The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.
The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.
The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.
Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
Injections into the cerebral ventricles.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Delivery of drugs into an artery.
Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
Glucose in blood.
Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.
Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.
The consumption of edible substances.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.
Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.
Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.
A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.
Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.

Transbuccal delivery of acyclovir (II): feasibility, system design, and in vitro permeation studies. (1/79)

PURPOSE: To design a buccal mucoadhesive system for systemic delivery of acyclovir using a novel mucoadhesive, copolymers of acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol), and to determine the feasibility of transbuccal delivery of acyclovir using this system. METHODS: The buccal delivery system was prepared using an adhesive, a copolymer of acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) monomethylether monomethacrylate, and an impermeable membrane to prevent excessive washout by saliva and to attain unidirectional release. Acyclovir was loaded into the copolymer film prior to lamination of backing material. In vitro drug release studies were conducted in isotonic McIlvaine buffer solution. Buccal permeation of acyclovir was investigated using porcine buccal mucosa with side-by-side flow through diffusion cells at 37;C. Acyclovir was quantified using HPLC. RESULTS: Buccal permeation of acyclovir from the mucoadhesive delivery system was controlled for up to 20 hours with a time lag (t(lag)) of 10.4 hours and a steady state flux of 144.2 microg/cm(2)/h. With the incorporation of NaGC into the system t(lag) was shortened to 5.6 hours with an enhanced steady state flux of 758.7 microg/cm(2)/h. Sustained delivery of acyclovir across bucccal mucosa using this mucoadhesive system was maintained for up to 22 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The mucoadhesive system of P(AA-co-PEG) was shown to be a good candidate for controlled oral mucosal delivery of acyclovir. Buccal delivery of acyclovir was proven feasible based on in vitro permeation studies.  (+info)

Polymeric films as vehicle for buccal delivery: swelling, mechanical, and bioadhesive properties. (2/79)

PURPOSE: To investigate the suitability of an SCMC (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose/polyethylene glycol 400/carbopol 934P) and an HPMC (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/polyethylene glycol 400/carbopol 934P) films as drug vehicle for buccal delivery. METHODS: The mechanical and in vitro bioadhesive strength properties of the films were investigated using texture analyzer equipment, while swelling behavior was studied in different media, namely, distilled water and simulated saliva solution. In addition, the in vivo bioadhesion of the film was studied by estimating the film residence time on buccal mucosa of human volunteers. RESULTS: Increase in carbopol 934P content was found to elevate the elasticity, softness and bioadhesive strength but decrease the strength and degree of swelling of both SCMC and HPMC films. SCMC films swelled more extensively in distilled water while HPMC films in simulated saliva solution. HPMC films exhibited greater in vivo bioadhesion although the in vitro bioadhesive strength was lower than SCMC films. Correlation existed between the in vivo and in vitro bioadhesion data within the polymer, but no rank correlation was observed between the two polymers. CONCLUSION: HPMC films may be preferred over SCMC films as drug vehicle for buccal delivery as the former was tougher, more elastic, more bioadhesive in vivo and swelled in a more tolerable manner in the oral cavity than the latter.  (+info)

Dendritic cells recruitment and in vivo priming of CD8+ CTL induced by a single topical or transepithelial immunization via the buccal mucosa with measles virus nucleoprotein. (3/79)

The buccal mucosa, a prototype of pluristratified mucosal epithelia, contains a network of directly accessible class II(+) epithelial dendritic cells (DC), similar to skin Langerhans cells. We showed that a single buccal immunization with measles virus nucleoprotein (NP), by either topical application onto or intradermal injection in the buccal mucosa, induced in vivo priming of protective class I-restricted specific CD8(+) CTL. Both routes of immunization with NP induced a rapid recruitment of DC into the mucosa, which peaked at 2 h and decreased by 24 h. Treatment of mice with Flt3 ligand resulted in an increased number of DC in the buccal mucosa and enhanced the frequency of IFN-gamma-producing NP-specific effectors and the NP-specific CTL response generated after buccal immunization with NP. Finally, NP-pulsed bone marrow-derived DC induced NP-specific IFN-gamma-producing cells upon adoptive transfer to naive mice. These data demonstrate that a viral protein delivered to DC of the buccal mucosa induces in vivo priming of protective anti-viral CD8(+) CTL.  (+info)

The use of EMLA for an intraoral soft-tissue biopsy in a needle phobic: a case report. (4/79)

A case is reported of the removal of a leaf fibroma from the mucosa of the hard palate using EMLA topical anesthesia as the sole means of pain control.  (+info)

Evaluation of polyoxyethylene homopolymers for buccal bioadhesive drug delivery device formulations. (5/79)

Our objective was to evaluate the application of polyoxyethylene homopolymers in buccal bioadhesive drug (BBD) delivery device formulations. The bioadhesive strength of four different molecular weight (MW) polyoxyethylene polymers was measured by Instron tensile tester using glass plate and bovine sublingual tissue as substrate surfaces. Several BBD device formulations containing polyoxyethylene polymer (MW 7,000,000) were prepared by direct compression and compression molding processes. The prepared BBD devices were evaluated for their elasticity, in vitro adhesion and drug release characteristics. The in vivo bioadhesion characteristics of a placebo compression molded device were examined in 3 adult healthy male beagle dogs. The bioadhesive strength of polyoxyethylene polymers appeared to be directly related to their molecular weights. When bovine sublingual mucosa or a glass plate was used as model mucosal substrate surface, the rank order of bioadhesive strength of different molecular weight polyoxyethylene polymers was similar. The bioadhesive strength of devices prepared by the compression molding process was greater than those prepared by direct compression, but the kinetics of drug release were independent of the process used for the preparation of the devices. The drug release and the bioadhesive strength of the similarly prepared device formulations appeared to be dependent on the drug:polymer ratios. The elasticity of the BBD devices prepared by compression molding was improved by the inclusion of polyisobutylene polymer in the formulations. When adhered to the oral cavity of the dogs, the compression molded placebo BBD device exhibited adhesion for at least 4 hours and appeared to show no signs of local irritation. In conclusion, BBD devices containing polyoxyethylene polymer (MW 7,000,000) can be prepared by direct compression or compression molding process in order to provide controlled drug release to the oral cavity while maintaining appropriate bioadhesive characteristics.  (+info)

Oral transmucosal fentanyl pretreatment for outpatient general anesthesia. (6/79)

The oral transmucosal formulation of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been reported to be an effective sedative, providing convenient and atraumatic sedation for children prior to general anesthesia or painful diagnostic procedures. Thirty-three young children (24-60 months of age) scheduled for outpatient general anesthesia for treatment of dental caries were enrolled in this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. To determine the effectiveness of the OTFC premedication, patient behavior was evaluated using three distinct outcome ratings. A sedation score rated behavior in the waiting room prior to OTFC as well as 10 minutes and 20 minutes after OTFC. A separation score rated the child's response to being separated from his/her parent or guardian for transport to the dental operatory. Finally, a cooperation score rated the child's acceptance of the mask induction. The OTFC formulation was well tolerated by most of the children in this study. Compared with the placebo oralet, the active OTFC improved behavior for separation from the parent (P < .05) and cooperation with the mask induction (P < .05). The duration of surgery and the time of recovery did not differ between placebo and active premedication. Side effects including respiratory and cardiovascular complications were reported more frequently in the active fentanyl group. Continuous monitoring of respiratory function is essential when using this unique and effective formulation of fentanyl for pediatric preanesthetic sedation.  (+info)

Phospholipid deformable vesicles for buccal delivery of insulin. (7/79)

To investigate the possibility of the enhancing effect of deformable vesicles on buccal delivery of insulin, two kinds of vesicles with and without the presence of sodium deoxycholate (deformable vesicles and conventional vesicles) were prepared by reverse phase evaporation methods. The liposomal entrapment efficiency was determined by column chromatography. The particle size and morphology of the vesicles were also evaluated. The hypoglycemic effects, insulin concentrations, and residual amounts of insulin deposited in the buccal membrane after buccal administration of insulin vesicles to rabbits were investigated. Compared with subcutaneous administration of insulin solution, the relative pharmacological bioavailability and the relative bioavailability of buccal administration of insulin vesicles were determined. The results showed that the entrapment efficiencies of the deformable and conventional vesicles were 18.87+/-1.78% (n=3) and 22.07+/-2.16% (n=3), respectively. The particle sizes of the deformable and conventional vesicles were 42.5+/-20.5 nm and 59.7+/-33.8 nm, respectively. There were no significant differences in appearance between the two types of vesicle. Compared with subcutaneous administration of insulin solution, the relative pharmacological bioavailability and the relative bioavailability in the insulin-deformable vesicles group were 15.59% and 19.78%, respectively, which were higher than in the conventional insulin vesicles (p<0.05), blank deformable vesicles and insulin mixture groups (p<0.05). Deformable vesicles have an enhancing effect on buccal delivery of insulin and may be a better carrier than conventional vesicles for buccal delivery of protein drugs.  (+info)

Absence of canine oral papillomavirus DNA following prophylactic L1 particle-mediated immunotherapeutic delivery vaccination. (8/79)

In the canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) model, following wart regression, COPV DNA was detected by PCR at the challenge site. However, following particle-mediated immunotherapeutic delivery (PMID) of COPV L1 and subsequent challenge, no COPV DNA could be detected. These data support PMID of COPV L1 as a protective vaccine and suggest that PMID of L1 may induce virus clearance.  (+info)

Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal (/ˈbʌkəl/) area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream. Buccal administration may provide better bioavailability of some drugs and a more rapid onset of action compared to oral administration because the medication does not pass through the digestive system and thereby avoids first pass metabolism. As of May 2014, buccal forms of the psychiatric drug, asenapine; the opioid drugs buprenorphine, naloxone, and fentanyl; the cardiovascular drug nitroglycerin; the nausea medication Prochlorperazine; the hormone replacement therapy testosterone, and nicotine as a smoking cessation aid, were commercially available in buccal forms, as was midazolam, an anticonvulsant, used to treat acute epileptic seizures. Buccal administration of vaccines has been studied, but there are challenges to this approach due to immune ...
Mucoadhesive patch releasing the drug in the oral cavity at predetermined rate may present distinct advantages over traditional dosage forms such as tablets, gels and solutions. The present study was concerned with the preparation and evaluation of mucoadhesive buccal patches of nifedipine as its half life is 2hr and drug has high first pass metabolism. A buccal patch for systemic administration of nifedipine in the oral cavity has been developed using two different mucoadhesive polymers namely HPMC K4M and Carbapol 974. The developed patches were evaluated for the physicochemical, mechanical and drug release characteristics. The formulations were tested for Patch thickness, Surface pH, Folding endurance, Swelling index, Residence time, in vitro drug permeation studies, moisture absorption studies and in vitro bioadhesion studies. The patches showed good mechanical and physicochemical properties to withstand environment of oral cavity. The in-vitro release study showed that patches could deliver drug
BACKGROUND Rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam are used for emergency treatment of acute febrile and afebrile (epileptic) seizures in children. We aimed to compare the safety and efficacy of these drugs. METHODS A multicentre, randomised controlled trial was undertaken to compare buccal midazolam with rectal diazepam for emergency-room treatment of children aged 6 months and older presenting to hospital with active seizures and without intravenous access. The dose varied according to age from 2.5 to 10 mg. The primary endpoint was therapeutic success: cessation of seizures within 10 min and for at least 1 hour, without respiratory depression requiring intervention. Analysis was per protocol. FINDINGS Consent was obtained for 219 separate episodes involving 177 patients, who had a median age of 3 years (IQR 1-5) at initial episode. Therapeutic success was 56% (61 of 109) for buccal midazolam and 27% (30 of 110) for rectal diazepam (percentage difference 29%, 95% CI 16-41). Analysing only initial
There are no available data on Sitavig use in pregnant women. However, published observational studies over decades of use of acyclovir have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. It is not known if Sitavig is excreted in breast milk; however, systemic exposure following buccal administration of acyclovir is minimal. Before administration, discuss if the patient is lactating or planning to breastfeed ...
ABSTRACT. Buccal administration of drug provides a convenient route of administration for both systemic and local drug actions. The preferred site for retentive oral transmucosal delivery systems and for sustained and controlled release delivery device is the buccal mucosa. Rapid developments in the field of molecular biology and gene technology resulted in generation of many macromolecular drugs including peptides, proteins, polysaccharides and nucleic acids in great number possessing superior pharmacological efficacy with site specificity and devoid of untoward and toxic effects. However, the main impediment for the oral delivery of such drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their extensive presystemic metabolism, instability in acidic environment resulting into inadequate and erratic oral absorption. Direct access to the systemic circulation through the internal jugular vein bypasses drug from the hepatic first pass metabolism leading to high bioavailability. The objective of this article ...
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Title: 5-Fluorouracil Buccal Tablets for Locoregional Chemotherapy of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Formulation, Drug Release and Histological Effects on Reconstituted Human Oral Epithelium and Porcine Buccal Mucosa. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Libero Italo Giannola, Viviana De Caro, Giulia Giandalia, Maria Gabriella Siragusa, Carlo Paderni, Giuseppina Campisi and Ada Maria Florena. Affiliation:Department of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technologies, University of Palermo, Via Archirafi 32,90123 Palermo, Italy.. Keywords:5-Fluorouracil, Locoregional drug delivery, Porcine buccal mucosa, Reconstituted human oral epithelium, Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Buccal tablets. Abstract: 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is currently used for treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 5-FU is given by i.v. although the systemic administration is associated with severe toxic effects and no topical formulations of 5-FU for buccal drug delivery have been reported. In this study we would report the development ...
Going forward testosterone product labels will be required to carry a general warning about the risk of blood clots in the veins. This warning is in addition to current product warnings about the dangers of blot clots for those patients with polycythemia.. The FDA stated it was acting amidst its ongoing cardiovascular risk assessment of testosterone products and on reports of venous blood clots unrelated to polycythemia. This recommendation is unrelated other ongoing investigations and studies related to men taking testosterone products.. The FDA said it will also be taking steps to ensure that the venous clot risk is consistently labeled across all approved testosterone products, which include testosterone topical gel, transdermal patches, buccal administration, and injections.. Patients are encouraged to discuss testosterone products with their physicians to assure the latest information is available.. ...
Only the smallest dose required for effective relief of the acute anginal attack should be used. Excessive use may lead to the development of tolerance. Nitrostat tablets are intended for sublingual or buccal administration and should not be swallowed. Severe hypotension, particularly with upright posture, may occur with small doses of nitroglycerin. This drug should therefore be used with caution in patients who may be volume-depleted or who, for whatever reason, are already hypotensive. Hypotension induced by nitroglycerin may be accompanied by paradoxical bradycardia and increased angina pectoris. Nitrate therapy may aggravate the angina caused by hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. As tolerance to other forms of nitroglycerin develops, the effects of sublingual nitroglycerin on exercise tolerance, although still observable, is blunted. In industrial workers who have had long-term exposure to unknown (presumably high) doses of organic nitrates, tolerance rarely occurs. Chest pain, acute myocardial ...
Seek emergency care if you experience signs of an allergic reaction to fentanyl film, which may include: difficulty breathing, hives or rash, swelling
Nawal A. Rajab* and Zainab Ahmed Sadeq. ABSTRACT. Drug delivery through buccal mucosa is a novel method for local and systemic treatment because buccal mucosa is permeable with rich blood supply and allow long- time retention of dosage from. The objective of this study is to prepare captopril as mucoadhesive buccal patch by solvent casting method and studying the effect of changing plasticizer type and increasing the drug amount on the physical and mechanical behavior of film and in vitro drug release study .The patch was prepared using hydroxylpropyl methyl cellulose K4 (HPMC) as patch forming polymer with secondary polymer (carbopol 934) and propylene glycol as plasticizer (30% of total polymer weight). The patches were prepared by solvent casting method and evaluated for weight variation, surface pH, mechanical properties, content uniformity, ex-vivo mucoadhesive strength and in-vitro drug release study. Formula F5containing HPMC as primary polymer with carbopol 934 as secondary polymer was ...
Duration: This eight hour course will enable delegates to recognise and have confidence to support people experiencing different seizure types safely with dignity, and recognise the emergency situation and act as appropriate. This training will equip delegates with an understanding of the theory & practice of administering buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam safely according to the individual care plan.. This training facilitates safe, dignified and appropriate administration of this medication providing all the necessary guidelines, policies and procedures are in place and followed.. Assessment of learning is carried out during the course through supervised demonstrations, and questions and answers. It is recommended that following this course employer organisations provide work based assessment and initial supervision of practice.. This course is delivered in line with the current Joint Epilepsy Council Guidelines.. Due to the practical component, places are restricted to 10.. Delegates: This ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bioavailability in vivo of naltrexone following transbuccal administration by an electronically-controlled intraoral device: A trial on pigs.. AU - Florena, Ada Maria. AU - Paderni, Carlo. AU - De Caro, Viviana. AU - Giannola, Libero Italo. AU - Campisi, Giuseppina. AU - Göttsche, Thorsten. AU - Schumacher, Axel. AU - Wolff, Andy. PY - 2010. Y1 - 2010. N2 - Naltrexone (NLX), an opioid antagonist, is widely used in the treatment of opiate addiction, alcoholism and smoking cessation. Its current peroral administration induces various adverse side effects and has limited efficacy since bioavailability and patient compliance are poor. The development of a long-acting drug delivery system of NLX may overcome the current drawbacks and help in the improvement of treatment of addiction. The primary endpoints of this study were: a) to compare the NLX bioavailability and pharmacokinetics after delivering a single transbuccal dose, released by a prototype of intraoral device, versus an ...
Description of the drug Fentanyl Soluble Film. - patient information, description, dosage and directions. What is Fentanyl Soluble Film!
Piroxicam (PX) is one of the most potent non-steroidal, antiinflammatory agents which also exhibit anti-pyretic activity in various types of non-rheumatic pains. Although..
Onsolis (fentanyl buccal soluble film) has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain.[1]. Pain may be a side effect of cancer treatment or may be caused by the cancer itself. If not adequately managed, pain may have a tremendous effect on quality of life. Many cancer patients with chronic pain receive treatment with an opioid; however, they continue to experience flares of pain referred to as breakthrough pain. Breakthrough pain can become intensely painful within a few minutes, yet an opioid can take up to 30-60 minutes to take effect.. Onsolis delivers a potent opioid drug called fentanyl through an absorbable film that adheres to the inside of a patients cheek. The drug is designed to target pain more quickly. It is currently indicated for the treatment of cancer patients over the age of 18 who have developed a tolerance to opioid therapy.. Onsolis is subject to abuse and was approved with a Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy ...
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Please note 2 drug alerts have recently been issued for Buccal Midazolam by the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Thes
Fentanyl buccal tablets are approved for the treatment of breakthrough cancer pain. This eMedTV page offers a complete overview of this narcotic medication, including details on when and how to take the tablets, abuse potential, and possible side effects.
As this eMedTV Web page explains, testosterone buccal tablets are used to help treat low testosterone levels in men. This article offers more detailed information on the uses of this medication, including how it works, who can use it, and more.
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TY - CHAP. T1 - Buccal drug delivery systems. AU - Smart, John. AU - Keegan, Gemma. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Review of drug dleivery systems used within the oral cavity. AB - Review of drug dleivery systems used within the oral cavity. M3 - Chapter. SN - 9780470253175. SP - 169. EP - 184. BT - Oral controlled release formulation design and drug delivery: theory to practice. A2 - Wen, Hong. A2 - Park, Kinam. PB - John Wiley & Sons. CY - New Jersey. ER - ...
Since the initial description by Michelet et al. and research by Champy et al. the placement of a single, four-hole, monocortical, osteosynthesis plate has been considered an acceptable method of fixation for a fracture of the mandibular angle. We investigated the null hypothesis that there is no difference in the incidence of postoperative removal of an infected plate between miniplates placed on the mandibular external oblique ridge and those placed on the buccal surface of the mandible through a transbuccal approach to treat a fracture of the angle of the mandible. Patients were randomised to having their angle fractures treated with a ridge plate placed intraorally or transbucally. Other variables were investigated including the effect of smoking, drinking alcohol, oral hygiene, and the method of holding the reduction on removal of the plate, occlusal outcome, and degree of preoperative anatomical displacement and postoperative reduction. We also studied the operating time required for the ...
Buccal delivery is considered the most suitable, easy, and safest route of administration. So it can be used as an alternative route to the peroral route for the systemic administration of drugs. Oral films (OFs) are used as a unique approach, because it dissolves quickly in the mouth and directly reaches to the systemic circulation. The aim of this study is to formulate and evaluate OF of an anaethetic drug lidocaine (LH) and improve its local effect. Oral films were prepared by using chitosan and polyvinylpyrolidone. OFs were assessed for compatibility studies, surface pH, swelling properties, In-Vitro bioadhesion, mechanical properties, disintegration time, dissolution time and in- vitro drug release. It was found that actual LH content in the prepared patch was in the range of 95-105% of the claimed content. The addition of propylene glycol as a plasticizer gave good mechanical properties in concentration of 40%. The prepared oral films swelled and reached an Equilibrium state of swelling. The
Buccal delivery is defined as drug administration through the mucosal membranes lining the cheeks (buccal mucosa). The main impediment to the use of many hydrophilic macromolecular drugs as potential therapeutic agents is their inadequate and erratic oral absorption. The future challenge of pharmaceutical scientists is to develop effective non-parenteral delivery of intact proteins and peptides to the systemic circulation. Based on our current understanding of biochemical and physiological aspects of absorption and metabolism of many biotechnologically produced drugs, they cannot be delivered effectively through the conventional oral route. Because after oral administration many drugs are subjected to presystemic clearance extensive in liver, which often leads to a lack of significant correlation between membrane permeability, absorption, and bioavailability.
The original concept of bioadhesive polymers as platforms for oral controlled drug delivery was to use these polymers to control and to prolong the GI transit of oral controlled delivery systems for all kinds of drugs. Several in vitro and ex vivo methods to test the bioadhesive properties of polymers and/or of coated microparticles have been described. Whereas bioadhesion has found interesting applications for other routes of administration (buccal, nasal, rectal and vaginal), it now seems that the controlling approach of GI transit has been abandoned before having shown any significant clinical outcome. According to in vivo results obtained in animals and in humans, it does not seem that mucoadhesive polymers are able to control and slow down significantly the GI transit of solid delivery systems. Attention should be paid to possible occurrence of local ulcerous side effects due to the intimate contact of the system with mucosa for prolonged periods of time. As an example, oesophageal ...
Armstrong, Michelle and Bone, Gavin and Boyter, Anne and McInnes, Fiona (2011) Effect of spray device actuation on rheological flow behaviour and mucoadhesive strength of placebo nasal formulations. In: 2011 AAPS Annual Meeting and Exposition, 2011-10-23 - 2011-10-27, Washington Convention Centre. (Unpublished) Full text not available in this repository.Request a copy from the Strathclyde author ...
Galena Biopharma believes that its experienced oncology sales team will enable it to effectively market Zuplenz, the only oral soluble film for preventing vomiting following chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which it will soon offer thanks to a licensing agreement struck with MonoSol Rx, the developer of the products delivery technology.
A wound dressing comprising a backing layer, a skin facing layer and an absorbent layer between the backing layer and the skin facing layer, characterised in that at least a part of the absorbent layer is adjacent to the backing layer, the backing layer and the absorbent layer are mutually displaceable, and that the skin facing layer is located at the skin facing surface of the backing layer.
performance characteristics as plasticized hydrocolloids, API taste masking agents are being laminated by solvent casting and semisolid casting method. Solvent casting method being the most preferred method over other methods because it offers great uniformity of thickness and ...
The objective of the present study was to develop mucoadhesive buccal films of losartan potassium using sodium alginate, chitosan, and their conjugated derivatives at different concentrations by solvent casting technique. Glycerin was used as plasticizer, at different weight ratios. The conjugation of polymers (sodium alginate-cysteine and chitosan-thioglycolic acid) was confirmed by FTIR study. The resulted conjugated sodium alginate and chitosan displayed 475.64±24.31 and 305±31.21 μmol thiol groups per g conjugate, respectively. The developed films were evaluated by different parameters such as weight uniformity, thickness, surface pH, swelling index, in vitro residence time, mucoadhesive strength, in vitro and ex vivo drug permeation. The results indicated that the formulations S5, C4, Cs and Cc showed better characteristic properties and drug permeation. Good results were obtained both in vitro and ex vivo conditions for optimized film. A higher glycerin percent in films increased the ...
Tell your health care provider if your pain does not go away, if it gets worse, or if you have new or a different type of pain. You may develop tolerance to this drug. Tolerance means that you will need a higher dose of the drug for pain relief. Tolerance is normal and is expected if you take this drug for a long time.. Do not suddenly stop taking your drug because you may develop a severe reaction. Your body becomes used to the drug. This does NOT mean you are addicted. Addiction is a behavior related to getting and using a drug for a nonmedical reason. If you have pain, you have a medical reason to take pain drug. Your health care provider will tell you how much drug to take. If your health care provider wants you to stop the drug, the dose will be slowly lowered over time to avoid any side effects.. If you take other drugs that also cause drowsiness like other narcotic pain drugs, benzodiazepines, or other drugs for sleep, you may have more side effects. Give your health care provider a list ...
This announcement provides specific instructions on safe prescribing of a cancer pain medication in response to several patient deaths associated with off-label use.
by Sitavig. Because cold sores are so common, theres a great deal of misinformation about them. Misinformation may be spread through word-of-mouth as well as the Internet. To help separate cold sore facts from fiction, weve assembled a list of common myths about cold sores: 5 ...
Pain Research and Treatment is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical focusing on laboratory and clinical findings in the field of pain research and the prevention and treatment of pain. The journal welcomes submissions in the areas of chronic pain, anaesthesia, dentistry and oral medicine, rheumatology, and drug development.
Midatech Pharma US Announces Partnership with R-Pharm US to Co-promote Zuplenz® (ondansetron) oral soluble film and Oravig® (miconazole) orally-dissolving buccal tablet ...
The films are known for their utilitarian aspect in the field of Pediatrics and Geriatrics as they are conducive for intake by the people on different sides of the spectrum. No more fear of swallowing of medicines by kids, old patients or patients with special needs. OSF a real so useful for psychiatric patients and they offer a greater benefit for those with certain disabilities like paralysis. The thin films can be easily administered to non-cooperative patients and there are little chances of the patient spitting it out. They also ensure patient safety and avoid any risk of suffocation or choking.. In cases of patients with excess coughing, asthma, bronchitis, nausea, allergic attack and others, the thin film offers a convenient solution for drug administration. Zim Laboratories with its prolonged research is bringing safer drug delivery systems that are compliance-oriented and rank high on patient convenience and adherence.. ...
The invention relates to a adhesive article comprising at least one backing layer with a first and second surface and a pressure sensitive adhesive layer adhered first surface of the backing layer in a pattern, wherein the pattern of the adhesive layer has an adhesive free area of less than about 25% and wherein the adhesive article has a water vapor transmission rate of greater than about 2000 g/m2/24 hour. The invention also relates to a method of forming an adhesive article comprising (a) providing a release liner, (b) applying pressure sensitive adhesive in a pattern wherein the free adhesive area is less than 25%, and (c) applying a backing layer to the pressure sensitive adhesive.
When we talk about medical treatment, doctors and physicians only cover the initial phase of the entire process, albeit an important one. Patients, and by extension their caretakers, need to follow through to make sure that the adherence to medications is followed through.. A lot of failures in treatment are due to non-adherence of medications and thats either because of irresponsible behavior or because of the challenges faced by the patient to follow through on the prescribed medication. In order to avoid this, pharmaceutical innovation is boosting alternative drug delivery methods to make it more convenient.. One such innovation is the Orally Soluble Film.. Forced medication can leave a patient emotionally traumatized. Orally Soluble Film dissolves immediately on contact with saliva when consumed, which is why it doesnt need to be forced down a patients throat. It makes OSF the safest option for medication. Moreover, it doesnt need water for consumption, can be carried around easily, and ...
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Polycaprolactone (PCL) has been fabricated into ultra thin membranes (5 ± 0.01 μm to 30 ± 0.01 μm) for tissue engineering applications by biaxial stretching. However, the traditional solvent casting method raises concerns pertaining toxicity. Heated roll milling technology was included into the fabrication process to achieve a solvent-free biomaterial. The ideal substrate environment that promotes cellular proliferation has been a persistent area of interest in tissue engineering. Other than being biocompatible, the issue of cell proliferation is also important and is hypothesized as a function of the stiffness of the substrate material. This paper reports on experiments carried out to investigate and verify the effect of stiffness of the PCL membrane on fibroblast cell proliferation. Results indicated that 3T3 fibroblasts, belonging to soft tissues, prefer to proliferate in a lower stiffness (0.05 ± 0.01 N/mm) environment, which is closer to its native environment. © 2006 Elsevier B.V. ...
This medicine should not be used by women who are pregnant or might become pregnant. Testosterone may cause birth defects if a pregnant woman comes in contact with the medicine. Make sure your doctor knows if your sexual partner is pregnant. If a pregnancy occurs while you are using this medicine, tell your doctor right away. This medicine may increase the risk of prostate cancer, especially in older men. Make sure your doctor knows if you have prostate cancer, or if anyone in your family has prostate cancer. This medicine may cause blood clotting problems. Tell your doctor right away if you have pain, redness, or swelling in the arm or leg, shortness of breath, or trouble breathing. This medicine may increase your risk of having heart or blood vessel problems, including a heart attack or stroke. Tell your doctor right away if you have chest pain that may spread to your arms, jaw, back, or neck, faintness, headache, nausea, vomiting, trouble breathing, trouble seeing or speaking, or unusual ...
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The buccal cavity is lined with a mucous membrane which, like the lining of the entire alimentary canal, behaves as a lipoidal barrier to the passage of drugs ( Schanker, 1962). In general, drugs...
Tree studies bring about regulation because of happening of pharmacodynamic tol- no diference in efcacy generic Priligy midazolam versus rectal diazepam: No matter what, Buy Viagra Soft 50 mg Online Safely, all authors concluded that the buccal lessness, irritability and aggression, occur much more over way was easier to application and socially more satisfactory in requital for initial treat- in children than in adults. Hypersecretion in the tracheobronchial ment of early repute epilepticus in infancy. A randomized investigation compared buccal midazolam with intrave- To pare down the occurrence of dose-related toxicity, benzodiaz- nous diazepam in 120 children with seizures persisting at coming at epines should be initiated at a inferior dosage in elderly people, and difficulty segment.. Tese Idiosyncratic reactions, including fell rashes and blood dyscra- efects were connected to high inaugural doses and brisk titration. Make use of of benzodiazepines during pregnancy is not con- sidered to ...
The page also includes links to recent online resources and guidelines relating to anaesthesia and critical care providers in relation to Covid-19 including those from WFSA, AAGBI and Public Health England ...
Asheville, NC (PRWEB) July 17, 2006 -- With the growing threat of pandemic flu, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reminds everyone that simple
Using computer simulation of a soft, coarse-grained model and self-consistent field theory we investigate how collapsed, globular chain conformations in the initial stages of structure formation,...
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Peptide (insulin) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) have been embedded into buccal chitosan films (Ch-films-NPs). These films were produced by solvent casting and involved incorporating in chitosan gel (1.25% w/v), NPs-Insulin suspensions at three different concentrations (1, 3, and 5 mg of NPs per film) using glycerol as plasticiser. Film swelling and mucoadhesion were investigated using 0.01 M PBS at 37 °C and texture analyzer, respectively. Formulations containing 3 mg of NPs per film produced optimised films with excellent mucoadhesion and swelling properties. Dynamic laser scattering measurements showed that the erosion of the chitosan backbone controlled the release of NPs from the films, preceding in vitro drug (insulin) release from Ch-films-NPs after 6 h. Modulated release was observed with 70% of encapsulated insulin released after 360 h. The use of chitosan films yielded a 1.8-fold enhancement of ex vivo insulin permeation via EpiOral™ buccal tissue construct relative to the pure drug. ...
Intramuscular midazolam is at least as safe and effective as intravenous lorazepam for the prehospital management of status epilepticus. In his blog EM Literature of Note, Dr Ryan Radecki looks forward to a similar trial comparing nasal midazolam, which would reduce the risk from injections. Read his full critique here. Buccal midazolam 0.5 mg/kg is of course also an option, as described in the Advanced Paediatric Life Support manual:. If using the buccal route, draw up the higher dose (0.5mg) of the IV preparation using a needle (to avoid any fragments of glass from the ampoule) and after removing the needle, inject the drug into the buccal area between the lower bottom lip and the gum margin at the side of the mouth. Buccal midazolam is twice as effective as rectal diazepam, but both drugs produce the same level and degree of respiratory depression.. ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has accepted for review a New Drug Application for clobazam Oral Soluble Film (clobazam OSF) for adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome in patients two years of age or older. The target date for completion of the FDA review is the third-quarter of 2018.. Clobazam OSF is administered using Aquestives PharmFilm drug delivery technology. Similar in size and thickness to a stamp, Aquestives PharmFilm dissolves instantly after being placed on the tongue and can be administered without water.. Two multicenter controlled studies were conducted to evaluate the bioequivalence of clobazam OSF with clobazam tablets, a benzodiazepine currently on market, at the same dosage strengths. Based on the studies, clobazam OSF was demonstrated to be bioequivalent to clobazam tablets and have comparable safety.. ...
Non-injectable delivery of peptides and proteins is not feasible due to the limitations of large molecular mass, high hydrophilic properties, and gastrointestinal degradation. Therefore, proposing a new method to solve this problem is a burning issue. The objective of this study was to propose a novel protein delivery strategy to overcome the poor efficacy and irritation of buccal insulin delivery. In this study, we applied a conjugate of cell-penetrating peptides (LMWP) and insulin (INS-PEG-LMWP) for buccal delivery. INS-PEG-LMWP was prepared using insulin solution and mixture as references. The transport behaviour, in vivo bioactivity, hypoglycaemic effect, and safety of INS-PEG-LMWP were systematically characterised. An in vitro study demonstrated that the uptake and transportation of INS-PEG-LMWP across buccal mucosal multilayers significantly increased. By comparing the effects of different endocytic inhibitors on INS-PEG-LMWP uptake, the conjugate might be delivered via an energy ...
The specific aim of this work was to prepare mucoadhesive patches containing tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol in an attempt to develop a novel oral drug delivery system for the treatment of mouth infections. The bilayered patches were prepared using ethyl cellulose as a backing layer and carbopol 934 as a matrix mucoadhesive layer. Patches were prepared with different loading amounts of tetracycline hydrochloride and carvacrol. The antimicrobial activity was assessed for the prepared patches using the disc-diffusion method against the yeast Candida albicans and five bacterial strains, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus bronchispti. In this work, we highlighted the possibility of occurrence of a synergistic action between carvacrol and tetracycline. The best formulation was selected based on microbiological tests, drug release, ex-vivo mucoadhesive performance, and swelling index. Physical characteristics of the selected
0088]More specifically, a new material for reducing the linear expansion coefficient of the backing layer is mixed in the backing layer as thermal effect reducing means for reducing a thermal effect caused by the difference in linear expansion coefficient between the backing layer an the substrate of the cMUT chip. The new material is a third material different from the metal (for example, tungsten, ferrite, Pt, ceramic fine particle, etc.) and the resin (for example, polyamide resin, epoxy resin, copolymer of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, rubber, etc.) which constitute the backing layer. The third material is formed of glass-like material containing silica (SiO2) as a main component, and it may be glass fiber or the like, for example. The new material has a linear expansion coefficient of about 0.5 ppm/° C. (in the case of quartz glass) or about 9 ppm/° C. (in the case of general glass), and thus the linear expansion coefficient of the backing layer can be reduced as a whole. The linear ...
The aim of this study was to formulate and evaluate microencapsulated controlled release preparations of a highly water/soluble drug, salbutamol sulphate by (water in oil) in oil emulsion technique using ethyl cellulose as the retardant material. Various processing and formulation parameters such as drug/polymer ratio, stirring speed, volume of processing medium were optimized to maximize the entrapment. The release of salbutamol sulphate from ethyl cellulose microsphere was compared and possible release mechanism proposed. Microspheres were prepared by water in oil emulsion technique using acetonitrile/dichloromethane (1:1 ratio) solvent system. Span 80 was used as the dispersing agent and n-hexane was added to harden the microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized for their micromeritic properties and drug loading, as well as compatibility by infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The in-vitro
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the pharmacokinetic parameters of 800 μg oral, sublingual and buccal misoprostol in healthy non-pregnant women. METHODS: This was an open-label, randomised study with a three-way crossover design. Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to treatment sequences of 800 μg oral, sublingual and buccal misoprostol administered under fasting conditions, with a 7-day washout period. Ten participants completed all routes. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters measured were the area under the plasma misoprostol acid concentration-time curve (AUC) from dosing to last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-t), the AUC from 0 to infinity (AUC0-∞) and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax). Secondary parameters included the plasma elimination rate constant (ke), the half-life and the mean residence time (MRT). RESULTS: There were statistically significant differences in AUC0-∞, AUC0-t and Cmax at the p | 0.05 level for the three routes of administration.
Page contains details about PLGA-PLL/γPGA-EboDNA nanoparticle-encapsulated microneedle patch on PVA/PVP backing layer . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Erectile dysfunction. Can sildenafil citrate help?. While the famous blue pill can help you with your penile problems, it cannot help you burn fat and boost your depleted muscle mass. The good news is that you can depend on synthetic versions of Testosterone pills to fulfill your dreams. They work on the same principle as natural testosterone and have hardly any side effects. In fact, movie stars and bodybuilders also depend on Testosterone tablets to maintain their physique and slim figure, although they will never reveal this information. If this is not enough, this synthetic hormone also has anti aging properties. Therefore, you can depend on it to regain your youthful looks too. Some of the side effects associated with this hormone include oily skin and mild fluid retention. However, the pros of Testosterone tablets far outweigh its side effects. You can buy Testosterone from online stores, Search Google for Testosterone for sale and you will come up with thousands of results. Exercise ...
DARAs Salesforce to Launch Oravig Into Oncology Market, While Marketing Partner, Mission Pharmacal, Launches Into the Primary Care Market; Over 28 Million Prescriptions Filled Annually for Oral Thrush in the U.S.RALEIGH, NC--(Marketwired - October 05, 2015) - DARA BioSciences, Inc. (NASDAQ: DARA), an oncology supportive care specialty pharmaceutical company dedicated...
Page contains details about daidzein β-cyclodextrin complex-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
In the present study bilayer patch of benzydamine HCl was developed using solvent casting method. Different substrates were attempted like Petri dish, glass-and-ring, and teflon-and-ring for selection of the proper option to formulate patch that should give easily peelable film with adequate mechanical properties. HPMC E15 LV was used in different concentrations for obtaining proper viscosity of solution for pouring on to surface and ring, that it should not leak from ring. The second layer was optimized by using different polymer like eudragit RSPO, eudragit RSPO + EC, and eudragit NE30 D for efficient layer bonding ...
Breakthrough pain (BTP) is episodic pain that emerges through the treatment of otherwise well-managed chronic background pain. Often called pain flare or transient pain, BTP negatively affects the function and quality of life of the patient and often results in a number of other physical, psychological and social problems. Breakthrough pain is a common occurrence affecting approximately two-thirds of the estimated 50 to 100 million chronic pain sufferers in the US.
Breakthrough pain is sudden, brief pain that occurs during a period when chronic pain is generally well controlled (typically, controlled with opiods). Breakthrough pain may happen when the patient is at rest or be related to activity or a change of position. Click here for instructions on navigating the ONS PEP webpages. Have a question about how to apply this PEP topic to your practice? Ask a nurse on ONS staff at [email protected] This topic was updated on March 30, 2017.
Acyclovir buccal tablet is used to treat the symptoms of herpes simplex virus infection on the lips and around the mouth (cold sores) in adults with normal immune systems. Although this medicine will not cure herpes simplex, it may help the sores to heal faster and relieve some of the pain and discomfort. Acyclovir is an antiviral agent (treats a virus). ...
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Allow the tablet to dissolve in your mouth throughout the day. You may eat and drink normally while the buccal tablet is in place. During the first 6 hours of wearing time: If the tablet falls off or does not stick well, you may replace it with a new tablet. If you accidentally swallow the tablet, drink a glass of water and put a new tablet in place ...
Breakthrough pain is a common occurrence in patients with cancer pain, and is often associated with a deleterious effect on daily life, impairing quality of life substantially. It is a heterogeneous condition, and management needs to be individualized.This valuable pocketbook discusses the clinical features of breakthrough cancer pain and the different strategies for management. It covers assessment, treatment, and reassessment.
People taking narcotic pain medication around the clock may experience sudden, more intense spikes of pain called breakthrough pain. Contact us today to know more.
Definition of breakthrough pain in US English - (usually in connection with cancer) severe pain that erupts while a patient is already medicated with a long-acting pain
Breakthrough pain, defined as a severe pain that spikes through controlled chronic pain, usually peaks quickly and lasts for a relatively short period of time-typically up to an hour.
Greener for the planet, the Dropps formula has been approved by the EPAs Design for the Environment (DfE) program, which recognizes formulas with safer chemistry. In removing all water from the formula, we have made it so concentrated that we can put the liquid detergent in a water soluble film, which is 100 percent biodegradable. The small, pre-measured pacs allow us to ditch the detergent jug entirely, thereby reducing the plastic used in packaging the product-along with the energy that goes into shipping it. If you were to compare Dropps to traditional laundry detergent, the same amount of wash loads can be shipped in 1 truck carrying Dropps versus 3 trucks carrying traditional jug detergent. The space reduction extends into the home. The product is incredibly lightweight and space efficient; it takes up less space in the laundry room and on the store shelf. Weve taken this one step further and teamed up with TerraCycle® to create an innovative recycling solution for its packaging, making ...
About author *Hindustan Abdul Ahad2, Anuradha CM1*, Abhilash A2, Prabhuraj KJ2, Swapna K2, Anil Kumar K2 1Department of Biotechnology, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India 2Department of Pharmaceutics, Balaji College of Pharmacy, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India * e-mail : [email protected] ABSTRACT The present research work was aimed for an innovative study to prepare buccoadhesive tablets of Glipizide and Valdecoxib ... Read More ». ...
Toray Paper 090 - TGP-H-090 - is a carbon fiber composite paper suitable for use as a catalyst backing layer. It has a total thickness of 280 um (microns). Toray Paper 090 is a great low-cost alternative to conventional woven carbon cloth Gas Diffusion Layer (GDL) materials.. Toray carbon paper 090 comes with a standard 5% weight wet proofing. The Teflon gives the carbon material a hydrophobic property to better function as an electrode backing material.. Quantity discounts, custom sizes, and custom wet proofing available upon request. Enquire about this product below.. ...
In order to provide a direct-positive material having low contrast and extended latitude that can be manufactured in a consistent and reproducable way a multilayer direct-positive photographic material is disclosed as well as the process to provide it, characterized by the steps of coating on one side of a support at least two layers of direct positive silver halide emulsions of the externally fogged type, at least one layer of which comprises a mixture of direct positive silver halide emulsions of the externally fogged type and at least one layer of which comprises one or more filter dyes; overcoating said emulsion layers with at least one protective layer; coating on the other side of the support at least one backing layer.
Ultrasound-guided localisation of peripheral nerves provide crucial benefits in regional anaesthesia.1) Nonetheless, it is clear that this does not reduce the incidence of permanent nerve damage.2) Even in combination with nerve stimulation, intrafascicular injections cannot be ruled out.1)3)4)5) With the automatic injection pressure limiter NerveGuard, PAJUNK addresses the preventive position control to avert following damages.. ...
Ultrasound-guided localisation of peripheral nerves provide crucial benefits in regional anaesthesia.1) Nonetheless, it is clear that this does not reduce the incidence of permanent nerve damage.2) Even in combination with nerve stimulation, intrafascicular injections cannot be ruled out.1)3)4)5) With the automatic injection pressure limiter NerveGuard, PAJUNK addresses the preventive position control to avert following damages.. ...
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Transmucosal delivery of testosterone in rabbits using novel bi-layer mucoadhesive wax-film composite disks. J Pharm Sci. 2002 Sep; 91(9):2016-25 ...
Oramed Enrolls First Patient in its Phase 2a U.S. Oral Insulin Clinical Trial Marks initiation of Orameds first FDA trial for its flagship ORMD-0801 oral insulin product JERUSALEM, July 8, 2013...
Polymers are increasingly employed in restorative dentistry. One of the disadvantages of the early polymeric materials was an increased accumulation of biofilms on their surface. However, modern materials have been significantly improved and feature several options to further influence bioadhesion by modification of their surface properties. The aim of this lecture is to outline the scientific evidence available regarding bioadhesion on dental polymeric materials and to identify options for a continuous improvement of these materials.. ...
RESULTS: This was a planned interim safety analysis of 50 subjects. Group numbers: A=9, B=8, C=12, D=13, E=6. There were 2 eliminated due to dural puncture and catheter replacement. No difference in demographics or obstetric between groups. No difference in the incidence of pruritis (P=0.83), N/V (P=0.44), or the need for medications for treatment of side effects (P=0.29). The incidence of breakthrough pain (P=0.64) and rate of breakthrough pain (P=0.08) were not significantly different. By Log-rank analysis of the Kaplan-Meier curve, we found that the median times to first analgesic request were significantly different (P=0.02). (See Figure) The ordered median times (minutes) were: B=120±14, E=186±30, D=198±38, A=251±49, C=265±49. DISCUSSION: We can identify two points from this planned interim safety and efficacy analysis. First, we cannot distinguish the placebo group from the treatment groups by the incidence of side effects. Thus the study is safe. Second, we found a difference by ...
Children taking prescribed medication must be well enough to attend • Only prescribed medication is administered. It must be in-date and • Childrens prescribed medicines are stored in their original containers, are clearly labelled and are inaccessible to the children, where appropriate. • Parents give prior written permission for the administration of medication. The staff receiving the medication must ask the parent to sign a consent form stating the following information. No medication may be given without how the medication should be stored and the expiry date; any possible side-effects that may be expected should be noted; and signature, printed name of parent and date. • All medication is stored safely in a locked cupboard or refrigerated. • If the administration of prescribed medication requires medical knowledge, individual training is provided for the relevant member of staff by a health • If rectal diazepam is given two members of staff must be present. Children who have ...
ABSTRACTMucosa-mimetic materials are synthetic substrates which aim to replace animal tissue in mucoadhesion experiments. One potential mucosa-mimetic material is a hydrogel comprised of N-acryloyl-D-glucosamine and 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate, which has been investigated as a surrogate for animal mu
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In 2009, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Onsolis (fentanyl buccal soluble film), a fentanyl drug in a new dosage ... "Questions and Answers about Onsolis (fentanyl buccal soluble film)". US Food and Drug Administration. 16 July 2009. Archived ... Some routes of administration such as nasal sprays and inhalers generally result in faster onset of high blood levels, which ... "Guideline for administration of fentanyl for pain relief in labour" (PDF). RCP. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 March ...
Sublingual administration of estradiol was first described in the early 1940s. Buccal estradiol tablets were marketed by ... Estradiol can be taken by a variety of different routes of administration. These include oral, buccal, sublingual, intranasal, ... "Sublingual or Buccal Administration of Steroidal Hormones". Postgraduate Medicine. 8 (5): 393-400. doi:10.1080/00325481.1950. ... In addition to the route of administration, the type of estrogen influences VTE risk. Oral conjugated estrogens are associated ...
Progesterone has been studied for use by buccal administration. The medication has been marketed in the form of buccal tablets ... However, the duration was short, with levels of less than 5 ng/mL at 6 hours, and re-administration had to be done two or three ... With oral administration, progesterone accounts for less than 20% of the dose in circulation while 5α- and 5β-reduced products ... The clinical dosage of buccal progesterone has been described as 10 to 50 mg/day relative to 5 to 60 mg/day in the case of ...
Common routes of administration include sublingual, buccal, and intranasal. For sublingual and buccal administration, 25I-NBOMe ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Archived from the original on ... Drug Enforcement Administration (November 2015). "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Extension of Temporary Placement of Three ... "Three More Synthetic Drugs Become Illegal for at Least Two Years". United States Drug
However, depending on technique, the long buccal nerve may not be anesthetized by an IANB and therefore an area of buccal ... Administration of anesthesia near the mandibular foramen causes blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve and the nearby lingual ... Another symptom that can occur is "lingual shock" as the needle passes by the lingual nerve during administration. The patient ... Aker, F. D. (2001). "Blocking the buccal nerve using two methods of inferior alveolar block injection". Clinical Anatomy (New ...
Testosterone can be used by buccal administration (e.g., brand name Striant). Testosterone can be used by sublingual ... Testosterone can be taken by a variety of different routes of administration. These include oral, buccal, sublingual, ... Rectal administration of testosterone avoids the first-pass effect with oral administration similarly to other non-oral routes ... As a result, it requires administration several times per day in divided doses. Due to its limitations, such as the high doses ...
for buccal administration when solution for oromucosal administration is not available *^ The presence of both 25 mg/5 mL and ... cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and flucloxacillin are preferred for oral administration due to better bioavailability. ...
Food and Drug Administration (36 ed.). Food and Drug Administration. 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2016. Abilify Prescribing ... Tablets designed to dissolve on the buccal (cheek) mucous membrane were a precursor to the ODT. This dosage form was intended ... The first ODT form of a drug to get approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was a Zydis ODT formation of ... However, a fast disintegration time and a small tablet weight can enhance absorption in the buccal area. The first ODTs ...
Other non-invasive administration routes were investigated as a substitute for parenteral administration, reaching different ... Itin C, Komargodski R, Barasch D, Domb AJ, Hoffman A (April 2021). "Prolonged Delivery of Apomorphine Through the Buccal Mucosa ... Alternative administration routes Two routes of administration are currently clinically utilized: subcutaneous (either as ... IV administration of apomorphine is highly discouraged, as it can crystallize in the veins and create a blood clot (thrombus) ...
Buccal progesterone tablets were marketed by Schering under the brand name Proluton Buccal Tablets by 1949. Sublingual ... Administration of as much as 500 mg progesterone by intravenous infusion in humans was uneventful in terms of toxicity, but did ... Routes of administration that progesterone has been used by include oral, intranasal, transdermal/topical, vaginal, rectal, ... Unfer V, Casini ML, Marelli G, Costabile L, Gerli S, Di Renzo GC (2005). "Different routes of progesterone administration and ...
Buccal: Oxytocin was delivered in buccal tablets, but this is not common practice any more. Under the tongue: Oxytocin is ... Nasal administration: Oxytocin is effectively distributed to the brain when administered intranasally via a nasal spray, after ... Mehta AC (1986). "Buccal and oral drugs: induction of labour". Acta Chirurgica Hungarica. 27 (3): 157-63. PMID 3469841. De ... Also, systemic oxytocin administration can impair memory retrieval in certain aversive memory tasks. However, oxytocin does ...
Dosage and administration[edit]. The usual dose of montelukast in adults and teenagers is one 10 mg tablet taken orally a day. ... "Formulation, development and in-vitro evaluation of mucoadhesive bilayered buccal patches of montelukast sodium" (PDF) ... In March 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) announced that it would investigate whether mood changes and ... It is also used to prevent allergic reactions and asthma flare-ups during the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. It ...
... is also available under the brand names Metandren and Oreton Methyl for use specifically by buccal or sublingual administration ... Circulating levels of methyltestosterone with administration of 1.25 to 2.5 mg/day oral methyltestosterone in women are in the ... 179-. ISBN 978-94-011-4439-1. "[email protected]: FDA Approved Drug Products". United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 28 ...
Testosterone buccal tablets and pellet implants do not appear to be available in Canada. Testosterone and/or its esters are ... The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2015 that neither the benefits nor the safety of testosterone ... Strahm E, Emery C, Saugy M, Dvorak J, Saudan C (December 2009). "Detection of testosterone administration based on the carbon ... The most common route of administration for testosterone is by intramuscular injection. However, it has been reported that ...
This provides a mechanism for judges to request the offender to provide blood, buccal swabs, or hair samples from DNA profiles ... It has become one of the most powerful tools available to law enforcement agencies for the administration of justice. NDDB ...
Sublingual and buccal medication administration is a way of giving someone medicine orally (by mouth). Sublingual ... The word "sublingual" means "under the tongue." Buccal administration involves placement of the drug between the gums and the ... Oral administration is often denoted "PO" from "per os", the Latin for "by mouth". The bioavailability of oral administration ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ...
This route of administration is used for the therapy of bladder cancer and interstitial cystitis. The retention of dosage forms ... Permeation sites can be separated into two groups: sublingual and buccal, in which the former is much more permeable than the ... Consequently, direct administration through the fibrous tunic is common. This is made difficult due to the numerous defense ... With a 0.1-0.7 mm thick mucus layer, the oral cavity serves as an important route of administration for mucoadhesive dosages. ...
Drug Enforcement Administration, U.S. Department of Justice. 2005. Archived from the original on 2 November 2006. "Opioid ... It can be used under the tongue (sublingual), in the cheek (buccal), by injection (intravenous), as a skin patch (transdermal ... Therefore, having knowledge of both the route of administration of the drug and the level of tolerance to opioids of the ... This limit was increased by the Obama administration, raising the number of patients to which doctors can prescribe to 275. On ...
Buccal administration of selegiline results in 5-fold higher bioavailability, more reproducible blood concentration, and ... Administration of transdermal selegiline bypasses hepatic first pass metabolism. This avoids an inhibition of gastrointestinal ... "Dose linearity study of selegiline pharmacokinetics after oral administration: evidence for strong drug interaction with female ...
for buccal administration when solution for oromucosal administration is not available cloxacillin, dicloxacillin and ... flucloxacillin are preferred for oral administration due to better bioavailability. Procaine benzylpenicillin is not ...
Lozenge-effects a metred and patient-controlled-rate combination of sublingual, buccal, and oral administration, as with the ... Multi-purpose tablets-Soluble tablets for either oral or sublingual (or buccal) administration, often also suitable for ... Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster,[quantify] and ... and is used in the Fentora fentanyl buccal tablet. Almost any form of substance may be amenable to sublingual administration if ...
Multiple routes of drug administration results in varying degrees of efficacy. Topical administration has been shown to have a ... Another study found no significant difference from placebo regarding buccal mucosal bleeding time, prothrombin time, activated ... or efficacy of Yunnan Baiyao has not been established by the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration. Oral administration ... In a limited number human studies of small sample sizes, administration of Yunnan Baiyao has been shown to correlate with " ...
They are pre-portioned and are held in the user's lip or cheek allowing for sublingual or buccal delivery of flavors and high ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has a list of additional tobacco products they are seeking to regulate, including ... Snus and nasal snuff also allow for nicotine administration outside of tobacco smoking. Nicotine pouches are described as ... "FDA 101: Smoking Cessation Products". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Archived from the original on 3 November 2014. ...
In one study (c. 1985),[3] scientists linked malignant tumours to the site of skin or subcutaneous administration of aqueous ... In human populations, they reported observing elevated frequencies of micronucleated cells in buccal mucosa of people who chew ...
Sublingual and buccal medication administration is a way of giving someone medicine orally (by mouth). Sublingual ... The word "sublingual" means "under the tongue." Buccal administration involves placement of the drug between the gums and the ... Extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes.. *Nasal administration (through the nose) can be ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ' ...
... , literally "under the lip", from Latin, refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which ... Upper lip administration[edit]. Some drugs are inactive in the digestive tract, but this can be avoided if held between the ... Sublabial administration should not be confused with sublingual administration, which is under the tongue. The frenulum of the ... Buccal (sublabial), sublingual. Solids. *Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). *Film. *Lollipop. *Sublingual drops ...
Intravitreal is a route of administration of a drug or other substance, in which the substance[1] is delivered into the eye. ... Intravitreal administration of drugs is used to treat various conditions of the eye. ... Buccal (sublabial), sublingual. Solids. *Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). *Film. *Lollipop. *Sublingual drops ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Intravitreal_administration&oldid=836379009" ...
Estradiol can be taken by a variety of different routes of administration. These include oral, buccal, sublingual, intranasal, ... Tullner, W. W.; Young, J. P.; Hertz, R (1952). "Administration of Massive Dosage of Oestrogen to Breast and Prostatic Cancer ... Al-Futaisi AM, Al-Zakwani IS, Almahrezi AM, Morris D (December 2006). "Subcutaneous administration of testosterone. A pilot ... Hertz R, Tullner WW (October 1949). "Intravenous administration of massive dosages of estrogen to the human subject; blood ...
Oravig 50 mg once daily buccal tablet: In 2010, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Oravig (miconazole) buccal ...
... buccal, intranasal, and rectal administration, as well as intrauterine devices More recently developed forms of drug delivery ... Oral administration - tablets, capsules Transdermal administration - patches, gels, creams Vaginal administration - tablets, ... Comparisons between routes of administration suggest that when estrogens are applied to the skin or vagina, there is a lower ... The current indications for use from the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) include short-term treatment of ...
The most common site of involvement is the commissural region of the buccal mucosa, usually on both sides of the mouth. Another ... depending on the route of administration. Topically administered corticosteroids in the mouth may take the form of mouthwashes ... The greatest quantity of Candida species are harbored on the posterior dorsal tongue, followed by the palatal and the buccal ... Pseudomembraneous candidiasis can involve any part of the mouth, but usually it appears on the tongue, buccal mucosae or palate ...
Buccal (sublabial),. sublingual. Solids. *Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). *Film. *Lollipop. *Sublingual drops ...
Buccal (sublabial), sublingual. Solids. *Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). *Film. *Lollipop. *Sublingual drops ...
Many systems of administration employ a drip chamber, which prevents air from entering the blood stream (air embolism), and ... Compared with other routes of administration, such as oral medications, the intravenous route is the fastest way to deliver ... One reason veins are preferred over arteries for intravascular administration is because the flow will pass through the lungs ... The intravenous route of administration can be used for injections (with a syringe at higher pressures) or infusions (typically ...
Oxygen helmets are used in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for oxygen administration.[1] They are transparent, lightweight plastic ... Oxygen helmets are often preferred for oxygen administration in hyperbaric oxygen chambers for children and patients that are ... and hyperbaric chamber and other patients who require administration of pure oxygen, such as carbon monoxide poisoning and ... Buccal (sublabial),. sublingual. Solids. *Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). *Film. *Lollipop. *Sublingual drops ...
Buccal, epidermal, IM, IV, intrathecal, intranasal, SC, sublingual.. Bioavailability = 50% (buccal), 89% (intranasal); protein ... Routes of administration. [40][41][42] Pharmacokinetics[39] Indications. [40][41][42] Major safety concerns. [40][41][42] ... Buccal spray.. Not available.. Neuropathic pain and spasticity as part of MS.. As per dronabinol. ... Protein binding = 35%; extensive hepatic metabolism, with some metabolism occur in the gut after oral administration; half-life ...
A new method of drug administration". Current Researches in Anesthesia and Analgesia. 26 (6): 221-230. PMID 18917536.. ... August 14, 2014: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of the PharmaJet Stratis 0.5ml Needle-free Jet ... Warren, J; Ziherl, FA; Kish, AW; Ziherl, LA (1955). "Large-scale administration of vaccines by means of an automatic jet ... Needle-free Injector Receives WHO PQS Certification as a Pre-qualified Delivery Device for Vaccine Administration". ...
... after a change from vaginal to buccal administration of misoprostol combined with the routine preventative use of doxycycline ... U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved October 10, 2019.. *^ Medical management of abortion. WHO. 2018. p. 24. ISBN ... Chen, MJ; Creinin, MD (July 2015). "Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic Review". Obstetrics ... followed 24-48 hours later by 800 mcg of buccal misoprostol) currently used by Planned Parenthood clinics in the United States ...
If defined strictly as having local effect, the topical route of administration can also include enteral administration of ... Most often topical administration means application to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes to treat ailments via ... The definition of the topical route of administration sometimes states that both the application location and the ... The patch is labelled with the time and date of administration as well as the administrator's initials. ...
United States Food and Drug Administration.. *^ "Adamis Pharmaceuticals Provides Update on U.S. Retail Launch of SYMJEPI". ... Autoinjectors were originally developed for the rapid administration of nerve gas antidotes in kits like the Mark I NAAK. The ... Annex I: List of the names, pharmaceutical form(s), strength(s) of the medicinal product(s), route(s) of administration, ... The intramuscular route is preferred over subcutaneous administration because the latter may have delayed absorption.[4][5] ...
Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Office of Applied Studies. (2003). Emergency department trends from ... buccal) spray, has been shown to improve withdrawal symptoms without improving abstinence rates.[46] Oral CBD has not shown ... Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 17 ... but potentially decreasing the overall use of cannabis with chronic administration.[46] N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has shown some ...
The plastic whitening strips contain a thin layer of peroxide gel and are shaped to fit the buccal/labial surfaces of teeth.[1] ... or oral administration of drugs. Metals can be penetrated into the tooth causing permanent discolouration or can bind to the ... The US Food and Drug Administration only endorses gels that are under 6% hydrogen peroxide or 16% or less of carbamide peroxide ...
Oral administration of lactoferrin to animals also reduced the number of pathogenic organisms in the tissues close to the ... "Modulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and redox status during chemoprevention of hamster buccal carcinogenesis by ... Administration of lactoferrin through drinking water to mice with weakened immune systems and symptoms of aphthous ulcer ... United States Food and Drug Administration. 2009-11-05. Archived from the original on 2009-12-24. Retrieved 2010-01-23. Pammi, ...
For example, a medical procedure called a buccal smear uses a small brush or cotton swab to collect a sample of cells from the ... Statement of Administration policy, Executive Office of the President, Office of Management and Budget, 27 April 2007 ... "Administration News , President Bush Signs Genetic Nondiscrimination Legislation Into Law," Kaiser Daily Health Policy Report, ... Though there are several hundred tests available, only a handful are approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA); these ...
Buccal. Methyltestosterone. Tablet. 25-100 mg/day Injection (IM or SC). Testosterone propionate. Oil solution. 50-100 mg 3x/ ... "United States Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 16 November 2016.. *^ "Drug Product Database - Health Canada". Health ... administration. Transdermal (gel), in the cheek, under the tongue, intramuscular injection (as esters). ... The bioavailability of androstanolone differs considerably depending on its route of administration.[1][2] Its oral ...
Multi-Purpose Tablets-Soluble tablets for either oral or sublingual (or buccal) administration, often also suitable for ... Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster,[quantify] and ... Lozenge-effects a metred and patient-controlled-rate combination of sublingual, buccal, and oral administration, as with the ... Sublingual (abbreviated SL), from the Latin for "under the tongue", refers to the pharmacological route of administration by ...
Each tooth is divided into four gingival units (mesial, distal, buccal, and lingual) and given a score from 0-3 based on the ... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) found clear evidence showing that toothpaste containing triclosan was effective in ...
aciclovir trials in the late 1980s.[106] The lower toxicity and ease of administration over vidarabine has led to aciclovir ... Intravenous vidarabine was licensed for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1977. Other experimental antivirals of ... Buccal bifurcation. *Lateral periodontal. *Globulomaxillary. *Calcifying odontogenic. *Glandular odontogenic. *Non-odontogenic: ...
... hookworm rhabditoform larvae have long buccal cavities whereas Strongyloides rhabditoform larvae have short buccal cavities.[10 ... While annual or semi-annual mass antihelminthic administration is a critical aspect of any public health intervention, many ... Whereas A. duodenale possesses two pairs of teeth, N. americanus possesses a pair of cutting plates in the buccal capsule. ... Classification can be performed based on the length of the buccal cavity, the space between the oral opening and the esophagus ...
Inhalation (흡연, 전자 담배), buccal (en:aerosol spray), oral (용액)[5][6] ... "US Food and Drug Administration. 2018년 6월 25일. 2018년 6월 25일에 확인함.. ...
Buccal (sublabial), sublingual. Solids. *Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). *Film. *Lollipop. *Sublingual drops ...
... the long buccal nerve may not be [2] anesthetized by an IANB and therefore an area of buccal gingiva adjacent to the lower ... Administration of anesthesia near the mandibular foramen causes blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve and the nearby lingual ... Aker, F. D. (2001). "Blocking the buccal nerve using two methods of inferior alveolar block injection". Clinical Anatomy (New ... Another symptom that can occur is "lingual shock" as the needle passes by the lingual nerve during administration. The patient ...
Istenič, L.; Bulog, B. (1979). "The structural differentiations of the buccal and pharyngeal mucous membrane of the Proteus ... collecting is possible only for research purposes by permission of the National Administration for Nature and Environment ...
Intravenous administration is the most reliable and rapid way to accomplish euthanasia, so can be safely recommended. A coma is ... and a buccal (between the gum and cheek) tablet (Fentora) to dissolve in the mouth.[36] ... Finally, the remote administration results in an increased risk that insufficient amounts of the lethal injection drugs enter ... "Administration and Compounding of Euthanisic Agents". The Hague: Royal Dutch Society for the Advancement of Pharmacy. 1994. ...
Administration of lipid-based formulations to minipigs in the fasted and fed state". Eur J Pharm Sci. 31 (1): 8-15. PMID ... Within the last years SMEDDS were also utilized for the oral administration of biologics. Due to ion pairing with appropriate ... Gibaud, S. P.; Attivi, D. (2012). "Microemulsions for oral administration and their therapeutic applications". Expert Opinion ... for oral administration containing medium and long chain triglycerides". Eur J Pharm Sci. 28 (3): 233-42. PMID 16650738. doi: ...
Chen, Melissa J.; Creinin, Mitchell D. (July 2015). "Mifepristone With Buccal Misoprostol for Medical Abortion: A Systematic ... The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has implemented universal screening for what has been termed "military sexual trauma ... with the assistance of Wehrmacht soldiers who were stationed in territory that was under the administration of the German ... Liver function tests Serum creatinine level Treatment may include the administration of zidovudine/lamivudine, tenofovir/ ...
Buccal administration is a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal (/ˈbʌkəl/) area (in the ... Sublabial administration Sublingual administration Route of administration Pharmacology Sattar, M; Sayed, OM; Lane, ME (Aug ... Buccal administration may provide better bioavailability of some drugs and a more rapid onset of action compared to oral ... Buccal administration of vaccines has been studied, but there are challenges to this approach due to immune tolerance ...
Sublingual and buccal medication administration are ways to take certain oral drugs. Learn the differences, pros, cons, and ... Sublingual and buccal medication administration are two different ways of giving medication by mouth. Sublingual administration ... Buccal administration involves placing a drug between your gums and cheek, where it also dissolves and is absorbed into your ... Sublingual and Buccal Medication Administration. Medically reviewed by Zara Risoldi Cochrane, PharmD, MS, FASCP on December 5, ...
Described herein are formulations for fast-disintegrating epinephrine tablets which can be prepared for buccal or sublingual ... administration, wherein the fast-disintegrating epinephrine tablets can pro ... In one embodiment, the methods comprise the single administration of at least 15 mg epinephrine via one or more buccal or ... In another embodiment, the methods comprise the single administration of at least 20 mg epinephrine via one or more buccal or ...
Buccal administration of human colostrum: impact on the oral microbiota of premature infants.. Sohn K1, Kalanetra KM2, Mills DA ... Buccal administration of mothers colostrum to VLBW infants influenced the colonization of the oral cavity with differences ... To determine whether the administration of mothers colostrum into the buccal pouch in the first days of life alters the oral ... infants were randomly assigned to receive either colostrum from their mothers directly into the buccal pouch every 2 h for 46 h ...
... and a controlled release buccal tablet has been investigated in six healthy volunteers. 2. Analysis of plasma samples for ... The bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of morphine after intravenous, oral and buccal administration in healthy volunteers Br ... oral or buccal administration but the mean ratio of AUCs for M6G: morphine in plasma after intravenous morphine was 2 : 1 ... Maximum plasma morphine concentrations were seen at 45 min (oral solution), 2.5 h (MST) and 6 h (buccal). 3. There was no ...
Impact of the blood sampling site on time-concentration drug profiles following intravenous or buccal drug administration. ... E Impact of the blood sampling site on time-concentration drug profiles following intravenous or buccal drug administration. J ...
Buccal Midazolam is a rescue medication which is administered during a seizure under medical advice to reduce seizure duration ... Completion of the class will lead to a 1 year certification in the administration of Buccal Midazolam following the completion ... the Administration of Buccal Midazolam" in the subject line along with your name and contact details. Paul will then contact ... healthcare professionals to be trained in the administration of Buccal Midazolam or have their current certification refreshed ...
Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1973;72(11):1110. doi: . ... Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases. The Journal of the American Osteopathic ... Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases ... Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases ...
Mass drug administration to stop multi drug resistant malaria in Cambodia * Promising approach to reducing Malaria transmission ... Community engagement, social context and coverage of mass anti-malarial administration * The rise and fall of long-latency ... Community participation in mass anti-malarial administrations in Cambodia * Ethics, regulation, and beyond: the landscape of ... The impact of targeted malaria elimination with mass drug administrations on falciparum malaria in Southeast Asia ...
Buprenorphine Buccal Film) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related ... DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION. Important Dosage And Administration Instructions. BELBUCA should be prescribed only by healthcare ... BELBUCA buccal film is for oral buccal use only and is to be applied to the buccal mucosa every 12 hours. ... The yellow side of the buccal film is applied to the inside of the cheek where it adheres to the moist buccal mucosa to deliver ...
Buprenorphine and Naloxone Buccal Film) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews ... Treatment should be initiated with supervised administration, progressing to unsupervised administration as the patients ... BUNAVAIL buccal film is supplied as a yellow rectangular buccal film in three dosage strengths:. *buprenorphine 2.1 mg/naloxone ... Use the entire BUNAVAIL buccal film. Do not cut, tear, chew, or swallow the buccal film. Your doctor should show you how to use ...
Read more about the prescription drug FENTANYL TABLET - BUCCAL. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are ... BUCCAL (Fentora), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. ... GENERIC NAME: FENTANYL TABLET - BUCCAL (FEN-ta-nil). BRAND NAME(S): Fentora. Warning , Medication Uses , How To Use , Side ... Do not use fentanyl buccal tablets unless you have been regularly taking moderate to large amounts of narcotic pain medication ...
Read more about the prescription drug TESTOSTERONE SUSTAINED-RELEASE - BUCCAL. ... BUCCAL (Striant), includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. ... Report Problems to the Food and Drug Administration. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs ... GENERIC NAME: TESTOSTERONE SUSTAINED-RELEASE - BUCCAL (tess-TOSS-ter-own). BRAND NAME(S): Striant. Medication Uses , How To Use ...
Buccal" by people in UAMS Profiles by year, and whether "Administration, Buccal" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Administration, Buccal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Administration, Buccal" by people in Profiles over the past ten years. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Administration, Buccal". ...
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Sublingual and buccal medication administration is a way of giving someone medicine orally (by mouth). Sublingual ... The word "sublingual" means "under the tongue." Buccal administration involves placement of the drug between the gums and the ... Extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes.. *Nasal administration (through the nose) can be ... Administration through the gastrointestinal tract is sometimes termed enteral or enteric administration (literally meaning ...
Detailed dosage guidelines and administration information for Suboxone (buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride ... Switching Between Sublingual and Buccal Sites of Administration. The systemic exposure of buprenorphine between buccal and ... Buccal Administration. Place one film on the inside of the right or left cheek. If an additional film is necessary to achieve ... Because the exposure to naloxone is somewhat higher after buccal than after sublingual administration, it is recommended that ...
Switching Between Sublingual and Buccal Sites of Administration. The systemic exposure of buprenorphine between buccal and ... Buccal Administration Place one film on the inside of the right or left cheek. If an additional film is necessary to achieve ... Sublingual Film for sublingual or buccal administration (CIII). IMPORTANT:. Keep buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film in ... Because the exposure to naloxone is somewhat higher after buccal than after sublingual administration, it is recommended that ...
Fentora (fentanyl buccal tablet). MedWatch Safety Alert. Silver Spring, MD: US Food and Drug Administration; September 13, 2007 ... Silver Spring, MD: US Food and Drug Administration; December 21, 2007. This Food and Drug Administration public health advisory ... The Food and Drug Administrations initiative for safe design and effective use of home medical equipment. Get Citation Weick- ... Quality assessment of spontaneous triggered adverse event reports received by the Food and Drug Administration. Get Citation ...
Transmucosal routes include sublingual, buccal, intranasal, and rectal. Rectal Route. Rectal administration can only be used ... Routes of Administration. Oral Route. Oral administration of analgesic agents is simple and noninvasive and has shown good ... Sublingual and Buccal Routes. Sublingual (SL) or buccal mucosae are characterized by a large surface for the absorption of ... Table 2 Summary of recommended drugs and routes of administration for postoperative pain. Full size table. ...
Fentora (fentanyl buccal tablet). MedWatch Safety Alert. Silver Spring, MD: US Food and Drug Administration; September 13, 2007 ... Silver Spring, MD: US Food and Drug Administration; May 6, 2013. This announcement describes the risk of medication mix-ups ... Silver Spring, MD: US Food and Drug Administration; February 28, 2019.. This announcement seeks to raise awareness of the ...
Buccal administration involved placing four 200 μg tablets between the cheek and gum for at least 30 minutes; any undissolved ... The regimen we used is similar to those recommended by the WHO17 and the RCOG,2 with buccal administration of misoprostol. ... Our mifepristone-buccal misoprostol EMA method could be used outside a hospital setting. The diagnosis and initiation of ... The mifepristone-buccal misoprostol regimen selected was based on the peer-reviewed literature, extensive experience of Marie ...
The https:// ensures that you are connecting to the official website and that any information you provide is encrypted and transmitted securely.. ...
Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam - Full Day * Epilepsy and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam ... Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam - Full Day * Epilepsy and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam ... Rectal Diazepam Administration Refresher - Half Day * Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal ... Rectal Diazepam Administration Refresher - Half Day * Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal ...
... buccal explanation free. What is buccal? Meaning of buccal medical term. What does buccal mean? ... Looking for online definition of buccal in the Medical Dictionary? ... buccal. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to buccal: buccal tablet, buccal administration ... buccal. pertaining to or directed toward the cheek.. buccal administration. drugs may be absorbed across buccal mucosa, ...
Norvic train delegates in the safe and effective administration of rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam. ... Norvic Training offers courses on Administration of Rectal Diazepam and Buccal Midazolam, in Norwich, Kings Lynn, Norfolk, ... Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam. *Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam ... Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam. Course Aims. To train delegates in the safe and effective administration ...
Sublabial administration, literally "under the lip", from Latin, refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which ... Upper lip administration[edit]. Some drugs are inactive in the digestive tract, but this can be avoided if held between the ... Sublabial administration should not be confused with sublingual administration, which is under the tongue. The frenulum of the ... Buccal (sublabial), sublingual. Solids. *Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). *Film. *Lollipop. *Sublingual drops ...
Intravitreal is a route of administration of a drug or other substance, in which the substance[1] is delivered into the eye. ... Intravitreal administration of drugs is used to treat various conditions of the eye. ... Buccal (sublabial), sublingual. Solids. *Orally disintegrating tablet (ODT). *Film. *Lollipop. *Sublingual drops ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Intravitreal_administration&oldid=836379009" ...
The present invention pertains to delivery systems for the localized administration of a medicament to the upper respiratory ... Soft buccal. US4695463 *. 24 May 1985. 22 Sep 1987. Warner-Lambert Company. Delivery system for active ingredients and ... The present invention provides for the controlled, in situ formation of a thin, bioadhesive film which may bind to the buccal ... A method for the local administration of a medicament to the upper respiratory tract of a patient which comprises orally ...
Following IV administration, no difference among the sampling sites was found. Following buccal administration, maximum ... Following IV administration, no difference among the sampling sites was found. Following buccal administration, maximum ... Following IV administration, no difference among the sampling sites was found. Following buccal administration, maximum ... Following IV administration, no difference among the sampling sites was found. Following buccal administration, maximum ...
  • Buccal administration is a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal (/ˈbʌkəl/) area (in the cheek) diffuse through the oral mucosa (tissues which line the mouth) and enter directly into the bloodstream. (wikipedia.org)
  • BUNAVAIL (buprenorphine and naloxone) buccal film is a citrus flavored oral transmucosal form of buprenorphine, an opioid partial agonist , and naloxone, an opioid antagonist , intended for application to the buccal mucosa . (rxlist.com)
  • The film adheres upon contact with the moist buccal mucosa . (rxlist.com)
  • It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying. (uams.edu)
  • drugs may be absorbed across buccal mucosa, directly into the venous circulation. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Oral cavity was examined after retracting the tongue left side and tear in buccal mucosa was identified which had direct communication with the swelling. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Drug delivery via buccal mucosa by using bioadhesive polymers i.e., polymers that will attach to the surface coating of tissues, offers such a novel route of drug administration. (authorstream.com)
  • Limitations of Buccal Drug Administration Drugs, which irritate the mucosa or have a bitter or unpleasant taste or an obnoxious odour , cannot be administered by this route. (authorstream.com)
  • Buccal administration can deliver lipophilic opioids rapidly to the systemic circulation through the buccal mucosa, limiting gastrointestinal motility and first-pass metabolism. (dovepress.com)
  • There was no effect of NAC on the formation of lipophilic-DNA adducts in peripheral blood lymphocytes or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in mouth floor/buccal mucosa cells or 4-aminobiphenyl-Hb adducts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The aim was to characterize the transport of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dextran and insulin with different resoluble compounds for peptides and proteins through buccal mucosa. (spie.org)
  • The penetration rate of insulin molecules through porcine buccal mucosa (a nonkeratinized epithelium, comparable to human buccal mucosa) was investigated by measuring transbuccal fluxes and by analyzing the distribution of the fluorescent probe in the rabbit buccal mucosa epithelium, using confocal laser scanning microscopy for visualizing permeation pathways. (spie.org)
  • The confocal images of the distribution pattern of FITC-dextran and FITC-insulin showed that the paracellular route is the major pathway of FITC-dextran through buccal mucosa epithelium, the intra-cellular route is the major pathway of FITC-insulin through buccal mucosa epithelium. (spie.org)
  • It is quite well established that absorption of drugs from oral mucosa allows direct entry of the drug in to the systemic circulation, thereby avoiding the first pass hepatic metabolism as well as degradation of the drug in the gastrointestinal tract, both of which are associated with oral administration [ 1 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Several mucoadhesive formulations are under development and drug delivery via buccal mucosa is a novel route of drug administration. (ijpsonline.com)
  • The absorption of ergotamine across the buccal mucosa appears to be a passive process, pH-dependent but independent of ergotamine concentration or the simultaneous presence of caffeine. (bmj.com)
  • Because of the low solubility of ergotamine at the pH of saliva, it is unlikely that therapeutically useful amounts of the drug would have absorbed across the buccal mucosa even after the drug had been in the mouth for five minutes. (bmj.com)
  • Preliminarily, the limited tendency of 5-FU to cross the buccal tissue was established using reconstituted human oral epithelium (RHOE, in vitro) and porcine buccal mucosa (ex vivo) as mucosal models. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Libero Italo Giannola, Viviana De Caro, Giulia Giandalia, Maria Gabriella Siragusa, Carlo Paderni, Giuseppina Campisi and Ada Maria Florena, " 5-Fluorouracil Buccal Tablets for Locoregional Chemotherapy of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Formulation, Drug Release and Histological Effects on Reconstituted Human Oral Epithelium and Porcine Buccal Mucosa", Current Drug Delivery (2010) 7: 109. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Sublingual administration involves placing a drug under your tongue to dissolve and absorb into your blood through the tissue there. (healthline.com)
  • Described herein are formulations for fast-disintegrating epinephrine tablets which can be prepared for buccal or sublingual administration, wherein the fast-disintegrating epinephrine tablets can produce plasma epinephrine concentrations substantially equivalent to those achieved by traditional injectable dosage forms comprising epinephrine injected either subcutaneously or intramuscularly. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Because the exposure to naloxone is somewhat higher after buccal than after sublingual administration, it is recommended that the sublingual site of administration be used during induction to minimize exposure to naloxone, to reduce the risk of precipitated withdrawal. (drugs.com)
  • Called also sublingual administration. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Sublabial administration should not be confused with sublingual administration , which is under the tongue . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sublingual administration yielded a 20-30% higher bioavailability and a 50% higher C max than compared to the oral route. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sublingual administration seems to have higher bioavailability than oral administration. (frontiersin.org)
  • and (c) about 2.5% to about 10.5% disintegrant wherein administration of said pharmaceutical tablet provides a multi-phasic pharmacokinetic release profile of said epinephrine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The pharmaceutical tablet of claim 1, wherein said buccal or sublingual tablet comprises at least about 15 mg of epinephrine. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 8. The pharmaceutical tablet of claim 1, wherein said multi-phasic pharmacokinetic release profile comprises two or more plasma epinephrine peaks upon in vivo administration of said buccal or sublingual tablet. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and (c) about 2.5% to about 10.5% disintegrant wherein administration of said pharmaceutical tablet provides a sustained-release of a pharmaceutically effective amount of epinephrine for at least 0.5 hours or more after administration. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. The absolute bioavailability of morphine from oral aqueous solution, a controlled release oral tablet (MST-Continus) and a controlled release buccal tablet has been investigated in six healthy volunteers. (nih.gov)
  • Absolute bioavailability for morphine was estimated to be 23.9% after oral solution, 22.4% after MST-Continus and 18.7% after the buccal tablet. (nih.gov)
  • A BUNAVAIL 4.2 mg/0.7 mg buccal film provides equivalent buprenorphine exposure to a SUBOXONE 8 mg/2 mg sublingual tablet. (rxlist.com)
  • A total of 378 patients were randomized to receive the acyclovir buccal tablet, while 397 were randomized to placebo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Consistent and clinically relevant effects with fentanyl buccal tablet in the treatment of patients receiving maintenance opioid therapy and experiencing cancer-related breakthrough pain. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Despite the burgeoning interest in three-dimensional (3D) printing for the manufacture of customizable oral dosage formulations, a U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved tablet notwithstanding, the full potential of 3D printing in pharmaceutical sciences has not been realized. (sciencemag.org)
  • The recent U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of the first 3D-printed rapidly orodispersible tablet of an antiepileptic drug has set the precedent for these systems ( 17 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • After tablet administration on buccal tissue specimens, the occurrence of histomorphological effects of 5-FU was highlighted. (eurekaselect.com)
  • A lidocaine-releasing adhesive buccal tablet preparation was developed to treat mouth ulcers in a patient who did not tolerate magic mouthwash. (ijpc.com)
  • Buccal administration involves placing a drug between your gums and cheek, where it also dissolves and is absorbed into your blood. (healthline.com)
  • Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. (uams.edu)
  • Furthermore, some application locations often classified as enteral , such as sublingual [6] (under the tongue) and sublabial or buccal (between the cheek and gums/ gingiva ), are taken up in the proximal part of the gastrointestinal tract without reaching the intestines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application to or administration through the cheek cavity. (pbs.gov.au)
  • He will then apply pressure on the outside of your cheek to push the buccal fat out through the incision, removing small bits of the fat pad a little at a time. (tcclinic.com)
  • This review documents also that buccal cells have been collected in a noninvasive manner, and repetitively for serial studies, from different sites of the mouth (e.g., cheek, gum, and tongue) and from normal tissue, preneoplastic lesions (leukoplakia), and malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 3. There was no difference in the amount of M6G appearing in plasma after intravenous, oral or buccal administration but the mean ratio of AUCs for M6G: morphine in plasma after intravenous morphine was 2 : 1 compared with 11 : 1 after oral and buccal morphine. (nih.gov)
  • Common examples include oral and intravenous administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Needle insertion angles for 4 types of parenteral administration of medication: intramuscular, subcutaneous, intravenous, and intradermal injection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the sampling site on the drug concentration-time profile, following intravenous or buccal (often called 'oral transmucosal') drug administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Intravenous access should be available for administration of fluid. (angelfire.com)
  • For the rectal drug administration, we used 22 G intravenous cannulas with the stylets removed. (scielo.br)
  • Premedication is the preoperative nasal, oral, rectal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of sedative drugs to lower the patient's fear of surgical intervention, achieve sedation and anxiolysis, and decrease the amount of anesthetics needed. (scielo.br)
  • BELBUCA is a rectangular bi- layer, peppermint-flavored, buccal film with rounded corners, consisting of a white to off-white backing layer with strength identifier printed in black ink and a light yellow to yellow active mucoadhesive layer containing buprenorphine hydrochloride. (rxlist.com)
  • Advantages of Mucoadhesive buccal drug delivery system Ease of administration. (authorstream.com)
  • To overcome these short comings, mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol were prepared using different concentrations of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and hydroxyl ethylcellulose in the ratios of 2:1, 4:1 and 6:1 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose and methylcellulose in the ratio of 2:2, 4:3 and 6:4 by solvent casting technique. (ijpsonline.com)
  • In an attempt to improve the bioavailability, efficacy and to minimise the side effects associated with oral administration, we have prepared mucoadhesive buccal films of nebivolol. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Nebivolol mucoadhesive buccal patches were prepared using HPMC, HEC and MC in the various concentration ratios of HPMC and HEC, and HPMC and MC ( Table 1 ) by solvent casting technique [ 6 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Both sublingual and buccal drugs come in tablets, films, or sprays. (healthline.com)
  • Do not use fentanyl buccal tablets unless you have been regularly taking moderate to large amounts of narcotic pain medication. (medicinenet.com)
  • Carefully follow the specific directions for using fentanyl buccal tablets. (medicinenet.com)
  • Since they are not taken the same way, different forms of fentanyl (including lozenges, buccal tablets, patches) do not have the same effects at equal strengths and should not be substituted for each other. (medicinenet.com)
  • Wait at least 4 hours before using fentanyl buccal tablets again for another episode of breakthrough pain. (medicinenet.com)
  • The objective of undertaken assignment deals with design and evaluation of bilayer buccal tablets of atenolol in order to: Overcome bioavailability related problems (bypassing the first-pass effect) with a possible reduction in the overall dosage of the drug. (authorstream.com)
  • Minghetti et al have designed acitretin two layer buccal tablets, which represent a good alternative to topical gel or ointment for the buccal administration of acitretion for local therapy, as the acitretin was maintained in the salivary compartment for at least 5 hrs and good clinical results were obtained. (authorstream.com)
  • Ikinci G et al have designed the nicotine hydrogen tartrate buccal tablets and reported that bioadhesion properties of buccal tablets can be controlled by changing the polymer type and concentration. (authorstream.com)
  • Fentanyl buccal tablets effective for pediatric patient with episodic pain secondary to ulcerative coloitis. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In this study we would report the development of buccal tablets suitable for direct application of low-doses of 5-FU on cancer lesions. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Matrix buccal tablets, were designed for 5-FU local delivery, developed and prepared. (eurekaselect.com)
  • There are a number of formulations available for testosterone therapy including intramuscular injections, transdermal patches, transdermal gels, buccal patches and subcutaneous pellets. (nih.gov)
  • Comparison of nasal, rectal, buccal, sublingual and intramuscular insulin efficacy and the effects of a bile salt absorption promoter. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Buccal administration of mother's colostrum to VLBW infants influenced the colonization of the oral cavity with differences persisting 48 h after completion of the intervention. (nih.gov)
  • Subjects' self reported pain response was recorded on Heft Parker Visual Analogue Scale after local anesthetic administration during access cavity preparation and pulp extirpation. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The present invention relates to a solid pharmaceutical preparation, especially a buccal dissolution type solid preparation having characteristics of fast disintegration or dissolution in the oral cavity even without water. (google.com)
  • In order to optimise drug delivery to, or via, the buccal cavity, the use of adhesive dosage forms has been investigated [ 2 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • This review updates the safety and efficacy of fentanyl buccal soluble film (FBSF) in patients with cancer pain. (dovepress.com)
  • RALEIGH, N.C., Aug. 13, 2015 -- BioDelivery Sciences International, Inc. (BDSI) announced the approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of a Supplemental New Drug Application (sNDA) for a new formulation of ONSOLIS® (fentanyl buccal soluble film) CII for the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer who are opioid tolerant. (fiercepharma.com)
  • ONSOLIS (fentanyl buccal soluble film, CII) is indicated only for the management of breakthrough pain in patients with cancer, 18 years of age and older, who are already receiving and who are tolerant to opioid therapy for their underlying persistent cancer pain. (fiercepharma.com)
  • BELBUCA is a buccal film providing transmucosal delivery of buprenorphine hydrochloride, a partial opioid agonist . (rxlist.com)
  • Exceptions include the transdermal or transmucosal routes, which are still commonly referred to as routes of administration . (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective: To evaluate the pulpal anaesthesia of mandibular 1st molar by using 4% articaine in two different techniques i-e buccal infiltration and inferior alveolar nerve block. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, subcutaneous administration has remained the route of choice, although the original researchers recognized the limitations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The compositions are well-suited for subcutaneous administration. (google.es)
  • To describe the use of mifepristone in combination with buccal misoprostol in women undergoing an early medical abortion (EMA) in Australia. (mja.com.au)
  • Oral mifepristone 200 mg, administered at the clinic, followed 24-48 hours later by buccal misoprostol 800 µg, self-administered at home. (mja.com.au)
  • Mifepristone, with buccal misoprostol self-administered at home, for EMA up to 63 days of gestation had a low failure rate, was well accepted, and provided an effective treatment option with a favourable safety profile for women seeking an abortion in Australia. (mja.com.au)
  • The not-for-profit, non-governmental organisation Marie Stopes International Australia (MSIA) started Authorised Prescriber use of mifepristone-buccal misoprostol for EMA in Australia in 2009. (mja.com.au)
  • In buccal group, three patients were found to have retained products of conception which were given repeat misoprostol (400 mcg). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Vaginal misoprostol has been shown to be superior over oral administration however patients often prefer a more tolerable route. (stanford.edu)
  • Buccal administration has already been shown to be as effective as vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction in both first trimester and second trimester abortions. (stanford.edu)
  • The investigators study is a prospective, double blinded, randomized control trial comparing vaginal misoprostol and buccal misoprostol in equal dosages of 25 mcg. (stanford.edu)
  • The investigators seek to answer the question whether buccal misoprostol is as effective as vaginal misoprostol for third trimester induction of labor. (stanford.edu)
  • Do not apply more buprenorphine buccal films, use the buccal films more often, or use the buccal films in a different way than prescribed by your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Route of administration and dosage form are aspects of drug delivery . (wikipedia.org)
  • [15] A suppository is a solid dosage form that fits for rectal administration . (wikipedia.org)
  • The choice of the most appropriate analgesics depends not only on the drug class, but also on the most suitable route of administration, the best dosage for that route, and unique limitations and contraindications for every patient. (springer.com)
  • 18. A pharmaceutical formulation for treating erectile dysfunction in an individual, comprising a urethral dosage form of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, a carrier suitable for transurethral drug administration, and, optionally, a transurethral permeation enhancer, wherein the phosphodiesterase inhibitor is a Type V, cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase inhibitor, or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt ester, amide or prodrug thereof. (google.com.au)
  • Those dosage forms suited for buccal administration which allow for direct contact between the affected tissue and the medicinal ingredient, such as gargles, rinses, and mouthwashes. (gc.ca)
  • Meseguer G, Gurny R, Buri P. In vivo evaluation of dosage forms: Application of gamma scintigraphy to non-enteral routes of administration. (springer.com)
  • The information usually required on these forms include the name of the client, date and time of administration, name of the drug, dosage, and signature of the person who prepares and gives the drug. (powershow.com)
  • There is minimal research comparing buccal versus vaginal for third trimester induction of labor. (stanford.edu)
  • Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local (sometimes termed topical ), such as in a contrast enema , whereby contrast media is infused into the intestines for imaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are several other types of non-oral administration routes that must be absorbed through cell membranes to reach the systemic circulation. (news-medical.net)
  • The buccal film has been increasingly used for administration because of advantages that the drug is directly available to the systemic circulation, avoidance of first pass metabolism, rapid onset of action, prolonged drug release and also easy removal of film from the site of application. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Intraperitoneal, (into the peritoneum) is predominantly used in veterinary medicine and animal testing for the administration of systemic drugs and fluids due to the ease of administration compared with other parenteral methods. (wellness.com)
  • 5-FU is given by i.v. although the systemic administration is associated with severe toxic effects and no topical formulations of 5-FU for buccal drug delivery have been reported. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The topical administration could be effective on tumor area while systemic undesired side effects are avoided. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Routes of administration are generally classified by the location at which the substance is applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Routes of administration are usually classified by application location (or exposition). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present review, a comprehensive analysis was performed on the different routes of administration of acute postoperative pain medications and their indications and limitations, focusing on recent evidence and international recommendations. (springer.com)
  • RESULTS -Proof of principle has been established for many routes of administration including dermal, nasal, oral, buccal, and pulmonary insulin delivery. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Includes all routes of administration for implants as defined by the TGA. (pbs.gov.au)
  • Includes all injectable routes of administration as defined by the TGA. (pbs.gov.au)
  • We aimed to find a large cohort of Reddit users interested in discussing the use of opioids, trace the temporal evolution of their interest, and extensively characterize patterns of the nonmedical consumption of opioids, with a focus on routes of administration and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • We used a semiautomatic information retrieval algorithm to identify subreddits discussing nonmedical opioid consumption and developed a methodology based on word embedding to find alternative colloquial and nonmedical terms referring to opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug-tampering methods. (jmir.org)
  • We modeled the preferences of adoption of substances and routes of administration, estimating their prevalence and temporal unfolding. (jmir.org)
  • Ultimately, through the evaluation of odds ratios based on co-mentions, we measured the strength of association between opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • We learned the language model of opioid consumption and provided alternative vocabularies for opioid substances, routes of administration, and drug tampering. (jmir.org)
  • A data-driven taxonomy of nonmedical routes of administration was proposed. (jmir.org)
  • We modeled the temporal evolution of interest in opioid consumption by ranking the popularity of the adoption of opioid substances and routes of administration, observing relevant trends, such as the surge in synthetic opioids like fentanyl and an increasing interest in rectal administration. (jmir.org)
  • In addition, we measured the strength of association between drug tampering, routes of administration, and substance consumption, finding evidence of understudied abusive behaviors, like chewing fentanyl patches and dissolving buprenorphine sublingually. (jmir.org)
  • The United States Food and Drug Administration recognizes 111 distinct routes of administration. (wellness.com)
  • Routes of administration can broadly be divided into four categories: topical, enteral, parenteral and other. (wellness.com)
  • and nicotine as a smoking cessation aid were commercially available in buccal forms, as was midazolam, an anticonvulsant, used to treat acute epileptic seizures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buccal Midazolam is a rescue medication which is administered during a seizure under medical advice to reduce seizure duration. (epilepsy.ie)
  • Despite the COVID19 situation, there is still a demand amongst teachers, SNAs & healthcare professionals to be trained in the administration of Buccal Midazolam or have their current certification refreshed and we are now offering this service online. (epilepsy.ie)
  • Completion of the class will lead to a 1 year certification in the administration of Buccal Midazolam following the completion of a short online test. (epilepsy.ie)
  • For full terms and conditions and to book your place on an upcoming class, please contact [email protected] with "Epilepsy Awareness & the Administration of Buccal Midazolam" in the subject line along with your name and contact details. (epilepsy.ie)
  • This training will equip delegates with an understanding of the theory & practice of administering buccal midazolam and rectal diazepam safely according to the individual care plan. (epilepsyactive.co.uk)
  • To train delegates in the safe and effective administration of rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam. (norvictraining.co.uk)
  • Any health care provider working in the public or private sector who may be required to administer rectal diazepam or buccal midazolam to a patient or client as part of their care. (norvictraining.co.uk)
  • Indications/contra indicators of diazepam/midazolam, Storage conditions/procedures for diazepam/midazolam, Post administrative care, Regulations covering the use of diazepam/midazolam, Patient preparation and administration procedure. (norvictraining.co.uk)
  • An exception is topical administration , which generally means that both the application location and the effect thereof is local. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical administration is sometimes defined as both a local application location and local pharmacodynamic effect, [3] and sometimes merely as a local application location regardless of location of the effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Buccal administration may provide better bioavailability of some drugs and a more rapid onset of action compared to oral administration because the medication does not pass through the digestive system and thereby avoids first pass metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bioavailability of intranasal fentanyl is about 70-90%, but with some imprecision due to clotted nostrils, pharyngeal swallow and incorrect administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nebivolol, a cardioselective β-blocker undergoes extensive metabolism in the liver after its oral administration resulting in low bioavailability. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Parenteral administration generally has the greatest bioavailability because it avoids an absorption phase as well as possible inactivation by first-pass metabolism by the liver. (wellness.com)
  • Sublabial administration , literally "under the lip ", from Latin , refers to the pharmacological route of administration by which the active substance is placed between the lip and the gingiva (gum). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nasal, buccal, sublingual and rectal absorption sites were isolated by ligation procedures or with physical barriers. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Rectal insulin was more efficacious than nasal, buccal and sublingual insulin, when administered without an absorption-promoting adjuvant. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The rank order was nasal greater than rectal greater than buccal greater than sublingual, with nasal and rectal insulin being roughly half as efficacious as i.m. insulin. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A route of administration in pharmacology and toxicology is the path by which a drug , fluid, poison, or other substance is taken into the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, uptake of drugs administered orally may also occur already in the stomach , and as such gastrointestinal (along the gastrointestinal tract ) may be a more fitting term for this route of administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rectal route is an effective route of administration for many medications, especially those used at the end of life . (wikipedia.org)
  • Intravitreal is a route of administration of a drug or other substance, in which the substance [1] is delivered into the eye . (wikipedia.org)
  • Oral administration is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth . (wikipedia.org)
  • These errors are due to the wrong drug, dose, timing, or route of administration. (aarp.org)
  • The route of administration is defined as the path by which a drug or other substance enters the body. (wellness.com)
  • It can be further divided into two subgroups: parenteral by injection or infusion and other parenteral excluding oral route of administration. (wellness.com)
  • BUCCAL (Fentora) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions. (medicinenet.com)
  • For this reason, buprenorphine monotherapy is recommended in patients taking long-acting opioids when used according to approved administration instructions. (drugs.com)
  • Maximum plasma morphine concentrations were seen at 45 min (oral solution), 2.5 h (MST) and 6 h (buccal). (nih.gov)
  • METHODS: Morphine sulfate (0.2 mg kg-1 IV or 0.5 mg kg-1 buccal), methadone hydrochloride (0.3 mg kg-1 IV or 0.75 mg kg-1 buccal), hydromorphone hydrochloride (0.1 mg kg-1 IV or 0.25 mg kg-1 buccal) or oxymorphone hydrochloride (0.1 mg kg-1 IV or 0.25 mg kg-1 buccal) were administered. (elsevier.com)
  • IV administration of morphine and oxymorphone, and buccal administration of morphine, hydromorphone and oxymorphone did not cause significant thermal antinociception. (elsevier.com)
  • In hospice care , a specialized rectal catheter , designed to provide comfortable and discreet administration of ongoing medications provides a practical way to deliver and retain liquid formulations in the distal rectum, giving health practitioners a way to leverage the established benefits of rectal administration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The design and evaluation of sustained release formulations for oral and buccal administration. (springer.com)
  • In the Group RecDex, the administration of dexmedetomidine induced mild-moderate losses of mucosal architecture in the colon and rectum, 2 h after rectal inoculation. (scielo.br)
  • Although 100 µg kg -1 dexmedetomidine administered rectally to rats achieved a significantly longer duration of anesthesia compared with the rectal administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg -1 dexmedetomidine led to mild-moderate damage to the mucosal structure of the rectum. (scielo.br)
  • Administration, Buccal" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • Conclusion: Since there was no difference between the two procedures 4% articaine buccal infiltration can be considered a viable alternative to inferior alveolar nerve block in securing successful pulpal anesthesia for endodontic therapy. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups One group received 4% articaine buccal infiltration and the other group received inferior alveolar nerve block of 4% articaine. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • ONSOLIS remains an important differentiated fentanyl containing product for this indication given that it is the only product for buccal administration, providing patients with an alternative dosing option. (fiercepharma.com)
  • A number of studies have been conducted to determine pulpal anaesthesia obtained after buccal infiltration and IANB of 4% articaine. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Studies conducted by Young et al and Poorni et al compared effectiveness of 4% articaine in buccal infiltration and showed that buccal infiltration had a success rate of 69.2% while the success rate of IANB was 43%5,7. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Jugular venous blood sampling is not an acceptable substitute for arterial blood sampling following buccal drug administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Skin temperature and thermal threshold were measured in duplicate prior to drug administration, and at various times up to 8 hours after drug administration. (elsevier.com)
  • RESULTS: Administration of methadone and hydromorphone IV resulted in significant increases in ΔT at 40 minutes after drug administration. (elsevier.com)
  • US Food and Drug Administration FDA. (studystack.com)
  • Aerosol drug administration. (cengage.com)
  • Stable regimen is defined as no change in AED regimen for at least 30 days before the first study drug administration and no change anticipated in the prescribed AED regimen over the course of study participation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) believes that the recommendations in this guidance document will improve the quality of postmarketing safety reports and clarify the industry's current safety reporting responsibility to assure public health. (cdc.gov)
  • 1This guidance has been prepared by the Epidemiology Branch in the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER) at the Food and Drug Administration. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, various organizations and regulatory bodies, including the World Health Organization, the US Food and Drug Administration, and the European Medicines Agency, have promulgated stern warnings regarding the occurrence of adverse effects of codeine in children. (aappublications.org)
  • Bioquivalence of generic and branded products is based on two key pharmacokinetic (PK) measures: area under the concentration- time curve (AUC) and maximal concentration (C max ) ( US Food and Drug Administration ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The development of alternative methods of drug administration has improved the ability of physicians to manage specific problems. (wellness.com)
  • Marked myelosuppression, buccal ulceration or burning sensation. (mims.com)
  • Other techniques such as intra-osseous, periodontal ligament anaesthesia and buccal infiltration anaesthesia may be used to supplement or replace IANB2. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Buccal infiltration anaesthesia is considered relatively easier to perform and no specific equipment is needed. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Parenteral administration can be performed by injection , that is, using a needle (usually a hypodermic needle ) and a syringe , [16] or by the insertion of an indwelling catheter . (wikipedia.org)
  • To reduce dose dependent side-effects and frequency of administration especially in the elderly hypertensive patients. (authorstream.com)
  • The convenience of administering a single dose of a medication which releases active ingredients in a controlled fashion over an extended period of time, as opposed to the administration of a number of single doses at regular intervals, has long been recognized in the pharmaceutical arts. (google.ca)
  • Oral administration of nebivolol also causes gastrointestinal disturbances characterised by stomach ache. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Oral administration of nebivolol also reported to cause gastrointestinal disturbances and abdominal or stomachache. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Through engaging videos and animations, dental and dental hygiene students can closely study safe dental anesthesia administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Expertly narrated, Malamed's Local Anesthesia Administration Videos, 3rd edition shows students step-by-step visuals of how to administer anesthesia in today's dental settings, including specific techniques for injection and pain control. (elsevier.com)
  • Two hours after rectal administration, 75 mg kg -1 ketamine was administered for intraperitoneal anesthesia in all the groups, followed by the removal of the rats' rectums to a distal distance of 3 cm via an abdominoperineal surgical procedure. (scielo.br)
  • Anesthesia was achieved in all the rats in the Group RecDex following the administration of dexmedetomidine. (scielo.br)
  • Your buccal fat removal procedure will be performed under general anesthesia by an experienced surgeon in our state-of-the-art accredited clinic . (tcclinic.com)
  • A solid pharmaceutical preparation comprising a pharmaceutically active ingredient, erythritol, crystalline cellulose and an disintegrants, which exhibits a fast buccal disintegratability and dissolubility. (google.com)
  • The purpose of this investigation was to develop a method to quantitate insulin absorption, and to compare insulin absorption from various noninjection sites of administration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Administration in a solution containing 5% sodium glycocholate, an absorption-promoting adjuvant, increased insulin efficacy by each route. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In emergency medicine, safe administration of intranasal fentanyl with a low rate of side effects and a promising pain reducing effect was demonstrated in a prospective observational study in about 900 out-of-hospital patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Kaplan SR, & Murkofsky C Oral-buccal dyskinesic synptoms associated with low concentrations of 0. (angelfire.com)
  • 8. The method of claim 1, wherein administration is effected via intracavernosal injection. (google.com.au)
  • Blood samples were collected from the carotid artery and the jugular and medial saphenous veins for 24 h following buprenorphine administration. (elsevier.com)
  • Research has examined the pharmacokinetics of different administration routes and effects on uterine contractility, side effects, and safety. (stanford.edu)
  • Sublingual and buccal medication administration are two different ways of giving medication by mouth. (healthline.com)
  • Routes of medication administration are described in the table below. (aarp.org)
  • Medication Administration Define selected terms related to the administration of medications. (powershow.com)
  • CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: At the doses used in this study, IV administration of methadone and hydromorphone, and buccal administration of methadone resulted in transient thermal antinociception. (elsevier.com)