure (mean +/- SD) was similar for IV epinephrine and intranasal ... five of seven dogs for intranasal epinephrine and four of six dogs for IV epinephrine (P = .66). CONCLUSION: Intranasal ...
In PFF-seeded A53T mice, the nasal administration of the wtTIDM peptide, NEMO-binding domain (wtNBD) peptide, or genetic ... 7: Intranasal administration of wtNBD peptide inhibits α-syn spreading in PFF-seeded A53T mice.. ... Intranasal administration of wtTIDM peptide reduces gliosis in the SN of PFF-seeded mice. Before testing wtTIDM peptide for ... Intranasal administration of wtTIDM peptide reduces α-syn spreading from striatum to nigra and motor cortex in PFF-seeded mice ...
Administration, Intranasal * Adolescent * Adrenal Cortex Hormones / administration & dosage * Adult * Asthma / complications* * ... Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether treatment with intranasal corticosteroids and/or second- ...
Laron, Z.; Frenkel, J.; Deghenghl, R.; Anin, S.; Klinger, B.; Siibergeld, A. (1995). "Intranasal administration of the GHRP". ... Frenkel, J.; Silbergeld, A.; Deghenghi, R.; Laron, Z. (1995). "Short Term Effect of Intranasal Administration of Hexarelin". ... "Short-term administration of intranasal or oral Hexarelin, a synthetic hexapeptide, does not desensitize the growth hormone ... intranasal, and oral administration in man". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 78 (3): 693-8. doi:10.1210/ ...
Loss of sense of smell with intranasal cold remedies containing zinc. U.S. Food and Drug Administration, June 16, 2009. ... Effect of the administration of zinc sulfate on hypogonadism and impotence in patients with chronic stable hepatic cirrhosis. J ... Does intranasal application of zinc sulfate produce anosmia in the mouse? An olfactometric and anatomical study. Chem Senses ... Rebello, T., Atherton, D. J., and Holden, C. The effect of oral zinc administration on sebum free fatty acids in acne vulgaris ...
Intrasinusal administration via endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require fewer infusions for success. Follow-up ... Procedure-All dogs had typical clinical signs of aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or intranasal fungal ... Intrasinusal administration via endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require fewer infusions for success. Follow-up ... Intrasinusal administration via endoscopically placed catheters appeared to require fewer infusions for success. Follow-up ...
Comparative study on the efficacy of intranasal midazolam versus intravenous midazolam and intravenous diazepam in convulsing ... COMPARATIVE STUDY ON THE EFFICACY OF INTRANASAL MIDAZOLAM VERSUS INTRAVENOUS MIDAZOLAM AND INTRAVENOUS DIAZEPAM IN CONVULSING ... 5) Thereby making it ideal for intranasal administration. We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal ... Intranasal administration of midazolam has been area of tremendous interest in recent years. The ability of rich vascular nasal ...
B. Administration for Systemic Effect The intramuscular dosage will vary with the condition being treated. When employed as a ... Intranasal: Allergic reactions, rhinitis, temporary/permanent visual impairment including blindness.. Ophthalmic: Increased ... A. For Intramuscular Administration When oral therapy is not feasible and the strength, dosage form, and route of ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Because of possible physical incompatibilities, methylprednisolone acetate injectable suspension ...
Intranasal oxytocin (0.6IU) was administered daily, for 28 days, starting at 5 weeks of age to the 16p11.2 deletion, Shank3 ( ... preclinical study on chronic intranasal oxytocin treatment in three different mouse models related to autism with a focus on ... Examining the effect of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on the neuroanatomy and behavior of three autism-related ... Examining the effect of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on the neuroanatomy and behavior of three autism-related ...
Dive into the research topics of Examining the effect of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on the neuroanatomy and ... Examining the effect of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on the neuroanatomy and behavior of three autism-related ... Examining the effect of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on the neuroanatomy and behavior of three autism-related ... Examining the effect of chronic intranasal oxytocin administration on the neuroanatomy and behavior of three autism-related ...
Intranasal Administration of Chitosan-Nanoparticles Conjugated with Imipramine and its Effect on Stroke-Induced Secondary ... Intranasal Administration of Chitosan-Nanoparticles Conjugated with Imipramine and its Effect on Stroke-Induced Secondary ...
T1 - Comparative Effectiveness of Intracerebroventricular, Intrathecal, and Intranasal Routes of AAV9 Vector Administration for ... Comparative Effectiveness of Intracerebroventricular, Intrathecal, and Intranasal Routes of AAV9 Vector Administration for ... Comparative Effectiveness of Intracerebroventricular, Intrathecal, and Intranasal Routes of AAV9 Vector Administration for ... Comparative Effectiveness of Intracerebroventricular, Intrathecal, and Intranasal Routes of AAV9 Vector Administration for ...
A new pre-clinical study succeeded in the intranasal delivery of an anti-depressant peptide-based drug to the brain in mouse ... Secondly, other methods such as intranasal administration face issues such as ineffective cell permeability. Lastly, even if ... similar to ICV administration. However, IV administration did not demonstrate the intended effect. ... A new pre-clinical study succeeded in the intranasal delivery of an anti-depressant peptide-based drug to the brain in mouse ...
Polyrizon Teams with NurExone for Intranasal Administration of Spinal Cord Injury Therapy. July 18, 2022 ...
Intranasal administration of mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates the abnormal dopamine transmission system and inflammatory ... Intranasal administration of mesenchymal stem cells ameliorates the abnormal dopamine transmission system and inflammatory ... Hence, we sought to evaluate the non-invasive intranasal administration (INA) of MSC delivery as an effective alternative route ... Huntington diseaseCell therapyMesenchymal stem cellsIntranasalR6/2 miceDopamine transmissionMicrogliaNeuroinflammation ...
  • To compare the clinical efficacy of two routes of midazolam intranasal vs. intravenous, in relation to intravenous diazepam for control of seizures. (
  • Group-I was given intranasal midazolam at 0.3 mg /kg, Group-II was given intravenous midazolam at 0.3mg/kg and Group-III was given intravenous diazepam at 0.3 mg /kg. (
  • Mean time from physician contact to drug administration was significantly shorter with intranasal midazolam as compared to intravenous midazolam and intravenous diazepam (0.40±0.10min vs. 1.06±0.40 min and 1.06±40 min) (p-0.03). (
  • Mean time from drug administration to cessation of seizures was lesser in midazolam (1.6 ± 0.3mins(IN) and 1.6±0.3min(IV) as compared to diazepam (2.26±0.6 min) (p-0.06). (
  • Seizure control was most prompt with intranasal midazolam . (
  • We conducted this study to evaluate the efficacy of intranasal midazolam vs. intravenous midazolam and intravenous diazepam in convulsing neonates and children. (
  • Kavyani N. Assessment of intranasal midazolam administration with a dose of 0.5 mg/kg in behavior management of uncooperative children . (
  • 26. Kupietzky A, Holan G, Shapira J. Intranasal midazolam better at effecting amnesia after sedation than oral hydroxyzine: a pilot study . (
  • Debaene B. Intranasal midazolam in piglets: pharmacodynamics (0.2 vs 0.4 mg/kg) and pharmacokinetics (0.4 mg/kg) with bioavailability determination . (
  • Loftsson T. Intranasal administration of midazolam in a cyclodextrin based formulation: bioavailability and clinical evaluation in humans . (
  • Intranasal administration of midazolam represents a noninvasive method of sedating children before anxiety-producing events. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether premedication with intranasal midazolam reduces stress and anxiety of separation from parents and of undergoing venipuncture, while maintaining adequate sedation during EGD. (
  • Patients in group I were premedicated with intranasal placebo (0.9% NaCl) followed 10 minutes later by intravenous midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and intravenous meperidine (1 mg/kg). (
  • Negative behaviors appeared to increase during administration of intranasal midazolam or placebo. (
  • Conclusions: Premedication with intranasal midazolam is effective in reducing negative behaviors during separation from parents, while it maintains sedation during the endoscopic procedure. (
  • The medical director of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Clinic at Nicklaus Children's Hospital discussed the advantages of intranasal diazepam over traditional midazolam and rectal diazepam. (
  • The current study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of intranasal midazolam alone versus midazolam/ketamine combination for preoperative sedation prior to ophthalmic procedures in preschool children. (
  • Participants were given either intranasal midazolam (0.5 mg/kg) or a combination of intranasal midazolam (0.25 mg/kg) and ketamine (1 mg/kg). (
  • These findings indicate that intranasal ketamine and midazolam combination produced better sedation than intranasal midazolam alone in preschool children prior to ophthalmic procedures. (
  • Ketamine and midazolam are two of the most commonly used medications for intranasal sedation. (
  • While optimal mucosal antibody titers had been attained after two intrapulmonary vaccinations, optimum systemic antibody replies had been attained by intranasal leading accompanied by intramuscular increase. (
  • A report in horses using an ISCOM-adjuvanted influenza vaccine demonstrated that intranasal enhancing after intramuscular (IM) priming doesn't have much influence on serum IgG amounts, but leads to low and transient IgG and SIgA responses in nose Angiotensin II price washes [18]. (
  • We demonstrated that GPI-0100 previously, a semi-synthetic saponin-derivative, is normally an effective adjuvant for influenza subunit vaccine given via not only the intramuscular, but also the intranasal and particularly the intrapulmonary route [27,28]. (
  • Her agency helped provide the data the FDA used in its approval to show that intranasal administration is equivalent in efficacy to intramuscular administration. (
  • therefore, it was hypothesized that the intranasal LAIV followed by the intramuscular IIV boost might confer better protection than the two intramuscular doses of IIV (Group 4). (
  • BALB/c mice administered latex proteins by the subcutaneous, topical, intranasal or intratracheal routes exhibited dose responsive elevations in total IgE. (
  • Intranasal insulin administration suppresses systemic but not subcutaneous lipolysis in healthy humans. (
  • Acute treatment of cluster headache (CH) attacks usually consists of subcutaneous or intranasal triptans and inhaled oxygen. (
  • Single-dose vials and manufacturer-filled syringes are designed for single-dose administration and should be discarded if vaccine has been withdrawn or reconstituted and subsequently not used within the time frame specified by the manufacturer. (
  • CONCLUSION: Intranasal epinephrine has similar effects on coronary perfusion pressure and resuscitation compared with standard-dose IV epinephrine. (
  • If you used intranasal naloxone, administer the dose in the other nostril. (
  • The objectives of this ongoing toxicology study are to evaluate the potential toxicity of NT-CoV2-1 following repeated intranasal administration at the maximal dose anticipated to be used in humans, and to confirm the immunogenicity of the vaccine. (
  • Recently, Bharat Biotech completed the Phase III trials of its COVID-19 intranasal vaccine BBV154 and submitted the data to the Drug Controller General of India (DCGI) for approval both as a primary two-dose vaccine, and a heterologous booster dose. (
  • Seek immediate medical attention after administration of the first dose. (
  • Seek immediate medical attention after administration of the first dose, while continuing to monitor the exposed person. (
  • We will review recent developments in the study of ketamine, an old anaesthetic agent which has shown significant promise as a rapidly acting antidepressant in treatment-resistant patients with unipolar MDD, focusing on clinically important aspects such as dose, route of administration and duration of effect. (
  • As well as confirming that intranasal administration via a Unidose delivery device was the easiest dose to administer, the study also revealed a significant improvement in study participants' ability to administer the dose when trained prior to administering the drug. (
  • KemPharm, a clinical-stage specialty pharmaceutical company focused on the discovery and development of proprietary prodrugs, today announced the results of its exploratory Phase 1, double-blind, single-dose, 2-treatment, 2-period, randomized, crossover study (Study KP511.A01) intended to assess the pharmacokinetics, safety and intranasal abuse potential of KP511 Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) compared to equivalent doses of hydromorphone hydrochloride (HM API). (
  • Any condition requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (>10 mg daily prednisone or equivalent dose of an alternative corticosteroid) or other immunosuppressive medications within 28 days of durvalumab administration. (
  • Group E (Control): Placebo with the dose and frequency administration schedule of the selected variant, for 10 days. (
  • The scope of work is designed to optimize dose and excipient composition and intranasal administration of the candidate product in preclinical models followed by cGMP manufacture and a Phase 1 clinical trial. (
  • Notably, intranasal inoculation with the same dose (10 μg) of LNP (as in the intradermal delivery) caused a high mortality rate in mice - about 80% of the treated mice died in less than 24 hours. (
  • Intranasal heparin, delivered via a low-dose nasal spray, can interrupt this binding process. (
  • The five arms heterologous Intranasal booster dose means:- "Arm 1: 2 covaxin - booster covaxin, Arm 2: 2 covaxin - booster I/N vaccine, Arm 3: 2 Covishield- booster Covishield, Arm 4: 2 Covishield- booster I/N vaccine, Arm 5: 2 intranasal- booster intranasal," said the source. (
  • The intranasal vaccine is a heterologous booster dose, "Clinical trials were conducted to evaluate iNCOVACC as a primary dose schedule, as a heterologous booster dose for subjects who have previously received 2 doses of the two commonly administered covid vaccines in India," read the statement issued by the company. (
  • The effects that the substance causes vary with dose, individual user characteristics and mode of administration. (
  • Coda BA, Rudy AC, Archer SM, Wermeling DP: Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of single-dose intranasal hydromorphone hydrochloride in healthy volunteers. (
  • On day 10, they received an intranasal dose of TDI (0.1%) mation, and nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness in or vehicle. (
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a single-dose administration protocol using intranasal. (
  • Intranasal naloxone at a standard dose of 4 mg is being provided to opiate addicts to use in case of overdose. (
  • Hands should be cleansed with an alcohol-based waterless antiseptic hand rub or washed with soap and water before preparing vaccines for administration and between each patient contact ( 1 ). (
  • Because the majority of vaccines have a similar appearance after being drawn into a syringe, prefilling might result in administration errors. (
  • For administration of routinely recommended vaccines, there is no evidence of risk of exposure of vaccine components to the health care provider, so conditions in the provider labeled as contraindications and precautions to a vaccine components are not a reason to withdraw from this function of administering the vaccine to someone else. (
  • T-COVIDTM, AdCOVID and COVI-VAC are intranasal COVID-19 vaccines which are under pre-clinical and phase 1 trials. (
  • Even though intranasal vaccines can produce both local and systemic immunity, there can be challenges around long-lasting immunity, the company said. (
  • According to GlobalData's 'Pharmaceutical Intelligence Center', as of 22 August 2022 there are currently nine COVID-19 intranasal vaccines in Phase I and later stages of clinical development in different parts of the world. (
  • However, only two COVID-19 intranasal vaccines, including Bharat Biotech's intranasal vaccine, have reached Phase III. (
  • There is no denying that intranasal vaccines are more convenient from logistics and administration perspectives and can be useful in the fight against COVID-19," Prashant Khadayate, Pharma Analyst at GlobalData, said in a statement on Thursday. (
  • Notably, none of the leading COVID-19 vaccine manufacturers like Pfizer and Moderna are involved in the development of intranasal COVID-19 vaccines. (
  • Historically, intranasal vaccines have been developed for influenza. (
  • Looking at the historical trends, intranasal vaccines have not performed as per the expectations in general. (
  • Issues that need to be addressed include educating physicians and parents concerning influenza-related illness and complications, cost-effectiveness and safety of licensed vaccines, adequate vaccine supply, and availability of intranasal products. (
  • At issue is the fact that a protective immune response is likely to persist for several years following vaccination and, for selected vaccines, routine administration of annual boosters is not necessary. (
  • To evaluate vaccines taken through the intranasal route, IgA's were evaluated by ELISA in serum and saliva. (
  • Oral and intranasal vaccines are currently in trial phases for use in the U.S., but with injectable vaccination being the most familiar to vaccine developers, this technology has led the way. (
  • Mucosal vaccines combine both oral and intranasal vaccines under this umbrella term. (
  • If none of these three vaccines is available at an opportunity for vaccine administration, then any other age-appropriate influenza vaccine should be used. (
  • While vaccines generally induce production of IgG antibodies, administration by nasal spray induces increased production of IgA in the lung mucosa, which seems to offer much better protection against infection. (
  • La información en esta página debería ser considerada como ejemplos de información de antecedentes para la temporada de influenza 2021-2022 para la práctica médica respecto del uso de medicamentos antivirales contra la influenza. (
  • 2022 ) Effects of intranasal oxytocin and positive couple interaction on immune factors in skin wounds. (
  • DENVER, April 22, 2022 - A new study demonstrates that intranasal human milk is a safe and feasible intervention for intraventricular hemorrhage, a serious cause of morbidity in preterm infants. (
  • METHODS: We studied the effects of intranasal administration of the SCFAs acetate, butyrate, and propionate on basal expression of antiviral signatures, and of acetate in a mouse model of RV infection and in RV-infected lung epithelial cell lines. (
  • With this view in mind, the review at hand will present molecular mechanisms potentially underlying the memory-enhancing and neuroprotective effects of intranasal insulin. (
  • 2019 ) Effects of intranasal oxytocin administration on empathy and approach motivation in women with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial. (
  • Ocular antihistamine drops (for eye symptoms), intranasal antihistamine sprays, intranasal cromolyn, intranasal anticholinergic sprays, and short courses of oral corticosteroids (reserved for severe, acute episodes only) may also provide relief. (
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether treatment with intranasal corticosteroids and/or second-generation antihistamines is associated with changes in rates of asthma exacerbations resulting in emergency room visits and/or hospitalizations in patients with asthma and allergic rhinitis. (
  • Nasonex belongs to a class of drugs called Corticosteroids, Intranasal. (
  • Steroids can also affect the user psychologically, best intranasal corticosteroids for allergic rhinitis. (
  • If you are satisfied with the effects of Anadrol, but looking for similar results with no side effects, then Anadrole from Crazy Bulk is what you're going look for, best intranasal corticosteroids for allergic rhinitis. (
  • Intranasal corticosteroids are recommended as first-line treatment for moderate/severe or persistent allergic rhinitis. (
  • Intranasal corticosteroids (incss) are the first-line treatment for patients with moderate to severe conditions of allergic rhinitis (ar) as. (
  • If you're suffering from allergies, intranasal corticosteroids may help calm your nose down. (
  • Intranasal corticosteroids (nasal sprays) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of allergic rhinitis (hayfever). (
  • Tags: allergic rhinitis, intranasal corticosteroids, intranasal. (
  • Present the greatest risk Try to rub any inscription ' there will be a black trace, best intranasal corticosteroids for allergic rhinitis. (
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  • The mainstay of treatment for nar are intranasal corticosteroids. (
  • We have told patients for years that intranasal corticosteroids must be used consistently for 2 weeks to receive the full benefit for. (
  • Intranasal corticosteroids are the most effective medication for controlling symptoms of allergic rhinitis (table 3). (
  • Each 1 mL of the 4% solution contains 40 mg of cocaine hydrochloride, equivalent to 35.7 mg of cocaine free base as aqueous solution, for topical nasal administration. (
  • Intranasal, inhaled or topical steroids or local steroid injections (e.g. intra-articular injection) are permitted in the absence of active autoimmune disease. (
  • Short-term administration of systemic steroids (less than 7 days), adrenal replacement steroid doses (≤10 mg daily prednisone equivalent), topical, intranasal and inhaled steroid use is permitted. (
  • Early administration of oral oseltamivir increases the benefits of influenza treatment. (
  • These supplies can be used if a successful SARS-COV-2 vaccine is oral or intranasal rather than injectable. (
  • Oral administration of supplement products has been the most common method of taking a substance or pill into the body. (
  • Intranasal and oral transmucosal routes offer an alternative. (
  • Zavegepant Nasal Spray for the Acute Treatment of Migraine Zavegepant, a calcitonin gene related peptide receptor antagonist for intranasal administration, shows promise as an alternative to oral and parenteral agents for the acute treatment of migraine. (
  • Therefore, we believe the transition from oral administration of metoclopramide to a nasal route is revolutionary for both patients and doctors, and we are thrilled to have IP protections in place to protect a novel product like GIMOTI. (
  • Other routes of delivery such as transdermal, intranasal, inhalation and oral administration are under investigation, but oral delivery is generally considered the optimal route. (
  • The route of administration of vaccine is in liquid form, either by injection, by oral, or by intranasal routes. (
  • Vallner JJ, Stewart JT, Kotzan JA, Kirsten EB, Honigberg IL: Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of hydromorphone following intravenous and oral administration to human subjects. (
  • Intranasal steroids vs oral antihistamines for nasal symptom relief. (
  • If successful, this initiative may pave the way toward the development of a rapid vaccine formulation platform where essentially any combination of viral antigens may be attached to Novochizol nanoparticles for intranasal, oral or rectal administration. (
  • Intranasal naloxone is available free of charge and without a prescription at any Québec pharmacy. (
  • For patients in cardiac arrest, in the absence of a proven benefit from naloxone, standard resuscitative measures take priority over naloxone administration. (
  • In a recent imaging study intranasal naloxone was found to rapidly and fully occupy brain mu-opioid receptors. (
  • Methods: This was a 12-week double blind, randomised control trial comparing intranasal naloxone to placebo. (
  • Intranasal naloxone was well tolerated, no subjects discontinued the study due to adverse events. (
  • Conclusions: This study found no difference between the as-needed administration of intranasal naloxone and placebo in reducing gambling urge in persons with GD. (
  • Intranasal naloxone was safe and well tolerated. (
  • On November 18 the FDA approved the first intranasal form of naloxone. (
  • A second intranasal naloxone product is up for FDA review. (
  • Keeley held up a blue bag containing an intranasal naloxone kit, a small plastic injector resembling a syringe with a mushroom-shaped tip that fits the nostril. (
  • Indeed, some studies presented at the most recent annual meeting of the Society for Neuroscience included IN treatments for rodent models of HD, and are likely to be published soon leading the way for i.n. administration of drugs for HD. (
  • Amyloid precursor protein secretase inhibitors pipeline report provides the therapeutic assessment of the pipeline drugs by the Route of Administration. (
  • Recently, the Drugs Controller General of India(DCGI) on Tuesday has given emergency use authorisation (EUA) to Bharat Biotech for the intranasal vaccine. (
  • Some active drugs are administered using pressurized intranasal aerosols (i.e., an intranasal aerosol inhaler). (
  • Increased risk of hypotension if ability to maintain blood pressure has been compromised by a reduced blood volume or concurrent administration of certain CNS depressant drugs (eg, phenothiazines or general anesthetics). (
  • Bharat Biotech has applied for market authorisation from the Drugs Controller General of India (DCGI) for an intranasal heterologous booster. (
  • However, while convenient for patients, there are a host of challenges which make this route of administration challenging for large-molecule drugs. (
  • Intranasal steroids are highly effective drugs for treating patients with allergic rhinitis. (
  • Phentolamine (5 mg per nostril) was administered intranasally one minute before nasal administration of epinephrine to improve absorption. (
  • We also administered exogenous oxytocin intravenously and intranasally in a triple dummy, within-subject, placebo-controlled design and compared baseline levels and the effects of routes of administration. (
  • Similarly, intranasal CBD has pretty much the same features, upsides, and downsides as other substances that're taken intranasally. (
  • His research group uses various research approaches, including intranasal oxytocin trials, large-scale genetics studies, neuroimaging, and the collection of autonomic nervous system data. (
  • Counsel a patient about the proper administration of intranasal drops, sprays, or MDIs. (
  • The common intranasal liquid dosage forms, solutions and suspensions, can be prepared as drops, squeeze sprays or bottles with MDI valves, nebules, and aerosol intranasal inhalers. (
  • There's some evidence that intranasal sprays can help. (
  • Assessment of sensory perceptions and patient preference for intranasal corticosteroid sprays in allergic rhinitis. (
  • The benefits of intranasal administration may be negated, however, by irritation, and discomfort caused by intranasal drug delivery. (
  • Intranasal vaccination is a potential route for vaccine delivery which has been demonstrated effective in inducing protective immune responses in both systemic and mucosal compartments. (
  • Unless the FDA has determined that these products can be substituted, do not substitute Numbrino for other intranasal cocaine products because this may result in different local and/or systemic exposures. (
  • Intranasal inhalations are administered to achieve either local respiratory or systemic therapeutic benefits. (
  • The objective of this second initiative is to demonstrate to what extent a systemic immune response against multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern may be generated via an intranasal administration and whether a bona fide mucosal immune response is elicited. (
  • Efficacy of intranasal administration of a truncated NS1 modified live influenza virus vaccine in swine. (
  • To investigate the safety and efficacy of intranasal ketamine for the treatment of a single cluster headache (CH) attack. (
  • In PFF-seeded A53T mice, the nasal administration of the wtTIDM peptide, NEMO-binding domain (wtNBD) peptide, or genetic deletion of TLR2 reduces glial inflammation, decreases α-syn spreading, and protects dopaminergic neurons by inhibiting NF-κB. (
  • Immunological responses of mice following administration of natural rubber latex proteins by different routes of exposure. (
  • Our results demonstrate significantly ameliorated phenotypes of R6/2 mice after MSCs administration via INA, suggesting this method as an effective delivering route of cells to the brain for HD therapy. (
  • Intranasal administration of SARS-CoV-2 in mice results in rapid invasion of the brain. (
  • Oragenics previously published positive preclinical data in Scientific Reports , a Nature journal, demonstrating that intranasal administration of NT-CoV2-1 induced robust antigen-specific IgG and IgA titers in the blood and lungs of mice and was highly efficacious in a hamster SARS-CoV-2 challenge model, reducing the viral load below the limit of detection. (
  • Intranasal acetate treatment of mice increased interferon-stimulated gene and IFN-λ expression during RV infection and reduced lung virus loads at 8 hours postinfection. (
  • Intranasal gene transfer by chitosan-DNA nanospheres protects BALB/c mice against acute respiratory syncytial virus infection. (
  • Upon intradermal administration in mice, they observed massive neutrophil infiltration, activation of diverse inflammatory pathways, and production of various inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. (
  • In contrast, mice that had received prior application(s) using protocols involving dermal application and subsequent of TDI, even if only on day 7, exhibited the following: ventilatory intranasal administration of TDI. (
  • Various alternative routes of administration are intranasal, rectal, sublingual and buccal. (
  • In many ways, intranasal delivery is like sublingual administration. (
  • Animals were treated by either direct intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection, by intrathecal (IT) infusion into the cerebrospinal fluid, or by intranasal (IN) instillation of AAV9-IDUA vector. (
  • The animals were pre-treated with NOB (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) or DEX (5 mg/kg) at 12 and 1 h before intranasal instillation of LPS. (
  • INTERVENTIONS: All dogs received either IV epinephrine 0.015 mg/kg or intranasal epinephrine 14 mg per nostril. (
  • So, put a bean up your nostril and you've got an intranasal legume. (
  • Healthy non-pregnant persons aged 2 through 49 years may alternatively receive 0.2 mL of LAIV4, 0.1 mL per nostril, using the supplied intranasal sprayer ( Table 3 ). (
  • A second intranasal seizure medication was approved by the FDA in January 2020, further expanding rescue treatment options for epileptic patients and their circle of care partners. (
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Comparative Effectiveness of Intracerebroventricular, Intrathecal, and Intranasal Routes of AAV9 Vector Administration for Genetic Therapy of Neurologic Disease in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I'. Together they form a unique fingerprint. (
  • While rectal diazepam is currently approved for this indication, Neurelis awaits a decision by the FDA to bring its novel intranasal delivery system to market, with the hopes that an approval will grant patients more autonomy to treat seizure clusters with a more comfortable and accessible mode of administration. (
  • Procedure -All dogs had typical clinical signs of aspergillosis and rhinoscopically visible intrasinusal or intranasal fungal plaques associated with turbinate destruction. (
  • A new pre-clinical study succeeded in the intranasal delivery of an anti-depressant peptide-based drug to the brain in mouse models. (
  • GlobalData on Thursday said that as Bharat Biotech has not posted the clinical trial results of its COVID-19 intranasal vaccine BBV154, it is difficult to predict the success of the intranasal vaccine following its approval. (
  • Moreover, clinical trials have demonstrated that intranasal insulin improves both memory performance and metabolic integrity of the brain in patients suffering from AD or its prodrome, mild cognitive impairment. (
  • Initial treatment was given at weeks 0, 2 and 6, the standard method of administration for FDA-approved clinical indications. (
  • Following two additional infusions (weeks 14 and 22), almost no clinical evidence of cutaneous or intranasal disease remained. (
  • Evaluation of intranasal recombinant human interferon alfa-2b in the treatment of acute respiratory viral infections with mild clinical classification. (
  • Administration of MDMA increases plasma oxytocin levels in humans," says Gillinder Bedi, Columbia University assistant professor of clinical psychology and lead author of new research on the effects of MDMA and methamphetamine, which I reported previously here . (
  • The information in PharmaNet is used to pay pharmacies the vaccination administration fee, but is not accessible for clinical purposes. (
  • To determine the safety and feasibility of IHM administration and to describe the frequency of short-term adverse clinical outcomes compared with historical controls. (
  • Regular use of an intranasal steroid spray may be more appropriate for patients with chronic symptoms. (
  • Pregnenolone ( P5 ), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one , is an endogenous steroid and precursor / metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones , including the progestogens , androgens , estrogens , glucocorticoids , and mineralocorticoids . (
  • combination intranasal steroid and intranasal. (
  • The nebulizers dispense the drug particles into the 0.5-5.0 µm range, which is the optimum particle size for inhalation administration. (
  • Unlike intranasal administration, inhalation is designed to deliver substances into your respiratory system. (
  • It also covers the therapeutics assessment by product type, stage, route of administration, and molecule type. (
  • When granted, the patent will cover methods for treating moderate-to-severe gastroparesis with metoclopramide with an intranasal route of administration. (
  • Following administration of oxytocin/placebo, participants listened to recordings of different female/male protagonists describing distressful emotional conflicts and were then asked to provide compassionate advice to the protagonist. (
  • Therefore, to determine whether oxytocin changes brain circuitry, and whether it does so variably, depending on genotype, we implemented a large randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled, preclinical study on chronic intranasal oxytocin treatment in three different mouse models related to autism with a focus on using neuroanatomical phenotypes to assess and subset treatment response. (
  • The new study included 32 children with autism who were randomly assigned to receive an intranasal oxytocin spray or a placebo spray twice daily for four weeks. (
  • The objective of this first initiative is to demonstrate to what extent ab10, which has potent neutralization activity against various SARS-CoV-2 variants, can inhibit viral infection and replication when delivered as an intranasal aerosol. (
  • In an interview with NeurologyLive at the 2019 American Epilepsy Society Annual Meeting , Ian Miller, MD, medical director of the Comprehensive Epilepsy Clinic at Nicklaus Children's Hospital in Miami, Florida, spoke about the advantages that an intranasal formulation present over current formulations and available treatments. (
  • In particular, we will seek to establish the safety and immunogenicity of intranasal delivery of a recombinant antigen-based vaccine containing a synthetic adjuvant formulation. (
  • This easy-to-use intranasal formulation will no doubt save many lives," said Nora Volkow, MD, director of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), in a statement. (
  • A Randomized Controlled Trial of Repeated Ketamine Administration for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. (
  • Whereas it takes several weeks for BDNF-mediated synaptic plasticity triggered by standard antidepressants, such synaptic plasticity changes seem to occur in a matter of hours after administration of ketamine. (
  • 11 , 12 Recent reviews of ketamine and depression have discussed the safety and efficacy of ketamine, different administration methods, efficacy on various symptoms of depression consistent with the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) Research Domain Criteria initiative, as well as the risks of misuse of ketamine outside medical settings. (
  • Intranasal ketamine is used as a sedative analgesic and a premedication agent. (
  • Intranasal ketamine has anecdotally been successful in treating a CH attack. (
  • We conducted an open-label pilot study enrolling 23 patients with chronic CH ( International Classification of Headache Disorders , 3rd edition), and of these, 20 patients treated a single CH attack with intranasal ketamine. (
  • Under in-hospital observation, patients received 15 mg of intranasal ketamine every 6 min a maximum of five times. (
  • 15 min after the first ketamine administration, the mean reduction in pain intensity was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.6 to 2.7, p = 0.188) on the numeric rating scale (NRS), equivalent to a 15% reduction in pain intensity. (
  • Intranasal ketamine may be an effective acute treatment for CH at 30 min but should be tested in a larger controlled design. (
  • [ 11 ] Esketamine (S-ketamine) has been approved in the United States and the European Union as an intranasal spray for the treatment of severe depression. (
  • [ 12 ] Case-based evidence indicates that intranasal-applied ketamine may be effective in the treatment of an acute CH attack. (
  • Based on the available literature, we hypothesized that intranasal ketamine is an effective acute treatment for CH attacks. (
  • The aim of this proof-of-concept study was to evaluate the effect and safety of intranasal ketamine as a potential acute treatment for CH attacks in patients with cCH. (
  • These results demonstrate that an intranasal delivery system combining NPL, mucosal adjuvant CTA1-DD and split virus antigens confers robust protection against influenza infection and inhibits virus transmission. (
  • Therefore, the nasal route for administration of epinephrine appears to be an acceptable alternate method of drug delivery during CPR and compares favorably with standard IV therapy in the canine model. (
  • With a goal to more effectively treat neurologic disease, we have investigated the effectiveness of AAV-mediated IDUA gene delivery to the brain using several different routes of administration. (
  • We conclude that IT and IN routes are acceptable and alternate routes of administration, respectively, of AAV vector delivery to the brain with effective IDUA expression, while all three routes of administration prevent the emergence of neurocognitive deficiency in a mouse MPS I model. (
  • A team of researchers at the Tokyo University of Science (TUS), Japan, have achieved success in the intranasal delivery of the anti-depressant drug glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) in a mouse model of depression. (
  • Furthermore, most intranasal drug delivery (IDD) research has focused on drug delivery through the olfactory epithelium which accounts for only 2 percent of human nasal mucosa, explained Professor Chikamasa Yamashita who led the study. (
  • Hence, we sought to evaluate the non-invasive intranasal administration (INA) of MSC delivery as an effective alternative route in HD. (
  • WTH Is Intranasal Drug Delivery? (
  • Through the intranasal delivery, the nose allows the products' molecules to bypass the diffusion method's blood-brain barrier. (
  • Intertek announced on Dec. 1, 2015 that it plans to explore needle-free, alternative drug delivery routes of administration for its clients that manufacture biologics. (
  • They plan to specifically focus on reformulating biologics for pulmonary and intranasal delivery, which may help resolve some biologic product issues related to safety, bioavailability, and patient adherence. (
  • iNCOVACC has been specifically formulated to allow intranasal delivery through nasal drops. (
  • The joint research team of Prof. Hongsoo Choi (DGIST) & Prof. Sung Won Kim (Seoul St. Mary's Hospital), developed an hNTSC-based microrobot for minimally invasive delivery into the brain tissue via the intranasal pathway. (
  • Dr Jitendra Singh said that in recent years, nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems have been applied to intranasal drug delivery to overcome various limitations that occur during mucosal administration, and advances have been made to the stage where effective drug delivery is possible. (
  • Nasal vascularity and the permeable neonatal blood brain barrier potentially allow stem cell delivery to brain tissue via fresh intranasal human milk administration. (
  • Nasal vascularity and the permeable neonatal blood brain barrier potentially allow SC delivery to brain tissue via fresh intranasal HM (IHM) administration. (
  • 2) Thus various alternative routes of administration are under evaluation. (
  • Dihydroergotamine is indicated for aborting or preventing vascular headache when rapid control is needed or when other routes of administration are not feasible. (
  • Benzodiazepine dependence can occur after administration of therapeutic doses for as few as 1 to 2 weeks and withdrawal symptoms may be seen after the discontinuation of therapy. (
  • For this purpose, increasing doses of derived BLPs (0, 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6 mg dry weight per bird) were admixed with IBV live attenuated H120 serotype vaccine, and were delivered via ocular administration to 4 equal groups of 10 specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens in 4 groups: control, BLP1, BLP2, and BLP3, respectively. (
  • There also will be another 1 million doses of FluMist, an intranasal vaccine. (
  • How Are Intranasal Medications Administered? (
  • The company plans to reformulate injectable products to make them into inhaled and intranasal medications. (
  • Mucosal atomizer devices improve administration of intranasal medications. (
  • Meda announced that the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved Dymista (azelastine HCl and fluticasone propionate) for the relief of symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in patients ages 6-11 who require treatment with both components. (
  • There may be associated alcohol dependence, producing signs and symptoms of withdrawal and / or delirium in the days following drug administration. (
  • Thus, it is not surprising that the most common type of influenza vaccine error reported to the ISMP VERP was related to administration of a vaccine to a patient who was not within the indicated age range for that vaccine. (
  • 3. Bordetella (by intranasal inoculation or by an alternative method of administration if deemed necessary by the attending veterinarian and noted on the health certificate, which must be administered in this state once before sale). (
  • With both seasonal influenza and H1N1 influenza circulating this flu season, the American Medical Association (AMA) announced that it has expedited the publication of a new code specific to vaccine administration and revised existing code 90663 to include the H1N1 vaccine. (
  • Physicians (8%), nurse practitioners (5%), and pharmacists (2%) were involved less frequently, suggesting that most of the reported errors are related to vaccine administration and not prescribing or dispensing. (
  • RAPID will provide increased lifesaving capability against future national health emergencies that require population-scale vaccine administration on an urgent basis. (
  • the vaccine administration fee is paid by PharmaCare. (
  • As required by section 27(3) of the Pharmaceutical Services Act, pharmacists are responsible for entering all relevant information about vaccine administration in PharmaNet. (
  • The first repurposed intranasal seizure medication received US FDA approval in 2019. (
  • Comparative Effectiveness of Intracerebroventricular, Intrathecal, and Intranasal Routes of AAV9 Vector Administration for Genetic Therapy of Neurologic Disease in Murine Mucopolysaccharidosis Type I . Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience , 14 , [618360]. (
  • Interestingly, the researchers also found that the modified IDDS achieved therapeutic effectiveness in 20 minutes, similar to ICV administration. (
  • Intranasal (i.n.) administration is a relatively novel technique to target therapeutics to the central nervous system for the treatment of neurodegenerative and other brain diseases. (
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate whether pulmonary metabolite manipulation through lung-delivered administration of SCFAs can modulate antiviral immunity to RV infection. (
  • Gram-positive enhancer matrix particles, or so-called bacterium like particles (BLPs), obtained from the bacterium Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis), have demonstrated an adjuvancy effect by providing demanding mucosal and humoral immune responses, as well as a protective cellular immunity whenever delivered admixed with a vaccine via intranasal or intraocular administration. (
  • In consultation with Health and Human Services, the AMA CPT Editorial Panel created code 90470 to report H1N1 immunization administration and counseling. (
  • Le Comité a noté les progrès accomplis en vue suite à l'isolement du poliovirus de référence MEF-1 towards the achievement of global, safe d'atteindre l'objectif d'une vaccination sûre au associé aux cas de paralysie immunization since its last meeting in 2002. (
  • A quantitative comparison of intranasal and intratracheal administration of coarse PM in the mouse. (
  • Anxiolysis and sedation were scored by a blinded observer, who identified minor and major negative behaviors during four observation periods: intranasal drug administration, separation from parents, venipuncture, and EGD. (
  • Are not set in stone and may intranasal administration of testosterone increased synthesis Request Document Search. (
  • Patients who want to undergo a testosterone hormone replacement may choose from different administration ways. (
  • A partial and reversible tolerance to the GH-releasing effects of examorelin occurs in humans with long-term administration (50-75% decrease in efficacy over the course of weeks to months). (
  • Alternative reinforcers differentially modify cocaine self-administration by humans. (
  • Comparison of intranasal methamphetamine and d-amphetamine self-administration by humans. (
  • Then, we will discuss the results of intranasal insulin studies that have demonstrated that enhancing brain insulin signaling improves memory and learning processes in both cognitively healthy and impaired humans. (
  • Two different mucosal administration routes were evaluated: intranasal (IN) and intrapulmonary (IPL). (
  • Baseline coronary perfusion pressure (mean +/- SD) was similar for IV epinephrine and intranasal epinephrine (16.9 +/- 7.1 mm Hg versus 18.2 +/- 13.8 mm Hg, respectively, P = .84). (
  • We are pleased with the results of the Phase 1 study of KP511, which demonstrated that KP511 may, if the results are confirmed, provide clinically meaningful differences in intranasal abuse potential versus hydromorphone. (
  • 1999). Animal models are needed not only to understand how prior to intranasal challenge influences the respiratory response chemicals may induce asthma, but also to improve our ability to using toluene diisocyanate (TDI), a known respiratory sensitizer. (
  • At a pH less than 4 it is water soluble but at physiological pH it is highly lipophilic which accounts for its rapid absorption by rich vascular nasal mucosa reaching peak plasma and CSF concentrations within minutes of administration. (
  • There are several benefits to using the intranasal route including high vascularization of the nasal mucosa, wide absorption area, avoidance of first pass metabolism, avoidance of intravenous placement, high patient tolerance of drug administration, and quick onset of action (Fantacci et al. (
  • Intranasal administration of a VLP-based vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and variants of concern. (
  • First-line use of intranasal steroids is becoming increasingly. (
  • The severity of pulmonary injury was evaluated 6 h after LPS administration. (
  • These results, in conjunction with the finding that insulin mitigates hippocampal synapse vulnerability to beta amyloid, a peptide thought to be causative in the development of AD, provide a strong rationale for hypothesizing that pharmacological strategies bolstering brain insulin signaling, such as intranasal administration of insulin, could have significant potential in the treatment and prevention of AD. (
  • To sensitize insulin signaling, this study activated Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma using intranasal co-administration of pioglitazone (PGZ) and insulin. (
  • These studies demonstrate that i.n. administration also has potential for the treatment of Huntington disease (HD). (
  • Changes in OTM concentrations after intranasal treatment were detected reliably. (
  • The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted Orphan Drug Designation and Fast Track Designation to AL101 for the potential treatment of Adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). (
  • The increases in salivary oxytocin observed after intranasal oxytocin most likely reflect unabsorbed peptide and should not be used to predict treatment effects. (
  • Prevention of influenza virus infection and transmission by intranasal administration of a porous maltodextrin nanoparticle-formulated vaccine. (
  • We have investigated this issue by combining an intranasal Mycobacterium bovis -Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) infection with a murine model of allergen, (ovalbumin [OVA]) induced airway eosinophilia. (