Glycyrrhetinic Acid: An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Glycyrrhizic Acid: A widely used anti-inflammatory agent isolated from the licorice root. It is metabolized to GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID, which inhibits 11-BETA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASES and other enzymes involved in the metabolism of CORTICOSTEROIDS. Therefore, glycyrrhizic acid, which is the main and sweet component of licorice, has been investigated for its ability to cause hypermineralocorticoidism with sodium retention and potassium loss, edema, increased blood pressure, as well as depression of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.Glycyrrhiza: A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivative, CARBENOXOLONE.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Glycyrrhiza uralensis: A plant species of the family FABACEAE.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases: Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases that catalyzes the reversible conversion of CORTISOL to the inactive metabolite CORTISONE. Enzymes in this class can utilize either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Nasal Sprays: Pharmacologic agents delivered into the nostrils in the form of a mist or spray.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.H-Y Antigen: A sex-specific cell surface antigen produced by the sex-determining gene of the Y chromosome in mammals. It causes syngeneic grafts from males to females to be rejected and interacts with somatic elements of the embryologic undifferentiated gonad to produce testicular organogenesis.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.gp100 Melanoma Antigen: A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Dendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.gamma-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of eight (8) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Glioblastoma: A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Hypoglycemia: A syndrome of abnormally low BLOOD GLUCOSE level. Clinical hypoglycemia has diverse etiologies. Severe hypoglycemia eventually lead to glucose deprivation of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM resulting in HUNGER; SWEATING; PARESTHESIA; impaired mental function; SEIZURES; COMA; and even DEATH.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Receptors, Glucagon: Cell surface receptors that bind glucagon with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Activation of glucagon receptors causes a variety of effects; the best understood is the initiation of a complex enzymatic cascade in the liver which ultimately increases the availability of glucose to body organs.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Betula: A plant genus of the family BETULACEAE. The tree has smooth, resinous, varicolored or white bark, marked by horizontal pores (lenticels), which usually peels horizontally in thin sheets.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery: NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.Remoxipride: An antipsychotic agent that is specific for dopamine D2 receptors. It has been shown to be effective in the treatment of schizophrenia.Antigens, CD95: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype found in a variety of tissues and on activated LYMPHOCYTES. It has specificity for FAS LIGAND and plays a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. Multiple isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.

Complement fixation titers in cattle following intranasal inoculation of Hemophilus somnus. (1/2093)

Five bulls were inoculated intranasally with a live culture of Hemophilus somnus originally isolated from a clinical case of Hemophilus septicemia. Preinoculation and postinoculation blood samples were taken at weekly intervals for nine weeks for measuring complement fixation titers and daily postinoculation temperatures were taken for one week. Three animals had transient fever and slight lethargy was observed in two animals had a transitory rise in complement fixation titers in the second to fifth weeks postexposure while one animal which had been seronegative on preinoculation testing produced little serological response to the organism. The experiment demonstrated that the nasal instillation of young cattle using an originally pathogenic H. somnus isolate is capable of stimulating only transitory complement fixation antibody titer.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (2/2093)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

The posterior nasal nerve plays an important role on cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin, distilled water and l-menthol in anesthetized dogs. (3/2093)

The sensory innervation of the cardiopulmonary reflexes to nasal application of capsaicin (CAPS), distilled water (DW) and l-menthol (LM) was studied in anesthetized dogs breathing through tracheostomy. A marked cardiopulmonary reflex was observed by CAPS and DW into the nasal cavity, while a prolongation of expiration was induced by LM. All these reflexes were significantly decreased by bilateral section of the posterior nasal nerve (PNN) and completely abolished by topical nasal anesthesia with lidocaine. Responses of the whole nerve activity of the PNN to these substances corresponded to the magnitude of the reflexes. These results indicate that PNN afferents play an important role on the reflex elicitation of the noxious, water and cold stimuli from the nasal cavity.  (+info)

Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI. (4/2093)

Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes.  (+info)

Central nervous system effects of intranasally administered insulin during euglycemia in men. (5/2093)

Insulin receptors have been detected in several structures of the brain, yet the biological significance of insulin acting on the brain remains rather unclear. In humans, direct central nervous effects of insulin are difficult to distinguish from alterations in neuronal functions because of insulin-induced decrease in blood glucose levels. Since several intranasally administered viruses, peptides, and hormones have been shown to penetrate directly from the nose to the brain, we tested whether insulin after intranasal administration likewise has access to the brain. After a 60-min baseline period, insulin (20 IU H-Insulin 100 Hoechst) or vehicle (2.7 mg/ml m-Cresol) was intranasally administered every 15 min to 18 healthy subjects according to a double-blind within-subject crossover design. Auditory-evoked potentials (AEP) indexing cortical sensory processing were recorded while the subjects performed a vigilance task (oddball paradigm) during the baseline phase and after 60 min of intranasal treatment with insulin or placebo. Blood glucose and serum insulin levels were not affected by intranasal insulin. Compared with placebo, intranasal administration of insulin reduced amplitudes of the N1 (P < 0.005) and P3 (P < 0.02) components of the AEP and increased P3 latency (P < 0.05). The reduction in P3 amplitude was most pronounced over the frontal recording site (2.42 +/- 1.00 vs. 4.92 +/- 0.79 microV, P < 0.0005). At this site, after insulin administration, a broad negative shift developed in the AEP between 280 and 500 ms poststimulus (area under the curve -166.0 +/- 183.8 vs. 270.8 +/- 138.7 microV x ms after placebo, P < 0.01). The results suggest that after intranasal administration, insulin directly enters the brain and exerts distinct influences on central nervous functions in humans.  (+info)

Lesions and transmission of experimental adenovirus hemorrhagic disease in black-tailed deer fawns. (6/2093)

Adenovirus infection was the cause of an epizootic of hemorrhagic disease that is believed to have killed thousands of mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus) in California during the latter half of 1993. A systemic vasculitis with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy or a localized vasculitis associated with necrotizing stomatitis/pharyngitis/glossitis or osteomyelitis of the jaw were common necropsy findings in animals that died during this epizootic. To study transmission of adenovirus infection in deer and susceptibility of black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus) fawns to adenovirus infection, six 3-6-month-old black-tailed fawns were divided into two treatment groups. One group was inoculated intravenously and the other group was inoculated through the mucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth with purified adenovirus. Each treatment group also included two additional fawns (four total) that were not inoculated but were exposed to inoculated animals (contact animals). One fawn served as a negative control. Between 4 and 16 days postinoculation, 8/10 fawns developed systemic or localized infection with lesions identical to lesions seen in animals with natural disease that died during the epizootic. Transmission was by direct contact, and the route of inoculation did not affect the incubation period or the distribution of the virus (systemic or the localized infection). Immunohistochemical analysis using polyclonal antiserum against bovine adenovirus type 5 demonstrated staining in endothelial cells of vessels in numerous tissues in animals with systemic infection and endothelial staining only in vessels subtending necrotic foci in the upper alimentary tract in animals with the localized form of the disease. All inoculated or exposed animals had staining in the tonsillar epithelium. Transmission electron microscopic examination of lung and ileum from two fawns with pulmonary edema and hemorrhagic enteropathy demonstrated endothelial necrosis and adenovirus virions in endothelial cell nuclei. Adenovirus was reisolated in black-tailed deer pulmonary artery endothelial cells using lung homogenate of the first fawn that developed systemic adenovirus infection. Serum virus neutralization test results suggest that this deer adenovirus is a new serotype.  (+info)

Intranasally inoculated Mycoplasma hyorhinis causes eustachitis in pigs. (7/2093)

Specific-pathogen-free pigs were experimentally inoculated with Mycoplasma hyorhinis, Pasteurella multocida, or both bacterial isolates to evaluate the role of these bacteria in the pathogenesis of otitis media. Six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 4.4 X 10(8) colony-forming units (CFU) of M. hyorhinis. Twenty-one days later, three of these six pigs were inoculated intranasally with 5.0 X 10(8) CFU of P. multocida. Three additional pigs were also inoculated intranasally at the time with P. multocida alone. Two pigs served as uninoculated controls. Seven days later, all pigs were euthanatized. Histologically, subacute inflammation was found in 10 auditory tubes of six pigs and two tympanic cavities of two pigs inoculated with M. hyorhinis. Immunohistochemically, M. hyorhinis antigens were detected on the luminal surface of eight of 10 inflamed auditory tubes, and ultrastructural examination confirmed mycoplasmal organisms in two pigs. M. hyorhinis was isolated from the inflamed tympanic cavities of two pigs. None of the pigs inoculated only with P. multocida had otitis, and P. multocida was not isolated from the tympanic cavity. These findings indicate that M. hyorhinis can cause eustachitis but rarely otitis media in specific-pathogen-free pigs.  (+info)

Comparison of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide with oral loratadine in the treatment of seasonal ragweed-induced allergic rhinitis. (8/2093)

A double-blind, randomized, multicenter, parallel-group controlled study compared the efficacy and safety of intranasal triamcinolone acetonide (220 micrograms/day) and oral loratadine (10 mg/day) in patients with at least two seasons of ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis. A 28-day screening period, including a 5-day baseline period, preceded a 4-week treatment period. Reduction in rhinitis symptom scores was evident in both groups as early as day 1, with no significant between-group differences during week 1. At weeks 2, 3, and 4, patients treated with triamcinolone acetonide were significantly (P < 0.05) more improved in total nasal score, nasal itch, nasal stuffiness, and sneezing than were patients treated with loratadine. At weeks 3 and 4, rhinorrhea and ocular symptoms were significantly (P < 0.05) more improved from baseline among triamcinolone acetonide patients compared with loratadine patients. There was no significant between-group difference in relief from postnasal drip at any time point. Physicians' global evaluations significantly (P = 0.002) favored triamcinolone acetonide at the final visit, with moderate to complete relief of symptoms attained by 68% of triamcinolone acetonide patients and 59% of loratadine patients. Over the 4-week treatment period, triamcinolone acetonide patients had significantly greater improvement in total nasal score, nasal itch, nasal stuffiness, sneezing, and ocular symptoms. Both treatments were well tolerated, with headache being the most frequently reported drug-related adverse effect in both the triamcinolone acetonide (15%) and loratadine (11%) groups. These results indicate that triamcinolone acetonide is more effective than oral loratadine in relieving the symptoms of ragweed-induced seasonal allergic rhinitis.  (+info)

A portion of nasal venous blood is indeed diverted to intracranial veins via direct communication between the ophthalmic veins, pterygoid plexus, and cavernous sinus, but the other portion of blood is drained extracranially by facial veins directly into the IJV. Stated differently, the cavernous sinus receives only a portion of xenon-enriched blood from the nasal space, but the IJV collects almost all the blood from it. Therefore, a steady concentration of xenon in the IJV 10 min after intranasal application in volunteers is more a reflection of saturation of the nasal mucosa and nasal (not cranial) venous vascular beds with xenon. The actual concentration of xenon in the cavernous sinus is probably less than 500 nl/ml because the latter collects only a portion of nasal venous blood. Furthermore, although the cavernous sinus does communicate with basilar and superficial cortical veins, it is a "blood collector" that is ultimately drained into the IJV, and retrograde flow of xenon-containing ...
Nasal administration is a route of administration in which drugs are insufflated through the nose. It can be a form of either topical administration or systemic administration, as the drugs thus locally delivered can go on to have either purely local or systemic effects. Nasal sprays are locally acting drugs such as decongestants for cold and allergy treatment, whose systemic effects are usually minimal. Examples of systemically active drugs available as nasal sprays are migraine drugs, nicotine replacement, and hormone treatments. The nasal cavity is covered by a thin mucosa which is well vascularised. Therefore, a drug molecule can be transferred quickly across the single epithelial cell layer directly to the systemic blood circulation without first-pass hepatic and intestinal metabolism. The effect is often reached within 5 min for smaller drug molecules. Nasal administration can therefore be used as an alternative to oral administration of for example tablets and capsules if a fast effect is ...
Patient information for FLUTICASONE PROPIONATE AQUEOUS NASAL SPRAY 50 MICROGRAMS Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Patient information for BUDESONIDE 64 MICROGRAMS/ACTUATION AQUEOUS NASAL SPRAY Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
The blood-brain barrier is a substantial obstacle for delivering anticancer agents to brain tumors, and new strategies for bypassing it are sorely needed for brain tumor therapy. Intranasal delivery provides a practical, noninvasive method for delivering therapeutic agents to the brain. Intranasal application of nano-sized micelles that have been modified with Tat peptide facilitates brain delivery of fluorescent model materials. In this study, we evaluated a nose-to-brain delivery system for brain tumor therapy. We nasally administered the anti-tumor drug camptothecin (CPT) in solution and in methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (MPEG)/poly(e-caprolactone) (PCL) amphiphilic block copolymers (MPEG-PCL) and cell penetrating peptide, Tat analog-modified MPEG-PCL (MPEG-PCL-Tat) MPEG-PCL-Tat to rats bearing intracranial glioma tumors and quantified the cytotoxicity against glioma cells, and the therapeutic effects. CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL-Tat micelles showed higher cytotoxicity than CPT-loaded MPEG-PCL. CPT-free MPEG
The findings support the hypothesis that the frequency of severe adverse events following intranasal administration of NeuroEPO would be less than 10% since no severe events occurred. This is in accordance with the literature since the use of rHu-EPO in healthy subjects apparently does not affect physiological indexes and its use is safe for experimental purposes [34].. The current first NeuroEPO-in-human trial demonstrated the absence of hematopoietic activity according to the safety profile. This result is expected due to this EPO possesses a low content of sialic acid, a component that plays a key role in the preservation of EPO structure thereby avoiding its destruction by the liver. Low sialic acid content rHu-EPO molecules are rapidly metabolized by the liver and therefore eliminated without being able to exert their hematopoietic action [3]. This is the main expected safety benefit of NeuroEPO and has already been demonstrated in laboratory animals since the product did not modify ...
Ischemic stroke-induced neuronal cell death results in the permanent disabling of brain function. Apoptotic mechanisms are thought to play a prominent role in neuronal injury and ample evidence implicates Fas signaling in mediating cell death. In this study, we describe the neuroprotective effects of a Fas-blocking peptide (FBP) that by obstructing Fas signaling in cerebral ischemia inhibits apoptosis. Using an intranasal administration route in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia, we demonstrate that nose-to-brain delivery of FBP after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery results in the delivery and retention of FBP in Fas-expressing ischemic areas of the brain. A single intranasal administration of 2 mg/kg FBP resulted in significantly reduced neuronal cell death by inhibiting Fas-mediated apoptosis leading to decreased infarct volumes, reduced neurologic deficit scores and recovery from cerebral ischemia. Intranasally delivered FBP might be a promising strategy for the treatment of
Central insulin resistance is common to both Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies that investigated the effects of intranasally administered insulin, have highlighted the involvement of insulin in homeostatic, hedonic and to a lesser extent cognitive regulation of appetite control. This thesis documents a study that set out to explore the effects of intranasal insulin on brain function, using a pharmacological MRI protocol that probed the effects of insulin on resting state connectivity, resting state cerebral perfusion and the cerebral reward response to a food administration paradigm. This study was conducted in a group of healthy, male individuals, with normal and overweight participants. A drug delivery device optimised for efficient nasal delivery of insulin, was employed. A customised, long-label pseudo continuous arterial spin labelling sequence was employed. It was shown that intranasal insulin leads to decreases in cerebral blood flow in the left insula, ...
Influenza viruses have sporadically caused pandemics during the last century, with the most severe occurring in 1918 when the "Spanish flu", an A/H1N1 influenza virus, passed around the globe killing about 20-100 million people. Today 250 000-500 000 deaths occur annually due to influenza virus or secondary infection after influenza, e.g. pneumonia. Influenza viruses cause severe infections in susceptible age groups like children and elderly and in individuals with impaired immune response due to other medical conditions. The best way to prevent an influenza epidemic is by vaccination. Since the 1950´s we have vaccines against seasonal flu, but vaccine efficacy is not 100 % and there is a need to develop better and more effective vaccines, especially for the risk groups. Since the virus enters the host through the nasal cavity, nasal vaccination is a good approach. By stimulating a mucosal immune response already in the nasal cavity, the goal with nasal vaccination is to stop the virus before ...
One of the major challenges for the development of an HIV vaccine is to induce potent virus-specific immune responses at the mucosal surfaces where transmission of virus occurs. Intranasal delivery of classical vaccines has been shown to induce good mucosal antibody responses, but so far for genetic vaccines the success has been limited. This study shows that young individuals are sensitive to nasal immunization with a genetic vaccine delivered in a formulation of a lipid adjuvant, the Eurocine N3. Intranasal delivery of a multiclade/multigene HIV-1 genetic vaccine gave rise to vaginal and rectal IgA responses as well as systemic humoral and cellular responses. As electroporation might become the preferred means of delivering genetic vaccines for systemic HIV immunity, nasal delivery by droplet formulation in a lipid adjuvant might become a means of priming or boosting the mucosal immunity. © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.. ...
8. Ellis, J., Gow, S., West, K., Waldner, C., Rhodes, C., Mutwiri, G., and Rosenberg, H.; Response of calves to challenge esposure with virulent bovine respiratory syncytial virus following intranasal administration of vaccines formulated for parenteral administraction. 2007. JAVMA. 230, 2:233-244 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Smart polymers in nasal drug delivery. AU - Chonkar, Ankita. AU - Nayak, Usha. AU - Udupa, N.. PY - 2015/7/1. Y1 - 2015/7/1. N2 - Nasal drug delivery has now been recognized as a promising route for drug delivery due to its capability of transporting a drug to systemic circulation and central nervous system. Though nasal mucosa offers improved bioavailability and quick onset of action of the drug, main disadvantage associated with nasal drug delivery is mucocilliary clearance due to which drug particles get cleared from the nose before complete absorption through nasal mucosa. Therefore, mucoadhesive polymeric approach can be successfully used to enhance the retention of the drug on nasal mucosal surface. Here, some of the aspects of the stimuli responsive polymers have been discussed which possess liquid state at the room temperature and in response to nasal temperature, pH and ions present in mucous, can undergo in situ gelation in nasal cavity. In this review, several ...
... , RS Bhanushali1, MM Gatne2, RV Gaikwad3, AN Bajaj1, MA Morde1
Objective: Neural stem cells (NSC) have an inherent brain tumor tropism that can be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to invasive gliomas. Here, we demonstrate that the non-invasive intranasal administration of tumor-targeting NSC is able to deliver a novel suicide gene (TK007) to intracerebrally growing human glioblastoma xenografts.. Method: Murine NSC were genetically modified to express the novel herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase variant (TK007). The biological activity of the NSC-mediated TK007/ganciclovir (GCV) system was assessed in cell survival and bystander assays using various human glioma cell lines. Therapeutic effects of intratumoral (3x105 cells) and intranasal (1.5x106) NSC-TK007 application alone and the sequential combination of both was tested using an intracranial U87 human glioblastoma model in nude mice. All animals received 50 mg/kg GCV i.p. for five consecutive days. Two control groups received either NaCl instead of GCV or NSC containing the empty ...
Cytomegalovirus vectors are promising delivery vehicles for vaccine strategies that aim to elicit effector CD8+ T cells. To determine how the route of immunization affects CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs of mice vaccinated with a murine cytomegalovirus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus matrix (M) protein, we infected CB6F1 mice via the intranasal or intraperitoneal route and evaluated the M-specific CD8+ T cell response at early and late time points. We found that intranasal vaccination generated robust and durable tissue-resident effector and effector memory CD8+ T cell populations that were undetectable after intraperitoneal vaccination. The generation of these antigen-experienced cells by intranasal vaccination resulted in earlier T cell responses, interferon gamma secretion, and viral clearance after respiratory syncytial virus challenge. Collectively, these findings validate a novel approach to vaccination that emphasizes the route of delivery as a key determinant of ...
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Professor Len Harrison from the institutes Immunology division and Professor Peter Colman and Dr Spiros Fourlanos from the hospitals Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology have demonstrated that the nasal insulin vaccine desensitises the human immune system, suppressing its reaction against insulin. Their research was published in the April issue of the journal Diabetes.. Their research provides proof-of-principle for the type 1 diabetes prevention trial, also called the intranasal insulin trial II (INIT II), which is being conducted in Australia and New Zealand and soon in Germany.. Previous research by Professor Harrison showed in laboratory mice that a nasal insulin vaccine was successful in preventing type 1 diabetes.. "These latest results encourage us that we are on the right track to finding a vaccine for type 1 diabetes," Professor Harrison said.. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the bodys immune system attacks and kills beta cells - the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. ...
BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.. RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p,0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide ...
BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.. MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.. RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p,0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide ...
A nasal delivery device for and a method of delivering substance to a nasal airway of a subject, the nasal delivery device comprising : a mouthpiece (|b|519|/b|) through which the subject in use exhal
Because peptides are most often labile in the GI tract they are usually administered by injection. The principal fragment of interest, D-Leu-OB-3, has been shown to induce significant weight loss upon i.p injection, nasal administration and oral administration. A non-invasive format is preferred in terms of patient compliance, convenience, ease of self administration, and avoidance of needle stick injuries for patients or care givers. While intranasal administration of protein and peptide drugs has shown some limited success with small peptides such as desmopressin and calcitonin, Aegis Intravail® absorption enhancement agents provide unmatched bioavailabilities - bioavailabilities comparable to injection for small as well as much larger proteins. Our studies have shown that OB-3 peptide formulated with Intravail® excipients induces significant weight loss upon nasal administration with bioavailability comparable to injection approaching or exceeding 100% compared to s.c. injection. Intravail ...
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease mediated by T cells. Collagen type II (CII) is one of the autoantigens associated with RA. CII263-272 is a predominant CII antigenic peptide that can induce T-cell activation upon binding to MHC and interaction with the appropriate T-cell receptor (TCR). Altered CII263-272 peptides with substitution of specific amino acids could bind to RA-associated HLA-DR4/1 with no T cell stimulating effects and could inhibit T cell activation in RA. We performed this study to evaluate the effect of mucosal administration and to explore the mechanism of the inhibitory effect of altered CII263-272 peptide (267Q A, 270K A and 271G A) on collagen induced arthritis (CIA). CIA was induced in Lewis rats by immunization with bovine CII. Altered CII263-272 peptide was given intranasally beginning from arthritis onset. Wild CII263-272 peptide or PBS was administered as controls. Therapeutic effects were evaluated by arthritis scores, body weight ...
GHRP-2 is one of the few peptides that offer intranasal application. It is known for its extreme effects on human growth hormone making it one of the most effective peptides to date.
Article by Vaxinano about Crossing the mucus barrier with a nasal vaccine: a strong breakthrough by Vaxinano. (Fasquelle F. & al. ACS Appl. Bio Mater. 2020 )
TY - JOUR. T1 - An intranasal selective antisense oligonucleotide impairs lung cyclooxygenase-2 production and improves inflammation, but worsens airway function, in house dust mite sensitive mice. AU - Torres, Rosa. AU - Herrerias, Aida. AU - Serra-Pagès, Mariona. AU - Roca-Ferrer, Jordi. AU - Pujols, Laura. AU - Marco, Alberto. AU - Picado, César. AU - de Mora, Fernando. PY - 2008/11/12. Y1 - 2008/11/12. N2 - Background: Despite its reported pro-inflammatory activity, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 has been proposed to play a protective role in asthma. Accordingly, COX-2 might be down-regulated in the airway cells of asthmatics. This, together with results of experiments to assess the impact of COX-2 blockade in ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized mice in vivo, led us to propose a novel experimental approach using house dust mite (HDM)-sensitized mice in which we mimicked altered regulation of COX-2.Methods: Allergic inflammation was induced in BALBc mice by intranasal exposure to HDM for 10 consecutive ...
Pneumonia can be produced in mice, which have not been previously prepared, by intranasal inoculation of broth cultures of certain strains of pneumococci.. Lesions which are quantitatively different can be produced in different breeds of mice by inoculation of the same type of pneumococcus. Similar inoculation of different types of pneumococci into one breed of mice results in lesions which are qualitatively different.. In general, these lesions are as follows: a diffuse pneumonia and an acute glomerular nephritis in unselected mice receiving Type I strains; a confluent pneumonia and a tubular nephritis in the case of Type II strains; and as result of Type III strains, an interstitial pneumonia with extensive gelatinous pleurisy, together with necrosis and abscess formation in the spleen and cervical lymph nodes. Resistant strains of mice with Type III pneumococci show slight changes in the lungs, but marked lesions in the spleen and cervical nodes, while susceptible mice with the same type of ...
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This study is a single center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over pilot study designed to assess the safety of intranasally (IN) delivered glulisine versus placebo in patients with DS. Subjects will be randomized into this cross-over study and within subject comparisons conducted between single treatment of intranasal insulin glulisine and single treatment of intranasal placebo. All subjects will also receive a single treatment of placebo prior to randomization to ensure adherence to study procedures ...
The city health director Dr. Johnnie Lee said the MedImmune intranasal vaccine will only be administered to healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.|br/||br/|Because its an inhalant, the nasal vaccine can exacerbate some respiratory conditions, so only healthy children are eligible, Lee said.|br/||br/|By mid-December, the vaccine should be available for anyone who is interested.|br/||br/|Since the beginning of the year, the city has seen about 245 people with laboratory confirmed H1N1, though medical officials warn this is only the tip of the iceberg, because most people get better on their own, Stamford Hospitals director of infectious diseases Dr. Michael Parry said.|br/||br/|
City Health Director Dr. Johnnie Lee said the MedImmune intranasal vaccine will only be administered to healthy 2- to 4-year-old children.|br/||br/|Because its an inhalant, the nasal vaccine can exacerbate some respiratory conditions, so only healthy children are eligible, Lee said.|br/||br/|By mid-December, the vaccine should be available for anyone who is interested.|br/||br/|Since the beginning of the year, the city has seen about 245 people with laboratory confirmed H1N1, though medical officials warn this is only the tip of the iceberg, because most people get better on their own, Stamford Hospitals director of infectious diseases, Dr. Michael Parry, said.|br/||br/|
Choosing to participate in a study is an important personal decision. Talk with your doctor and family members or friends about deciding to join a study. To learn more about this study, you or your doctor may contact the study research staff using the contacts provided below. For general information, Learn About Clinical Studies. ...
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SHERMAN, TX -- The Grayson County Health Department will provide Flu Mist, the 2009 H1N1 influenza live, attenuated intranasal vaccine (LAIV/the nasal spray vaccine) to people 2 through 49 years of age who are not pregnant and do not have certain health conditions listed below.
Doctors give trusted answers on uses, effects, side-effects, and cautions: Dr. Akl on how can i get rid of nasal swelling: Intranasal steroids.
Vaccines are improving in their spectrum of protection, length of protection, and quickness of protection all the time. Most research and effort is against protection of respiratory disease. This is where most antimicrobials are used. There is no doubt in the beef production chain that the first one to two months after arrival at the feedlot is where most antimicrobials are used. Preventing disease has been the focus of research. There has been more intranasal vaccines which give local immunity in the windpipe and nasopharynx. This occurs very rapidly. Some are developed for respiratory viruses and others for the respiratory bacteria. This quicker protection should also cut down on the incidence of respiratory disease. Whenever vaccinating make sure and store properly (keep refrigerated until use), rehydrate and use modified vaccines within one hour, give in the proper locations, and have epinephrine on hand in case of a rare allergic reaction. Proper application of vaccines means the herd will ...
1999 - Flu-Avert™ developed in conjunction with Heska provided an intranasal vaccine for equine subtype 2 influenza virus. The modified-live virus vaccine was licensed in 1999 by the USDA. Work on maternal antibody interference by researchers in the department led to new recommendations for foal vaccination schedules by the American Association of Equine Practitioners. ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Cocaine is absorbed from all sites of application, including mucous membranes and gastrointestinal mucosa. By oral or intra-nasal route, 60 to 80% of cocaine is absorbed ...
Tuamie laced a hypnotic production for MCs Boog Brown and Yasin Selami to get off on, dropping slick witticisms while trading bars on their lyrical supremacy. Selami uses his nasal delivery to slide across the elegant xylophone loop, imploring a generation of snap backers to "act your age not your fitted size.". Boog "never slips in the second spot," complimenting Selami with her quick-tongued delivery and assonant rhymes. Selami finishes the track off with dope scratches.. The track is tagged "#howtorap" on Soundcloud. I suppose there wasnt enough space for "-overafreshassbeat." You can listen to "Orange." below.. ...
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Correction of the deficiency of early meal-time insulin secretion, using intravenous insulin in patients with Type 2 diabetes causes substantial improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia. The present study was designed to determine whether similar benefit would result from physiological supplementation using intranasal insulin delivery. Six patients with Type 2 diabetes were studied twice during a standard mixed meal. At the start of the meal they received a single intranasal spray containing either 15 units of insulin in 1% sodium glycocholate (adjuvant agent) or glycocholate alone (placebo) in a single-blind fashion. Intranasal insulin delivery resulted in rapid absorption of insulin with peak levels (92 +/- 8 (+/- SE) mU l-1) within 5-10 min. Peak insulin levels were at least equal to those in non-diabetic subjects, though occurring at an earlier time-point. However, no significant improvement in post-prandial hyperglycaemia was seen (peak blood glucose increment 4.9 +/- 0.6 vs 5.4 +/- 0.5 mmol l-1
A common cause of clogged ears with inability to pop them easily is due to eustachian tube dysfunction. There are a number of ways to address this annoying problem, but one of the first steps to try is intranasal medications whether in nasal spray form or nasal drop form.
A common cause of clogged ears with inability to pop them easily is due to eustachian tube dysfunction. There are a number of ways to address this annoying problem, but one of the first steps to try is intranasal medications whether in nasal spray form or nasal drop form.
This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial to evaluate the effects of nasally applied xenon on intraoperative and postoperative opioid requirement and postoperative evaluated pain scores. Because there were only two treatment arms (air, xenon) with an a priori fixed number of patients (20 per each arm), a simple randomization scheme was used with a vector of random numbers to generate an a priori list for randomized treatment assignments. According to this randomization list, patients received either xenon or air. The study supervisor, who did not participate in the assessment, prepared an unlabeled gas reservoir filled with either the colorless and odorless xenon or air as placebo. The anesthetists who provided the anesthesia and the intensive care unit (ICU) staff participating in the pain assessments were blinded for individual treatments. Patients were also blinded for group assignment and both blindings were maintained until the end of the study. The patients ...
Compared with patients not treated with intranasal corticosteroids, those who receive them have greater improvement or resolution of symptoms at two to three weeks, regardless of whether antibiotics are used. In a single head-to-head study, patients taking intranasal corticosteroids alone fared slightly better than those taking antibiotics alone. Higher doses of intranasal corticosteroids work better than lower doses.
The aim of the present study was to fabricate a thermosensitive gel containing chlorpheniramine maleate (CPM)-loaded nanoparticles following intranasal administration for effective treatment of...
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The main goal of the study is to look at the effects of intranasal oxytocin on the brain in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Oxytocin is a hormone that exists
Nobody likes getting a shot, especially children. However, US health guidelines recommend annual influenza vaccination of children, especially those with asthma, and including those with egg allergy. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is an intranasal vaccine administered via the nose licensed for use in children. However, this vaccine contains egg protein and it is currently suggested that it not be used on children with egg allergy. Furthermore, North American guidelines recommend against its use in children with asthma. Thus, asthmatic or egg allergic children receive a traditional flu shot ...
Pertussis disease remains an important public health issue given the global rise of pertussis cases during the past decades (2). There is therefore a critical need for improved pertussis vaccines with high efficacy and low reactogenicity. The live BPZE1 vaccine has been tested in different animal models and demonstrated mucosal and systemic immune responses, long-lasting protection, and blocking of nasal colonization upon infection (20, 22). In human clinical trials, BPZE1 showed excellent safety profiles (24). In this study, we performed multiple assays to obtain mechanistic insight into the immune responses in humans generated by BPZE1 as compared with aPV. We found that a single intranasal administration of BPZE1 was able to induce well-detectable plasmablasts, activated cTfh1 cells, vaccine-specific CD4+ cells, memory B cells and, ultimately, robust levels of Th1-type antibodies with potent bacterial opsonizing activity. We observed a much wider range of antigen specificities recognized by ...
Laron, Z.; Frenkel, J.; Deghenghl, R.; Anin, S.; Klinger, B.; Siibergeld, A. (1995). "Intranasal administration of the GHRP". ... Frenkel, J.; Silbergeld, A.; Deghenghi, R.; Laron, Z. (1995). "Short Term Effect of Intranasal Administration of Hexarelin". ... intranasal, and oral administration in man". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 78 (3): 693-8. doi:10.1210/jcem.78.3.8126144. PMID ... "Short-term administration of intranasal or oral Hexarelin, a synthetic hexapeptide, does not desensitize the growth hormone ...
"FDA approves Breo Ellipta to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". Food and Drug Administration. May 10, 2013. "BREO® ... "Intranasal corticosteroids and adrenal suppression". Neuroimmunomodulation. 16 (5): 353-62. doi:10.1159/000216193. PMID ... is approved for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for long-term maintenance treatment of airflow ...
Intranasal insulin is being investigated. A randomized controlled trial which will determine whether intranasal insulin can ... Administration schedules often attempt to mimic the physiologic secretion of insulin by the pancreas. Hence, both a long-acting ... In 2006 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the use of Exubera, the first inhalable insulin. It was withdrawn from ... The insulin administration aspect remains experimental, but the blood glucose test aspect of "wrist appliances" is commercially ...
Increased levels of OT can be found in salivary samples after intranasal administration of the neuropeptide. Salivary OT levels ... Weisman, O., Zagoory-Sharon, O., & Feldman, R. (2012). Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva. ... Intranasal (IN) administration, as opposed to more conventional routes, such as oral or intravenous infusion, offers an ... A review of 38 randomized and controlled trials suggests that short-term use of intranasal oxytocin appears to have few side- ...
In addition, also unlike the case of peripheral administration, intranasal oxytocin has a central duration of at least 2.25 ... "Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37 (9): 1582-6. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Salivary levels of oxytocin remain elevated for more than two hours after intranasal oxytocin administration". Neuro ... Thus the fall in plasma concentration after the administration of a single dose is described by the following equation: C t = C ...
... since intranasal administration of oxytocin also increases envy and Schadenfreude. Individuals who receive an intranasal dose ... Theodoridou A, Penton-Voak IS, Rowe AC (2013). "A direct examination of the effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin on ... Shamay-Tsoory SG, Fischer M, Dvash J, Harari H, Perach-Bloom N, Levkovitz Y (November 2009). "Intranasal administration of ... Fischer-Shofty M, Shamay-Tsoory SG, Harari H, Levkovitz Y (January 2010). "The effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin ...
Fischer-Shofty M, Shamay-Tsoory SG, Harari H, Levkovitz Y (2010). "The effect of intranasal administration of oxytocin on fear ... "Intranasal oxytocin administration is reflected in human saliva". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 37 (9): 1582-6. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Salivary levels of oxytocin remain elevated for more than two hours after intranasal oxytocin administration". Neuro ... Intranasal oxytocin has a central duration of at least 2.25 hours and as long as 4 hours. Oral: Oxytocin is destroyed in the ...
... with rectal administration yielding the same results; intranasal varies between individuals with a mean of 46%. Taken orally, ... Therapeutic Goods Administration (June 2008). Standard for the uniform scheduling of drugs and poisons no. 23 (PDF). Canberra: ... Drug Enforcerment Administration. Retrieved 23 November 2015. "DEA Diversion Control CSA". US Dept of Justice - DEA. Retrieved ... In the United Kingdom, it is available in 10 mg/mL and 50 mg/mL formulation for intramuscular or intravenous administration. ...
Shamay-Tsoory SG, Fischer M, Dvash J, Harari H, Perach-Bloom N, Levkovitz Y (November 2009). "Intranasal administration of ... Some researchers have argued oxytocin has a general enhancing effect on all social emotions, since intranasal administration of ... 19 (7). Wudarczyk, O. A.; Earp, B. D.; Guastella, A; Savulescu, J (2013). "Could intranasal oxytocin be used to enhance ...
Preventing Anosmia from Intranasal Zinc Administration[unreliable medical source?] Maruyama T, Yasuda S, Odashiro K, Kaji Y, ... Intranasal drug use Samter's triad also known as AERD (aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease) Foster Kennedy syndrome Cadmium ... On June 16, 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration sent a warning letter to Matrixx Initiatives, manufacturer of an over-the ... Sarcoidosis Zinc-based intranasal cold products, including remedies labelled as "homeopathic" Chronic atrophic rhinitis Paget's ...
Rigg LA, Milanes B, Villanueva B, Yen SS (1977). "Efficacy of intravaginal and intranasal administration of micronized ... This route of administration is thus preferred in women with a history of thrombo-embolic disease. Estrogen is also used in the ... However, such risks have been found to vary depending on the type of estrogen or progestogen and the route of administration. ... It was only until 1941 when estrogen therapy was finally approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment ...
There are several methods of administration, including parenteral and intranasal. However, the intranasal method has been ... Several intranasal vaccines have been developed that contain canine adenovirus in addition to B bronchiseptica and canine- ... Administration of B. bronchiseptica and canine-parainfluenza vaccines may then be continued routinely, especially during ... Adverse effects of vaccinations are mild, but the most common effect observed up to 30 days after administration is nasal ...
Comparing Intranasal Administration to Intramuscular Administration in Healthy Human Volunteers." University of Kentucky ... "A single dose, Open Label, Randomized Three Way Crossover, Bioavailability Study of 1.0 mg and 2.0 Intranasal Butorphanol ... "A single Dose, Randomized Two Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Study of 2.0 mg Intranasal Hydromorphone Hydrochloride In ...
... is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. It is distributed to most ... Methamphetamine is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. Due to the high ... Repeated administration or self administration of METH has been shown to upregulate σ-1 receptor protein and mRNA in various ... The lack of effect of administration of neomycin to one patient indicates that the hydroxylation occurs in body tissues. ... a ...
The bioavailability of doxylamine is 24.7% for oral administration and 70.8% for intranasal administration. The Tmax of ... "Comparative pharmacokinetics of single doses of doxylamine succinate following intranasal, oral and intravenous administration ... Doxylamine succinate is generally safe for administration to healthy adults. The median lethal dose (LD50) is estimated to be ...
"Brain distribution and behavioral effects of progesterone and pregnenolone after intranasal or intravenous administration". Eur ... Unlike the case of oral administration, transdermal administration of 30 mg/day pregnenolone cream has not been found to affect ... Oral administration of 50 or 100 mg pregnenolone has been found to have minimal or negligible effect on urinary levels of ... In further research by their group, a single 400 mg dose of oral pregnenolone at 3 hours post-administration was found to ...
Its bioavailability is 2.5 to 3.3% by intranasal administration and 70% by subcutaneous injection. The plasma protein binding ... With chronic administration of buserelin however, the GnRH receptor becomes desensitized and completely stops responding both ... The elimination half-life of buserelin regardless of route of administration is about 72 to 80 minutes. Buserelin and its ... Trabant H, Widdra W, de Looze S (1990). "Efficacy and safety of intranasal buserelin acetate in the treatment of endometriosis ...
"Brain distribution and behavioral effects of progesterone and pregnenolone after intranasal or intravenous administration". Eur ... In accordance, acute administration of low doses of micronized progesterone (which reliably elevates allopregnanolone levels), ... "Investigations on changes in ¹³C/¹²C ratios of endogenous urinary steroids after pregnenolone administration". Drug Test Anal. ... "Urinary marker of oral pregnenolone administration". Steroids. 70 (3): 179-83. doi:10.1016/j.steroids.2004.12.007. PMID ...
Intranasal esketamine, an enantiomer of ketamine, is in the final stages of development for depression. The antidepressant ... A low dose of ketamine administration initiates three rapidly consecutive events, a presynaptic disinhibition of glutamatergic ... the antidepressant effects of euphoriants quickly disappear with chronic administration due to tachyphylaxis. Moreover, these ... discovered that low doses of the general anesthetic ketamine rapidly reduce depressive symptoms within hours of administration ...
Levine, A. I., & Bryson, E. O. (2010). Intranasal self-administration of remifentanil as the foray into opioid abuse by an ... Panlilio, L. V., & Schindler, C. W. (2000). Self-administration of remifentanil, an ultra-short acting opioid, under continuous ... Comparison of remifentanil or fentanyl administration during isoflurane anesthesia for coronary artery bypass surgery. Med Sci ... US Food and Drug Administration. (2010). Orange book: approved drug products with therapeutic equivalence evaluations. Silver ...
Vincent AL, Ma W, Lager KM, Janke BH, Webby RJ, Garcia-Sastre A, Richt JA (2007). "Efficacy of intranasal administration of a ...
"Intranasal administration of the peptide Selank regulates BDNF expression in the rat hippocampus in vivo". Doklady Biological ...
Clausi, M.G.; Paez, P.M.; Campagnoni, A.T.; Pasquini, L.A.; Pasquini, J.M.; Ahmadiani, A. (2012). "Intranasal administration of ... It has been shown that intranasal administration of aTf (apotransferrin) can protect myelin and induce remyelination. Much of ...
Intranasal mometasone alleviates symptoms such as rhinorrhea aquosa, nasal congestion, nasal drip, sneezing, and pharyngeal ... Topical administration applied to skin reduces the inflammation associated with chronic or acute dermatosis. Extensive ... As of 2016 mometasone furoate was available worldwide in formulations for nasal, oral inhalation, and topical administration, ... Blaiss, MS (2011). "Safety update regarding intranasal corticosteroids for the treatment of allergic rhinitis". Allergy and ...
Sublingual administration (under the tongue) is usually superior to swallowing for bioavailability and effects; however, ... Coda BA, Rudy AC, Archer SM, Wermeling DP (July 2003). "Pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of single-dose intranasal ... A particular problem that may occur with hydromorphone is accidental administration in place of morphine due to a mix-up ... Gagnon, DJ; Jwo, K (2013). "Tremors and agitation following low-dose intravenous hydromorphone administration in a patient with ...
The optimal formulation of zinc lozenges and an ideal frequency of their administration should be examined. Given the evidence ... the safety of intranasal zinc has been called into question because of numerous reports of anosmia (loss of smell), in some ... Intranasal ipratropium bromide for the common cold,url=,journal=The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews,language=en,volume ... Loss of Sense of Smell with Intranasal Cold Remedies Containing Zinc,year=2009,url-status=live,archiveurl=https://web.archive. ...
2014). Intranasal administration as a route for drug delivery to the brain: Evidence for a unique pathway for albumin. The ... Evgenev M.B., Garbuz D.G., Morozov A.V., Bobkova N.V. (2018) Intranasal Administration of Hsp70: Molecular and Therapeutic ... Taken together, our findings establish intranasal administration of exogenous human Hsp70 as a practical therapeutic approach ... 2008). Intranasal delivery bypasses the blood-brain barrier to target therapeutic agents to the central nervous system and ...
A composition and method for nasal administration of pharmaceuticals utilizes glycyrrhetinic acid as an absorption enhancer. ... The intranasal administration of vitamin B-12 is illustrated as follows.. 1 ml of a vitamin B-12 solution containing 1,000μg/ml ... The intranasal administration of human ACTH is illustrated as follows.. A 0.5% (w/v) 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid vehicle solution ... Pharmaceutical preparations for intranasal administration. US5989582 *. 14 Feb 1996. 23 Nov 1999. Weg; Stuart L.. ...
... the potential side-effects of intranasal oxytocin have remained largely unclear to date.... ... use of intranasal oxytocin administration in children, the potential side-effects of intranasal oxytocin have remained largely ... Oxytocin Side-effects Middle childhood Randomized controlled trial Intranasal administration This is a preview of subscription ... The current study suggests that single administration of intranasal oxytocin is likely safe in elementary school-aged children. ...
Intranasal Self-Administration of Remifentanil as the Foray into Opioid Abuse by an Anesthesia Resident. Levine, Adam I., MD; ... Intranasal Self-Administration of Remifentanil as the Foray into Opioid Abuse by an Anesthesia Resident ... The effect of intranasal administration of remifentanil on intubating conditions and airway response after sevoflurane ... On further questioning, he admitted to IV administration of fentanyl, which he had begun using several weeks prior. He reported ...
... ... We aimed at testing the immunomodulatory effects of intranasal versus intragastric administration of Lactobacillus paracasei ... A concerted selection of intervention schedule, doses, and administration routes (intranasal versus intragastric) may markedly ... Intranasal L. paracasei NCC2461 efficiently protected sensitized mice upon exposure to OVA aerosols in a dose-dependent manner ...
A Study of Diazepam After Intranasal and Intravenous Administration to Healthy Volunteers. This study has been completed. ... A Study of Diazepam After Intranasal and Intravenous Administration to Healthy Volunteers. ... It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States and is currently sold as Valium® tablets ... Positive serum pregnancy test at Screening or urine pregnancy test prior to each administration of study drug for all women, ...
Drug: Epinephrin (Intranasal injection) Drug: Epinephrin (Topical administration) Hide Detailed Description Detailed ... Intranasal Injection Versus Topical Administration of Epinephrin During Endoscopic Sinus Surgery. The safety and scientific ... Active Comparator: Topical administration An an intranasal injection of saline will be used as control, and thereafter cotton ... Drug: Epinephrin (Topical administration) An intranasal injection of saline solution, followed by placement of cotton pledgets ...
We have previously shown that intranasal (i.n.) administration of a single MHC class II-restricted HY peptide to female mice ... Molecular Mechanisms of Induction of Antigen-Specific Allograft Tolerance by Intranasal Peptide Administration. Katy Derbyshire ... Molecular Mechanisms of Induction of Antigen-Specific Allograft Tolerance by Intranasal Peptide Administration ... Molecular Mechanisms of Induction of Antigen-Specific Allograft Tolerance by Intranasal Peptide Administration ...
Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of ... ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre- ... Sun Z, Wang Q, Jia R, Xia S, Li Y, Liu Q, Xu W, Xu J, Du L, Lu L, Jiang S. Intranasal Administration of Maleic Anhydride- ... Intranasal administration of ML-HSA before RSV infection resulted in significant decrease of the viral titers in the lungs of ...
... after intranasal administration of Asari Radix et Rhizoma (AR). In total, 47 absorbed AR constituents including 14 monoterpenes ... and comprehensively analyze the absorbed constituents after intranasal administration of TCM. These findings extend our ... Keywords: nasal therapy; Asarum heterotropoides var. mandshuricum; intranasal administration; effective substance; ... Identification of Absorbed Constituents in the Rabbit Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid after Intranasal Administration of Asari ...
Discover how intranasal administration of the opioid reversal agent naloxone fared as compared with IV administration. ... Intranasal Naloxone Administration in Dogs. Travis Lanaux, DVM, DACVECC, University of Florida ... Naloxone half-life was similar for both routes of administration (IV, 37 ± 6.7 minutes; intranasal, 47.4 ± 6.7 minutes). It is ... Naloxone was detectable in plasma 2.3 ± 1.4 minutes after intranasal administration; mean time to maximum concentration in ...
These findings suggest that intranasal insulin administration could be an effective approach to prevent the increased risk of ... These findings suggest that intranasal insulin administration could be an effective approach to prevent the increased risk of ... Importantly, insulin administered through intranasal delivery prior to anesthesia was found to prevent the anesthesia-induced ... Importantly, insulin administered through intranasal delivery prior to anesthesia was found to prevent the anesthesia-induced ...
Intranasal administration of neural stem cell-mediated enzym/prodrug therapy using a novel HSV-thymidine kinase variant ... Those receiving additional intranasal administration of NSC-TK007 displayed a significant tumor growth inhibition of 81% versus ... Here, we demonstrate that the non-invasive intranasal administration of tumor-targeting NSC is able to deliver a novel suicide ... Therapeutic effects of intratumoral (3x105 cells) and intranasal (1.5x106) NSC-TK007 application alone and the sequential ...
Activity-Dependent Neurotrophic Factor: Intranasal Administration of Femtomolar-Acting Peptides Improve Performance in a Water ... Activity-Dependent Neurotrophic Factor: Intranasal Administration of Femtomolar-Acting Peptides Improve Performance in a Water ... Activity-Dependent Neurotrophic Factor: Intranasal Administration of Femtomolar-Acting Peptides Improve Performance in a Water ... Activity-Dependent Neurotrophic Factor: Intranasal Administration of Femtomolar-Acting Peptides Improve Performance in a Water ...
... by intranasal route, or by intradermal, intramuscular or subcutaneous injection for the ... CERTIFICATION FOR DRUG ADMINISTRATION BY INJECTION AND INTRANASAL ROUTE Effective December 3, 2015, the Ministry of Health made ... They must complete the intranasal administration online module and complete the "intranasal administration declaration" through ... Apply for Drug Administration Submit the Application for Certification - Drug Administration by Injection and Intranasal Route ...
Figure S1 Cine of 3-dimensional reconstruction of dynamic PET data after [18F]FLT intranasal administration co-registered with ... Figure S2 Cine of 3-dimensional reconstruction of dynamic PET data after [18F]FLT intranasal administration co-registered with ... Pharmacoimaging of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeable (FDG) and Impermeable (FLT) Substrates After Intranasal (IN) Administration. ... This product is modified to meet the requirements for administration to small animals. A 1.5-2.0 mL sample is withdrawn from ...
Intranasal administration of oxytocin decreases task-related aggressive responses in healthy young males. Publication. ... Intranasal administration of oxytocin decreases task-related aggressive responses in healthy young males. ... In this randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the effects of intranasal oxytocin (32IU) on taskrelated aggressive ... Our results indicate that oxytocin administration reduces aggressive behavior in healthy young men. Moreover, increased ...
Intranasal Administration of Synthetic Recombinant Peptide-Based Vaccine Protects Mice from Infection by Schistosoma mansoni T ... Intranasal Administration of Synthetic Recombinant Peptide-Based Vaccine Protects Mice from Infection by Schistosoma mansoni ... Intranasal Administration of Synthetic Recombinant Peptide-Based Vaccine Protects Mice from Infection by Schistosoma mansoni ... Intranasal Administration of Synthetic Recombinant Peptide-Based Vaccine Protects Mice from Infection by Schistosoma mansoni ...
intranasal administration. absorption enhancing. administration containing. enhancing system. Prior art date. 1986-12-16. ... Device for intranasal administration UY32514A (en) 2009-03-27. 2010-10-29. Glaxo Group Ltd. MERGERS & Conjugates of a drug ... Insulin preparation for intranasal administration NL193099C (en) * 1981-10-30. 1998-11-03. Novo Industri As. Stabilized insulin ... Therapeutic compositions for intranasal administration comprising ketorolac. DK36492D0 (en) * 1992-03-19. 1992-03-19. Novo ...
Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against ... Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against ... Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against ... Intranasal Administration of an Inactivated Yersinia pestis Vaccine with Interleukin-12 Generates Protective Immunity against ...
Intranasal and epicutaneous administration of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonists provides protection against influenza A ... We concluded that intranasal imiquimod facilitates a more effective immune response, which can limit the pathology associated ... In mice, daily intranasal delivery of imiquimod prevented peak viral replication, bodyweight loss, airway and pulmonary ... In the present study, we examined the effect of intranasal delivery of the TLR7 agonist, imiquimod or its topical formulation ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
... Pharmaceutical ... Intranasal Drug Delivery - Away from Needles. In the current scenario, although needle-based injections are the most common ... Further, as emerging intranasal delivery technologies eliminate the use of needles, there is no risk of needle-stick problems. ... The shortcomings of needle-based injections along with fear among patients has led to the onset of novel needleless intranasal ...
Administration. *Draw up appropriate dose for weight (see table below) plus 0.1ml extra to the first dose (to account for the ... Intranasal fentanyl. * See also. Acute pain management. Indications for use. *Initial analgesia for children aged 1 year and ... Patients receiving intranasal fentanyl will be monitored like a patient receiving IV or IM opioids such as morphine (RCH ... Baseline set of observations prior to drug administration.. *The patient should be awake or easily roused to voiceprior to each ...
The intranasal influenza vaccine is not absorbed systemically after intranasal administration and use during pregnancy is not ... The intranasal influenza vaccine is not absorbed systemically after intranasal administration and use during pregnancy is not ... There are no data regarding concurrent intranasal corticosteroid administration and the use of intranasal influenza vaccine.[ ... Prior to the administration of the intranasal influenza vaccine, health care personnel should inform the patient, parent, ...
  • Following i.n. peptide plus LPS administration, causing immunization, HY-specific CD4 + T cells express genes characteristic of activated T cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Recently, intranasal (i.n.) immunization of mice with a recombinant BCG strain expressing GST was reported to induce humoral responses as well as antibodies which neutralized the enzyme activity ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Proper vaccine administration is a critical component of a successful immunization program. (cdc.gov)
  • To determine how the route of immunization affects CD8+ T cell responses in the lungs of mice vaccinated with a murine cytomegalovirus vector expressing the respiratory syncytial virus matrix (M) protein, we infected CB6F1 mice via the intranasal or intraperitoneal route and evaluated the M-specific CD8+ T cell response at early and late time points. (edu.au)
  • In this paper, nontoxic Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) mutants and Supramolecular Biovector systems (SMBV) were evaluated in mice as mucosal adjuvants and delivery systems, respectively, for intranasal immunization with the conjugated group C meningococcal vaccine. (asm.org)
  • In the current placebo-controlled, double blind experiment on healthy adult male subjects the investigators will measure the effects of a single dose of intranasal oxytocin (24IU) on brain activity (using electroencephaolography - EEG) as well as on cardiac (heart-rate and heart-rate variablility) and gastric (electrogastrogram - EGG) activity and physiological arousal (skin conductance response - SCR). (trialbulletin.com)
  • The researchers found that intranasal challenge with Bet v 1 induced increases of Bet v 1-specific IgE levels by a median of 59.2 percent, which was significantly more than in the other treatment groups. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We found that intranasal vaccination generated robust and durable tissue-resident effector and effector memory CD8+ T cell populations that were undetectable after intraperitoneal vaccination. (edu.au)
  • Here, we show that, although intranasal vaccination with cationic liposomes in combination with antigenic protein elicited GM-CSF expression at the site of administration, blocking GM-CSF function by using an anti-GM-CSF neutralizing antibody did not alter antigen-specific antibody production induced by DOTAP/DC-chol liposomes, indicating that GM-CSF may not contribute to the mucosal adjuvant activity of the cationic liposomes when administered intranasally. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The generation of these antigen-experienced cells by intranasal vaccination resulted in earlier T cell responses, interferon gamma secretion, and viral clearance after respiratory syncytial virus challenge. (edu.au)
  • Conclusions: Intranasal tetracaine/oxymetazoline mist was generally well tolerated. (umich.edu)
  • Tetracaine plasma levels were undetectable in most participants, whereas concentrations of its major metabolite parabutylaminobenzoic acid from the two-times-MRD administration were approximately twice that from the MRD administration. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 4-8 ] Although nasal preanesthetic medications can cause irritation to the nasal mucosa and patient crying, its rapid and reliable onset of action, avoidance of painful injections, and ease of administration have made it a convenient way to premedicate children. (asahq.org)
  • ML-HSA shows promise for further development into an effective, safe, affordable, and easy-to-use intranasal regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis of RSV infection in children at high risk in both low- and high-income countries. (mdpi.com)
  • We concluded that intranasal imiquimod facilitates a more effective immune response, which can limit the pathology associated with influenza A virus infection. (flu.org.cn)
  • Most importantly, our findings establish the intranasal application of therapeutically-modified NSC as a safe and non-invasive application method. (egms.de)
  • These findings indicate that intranasal nerve growth factor can bypass blood-brain barrier and affect spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • The available literature suggests that the acute administration of intranasal insulin enhances cognition in memory impaired older adults with either Alzheimer's disease or minimal cognitive impairment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We show here that the RSV-specific IgA NALT plasma cell population and lung antibody levels can be substantially boosted, both at acute and memory time points, by intranasal immunisation with inactivated RSV (iRSV) in combination with bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMV) compared to live RSV alone. (wiley.com)
  • Dr. Luigi Aloe, Cellular Biology and Neurobiology Institute, National Research Council, Italy and his team performed a study to investigate whether, by intranasal administration, the nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and turns over the spinal cord neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • Aloe L, Bianchi P, De Bellis A, Soligo M, Rocco ML. Intranasal nerve growth factor bypasses the blood-brain barrier and affects spinal cord neurons in spinal cord injury. (eurekalert.org)
  • Furthermore, it is anticipated that intranasal delivery can offer admittance to the central nervous system without affecting the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. (curofy.com)
  • Pre-administration of GH blunts the GH-releasing effect of examorelin, while, in contrast, fully abolishing the effect of GHRH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its effectiveness is similar to that of the intravenous preparation, although its peak effect is observed later, at 60-90 minutes after administration. (medscape.com)
  • One recent study has demonstrated that intranasal fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) or heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF) increase neurogenesis in the normal adult mouse brain [ 7 ], but the effect of intranasal neurotrophic factors on neurogenesis in animals after stroke has not been investigated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intranasal supplementation of L. paracasei NCC2461 was more potent than intragastric application in limiting the allergic response and possibly linked to an increase in T regulatory cells in the lungs. (hindawi.com)