Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Rats, Inbred F344Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Mice, Inbred C57BLParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Mice, Inbred BALB CBronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.CarboxyhemoglobinRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.SmokeDrug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.HydrocarbonsCerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Mice, Inbred ICRGuinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedFiresNeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Aromatherapy: The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
(1/4255) GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection.

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

(2/4255) Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness.

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

(3/4255) Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats.

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

(4/4255) A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter.

The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation.  (+info)

(5/4255) An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids.

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

(6/4255) A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers in rat lungs.

A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers (MMFs) was developed, and the calculated fiber numbers and dimensions were compared with the experimental ones using a glass fiber (GF), ceramic fiber (RF1) and two potassium octatitanate whiskers (PT1, TW). If the translocation rate by macrophages is constant and the effect of dissolution and disintegration can be ignored, the fiber number is expected to decrease exponentially with time. In the experimental study, however, the fiber number did not always decrease exponentially. In the case of RF1, the fiber number decreased almost exponentially and the diameter decreased linearly with the time. The clearance rate constant of GF during 3 to 6 months after the end of one-month exposure was greater than that during 1 to 3 months. On the contrary, the clearance rate constants of PT1 and TW during 1 to 6 months were greater than next six months. The diameter and the length of GF did not change significantly. The fiber length of PT1 tends to become longer with time although the diameter did not change significantly. Our theoretical model gives a satisfactory fit to these experimental results.  (+info)

(7/4255) Nitrogen dioxide formation during inhaled nitric oxide therapy.

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic by-product of inhalation therapy with nitric oxide (NO). The rate of NO2 formation during NO therapy is controversial. METHODS: The formation of NO2 was studied under dynamic flows emulating a base case NO ventilator mixture containing 80 ppm NO in a 90% oxygen matrix. The difficulty in measuring NO2 concentrations below 2 ppm accurately was overcome by the use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: Using a second-order model, the rate constant, k, for NO2 formation was determined to be (1.19 +/- 0.11) x 10(-11) ppm-2s-1, which is in basic agreement with evaluated data from atmospheric literature. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO can be delivered safely in a well-designed, continuous flow neonatal ventilatory circuit, and NO2 formation can be calculated reliably using the rate constant and circuit dwell time.  (+info)

(8/4255) As-required versus regular nebulized salbutamol for the treatment of acute severe asthma.

Current British guidelines for the administration of beta2-agonists in acute severe asthma recommend regular nebulized therapy in hospitalized patients, followed by as-required (p.r.n.) use via hand-held devices after discharge. Since beta2-agonists do not possess anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and are thus unlikely to influence the rate of recovery from an asthma exacerbation, it was hypothesized that patients given the short-acting beta2-agonist salbutamol on an as-required basis after admission to hospital would recover as quickly as those on regular treatment, but with potential reductions in the total dose delivered. Forty-six patients with acute severe asthma were randomly assigned to either regular prescriptions of nebulized salbutamol or to usage on a p.r.n. basis, from 24 h after hospital admission. The primary outcome measures were length of hospital stay, time to recovery, and frequency of salbutamol nebulization from 24 h after admission to discharge. Secondary outcome measures were treatment side-effects (tremor, palpitations), and patient satisfaction. Length of hospital stay was reduced in those patients allocated to p.r.n. salbutamol (geometric mean (GM) 3.7 days) versus regular salbutamol (GM 4.7 days). Time taken for peak expiratory flow to reach 75% of recent best was the same in both groups. There was a highly significant reduction in the number of times nebulized therapy was delivered to the p.r.n. group (GM 7.0, range 1-30) compared with the regular treatment group (GM 14.0, range 4-57; p=0.003; 95% confidence interval for ratio of GMs 1.29-3.09). In addition, patients reported less tremor (p=0.062) and fewer palpitations (p=0.049) in the p.r.n. group. Of the patients in the p.r.n. group who had received regular nebulized therapy on previous admissions (n=12), all preferred the p.r.n. regimen. Prescribing beta2-agonists on a p.r.n. basis from 24 h after hospital admission is associated with reduced amount of drug delivered, incidence of side-effects, and possibly length of hospital stay. This has implications for the efficient use of healthcare resources.  (+info)

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Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". Abbott Park, Illinois: ... The Penthrox inhaler is a hand-held inhaler used for self-administration of methoxyflurane for pain relief. It is manufactured ... 2009). "PENTHROX (methoxyflurane) Inhalation: Product Information" (PDF). Springvale, Victoria, Australia: Medical Developments ... Crombie, JM (1876). "On the self-administration of chloroform". The Practitioner. 16 (2): 97-101. ISSN 0032-6518. Retrieved ...
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doi:10.1001/jama.1890.02410440006001a. Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation ... Early inhalation devices included one devised by John Mudge in 1778. It had a pewter mug with a hole allowing attachment of a ... To reduce deposition in the mouth and throat, and to reduce the need for precise synchronization of the start of inhalation ... 2004). Pharmaceutical Inhalation Aerosol Technology (2nd ed.). NY: Marcel Dekker. Nick Baumann (July-August 2011). "Why You're ...
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Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". Abbott Park, Illinois: ... Supervised self-administration of methoxyflurane in children and adults can briefly lead to deep sedation, and it has been used ... Intermittent inhalation of methoxyflurane and trichloroethylene as an analgesic in burns dressings procedures. Br. J. Anaesth. ... Tomlin PJ, Jones BC, Edwards R, Robin PE (1973). "Subjective and objective sensory responses to inhalation of nitrous oxide and ...
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108-9. ISBN 0-8036-1559-0. Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". ... Providers must always observe the first administration of any PCA medication which has not already been administered by the ... These are popular for administration of opioids such as fentanyl, or local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Iontocaine is one ... The most common form of patient-controlled analgesia is self-administration of oral over-the-counter or prescription ...
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Warnings: Iloprost as Ventavis is intended for inhalation administration only via the I-Neb AAD or Prodose AAD Systems, ... Each inhalation treatment requires one entire single-use ampule. Each single-use ampule delivers a concentration of 10 µg/mL to ... After each inhalation session, any solution remaining in the medication chamber should be discarded. Use of the remaining ... corresponding to 6 daily inhalations of 5 µg. The majority of patients (> 80%) in the pivotal study used this median dose or a ...
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Grotenhermen F (June 2001). "Harm Reduction Associated with Inhalation and Oral Administration of Cannabis and THC". Journal of ... Regulated US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) nicotine replacement products are safer than e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes are ... September 2008). "Effect of intrapulmonary tetrahydrocannabinol administration in humans". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 22 (7 ... or other herbs or blends for the purpose of inhalation. However, they can also be filled with a mixture of propylene glycol, ...
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Benjamin Pui-Nin Mo & E. Leong Way (October 1, 1966). "An Assessment Of Inhalation As A Mode Of Administration Of Heroin By ... Today, opium is regulated by the Drug Enforcement Administration under the Controlled Substances Act. Following passage of a ... Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, suppositories, ... and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration in the United States formerly mandated that all drug ...
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Findings indicate that β2 stimulants, especially in parenteral administration such as inhalation or injection, can induce ... each inhalation from a meter dose inhalor delivers 200µg of terbuatline.11 inhalation may be used 4-6 hourly.Injection 0.25 mg ... Drug Enforcement Administration. November 2013 Clenbuterol Pluim, BM; et al. (Jan 2011). "β₂-Agonists and physical performance ... inhalation.it is well absorbed from GIT and metabolised mainly in the liver by monamine oxidase enzyme.when given by inhalation ...
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Other feasible routes of administration could be inhalation and perhaps to a lesser extent oral - swallowing can be difficult ... 1995) Toxic gas inhalation. Curr Opin Pulm Med. 1:102-8. Clark WR Jr. (1992) Smoke inhalation: diagnosis and treatment. World J ... Smoke inhalation injury, either by itself but more so in the presence of body surface burn, can result in severe lung-induced ... Inhalation of high doses of this gas causes lesions in the larynx, trachea, and large bronchi with inflammatory reactions and ...
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The fastest route of absorption is inhalation, and not as mistakenly considered the intravenous administration. Absorption is a ... First, the drug needs to be introduced via some route of administration (oral, topical-dermal, etc.) and in a specific dosage ... It is considered that intravascular administration (e.g. IV) does not involve absorption, and there is no loss of drug. ...
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Inhalation, and oral and dermal administration, of methacrylonitrile can cause acute deaths in animals, often preceded by ... In dogs acute lethality by inhalation is also noted, although no LC50 has been determined. Oral administration of MeAN has been ... For inhalation, a 4 hour exposure period gives a LC50 of 328-700 ppm for rats, 88 ppm for guinea pigs, 37 ppm for rabbits and ... Skin administration on rabbits causes death at a LC50 of 268 mg/kg. The NOAEL and LOAEL values for rats are determined at 50 mg ...
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"Evaluation of nitrous oxide inhalation sedation during inferior alveolar block administration in children aged 7-10 years: a ... Nitrous oxide is commonly used in dentistry as a method of conscious inhalation sedation, particularly for children. This has ...
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... after oral administration, Obeys Haber's rule of inhalation toxicology. Toxicol Sci 1999; 49 (1): 102-109. doi:10.1093/toxsci/ ... Suppression of the antibody response was observed after HpCDD administration at various times prior to or following antigen ...
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On 24 March 2015 it was granted approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use in treating inhalation ... "FDA approves treatment for inhalation anthrax". United States Food and Drug Administration. 25 March 2015. "Anthrasil Approval ...
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As of 2016 mometasone furoate was available worldwide in formulations for nasal, oral inhalation, and topical administration, ... Topical administration applied to skin reduces the inflammation associated with chronic or acute dermatosis. Extensive ... inhalation form) for patients unresponsive to less potent corticosteroids, and penile phimosis. In terms of steroid strength, ... "Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of urinary cortisol suppression after inhalation of fluticasone propionate and ...
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In rats, NMP is absorbed rapidly after inhalation, oral, and dermal administration, distributed throughout the organism, and ... The excreted amounts of NMP metabolites in the urine after inhalation or oral intake represented about 100% and 65% of the ...
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In addition to 16 injured policemen, 15 firefighters were treated at city hospitals for smoke inhalation, burns, sprains and ... ISBN 978-0-470-17710-5. "Civil rights during the Johnson administration". LBJ Library. Archived from the original on July 20, ...
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0014] However, there remains a need for improved formulations, for administration by inhalation by means of dry powder inhalers ... 0003] The present invention relates to formulations for administration by inhalation by means of dry powder inhalers. In ... Dry powder formulation comprising an anticholinergic, a corticosteroid and a beta-adrenergic for administration by inhalation. ... FOR ADMINISTRATION BY INHALATION. Inventors: Chiesi Farmaceutici S.p.a. (Parma, IT) Elisa Monari (Parma, IT) Anna Maria ...
more infohttp://www.patentsencyclopedia.com/app/20130189324
Buy Cheap Albuterol - Discount Albuterol Basket - Online Genuine Albuterol  Buy Cheap Albuterol - Discount Albuterol Basket - Online Genuine Albuterol
More frequent administration or a larger number of inhalations is not recommended. Olympians who had asthma or took won team or ... Mixing Different Inhalation Solutions: Drug compatibility physical and chemical efficacy, and safety of PROVENTIL Inhalation ... Patients may take additional inhalations as required; however, the total number of inhalations should not exceed 12 in 24 hours ... Food and Drug Administration. F. Vials should be protected from light before use, therefore, keep unused vials in the foil ...
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Inhalation Aerosol before you start using it and each time you get a refill. How should I use VENTOLIN HFA? Lactobacillus ... Food and Drug Administration. WebMD does not endorse any specific product, service or treatment. Connect the nebulizer to the ... Place the inhalation solution in the medicine reservoir or nebulizer cup on the machine. Safety and efficacy have not been ... VENTOLIN Inhalation Solution is indicated for the relief of bronchospasm in patients 2 years of age and older with reversible ...
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Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam...  Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam...
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LOW-TEMPERATURE INHALATION ADMINISTRATION OF CANNABINOID ENTITIES - EP PHARMA LLC  LOW-TEMPERATURE INHALATION ADMINISTRATION OF CANNABINOID ENTITIES - EP PHARMA LLC
Also disclosed is an inhalation method of administration of the formulation without the use of heat greater than 50°C. ... sublingual administration, smoked, vaporized inhalation delivery, or topical administration of said cannabinoid acid, alone or ... Also disclosed is an inhalation method of administration of the formulation without the use of heat greater than 50°C. ... In addition, oral ingestion modes of administration, including sublingual administration, require significant doses in order to ...
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IDEALS @ Illinois: T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure  IDEALS @ Illinois: T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure
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more infohttp://www.empr.com/news/acetylcysteine-solution-approved-for-inhalation-or-oral-administration/article/259689/
Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration | RTI  Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration | RTI
Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration. ... Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration. Toxicology ... or intravenous administration (5, 20, and 100 mg/kg). [1,2,3-(13)C]1-BrP and [1-(14)C]1-BrP were administered to enable ... and tissues were collected for up to 48 h post-administration for determination of radioactivity distribution. Rats and mice ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/metabolism-and-disposition-1-bromopropane-rats-and-mice-following-inhalation-or
Administration - SPIRIVA HANDIHALER (tiotropium bromide inhalation powder)  Administration - SPIRIVA HANDIHALER (tiotropium bromide inhalation powder)
... delivering an inhalation powder to help improve lung function (FEV₁) for patients with COPD. Please visit website for Important ... Using SPIRIVA® HANDIHALER® (tiotropium bromide inhalation powder). Once-daily dosing in 4 simple steps1. *. Open the HANDIHALER ... SPIRIVA capsules should not be swallowed and should only be inhaled through the mouth (oral inhalation) using the HANDIHALER ... SPIRIVA capsules should not be swallowed and should only be inhaled through the mouth (oral inhalation) using the HANDIHALER ...
more infohttps://www.spiriva.com/hcp/copd/handihaler-administration
Ex Vivo Pilot Study of the Impact of Nasal Breathing During the Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids by Inhalation Chamber...  Ex Vivo Pilot Study of the Impact of Nasal Breathing During the Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids by Inhalation Chamber...
Other: Corticosteroids inhalation Flixotide inhalation followed by Qvar inhalation through a nasal filter and a mouth filter ... Other: Corticosteroids inhalation Qvar inhalation followed by Flixotide inhalation through a nasal filter and a mouth filter ... Ex Vivo Pilot Study of the Impact of Nasal Breathing During the Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids by Inhalation Chamber ... Ex Vivo Pilot Study of the Impact of Nasal Breathing During the Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids by Inhalation Chamber ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03364959
Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen.  Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen.
... Author: Yamaguchi, KT; Taira, MT; ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen.. Show full item record ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen. J. Hyperbaric Med 1990; 5(2):103-109.. ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen.. Rubicon Research Repository/Manakin ...
more infohttp://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/xmlui/handle/123456789/4426
Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective analgesia during the administration of tumescent local anaesthesia for...  Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective analgesia during the administration of tumescent local anaesthesia for...
Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective analgesia during the administration of tumescent local anaesthesia for ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/26515225
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Cayston(R)  (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) for the Improvement of Respiratory ...  U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Cayston(R) (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) for the Improvement of Respiratory ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Cayston(R) (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) for the Improvement of Respiratory ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Cayston(R) (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) for the Improvement of Respiratory ... Cayston is administered by inhalation using the Altera Nebulizer System, an inhalation delivery device optimized specifically ... Cayston (aztreonam for inhalation solution) 75 mg is an inhaled antibiotic for patients with cystic fibrosis who have P. ...
more infohttp://www.gilead.com/news/press-releases/2010/2/us-food-and-drug-administration-approves-caystonr--aztreonam-for-inhalation-solution-for-the-improvement-of-respiratory--symptoms-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
Oral administration of capsules for inhalation by Joseph A. Woelfel  "Oral administration of capsules for inhalation" by Joseph A. Woelfel
Woelfel, J. A. (2005). Oral administration of capsules for inhalation. Pharmacist's Letter & Prescriber's Letter, 21(6), 1-2. ...
more infohttps://scholarlycommons.pacific.edu/phs-facarticles/57/
Toluene concentrations in various tissues of rats after inhalation and oral administration - Semantic Scholar  Toluene concentrations in various tissues of rats after inhalation and oral administration - Semantic Scholar
Nach Inhalation und nach oraler Gabe wurden Aufnahme, Verteilung und Ausscheidung von 3H-Toluol in verschiedenen Geweben der ... Nach Inhalation wurde 3H-Toluol wesentlich schneller aufgenommen. Die höchste Radioaktivität wurde hierbei im weißen Fett nach ... Ebenso war die Abnahme der Radioaktivität nach Inhalation schneller als nach oraler Gabe, wobei sich auch in diesem Fall das ... Die Ergebnisse dieser Studie zeigen, daß Toluol nach Inhalation sehr viel rascher absorbiert und wieder ausgeschieden wird, als ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Toluene-concentrations-in-various-tissues-of-rats-Pyykk%C3%B6-T%C3%A4hti/904d9c64a4e1e72539a05dc8f03c695d656e0484
Suitability of differently formulated dry powder Newcastle disease vaccines for mass vaccination of poultry. - NextBio article  Suitability of differently formulated dry powder Newcastle disease vaccines for mass vaccination of poultry. - NextBio article
Administration, Inhalation Animals Cattle Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Desiccation Drug Design Drug Stability Drug Storage Dry ...
more infohttp://www.nextbio.com/b/search/article.nb?id=22155763
Umeclidinium Bromide Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com  Umeclidinium Bromide Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com
Oral Inhalation. Oral Inhalation Administration. Before first use of either the Incruse Ellipta or Anoro Ellipta inhaler, ... Administration. Administer umeclidinium by oral inhalation only using a specific oral inhalation device (Incruse Ellipta) that ... Oral Inhalation 62.5 mcg of umeclidinium (1 inhalation) once daily.1. Umeclidinium/Vilanterol Fixed-combination. Oral ... Importance of adequate understanding of proper storage and inhalation techniques, including use of the inhalation delivery ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/monograph/umeclidinium-bromide.html
DESCRIPTION Azmacort Proprietary name: Triamcinolone acetonide Established name: RESPIRATORY (INHALATION) (C38216) Route of...  DESCRIPTION Azmacort Proprietary name: Triamcinolone acetonide Established name: RESPIRATORY (INHALATION) (C38216) Route of...
INHALATION) (C38216) Route of administration: Triamcinolone acetonide (Triamcinolone) Active ingredients (moiety): # Strength ... Inhalation Aerosol Rx Only For Oral Inhalation Only Shake Well Before Using DESCRIPTION Azmacort Proprietary name: ... Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol is also indicated for asthma patients who require systemic corticosteroid administration, where ... See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION Although steroid withdrawal effects are usually ADMINISTRATION.) transient and not severe, severe ...
more infohttp://dissertation.xlibx.info/d1-other/57686-1-description-azmacort-proprietary-name-triamcinolone-acetonide-esta.php
Aromatherapy Registration Council (ARC) | Category Archive | Uncategorized  Aromatherapy Registration Council (ARC) | Category Archive | Uncategorized
Inhalation as an Effective Administration Method for Aromatherapy: A Research Update. by arc on August 7, 2017 in Uncategorized ... Inhalation as an Effective Administration Method for Aromatherapy: A Research Update by arc on August 7, 2017 in Uncategorized ... the method of inhalation; the duration of each inhalation session; the frequency of inhalation sessions; the amount of ... Factors which could affect outcome of inhalation administration. *Köteles F, Babulka P. (2014) Role of expectations and ...
more infohttp://aromatherapycouncil.org/?cat=1
Pulmonary PET imaging confirms preferential lung target occupancy of an inhaled bronchodilator | Springer for Research &...  Pulmonary PET imaging confirms preferential lung target occupancy of an inhaled bronchodilator | Springer for Research &...
Drug administration via inhalation. An Aeroneb Pro™ nebulization device (Dolema AB, Sweden) was used for the inhalation ... administration via inhalation produced larger reductions in the VT ratio for the lungs than drug administration via intravenous ... At similar plasma ipratropium concentrations, administration by inhalation produced larger reductions in VT for the lungs. The ... Drug delivery via inhalation. The efficiency of drug aerosol inhalation is governed by the interplay between drug formulation, ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1186%2Fs13550-019-0479-8
  • While improvement in asthma may occur as soon as one week after initiation of Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol therapy, maximum improvement may not be achieved for 2 weeks or longer. (xlibx.info)
  • There is described a method of treatment of asthma which comprises administration to an asthmatic patient of an effective amount of an inhalation composition consisting essentially of a dispersion or suspension of from 0.2 to 2.0% disodium cromoglycate of mass median diameter 0.01 to 10 microns, from. (google.com)
  • Salbutamol: Uses: It is a selective β² agonist and is mainly used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma for this purpose it is best used by inhalation with the help of an inhalaer or nebulizer .When use by inhaltion a smaller dose of drug is required to produce the maximum effect.0.25-0.5 can be used by subcutaneous,intramuscular or slow intrvenous. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Mometasone furoate is used in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders (such as eczema and psoriasis) (topical form), allergic rhinitis (such as hay fever) (topical form), asthma (inhalation form) for patients unresponsive to less potent corticosteroids, and penile phimosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Steroids (local effect) and anti-asthma medication Hormone replacement Decongestants (local effect) Nicotine replacement Migraine medication Vaccines Nasal administration can also be used for treatment of children or patients who are otherwise alarmed or frightened by needles, or where intravenous (IV) access is unavailable. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOSTER CITY, Calif., Feb 22, 2010 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq:GILD) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted marketing approval for Cayston(R)(aztreonam for inhalation solution) as a treatment to improve respiratory symptoms in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). (gilead.com)
  • Irritant gases are those that, on inhalation, dissolve in the water of the respiratory tract mucosa and provoke an inflammatory response, usually from the release of acidic or alkaline radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Olodaterol (trade name Striverdi Respimat /ˈstrɪvərdi ˈrɛspɪmæt/ STRIV-ər-dee RESS-pim-at) is an ultra-long-acting β adrenoreceptor agonist (ultra-LABA) used as an inhalation for treating patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), manufactured by Boehringer Ingelheim. (wikipedia.org)
  • On July 31, 2014 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Striverdi Respimat (olodaterol inhalation spray) to treat patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema that are experiencing airflow obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Striverdi Respimat (olodaterol) Inhalation Spray For Oral Inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 29 January 2013 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Pulmonary-Allergy Drugs Advisory Committee (PADAC) recommended that the clinical data included in the new drug application (NDA) for olodaterol provide substantial evidence of safety and efficacy to support the approval of olodaterol as a once-daily maintenance bronchodilator treatment for airflow obstruction in patients with COPD. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exhaled breath volatile organic chemicals (VOC), exhaled CO(2), urine, feces, and tissues were collected for up to 48 h post-administration for determination of radioactivity distribution. (rti.org)
  • The excreted amounts of NMP metabolites in the urine after inhalation or oral intake represented about 100% and 65% of the administered doses, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma-derived apparent affinity for ipratropium binding in the lung was one order of magnitude higher after inhalation ( K i ih = 1.01 nM) than after intravenous infusion ( K i iv = 10.84 nM). (springer.com)
  • 7) However, when a blend of ginger Z. officinale , lavender L. angustifolia , peppermint Mentha x piperita (L.), and spearmint Mentha spicata (L.) essential oil was used via inhalation to relieve nausea and vomiting in post-operative children, there was no statistical difference between aromatherapy and the saline placebo group. (aromatherapycouncil.org)