Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Inhalation Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most frequent cause of death in burn patients.Burns, Inhalation: Burns of the respiratory tract caused by heat or inhaled chemicals.Inhalation: The act of BREATHING in.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Anesthetics, Inhalation: Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Anesthesia, Inhalation: Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Bronchial Provocation Tests: Tests involving inhalation of allergens (nebulized or in dust form), nebulized pharmacologically active solutions (e.g., histamine, methacholine), or control solutions, followed by assessment of respiratory function. These tests are used in the diagnosis of asthma.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Asthma: A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).Bronchodilator Agents: Agents that cause an increase in the expansion of a bronchus or bronchial tubes.Rats, Inbred F344Albuterol: A short-acting beta-2 adrenergic agonist that is primarily used as a bronchodilator agent to treat ASTHMA. Albuterol is prepared as a racemic mixture of R(-) and S(+) stereoisomers. The stereospecific preparation of R(-) isomer of albuterol is referred to as levalbuterol.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Biological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Atmosphere Exposure Chambers: Experimental devices used in inhalation studies in which a person or animal is either partially or completely immersed in a chemically controlled atmosphere.Mice, Inbred C57BLParticle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Washing liquid obtained from irrigation of the lung, including the BRONCHI and the PULMONARY ALVEOLI. It is generally used to assess biochemical, inflammatory, or infection status of the lung.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Dry Powder Inhalers: A device that delivers medication to the lungs in the form of a dry powder.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Air Pollutants, Occupational: Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.Methacholine Chloride: A quaternary ammonium parasympathomimetic agent with the muscarinic actions of ACETYLCHOLINE. It is hydrolyzed by ACETYLCHOLINESTERASE at a considerably slower rate than ACETYLCHOLINE and is more resistant to hydrolysis by nonspecific CHOLINESTERASES so that its actions are more prolonged. It is used as a parasympathomimetic bronchoconstrictor agent and as a diagnostic aid for bronchial asthma. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1116)Xenon Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of xenon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Xe atoms with atomic weights 121-123, 125, 127, 133, 135, 137-145 are radioactive xenon isotopes.Inhalation Spacers: A variety of devices used in conjunction with METERED DOSE INHALERS. Their purpose is to hold the released medication for inhalation and make it easy for the patients to inhale the metered dose of medication into their lungs.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Bronchoconstriction: Narrowing of the caliber of the BRONCHI, physiologically or as a result of pharmacological intervention.Airway Resistance: Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (BURNS, CHEMICAL), electricity (BURNS, ELECTRIC), or the like.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Nitrous Oxide: Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the TRACHEA. They include the largest two primary bronchi which branch out into secondary bronchi, and tertiary bronchi which extend into BRONCHIOLES and PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Mice, Inbred BALB CBronchial Hyperreactivity: Tendency of the smooth muscle of the tracheobronchial tree to contract more intensely in response to a given stimulus than it does in the response seen in normal individuals. This condition is present in virtually all symptomatic patients with asthma. The most prominent manifestation of this smooth muscle contraction is a decrease in airway caliber that can be readily measured in the pulmonary function laboratory.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Metered Dose Inhalers: A small aerosol canister used to release a calibrated amount of medication for inhalation.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.CarboxyhemoglobinRespiratory Function Tests: Measurement of the various processes involved in the act of respiration: inspiration, expiration, oxygen and carbon dioxide exchange, lung volume and compliance, etc.SmokeDrug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Isocyanates: Organic compounds that contain the -NCO radical.Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols, ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation, assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and mechanical airways.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Cromolyn Sodium: A chromone complex that acts by inhibiting the release of chemical mediators from sensitized mast cells. It is used in the prophylactic treatment of both allergic and exercise-induced asthma, but does not affect an established asthmatic attack.Oxygen Inhalation Therapy: Inhalation of oxygen aimed at restoring toward normal any pathophysiologic alterations of gas exchange in the cardiopulmonary system, as by the use of a respirator, nasal catheter, tent, chamber, or mask. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)Bronchoconstrictor Agents: Agents causing the narrowing of the lumen of a bronchus or bronchiole.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Dust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Oxygen Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of oxygen that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. O atoms with atomic weights 13, 14, 15, 19, and 20 are radioactive oxygen isotopes.Isoflurane: A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Trichloroethanes: Chlorinated ethanes which are used extensively as industrial solvents. They have been utilized in numerous home-use products including spot remover preparations and inhalant decongestant sprays. These compounds cause central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and are hepatotoxic. Include 1,1,1- and 1,1,2-isomers.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Plutonium: Plutonium. A naturally radioactive element of the actinide metals series. It has the atomic symbol Pu, atomic number 94, and atomic weight 242. Plutonium is used as a nuclear fuel, to produce radioisotopes for research, in radionuclide batteries for pacemakers, and as the agent of fission in nuclear weapons.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Pneumonia: Infection of the lung often accompanied by inflammation.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Budesonide: A glucocorticoid used in the management of ASTHMA, the treatment of various skin disorders, and allergic RHINITIS.Ipratropium: A muscarinic antagonist structurally related to ATROPINE but often considered safer and more effective for inhalation use. It is used for various bronchial disorders, in rhinitis, and as an antiarrhythmic.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Terbutaline: A selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gases: The vapor state of matter; nonelastic fluids in which the molecules are in free movement and their mean positions far apart. Gases tend to expand indefinitely, to diffuse and mix readily with other gases, to have definite relations of volume, temperature, and pressure, and to condense or liquefy at low temperatures or under sufficient pressure. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Body Burden: The total amount of a chemical, metal or radioactive substance present at any time after absorption in the body of man or animal.Carbon Monoxide: Carbon monoxide (CO). A poisonous colorless, odorless, tasteless gas. It combines with hemoglobin to form carboxyhemoglobin, which has no oxygen carrying capacity. The resultant oxygen deprivation causes headache, dizziness, decreased pulse and respiratory rates, unconsciousness, and death. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Cyanates: Organic salts of cyanic acid containing the -OCN radical.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Allergens: Antigen-type substances that produce immediate hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Nasal Cavity: The proximal portion of the respiratory passages on either side of the NASAL SEPTUM. Nasal cavities, extending from the nares to the NASOPHARYNX, are lined with ciliated NASAL MUCOSA.Vehicle Emissions: Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Skin Absorption: Uptake of substances through the SKIN.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Lung Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the LUNG.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.HydrocarbonsCerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Halothane: A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Respiratory Mechanics: The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and branching into the right and left main bronchi.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Macrophages, Alveolar: Round, granular, mononuclear phagocytes found in the alveoli of the lungs. They ingest small inhaled particles resulting in degradation and presentation of the antigen to immunocompetent cells.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Mice, Inbred ICRGuinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Pulmonary Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the LUNGS.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Ethanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Mucociliary Clearance: A non-specific host defense mechanism that removes MUCUS and other material from the LUNGS by ciliary and secretory activity of the tracheobronchial submucosal glands. It is measured in vivo as mucus transfer, ciliary beat frequency, and clearance of radioactive tracers.Anti-Asthmatic Agents: Drugs that are used to treat asthma.Alveolitis, Extrinsic Allergic: A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Respiratory Hypersensitivity: A form of hypersensitivity affecting the respiratory tract. It includes ASTHMA and RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL.Airway Obstruction: Any hindrance to the passage of air into and out of the lungs.Xenon: A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Aerosol Propellants: Compressed gases or vapors in a container which, upon release of pressure and expansion through a valve, carry another substance from the container. They are used for cosmetics, household cleaners, and so on. Examples are BUTANES; CARBON DIOXIDE; FLUOROCARBONS; NITROGEN; and PROPANE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Ozone: The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Saline Solution, Hypertonic: Hypertonic sodium chloride solution. A solution having an osmotic pressure greater than that of physiologic salt solution (0.9 g NaCl in 100 ml purified water).Particulate Matter: Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Mineral Fibers: Long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured filaments of various lengths. They form the structure of some minerals. The medical significance lies in their potential ability to cause various types of PNEUMOCONIOSIS (e.g., ASBESTOSIS) after occupational or environmental exposure. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p708)Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Pulmonary Gas Exchange: The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Bronchial Spasm: Spasmodic contraction of the smooth muscle of the bronchi.Iloprost: An eicosanoid, derived from the cyclooxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism. It is a stable and synthetic analog of EPOPROSTENOL, but with a longer half-life than the parent compound. Its actions are similar to prostacyclin. Iloprost produces vasodilation and inhibits platelet aggregation.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Beclomethasone: An anti-inflammatory, synthetic glucocorticoid. It is used topically as an anti-inflammatory agent and in aerosol form for the treatment of ASTHMA.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Fenoterol: An adrenergic beta-2 agonist that is used as a bronchodilator and tocolytic.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Oils, Volatile: Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.Toxicity Tests, Acute: Experiments designed to determine the potential toxic effects of one-time, short-term exposure to a chemical or chemicals.Nanoparticles: Nanometer-sized particles that are nanoscale in three dimensions. They include nanocrystaline materials; NANOCAPSULES; METAL NANOPARTICLES; DENDRIMERS, and QUANTUM DOTS. The uses of nanoparticles include DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEMS and cancer targeting and imaging.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Hydrocarbons, FluorinatedFiresNeutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Pulmonary Ventilation: The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level: The highest dosage administered that does not produce toxic effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Environmental Monitoring: The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.Aromatherapy: The use of fragrances and essences from plants to affect or alter a person's mood or behavior and to facilitate physical, mental, and emotional well-being. The chemicals comprising essential oils in plants has a host of therapeutic properties and has been used historically in Africa, Asia, and India. Its greatest application is in the field of alternative medicine. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; from Dr. Atiba Vheir, Dove Center, Washington, D.C.)Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

GM-CSF-deficient mice are susceptible to pulmonary group B streptococcal infection. (1/4255)

Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) gene-targeted mice (GM-/-) cleared group B streptococcus (GBS) from the lungs more slowly than wild-type mice. Expression of GM-CSF in the respiratory epithelium of GM-/- mice improved bacterial clearance to levels greater than that in wild-type GM+/+ mice. Acute aerosolization of GM-CSF to GM+/+ mice significantly enhanced clearance of GBS at 24 hours. GBS infection was associated with increased neutrophilic infiltration in lungs of GM-/- mice, while macrophage infiltrates predominated in wild-type mice, suggesting an abnormality in macrophage clearance of bacteria in the absence of GM-CSF. While phagocytosis of GBS was unaltered, production of superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide was markedly deficient in macrophages from GM-/- mice. Lipid peroxidation, assessed by measuring the isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2alpha, was decreased in the lungs of GM-/- mice. GM-CSF plays an important role in GBS clearance in vivo, mediated in part by its role in enhancing superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production and bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages.  (+info)

Prolonged eosinophil accumulation in allergic lung interstitium of ICAM-2 deficient mice results in extended hyperresponsiveness. (2/4255)

ICAM-2-deficient mice exhibit prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium concomitant with a delayed increase in eosinophil numbers in the airway lumen during the development of allergic lung inflammation. The ICAM-2-dependent increased and prolonged accumulation of eosinophils in lung interstitium results in prolonged, heightened airway hyperresponsiveness. These findings reveal an essential role for ICAM-2 in the development of the inflammatory and respiratory components of allergic lung disease. This phenotype is caused by the lack of ICAM-2 expression on non-hematopoietic cells. ICAM-2 deficiency on endothelial cells causes reduced eosinophil transmigration in vitro. ICAM-2 is not essential for lymphocyte homing or the development of leukocytes, with the exception of megakaryocyte progenitors, which are significantly reduced.  (+info)

Hexavalent chromium responsible for lung lesions induced by intratracheal instillation of chromium fumes in rats. (3/4255)

Lung toxicity of chromium fumes (Cr fumes) was examined by a single intratracheal instillation into rats of 10.6 mg and 21.3 mg Cr fumes/kg body weight and by repeated (3 times) instillations of 10.8 mg and 21.7 mg Cr fumes/kg. The pathological changes were compared with those induced by single administrations of 3.2 mg and 19.2 mg Na2CO3 solution-insoluble fraction of Cr fumes (Cr-Fr)/kg and 20.8 mg commercially available chromium (III) oxide powder (Cr (III) oxide)/kg. Single and repeated administrations of Cr fumes suppressed growth rate in a dose-dependent manner, but administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide did not. A single administration of Cr fumes produced granulomas in the entire airways and alveoli with progressive fibrotic changes, as well as severe mobilization and destruction of macrophages and foamy cells. Those histopathological changes were aggravated by the repeated administration of Cr fumes. On the other hand, single administrations of Cr-Fr and Cr (III) oxide produced no remarkable histopathological changes. Cr fumes were found to be composed of 73.5% chromium (III) oxide and 26.5% chromium (VI) oxide. The primary particles of Cr fumes and Cr-Fr were similar, 0.02 micron in size (sigma g: 1.25), and Cr (III) oxide particles were 0.30 micron in size (sigma g: 1.53), measured by analytical electron microscopy (ATEM). Diffuse clusters of the primary particles in Cr fumes were identified as Cr (VI) oxide. The present results suggested that the lung toxicity of Cr fumes was mainly caused by these Cr (VI) oxide (CrO3) particles in Cr fumes.  (+info)

A new model rat with acute bronchiolitis and its application to research on the toxicology of inhaled particulate matter. (4/4255)

The aim of the present study was to establish a useful animal model that simulates humans sensitive to inhaled particulate matter (PM). We have developed a new rat model of acute bronchiolitis (Br) by exposing animals to NiCl2 (Ni) aerosols for five days. Three days following the Ni exposure, the animals developed signs of tachypnea, mucous hypersecretion, and bronchiolar inflammation which seemed to progress quickly during the fourth to fifth day. They recovered from lesions after four weeks in clean air. To assess the sensitivity of the Br rats to inhaled particles, two kinds of PM of respirable size were tested with doses similar to or a little higher to the recommended threshold limit values (TLVs) for the working environment in Japan. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 = Ti) was chosen as an inert and insoluble particles and vanadium pentoxide (V2O5 = V), as a representative soluble and toxic airborne material. The Br rats exposed to either Ti or V were compared the pathological changes in the lungs and the clearance of particles to those in normal control or Br rats kept in clean air. The following significant differences were observed in Br rats: 1. delayed recovery from pre-existing lesions or exacerbated inflammation, 2. reductions in deposition and clearance rate of inhaled particles with the progress of lesions. The present results suggest that Br rats are more susceptible to inhaled particles than control rats. Therefore, concentrations of particulate matter lower than the TLVs for Japan, which have no harmful effects on normal lungs, may not always be safe in the case of pre-existing lung inflammation.  (+info)

An animal exposure system using ultrasonic nebulizer that generates well controlled aerosols from liquids. (5/4255)

Various aerosol generators have been developed for animal inhalation experiments and the performance tests of measuring instruments and respirators. It has been, however, difficult to generate aerosols from an aqueous solution or suspension keeping the concentration and particle size distribution constant for a long time. Resolving such difficulties, the present study developed an animal exposure system that generates well-controlled and stable aerosols from liquids. The exposure system consists of an aerosol generator using ultrasonic nebulizer, a mixing chamber and an exposure chamber. The validity of this system was confirmed in the generation of NiCl2 and TiO2 aerosol from solution and suspension, respectively. The concentration levels of NiCl2 aerosol were kept at 3.2 mg/m3 and 0.89 mg/m3 for 5 hours with good coefficients of variation (CVs) of 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively. For TiO2 aerosol, the concentration levels of 1.59 mg/m3 and 0.90 mg/m3 were kept for 5 hours with small CVs of 1.3% and 2.0%, respectively. This exposure system could be sufficiently used for inhalation experiments with even high toxic aerosols such as NiCl2 because a momentary high concentration possibly affects results and an extremely stable concentration is required.  (+info)

A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers in rat lungs. (6/4255)

A clearance model of inhaled man-made fibers (MMFs) was developed, and the calculated fiber numbers and dimensions were compared with the experimental ones using a glass fiber (GF), ceramic fiber (RF1) and two potassium octatitanate whiskers (PT1, TW). If the translocation rate by macrophages is constant and the effect of dissolution and disintegration can be ignored, the fiber number is expected to decrease exponentially with time. In the experimental study, however, the fiber number did not always decrease exponentially. In the case of RF1, the fiber number decreased almost exponentially and the diameter decreased linearly with the time. The clearance rate constant of GF during 3 to 6 months after the end of one-month exposure was greater than that during 1 to 3 months. On the contrary, the clearance rate constants of PT1 and TW during 1 to 6 months were greater than next six months. The diameter and the length of GF did not change significantly. The fiber length of PT1 tends to become longer with time although the diameter did not change significantly. Our theoretical model gives a satisfactory fit to these experimental results.  (+info)

Nitrogen dioxide formation during inhaled nitric oxide therapy. (7/4255)

BACKGROUND: Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is a toxic by-product of inhalation therapy with nitric oxide (NO). The rate of NO2 formation during NO therapy is controversial. METHODS: The formation of NO2 was studied under dynamic flows emulating a base case NO ventilator mixture containing 80 ppm NO in a 90% oxygen matrix. The difficulty in measuring NO2 concentrations below 2 ppm accurately was overcome by the use of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. RESULTS: Using a second-order model, the rate constant, k, for NO2 formation was determined to be (1.19 +/- 0.11) x 10(-11) ppm-2s-1, which is in basic agreement with evaluated data from atmospheric literature. CONCLUSIONS: Inhaled NO can be delivered safely in a well-designed, continuous flow neonatal ventilatory circuit, and NO2 formation can be calculated reliably using the rate constant and circuit dwell time.  (+info)

As-required versus regular nebulized salbutamol for the treatment of acute severe asthma. (8/4255)

Current British guidelines for the administration of beta2-agonists in acute severe asthma recommend regular nebulized therapy in hospitalized patients, followed by as-required (p.r.n.) use via hand-held devices after discharge. Since beta2-agonists do not possess anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, and are thus unlikely to influence the rate of recovery from an asthma exacerbation, it was hypothesized that patients given the short-acting beta2-agonist salbutamol on an as-required basis after admission to hospital would recover as quickly as those on regular treatment, but with potential reductions in the total dose delivered. Forty-six patients with acute severe asthma were randomly assigned to either regular prescriptions of nebulized salbutamol or to usage on a p.r.n. basis, from 24 h after hospital admission. The primary outcome measures were length of hospital stay, time to recovery, and frequency of salbutamol nebulization from 24 h after admission to discharge. Secondary outcome measures were treatment side-effects (tremor, palpitations), and patient satisfaction. Length of hospital stay was reduced in those patients allocated to p.r.n. salbutamol (geometric mean (GM) 3.7 days) versus regular salbutamol (GM 4.7 days). Time taken for peak expiratory flow to reach 75% of recent best was the same in both groups. There was a highly significant reduction in the number of times nebulized therapy was delivered to the p.r.n. group (GM 7.0, range 1-30) compared with the regular treatment group (GM 14.0, range 4-57; p=0.003; 95% confidence interval for ratio of GMs 1.29-3.09). In addition, patients reported less tremor (p=0.062) and fewer palpitations (p=0.049) in the p.r.n. group. Of the patients in the p.r.n. group who had received regular nebulized therapy on previous admissions (n=12), all preferred the p.r.n. regimen. Prescribing beta2-agonists on a p.r.n. basis from 24 h after hospital admission is associated with reduced amount of drug delivered, incidence of side-effects, and possibly length of hospital stay. This has implications for the efficient use of healthcare resources.  (+info)

Primary objective to evaluate the effect of a 12-week treatment period with prandial administration of Technosphere Insulin on glucose control in subjects with T2 DM. Secondary objective is to Evaluate the safety and tolerability of a 12-week treatment period of Technosphere Insulin and Technosphere Placebo ...
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Global Nitric Oxide Therapy System Sales Market Research Report 2018(PharmaNewsWire.Com, January 13, 2018 ) Geographically, this report is segmented into several key Regions, with production, consumption, revenue (million USD), market share and growth rate of Nitric Oxide Therapy System Sales in t
[97 Pages Report] Check for Discount on United States Nitric Oxide Therapy System Market Report 2017 report by QYResearch Group. In this report, the United States Nitric Oxide Therapy System...
In this video, Tokyo University researchers demonstrate the explicit interfaces between the human somatic niche and the technosphere by gently intriguing the viewer to broach the uncanny valley and reflect on the how anthropotechnics are not only anthropos using technics, but also technics using anthropos, exploring what consequences this could have on the entrainment of both human and non-human bodies.
This study explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn management in four approximately 20 minute long spontaneous multiparty conversations in Estonian. The main focus of interest is whether inhalation amplitude is greater before turn onset than in the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results show that inhalations directly before turn onset are greater in amplitude than those later in the turn. The difference seems to be realized by ending the inhalation at a greater lung volume value, whereas the initial lung volume before inhalation onset remains roughly the same across a single turn. The findings suggest that the increased inhalation amplitude could function as a cue for claiming the conversational floor.. ...
Littered ground: decaying leaves, cigarette butts, dislocated feathers. Unnoticed detritus pushed by each passing wheel further into the macadam, further from the notice of any passerby who may - many will, after all - fall also under the tread of the tire like so much extruding yellow paint. Ethnographer S. Løchlann Jain poetically examines how commodities and violence sustain one another in the technosphere.
A systematic review of randomised double-blind controlled trials of inhaled glucocorticosteroids in preschool children with multiple-trigger wheeze has shown significant improvements in important health outcomes, including symptoms, exacerbation rates, lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness 106. The treatment effect appears to be smaller than that seen in school-age children and adults. For example, studies of ICSs in preschool children with multiple-trigger wheeze have reported a reduction in exacerbations by ∼50% 107, 108. Compared to placebo, children using 200 μg·day−1 fluticasone exhibit a mean of 5% fewer days with symptoms 106.. The dose-response relationship of ICSs in preschool children is not entirely clear. Dose-related effects have been shown for exacerbation rate on treatment with daily ICS doses of up to 400 μg·day−1 beclometasone equivalent (or 200 μg·day−1 fluticasone) via pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) with spacer (pMDI-S) 107, without any further ...
Inhalation is an effective technique for the therapy of acute and chronic asthma. To make inhalation at home, you can buy a special device. But first, youd
|b|My 17 months old son has been suffering from recurrent fever, cough and cold. The doctor told me that he is having allergy and his bronchi have become inflamed.|/b| The doctor has suggested putting him on Budecort inhalation for nine months. Is it safe to take Budecort inhalation for such a long period of time? Will it hinder the normal functioning of the lungs? What are the side effects of Budecort inhalation? Is there any alternative therapy as treatment?
Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: ALNY), a leading RNAi therapeutics company, announced the presentation of results from its Phase I trial with ALN-RSV01 delivered via inhalation at the 18th Annual Drug Delivery to the Lungs meeting being held in Edinburgh, U.K. These data represent an important milestone in the companys efforts to advance ALN-RSV01 as an […]. ...
This medicine is for inhalation through the mouth. Rinse your mouth with water after use. Make sure not to swallow the water. Follow the directions on your prescription label. Do not use more often than directed. Do not stop taking your medicine unless your doctor tells you to. Make sure that you are using your inhaler correctly. Ask you doctor or health care provider if you have any questions.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. Special care may be needed. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 4 years of age for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
Pre-dose FEV1 is defined as the average of the FEV1 15 minutes pre-dose and FEV1 45 minutes pre-dose. A mixed model was used with treatment as a fixed effect, average of 15 min and 45 min pre-dose FEV1 at visit 3 as the baseline measurement, and FEV1 prior to inhalation and FEV1 60 min post inhalation of two short acting bronchodialators as covariates. The model also included smoking status at baseline, history of ICS use and country as fixed effects with center nested within country as a random effect ...
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Patient information for ABRIFF 50 MICROGRAM / 5 MICROGRAM PER ACTUATION PRESSURISED INHALATION SUSPENSION Including dosage instructions and possible side effects.
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Find patient medical information for Asmanex Twisthaler Inhalation on WebMD including its uses, side effects and safety, interactions, pictures, warnings and user ratings.
The TD-300 device simplifies the dosing process for your patients, using a series of features designed to help with proper inhalation and administration of TYVASO®.
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The Neonatal Research Network developed and initiated 3 multicenter randomized controlled clinical trials evaluating inhaled nitric oxide therapy. Additional projects evolved from these efforts including basic science research and observational investigations. This article provides a historical prospective of the Networks investigations related to the diagnosis and management of neonatal hypoxic respiratory failure, especially those related to inhaled nitric oxide therapy. It will review the Networks contributions toward advancing the clinical care of the newborn with severe hypoxic respiratory failure.
Absorption:Fluticasone Propionate:Healthy Subjects: Fluticasone propionate acts locally in the lung; therefore, plasma levels do not predict therapeutic effect. Studies using oral dosing of labeled and unlabeled drug have demonstrated that the oral systemic bioavailability of fluticasone propionate is negligible (,1%), primarily due to incomplete absorption and presystemic metabolism in the gut and liver. In contrast, the majority of the fluticasone propionate delivered to the lung is systemically absorbed.. Following administration of ADVAIR DISKUS to healthy adult subjects, peak plasma concentrations of fluticasone propionate were achieved in 1 to 2 hours. In a single-dose crossover study, a higher-than-recommended dose of ADVAIR DISKUS was administered to 14 healthy adult subjects. Two (2) inhalations of the following treatments were administered: ADVAIR DISKUS 500/50, fluticasone propionate powder 500 mcg and salmeterol powder 50 mcg given concurrently, and fluticasone propionate powder 500 ...
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Background: We previously showed that the long-acting beta agonist (LABA) salmeterol as inhalation powder or metered-dose inhaler improves lung-function parameters assessed by impulse oscillometry (IOS) in 2- to 5-year-old children with reversible-airway disease within 15 minutes. Objective: We studied 12- to 45-year-olds with mild persistent asthma in order to compare the onset and extent of peripheral airway effects following the first dose and after 4 weeks dosing with two inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/LABA combinations: fluticasone propionate/salmeterol 115/21 and budesonide/formoterol 160/4.5. Methods: Thirty subjects with mild persistent asthma using only an as-needed short-acting beta-agonist (albuterol) who had at least a 40% change in integrated low-frequency reactance postalbuterol were selected and randomized to receive either fluticasone propionate/salmeterol or budesonide/formoterol (15 subjects each). We collected three to six IOS replicates at baseline, at 5, 20, 40, 60, 120, and 240
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PULMICORT RESPULES is not a bronchodilator and should NOT be used to treat an acute asthma attack. If your child is switching to PULMICORT RESPULES from an oral corticosteroid, follow the doctors instructions to avoid serious health risks when your child stops using oral corticosteroids.. Only use PULMICORT RESPULES with a jet nebulizer machine that is connected to an air compressor. Do not use an ultrasonic nebulizer.. Thrush infection of the mouth and throat may occur with PULMICORT RESPULES.. Avoid exposure of your child to infections such as chicken pox and measles. Tell your doctor immediately if your child is exposed.. Inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth rate. The long-term effect on final adult height is unknown.. PULMICORT RESPULES should not be used if your child is allergic to budesonide or any of the ingredients.. Be sure to tell the healthcare provider about all your childs health conditions and all medicines he or she may be taking.. As with other inhaled ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluticasone propionate plasma concentration and systemic effect. T2 - Effect of delivery device and duration of administration. AU - Whelan, Glenn J.. AU - Blumer, Jeffrey L.. AU - Martin, Richard J.. AU - Szefler, Stanley J.. AU - Chinchilli, Vernon. AU - Kraft, Monica. AU - Dolovich, Myrna. AU - Boushey, Homer A.. AU - Cherniack, Reuben M.. AU - Craig, Timothy. AU - Drazen, Jeffrey M.. AU - Fagan, Joanne K.. AU - Fahy, John V.. AU - Fish, James E.. AU - Ford, Jean G.. AU - Israel, Elliott. AU - Kunselman, Susan J.. AU - Lazarus, Stephen C.. AU - Lemanske, Robert F.. AU - Peters, Stephen P.. AU - Sorkness, Christine A.. AU - King, Tonya. AU - Mauger, Elizabeth. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - Background: Inhaled corticosteroids are the preferred therapy in persistent asthma. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) generate a larger particle size compared with metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), which affects pulmonary deposition, bioavailability, and subsequent systemic effects of fluticasone ...
Acute inhalation toxicity of chlorine in rats and mice: Time-concentration-mortality relationships and effects on respiration | A. Zwart; R.A. Woutersen | download | BookSC. Download books for free. Find books
Title:Safety of Technosphere Inhaled Insulin. VOLUME: 12 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Nasser Mikhail. Affiliation:OliveView-UCLA Medical Center, David-Geffen Medical School, Los Angeles, CA. Keywords:Affreza, insulin, hypoglycemia, safety, technoshere, TI.. Abstract:Background: Technoshere insulin (TI), Afrezza, is a form of short-acting human insulin taken by oral inhalation with meals. Methods: literature search (English, French, Spanish) of all human studies and pertinent animal and in-vitro studies related to technosphere insulin until September 2016 with special emphasis on its safety. Results: Compared to subcutaneous insulin aspart, TI is slightly less effective, the difference in hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) reduction being 0.19%. Use of TI is associated with lower risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain compared with insulin aspart. Apart from hypoglycemia, cough is the most common adverse effect of TI reported by 24-33% of patients. Cough induced by TI is mostly dry, occurs within 10 minutes after ...
Exactly What Is Inhalation Therapy is on Rediff pages, Inhalation therapy is the application of inhaled agents to deal with respiratory illnesses and conditions. The objective of breathing in therapy, also called respiratory system therapy, should be to improve breathing and also lung function in...,Follow Exactly What Is Inhalation Therapy to get latest updates from Exactly What Is Inhalation Therapy
The combination of 2 long-acting bronchodilators, a β2-agonist (LABA), and an antimuscarinic agent (LAMA) in a single inhalation device, known as double bronchodilation,1 has changed therapeutic strategies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of this modality have placed it at the forefront of current COPD treatment recommendations, while inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are reserved as an alternative combined with double bronchodilation as a second treatment step in group C exacerbators or the more severe group D patients.2 In this context, the new GOLD 2017 strategy recommends the use of ICS in patients receiving double bronchodilation who continue presenting exacerbations. Consequently, there is a need to combine various drugs and inhalation devices to combine a LABA, a LAMA and an ICS to construct the so-called triple therapy using two inhalation devices.. Before the introduction of double bronchodilation, only 2 methods of administering ...
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The usual starting dosage for patients 2 to 12 years of age is 1.25 mg or 0.63 mg of albuterol sulfate inhalation solution administered 3 or 4 times daily, as needed, by nebulization. More frequent administration is not recommended.. To administer 1.25 mg or 0.63 mg of albuterol, use the entire contents of one unit-dose vial (3 mL of 1.25 mg or 0.63 mg inhalation solution) by nebulization. Adjust nebulizer flow rate to deliver albuterol sulfate inhalation solution over 5 to 15 minutes.. The use of albuterol sulfate inhalation solution can be continued as medically indicated to control recurring bouts of bronchospasm. During this time most patients gain optimum benefit from regular use of the inhalation solution.. Patients 6 to 12 years of age with more severe asthma (baseline FEV1 less than 60% predicted), weight , 40 kg, or patients 11 to 12 years of age may achieve a better initial response with the 1.25 mg dose.. Albuterol sulfate inhalation solution has not been studied in the setting of ...
First and Only Breath-Actuated Aerosol Inhaled Corticosteroid in the United States Designed to Help Eliminate the Need for Hand-Breath Coo, Teva Announces U.S. Launch of QVAR® RediHaler™ (Beclomethasone Dipropionate HFA) Inhalation Aerosol
Prominent percentage of patients with mild-to-moderate asthma has persistently non-eosinophilic disease which may not respond to anti-inflammatory treatments available now, states a new study.
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Upon analysis, an inhalable elemental carbon mass concentration arithmetic mean of 10.6 μg/m3 (geometric mean 4.21 μg/m3) was found among workers exposed to MWCNT. The concentration equates to a deposited dose of approximately 4.07 μg/d in a human, equivalent to 2 ng/d in the mouse. For MWCNT inhalation, mice were exposed for 19 d with daily depositions of 1970 ng (equivalent to 1000 d of a human exposure; cumulative 76 yr), 197 ng (100 d; 7.6 yr), and 19.7 ng (10 d; 0.76 yr) and harvested at 0, 3, 28, and 84 d post-exposure to assess pulmonary toxicity. The high dose showed cytotoxicity and inflammation that persisted through 84 d after exposure. The middle dose had no polymorphonuclear cell influx with transient cytotoxicity. The low dose was associated with a low grade inflammatory response measured by changes in mRNA expression. Increased inflammatory proteins were present in the lavage fluid at the high and middle dose through 28 d post-exposure. Pathology, including epithelial ...
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T. Praveen Kumar*1, M. Indira Vani1, D. Yamini1, P. Narayana Raju1,G. Nagarjuna Reddy1. Department of Pharmaceutics, K. L. R Pharmacy College,Paloncha, Khammam, Andhra Pradesh, India.. ABSTRACT. Pulmonary drug delivery has gained tremendous scientific interest in recent years and has progressed within the context of treatment for lung diseases. Lung is an attractive environment for bio molecules, which are highly susceptible to enzymatic degradation in the gastrointestinal tract as well as hepatic degradation. Pulmonary route is a non-invasive administration for systemic delivery of therapeutic agents (mainly peptides and proteins). Lungs provide a large absorptive surface area but extremely thin (0.1 μm â€" 0.2 μm) absorptive mucosal membrane and good blood supply. Intra tracheal administration is a first approach in lung drug delivery in vivo. In inhalation therapy most common devices used were nebulizer, Metered dose inhaler (MDI), and Dry powder inhaler (DPI). Pulmonary drug ...
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Mild and Severe Asthma May Be 2 Diseases The authors of a study reported recently in the European Respiratory Journal have concluded that severe asthma and mild asthma may be different conditions with different inflammatory processes. The study, conducted by scientists across Europe, evaluated 321 patients, 158 with mild-to-moderate asthma and 163 with severe asthma. The results of the study showed that both groups had very different levels of key chemicals in their blood. Also, whereas more men suffered from asthma, women were 4 times as likely to suffer from severe asthma. Individuals with mild-to-moderate asthma were able to control their symptoms with low doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Very few with severe asthma, however, were able to have their symptoms treated despite being treated with heavier doses of drugs. ...
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Budesonide inhalation suspension (Pulmicort) is an inhaled corticosteroid that reduces inflammation in the lungs. It is a "controller" medication that helps prevent asthma attacks rather than treat them. Albuterol is a "rescue" medication. Like Pulmicort, it can help prevent asthma attacks, but, unlike Pulmicort, it treats attacks in progress. Pulmicort users also need a rescue medication, such as albuterol, for emergencies.Source:eMedTV---Pulmicort UseseMedTV---BudesonideeMedTV--Albuterol
Consumer Medicine InformationWhat is in this leafletThis leaflet answers some of the common questions people ask about Pulmicort. It does not contain all the information that is known about Pulmicort.It does not take the place of talking to your doctor or pharmacist.All medicines have risks and benefits. Your doctor will have weighed the risks of you taking Pulmicort against the benefits it will have for you.If you have any concerns about taking this medicine, ask your doctor or pharmacist.Keep this..
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Common Pulmicort inhaler side effects include coughing, diarrhea, and runny nose. This eMedTV resource also lists rare but possible Pulmicort side effects, as well as potentially serious problems that require immediate medical attention.
Inhalation device comprising a body (55) defining a reservoir (56) for medicament in the form of a powder, an outlet (57) through which a user can inhale, and a dosing member (53) with at least one metering recess formed therein. The dosing member (53) is moveable between a first position in which the at least one metering recess communicates with the reservoir (56) to receive a dose of powder therefrom and a second position in which the at least one metering recess communicates with the outlet (57) to permit the user to inhale the dose. The at least one metering recess is formed in a face of the dosing member which is urged into contact against a similar mating face of the body at the lower end of the reservoir to form a dynamic seal. At least one of the faces (51) is made of a flexible material having a hardness of less than 80 Shore A.
Rahul K. Verma, Mariam Ibrahim, and Lucila Garcia-Contreras. 1.1 Introduction 2. 1.2 Anatomy and Physiology of Lungs 2. 1.2.1 Macro- and Microstructure of the Airways and Alveoli as It Pertains to Drug Delivery 2. 1.2.2 Lung Surfactant 4. 1.2.3 Pulmonary Blood Circulation 5. 1.3 Mechanisms of Aerosol Deposition 5. 1.3.1 Impaction 6. 1.3.2 Sedimentation 6. 1.3.3 Interception 6. 1.3.4 Diffusion 7. 1.4 Drug Absorption 7. 1.4.1 Mechanisms of Drug Absorption from the Lungs 7. 1.5 Physiological Factors Affecting the Therapeutic Effectiveness of Drugs Delivered by the Pulmonary Route 8. 1.5.1 Airway Geometry 8. 1.5.2 Inhalation Mode 8. 1.5.3 Airflow Rate 9. 1.5.4 Mechanism of Particle Clearance 9. 1.5.5 Lung Receptors 10. 1.5.6 Disease States 11. 1.5.7 Effect of Age and Gender Difference 11. 1.6 Computer Simulations to Describe Aerosol Deposition in Health and Disease 11. 1.6.1 Semiempirical Models 12. 1.6.2 Deterministic Models 12. 1.6.3 Trumpet Models (One-Dimensional) 12. 1.6.4 Stochastic, ...
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The Boxed Warning, the most prominent warning, about asthma-related death has been removed from these drug labels Read More.... In 2011, the FDA required that drug companies that market long-acting beta agonists (LABAs) in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) conduct trials to evaluate the safety of these agents. After review of four large studies, the FDA has determined that treating asthma with ICS/LABA does not result in significantly more serious asthma-related side effects than treatment with ICS alone. Four trials also assessed efficacy of the ICS/LABA products, and demonstrated that the ICS/LABA combination reduced asthma exacerbations compared to ICS alone. Using LABAs alone without an ICS for asthma is linked with an increased risk of asthma-related death and this Boxed Warning will remain on single ingredient LABA medicine. Labels on combo inhalers such as Advair, Breo Ellipta, Dulera, AirDuo, and Symbicort will be updated.. ...
Identifies and quantifies poor inhaler technique Objective identification of proper use of the inhaler device Assists in training patients to use their inhalers correctly Provides clear feedback and instructions to subject and trainer Easy to use, hyg
The behavioral effects induced by methyl-n-amyl ketone (110430) (MAK) exposure were studied. Rats received from one to eight intraperitoneal injections (group I) of 18, 37, 74, or 175 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) MAK, or were exposed to MAK aerosols (Group II) of 800 to 1,900 parts per million (ppm) daily for 6 or 8 hours. Following inhalation exposures, the rats were given injections of 37, 74
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The researchers did a computer-based search of the medical literature and collected all of the articles that reported on testing the effects of long-acting beta-agonists in asthmatic patients. To be included in this study, the articles had to report that patients were assigned to a group that received a long-acting beta-agonist or to a group that received placebo (an ineffective substance used in place of the active medicine). Assignment to one group or the other had to be done completely by chance. In addition, the study had to have lasted at least 3 months. After retrieving the articles, the researchers judged the quality of each study. They then analyzed the pooled results from all the patients they had been able to gather from all the studies combined and calculated the proportion of patients who had had 1 of the complications listed earlier ...
Analytical methods development and validation play important roles in the discovery, development, and manufacture of pharmaceuticals. Simple, precise and accurate UV spectroscopic method has been developed and validated for estimation of Fluticasone propionate. It is a selective agonist at the glucocorticoid receptor. UV spectroscopic method which is based on measurement of absorption of UV light, the spectra of Fluticasone propionate in methanol showed maximum wavelength at 236nm and calibration curve were plotted over the concentrations ranging from 2-22ug/ml of Fluticasone propionate with correlation coefficient 0.9812 validation was performed as per ICH Q2 (R1) guidelines for linearity, accuracy, precision and recovery. The proposed method was validated.
Adults with asthma typically start with two inhalations of Pulmicort 180 mcg Flexhaler twice a day. This eMedTV page also offers Pulmicort Flexhaler dosing guidelines for children ages six and older and discusses the use of the drug in young children.
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While relievers provide symptomatic relief, they are not meant for regular use. Preventer inhalers should be taken regularly, twice daily, by people living with asthma-irrespective of their status of wellness, advised Dr Surya Kant. If a person is on proper inhalation therapy, he/she can keep this life long disease under control forever and lead a very normal and healthy life. But if they are on oral therapy, then they lead a compromised life and mortality rates could also be high. However, he lamented that in India only 20% of the patients use inhalers while the rest 80% are on oral therapy. Dr Surya Kant also warned against use of alternative medicine to treat asthma. "Till date no medicine other than inhalation therapy is effective for asthma management. Many herbal medicines were used before the advent of inhalation therapy, as there was no proper medication available. But as of now, no herbal, ayurvedic or any other system of medication can manage asthma. So please do not go for any ...
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Publication date: March 2018 Source: Oral Oncology, Volume 78 Author(s): Zeno A.R. Gouw, Jan Paul de Boer, Arash Navran, Michiel W.M. va ...
An alternative to a syringe injection, inhalation therapies convert drug solutions into a continuous fine aerosol mist, normally 1-5 microns in size which can be inhaled directly into the lungs via a mouthpiece or face mask. In addition, inhalers and other pulmonary drug delivery devices are included in this category of non-needle drug delivery ...
The present invention relates to the delivery of opioids through an inhalation route. Specifically, it relates to aerosols containing opioids that are used in inhalation therapy. In a method aspect of the present invention, an opioid is delivered to a patient through an inhalation route. The method comprises: a) heating a thin layer of an opioid, on a solid support, to form a vapor; and, b) passing air through the heated vapor to produce aerosol particles having less than 5% opioid degradation products. In a kit aspect of the present invention, a kit for delivering an opioid through an inhalation route is provided which comprises: a) a thin layer of an opioid and b) a device for dispensing said thin layer as a condensation aerosol.
To test this hypothesis, the Sobel laboratory had study participants perform non-emotional cognitive tasks while the scientists measured nasal airflow and recorded brain activity via electroencephalography (EEG). The scientists found that participants unconsciously tended to time the onset of their cognitive efforts to coincide with nasal inhalation. When the pattern-matching task-the simplest task-was covertly timed to coincide specifically with participant inhalation or exhalation, the results were even stronger: Inhalation at task onset was associated with improved performance.. The study was published in Nature Human Behaviour in March.. "Our results show that its not only the olfactory system that is sensitive to inhalation and exhalation-the entire brain is," says Prof. Sobel. "We could generalize to say that the brain works better with inhalation." Moreover, the nose truly knows, as synchronized inhalation through the mouth had no impact on cognitive performance.. While the benefit of ...
This medicine is for inhalation through the mouth. Follow the directions on your prescription label. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not use more often than directed. Make sure that you are using your inhaler correctly. Ask you doctor or health care provider if you have any questions.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 4 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
This medicine is for inhalation through the mouth. Follow the directions on your prescription label. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not use more often than directed. Make sure that you are using your inhaler correctly. Ask you doctor or health care provider if you have any questions.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 4 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
This medicine is for inhalation through the mouth. Follow the directions on your prescription label. Take your medicine at regular intervals. Do not use more often than directed. Make sure that you are using your inhaler correctly. Ask you doctor or health care provider if you have any questions.. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for children as young as 4 years for selected conditions, precautions do apply.. ...
Salmeterol/Fluticasonpropionaat Momaja Pressurised Inhalation Suspension is used for seasonal and year-round allergic, stuffy/runny nose, itching and sneezing, itchy and watery eyes and other conditions. Salmeterol/Fluticasonpropionaat Momaja Pressurised Inhalation Suspension contains the following active ingredients: Fluticasone Propionate.
An opiod formulation for pulmonary administration in the treatment of pain, a pulmonary drug delivery device containing, method of administering, kit containing, and uses of same. The formulation contains at least one rapid-onset opioid and preferably also contains a sustained-effect opioid to reduce the frequency of administration. The invention employs the side effects of the opioid formulation to permit patients to self-limit drug intake, thereby avoiding toxicity while achieving analgesia. A pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic model is employed to determine optimum drug formulations and optimum parameters for administration ...
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The present invention relates to the delivery of opioids through an inhalation route. Specifically, it relates to aerosols containing opioids that are used in inhalation therapy. In a method aspect of the present invention, an opioid is delivered to a patient through an inhalation route. The method comprises: a) heating a composition, wherein the composition comprises an opioid, to form a vapor; and, b) allowing the vapor to cool, thereby forming a condensation aerosol comprising particles with less than 5% opioid degradation products. In a kit aspect of the present invention, a kit for delivering an opioid through an inhalation route is provided which comprises: a) a thin coating of an opioid composition and b) a device for dispensing said thin coating as a condensation aerosol.
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The Scottish Medicines Consortium has followed the lead of its equivalent south of the border and decided not to back the use of Pfizers inhaled insulin product Exubera on Scotlands National Health Service. - News - PharmaTimes
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The local delivery of therapeutic agents directly into the lungs provides a methodology for safely and effectively treating various disease conditions.
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I believe inhalation technology has an important role to play in peptide research and therapies," he says. "And no other in vitro- or in vivo system in the world can collect the quality and detail of data that Inhalation Sciences IPL system can. This is a very good project for us. We will be able to provide the required inhalation technology entirely from our in-house methods. I think we are one of the few companies in the world who can deliver the quality of data needed here. We are pleased to contribute to this important cross-disciplinary project.". Why are AMPS so potentially important?. New infectious, bacterial diseases that are highly resistant to traditional antibiotics are one of the major threats to our healthcare system today. Some scientists believe that within just one generation these new forms of highly resistant, infectious bacterial diseases could take the state of medical care back to the pre-antibiotic era, with treatments potentially as effective as they were at the ...
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The invention relates to a method for making composite active particles for use in a pharmaceutical composition for pulmonary administration, the method comprising a milling step in which particles of active material are milled in the presence of particles of an additive material which is suitable for the promotion of the dispersal of the composite active particles upon actuation of an inhaler. The invention also relates to compositions for inhalation prepared by the method.
Abstract Background We aimed to determine the effect of sampling time during the day on serum periostin levels in adult participants with and without asthma. Methods Serum periostin was measured at 2-h intervals from 0800 to 1800 h in 16 adult participants with stable asthma prescribed inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta-agonist therapy, and in 16 otherwise healthy participants without asthma. Mixed linear models were used to compare time zero (08:00 h) with subsequent measurement time for serum periostin for both groups. Results In both asthma and non-asthma, the mean (SD) serum periostin levels continuously reduced during the day from 53.5 (13.6) ng/mL at 0800 h to 50.9 (13.4) ng/mL at 1800 h (difference log periostin −0.05, P ≤ 0.001) and 50.5 (13.0) ng/mL at 0800 h to 46.2 (11.5) ng/mL at 1800 h (difference log periostin −0.08, P ≤ 0.001) respectively. Conclusions Periostin values are higher in the morning compared with the afternoon in asthmatic and non-asthmatic adults. The ...
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On 30 March 1842, he administered diethyl ether by inhalation to a man named James Venable, in order to remove a tumor from the ... The increased application of economic and business administration principles to health care in the late 20th and early 21st ... reprinted in "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anaesthetic in Surgical Operations". Survey of ... Long CW (December 1849). "An account of the first use of Sulphuric Ether by Inhalation as an Anaesthetic in Surgical Operations ...
Other devices invented by Magill include the Magill laryngoscope blade, as well as several apparati for the administration of ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)55592-5. Magill, I (1921). "Warming ether vapour for Inhalation". The Lancet. 197 (5102): 1270. doi: ... Until 1913, oral and maxillofacial surgery was performed by mask inhalation anesthesia, topical application of local ... 10.1016/S0140-6736(01)24908-3. Magill, I (1923). "An apparatus for the administration of nitrous oxide, oxygen, and ether". The ...
Airway obstruction is also common in people who have suffered smoke inhalation or burns within or near the airway or ... They may also be used as a route for administration of certain medications such as bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, ... doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)24908-3. Magill, I (1923). "An apparatus for the administration of nitrous oxide, oxygen, and ether ... Because it is an invasive and uncomfortable medical procedure, intubation is usually performed after administration of general ...
On 24 March 2015 it was granted approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use in treating inhalation ... "FDA approves treatment for inhalation anthrax". United States Food and Drug Administration. 25 March 2015. "Anthrasil Approval ...
Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". Abbott Park, Illinois: ... The Penthrox inhaler is a hand-held inhaler used for self-administration of methoxyflurane for pain relief. It is manufactured ... 2009). "PENTHROX (methoxyflurane) Inhalation: Product Information" (PDF). Springvale, Victoria, Australia: Medical Developments ... Crombie, JM (1876). "On the self-administration of chloroform". The Practitioner. 16 (2): 97-101. ISSN 0032-6518. Retrieved ...
"Incruse Ellipta (umeclidinium inhalation powder) for Oral Inhalation Use. Full Prescribing Information" (PDF). GlaxoSmithKline ... it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) under the trade name Arcapta Neohaler on July 1, 2011) olodaterol: ... "FDA approves Anoro Ellipta to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 25 ... Food and Drug Administration. 2011-07-01. Retrieved 2011-07-02. [1] "New once-daily Striverdi (olodaterol) Respimat gains ...
doi:10.1001/jama.1890.02410440006001a. Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation ... Early inhalation devices included one devised by John Mudge in 1778. It had a pewter mug with a hole allowing attachment of a ... To reduce deposition in the mouth and throat, and to reduce the need for precise synchronization of the start of inhalation ... 2004). Pharmaceutical Inhalation Aerosol Technology (2nd ed.). NY: Marcel Dekker. Nick Baumann (July-August 2011). "Why You're ...
Model 60 Airplanes". Federal Aviation Administration. Retrieved 13 November 2014. "Bono Had a Mid-air Scare When a Door Fell ... AINonline "Crew in crash died of burns, smoke inhalation". Associated Press. Retrieved 13 November 2014. "Runway Overrun During ... United States Six Learjet 60 aircraft are operated by the Federal Aviation Administration to carry out airborne accuracy checks ... According to the Federal Aviation Administration, as the plane was departing the airport, air traffic controllers saw sparks ...
... and via inhalation by smoking, vaporization and insufflation ("snorting"). The efficiency of each method of administration ... ACM 34205, afcca.law.af.mil United States Food and Drug Administration. CDER Data Standards Manual. Retrieved on May 15, 2007. ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authority over all drugs, including psychoactive drugs. The ... History of the Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved at FDA's website on June 23, 2007. United States Controlled Substances ...
Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". Abbott Park, Illinois: ... Supervised self-administration of methoxyflurane in children and adults can briefly lead to deep sedation, and it has been used ... Intermittent inhalation of methoxyflurane and trichloroethylene as an analgesic in burns dressings procedures. Br. J. Anaesth. ... Tomlin PJ, Jones BC, Edwards R, Robin PE (1973). "Subjective and objective sensory responses to inhalation of nitrous oxide and ...
108-9. ISBN 0-8036-1559-0. Wexler RE (1968). "Analgizer: Inhaler for supervised self-administration of inhalation anesthesia". ... Providers must always observe the first administration of any PCA medication which has not already been administered by the ... These are popular for administration of opioids such as fentanyl, or local anesthetics such as lidocaine. Iontocaine is one ... The most common form of patient-controlled analgesia is self-administration of oral over-the-counter or prescription ...
The plasma half-life measured after oral administration is about two hours. "Maxair Autohaler (pirbuterol acetate inhalation ... After inhalation of doses up to 800 μg (twice the maximum recommended dose) systemic blood levels of pirbuterol are below the ... of the dose is recovered in urine as pirbuterol plus its sulfate conjugate following administration by aerosol. Pirbuterol is ... aerosol) For Oral Inhalation Only. U.S. Full Prescribing Information". 3M Pharmaceuticals. Northridge, CA 91324. Retrieved 7 ...
... inhalation, intramuscular, and submucosal administration, among others. Sedation dentistry has become popular because it offers ... The parenteral route involves the administration of sedative drugs other than absorption across enteric membranes (outside of ...
... is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. It is distributed to most ... Methamphetamine is also well absorbed following inhalation and following intranasal administration. Due to the high ... Repeated administration or self administration of METH has been shown to upregulate σ-1 receptor protein and mRNA in various ... The lack of effect of administration of neomycin to one patient indicates that the hydroxylation occurs in body tissues. ... a ...
Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 30 October 2019.. *^ "FDA approves first generic Advair Diskus". U.S. Food and Drug ... "Fluticasone and Salmeterol inhalation - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses". Drugs.com. Retrieved 4 March 2019. ... Administration.. *^ "GlaxoSmithKline to Plead Guilty and Pay $3 Billion to Resolve Fraud Allegations and Failure to Report ...
administration. Inhalation. ATC code. *R03AK04 (WHO) Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S3 (Pharmacist only) ...
Ipratropium Oral Inhalation Archived 2012-09-02 at the Wayback Machine. PubMed Health Retrieved May 28, 2012 ... For oral administration, contraindications are similar to other anticholinergics; they include narrow angle glaucoma and ... Inhaled ipratropium does not decrease mucociliary clearance.[10] The inhalation itself can cause headache and irritation of the ... Ipratropium is administered by inhalation for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma ...
"Harm Reduction Associated with Inhalation and Oral Administration of Cannabis and THC". Journal of Cannabis Therapeutics. 1 (3- ... The transmission of tuberculosis has been linked to cannabis inhalation techniques, such as sharing water pipes and 'Hotboxing ... the inhalation of smoke from organic materials can cause various health problems (e.g., coughing and sputum). Isoprenes help to ...
Insufflation has many medical uses, most notably as a route of administration for various drugs. Nasal inhalation of ... Nasal insufflation is the most common method of nasal administration. Other methods are nasal inhalation (common in ... However, the insufflation by the pump is not adequate for delivery to the lungs, necessitating an active inhalation by the ... The time of onset for systemic drugs delivered via nasal administration is generally only marginally slower than if given ...
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Snow, J (1858). "Fatal cases of inhalation of chloroform, Treatment of suspended animation from chloroform". In Richardson, BW ... On chloroform and other anaesthetics: their action and administration. London: John Churchill. pp. 120-200, 251-62. ... John Snow was the first to report tracheotomy and cannulation of the trachea for the administration of chloroform anesthesia in ... Tracheotomy may result in a significant reduction in the administration of sedatives and vasopressors, as well as the duration ...
It is currently marketed by GlaxoSmithKline under the trade name Relenza as a powder for oral inhalation. Zanamivir is used for ... "Safe and Appropriate Use of Influenza Drugs". Public Health Advisories (Drugs). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). April ... The bioavailability of zanamivir is 2%. After inhalation, zanamivir is concentrated in the lungs and oropharynx, where up to 15 ... Dosing is limited to the inhalation route. This restricts its usage, as treating asthmatics could induce bronchospasms. In 2006 ...
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administration. Nasal inhalation. ATC code. *R01AD13 (WHO) R03BA08 (WHO). Legal status. Legal status. *AU: S4 (Prescription ... "Food and Drug Administration. 2006-10-23. Retrieved 2009-07-30.. *^ Mutch, Elaine; Nave, Ruediger; McCracken, Nigel; Zech, Karl ... The drug was approved for adults and children 12 and over by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2006.[2] Side ...
Benjamin Pui-Nin Mo & E. Leong Way (October 1, 1966). "An Assessment Of Inhalation As A Mode Of Administration Of Heroin By ... Today, opium is regulated by the Drug Enforcement Administration under the Controlled Substances Act. Following passage of a ... Evidence from ancient Greece indicates that opium was consumed in several ways, including inhalation of vapors, suppositories, ... and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration in the United States formerly mandated that all drug ...
Where it is associated with inhalation steroids (often used for treatment of asthma), erythematous candidiasis commonly appears ... depending on the route of administration. Topically administered corticosteroids in the mouth may take the form of mouthwashes ...
Approval of Raxibacumab for the Treatment of Inhalation Anthrax Under the US Food and Drug Administration "Animal Rule".. Tsai ...
Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration. ... Metabolism and disposition of 1-bromopropane in rats and mice following inhalation or intravenous administration. Toxicology ... or intravenous administration (5, 20, and 100 mg/kg). [1,2,3-(13)C]1-BrP and [1-(14)C]1-BrP were administered to enable ... and tissues were collected for up to 48 h post-administration for determination of radioactivity distribution. Rats and mice ...
Acetylcysteine Solution will be available in the coming weeks as a 20% concentration for inhalation or oral administration in ...
Also disclosed is an inhalation method of administration of the formulation without the use of heat greater than 50°C. ... sublingual administration, smoked, vaporized inhalation delivery, or topical administration of said cannabinoid acid, alone or ... Also disclosed is an inhalation method of administration of the formulation without the use of heat greater than 50°C. ... In addition, oral ingestion modes of administration, including sublingual administration, require significant doses in order to ...
Other: Corticosteroids inhalation Flixotide inhalation followed by Qvar inhalation through a nasal filter and a mouth filter ... Other: Corticosteroids inhalation Qvar inhalation followed by Flixotide inhalation through a nasal filter and a mouth filter ... Ex Vivo Pilot Study of the Impact of Nasal Breathing During the Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids by Inhalation Chamber ... Ex Vivo Pilot Study of the Impact of Nasal Breathing During the Administration of Inhaled Corticosteroids by Inhalation Chamber ...
MRTih (Mean residence time of the analyte in the body after inhalation) [ Time Frame: up to 48 hours after drug administration ... this objective was extended to the second spray-dried inhalation formulation SD II with and without concomitant administration ... tolerability and pharmacokinetics of BIBN 4096 BS after single inhalation administration of rising doses of spray-dried powder ... Tolerability and Pharmacokinetics of Spray Dried BIBN 4096 BS After Inhalation Administration in Healthy Male and Female ...
Following the Medications Inhaled Administration.. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... Inhalation Powder via inhalation. Each trial subject will be administered 20 mg of FDKP, 40 mg of FDKP, 400 mg oral dose of ... 48 healthy adult male & female subjects will be enrolled in this study to determine the effect of Technosphere® Inhalation ... The time-matched change from baseline in QTc after therapeutic dose Technosphere® Inhalation Powder based on an individual ...
... delivering an inhalation powder to help improve lung function (FEV₁) for patients with COPD. Please visit website for Important ... Using SPIRIVA® HANDIHALER® (tiotropium bromide inhalation powder). Once-daily dosing in 4 simple steps1. *. Open the HANDIHALER ... SPIRIVA capsules should not be swallowed and should only be inhaled through the mouth (oral inhalation) using the HANDIHALER ... SPIRIVA capsules should not be swallowed and should only be inhaled through the mouth (oral inhalation) using the HANDIHALER ...
Nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides effective analgesia during the administration of tumescent local anaesthesia for ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Cayston(R) (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) for the Improvement of Respiratory ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration Approves Cayston(R) (Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) for the Improvement of Respiratory ... Cayston is administered by inhalation using the Altera Nebulizer System, an inhalation delivery device optimized specifically ... Cayston (aztreonam for inhalation solution) 75 mg is an inhaled antibiotic for patients with cystic fibrosis who have P. ...
T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Welcome to the ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. Pang, Fei Victor ... T2 Mycotoxicosis in Swine Following Topical Application, Intravascular Administration and Inhalation Exposure. ... Inhalation exposure to T-2 toxin caused vomiting, cyanosis, anorexia, lethargy, lateral recumbency and even death. Elevated ...
... Author: Yamaguchi, KT; Taira, MT; ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen.. Show full item record ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen. J. Hyperbaric Med 1990; 5(2):103-109.. ... Thermal and Inhalation Injury: Effects of Fluid Administration and Hyperbaric Oxygen.. Rubicon Research Repository/Manakin ...
Oral Inhalation). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Administration. Asmanex HFA: Metered-dose inhaler: Shake well prior to each inhalation. Administer as 2 inhalations twice daily ... Maximum daily dose: 440 mcg/day; may be administered as 1 inhalation twice daily or 2 inhalations once daily in the evening ... Children 4 to 11 years (regardless of prior therapy): Note: Use 110 mcg inhaler: Oral inhalation (110 mcg/inhalation): Initial ...
Oral Inhalation). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Administration. Inhalation: For oral inhalation only.. Dry powder inhaler (capsule): Do not swallow capsules. Administer at the ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): Inhalation:. Dry powder inhaler (capsule): One capsule (15.6 mcg) inhaled twice ... Ipratropium (Oral Inhalation): May enhance the anticholinergic effect of Anticholinergic Agents. Avoid combination ...
Bethkis Inhalation Solution official prescribing information for healthcare professionals. Includes: indications, dosage, ... Bethkis Inhalation Solution Dosage and Administration. Dosing Information. The recommended dosage for patients six years of age ... Administration. BETHKIS is administered by oral inhalation. Do not use by any other route. ... Administration by inhalation results in low systemic bioavailability of tobramycin. Tobramycin is not significantly absorbed ...
Oral Inhalation). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Administration. Inhalation: Deliver via Respirgard II nebulizer until nebulizer is emptied (30-45 minutes). Administer at a ... Asthma: Use inhalation formulation with caution in patients with asthma. May induce bronchospasm or cough, especially in ... Patients receiving pentamidine inhalation should be closely monitored for the development of serious adverse reactions that ...
Oral Inhalation). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Administration. For oral inhalation; avoid spraying in eyes.. Metered-dose inhaler: Prior to initial use, prime inhaler by ... COPD: Inhalation:. Metered-dose inhaler (MDI): 2 inhalations (34 mcg) 4 times daily; maximum dose: 12 inhalations (204 mcg)/day ... Metered-dose inhaler: 2 to 3 inhalations every 6 hours; maximum daily dose: 12 inhalations/day ...
Oral Inhalation). Includes: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, contraindications, interactions, adverse reactions and more. ... Administration. Oral inhalation: Metered-dose inhaler: Do not shake prior to use. Avoid spraying in face or eyes. Rinse mouth ... If more than 1 inhalation is needed per dose, make sure the white cap is closed prior to next inhalation. If the white cap has ... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (stable) (off-label use): Oral inhalation: 50 to 400 mcg daily in combination with a long ...
Arformoterol Tartrate Inhalation Solution) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling ... Long-term studies were conducted in mice using oral administration and rats using inhalation administration to evaluate the ... Instructions For Administration. It is important that patients understand how to use BROVANA Inhalation Solution with a ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. The recommended dose of BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is one 15 mcg unitdose ...
Aztreonam for Inhalation Solution) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, ... Instructions for CAYSTON Administration. CAYSTON is administered by inhalation using an Altera Nebulizer System. CAYSTON should ... CAYSTON is not for intravenous or intramuscular administration.. Patients should use a bronchodilator before administration of ... aztreonam for inhalation solution). Read this Patient Information before you start taking CAYSTON and each time you get a ...
Nicotine Inhalation System) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Patients must desire to stop smoking and should be instructed to stop smoking completely as they ... An intensive inhalation regimen (80 deep inhalations over 20 minutes) releases on the average 4 mg of the nicotine content of ... NICOTROL (nicotine inhalation system) Inhaler helps you quit smoking by reducing your urge to smoke. Success in quitting with ...
... for Oral Inhalation Use) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. For oral inhalation only. Do not swallow UTIBRON capsules, as the intended effects on the lungs will ... More frequent administration or a greater number of inhalations (more than 1 capsule twice-daily) of UTIBRON NEOHALER is not ... indacaterol and glycopyrrolate) Inhalation Powder, for Oral Inhalation Use. Important: Do not swallow UTIBRON capsules. UTIBRON ...
Fluticasone Furoate Inhalation Powder) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, ... Linear pharmacokinetics was observed for fluticasone furoate (200 to 800 mcg). On repeated once-daily inhalation administration ... fluticasone furoate) Powder, for Oral Inhalation Use. DESCRIPTION. ARNUITY ELLIPTA is an inhalation powder drug product for ... It is not possible to accidentally take a double dose or an extra dose in 1 inhalation. ...
Albuterol Inhalation) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and ... More frequent administration or a larger number of inhalations is not recommended. In some patients, one inhalation every 4 ... FOR ORAL INHALATION ONLY. DESCRIPTION. The active component of PROVENTIL® HFA (albuterol sulfate) Inhalation Aerosol is ... Although such effects are uncommon after administration of PROVENTIL HFA Inhalation Aerosol at recommended doses, if they occur ...
Insulin Human Inhalation Powder) may treat, uses, dosage, side effects, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Route Of Administration. AFREZZA should only be administered via oral inhalation using the AFREZZA ... AFREZZA Administration For Doses Exceeding 12 Units. For AFREZZA doses exceeding 12 units, inhalations from multiple cartridges ... Important Administration Instructions. See Patient Instructions for Use for complete administration instructions with ...
  • FOSTER CITY, Calif., Feb 22, 2010 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq:GILD) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted marketing approval for Cayston(R)(aztreonam for inhalation solution) as a treatment to improve respiratory symptoms in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa). (gilead.com)
  • The effect of deep inhalation (DI) may be of particular relevance to the study of respiratory function in subjects with diseased airways, as it may provide indications relative to the mechanisms of airway obstruction (AO) 1 , 2 . (ersjournals.com)
  • Implementation of measures to reduce or eliminate HGV exposures is important, including practices that allow for alternative fluid sample collection points, remote monitoring of fluid levels, proper use of gas monitors, respiratory protection meeting the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and worker training. (cdc.gov)
  • The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of aerosolized surfactant, specifically lucinactant for inhalation, administered in escalating inhaled doses to preterm neonates 29 to 34 weeks gestational age who are receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), compared to neonates receiving nCPAP alone. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Irritant gases are those that, on inhalation, dissolve in the water of the respiratory tract mucosa and provoke an inflammatory response, usually from the release of acidic or alkaline radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aerodynamically light particles incorporating a therapeutic agent may be effectively aerosolized for administration to the respiratory tract to permit systemic or local delivery of wide variety of therapeutic agents. (google.com)
  • The human and animal data consistently indicate a lack of carcinogenicity via the oral route of exposure and limit the carcinogenicity of nickel compounds to respiratory tumours after inhalation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhalation may also cause irritation to the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely used to test the respiratory toxicity of a substance as an alternative to inhalation in animal testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instillation results in a less uniform distribution of the substance than inhalation, and the substance is cleared from the respiratory tract more slowly. (wikipedia.org)
  • The safety and efficacy of BROVANA Inhalation Solution in patients with asthma have not been established. (rxlist.com)
  • All LABA, including BROVANA Inhalation Solution, are contraindicated in patients with asthma without use of a long-term asthma control medication [see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA Inhalation Solution is not indicated to treat asthma . (rxlist.com)
  • The safety and effectiveness of BROVANA Inhalation Solution in asthma have not been established. (rxlist.com)
  • PULMICORT FLEXHALER (budesonide inhalation powder) is indicated for the maintenance treatment of asthma as prophylactic therapy in patients six years of age or older. (rxlist.com)
  • Improvement in asthma control following inhaled administration of budesonide can occur within 24 hours of initiation of treatment, although maximum benefit may not be achieved for 1 to 2 weeks, or longer. (rxlist.com)
  • AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) is indicated for the relief of bronchospasm in patients 2 to 12 years of age with asthma (reversible obstructive airway disease). (rxlist.com)
  • When separate administration of long-term asthma controller therapy (e.g., inhaled corticosteroids) and a long-acting β 2 -adrenergic agonist is clinically indicated, take appropriate steps to ensure compliance with both drugs. (drugs.com)
  • Ipratropium is administered by inhalation for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma exacerbation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The data from adults and adolescents is based upon 2 clinical trials in which 202 subjects with asthma aged 12 years and older were treated with VENTOLIN HFA 2 inhalations 4 times daily for 12 weeks' duration. (rxlist.com)
  • The data from pediatric subjects are based upon 1 clinical trial in which 46 subjects with asthma aged 4 to 11 years were treated with VENTOLIN HFA 2 inhalations 4 times daily for 2 weeks' duration. (rxlist.com)
  • When working to manage asthma on a daily basis, proper administration of medication is of paramount importance," said Dr. Warner W. Carr, MD, Associate Medical Director of Southern California Research at Allergy and Asthma Associates of Southern California Medical Group in Mission Viejo, California. (businesswire.com)
  • There is described a method of treatment of asthma which comprises administration to an asthmatic patient of an effective amount of an inhalation composition consisting essentially of a dispersion or suspension of from 0.2 to 2.0% disodium cromoglycate of mass median diameter 0.01 to 10 microns, from. (google.com)
  • Disodium cromoglycate has since 1967 been sold under the Registered Trade Mark `Intal` in admixture with lactose as a powder for the inhalation therapy of asthma. (google.com)
  • Steroids (local effect) and anti-asthma medication Hormone replacement Decongestants (local effect) Nicotine replacement Migraine medication Vaccines Nasal administration can also be used for treatment of children or patients who are otherwise alarmed or frightened by needles, or where intravenous (IV) access is unavailable. (wikipedia.org)
  • Silicosis (previously miner's phthisis, grinder's asthma, potter's rot and other occupation-related names) is a form of occupational lung disease caused by inhalation of crystalline silica dust, and is marked by inflammation and scarring in the form of nodular lesions in the upper lobes of the lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pitrakinra is associated with few adverse effect, whether administered by subcutaneous injection or by inhalation in participants with atopic asthma or atopic eczema. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, the drug was approved for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for long-term maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, and the European Medicines Agency approved it as a second-line therapy for the treatment of COPD and asthma. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of AccuNeb (albuterol sulfate inhalation solution) can be continued as medically indicated to control recurring bouts of bronchospasm. (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA (arformoterol tartrate) Inhalation Solution is indicated for the long-term, twice daily (morning and evening) maintenance treatment of bronchoconstriction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ), including chronic bronchitis and emphysema . (rxlist.com)
  • BROVANA Inhalation Solution is not indicated to treat acute deteriorations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS ]. (rxlist.com)
  • There is currently no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but its symptoms can be managed by inhalation of bronchodilating drugs, most commonly muscarinic antagonists (for long-term symptom management) and/or beta-adrenergic agonists (also used for quick symptom relief and as rescue medication). (springer.com)
  • The combination drug fluticasone furoate/vilanterol, marketed as Breo Ellipta (US, Canada) and Relvar Ellipta (UK), is approved for use in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for long-term maintenance treatment of airflow obstruction in patients with COPD, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chronic ingestion or inhalation of silver preparations (especially colloidal silver) can lead to argyria in the skin and other organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atropine will counteract bradycardia, glucagon helps with hypoglycemia, dobutamine can be given against hypotension and the inhalation of a β2-mimetic as hexoprenalin or salbutamol will terminate bronchospasms. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recommended dosage for patients six years of age and older is to administer one single-use ampule (300 mg/4 mL) twice daily by oral inhalation in repeated cycles of 28 days on drug, followed by 28 days off drug. (drugs.com)
  • Regulated US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) nicotine replacement products are safer than e-cigarettes, but e-cigarettes are probably safer than smoking. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a method aspect of the present invention, an erectile dysfunction drug is delivered to a patient through an inhalation route. (google.com.au)
  • This study is meant to provide drug developers with guidance on how they can utilize a new analytical method to characterize an inhalation product with more than one active pharmaceutical ingredient," said Dr. Ryan Priore , Director of Applications and Contract Services. (bio-medicine.org)
  • This Food and Drug Administration public health advisory alerts health care professionals, patients, and their caregivers to the possibility for overdoses of fentanyl in patients using fentanyl skin patches for pain control. (ahrq.gov)
  • The tools are made available by Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) and U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as part of their national educational effort to eliminate the use of these abbreviations. (ahrq.gov)
  • FDA Alert for Healthcare Professionals [US Food and Drug Administration Web site]. (ahrq.gov)
  • In response to reports of injuries in patients with implanted neurological stimulators who underwent magnetic resonance imaging procedures, the Food and Drug Administration suggests related precautions for radiology personnel and physicians. (ahrq.gov)
  • SOE arranged with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition to test coral samples from the shop and from the aquarium in patient A's house. (cdc.gov)
  • The drug was approved for adults and children 12 and over by the US Food and Drug Administration in October 2006. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because it is an invasive and uncomfortable medical procedure, intubation is usually performed after administration of general anesthesia and a neuromuscular-blocking drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Improved aerodynamically light particles for drug delivery to the pulmonary system, and methods for their synthesis and administration are provided. (google.com)
  • On 24 March 2015 it was granted approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration for use in treating inhalation anthrax in conjunction with antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1999, the manufacturer discontinued distribution of methoxyflurane in the United States and Canada, and on September 6, 2005, the Food and Drug Administration determined that it should be withdrawn from the market for safety concerns. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2006 the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found that breathing problems (bronchospasm), including deaths, were reported in some patients after the initial approval of Relenza. (wikipedia.org)
  • In medicine, a bolus (from Latin bolus, ball) is the administration of a discrete amount of medication, drug, or other compound within a specific time, generally within 1 - 30 minutes, in order to raise its concentration in blood to an effective level. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is an inhaled medication targeting those with cystic fibrosis and is currently being studied by Gilead Sciences the United States Food and Drug Administration and the NIH General Clinical Research Center. (wikipedia.org)
  • The combination therapy of arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of certain leukemias. (wikipedia.org)
  • IITRI conducts research programs with particular emphasis on studies to support Investigational New Drug applications and New Drug applications to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Factors such as poor compound solubility, gastric emptying time, intestinal transit time, chemical instability in the stomach, and inability to permeate the intestinal wall can all reduce the extent to which a drug is absorbed after oral administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In animal experimentation, self-administration is a form of operant conditioning where the reward is a drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-administration of putatively addictive drugs is considered one of the most valid experimental models to investigate drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • Self-administration of heroin and cocaine is used to screen drugs for possible effects in reducing drug-taking behavior, especially reinstatement of drug seeking after extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drug dosing in self-administration studies is response-dependent. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is an important element of creating a disease model of drug addiction in humans because response-independent drug administration is associated with increased toxicity and different neurobiological, neurochemical and behavioral effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • In summary, the effects of response-dependent drug dosing greatly differ from response-independent drug dosing and self-administration studies appropriately capture this distinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initiation and maintenance of self-administration produced dependence and toxicity in monkeys, thereby more closely approximating important aspects of drug addiction in humans and allowing for the first of modern self-administration studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The team compared test drug self-administration rates with saline vehicle self-administration rates. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] On November 18, 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) alerted healthcare professionals and patients that several long-acting bronchodilator medicines have been associated with possible increased risk of worsening wheezing in some people, and requested that manufacturers update warnings in their existing product labeling. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration classifies and regulates most deodorants as cosmetics, but classifies antiperspirants as over-the-counter drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of August 8, 2016, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) extended its regulatory power to include e-cigarettes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rectal administration of medication may be performed with any of the following: A suppository, a drug delivery system inserted into the rectum. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1982) "Rectal drug administration: clinical pharmacokinetic considerations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless these nebulizers paved the way for inhalation drug delivery providing the inspiration for the MDI. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is approved as a food additive by the US Food and Drug Administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, the FDA approved the inhalation form on February 22, 2010, for the suppression of P. aeruginosa infections in patients with cystic fibrosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • For treatment of acute episodes of bronchospasm or prevention of asthmatic symptoms, the usual dosage for adults and children 4 years of age and older is two inhalations repeated every 4 to 6 hours. (rxlist.com)
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans caused by diacetyl inhalation begins with a cough, wheezing and dyspnea (shortness of breath), and usually progresses slowly, but severe symptoms can develop without warning. (wikipedia.org)