The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.
Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.
The act of BREATHING in.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.
A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.
Relating to the size of solids.
Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)
Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.
A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.
Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.
Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.
Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.
Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.
A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.
Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
Uptake of substances through the SKIN.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.
A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.
Drugs that are used to treat asthma.
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.
Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.
An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.
Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (1/4255)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (2/4255)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (3/4255)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (4/4255)

The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation.  (+info)

An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids. (5/4255)

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers in rat lungs. (6/4255)

A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers (MMFs) was developed, and the calculated fiber numbers and dimensions were compared with the experimental ones using a glass fiber (GF), ceramic fiber (RF1) and two potassium octatitanate whiskers (PT1, TW). If the translocation rate by macrophages is constant and the effect of dissolution and disintegration can be ignored, the fiber number is expected to decrease exponentially with time. In the experimental study, however, the fiber number did not always decrease exponentially. In the case of RF1, the fiber number decreased almost exponentially and the diameter decreased linearly with the time. The clearance rate constant of GF during 3 to 6 months after the end of one-month exposure was greater than that during 1 to 3 months. On the contrary, the clearance rate constants of PT1 and TW during 1 to 6 months were greater than next six months. The diameter and the length of GF did not change significantly. The fiber length of PT1 tends to become longer with time although the diameter did not change significantly. Our theoretical model gives a satisfactory fit to these experimental results.  (+info)

Nitrogen dioxide formation during inhaled nitric oxide therapy. (7/4255)

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic by-product of inhalation therapy with nitric oxide (NO). The rate of NO2 formation during NO therapy is controversial. METHODS: The formation of NO2 was studied under dynamic flows emulating a base case NO ventilator mixture containing 80 ppm NO in a 90% oxygen matrix. The difficulty in measuring NO2 concentrations below 2 ppm accurately was overcome by the use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: Using a second-order model, the rate constant, k, for NO2 formation was determined to be (1.19 +/- 0.11) x 10(-11) ppm-2s-1, which is in basic agreement with evaluated data from atmospheric literature. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO can be delivered safely in a well-designed, continuous flow neonatal ventilatory circuit, and NO2 formation can be calculated reliably using the rate constant and circuit dwell time.  (+info)

As-required versus regular nebulized salbutamol for the treatment of acute severe asthma. (8/4255)

Current British guidelines for the administration of beta2-agonists in acute severe asthma recommend regular nebulized therapy in hospitalized patients, followed by as-required (p.r.n.) use via hand-held devices after discharge. Since beta2-agonists do not possess anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and are thus unlikely to influence the rate of recovery from an asthma exacerbation, it was hypothesized that patients given the short-acting beta2-agonist salbutamol on an as-required basis after admission to hospital would recover as quickly as those on regular treatment, but with potential reductions in the total dose delivered. Forty-six patients with acute severe asthma were randomly assigned to either regular prescriptions of nebulized salbutamol or to usage on a p.r.n. basis, from 24 h after hospital admission. The primary outcome measures were length of hospital stay, time to recovery, and frequency of salbutamol nebulization from 24 h after admission to discharge. Secondary outcome measures were treatment side-effects (tremor, palpitations), and patient satisfaction. Length of hospital stay was reduced in those patients allocated to p.r.n. salbutamol (geometric mean (GM) 3.7 days) versus regular salbutamol (GM 4.7 days). Time taken for peak expiratory flow to reach 75% of recent best was the same in both groups. There was a highly significant reduction in the number of times nebulized therapy was delivered to the p.r.n. group (GM 7.0, range 1-30) compared with the regular treatment group (GM 14.0, range 4-57; p=0.003; 95% confidence interval for ratio of GMs 1.29-3.09). In addition, patients reported less tremor (p=0.062) and fewer palpitations (p=0.049) in the p.r.n. group. Of the patients in the p.r.n. group who had received regular nebulized therapy on previous admissions (n=12), all preferred the p.r.n. regimen. Prescribing beta2-agonists on a p.r.n. basis from 24 h after hospital admission is associated with reduced amount of drug delivered, incidence of side-effects, and possibly length of hospital stay. This has implications for the efficient use of healthcare resources.  (+info)

Primary objective to evaluate the effect of a 12-week treatment period with prandial administration of Technosphere Insulin on glucose control in subjects with T2 DM. Secondary objective is to Evaluate the safety and tolerability of a 12-week treatment period of Technosphere Insulin and Technosphere Placebo ...
Citoxlab offers scientific expertise, combined with competitive prices, for inhalation toxicology testing for pharmaceuticals, chemicals and agrochemicals..
To help you understand the power of nitric oxide therapy, and how it benefits you, Ive updated my nitric oxide therapy videos on YouTube.
Global Nitric Oxide Therapy System Sales Market Research Report 2018(PharmaNewsWire.Com, January 13, 2018 ) Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of Nitric Oxide Therapy System Sales in t
[97 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Nitric Oxide Therapy System Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Nitric Oxide Therapy System...
In this video, Tokyo University researchers demonstrate the explicit interfaces between the human somatic niche and the technosphere by gently intriguing the viewer to broach the uncanny valley and reflect on the how anthropotechnics are not only anthropos using technics, but also technics using anthropos, exploring what consequences this could have on the entrainment of both human and non-human bodies.
Nitric oxide is a gas that is inhaled. It works by relaxing smooth muscle to widen (dilate) blood vessels, especially in the lungs. Nitric oxide is used together with a breathing machine (ventilator) to treat respiratory failure in premature babies. Your baby will receive this medication in a neonatal intensive care...
Inhaled nitric oxide, delivered to heart attack patients before and during treatment with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) did not reduce the extent of damaged tissue (infarct), but may have improved recovery, according to Hot Line results presented today at ESC Congress 2014.
This study explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn management in four approximately 20 minute long spontaneous multiparty conversations in Estonian. The main focus of interest is whether inhalation amplitude is greater before turn onset than in the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results show that inhalations directly before turn onset are greater in amplitude than those later in the turn. The difference seems to be realized by ending the inhalation at a greater lung volume value, whereas the initial lung volume before inhalation onset remains roughly the same across a single turn. The findings suggest that the increased inhalation amplitude could function as a cue for claiming the conversational floor.. ...
Littered ground: decaying leaves, cigarette butts, dislocated feathers. Unnoticed detritus pushed by each passing wheel further into the macadam, further from the notice of any passerby who may - many will, after all - fall also under the tread of the tire like so much extruding yellow paint. Ethnographer S. Løchlann Jain poetically examines how commodities and violence sustain one another in the technosphere.
A systematic review of randomised double-blind controlled trials of inhaled glucocorticosteroids in preschool children with multiple-trigger wheeze has shown significant improvements in important health outcomes, including symptoms, exacerbation rates, lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness 106. The treatment effect appears to be smaller than that seen in school-age children and adults. For example, studies of ICSs in preschool children with multiple-trigger wheeze have reported a reduction in exacerbations by ∼50% 107, 108. Compared to placebo, children using 200 μg·day−1 fluticasone exhibit a mean of 5% fewer days with symptoms 106.. The dose-response relationship of ICSs in preschool children is not entirely clear. Dose-related effects have been shown for exacerbation rate on treatment with daily ICS doses of up to 400 μg·day−1 beclometasone equivalent (or 200 μg·day−1 fluticasone) via pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with spacer (pMDI-S) 107, without any further ...
Chronic damage to pulmonary vessels leads to pulmonary hypertension (PH). Different forms of PH are quite frequent and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The treatment of PH is most successful, if its cause can be identified and removed before irreversible damage to the pulmonary vascular bed occurs. For patients, in whom the elimination of the underlying cause is not possible or where the cause is unknown, the treatment is aimed at reduction of pulmonary vascular resistance and improvement of cardiac and circulatory response to pressure overload of the right ventricle. One option for the PH treatment is modification of metabolism of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (GMP), which is the second messenger of nitric oxide and induces vascular vasodilation. Cyclic GMP is degraded by phosphodiesterases (PDE 5). In the clinical part, we tested the hypothesis that acute inhibition of PDE5 by sildenafil provides more selective pulmonary vasodilation than high doses of prostaglandin E1 ...
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The duration of inhalation procedures with pulmicort is from one to two weeks, depending on the severity of the disease, in consultation with the doctor. The initial positive effect is achieved after the first procedure, after 1-2 hours, but the complete relief of the exacerbation occurs no earlier than one week. Dosage of In order to obtain maximum exposure without side effects of the pulmicort drug for inhalations, the instruction provides precise dosages of the medication for the treatment of all age groups. It is necessary to follow not only these instructions, but also do not forget to disinfect the nebulizer, periodically processing the elements involved in the procedures, especially if the device is used by more than one family member. To remove the acute condition of an adult, 1-2 mg / day is used. Then 0.5-4 mg / day is used for further treatment. Calculation of the exact dosage is made by the attending physician depending on the course of the disease. If the condition does not improve, ...
SHREVEPORT - Researchers say there is still a long way to go in finding effective therapy treatments for COVID-19 patients, but say some initial findings could be promising.
Purchase your copy of PD CR 13903:2001 as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards available online in electronic and print formats.
Inhalation is an effective technique for the therapy of acute and chronic asthma. To make inhalation at home, you can buy a special device. But first, youd
|b|My 17 months old son has been suffering from recurrent fever, cough and cold. The doctor told me that he is having allergy and his bronchi have become inflamed.|/b| The doctor has suggested putting him on Budecort inhalation for nine months. Is it safe to take Budecort inhalation for such a long period of time? Will it hinder the normal functioning of the lungs? What are the side effects of Budecort inhalation? Is there any alternative therapy as treatment?
Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: ALNY), a leading RNAi therapeutics company, announced the presentation of results from its Phase I trial with ALN-RSV01 delivered via inhalation at the 18th Annual Drug Delivery to the Lungs meeting being held in Edinburgh, U.K. These data represent an important milestone in the companys efforts to advance ALN-RSV01 as an […]. ...
Find 435 user ratings and reviews for Symbicort Inhalation on WebMD including side effects and drug interactions, medication effectiveness, ease of use and satisfaction
This medicine is for inhalation through the mouth. Rinse your mouth with water after use. Make sure not to swallow the water. Follow the directions on your prescription label. Do not use more often than directed. Do not stop taking your medicine unless your doctor tells you to. Make sure that you are using your inhaler correctly. Ask you doctor or health care provider if you have any questions.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 4 years of age for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
Pre-dose FEV1 is defined as the average of the FEV1 15 minutes pre-dose and FEV1 45 minutes pre-dose. A mixed model was used with treatment as a fixed effect, average of 15 min and 45 min pre-dose FEV1 at visit 3 as the baseline measurement, and FEV1 prior to inhalation and FEV1 60 min post inhalation of two short acting bronchodialators as covariates. The model also included smoking status at baseline, history of ICS use and country as fixed effects with center nested within country as a random effect ...
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Patient information for ABRIFF 50 MICROGRAM / 5 MICROGRAM PER ACTUATION PRESSURISED INHALATION SUSPENSION Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
Restricted Access Oops, it looks like you dont have a valid subscription to this content. To gain full access to the content and functionality of the AdisInsight database try one of the following. ...
Find patient medical information for Asmanex Twisthaler Inhalation on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
The TD-300 device simplifies the dosing process for your patients, using a series of features designed to help with proper inhalation and administration of TYVASO®.
TY - CONF. T1 - Challenges & opportunities in oligonucleotide therapeutics inhalation. AU - Moschos, Sterghios. PY - 2011/11. Y1 - 2011/11. M3 - Other. T2 - 12th Annual EuroTIDES Conference. Y2 - 1 November 2011. ER - ...
EPL has expertise in the evaluation of respiratory tract tissues in animals exposed to chemicals and compounds via inhalation & other routes of exposure.
If you have questions or problems with My Account, please contact us.. Since 2007, Inhalation has been providing valuable information to people involved in development and production of pulmonary or nasal delivered pharmaceuticals. The archive of these in-depth features and cutting-edge technical articles is now available to you free of charge, allowing you access to years of information. Through the support of our Partners, this resource is now free and you may be contacted by our sponsors.. ...
If you have questions or problems with My Account, please contact us.. Since 2007, Inhalation has been providing valuable information to people involved in development and production of pulmonary or nasal delivered pharmaceuticals. The archive of these in-depth features and cutting-edge technical articles is now available to you free of charge, allowing you access to years of information. Through the support of our Partners, this resource is now free and you may be contacted by our sponsors.. ...
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This video shows the FinePointe software, how to create Studies, Groups, and Subject, starting Data Collection, and verifying the various...
Learn ICS active defense and incident response in ICS515, a SANS Institute training course for IT professionals in ICS/SCADA environments.
The Neonatal Research Network developed and initiated 3 multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating inhaled nitric oxide therapy. Additional projects evolved from these efforts including basic science research and observational investigations. This article provides a historical prospective of the Networks investigations related to the diagnosis and management of neonatal hypoxic respiratory failure, especially those related to inhaled nitric oxide therapy. It will review the Networks contributions toward advancing the clinical care of the newborn with severe hypoxic respiratory failure.
Absorption:Fluticasone Propionate:Healthy Subjects: Fluticasone propionate acts locally in the lung; therefore, plasma levels do not predict therapeutic effect. Studies using oral dosing of labeled and unlabeled drug have demonstrated that the oral systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate is negligible (,1%), primarily due to incomplete absorption and presystemic metabolism in the gut and liver. In contrast, the majority of the fluticasone propionate delivered to the lung is systemically absorbed.. Following administration of ADVAIR DISKUS to healthy adult subjects, peak plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate were achieved in 1 to 2 hours. In a single-dose crossover study, a higher-than-recommended dose of ADVAIR DISKUS was administered to 14 healthy adult subjects. Two (2) inhalations of the following treatments were administered: ADVAIR DISKUS 500/50, fluticasone propionate powder 500 mcg and salmeterol powder 50 mcg given concurrently, and fluticasone propionate powder 500 ...
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Flonase Allergy Relief ClariSpray Xhance (fluticasone. Pictures of Flonase (Fluticasone Propionate Nasal Spray), drug imprint information, side effects for the patient., Floair (Fluticasone Propionate 250mcg) Inhaler Product Information The most commonly reported side effects when taking Floair inhaler 250mcg. Usage, warnings, side effects, and community information for the prescription drug Fluticasone Flonase Allergy Relief: Fluticasone propionate belongs to the class of medications called corticosteroids. It is used to treat seasonal allergic rhinitis, including. PRODUCT MONOGRAPH . PrFLONASE® fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray USP . of another drug. Adverse drug reaction information from clinical trials is useful Table. Options for adjusting medicines in a written asthma †Increase only the fluticasone propionate dose easy-to-follow instructions in the person’s. Floair (Fluticasone Propionate 250mcg) Inhaler Product Information The most commonly reported side effects when ...
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Background: We previously showed that the long-acting beta agonist (LABA) salmeterol as inhalation powder or metered-dose inhaler improves lung-function parameters assessed by impulse oscillometry (IOS) in 2- to 5-year-old children with reversible-airway disease within 15 minutes. Objective: We studied 12- to 45-year-olds with mild persistent asthma in order to compare the onset and extent of peripheral airway effects following the first dose and after 4 weeks dosing with two inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/LABA combinations: fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 115/21 and budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5. Methods: Thirty subjects with mild persistent asthma using only an as-needed short-acting beta-agonist (albuterol) who had at least a 40% change in integrated low-frequency reactance postalbuterol were selected and randomized to receive either fluticasone propionate/salmeterol or budesonide/formoterol (15 subjects each). We collected three to six IOS replicates at baseline, at 5, 20, 40, 60, 120, and 240
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How is Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor abbreviated? VAIM stands for Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor. VAIM is defined as Vitalograph Aerosol Inhalation Monitor very rarely.
PULMICORT RESPULES is not a bronchodilator and should NOT be used to treat an acute asthma attack. If your child is switching to PULMICORT RESPULES from an oral corticosteroid, follow the doctors instructions to avoid serious health risks when your child stops using oral corticosteroids.. Only use PULMICORT RESPULES with a jet nebulizer machine that is connected to an air compressor. Do not use an ultrasonic nebulizer.. Thrush infection of the mouth and throat may occur with PULMICORT RESPULES.. Avoid exposure of your child to infections such as chicken pox and measles. Tell your doctor immediately if your child is exposed.. Inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth rate. The long-term effect on final adult height is unknown.. PULMICORT RESPULES should not be used if your child is allergic to budesonide or any of the ingredients.. Be sure to tell the healthcare provider about all your childs health conditions and all medicines he or she may be taking.. As with other inhaled ...
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Depending on the degree level earned and where the scientist is employed, Inhalation Toxicologists can earn starting salaries of $60,000-$70,000 and above. One of the themes of my posts in this series is there is a tremendous amount of flexibility and overlap in the Biomedical sciences. Upon receiving training in Inhalation Toxicology, scientists must then determine which sector they want to pursue - academia, the private or public sectors, or nontraditional careers. Scientists with this background also have the flexibility to combine their knowledge sets with other disciplines to go into a wide variety of areas in: pharmaceutical companies and biotechs, chemical companies, consulting, patent law and even starting their own companies and Contract labs.. Its worth reiterating something from my Toxicology blog post and that is theres an effort currently underway called Tox-21 or Toxicology for the 21st Century. One of the goals for Tox-21 is to minimize animal usage. Currently, there are ...
While we represent a product called ProArgi-9+, we still want to provide you with accurate information in the area of Nitric Oxide Therapy. As this emerging health supplement field continues to grow and expand, other companies have made claims about the effectiveness of their products. While there are some well developed formulations and valid pathways for the creation of nitric oxide, when we see information that is less than accurate well try to provide a balanced perspective so that you can make a decision that is best for you.. The L-Arginine Pathway versus The Nitrate/Nitrite Pathway for the Creation of Nitric Oxide. Here is one of the primary areas of dispute in the area of Nitric Oxide Therapy. Whether the L-Arginine Pathway or the Nitrate/Nitrite Pathway is a better pathway for the creation of nitric oxide. Both are valid pathways. And both have their inefficiencies.. The L-Arginine Pathway is short lived unless its combined with l-citrulline, which can extend the ability of the ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluticasone propionate plasma concentration and systemic effect. T2 - Effect of delivery device and duration of administration. AU - Whelan, Glenn J.. AU - Blumer, Jeffrey L.. AU - Martin, Richard J.. AU - Szefler, Stanley J.. AU - Chinchilli, Vernon. AU - Kraft, Monica. AU - Dolovich, Myrna. AU - Boushey, Homer A.. AU - Cherniack, Reuben M.. AU - Craig, Timothy. AU - Drazen, Jeffrey M.. AU - Fagan, Joanne K.. AU - Fahy, John V.. AU - Fish, James E.. AU - Ford, Jean G.. AU - Israel, Elliott. AU - Kunselman, Susan J.. AU - Lazarus, Stephen C.. AU - Lemanske, Robert F.. AU - Peters, Stephen P.. AU - Sorkness, Christine A.. AU - King, Tonya. AU - Mauger, Elizabeth. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - Background: Inhaled corticosteroids are the preferred therapy in persistent asthma. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) generate a larger particle size compared with metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), which affects pulmonary deposition, bioavailability, and subsequent systemic effects of fluticasone ...
Acute inhalation toxicity of chlorine in rats and mice: Time-concentration-mortality relationships and effects on respiration | A. Zwart; R.A. Woutersen | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
TY - JOUR. T1 - The ADMIT series - issues in inhalation therapy. 6) Training tools for inhalation devices. AU - ADMIT Working Group. AU - Lavorini, Federico. AU - Levy, Mark L. AU - Corrigan, Chris. AU - Crompton, Graham. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Inhaled medications are the preferred therapies for patients with asthma and COPD, but their effectiveness is limited by the patients ability to use the device properly, an issue often neglected when these medications are prescribed. Correct inhaler technique must be taught and learnt, and requires educational and motivational programs aimed at patients and healthcare providers alike. Written instructions alone are manifestly insufficient: education must include practical demonstration and periodic re-assessment and reeducation, since correct technique and motivation usually deteriorate with time. Several devices are available on the market, the purpose of which is to train patients to use inhalers correctly. They are often directed at particular ...
Title:Safety of Technosphere Inhaled Insulin. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Nasser Mikhail. Affiliation:OliveView-UCLA Medical Center, David-Geffen Medical School, Los Angeles, CA. Keywords:Affreza, insulin, hypoglycemia, safety, technoshere, TI.. Abstract:Background: Technoshere insulin (TI), Afrezza, is a form of short-acting human insulin taken by oral inhalation with meals. Methods: literature search (English, French, Spanish) of all human studies and pertinent animal and in-vitro studies related to technosphere insulin until September 2016 with special emphasis on its safety. Results: Compared to subcutaneous insulin aspart, TI is slightly less effective, the difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction being 0.19%. Use of TI is associated with lower risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain compared with insulin aspart. Apart from hypoglycemia, cough is the most common adverse effect of TI reported by 24-33% of patients. Cough induced by TI is mostly dry, occurs within 10 minutes after ...
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Exactly What Is Inhalation Therapy is on Rediff pages, Inhalation therapy is the application of inhaled agents to deal with respiratory illnesses and conditions. The objective of breathing in therapy, also called respiratory system therapy, should be to improve breathing and also lung function in...,Follow Exactly What Is Inhalation Therapy to get latest updates from Exactly What Is Inhalation Therapy
The combination of 2 long-acting bronchodilators, a β2-agonist (LABA), and an antimuscarinic agent (LAMA) in a single inhalation device, known as double bronchodilation,1 has changed therapeutic strategies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of this modality have placed it at the forefront of current COPD treatment recommendations, while inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are reserved as an alternative combined with double bronchodilation as a second treatment step in group C exacerbators or the more severe group D patients.2 In this context, the new GOLD 2017 strategy recommends the use of ICS in patients receiving double bronchodilation who continue presenting exacerbations. Consequently, there is a need to combine various drugs and inhalation devices to combine a LABA, a LAMA and an ICS to construct the so-called triple therapy using two inhalation devices.. Before the introduction of double bronchodilation, only 2 methods of administering ...
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The usual starting dosage for patients 2 to 12 years of age is 1.25 mg or 0.63 mg of albuterol sulfate inhalation solution administered 3 or 4 times daily, as needed, by nebulization. More frequent administration is not recommended.. To administer 1.25 mg or 0.63 mg of albuterol, use the entire contents of one unit-dose vial (3 mL of 1.25 mg or 0.63 mg inhalation solution) by nebulization. Adjust nebulizer flow rate to deliver albuterol sulfate inhalation solution over 5 to 15 minutes.. The use of albuterol sulfate inhalation solution can be continued as medically indicated to control recurring bouts of bronchospasm. During this time most patients gain optimum benefit from regular use of the inhalation solution.. Patients 6 to 12 years of age with more severe asthma (baseline FEV1 less than 60% predicted), weight , 40 kg, or patients 11 to 12 years of age may achieve a better initial response with the 1.25 mg dose.. Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution has not been studied in the setting of ...
First and Only Breath-Actuated Aerosol Inhaled Corticosteroid in the United States Designed to Help Eliminate the Need for Hand-Breath Coo, Teva Announces U.S. Launch of QVAR® RediHaler™ (Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA) Inhalation Aerosol
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Upon analysis, an inhalable elemental carbon mass concentration arithmetic mean of 10.6 μg/m3 (geometric mean 4.21 μg/m3) was found among workers exposed to MWCNT. The concentration equates to a deposited dose of approximately 4.07 μg/d in a human, equivalent to 2 ng/d in the mouse. For MWCNT inhalation, mice were exposed for 19 d with daily depositions of 1970 ng (equivalent to 1000 d of a human exposure; cumulative 76 yr), 197 ng (100 d; 7.6 yr), and 19.7 ng (10 d; 0.76 yr) and harvested at 0, 3, 28, and 84 d post-exposure to assess pulmonary toxicity. The high dose showed cytotoxicity and inflammation that persisted through 84 d after exposure. The middle dose had no polymorphonuclear cell influx with transient cytotoxicity. The low dose was associated with a low grade inflammatory response measured by changes in mRNA expression. Increased inflammatory proteins were present in the lavage fluid at the high and middle dose through 28 d post-exposure. Pathology, including epithelial ...
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T. Praveen Kumar*1, M. Indira Vani1, D. Yamini1, P. Narayana Raju1,G. Nagarjuna Reddy1. Department of Pharmaceutics, K. L. R Pharmacy College,Paloncha, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India.. ABSTRACT. Pulmonary drug delivery has gained tremendous scientific interest in recent years and has progressed within the context of treatment for lung diseases. Lung is an attractive environment for bio molecules, which are highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract as well as hepatic degradation. Pulmonary route is a non-invasive administration for systemic delivery of therapeutic agents (mainly peptides and proteins). Lungs provide a large absorptive surface area but extremely thin (0.1 μm †0.2 μm) absorptive mucosal membrane and good blood supply. Intra tracheal administration is a first approach in lung drug delivery in vivo. In inhalation therapy most common devices used were nebulizer, Metered dose inhaler (MDI), and Dry powder inhaler (DPI). Pulmonary drug ...
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Mild and Severe Asthma May Be 2 Diseases The authors of a study reported recently in the European Respiratory Journal have concluded that severe asthma and mild asthma may be different conditions with different inflammatory processes. The study, conducted by scientists across Europe, evaluated 321 patients, 158 with mild-to-moderate asthma and 163 with severe asthma. The results of the study showed that both groups had very different levels of key chemicals in their blood. Also, whereas more men suffered from asthma, women were 4 times as likely to suffer from severe asthma. Individuals with mild-to-moderate asthma were able to control their symptoms with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Very few with severe asthma, however, were able to have their symptoms treated despite being treated with heavier doses of drugs. ...
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Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 30 October 2019.. *^ "FDA approves first generic Advair Diskus". U.S. Food and Drug ... "Fluticasone and Salmeterol inhalation - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses". Drugs.com. Retrieved 4 March 2019. ... Administration.. *^ "GlaxoSmithKline to Plead Guilty and Pay $3 Billion to Resolve Fraud Allegations and Failure to Report ...
administration. Inhalation. ATC code. *R03AK04 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S3 (Pharmacist only) ...
Ipratropium Oral Inhalation Archived 2012-09-02 at the Wayback Machine. PubMed Health Retrieved May 28, 2012 ... For oral administration, contraindications are similar to other anticholinergics; they include narrow angle glaucoma and ... Inhaled ipratropium does not decrease mucociliary clearance.[10] The inhalation itself can cause headache and irritation of the ... Ipratropium is administered by inhalation for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma ...
administration. Nasal inhalation. ATC code. *R01AD13 (WHO) R03BA08 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription ... The drug was approved for adults and children 12 and over by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2006.[4] ...
On 30 March 1842, he administered diethyl ether by inhalation to a man named James Venable, in order to remove a tumor from the ... The increased application of economic and business administration principles to health care in the late 20th and early 21st ... reprinted in Long, C. W. (December 1991). "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anaesthetic in ... Long CW (December 1849). "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anaesthetic in Surgical Operations ...
Other devices invented by Magill include the Magill laryngoscope blade, as well as several apparati for the administration of ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)55592-5. Magill, I (1921). "Warming ether vapour for Inhalation". The Lancet. 197 (5102): 1270. doi: ... Until 1913, oral and maxillofacial surgery was performed by mask inhalation anesthesia, topical application of local ... 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)24908-3. Magill, I (1923). "An apparatus for the administration of nitrous oxide, oxygen, and ether". The ...
Airway obstruction is also common in people who have suffered smoke inhalation or burns within or near the airway or ... They may also be used as a route for administration of certain medications such as bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)24908-3. Magill, I (1923). "An apparatus for the administration of nitrous oxide, oxygen, and ether ... Because it is an invasive and uncomfortable medical procedure, intubation is usually performed after administration of general ...
administration. IV, IM, inhalation. ATC code. *P01CX01 (WHO) QP51AF02 (WHO). Legal status. ... "Pentamidine (Oral Inhalation) (Professional Patient Advice) - Drugs.com". www.drugs.com. Archived from the original on 2016-11- ... Respiratory: Cough and bronchospasm, most frequently seen with inhalation.[9]. *Skin: Severe local reactions after ... Pentamidine is classified as an orphan drug by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration[13] ...
It is used by inhalation through the mouth.[2] Onset typically begins within half an hour and lasts for 24 hours.[2] ... administration. Inhalation by mouth. ATC code. *R03BB04 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription only) ...
administration. Inhalation, nasal, topical. ATC code. *A07EA07 (WHO) D07AC15 (WHO), R01AD01 (WHO), R03BA01 (WHO) ... Occasionally, it may cause a cough upon inhalation. Deposition on the tongue and throat may promote oral candidiasis, which ...
D (Injection, Inhalation); B (Ophthalmic) (US). Routes of. administration. IV, IM, inhalation, ophthalmic. ...
On 24 March 2015 it was granted approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use in treating inhalation ... "FDA approves treatment for inhalation anthrax". United States Food and Drug Administration. 25 March 2015. "Anthrasil Approval ...
Testosterone has been studied by inhalation. Testosterone can be used by intranasal administration (e.g., brand name Natesto). ... Rectal administration of testosterone avoids the first-pass effect with oral administration similarly to other non-oral routes ... As a result, it requires administration several times per day in divided doses. Due to its limitations, such as the high doses ... Oral testosterone undecanoate is provided as 40 mg oil-filled capsules and requires administration 2 to 4 times per day (i.e., ...
administration. By mouth, injection, inhalation. ATC code. *R05CB01 (WHO) S01XA08 (WHO) V03AB23 (WHO) ... Hence administration of acetylcysteine replenishes glutathione stores.[45] *Glutathione, along with oxidized glutathione (GSSG ... Solution for inhalation (Assist, Mucomyst, Mucosil) - inhaled for mucolytic therapy. *Intravenous injection (Assist, Parvolex, ... The IV injection and inhalation preparations are, in general, prescription only, whereas the oral solution and the effervescent ...
Inhalation by smoking a substance is likely the most rapid way to deliver drugs to the brain, as the substance travels directly ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes. *nasal administration (through the nose) can be ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ' ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ...
administration. Oral (tablets, syrup), inhalation (DPI). ATC code. *R03AC16 (WHO) R03CC08 (WHO) ... The drug is readily oxidized in the presence of moisture and air, making it unsuitable for therapeutic use by inhalation.[1] ...
"FAA Registry (N999LJ)". Federal Aviation Administration. "Crew in crash died of burns, smoke inhalation". TODAY.com. NBC News ... The pilot and co-pilot died from smoke inhalation and burns minutes after the crash. Passengers Still, Jr. and Baker died upon ... According to the Federal Aviation Administration, air traffic controllers saw sparks emanating from the plane. The pilots told ...
A portable administration set will comprise a portable high-pressure oxygen cylinder containing sufficient gas for the expected ... Kudrow M.D., Lee (January 1981). "Response of Cluster Headache Attacks to Oxygen Inhalation". Headache. 21 (1): 1-4. doi: ... Sorrell, Lana; Bird, Nick (Fall 2012). "Tips for Better Oxygen Administration". Alert Diver. Retrieved 17 January 2019. ...
Nasal insufflation is the most common method of nasal administration. Other methods are nasal inhalation and nasal instillation ... parenteral administration routes, such as Intramuscular, Intradermal, or Subcutaneous injection. While nasal administration has ... However, the insufflation by the pump is not adequate for delivery to the lungs, necessitating an active inhalation by the ... Insufflation has many medical uses, most notably as a route of administration for various drugs. Gases are often insufflated ...
"FAA Registry (N999LJ)". Federal Aviation Administration. "Crew in crash died of burns, smoke inhalation". 22 September 2008. ... "FAA Registry (N47A)". Federal Aviation Administration. National Transportation Safety Board. MIA71AM076 "FAA Registry (N711FC ... Federal Aviation Administration. National Transportation Safety Board. MIA74AM049. " ...
After a puff, inhalation of the aerosol travels from the device into the mouth and lungs. The composition of e-liquids varies ... Many of the samples tested by the states or by the US Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) as part of the 2019 investigation ... Long-term inhalation of propylene glycol indoors could increase risk to children to develop asthma. To lessen the risks, most e ... Passive inhalation of vapor might have significant adverse effects. Though, e-cigarettes exposes non-users to nicotine but not ...
"Drug Approval Package: Tyvaso (Treprostinil) Inhalation Solution NDA #022387". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 24 ... Patients use one ampule with inhalation solution a day, four times a day at least four hours apart. The oral form of ... Common side effects depending on route of administration: 85% of patients report pain or other reaction at the infusion site. ... Treprostinil, sold under the brand names Remodulin for infusion, Orenitram for oral, and Tyvaso for inhalation, is a ...
"Incruse Ellipta (umeclidinium inhalation powder) for Oral Inhalation Use. Full Prescribing Information" (PDF). GlaxoSmithKline ... it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the trade name Arcapta Neohaler on July 1, 2011) olodaterol: ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Feb 2010. Archived from the original on 2017-11-02. Retrieved 2019-12-16. Based on the ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2011-07-01. Archived from the original on 2011-07-03. Retrieved 2011-07-02. CS1 maint: ...
doi:10.1001/jama.1890.02410440006001a. Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation ... Early inhalation devices included one devised by John Mudge in 1778. It had a pewter mug with a hole allowing attachment of a ... 2004). Pharmaceutical Inhalation Aerosol Technology (2nd ed.). NY: Marcel Dekker. Navaie, Maryam; Dembek, Carole; Cho-Reyes, ... Upon pressing a button, the inhaler creates a mist of medication, allowing for inhalation into the lungs. SMIs suspend inhaled ...
... and via inhalation by smoking, vaporization and insufflation ("snorting"). The efficiency of each method of administration ... History of the Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved at FDA's website Archived 2009-01-19 at the Wayback Machine on June 23, ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authority over all drugs, including psychoactive drugs. The ... United States Food and Drug Administration. CDER Data Standards Manual Archived 2006-01-03 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on ...
Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". Abbott Park, Illinois: ... Supervised self-administration of methoxyflurane in children and adults can briefly lead to deep sedation, and it has been used ... Tomlin PJ, Jones BC, Edwards R, Robin PE (1973). "Subjective and objective sensory responses to inhalation of nitrous oxide and ... Pain relief begins after 6-8 breaths and continues for several minutes after stopping inhalation. The maximum recommended dose ...
108-9. ISBN 978-0-8036-1559-5. Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation ... Providers must always observe the first administration of any PCA medication which has not already been administered by the ... These are popular for administration of opioids such as fentanyl, or local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Iontocaine is one ... The most common form of patient-controlled analgesia is self-administration of oral over-the-counter or prescription ...
administration. Inhalation (capsules for oral inhalation, DPI, MDI). ATC code. *R03AC13 (WHO) ... Perforomist inhalation solution (Mylan N.V.). Uses and combinations[edit]. *Arformoterol ((R,R)-(−)-formoterol) - an ... It is marketed in three forms: a dry-powder inhaler (DPI), a metered-dose inhaler (MDI) and an inhalation solution, under ... In November 2005, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) released a health advisory alerting the public to findings that ...
"Maxair Autohaler (pirbuterol acetate inhalation aerosol) For Oral Inhalation Only. U.S. Full Prescribing Information". 3M ... The plasma half-life measured after oral administration is about two hours. Fischer J, Ganellin CR (2006). Analogue-based Drug ... After inhalation of doses up to 800 μg (twice the maximum recommended dose) systemic blood levels of pirbuterol are below the ... of the dose is recovered in urine as pirbuterol plus its sulfate conjugate following administration by aerosol. Pirbuterol is ...
administration. Medical: Inhalation (nasal). Recreational: Oral, intravenous, insufflation, inhalation, suppository. Legal ... "United States Food and Drug Administration. April 2015. Archived from the original on 18 September 2015. Retrieved 7 March 2016 ... In a study of psychoactive effects of levomethamphetamine, the intravenous administration of 0.5 mg/kg (but not 0.25 mg/kg) in ... The study did not test the oral administration of levomethamphetamine. As of 2006, there were no studies demonstrating "drug ...
Where it is associated with inhalation steroids (often used for treatment of asthma), erythematous candidiasis commonly appears ... depending on the route of administration. Topically administered corticosteroids in the mouth may take the form of mouthwashes ...
... of air[edit]. Inhalation of air, as part of the cycle of breathing, is a vital process for all human life. As such, ... Examples of accidental inhalation includes inhalation of water (e.g. in drowning), smoke, food, vomitus and less common foreign ... Inhalation begins with the contraction of the muscles attached to the rib cage; this causes an expansion in the chest cavity. ... Inhalation (also known as inspiration) happens when air or other gases enter the lungs. ...
"Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). August 22, 2008. Archived from the original on July 10, ... and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of about 50 miles (80 km), concerned ...
Inhalation of tiny particles of infectious material (aerosol) is believed to be the most significant means of exposure. It is ... After extensive testing, early administration was determined to be critical to success. Additionally, ribavirin is almost twice ...
Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). NTIS #NP-21727.. *^ Swedish Motor Fuel Technology Co. (1986). Alcohols ... Inhalation risk is mitigated by a characteristic pungent odor. At concentrations greater than 2,000 ppm (0.2%) it is generally ...
Routes of administration *Alcohol enema. *Alcohol inhalation. *Sconcing. *Surrogate alcohol. *Related issues *Balconing ...
Other feasible routes of administration could be inhalation and perhaps to a lesser extent oral - swallowing can be difficult ... 1995) Toxic gas inhalation. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1:102-8. Clark WR Jr. (1992) Smoke inhalation: diagnosis and treatment. World J ... Smoke inhalation injury, either by itself but more so in the presence of body surface burn, can result in severe lung-induced ... Inhalation of high doses of this gas causes lesions in the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi with inflammatory reactions and ...
For patients who cannot use a continuous positive airway pressure device, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2014 granted ... a higher one during inhalation and a lower pressure during exhalation. This system is more expensive, and is sometimes used ... FDA "Premarket Approval (PMA) Inspire II Upper Airway Stimulation System" U.S. Food and Drug Administration. April 30, 2014. ... in OSA the chest not only continues to make the movements of inhalation, but the movements typically become even more ...
"Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update - Energy Information Administration". Archived from the original on 2001-08-15.. ... Inhalation of such particles may cause or worsen respiratory diseases, such as emphysema or bronchitis, or may also aggravate ... U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety & Health Administration: Safety and Health Topics: Diesel Exhaust ...
Today, the US Food and Drug Administration and the agriculture industry closely monitor mold and mycotoxin levels in grains and ... Routes of entry for these insults can include ingestion, dermal exposure and inhalation. ...
US Food and Drug Administration. September 2004. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. *^ "Sativex Oromucosal Spray - Summary of Product ... 10-35% (inhalation), 6-20% (oral)[3]. Protein binding. 97-99%[3][4][5]. ... "US Drug Enforcement Administration, Department of Justice. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2018.. ... such as in the United States where the National Institute on Drug Abuse and Drug Enforcement Administration continue to control ...
a b c U.S. Food and Drug Administration: "Listing of Food Additives Status Part I". Archived from the original on January 17, ... The thinking is that inhalation of smoke causes oxidative damage, depleting this antioxidant vitamin.[3][61] The U.S. Institute ... With oral administration absorption efficiency decreases as amounts increase. Intravenous administration bypasses this.[41] ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration: "Listing of Food Additives Status Part II". Retrieved October 27, 2011.. ...
Administration is the process by which a patient takes a medicine. There are three major categories of drug administration; ... inhalation, and rectal means).[9] ... There are many variations in the routes of administration, ... require special handling during administration, require patient monitoring during and immediately after administration, have ... In the U.S., the Elixir Sulfanilamide disaster led to the establishment of the Food and Drug Administration, and the 1938 ...
Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration: 0.04% for drivers of a commercial vehicle requiring a commercial driver's license[ ... Routes of administration *Alcohol enema. *Alcohol inhalation. *Sconcing. *Surrogate alcohol. *Related issues *Balconing ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 8 September 2019.. *^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Common food allergens". Health ... Inhalation exposure[edit]. Allergic reactions to airborne particles or vapors of known food allergens have been reported as an ... James JM, Crespo JF (2007). "Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation". Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 7 (3): 167-174. doi:10.1007/ ... 2014). "Allergic reactions to foods by inhalation in children". Allergy Asthma Proc. 35 (4): 288-294. doi:10.2500/aap.2014.35. ...
Oxygen helmets are used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for oxygen administration.[1] They are transparent, lightweight plastic ... Anesthesia masks are face masks that are designed to administer anesthetic gases to a patient through inhalation. Anesthesia ... Oxygen helmets are often preferred for oxygen administration in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for children and patients that are ... Inner view of a military aviators mask showing face seal, facepiece and inhalation valves ...
Roehrs, T., Papineau, B.A., Rosenthal, L., Roth, T. Ethanol as a hypnotic in insomniacs: self administration and effects on ... Routes of administration *Alcohol enema. *Alcohol inhalation. *Sconcing. *Surrogate alcohol. *Related issues *Balconing ...
"Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2007-09-06. Retrieved 2007-10-01.. ... Some of these new delivery systems include skin patches, aerosols given through inhalation devices, and eating genetically ...
"U.S Energy Information Administration website. U.S Energy Information Administration. 12 August 2016. Archived from the ... Inhalation for intoxication[edit]. Inhaled (huffed) gasoline vapor is a common intoxicant. Users concentrate and inhale ... "Energy Information Administration". www.eia.gov. Archived from the original on 15 December 2015.. ... "U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA). Archived from the original on 27 October 2013.. This article incorporates text ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-04-10. Retrieved 2008-10-12.. ...
Inhalation, as in aromatherapy, can be used as a treatment.[36][37][38] ... In the United States, herbal remedies are regulated dietary supplements by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under current ... found in 2014 that almost 20 per cent of herbal remedies surveyed were not registered with the Therapeutic Goods Administration ...
Inhalation of bleach fumes can damage the lungs. Personal protective equipment should always be used when using bleach. Bleach ... Food and Drug Administration (12 August 2019). "FDA warns consumers about the dangerous and potentially life threading side ... indicate that the bleach use may be a source that could be important in terms of inhalation exposure to these compounds. While ...
United States Food and Drug Administration. June 2013. p. 11. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 7 ... while inhalation may be associated with increased lower respiratory tract infection, lung cancer, and pathological restricting ... United States Food and Drug Administration. June 2013. pp. 4-8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 7 ... United States Food and Drug Administration. March 2007. p. 5. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 September 2013. Retrieved ...
... inhalation of alcohol or the vapour of alcohol-containing cleaning agents. ...
... it does not correct hyponatremia as rapidly as administration of hypertonic saline does. Due to hypertonicity, administration ... Inhalation of hypertonic saline has also been shown to help in other respiratory problems, specifically bronchiolitis.[23] ... Water privation combined with diuretic block does not produce as much risk of CPM as saline administration does; however, ... after either ophthalmic or intravenous administration.[20] However, ophthalmic use is done with sterile filtered drugs that is ...
Transmission occurred through inhalation of airborne Variola virus, usually droplets expressed from the oral, nasal, or ... In July 2018, the Food and Drug Administration approved tecovirimat, the first drug approved for treatment of smallpox.[60] ...
In October 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued new methods for the analysis of melamine and cyanuric acid ... via inhalation), compared to 6.0 and 4.3 g/kg for melamine and 7.7 and 3.4 g/kg for cyanuric acid, respectively. ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 25 April 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-09.. ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scientists explained that when melamine and cyanuric acid are absorbed into the bloodstream ...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). *Nautical Archaeology Society. *Universal Referral Program ...
TI inhalation powder administered via the MedTone inhaler was uniformly distributed throughout the lungs; ~40% of the initial ... Insulin lung deposition and clearance following Technosphere® insulin inhalation powder administration Pharm Res. 2011 Sep;28(9 ... after administration of TI inhalation powder and assay of the recovered fluid for FDKP and insulin. ... Results: Following inhalation, ~60% of radioactivity (adsorbed on TI) emitted from the inhaler was delivered to the lungs; the ...
Approval of Raxibacumab for the Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax Under the US Food and Drug Administration "Animal Rule".. Tsai ...
Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration. ... Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration. Toxicology ... or intravenous administration (5, 20, and 100 mg/kg). [1,2,3-(13)C]1-BrP and [1-(14)C]1-BrP were administered to enable ... and tissues were collected for up to 48 h post-administration for determination of radioactivity distribution. Rats and mice ...
Acetylcysteine Solution will be available in the coming weeks as a 20% concentration for inhalation or oral administration in ...
COVID-19 - Administration of the SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody DZIF-10c (Inhalation). The safety and scientific ... A Phase 1/2a Trial of the Inhaled Administration of the SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody DZIF-10c in SARS-CoV-2- ... A Phase 1/2a Trial of the Inhaled Administration of the SARS-CoV-2-Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibody DZIF-10c in SARS-CoV-2- ... Any vaccination within 14 days prior to DZIF-10c administration.. *Receipt of any SARS-CoV-2 vaccine or SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal ...
Also disclosed is an inhalation method of administration of the formulation without the use of heat greater than 50°C. ... sublingual administration, smoked, vaporized inhalation delivery, or topical administration of said cannabinoid acid, alone or ... Also disclosed is an inhalation method of administration of the formulation without the use of heat greater than 50°C. ... In addition, oral ingestion modes of administration, including sublingual administration, require significant doses in order to ...
Other: Corticosteroids inhalation Flixotide inhalation followed by Qvar inhalation through a nasal filter and a mouth filter ... Other: Corticosteroids inhalation Qvar inhalation followed by Flixotide inhalation through a nasal filter and a mouth filter ... Ex Vivo Pilot Study of the Impact of Nasal Breathing During the Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids by Inhalation Chamber ... Ex Vivo Pilot Study of the Impact of Nasal Breathing During the Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids by Inhalation Chamber ...
MRTih (Mean residence time of the analyte in the body after inhalation) [ Time Frame: up to 48 hours after drug administration ... this objective was extended to the second spray-dried inhalation formulation SD II with and without concomitant administration ... tolerability and pharmacokinetics of BIBN 4096 BS after single inhalation administration of rising doses of spray-dried powder ... Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Spray Dried BIBN 4096 BS After Inhalation Administration in Healthy Male and Female ...
... delivering an inhalation powder to help improve lung function (FEV₁) for patients with COPD. Please visit website for Important ... Using SPIRIVA® HANDIHALER® (tiotropium bromide inhalation powder). Once-daily dosing in 4 simple steps1. *. Open the HANDIHALER ... SPIRIVA capsules should not be swallowed and should only be inhaled through the mouth (oral inhalation) using the HANDIHALER ... SPIRIVA capsules should not be swallowed and should only be inhaled through the mouth (oral inhalation) using the HANDIHALER ...
Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective analgesia during the administration of tumescent local anaesthesia for ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Cayston(R) (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) for the Improvement of Respiratory ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Cayston(R) (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) for the Improvement of Respiratory ... Cayston is administered by inhalation using the Altera Nebulizer System, an inhalation delivery device optimized specifically ... Cayston (aztreonam for inhalation solution) 75 mg is an inhaled antibiotic for patients with cystic fibrosis who have P. ...
T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Welcome to the ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Pang, Fei Victor ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. ... Inhalation exposure to T-2 toxin caused vomiting, cyanosis, anorexia, lethargy, lateral recumbency and even death. Elevated ...
... Author: Yamaguchi, KT; Taira, MT; ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen.. Show full item record ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen. J. Hyperbaric Med 1990; 5(2):103-109.. ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen.. Rubicon Research Repository/Manakin ...
Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the inhalation route of drug administration ... Inhalation Objectives: 1. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the inhalation route of drug administration  ... Inhalation Objectives 1 2 Understand the advantages and disadvantages of the inhalation route of drug administration Advantages ... Understand the barriers to drug administration via the inhalation route  Airway architecture o Divided into 3 areas - ...
Oral Inhalation). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Administration. Asmanex HFA: Metered-dose inhaler: Shake well prior to each inhalation. Administer as 2 inhalations twice daily ... Maximum daily dose: 440 mcg/day; may be administered as 1 inhalation twice daily or 2 inhalations once daily in the evening ... Children 4 to 11 years (regardless of prior therapy): Note: Use 110 mcg inhaler: Oral inhalation (110 mcg/inhalation): Initial ...
Oral Inhalation). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Administration. Inhalation: For oral inhalation only.. Dry powder inhaler (capsule): Do not swallow capsules. Administer at the ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Inhalation:. Dry powder inhaler (capsule): One capsule (15.6 mcg) inhaled twice ... Ipratropium (Oral Inhalation): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination ...
Albuterol Sulfate Inhalation Aerosol) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, ... More frequent administration or a larger number of inhalations is not recommended. In some patients, one inhalation every 4 ... A single dose administration of PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol (180 mcg albuterol base) yielded a least square mean (SE) Cmax ... Administration Information. Administer PROAIR HFA by oral inhalation only. Shake well before each spray. To maintain proper use ...
Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling ... Long-term studies were conducted in mice using oral administration and rats using inhalation administration to evaluate the ... Instructions For Administration. It is important that patients understand how to use BROVANA Inhalation Solution with a ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. The recommended dose of BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is one 15 mcg unitdose ...
Long-term studies were conducted in mice using oral administration and rats using inhalation administration to evaluate the ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. The recommended dose of BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution for COPD patients is 15 ... arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution IMPORTANT USE INFORMATION * BROVANA is for use with a standard jet nebulizer machine ... when arformoterol 15 mcg inhalation solution and 12 and 24 mcg formoterol fumarate inhalation powder (Foradil® Aerolizer™) was ...
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION The recommended dose of YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution is one 175 mcg unit‑dose vial ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION For oral inhalation use only. Do not swallow YUPELRI. ... YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution, for oral inhalation Initial U.S. Approval: 2018 ... 2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION 3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS 4 CONTRAINDICATIONS 5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS 5.1 Deterioration of ...
Read more about the prescription drug ALBUTEROL (SALBUTAMOL) PRE-MIXED SOLUTION - INHALATION. ... INHALATION (Proventil, Ventolin), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... GENERIC NAME: ALBUTEROL (SALBUTAMOL) PRE-MIXED SOLUTION - INHALATION (al-BUE-ter-ol/sal-BUE-ta-mol). BRAND NAME(S): Proventil, ...
Read more about the prescription drug ALBUTEROL PEDIATRIC PRE-MIXED SOLUTION - INHALATION. ... INHALATION (AccuNeb), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... Top albuterol pediatric-inhalation pre-mixed solution Related Articles. *. Asthma Slideshow. What is asthma? Learn about asthma ...
Read more about the prescription drug LEVALBUTEROL PRE-MIXED SOLUTION - INHALATION. ... INHALATION (Xopenex), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... See more info: levalbuterol-inhalation solution on RxList. Selected from data included with permission and copyrighted by First ...
Drug administration. Reversibility of AO was induced by administering two puffs of salbutamol (Ventoline®, 100 µg·puff−1) ... Effects of deep inhalation. The decrease in Rrs after DI in group 1 was found to be significant in inspiration but not in ... Time course of a) respiratory resistance (Rrs) and b) tidal volume (VT) during a deep inhalation (DI) in an asthmatic child ... Time course of a) respiratory resistance (Rrs) and b) tidal volume (VT) during a deep inhalation (DI) in an asthmatic child ...
In the United States, 2 nebulizable controller asthma medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration are available ... BIS (budesonide inhalation suspension), (n = 161); CSNS (cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution), (n = 148). *P ≤ .001 versus CSNS. ... Once-daily budesonide inhalation suspension for the treatment of persistent asthma in infants and young children. Ann Allergy ... Conclusions. Budesonide inhalation suspension improved the quality of life for caregivers of children with asthma. Caregivers ...
Smart parenteral administration system. US9108211. Apr 17, 2006. Aug 18, 2015. Nektar Therapeutics. Vibration systems and ... Dry powder inhalation device. WO1990013328A1 *. Apr 30, 1990. Nov 15, 1990. Riker Laboratories, Inc.. Dry powder inhalation ... Blister pack for use with an inhalation device. US20060130829 *. Dec 20, 2004. Jun 22, 2006. Sexton Douglas A. Inhalation ... The present invention relates generally to the field of inhalation devices, and more specifically, to inhalation devices that ...
Woelfel, J. A. (2005). Oral administration of capsules for inhalation. Pharmacists Letter & Prescribers Letter, 21(6), 1-2. ...
An inhalation device is described for use with a medicament pack in which at least one container for medicament in powder form ... Method for the administration of an anticholinergic by inhalation. US8066002. Dec 19, 2005. Nov 29, 2011. Glaxo Group Limited. ... Method for the administration of an anticholinergic by inhalation. US20040035420 *. Jun 5, 2001. Feb 26, 2004. Davies Michael ... Dry powder inhalation device. WO1990013328A1 *. Apr 30, 1990. Nov 15, 1990. Riker Laboratories, Inc.. Dry powder inhalation ...
Grotenhermen F (June 2001). "Harm Reduction Associated with Inhalation and Oral Administration of Cannabis and THC". Journal of ... A vaporizer or vaporiser, colloquially known as a vape, is a device used to vaporize substances for inhalation. Plant ... Regulated US Food and Drug Administration nicotine replacement products may be safer than e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes are ... September 2008). "Effect of intrapulmonary tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 22 (7 ...
Photo/Todd Jordan, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. *1) The worker peers down an open hatch of the oil tank. 2) ... Hydrocarbon poisoning due to inhalation of petroleum vapors. 3. 2013. 39. North Dakota. Truck driver. Collecting sample. On ... A fatal case considered to be due to cardiac arrhythmia associated with butane inhalation. Leg Med (Tokyo) 2002;4:134-8. ... Sudden deaths caused by inhalation of hydrocarbon gases and vapors and oxygen deficiency among oil and gas extraction workers ...
  • In this study, the factors influencing the disposition and biotransformation of 1-BrP were examined in male F344 rats and B6C3F1 mice following inhalation exposure (800 ppm) or intravenous administration (5, 20, and 100 mg/kg). (rti.org)
  • After inhalation exposure, the uptake to various tissues was very rapid. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Very little information is available on the health effects in humans or experimental animals after inhalation exposure to methyl mercaptan. (cdc.gov)
  • however, it is assumed that both inhalation and dermal exposure were probably involved. (cdc.gov)
  • The airways and lungs receive continuous first-pass exposure to non-toxic and irritant or toxic gases via inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because chlorine is a gas at room temperature, most exposure occurs via inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOSTER CITY, Calif., Feb 22, 2010 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq:GILD) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted marketing approval for Cayston(R)(aztreonam for inhalation solution) as a treatment to improve respiratory symptoms in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). (gilead.com)
  • The effect of deep inhalation (DI) may be of particular relevance to the study of respiratory function in subjects with diseased airways, as it may provide indications relative to the mechanisms of airway obstruction (AO) 1 , 2 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Until recently, the polymyxin class was mainly used via inhalation to treat high-density respiratory tract colonization due to MDR P. aeruginosa in patients with cystic fibrosis since this class was thought to be unacceptably toxic when administered parenterally. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Strategies to reduce respiratory and other adverse events resulting from this common practice include relinquishment of inhalation and replacement by other routes of administration, the use of plants with a high THC content allowing reduction of the amount of smoked plant material, usage of inhalation devices that improve the ratio of THC and tar, and avoidance of the Valsalva maneuver that may cause spontaneous pneumothorax. (cannabis-med.org)
  • Inhalation of irritants such as exhaust fumes from automobiles, tobacco smoke, etc., frequent occurrence of respiratory infections, and coming in contact with allergens can trigger the longer episodes of asthma. (mysmartrend.com)
  • Irritant gases are those that, on inhalation, dissolve in the water of the respiratory tract mucosa and provoke an inflammatory response, usually from the release of acidic or alkaline radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The active ingredient of ProAir HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol is albuterol sulfate, a racemic salt, of albuterol. (rxlist.com)
  • ProAir HFA Inhalation Aerosol is a pressurized metered-dose aerosol unit with a dose counter. (rxlist.com)
  • PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol is indicated for the treatment or prevention of bronchospasm in patients 4 years of age and older with reversible obstructive airway disease. (rxlist.com)
  • PROAIR HFA Inhalation Aerosol is indicated for the prevention of exercise-induced bronchospasm in patients 4 years of age and older. (rxlist.com)
  • Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol is a metered-dose aerosol unit containing a microcrystalline suspension of triamcinolone acetonide in the propellant dichlorodifluoromethane and dehydrated alcohol USP 1% w/w. (xlibx.info)
  • There are at least 240 actuations in one Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol canister. (xlibx.info)
  • While improvement in asthma may occur as soon as one week after initiation of Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol therapy, maximum improvement may not be achieved for 2 weeks or longer. (xlibx.info)
  • In a kit aspect of the present invention, a kit for delivering an opioid through an inhalation route is provided which comprises: a) a thin layer of an opioid and b) a device for dispensing said thin layer as a condensation aerosol. (google.ca)
  • capturing the aerosol in a chamber suitable for subsequent inhalation by the patient. (google.com.au)
  • Deposition and distribution of (99m)pertechnetate adsorbed onto TI immediately after administration using the MedTone® inhaler was quantified by gamma-scintigraphy. (nih.gov)
  • avoiding or substantially reducing psychotropic effects of cannabinoid non-acid forms comprising administering at least one cannabinoid acid compound, optionally together with another cannabinoid in a formulation of claim 1 via a metered dose inhaler system wherein said effective amount of said cannabinoid acid is substantially reduced compared to oral ingestion, smoked, vaporized inhalation delivery, or topical administration of said cannabinoid acid, alone or optionally with said additional cannabinoid respectively. (sumobrain.com)
  • Inhalation powder: Inhaler containing a foil blister strip of powder formulation for oral inhalation. (gsksource.com)
  • Inhalation powder: Disposable light grey and light green plastic inhaler containing a foil blister strip of powder intended for oral inhalation only. (gsksource.com)
  • Notify health care professional immediately if symptoms get worse or more inhalations than usual are needed from rescue inhaler. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The recommended dose is the inhalation of the content of one capsule once daily using the Seebri Breezhaler inhaler. (medicines.org.uk)
  • Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective analgesia during the administration of tumescent local anaesthesia for endovenous laser ablation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen. (rubicon-foundation.org)
  • Administration of oxygen may be needed. (ilo.org)
  • There are a number of procedures that patients undergo without appropriate analgesia, even though the means to provide adequate pain relief has been available for many years by the administration of a mixture of nitrous oxide and oxygen. (worldwidewounds.com)
  • It is combined with oxygen and incrementally increasing doses of a more potent inhalational anesthetic (eg, sevoflurane) and delivered via mask inhalation. (medscape.com)
  • Aim: The purpose of our study was to compare the efficacy of nitrous oxide and oxygen inhalation sedation for pain control during inferior alveolar nerve block administration in children. (journalcra.com)
  • and oxygen inhalation was started. (cdc.gov)
  • From injection techniques for local anesthesia to conscious sedation either enteral (oral), Parenteral (IV) or inhalation (Nitrous oxide/oxygen). (agd.org)
  • For treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm or prevention of symptoms associated with bronchospasm, the usual dosage for adults and children 4 years and older is two inhalations repeated every 4 to 6 hours. (rxlist.com)
  • The usual dosage for adults and children 4 years of age or older is two inhalations 15 to 30 minutes before exercise. (rxlist.com)
  • Route of administration and dosage form are aspects of drug delivery . (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] A suppository is a solid dosage form that fits for rectal administration . (wikipedia.org)
  • In this 52-week, randomized trial, children aged 2 to 6 years with mild to moderate persistent asthma received budesonide inhalation suspension 0.5 mg (total daily dose) once or twice daily ( n = 168) or cromolyn sodium nebulizer solution 20 mg 4 times daily ( n = 167) for 8 weeks, with dosage adjustment thereafter at the investigators' discretion. (aappublications.org)
  • 14. The method of claim 13 wherein said method provides said effective therapeutic amount at a lower total dose than administration of the identical formulation via each of oral ingestion, smoking, or vaporized inhalation administration. (sumobrain.com)
  • Cyanogen chloride (CK) can affect the body by inhalation, ingestion, skin contact, or eye contact. (cdc.gov)
  • The substance can be absorbed into the body by inhalation, through the skin and by ingestion. (ilo.org)
  • Preliminary studies using rectal, sublingual and transdermal routes indicate that these alternatives to the two most common forms of ingestion may be utilized medicinally in the future, further reducing the possible risks associated with the administration of cannabis or single cannabinoids. (cannabis-med.org)
  • Following a single-inhalation open-label dose-escalation phase (Groups 1A-1C and Group 2C, phase I component), the highest tested and tolerated dose will be administered to an expansion cohort of SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals in a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled manner (Group 2D). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Experimental: SARS-CoV-2-uninfected and -infected individuals (Group 1A-1B-1C-(1D)-2C) open label During the dose escalation phase, SARS-CoV-2-uninfected (Groups 1A-C) and SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals (Group 2C) will receive a single inhalation of DZIF- 10c at the specified dose on day 0. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Should the dose escalation phase in Group 1C be completed without dose-limiting toxicities, an additional three participants of healthy volunteers will be enrolled to receive a single 40 mg/kg inhalation of DZIF- 10c Group 2C (n=3-6): 40 mg/kg of DZIF- 10c p.o. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • 10. A method of administration of a cannabinoid material while substantially avoiding first- pass metabolism thereof associated with oral administrations and avoiding heat associated chemical alteration of one or more of the active agent components of said formulation comprising administering the formulation of claim 1 via a metered dose inhalation delivery system in the absence of any heating or with heating to not more than 50°C. (sumobrain.com)
  • BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is supplied as 2 mL of arformoterol tartrate solution packaged in 2.1 mL unit-dose, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) unit-dose vials. (rxlist.com)
  • The recommended dose of BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is one 15 mcg unitdose vial administered twice daily (morning and evening) by nebulization. (rxlist.com)
  • Inhalation solution in a unit-dose vial for nebulization. (nih.gov)
  • The recommended dose of YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution is one 175 mcg unit‑dose vial administered once daily by nebulizer using a mouthpiece. (nih.gov)
  • YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution is supplied as a sterile, clear, colorless, aqueous solution for nebulization in low-density polyethylene unit-dose vials. (nih.gov)
  • Greater than 90% of the oral [14C]-radioactive dose was recovered within 5 days after administration in 5 out of the 6 subjects in the study. (xlibx.info)
  • The phase 1 component of this trial consists of a single-inhalation open-label dose-escalation phase (Groups 1A-1C and Groups 2A-2C). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Acetylcysteine Solution will be available in the coming weeks as a 20% concentration for inhalation or oral administration in 30mL vials. (empr.com)
  • Radiolabeled triamcinolone acetonide was found to undergo relatively rapid absorption following oral administration with maximum plasma triamcinolone acetonide and [14C]-derived radioactivity occurring between 1.5 and 2 hours. (xlibx.info)
  • To study the pharmacokinetic characteristics and absolute bioavailability of α-asarone through dry powder inhalation in rats , and compare with that through oral administration and intravenous injection . (bvsalud.org)
  • A HPLC method was established for the determination of α-asarone in rat plasma to detect the changes in plasma concentrations of α-asarone through dry powder inhalation (20 mg · kg(-1)), oral administration (80 mg · kg(-1)) and intravenous injection (20 mg · kg(-1)) in rats . (bvsalud.org)
  • Through dry powder inhalation , oral administration and intravenous injection of α-asarone, the metabolic processes of α-asarone in rats conformed to one, two and three compartment models respectively, with the elimination half-life of (95.48 ± 48.28), (64.34 ± 27.59), (66.99 ± 29.76) min. (bvsalud.org)
  • According to the bioavailability formula, the absolute bioavailability of α-asarone through dry powder inhalation and oral administration were 78.32% and 33. (bvsalud.org)
  • When deciding which administration method to use, topical application or oral administration may be perceived as being more impactful due to the more obvious interaction with the body and body systems. (aromatherapycouncil.org)
  • The study did not test the oral administration of levomethamphetamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • BROVANA Inhalation Solution is not indicated to treat acute deteriorations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • As an example, acute inhalation MRLs may not be protective for health effects that are delayed in development or are acquired following repeated acute insults, such as hypersensitivity reactions, asthma, or chronic bronchitis. (cdc.gov)
  • DATA QUALITY: Study was conducted in accordance with a recognized scientific procedure for determining the acute inhalation toxicity of a test substance, following GLP regulations. (europa.eu)
  • The study meets national and international scientific standards and provides sufficient information to support the conclusions regarding the acute inhalation toxicity of Ethyl Methacrylate. (europa.eu)
  • Acute inhalation injury may result from frequent and widespread use of household cleaning agents and industrial gases (including chlorine and ammonia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, mechanical ventilation remains the therapeutic mainstay for pulmonary dysfunction following acute inhalation injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Needle insertion angles for 4 types of parenteral administration of medication: intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intradermal injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parenteral administration can be performed by injection , that is, using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle ) and a syringe , [16] or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter . (wikipedia.org)
  • This U.S. Food and Drug Administration alert reminds health care professionals that nimodipine should only be administered orally, and that intravenous or parenteral administration can cause serious adverse events. (ahrq.gov)
  • Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Routes of administration are usually classified by application location (or exposition). (wikipedia.org)
  • Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still commonly referred to as routes of administration . (wikipedia.org)
  • We aimed to find a large cohort of Reddit users interested in discussing the use of opioids, trace the temporal evolution of their interest, and extensively characterize patterns of the nonmedical consumption of opioids, with a focus on routes of administration and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • We used a semiautomatic information retrieval algorithm to identify subreddits discussing nonmedical opioid consumption and developed a methodology based on word embedding to find alternative colloquial and nonmedical terms referring to opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug-tampering methods. (jmir.org)
  • We modeled the preferences of adoption of substances and routes of administration, estimating their prevalence and temporal unfolding. (jmir.org)
  • Ultimately, through the evaluation of odds ratios based on co-mentions, we measured the strength of association between opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • We learned the language model of opioid consumption and provided alternative vocabularies for opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • A data-driven taxonomy of nonmedical routes of administration was proposed. (jmir.org)
  • We modeled the temporal evolution of interest in opioid consumption by ranking the popularity of the adoption of opioid substances and routes of administration, observing relevant trends, such as the surge in synthetic opioids like fentanyl and an increasing interest in rectal administration. (jmir.org)
  • In addition, we measured the strength of association between drug tampering, routes of administration, and substance consumption, finding evidence of understudied abusive behaviors, like chewing fentanyl patches and dissolving buprenorphine sublingually. (jmir.org)
  • Inhalation of ginger Zingiber officinale (Roscoe) essential oil was shown to lower nausea and vomiting in adult post-operative patients. (aromatherapycouncil.org)
  • Enteral/enteric administration usually includes oral [6] (through the mouth ) and rectal (into the rectum ) [6] administration, in the sense that these are taken up by the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications, especially those used at the end of life . (wikipedia.org)
  • In hospice care , a specialized rectal catheter , designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications provides a practical way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in the distal rectum, giving health practitioners a way to leverage the established benefits of rectal administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the present study was to obtain information about the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of BIBN 4096 BS after single inhalation administration of rising doses of spray-dried powder in healthy male and female volunteers. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The absolute bioavailability of α-asarone was calculated according to AUC (0-t)) of administration routes and administration doses. (bvsalud.org)
  • BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is indicated for the long-term, twice daily (morning and evening) maintenance treatment of bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema . (rxlist.com)
  • Maintenance treatment of COPD: 1 inhalation of INCRUSE ELLIPTA once daily. (gsksource.com)
  • Aclidinium/formoterol (trade names Duaklir and Brimica ) is a combination drug for inhalation , used in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (rug.nl)
  • There is currently no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but its symptoms can be managed by inhalation of bronchodilating drugs, most commonly muscarinic antagonists (for long-term symptom management) and/or beta-adrenergic agonists (also used for quick symptom relief and as rescue medication). (springer.com)
  • The safety and efficacy of BROVANA Inhalation Solution in patients with asthma have not been established. (rxlist.com)
  • All LABA, including BROVANA Inhalation Solution, are contraindicated in patients with asthma without use of a long-term asthma control medication [see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA Inhalation Solution is not indicated to treat asthma . (rxlist.com)
  • The safety and effectiveness of BROVANA Inhalation Solution in asthma have not been established. (rxlist.com)
  • Budesonide inhalation suspension improved the quality of life for caregivers of children with asthma. (aappublications.org)
  • Clearance from the lungs was studied in a second experiment by serial bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) after administration of TI inhalation powder and assay of the recovered fluid for FDKP and insulin. (nih.gov)
  • At similar plasma ipratropium concentrations, administration by inhalation produced larger reductions in V T for the lungs. (springer.com)
  • 40% systemically absorbed from lungs and GI tract following inhalation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • It is excreted, largely unchanged, by the lungs and its rapid elimination from the body on cessation of inhalation makes it ideal for controlling pain during short procedures. (worldwidewounds.com)
  • Nitrous oxide is administered by inhalation, absorbed by diffusion through the lungs, and eliminated via respiration. (medscape.com)
  • The administration of medication by way of air or other vapor being drawn into the lungs. (studystack.com)
  • BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is a sterile, clear, colorless, aqueous solution of the tartrate salt of arformoterol, the (R,R)-enantiomer of formoterol. (rxlist.com)
  • Also disclosed is an inhalation method of administration of the formulation without the use of heat greater than 50°C. (sumobrain.com)
  • Cayston contains aztreonam formulated with lysine, a proprietary formulation of aztreonam developed specifically for inhalation. (gilead.com)
  • Exhaled breath volatile organic chemicals (VOC), exhaled CO(2), urine, feces, and tissues were collected for up to 48 h post-administration for determination of radioactivity distribution. (rti.org)
  • The aim of the study was to determine whether the bronchomotor effect of a deep inhalation (DI) may be detected during tidal breathing in asthmatic children with spontaneous airway obstruction (AO). (ersjournals.com)
  • In conclusion, asthmatic children show a bronchomotor response to deep inhalation that depends on the degree of airway obstruction. (ersjournals.com)
  • Conclusion: Nitrous oxide inhalation produces adequate sedation with vital signs within normal limits and treatments successfully completed. (journalcra.com)
  • This finding with salmeterol is considered a class effect of LABA, including arformoterol, the active ingredient in BROVANA Inhalation Solution [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, uptake of drugs administered orally may also occur already in the stomach , and as such gastrointestinal (along the gastrointestinal tract ) may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Global Medical Marijuana Market outlook is projected to surpass USD 55 billion by 2024, says a new Global Market Insights, Inc. report featuring key industry trends across the application, route of administration, distribution channel, and regional landscape. (globenewswire.com)
  • The most common route of administration is inhalation. (erowid.org)
  • The gas is rapidly absorbed on inhalation, providing analgesia within minutes. (worldwidewounds.com)
  • Anticholinergic Agents: May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Glycopyrrolate (Oral Inhalation). (drugs.com)
  • The uptake, distribution, and elimination of 3H-toluene in various tissues of rats were studied after inhalation or after gastric intubation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Therapy may involve the administration of gases for inhalation. (britannica.com)
  • This study is meant to provide drug developers with guidance on how they can utilize a new analytical method to characterize an inhalation product with more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient," said Dr. Ryan Priore , Director of Applications and Contract Services. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 14. A pharmaceutical composition as claimed in claim 13 in the form of a dry powder suitable for inhalation. (google.es)
  • Guideline on the pharmaceutical quality of inhalation and nasal products (emea/chmp/qwp/49313/2005corr). (springer.com)
  • The plasma-derived apparent affinity for ipratropium binding in the lung was one order of magnitude higher after inhalation ( K i ih = 1.01 nM) than after intravenous infusion ( K i iv = 10.84 nM). (springer.com)
  • In this randomized and blinded group, participants will receive DZIF-10c or placebo both by inhalation and intravenous infusion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Avoid administration of YUPELRI with other anticholinergic-containing drugs. (nih.gov)
  • The present invention relates to the delivery of erectile dysfunction drugs through an inhalation route. (google.com.au)
  • Specifically, it relates to aerosols containing erectile dysfunction drugs that are used in inhalation therapy. (google.com.au)
  • Use of anticholinergic drugs after administration of botulinum toxin-containing products may potentiate systemic anticholinergic effects. (medscape.com)
  • A registration number assigned to physicians by the Drug Enforcement Administration for prescribing or dispensing controlled drugs. (studystack.com)
  • INCRUSE ELLIPTA (umeclidinium 62.5 mcg) should be administered as 1 inhalation once daily by the orally inhaled route only. (gsksource.com)
  • This trial is a phase 1/2a first-in-human clinical trial to evaluate the safety , pharmacokinetics, and antiviral activity of the monoclonal SARS-CoV-2-neutralizing antibody DZIF-10c administered by inhalation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since there is an overnight washout period, the potential for accumulation on chronic administration is minimal. (nih.gov)
  • Cayston (aztreonam for inhalation solution) 75 mg is an inhaled antibiotic for patients with cystic fibrosis who have P. aeruginosa . (gilead.com)
  • BROVANA Inhalation Solution requires no dilution before administration by nebulization. (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA Inhalation Solution should be administered from a standard jet nebulizer at adequate flow rates via face mask or mouthpiece. (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA Inhalation Solution is for use by nebulization only. (rxlist.com)
  • These highlights do not include all the information needed to use YUPELRI™ (revefenacin) inhalation solution safely and effectively. (nih.gov)
  • See full prescribing information for YUPELRI (revefenacin) inhalation solution. (nih.gov)
  • 1) Intensive care unit patients saw improved quality of sleep and lowered anxiety after daily inhalation of a 2% lavender solution for 15 days. (aromatherapycouncil.org)
  • The spherically nanostructured microparticles according to the invention are suitable for the preparation of inhalation powders in which no other excipients or additives (carrier materials) are required in order to obtain a powder which can be handled on an industrial scale, which can be further processed directly and has excellent properties in terms of dispersibility and is sufficiently easy to process with regard to its cohesive properties. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Several studies have been published showing good results for reducing nausea and vomiting with essential oil inhalation. (aromatherapycouncil.org)
  • 7) However, when a blend of ginger Z. officinale , lavender L. angustifolia , peppermint Mentha x piperita (L.), and spearmint Mentha spicata (L.) essential oil was used via inhalation to relieve nausea and vomiting in post-operative children, there was no statistical difference between aromatherapy and the saline placebo group. (aromatherapycouncil.org)
  • What are the possible side effects of arformoterol inhalation (Brovana)? (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA requires no dilution before administration by nebulization. (nih.gov)
  • Aztreonam formulated with arginine has previously been approved by FDA for intravenous administration. (gilead.com)
  • Administration methods directly into the stomach include those by gastric feeding tube or gastrostomy . (wikipedia.org)
  • And, these administration methods have their useful and safe roles. (aromatherapycouncil.org)
  • An exception is topical administration , which generally means that both the application location and the effect thereof is local. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical administration is sometimes defined as both a local application location and local pharmacodynamic effect, [3] and sometimes merely as a local application location regardless of location of the effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two cases of spontaneous pneumothorax after repeated inhalation of cocaine and forced aspiration of marijuana smoke, respectively, are presented. (nih.gov)
  • Cayston is administered by inhalation and should only be used with an Altera Nebulizer System. (gilead.com)
  • The administration mode, predicted mortality based on the SAPS3 score, SOFA score at onset of the colistin treatment, clinical and microbiological response, and mortality during the episode of the infection were analysed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Clinical response was favorable in all patients receiving colistin by inhalation (6/6) and in 40% (2/5) of the patients receiving colistin parenterally (p = 0.06). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the patients with colistin administered both via inhalation and parenterally, clinical response was favorable in 78% of the patients (7/9) (p = 0.27 as compared to the treatment group receiving colistin only parenterally). (biomedcentral.com)
  • When all patients with inhalation therapy were compared to the group without inhalation therapy, a favorable clinical response was present in respectively 87% and 40% (p = 0.06). (biomedcentral.com)