Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred ICRLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United StatesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.PiperazinesNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred C3HLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Inbred LewEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (1/1580)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

A controlled trial of sustained-release bupropion, a nicotine patch, or both for smoking cessation. (2/1580)

BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Use of nicotine-replacement therapies and the antidepressant bupropion helps people stop smoking. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled comparison of sustained-release bupropion (244 subjects), a nicotine patch (244 subjects), bupropion and a nicotine patch (245 subjects), and placebo (160 subjects) for smoking cessation. Smokers with clinical depression were excluded. Treatment consisted of nine weeks of bupropion (150 mg a day for the first three days, and then 150 mg twice daily) or placebo, as well as eight weeks of nicotine-patch therapy (21 mg per day during weeks 2 through 7, 14 mg per day during week 8, and 7 mg per day during week 9) or placebo. The target day for quitting smoking was usually day 8. RESULTS: The abstinence rates at 12 months were 15.6 percent in the placebo group, as compared with 16.4 percent in the nicotine-patch group, 30.3 percent in the bupropion group (P<0.001), and 35.5 percent in the group given bupropion and the nicotine patch (P<0.001). By week 7, subjects in the placebo group had gained an average of 2.1 kg, as compared with a gain of 1.6 kg in the nicotine-patch group, a gain of 1.7 kg in the bupropion group, and a gain of 1.1 kg in the combined-treatment group (P<0.05). Weight gain at seven weeks was significantly less in the combined-treatment group than in the bupropion group and the placebo group (P<0.05 for both comparisons). A total of 311 subjects (34.8 percent) discontinued one or both medications. Seventy-nine subjects stopped treatment because of adverse events: 6 in the placebo group (3.8 percent), 16 in the nicotine-patch group (6.6 percent), 29 in the bupropion group (11.9 percent), and 28 in the combined-treatment group (11.4 percent). The most common adverse events were insomnia and headache. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with sustained-release bupropion alone or in combination with a nicotine patch resulted in significantly higher long-term rates of smoking cessation than use of either the nicotine patch alone or placebo. Abstinence rates were higher with combination therapy than with bupropion alone, but the difference was not statistically significant.  (+info)

Extraction and analysis of cosmetic active ingredients from an anti-cellulitis transdermal delivery system by high-performance liquid chromatography. (3/1580)

A new transdermal delivery system that controls cellulitis is evaluated using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection. An extraction procedure and the validation of the analytical method to assay the active excipients from the Centella asiatica plant (asiaticoside, madacessic acid, and asiatic acid) are described. Excellent results ae obtained in terms of linearity, accuracy, and specificity of the analytical method.  (+info)

Higher dosage nicotine patches increase one-year smoking cessation rates: results from the European CEASE trial. Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation. European Respiratory Society. (4/1580)

The Collaborative European Anti-Smoking Evaluation (CEASE) was a European multicentre, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled smoking cessation study. The objectives were to determine whether higher dosage and longer duration of nicotine patch therapy would increase the success rate. Thirty-six chest clinics enrolled a total of 3,575 smokers. Subjects were allocated to one of five treatment arms: placebo and either standard or higher dose nicotine patches (15 mg and 25 mg daily) each given for 8 or 22 weeks with adjunctive moderately intensive support. The 12 month sustained success rates were: 25 mg patch for 22 weeks (L-25), 15.4%; 25 mg patch for 8 weeks (S-25), 15.9%; 15 mg patch for 22 weeks (L-15), 13.7%; 15 mg patch for 8 weeks (S-15), 11.7%; and placebo (P-0) 9.9% (placebo versus 15 mg, p<0.05; 25 mg versus 15 mg, p<0.03; 25 mg versus placebo, p<0.001, Chi-squared test). There was no significant difference in success rate between the two active treatment durations. Of the first week abstainers (n=1,698), 25.1% achieved success at 12 months as opposed to first week smokers, 2.7% of 1,877 subjects (p< 0.001). In summary, a higher than standard dose of nicotine patch was associated with an increase in the long-term success in smoking cessation but continuation of treatment beyond 8-12 weeks did not increase the success rates.  (+info)

Topical psoriasis therapy. (5/1580)

Psoriasis is a common dermatosis, affecting from 1 to 3 percent of the population. Until recently, the mainstays of topical therapy have been corticosteroids, tars, anthralins and keratolytics. Recently, however, vitamin D analogs, a new anthralin preparation and topical retinoids have expanded physicians' therapeutic armamentarium. These new topical therapies offer increased hope and convenience to the large patient population with psoriasis.  (+info)

A successful tobacco cessation program led by primary care nurses in a managed care setting. (6/1580)

We conducted a descriptive study of a tobacco cessation program sponsored by a health maintenance organization (HMO) and led by primary care nurses. The tobacco cessation program was conducted at 20 primary care clinics in northeastern and central Pennsylvania. We gauged the successfulness of the program by the patients' self-reported quit rates at 1 year. We also examined the association between quit rates and compliance with scheduled counseling visits, the impact of the availability of an HMO pharmacy benefit that supported the costs of nicotine replacement therapy, and the quit rates among patients with HMO insurance versus those with insurance other than managed care. Of 1,695 patients enrolled in the program from July 1993 to March 1996, 1,140 completed 1 year of follow-up. Of these, 348 (30.5%) reported they had quit using tobacco. Among the 810 HMO enrollees who participated in the program, the quit rate was 280 (34.6%); among the 330 non-HMO participants, the quit rate was 69 (20.9%), a statistically significant difference (P < 0.001). For all patients, keeping more than four visits with the program nurse was associated with a significantly higher likelihood of quitting (317/751 [42.2%] versus 32/389 [8.2%]; P < 0.001). Non-HMO patients were less likely than HMO enrollees to keep four or more visits (165 [50%] versus 586 [72.3%]; P < 0.001). We were unable to detect a difference in quit rates among those with and those without a pharmacy benefit (196/577 [34%] versus 84/233 [36.1%]). These data are limited by their descriptive nature and the lack of information about other factors important in determining the quit rate among program participants. Nevertheless, they suggest that HMOs can successfully sponsor nurse-led tobacco cessation programs in multiple primary care settings and achieve 1-year quit rates significantly higher than the 15% quit rate reported in the medical literature. In addition, successfully quitting tobacco use appeared to be associated with use of counseling visits but not with use of a pharmacy benefit to pay for nicotine replacement therapy. Even though tobacco cessation programs have the best chance of benefitting HMO enrollees, patients not enrolled in managed care plans also appear to benefit significantly. This finding has important implications for developing future strategies--including the role of managed care organizations, the need to defray the costs of nicotine replacement therapy, and the best approach to provide counseling to patients--to meet the Healthy People 2000 goal of reducing tobacco smoking.  (+info)

The effects of vapreotide, a somatostatin analogue, on gastric acidity, gallbladder emptying and hormone release after 1 week of continuous subcutaneous infusion in normal subjects. (7/1580)

AIMS: Somatostatin analogues (e.g. vapreotide) are used for treatment of acromegaly, endocrine tumours and variceal bleeding. The pharmacodynamic effects of vapreotide have, however, not been documented in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of continuous vapreotide administration on gastric acidity, gallbladder contraction and hormone release. METHODS: Ten healthy males participated in this randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover trial. A constant vapreotide (or placebo) infusion (1.5 mg day(-1) s.c.) was given for 7 days with a portable pump. Intragastric pH was monitored on days 2 and 7. Gallbladder volume was sonographically assessed and the maximal ejection fraction was calculated. In addition basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK) were measured. RESULTS: After an initial increase in the median 24 h intragastric pH to a value of 2.6 on day 2, vapreotide's effect on pH decreased: (day 7: median pH=1.9; respective placebo values were 1.7 and 1.5). On the same days with vapreotide treatment, gallbladder contraction and plasma levels of CCK were reduced; maximal ejection fractions after meal stimulation were 18% and 20% (respective placebo values were 57% and 62%). Plasma gastrin levels were not changed with vapreotide treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The short lasting effect of vapreotide on intragastric acidity suggests a down-regulation of somatostatin receptors during treatment. The lack of effect on gastrin indicates that the effects on gastric pH are not mediated by gastrin. Constant vapreotide infusion (but not placebo) reduced gallbladder contraction suggesting a long-lasting effect on biliary function.  (+info)

Low dose subcutaneous adrenaline to prevent acute adverse reactions to antivenom serum in people bitten by snakes: randomised, placebo controlled trial. (8/1580)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of low dose adrenaline injected subcutaneously to prevent acute adverse reactions to polyspecific antivenom serum in patients admitted to hospital after snake bite. DESIGN: Prospective, double blind, randomised, placebo controlled trial. SETTING: District general hospital in Sri Lanka. SUBJECTS: 105 patients with signs of envenomation after snake bite, randomised to receive either adrenaline (cases) or placebo (controls) immediately before infusion of antivenom serum. INTERVENTIONS: Adrenaline 0.25 ml (1:1000). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Development of acute adverse reactions to serum and side effects attributable to adrenaline. RESULTS: 56 patients (cases) received adrenaline and 49 (controls) received placebo as pretreatment. Six (11%) adrenaline patients and 21 (43%) control patients developed acute adverse reactions to antivenom serum (P=0.0002). Significant reductions in acute adverse reactions to serum were also seen in the adrenaline patients for each category of mild, moderate, and severe reactions. There were no significant adverse effects attributable to adrenaline. CONCLUSIONS: Use of 0.25 ml of 1:1000 adrenaline given subcutaneously immediately before administration of antivenom serum to patients with envenomation after snake bite reduces the incidence of acute adverse reactions to serum.  (+info)

Futuristic Reports, gives excellent assurance of the report, integrated from various professional and trusted sources. Global Transdermal Drug Delivery System market report 2020, offers significant knowledge about market players, segments, revenue, profit, restrain, share, size, etc. Transdermal Drug Delivery System Report analysis is done on the basis of quality content assurance and from highly educated and experienced analyst. While providing and collecting Transdermal Drug Delivery System information for the report, many of the circumstances have been taken care of to get best at high quality data and particular knowledge of the market in upcoming years (forecast).. Global Transdermal Drug Delivery System Market Organizations are confronting issues in keeping their offices completely useful because of a lack of staff and assets in the midst of the COVID-19 (Coronavirus) flare-up. Get a hands-on over key drivers and menace to the Transdermal Drug Delivery System market to prepare your company ...
Description of the drug Estradot Transdermal Therapeutic System. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Estradot Transdermal Therapeutic System!
Nicotine is the most commonly abused drug among individuals with schizophrenia; at least 60 percent of schizophrenics smoke cigarettes. Nicotine withdrawal may cause a temporary worsening of schizophrenia symptoms, making it especially difficult for these individuals to quit smoking. Little research has been done on the most effective way to control nicotine use in schizophrenic individuals. Transdermal nicotine and bupropion reduce smoking in non-psychiatric smokers, but little is known about the effects of these medications in smokers with schizophrenia. This project examines the effects of 0, 21 and 42 mg transdermal nicotine on smoking behavior and related subjective effects (urge to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms) in smokers with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric heavy smoking controls. Participants come to the laboratory at 9 am, at which time placebo or nicotine patches are applied. After 5 hrs of smoking abstinence, participants undergo a smoking cue reactivity assessment in ...
Flector plaster is a new transdermal delivery system medicated with diclofenac hydroxyethylpyrrolidine salt, an NSAID which seems to possess suitable physiochemical properties for easy release by the plaster matrix for percutaneous absorption. The paper deals with local tolerability and pharmacokinetic (percutaneous absorption) studies carried out both on animals and on volunteers. The results obtained in the safety studies demonstrate the absence of local skin reactions and of sensitization phenomena. The kinetic evidence, obtained at the steady-state, reveals a profile typical of a sustained-release formulation, able to maintain constant plasma levels of the drug up to the next application (12 h). The amount of drug bioavailable for targeting the sites of action is effectively lower than via the oral route, however the estimated absorbed dose of 5-10 mg per application appears to be adequate for the foreseen therapeutic use, taking into account the great advantage in having no undesirable side effects
Drug delivery systems for the transdermal administration of tamsulosin are described. The systems are in the form of laminated patches having one or more reservoirs comprised of a polymeric adhesive material containing a tamsulosin formulation. The invention also relates to a method for treating benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) and related conditions and diseases, by administering tamsulosin transdermally, to tamsulosin-containing pharmaceutical compositions for transdermal administration of the drug and to a low-temperature method for manufacturing a tamsulosin-containing transdermal delivery system.
Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDS) are pharmaceutical devices that are designed to deliver specific drugs to the human body by diffusion through skin. The TDS effectiveness suffers from crystallization in the patch when they are kept in storage for more than two years. It has been reported that there are two types of crystals in the patch: needle and aggregate, and growth of drug crystals in TDS generally occurs only in the middle third of the polymer layer. In our study, fluorescence microscopy, EDS (SEM) and Raman microspectroscopy were used to further characterize the crystals. The results show that the needle crystals most probably contain estradiol and acrylic resin conjugate. The FTIR spectrum of the model sample proved the occurrence of a reaction between estradiol and acrylic resin. Crystal growth in an unstressed matrix of a dissolved crystallizable drug component was simulated using a kinetic Monte Carlo model. Simulation using Potts model with proper boundary condition gives the ...
Sprawdź ile zapłacisz za lek Estradot Transdermal Therapeutic System Transdermal w aptece, znajdź tańsze zamienniki leku. Określ swoje uprawnienia i sprawdź jakie zniżki Ci przysługują.
2013-2028 Report on Global Transdermal Drug Delivery System Market by Player, Region, Type, Application and Sales Channel - Radiant Insights
Transdermal drug delivery systems have grown in popularity, but side effects that include dermatitis and contact allergic reactions are possible.
Title: Liposomal Formulation for Dermal and Transdermal Drug Delivery: Past, Present and Future. VOLUME: 2 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Mohamed I. Nounou, Labiba K. El-Khordagui, Nawal A. Khalafallah and Said A. Khalil. Affiliation:Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX, 77030, USA.. Keywords:Ethosomes, transfersomes, traditional liposomes, SPLVs, MLVs, Niosomes, Catezomes, drug targeting, transdermal drug delivery, dermal drug delivery. Abstract: Although the formulation of effective topical drug delivery system is one of the most sophisticated pharmaceutical preparations, it has attracted researchers due to many medical advantages associated with it. Topical drug delivery systems can act superficially on skin surface, locally in dermal layer of the skin or transdermally to provide successful delivery of drug molecules to the systemic circulation avoiding the traditional problems and limitations of conventional routes of drug ...
Skin permeation enhancer compositions are provided which increase the permeability of skin to transdermally administered pharmacologically active agents. The composition contains diethylene glycol monoethyl or monomethyl ether in addition to an ester component such as propylene glycol monolaurate, methyl laurate or the like. The compositions are particularly useful in conjunction with the transdermal administration of steroid drugs such as progestogens and estrogens. Methods and drug delivery systems for using the enhancer compositions are provided as well.
The invention relates to a polymer matrix suitable for the transdermal administration of rotigotine [(−)-5, 6, 7, 8-tetrahydro-6-[propyl[2-(2-thienyl)ethyl]amino)-1-naphtol], containing a matrix for t
Method and therapeutic system in the form of a bandage that administer scopolamine base transdermally in an initial pulse of 10 to 200 μg/cm2 of skin that quickly brings the concentration of scopolamine in the plasma to a level at which emesis and nausea are inhibited without intolerable side effects, followed by a substantially constant dosage in the range of 0.3 to 15 μg/hr that holds said level. The bandage is a four-layer laminate of, from the top: a protective backing; a gelled, mineral oil-polyisobutene-scopolamine reservoir lamina that is the source of the constant dosage; a microporous membrane that controls the constant dosage rate; and a gelled, mineral oil-polyisobutene-scopolamine adhesive layer that is the source of the pulse dose and the means by which the bandage is attached to the skin.
A device and method for stabilizing a drug, particularly a chiral drug or the active enantiomer(s) thereof, in a carrier composition of a transdermal delivery system prior to the systems use by providing a product packaging system to prevent or control degradation reactions that can result from certain packaging materials and moisture contamination, while at the same time providing a child-resistant wrapping for the transdermal system.
Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) frequently manifest behavioral difficulties in the morning prior to school. Our aim was to examine the effects of the methylphenidate transdermal system (MTS) on before-school ADHD symptoms and functioning in children with ADHD.. Method: In this randomized crossover study, conducted from May 2007 until December 2008, 6- to 12-year-old subjects with DSM-IV-defined ADHD received either MTS or a placebo transdermal system (PTS) at 10 mg for 1 week and then 20 mg for 1 week. Subjects were then crossed over directly to the other treatment for the remaining 2 weeks. The primary efficacy measure was the ADHD Rating Scale. All analyses were intent to treat, with the last observation carried forward.. Results: Thirty subjects completed at least 1 week of treatment, and 26 subjects completed the entire protocol. The sample was primarily male, with a mean ± SD age of 9.17 ± 1.84 years. Compared to PTS, there were significant ...
Polymeric networks that retain and absorb substantial amount of water or biological fluids and resemble as a biological tissue are defined as hydrogels. On the other hand, liposomes, transfersomes and niosomes are lipid carriers, which represent one of the major research and development focus areas of the pharmaceutical industry. They have great potential as lipid vehicles that are able to enhance permeation of drugs across the intact skin and can act as local depot for the drug to sustain and control its delivery. Lipid carrier and hydrogel combinations offer transdermal drug delivery of great potential to enhance systemic effects of both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs. Also, lipid carriers can target drugs to skin appendages and improve transdermal delivery. Lipid carrier proform systems in the form of gelly liquid crystals can also be used transdermally for better drug absorption enhancement. This review highlights the potential of hydrogels and emulgels with or without lipid nanocarriers for
Patients will participate in two arms of the trial, one in which morphine will be administered transdermally, and, after a 3 day wash out period, one in which morphine will be administered subcutaneously. Blood draws will be done after both dosing methods in order to compare blood levels of morphine by the different routes ...
A transcutaneously implantable element in which at least a portion thereof in contact with the cutaneous tissue of a living body is composed of a ceramic material comprising, as the main raw material, at least one member selected from the group consisting of hydroxyapatite, tricalcium phosphate, and tetracalcium phosphate, and which comprises (a) an electrically conductive member for electrically connecting the interior and exterior of the living body to each other or (b) a through hole for mechanically connecting the interior and exterior of the living body to each other. This transcutaneously element can be semipermanently and safely used in a living body without causing any desirable bacterial infection, bleeding, and background noise.
According to the latest report published by Credence Research, Inc. "Transdermal Skin Patches Market- (Product Type - Drug in Adhesive, Matrix, Reservoir, Vapor); (Application - Pain Relief, Nicotine Cessation, Hormone Replacement Therapy, Motion Sickness, Neurological Disorders, Cardiovascular Disorders and Others): Market Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017-2025," the market is expected to expand at a CAGR of 4.2% from 2017 to 2025.. Browse the full report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/transdermal-skin-patches-market. Market Insights. Transdermal drug delivery has been an attractive and challenging area of research. Advances in modern technologies are resulting in a larger number of drugs being delivered transdermally including conventional hydrophobic small molecule drugs, hydrophilic drugs and macromolecules. Transdermal delivery provides convenient and pain-free self-administration of drugs as leading to patient compliance especially in the chronic condition ...
Behavioural and pharmacological treatment for tobacco dependence typically lasts 6-12 weeks. Unfortunately, the majority of smokers relapse within 3 months of treatment. Abstinence rates at the end of treatment are consistently approximately double long-term abstinence rates (6 or 12 months after quit date and off medication), so there is considerable interest in whether we stop pharmacological treatment prematurely and whether prolonged treatment might increase long-term abstinence.. ...
The incidence and severity of local skin reactions, as well as the impact on the local bacteriologic profile, in a 7-day regimen of a matrix transdermal estradiol delivery system compared with placebo (a piece of adhesive tape for sensitive skin of approximately the same shape and area) were assessed in healthy postmenopausal Brazilian women in an open-label study. the matrix estradiol and placebo patches were applied to different sites of the abdominal area, worn for 7 consecutive days, and then replaced according to an established rotation schedule, until 5 weeks of treatment were completed. the rotation schedule was adopted to provide an assessment of skin reaction as related to (1) interval between two consecutive placements at the same application site; (2) number of repetitions; and (3) abdominal region (upper, middle, and lower). A skin reaction score was obtained at each site before the application of each patch, 80 minutes after patch removal, and 7 days after patch removal. Skin swabs ...
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Sapra, Dr. Bharti / A. K. Tiwary, Dr. - Natural Surfactants in Transcutaneous Delivery of Carvedilol.. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9783844399523
Rate controlled transdermal delivery devices are disclosed which utilize an in-line adhesive to maintain the device on the skin and deliver an agent which is a solvent or a plasticizer for the in-line adhesive. The initial equilibrated concentration of the agent in the agent reservoir and the adhesive is below saturation, and the reservoir comprises the agent dissolved in a solvent with respect to which the rate controlling element of the device is substantially impermeable. In preferred embodiments the initial loading of the agent in reservoir is sufficient to prevent the activity of the agent in the reservoir from decreasing by more than about 50% and preferably no more than about 25% during the predetermined period of administration; and the thicknesses of the adhesive, rate controlling membrane and reservoir layers are selected so that at least 50% and preferably at least 75% initial equilibrated agent loading is in the reservoir layer. The devices are usable to deliver agents which are liquid at
Hormone therapy is prescribed for troublesome symptoms during menopause. While very effective in treating symptoms such as hot flashes, night sweats and mood changes, its use has declined due to safety concerns. These safety concerns became very well publicized after the 2002 report from the Womens Health Initiative study. Click here for more information.. Currently, the use of hormone therapy is still considered the gold standard for treating moderate to severe menopause symptoms. Due to safety concerns, use is generally limited to the lowest effective dose for the shortest time frame. However, women still have concerns about the potential risks associated with hormone therapy use. Fortunately, there is new research showing a potential benefit to alternative ways that hormone therapy is administered. Hormone therapy is commonly administered in an oral tablet form. However, hormones can also be delivered effectively via the skin in a transdermal patch form. Due to the manner in which the ...
Shire plc (LSE SHP, NASDAQ SHPGY), the global specialty biopharmaceutical company, announced the divestiture of Daytrana(R) (methylphenidate transdermal system)
...NEW YORK April 5 2011 /- Reportlinker.com announces tha...a href http://www.reportlinker.com/p0203552/Transdermal-Drug-Deliver...a href http://www.reportlinker.com/p0203552/Transdermal-Drug-Deliver...This report deals with transdermal drug delivery - an approach used to...,Reportlinker,Adds,Transdermal,Drug,Delivery,-,Technologies,,Markets,,and,Companies,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
The present invention comprises a transdermal drug delivery device comprising a reservoir comprising a releasably stored dosage of a pharmaceutically active agent and a translucent film adjacent to at least a portion of the reservoir, wherein the translucent film comprises at least one inorganic ultraviolet-absorbing compound. The present invention also comprises a method of drug delivery to a mammal using such devices.
Transdermal Drug Delivery & Controlled Release Systems from Dow Corning. A World Leader in Medical Health Care Expertise & Innovative Solutions
Polymeric films of indomethacin were formulated employing ethyl cellulose and polyvinyl pyrrolidone as film formers and evaluated for transdermal admi..
Transdermal administration of hydrophobic drugs via a diffusion mechanism in which the drug is dissolved in a carrier at concentrations that are 20% to 80% of the saturation concentration. The flux of drug from the device is non-Fickian and is substantially greater than the flux observed when the drug is at saturation.
Composition of matter for application to a body surface or membrane to administer asimadoline by permeation through the body surface or membrane, the composition comprising asimadoline to be administe
The use of the fentanyl patch has also shown to be habit-forming. The transdermal patch contains potent analgesic properties, which are highly addictive. As with other forms of fentanyl, it is reserved for patients who are regular users of opiates. Those with no prior exposure to other opioid drugs are at a great risk of respiratory depression and death.. Misuse and improper application of the skin patch can also result in fatal overdose. In July 2005, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reported that there had been hundreds of fentanyl-related deaths arising from the use of skin patches. In Florida alone, the drug was accountable for 379 deaths in the years of 2003 to 2004.. In Aiken County, South Carolina, it was reported that between January 2006 and May 2008, about 11 residents died as a direct result of the misuse of fentanyl patches.. Those who intentionally misuse or abuse the fentanyl patch for the purpose of ingesting higher doses of the drug employ methods such as: placing it in the ...
Electro-responsive Transdermal Drug Release of MWCNT/PVA Nanocomposite Hydrogels - Transdermal drug delivery;Hydrogel;Carbon nanotubes;Electro-responsive;Nanocomposite;
In the search for an optimal approach for the transcutaneous immunization (TCI) of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), two vesicle formulations, L595 vesicles (composed of sucrose-laurate ester and octaoxyethylene-laurate ester) and sPC vesicles (composed of soybean-phosphatidylcholine and Span-80) were prepared and characterized in vitro and in vivo. HBsAg was associated to the vesicles, resulting in sPC-HBsAg vesicles (+/-170nm) with 79% HBsAg association and L595-HBsAg vesicles (+/-75nm) with only 29% HBsAg association. The vesicles induced in mice via TCI an antibody response only when the skin was pretreated with microneedles. This response was improved by the adjuvant cholera toxin. The sPC-HBsAg vesicle formulations showed to be the most immunogenic for TCI, which was related to the higher degree of HBsAg association.. ...
It is very important that your doctor check your progress while you are using this medicine. This will allow your doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to decide if you should continue to take it. Do not touch the sticky side of the patch or the gel. Fentanyl can be quickly absorbed through the eyes and mouth and can be extremely dangerous. If you do touch the sticky side of the patch or gel, let your nurse or doctor know right away and rinse the area with large amounts of water. Do not use soaps or other cleansers. Check with your doctor at regular times while using fentanyl. Be sure to report any side effects. After you have been using this medicine for awhile, "breakthrough" pain may occur more often than usual, and it may not be relieved by your regular dose of medicine. If this occurs, do not increase the amount of fentanyl skin patch or other narcotic that you are using without first checking with your doctor. This medicine will add to the effects of alcohol and other CNS ...
Is transdermal estrogen safer? A growing body of research suggests that administration method can make a big difference in the safety of HRT.
Bare Mineral Bare Skin Serum Foundation lovers? Good news as Bare Mineral Bare Skin Complete Coverage Serum Concealer is being added to the Bare Minerals B
Estradiol transdermal gel, patch, and spray are used to treat moderate to severe hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause or low amounts of estrogen. It is also used to treat changes in and around the vagina (such as vaginal dryness, itching, and burning) caused by low estrogen levels or menopause. This medicine is also used to treat certain conditions in women before menopause if their ovaries do not make enough estrogens naturally, and prevent osteoporosis after menopause. ...
Absorptive Kinetics of Transdermal Fentanyl. Robert Leonard, PharmD candidate University of Florida College of Pharmacy. Overview. Rationale Barriers TTS-fentanyl Pharmacokinetics Studies of pharmacokinetic variability. Rationale. Continuous infusion Noninvasive nature Slideshow 6727744 by nichole-lucas
TY - JOUR. T1 - Heat and transdermal fentanyl. AU - Abramowicz, Mark. AU - Zuccotti, Gianna. AU - Pflomm, Jean Marie. AU - Daron, Susan M.. AU - Houst, Blaine M.. AU - Zanone, Corinne E.. AU - Hirsch, Jules. AU - Mandell, Gerald L.. AU - Roden, Dan M.. AU - Bazil, Carl W.. AU - Dalton, Vanessa K.. AU - Epstein, Eric J.. AU - Juurlink, David N.. AU - Kim, Richard B.. AU - Meinertz, Hans. AU - Mukherjee, Sandip K.. AU - Simons, F. Estelle R. AU - Smoller, Jordan W.. AU - Steigbigel, Neal H.. AU - Goodstein, Donna. AU - Faucard, Amy. AU - Covey, Cynthia Macapagal. AU - Teo, Vincent. AU - Wong, Susie. AU - Donohue, Liz. AU - Brown, Cheryl. AU - Carbona, Gene. AU - Romatowski, Cristine. AU - Valentino, Joanne F.. AU - Wissner-Levy, Yosef. PY - 2009/8/10. Y1 - 2009/8/10. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=70349906617&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=70349906617&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:70349906617. VL - 51. SP - 64. JO - Medical ...
Research Report on Global Transdermal Skin Patches Sales Market Report 2017. The Report includes market price, demand, trends, size, Share, Growth, Forecast, Analysis & Overview.
Exelon® Patch is the first and only patch to treat all stages of Alzheimers disease. It may also help with cognition and doing daily tasks. Learn more.
PASADENA, Calif., Nov. 12, 2012-- InvisiDerm Healthcare, developer and manufacturer of noninvasive gas and drug delivery methods, announced the completion of the initial clinical study using its innovative D`Oxyva ® transdermal delivery platform.
Can i buy viagra at lloyds pharmacy - He had not, however, i can buy viagra at lloyds pharmacy elaborate on the other hand, apfelbaum (1996) has proposed an alternative iontophoretic transdermal drug delivery system to improve sexual function in men 70 to 48. 26. J urol 1990; 175(4):998.
IontoPatch™ is an extended time-released electronic transdermal drug delivery system. An innovative, self-contained battery produces an electric current to carry drug molecules non-invasively across the skin and to underlying tissue. Drug delivery is shut off automatically when the prescribed dosage has been administered. The IontoPatch is single-use and disposable.. ...
IontoPatch™ is an extended time-released electronic transdermal drug delivery system. An innovative, self-contained battery produces an electric current to carry drug molecules non-invasively across the skin and to underlying tissue. Drug delivery is shut off automatically when the prescribed dosage has been administered. The IontoPatch is single-use and disposable.. ...
I have pharma grade testosterone topical solution. Ive been on 60mg a day for three weeks and Im already starting to see some benefits. Ive gained four pounds and have gotten a little stronger, but Im tempted to go up to 90mg a day already...
A membrane capable of inhibiting agent release from a delivery system when no electrical current is flowing and yet provide minimal impedance to electrically-assisted agent delivery, useful both for incorporating into electrotransport agent delivery systems and for use in measuring agent release rates in in vitro testing.
A membrane capable of inhibiting agent release from a delivery system when no electrical current is flowing and yet provide minimal impedance to electrically-assisted agent delivery, useful both for incorporating into electrotransport agent delivery systems and for use in measuring agent release rates in in vitro testing.
We reviewed 26 studies with 27 treatment groups that enrolled a total of 4893 participants. Twenty five of the studies were case series or uncontrolled long-term trial continuations, the other was an RCT comparing two opioids. Opioids were administered orally (number of study treatments groups [abbreviated as "k"] = 12, n = 3040), transdermally (k = 5, n = 1628), or intrathecally (k = 10, n = 231). Many participants discontinued due to adverse effects (oral: 22.9% [95% confidence interval (CI): 15.3% to 32.8%]; transdermal: 12.1% [95% CI: 4.9% to 27.0%]; intrathecal: 8.9% [95% CI: 4.0% to 26.1%]); or insufficient pain relief (oral: 10.3% [95% CI: 7.6% to 13.9%]; intrathecal: 7.6% [95% CI: 3.7% to 14.8%]; transdermal: 5.8% [95% CI: 4.2% to 7.9%]). Signs of opioid addiction were reported in 0.27% of participants in the studies that reported that outcome. All three modes of administration were associated with clinically significant reductions in pain, but the amount of pain relief varied among ...
With humans, exposure to sunlight stimulates the skin to produce vitamin D. Because high levels of cutaneous melanin act as a ... December 2012). "Comparison of oral and transdermal administration of rasagiline mesylate on human melanoma tumor growth in ... some to suggest that cutaneous melanin might somehow serve to protect the neuromelanin in substantia nigra from external toxins ... vivo". Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology. 31 (4): 312-7. doi:10.3109/15569527.2012.676119. PMID 22515841. King G, Yerger VB, ...
Shaw, LA (1928). "Cutaneous Respiration of the Cat". American Journal of Physiology. 85 (1): 158-67. Shaw, LA; Drinker, P (1929 ... A Design for Small Children and Infants with an Appliance for the Administration of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide". J Clin Invest. ... Drinker, P; Shaw, LA (1932). "The prolonged administration of artificial respiration". Journal of the Franklin Institute. 213 ( ... Shaw, LA; Drinker, P (1929). "AN APPARATUS FOR THE PROLONGED ADMINISTRATION OF ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION: II. ...
It usually follows an infection or may occur as a result of administration of specific medications. Psoriasis List of cutaneous ... Exanthematic pustular psoriasis is a cutaneous condition characterized by an acute eruption of small pustules, abruptly ...
Food and Drug Administration has changed the terminology to "acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections" (ABSSSI). The ... Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) has retained the term "skin and soft tissue infection". List of cutaneous ... Food and Drug Administration. October 2013. Retrieved 2014-11-23. Xia, Fan Di; Song, Philip; Joyce, Cara; Mostaghimi, Arash ( ...
SJS and TEN most often begin between 4 and 28 days after culprit drug administration. A published algorithm (ALDEN) to assess ... All three are part of a spectrum of severe cutaneous reactions (SCAR) which affect skin and mucous membranes. The distinction ... Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions (2002). "Correlations between clinical patterns and causes of Erythema Multiforme Majus, ... US Food and Drug Administration. 24 October 2007. Archived from the original on 11 December 2013. Raksha MP, Marfatia YS; ...
Nguyen A, Hoang V, Laquer V, Kelly KM (December 2009). "Angiogenesis in cutaneous disease: part I". J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 61 ( ... In July 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) updated the labels of two anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody drugs ( ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 2012-07-06. "Cetuximab Beneficial in Head and Neck Cancer - National Cancer Institute". ... Therefore, pretreatment with diphenhydramine (30 to 60) min before administration is standard of care. Other common side ...
Tissue and systemic diffusion of idrocilamide after cutaneous administration]". Revue du Rhumatisme (in French). 60 (12): 932-6 ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has approved the first generic versions of prescription Lamisil (terbinafine ... Callen JP, Hughes AP, Kulp-Shorten C (September 2001). "Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus induced or exacerbated by ... Alternatives to by mouth administration have been studied. Terbinafine hydrochloride may induce or exacerbate subacute ... "PI and CMI Trade Names and Active Ingredients containing Terbinafine". Therapeutic Goods Administration. Australian Government ...
medicine portal List of cutaneous conditions Steroid acne Freedberg, et al. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General ... Steroid folliculitis occurs following administration of glucocorticoids or corticotropin. Other medications can also mimic ...
"Table of Pharmacogenomic Biomarkers in Drug Labels". U.S Food and Drug Administration. "Tumor Markers Fact Sheet" (PDF). ... Gonzalez RS, Carlson G, Page AJ, Cohen C (July 2011). "Gastrointestinal stromal tumor markers in cutaneous melanomas: ...
List of cutaneous conditions McKnight JT, Maxwell AJ, Anderson RL (1992). "Warfarin necrosis". Arch Fam Med. 1 (1): 105-8. doi: ... These include gradual increase starting from low doses and supplemental administration of protein C (pure or from fresh frozen ... Since the clot-promoting effects of starting administration of 4-hydroxycoumarins are transitory, patients with protein C ...
It shortens the course of cutaneous disease and may protect against its dissemination. Varicella zoster virus is a human herpes ... This medication is not recommended for administration to immune-competent persons for treatment of active disease. The ...
It has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for genital warts. Cantharidin, found naturally in the ... "Topical treatments for cutaneous warts". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9 (9): CD001781. doi:10.1002/14651858. ... Kwok CS; Gibbs S; Bennett C; Holland R; Abbott R (12 Sep 2012). "Topical treatments for cutaneous warts". Cochrane Database ... Sterling JC, Handfield-Jones S, Hudson PM (2001). "Guidelines for the management of cutaneous warts" (PDF). British Journal of ...
2012). "Cutaneous melanoma attributable to sunbed use: systematic review and meta-analysis". BMJ. 345: e4757. doi:10.1136/bmj. ... "The Risks of Tanning". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. 14 October 2015. Fatiha El Ghissassi, Robert Baan, Kurt Straif, et al ... 1040.20)", U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 1 April 2016. Federal Trade Commission v. Mercola, 1:16-cv-04282 (N.D. Ill. 13 ... According to the Food and Drug Administration in 2010, possibly using the Indoor Tanning Association as its source: "Each year ...
... and in a variety of formulations for topical administration, such as creams (used to treat tinea; cutaneous candidiasis, ... Recently, the administration of systemic ketoconazole to two pregnant women for treatment of Cushing's syndrome was reported to ... On July 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a warning that taking ketoconazole orally can cause severe ... Ketoconazole is sold commercially as a tablet for oral administration (although this use has been discontinued in a number of ...
The routes of administration vary. They may be both systemic and topical. For example, pseudoephedrine is taken orally and ... Cutaneous vasoconstriction will occur because of the body's exposure to the severe cold. Examples of endogenous factors include ...
... have been studies demonstrating that topical administration of mechlorethamine has efficacy in mycosis fungoides-type cutaneous ... Bunn Jr, P. A.; Hoffman, S. J.; Norris, D; Golitz, L. E.; Aeling, J. L. (1994). "Systemic therapy of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas ... Topical chemotherapy in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma: positive results of a randomized, controlled, multicenter trial testing the ...
On occasion, serum levels of the drug can be identified from oral, vaginal, or cutaneous administration, and lead to toxicity. ...
... is currently standard therapy approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for cutaneous T-cell ... "Treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma by extracorporeal photochemotherapy. Preliminary results". New England Journal of ...
It has been proven to be effective in various inflammatory skin diseases, e.g., seborrheic dermatitis, cutaneous lupus ... See also: Immunosuppressants in the treatment of dermatitis In January 2006, the United States Food and Drug Administration ( ... cream for cutaneous lupus erythematosus". J Am Acad Dermatol. 51 (3): 407-410. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2004.01.044. PMID 15337984. ...
A recombinant diphtheria exotoxin has been approved by the FDA for treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, an immune system ... have entered clinical trials against tumor growth but have yet to be approved by Food and Drug Administration. ...
The cause of the syndrome may be drug-related, i.e. induced by systemic administration of hydroxyzine penicillin, iodinated ... Airbag dermatitis List of cutaneous conditions Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2- ... 2007). "Recurrent flexural exanthema (SDRIFE or baboon syndrome) after administration of two different iodinated radio contrast ...
This use has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The duration of the beneficial effect in primary ... Jacob, C (March 2013). "Treatment of hyperhidrosis with microwave technology". Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery. 32 ( ... One trial found it decreased sweating by about 80%. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved tap water ... Food and Drug Administration. Comite SL, Smith K. "Commenting on: "Duration of efficacy increases with the repetition of ...
Co-administration of the antifungal drugs fluconazole (delivered topically) and itraconazole (delivered orally) have been ... "Clavispora lusitaniae and Chaetomium atrobrunneum as Rare Agents of Cutaneous Infection". Mycopathologia. 169: 373-380. doi: ... Infections due to this species have typically occurred following invasive procedures such as intravenous drug administration ... effective in the treatment of cutaneous disease. Skin infections are thought to result from direct contact with environmental ...
In 1999 Ontak was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 11 October 2019. Archived from the original on 19 November 2019. Retrieved 18 November ... Wiegratz I, Kuhl H (2002). "Managing cutaneous manifestations of hyperandrogenic disorders: the role of oral contraceptives". ... Unlike combined birth control pills, it is not approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for this purpose.[1][ ... Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. 35 (2): 68-73. doi:10.12788/j.sder.2016.027. PMID 27416311.. ...
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. The dosage of paracetamol is governed by age and body weight, and is usually 10-15mg paracetamol per ... Reddening of the skin may occur, thougt rarely: allergic reactions with cutaneous eruptions are very rare.. DRUG INTERACTION. ...
... Oh Sook Kwon,1 Seung Hee ... S. R. Pinnell, "Cutaneous photodamage, oxidative stress, and topical antioxidant protection," Journal of the American Academy ... β-carotene in cutaneous photoprotection," Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 848-873, 1998. View at ...
Cutaneous Atrophy Secondary to Intra-articular Corticosteroid Administration JAMES T. CASSIDY, M.D., F.A.C.P.; GILES G. BOLE, M ... Cutaneous Atrophy Secondary to Intra-articular Corticosteroid Administration. Ann Intern Med. ;65:1008-1018. doi: 10.7326/0003- ... This presentation reports the occurrence of severe cutaneous atrophy of delayed onset at the site of intra-articular injection ...
... his respiratory insufficiency and cutaneous involvement progressively worsened. However, the administration of rituximab (RTX) ... Effective Administration of Rituximab in Anti-MDA5 Antibody-Positive Dermatomyositis with Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung ... and refractory cutaneous involvement together with high levels of anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody ( ... Disease and Refractory Cutaneous Involvement: A Case Report and Literature Review. Yuka Ogawa,1 Dai Kishida,1 Yasuhiro ...
Antiallergic activity after intravenous administration using rat reaginic passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) test.. ...
Inhibition of passive cutaneous anaphylaxis following 3 mg/kg p.o. administration.. ...
Excitation of cutaneous C nociceptors by intraplantar administration of anandamide. Brain Research. 2009 May 1;1268:38-47. ... Excitation of cutaneous C nociceptors by intraplantar administration of anandamide. In: Brain Research. 2009 ; Vol. 1268. pp. ... Excitation of cutaneous C nociceptors by intraplantar administration of anandamide. Carl Potenzieri, Thaddeus S. Brink, Donald ... Excitation of cutaneous C nociceptors by intraplantar administration of anandamide. / Potenzieri, Carl; Brink, Thaddeus S.; ...
Severe Cutaneous and Neurologic Toxicity in Melanoma Patients during Vemurafenib Administration Following Anti-PD-1 Therapy. ... Severe Cutaneous and Neurologic Toxicity in Melanoma Patients during Vemurafenib Administration Following Anti-PD-1 Therapy ... Severe Cutaneous and Neurologic Toxicity in Melanoma Patients during Vemurafenib Administration Following Anti-PD-1 Therapy ... Severe Cutaneous and Neurologic Toxicity in Melanoma Patients during Vemurafenib Administration Following Anti-PD-1 Therapy ...
The climacteric is not an illness, but the menopause is an event that troubles a womans present life and puts her future life at risk. One would like to think that, for the woman of the new millennium, the menopause has simply become what it is: a feminine milestone that marks the transition and path to another period of life. She appears younger than her mother was at her age, she has given birth when she decided to, she has had the number of children she wanted, and her social and professional roles are well defined ...
Cutaneous Reactions. Parenteral administration of vitamin K replacements (including AquaMEPHYTON) may cause cutaneous reactions ... Avoid the intravenous and intramuscular routes of administration unless the subcutaneous route is not feasible and the serious ... Cutaneous Reactions [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Clinical Trials And Post Marketing Experience. The following adverse ... General disorders and administration site conditions: Generalized flushing pain, swelling and tenderness at injection site. ...
Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. ISTODAX is indicated for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) in adult patients who ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Dosing Information. The recommended dose of romidepsin is 14 mg/m2 administered intravenously over a ... Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. The safety of ISTODAX was evaluated in 185 patients with CTCL in 2 single arm clinical studies in ... Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. ISTODAX was evaluated in 2 multicenter, single-arm clinical studies in patients with CTCL. Overall, ...
Previous administration of AIMSPRO.. *History of known allergy to animal proteins.. *Serious infections (such as pneumonia or ... Diffuse cutaneous SSc, as evidenced by skin sclerosis proximal to the elbows or knees and absence of the anti-centromere ... AIMSPRO in Established Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic Sclerosis. The recruitment status of this study is unknown. The completion ... A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Pilot Study of Safety and Tolerability of AIMSPRO in Established Diffuse Cutaneous Systemic ...
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.. ...
Local NFG administration prevented diabetes-induced expressional alterations, enhanced reparative capillarisation ( p,0.01), ... Nerve growth factor promotes reparative angiogenesis and inhibits endothelial apoptosis in cutaneous wounds of Type 1 diabetic ...
Administration, Topical * Anti-Infective Agents* / chemistry * Anti-Infective Agents* / pharmacology * Bacteria / growth & ... What is the best strategy for enhancing the effects of topically applied ozonated oils in cutaneous infections? Biomed Res Int ...
In this prospective study, 6 of 220 patients with early cutaneous leishmaniasis were diagnosed with mucosal involvement by ... New supplement articles online: Mass Drug Administration for Malaria: The Zambia Southern Province Trial. ... f CONCOMITANT EARLY MUCOSAL AND CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN BRAZIL * VIVIANE S. BOAVENTURA1, VIRGINIA CAFE1, JACKSON COSTA1, ... Epidemiology of American cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania braziliensis braziliensis. J Infect Dis 56 : 73-83. ...
New supplement articles online: Mass Drug Administration for Malaria: The Zambia Southern Province Trial. ... Histopathological Studies on Cutaneous Reactions to the Bites of Various Arthropods 1 * Leon Goldman, Evelyn Rockwell, Daniel F ...
Cutaneous administration system. US6796303 *. 3 Jun 2002. 28 Sep 2004. Battelle Pulmonary Therapeutics, Inc.. Pulmonary aerosol ... Cutaneous administration system. US20040184999 *. 29 Jan 2004. 23 Sep 2004. Alexza Molecular Delivery Corporation. Delivery of ... Cutaneous administration system. US7550133. 20 Nov 2003. 23 Jun 2009. Alexza Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Respiratory drug ...
Route of Administration. CUTANEOUS. DEA Schedule. Active Ingredient/Active Moiety. Ingredient Name. Basis of Strength. Strength ...
Topical administration of capsaicin causes an initial enhanced stimulation of the TRPV1-expressing cutaneous nociceptors that ... see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Inform the patient that the treated area may be sensitive for a few days to heat (e.g., ... Qutenza Dosage and Administration. Special Precautions. *Only physicians or health care professionals under the close ... Therefore, remove Qutenza patches gently and slowly by rolling the adhesive side inward [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. ...
Route of administration. *Cutaneous. *Intravenous. *Oral. *Topical. Categories. *Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents ...
Administration, Cutaneous. Analysis of Variance. Blotting, Western. Case-Control Studies. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. ... cutaneous vascular conductance; P,0.05) and neuronal NO synthase-inhibited sites (94±4% versus 77±3% cutaneous vascular ... iNOS inhibition augmented the NO-dependent local heating response (93±2% versus 89±10% cutaneous vascular conductance). ... Upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase contributes to attenuated cutaneous vasodilation in essential hypertensive ...
Administration, cutaneous. Iodophors. Chlorine compounds. Anti-infecting agents, local. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ...
... for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been developed in consultation with ... Target Product Profile for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis A target product profile (TPP) ... Route of administration. Topical / oral. Non-parenteral or few doses if parenteral. ... Target Product Profile for Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. A target product profile (TPP) for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been ...
  • iNOS inhibition augmented the NO-dependent local heating response (93±2% versus 89±10% cutaneous vascular conductance). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Cutaneous vascular conductance [CVC=red cell flux/mean arterial pressure] was normalized as percentage maximum CVC (%CVC max ) (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, local temperature 43°C). In study 1 after CVC plateaued during local heating, 20 mM N G -nitro- L -arginine methyl ester ( L -NAME) was perfused at each site to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. (clinsci.org)
  • The terms peripheral emboli, lower extremity atheromatous emboli syndrome, blue toe syndrome, purple toe syndrome, and trash foot refer to special cases of CE to the lower extremities in which cutaneous manifestations are usually present, the latter three occurring in association with anticoagulation or vascular surgery. (medscape.com)
  • In addition to the blockage of small vascular channels, lower arterial pressure from narrowing of larger proximal arteries may be necessary for the cutaneous manifestations of CCE because intact collateral supply should normally avert it. (medscape.com)
  • Cutaneous manifestations of the late stage of Lyme's disease. (prohealth.com)
  • Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH) disease is a rare disorder characterized by bilateral uveitis with exudative retinal detachments associated or not with cutaneous, neurological, and auditory manifestations. (omicsonline.org)
  • The chronic stage includes ocular and cutaneous manifestations. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, the administration of rituximab (RTX) resulted in clinical remission as well as a visible reduction in anti-MDA5-Ab levels, suggesting that RTX could be a useful remedy in cases refractory to conventional immunosuppressive agents, especially those of RP-ILD related to anti-MDA5-Ab-positive DM. (hindawi.com)
  • We therefore compared the cutaneous analgesic effectiveness of amitriptyline and bupivacaine, with and without epinephrine, after subcutaneous injection in rats as a model for infiltration anesthesia and analgesia. (asahq.org)
  • Cutaneous neurofibromas are slow-growing tumors that are pathognomonic for NF1, and mast cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurofibroma formation as well as other cutaneous tumors ( 3 )( 4 )( 5 )( 6 )( 7 ). (rupress.org)
  • This study addresses whether cutaneous vasodilation occurs normally in diabetic subjects in response to a standard exercise of underlying muscle. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It is concluded that, although overall vasodilation occurs normally in diabetic cutaneous circulation, the mechanism is different from the normal response in that flow increases by augmentation of capillary flow rather than by recruitment. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the Clinic provides overviews of novel oncology agents, addressing indications, mechanisms, administration recommendations, safety profiles, and other essential information needed for the appropriate clinical use of these drugs. (ascopost.com)
  • Even after combination immunosuppressive therapy including a corticosteroid, cyclosporine A, and intravenous cyclophosphamide, his respiratory insufficiency and cutaneous involvement progressively worsened. (hindawi.com)
  • The following case history describes a cutaneous infection suspected to be anthrax in a tourist who had indirect contact with dead mammals in a disease-endemic area. (cdc.gov)
  • These findings suggest that CGRP regulates several types of CHS reactions under physiological conditions and plays an important role in cutaneous immunity. (jimmunol.org)
  • The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of aging on human cutaneous wound healing are poorly understood, and the possible role of reproductive hormones in this process has never been investigated. (nih.gov)
  • Better understanding of the mechanisms of action of systemically administered rIL-2 relevant to successful therapy could help in patient selection and/or in the strategy for administration of the drug by enhancing its therapeutic window. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 23, 2014-- Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ) has approved Zydelig ® (idelalisib) 150 mg tablets for the treatment of three B-cell blood cancers. (gilead.com)
  • Because cutaneous anthrax was suspected, wound crusts, swabs for bacterial cultures, and Dacron swabs used for PCR were mailed as quickly as possible to the Belgian national reference laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • Estrogen accelerates cutaneous wound healing associated with an increase in TGF-beta1 levels. (nih.gov)
  • We report that aging in healthy females was associated with a reduced rate of cutaneous wound healing, but an improved quality of scarring both microscopically and macroscopically, and with reduced levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) immunostaining and steady-state mRNA in the wound. (nih.gov)
  • What is the best strategy for enhancing the effects of topically applied ozonated oils in cutaneous infections? (nih.gov)
  • In the present study, we sought to determine if anandamide excited cutaneous C nociceptors in vivo and if this excitation correlated with nocifensive behaviors. (umn.edu)