Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Administration, Rectal: The insertion of drugs into the rectum, usually for confused or incompetent patients, like children, infants, and the very old or comatose.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLBiological Availability: The extent to which the active ingredient of a drug dosage form becomes available at the site of drug action or in a biological medium believed to reflect accessibility to a site of action.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Administration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Half-Life: The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.Administration, Intravenous: Delivery of substances through VENIPUNCTURE into the VEINS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Mice, Inbred BALB CRats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Administration, Cutaneous: The application of suitable drug dosage forms to the skin for either local or systemic effects.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Cross-Over Studies: Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Administration, Sublingual: Administration of a soluble dosage form by placement under the tongue.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Administration, Inhalation: The administration of drugs by the respiratory route. It includes insufflation into the respiratory tract.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Infusions, Parenteral: The administration of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through some other route than the alimentary canal, usually over minutes or hours, either by gravity flow or often by infusion pumping.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Drug Tolerance: Progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, resulting from its continued administration. It should be differentiated from DRUG RESISTANCE wherein an organism, disease, or tissue fails to respond to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should also be differentiated from MAXIMUM TOLERATED DOSE and NO-OBSERVED-ADVERSE-EFFECT LEVEL.Morphine: The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Injections: Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Injections, Spinal: Introduction of therapeutic agents into the spinal region using a needle and syringe.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Metabolic Clearance Rate: Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Mice, Inbred ICRLung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Rats, Inbred F344Analgesics, Opioid: Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.Self Administration: Administration of a drug or chemical by the individual under the direction of a physician. It includes administration clinically or experimentally, by human or animal.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Analgesics: Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Injections, Intra-Arterial: Delivery of drugs into an artery.Administration, Buccal: Administration of a soluble dosage form between the cheek and gingiva. It may involve direct application of a drug onto the buccal mucosa, as by painting or spraying.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal: Anti-inflammatory agents that are non-steroidal in nature. In addition to anti-inflammatory actions, they have analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions.They act by blocking the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting cyclooxygenase, which converts arachidonic acid to cyclic endoperoxides, precursors of prostaglandins. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis accounts for their analgesic, antipyretic, and platelet-inhibitory actions; other mechanisms may contribute to their anti-inflammatory effects.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cocaine: An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.Naloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.United StatesDopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Genetic Therapy: Techniques and strategies which include the use of coding sequences and other conventional or radical means to transform or modify cells for the purpose of treating or reversing disease conditions.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Delayed-Action Preparations: Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Administration, Intravaginal: The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.PiperazinesNeoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Device Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a device to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required preclinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance. It is not restricted to FDA.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Infusion Pumps: Fluid propulsion systems driven mechanically, electrically, or osmotically that are used to inject (or infuse) over time agents into a patient or experimental animal; used routinely in hospitals to maintain a patent intravenous line, to administer antineoplastic agents and other drugs in thromboembolism, heart disease, diabetes mellitus (INSULIN INFUSION SYSTEMS is also available), and other disorders.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.Methamphetamine: A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Diazepam: A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.Corticosterone: An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Adrenocorticotropic Hormone: An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Central Nervous System Stimulants: A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.Ovariectomy: The surgical removal of one or both ovaries.Hyperalgesia: An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Mice, Inbred C3HLeukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hypnotics and Sedatives: Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Analgesics, Non-Narcotic: A subclass of analgesic agents that typically do not bind to OPIOID RECEPTORS and are not addictive. Many non-narcotic analgesics are offered as NONPRESCRIPTION DRUGS.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Anti-Anxiety Agents: Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Placebos: Any dummy medication or treatment. Although placebos originally were medicinal preparations having no specific pharmacological activity against a targeted condition, the concept has been extended to include treatments or procedures, especially those administered to control groups in clinical trials in order to provide baseline measurements for the experimental protocol.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substance Withdrawal Syndrome: Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.Adenoviridae: A family of non-enveloped viruses infecting mammals (MASTADENOVIRUS) and birds (AVIADENOVIRUS) or both (ATADENOVIRUS). Infections may be asymptomatic or result in a variety of diseases.Iodine Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Nitric Oxide Synthase: An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Chorionic Gonadotropin: A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Erythropoietin: Glycoprotein hormone, secreted chiefly by the KIDNEY in the adult and the LIVER in the FETUS, that acts on erythroid stem cells of the BONE MARROW to stimulate proliferation and differentiation.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Rats, Inbred LewEndotoxins: Toxins closely associated with the living cytoplasm or cell wall of certain microorganisms, which do not readily diffuse into the culture medium, but are released upon lysis of the cells.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Nicotine: Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Amphetamine: A powerful central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic. Amphetamine has multiple mechanisms of action including blocking uptake of adrenergics and dopamine, stimulation of release of monamines, and inhibiting monoamine oxidase. Amphetamine is also a drug of abuse and a psychotomimetic. The l- and the d,l-forms are included here. The l-form has less central nervous system activity but stronger cardiovascular effects. The d-form is DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Corpus Striatum: Striped GRAY MATTER and WHITE MATTER consisting of the NEOSTRIATUM and paleostriatum (GLOBUS PALLIDUS). It is located in front of and lateral to the THALAMUS in each cerebral hemisphere. The gray substance is made up of the CAUDATE NUCLEUS and the lentiform nucleus (the latter consisting of the GLOBUS PALLIDUS and PUTAMEN). The WHITE MATTER is the INTERNAL CAPSULE.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
(1/79) Transbuccal delivery of acyclovir (II): feasibility, system design, and in vitro permeation studies.

PURPOSE: To design a buccal mucoadhesive system for systemic delivery of acyclovir using a novel mucoadhesive, copolymers of acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol), and to determine the feasibility of transbuccal delivery of acyclovir using this system. METHODS: The buccal delivery system was prepared using an adhesive, a copolymer of acrylic acid and poly(ethylene glycol) monomethylether monomethacrylate, and an impermeable membrane to prevent excessive washout by saliva and to attain unidirectional release. Acyclovir was loaded into the copolymer film prior to lamination of backing material. In vitro drug release studies were conducted in isotonic McIlvaine buffer solution. Buccal permeation of acyclovir was investigated using porcine buccal mucosa with side-by-side flow through diffusion cells at 37;C. Acyclovir was quantified using HPLC. RESULTS: Buccal permeation of acyclovir from the mucoadhesive delivery system was controlled for up to 20 hours with a time lag (t(lag)) of 10.4 hours and a steady state flux of 144.2 microg/cm(2)/h. With the incorporation of NaGC into the system t(lag) was shortened to 5.6 hours with an enhanced steady state flux of 758.7 microg/cm(2)/h. Sustained delivery of acyclovir across bucccal mucosa using this mucoadhesive system was maintained for up to 22 hours. CONCLUSIONS: The mucoadhesive system of P(AA-co-PEG) was shown to be a good candidate for controlled oral mucosal delivery of acyclovir. Buccal delivery of acyclovir was proven feasible based on in vitro permeation studies.  (+info)

(2/79) Polymeric films as vehicle for buccal delivery: swelling, mechanical, and bioadhesive properties.

PURPOSE: To investigate the suitability of an SCMC (sodium carboxymethyl cellulose/polyethylene glycol 400/carbopol 934P) and an HPMC (hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/polyethylene glycol 400/carbopol 934P) films as drug vehicle for buccal delivery. METHODS: The mechanical and in vitro bioadhesive strength properties of the films were investigated using texture analyzer equipment, while swelling behavior was studied in different media, namely, distilled water and simulated saliva solution. In addition, the in vivo bioadhesion of the film was studied by estimating the film residence time on buccal mucosa of human volunteers. RESULTS: Increase in carbopol 934P content was found to elevate the elasticity, softness and bioadhesive strength but decrease the strength and degree of swelling of both SCMC and HPMC films. SCMC films swelled more extensively in distilled water while HPMC films in simulated saliva solution. HPMC films exhibited greater in vivo bioadhesion although the in vitro bioadhesive strength was lower than SCMC films. Correlation existed between the in vivo and in vitro bioadhesion data within the polymer, but no rank correlation was observed between the two polymers. CONCLUSION: HPMC films may be preferred over SCMC films as drug vehicle for buccal delivery as the former was tougher, more elastic, more bioadhesive in vivo and swelled in a more tolerable manner in the oral cavity than the latter.  (+info)

(3/79) Dendritic cells recruitment and in vivo priming of CD8+ CTL induced by a single topical or transepithelial immunization via the buccal mucosa with measles virus nucleoprotein.

The buccal mucosa, a prototype of pluristratified mucosal epithelia, contains a network of directly accessible class II(+) epithelial dendritic cells (DC), similar to skin Langerhans cells. We showed that a single buccal immunization with measles virus nucleoprotein (NP), by either topical application onto or intradermal injection in the buccal mucosa, induced in vivo priming of protective class I-restricted specific CD8(+) CTL. Both routes of immunization with NP induced a rapid recruitment of DC into the mucosa, which peaked at 2 h and decreased by 24 h. Treatment of mice with Flt3 ligand resulted in an increased number of DC in the buccal mucosa and enhanced the frequency of IFN-gamma-producing NP-specific effectors and the NP-specific CTL response generated after buccal immunization with NP. Finally, NP-pulsed bone marrow-derived DC induced NP-specific IFN-gamma-producing cells upon adoptive transfer to naive mice. These data demonstrate that a viral protein delivered to DC of the buccal mucosa induces in vivo priming of protective anti-viral CD8(+) CTL.  (+info)

(4/79) The use of EMLA for an intraoral soft-tissue biopsy in a needle phobic: a case report.

A case is reported of the removal of a leaf fibroma from the mucosa of the hard palate using EMLA topical anesthesia as the sole means of pain control.  (+info)

(5/79) Evaluation of polyoxyethylene homopolymers for buccal bioadhesive drug delivery device formulations.

Our objective was to evaluate the application of polyoxyethylene homopolymers in buccal bioadhesive drug (BBD) delivery device formulations. The bioadhesive strength of four different molecular weight (MW) polyoxyethylene polymers was measured by Instron tensile tester using glass plate and bovine sublingual tissue as substrate surfaces. Several BBD device formulations containing polyoxyethylene polymer (MW 7,000,000) were prepared by direct compression and compression molding processes. The prepared BBD devices were evaluated for their elasticity, in vitro adhesion and drug release characteristics. The in vivo bioadhesion characteristics of a placebo compression molded device were examined in 3 adult healthy male beagle dogs. The bioadhesive strength of polyoxyethylene polymers appeared to be directly related to their molecular weights. When bovine sublingual mucosa or a glass plate was used as model mucosal substrate surface, the rank order of bioadhesive strength of different molecular weight polyoxyethylene polymers was similar. The bioadhesive strength of devices prepared by the compression molding process was greater than those prepared by direct compression, but the kinetics of drug release were independent of the process used for the preparation of the devices. The drug release and the bioadhesive strength of the similarly prepared device formulations appeared to be dependent on the drug:polymer ratios. The elasticity of the BBD devices prepared by compression molding was improved by the inclusion of polyisobutylene polymer in the formulations. When adhered to the oral cavity of the dogs, the compression molded placebo BBD device exhibited adhesion for at least 4 hours and appeared to show no signs of local irritation. In conclusion, BBD devices containing polyoxyethylene polymer (MW 7,000,000) can be prepared by direct compression or compression molding process in order to provide controlled drug release to the oral cavity while maintaining appropriate bioadhesive characteristics.  (+info)

(6/79) Oral transmucosal fentanyl pretreatment for outpatient general anesthesia.

The oral transmucosal formulation of fentanyl citrate (OTFC) has been reported to be an effective sedative, providing convenient and atraumatic sedation for children prior to general anesthesia or painful diagnostic procedures. Thirty-three young children (24-60 months of age) scheduled for outpatient general anesthesia for treatment of dental caries were enrolled in this randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial. To determine the effectiveness of the OTFC premedication, patient behavior was evaluated using three distinct outcome ratings. A sedation score rated behavior in the waiting room prior to OTFC as well as 10 minutes and 20 minutes after OTFC. A separation score rated the child's response to being separated from his/her parent or guardian for transport to the dental operatory. Finally, a cooperation score rated the child's acceptance of the mask induction. The OTFC formulation was well tolerated by most of the children in this study. Compared with the placebo oralet, the active OTFC improved behavior for separation from the parent (P < .05) and cooperation with the mask induction (P < .05). The duration of surgery and the time of recovery did not differ between placebo and active premedication. Side effects including respiratory and cardiovascular complications were reported more frequently in the active fentanyl group. Continuous monitoring of respiratory function is essential when using this unique and effective formulation of fentanyl for pediatric preanesthetic sedation.  (+info)

(7/79) Phospholipid deformable vesicles for buccal delivery of insulin.

To investigate the possibility of the enhancing effect of deformable vesicles on buccal delivery of insulin, two kinds of vesicles with and without the presence of sodium deoxycholate (deformable vesicles and conventional vesicles) were prepared by reverse phase evaporation methods. The liposomal entrapment efficiency was determined by column chromatography. The particle size and morphology of the vesicles were also evaluated. The hypoglycemic effects, insulin concentrations, and residual amounts of insulin deposited in the buccal membrane after buccal administration of insulin vesicles to rabbits were investigated. Compared with subcutaneous administration of insulin solution, the relative pharmacological bioavailability and the relative bioavailability of buccal administration of insulin vesicles were determined. The results showed that the entrapment efficiencies of the deformable and conventional vesicles were 18.87+/-1.78% (n=3) and 22.07+/-2.16% (n=3), respectively. The particle sizes of the deformable and conventional vesicles were 42.5+/-20.5 nm and 59.7+/-33.8 nm, respectively. There were no significant differences in appearance between the two types of vesicle. Compared with subcutaneous administration of insulin solution, the relative pharmacological bioavailability and the relative bioavailability in the insulin-deformable vesicles group were 15.59% and 19.78%, respectively, which were higher than in the conventional insulin vesicles (p<0.05), blank deformable vesicles and insulin mixture groups (p<0.05). Deformable vesicles have an enhancing effect on buccal delivery of insulin and may be a better carrier than conventional vesicles for buccal delivery of protein drugs.  (+info)

(8/79) Absence of canine oral papillomavirus DNA following prophylactic L1 particle-mediated immunotherapeutic delivery vaccination.

In the canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) model, following wart regression, COPV DNA was detected by PCR at the challenge site. However, following particle-mediated immunotherapeutic delivery (PMID) of COPV L1 and subsequent challenge, no COPV DNA could be detected. These data support PMID of COPV L1 as a protective vaccine and suggest that PMID of L1 may induce virus clearance.  (+info)

*  Buccal administration
... refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal (/ˈbʌkəl/) area ... Sublabial administration Sublingual administration Route of administration Pharmacology Sattar, M; Sayed, OM; Lane, ME (Aug ... Buccal administration may provide better bioavailability of some drugs and a more rapid onset of action compared to oral ... Buccal administration of vaccines has been studied, but there are challenges to this approach due to immune tolerance ...
*  Route of administration
sublingual and buccal medication administration is a way of giving someone medicine orally (by mouth). Sublingual ... The word "sublingual" means "under the tongue." Buccal administration involves placement of the drug between the gums and the ... Strictly enteral administration (directly into the intestines) can be used for systemic administration, as well as local ( ... extra-amniotic administration, between the endometrium and fetal membranes nasal administration (through the nose) can be used ...
*  Medical abortion
... after a change from vaginal to buccal administration of misoprostol combined with the routine prophylactic administration of ... followed 24-48 hours later by 800 mcg of buccal misoprostol) currently used by Planned Parenthood clinics in the United States ... "Effectiveness of medical abortion with mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 59 gestational days". Contraception. 80 (3 ...
*  Sublingual administration
Lozenge-effects a metred and patient-controlled-rate combination of sublingual, buccal, and oral administration, as with the ... Multi-Purpose Tablets-Soluble tablets for either oral or sublingual (or buccal) administration, often also suitable for ... Sublingual administration has certain advantages over oral administration. Being more direct, it is often faster,[quantify] and ... and is used in the Fentora fentanyl buccal tablet. Almost any form of substance may be amenable to sublingual administration if ...
*  25C-NBOMe
Buccal, sublingual or insufflated routes of administration are all viable options. Absorption rate buccally and sublingually ... "关于印发《非药用类麻醉药品和精神药品列管办法》的通知" (in Chinese). China Food and Drug Administration. 27 September 2015. Retrieved 1 October 2015. " ... Drug Enforcement Administration (2015). "Schedules of Controlled Substances: Extension of Temporary Placement of Three ... Thomas M. Harrigan (10 October 2013). "Proposed Rules" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).
*  Oral administration
... is a part of enteral administration, which also includes Buccal, dissolved inside the cheek Sublabial, ... Oral administration is a route of administration where a substance is taken through the mouth. Per os (P.O.) is sometimes used ... TheFreeDictionary > oral administration of medication Citing: Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009. ... dissolved under the lip Sublingual administration, dissolved under the tongue, but due to rapid absorption many consider SL a ...
*  Buccal
... a body cavity Specifically the cheek The buccal space in the mouth Buccal administration Buccal artery Buccal nerve Buccal ...
*  Benzodiazepine
In the community, intravenous administration is not practical and so rectal diazepam or (more recently) buccal midazolam are ... In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration has categorized benzodiazepines into either category D or X meaning ... However, researchers hold contrary opinions regarding the effects of long-term administration. One view is that many of the ... "Approval letter for Ambien" (PDF). Food and Drug Administration. American Geriatrics Society. "Five Things Physicians and ...
*  Mucoadhesion
This route of administration is used for the therapy of bladder cancer and interstitial cystitis. The retention of dosage forms ... Permeation sites can be separated into two groups: sublingual and buccal, in which the former is much more permeable than the ... Consequently, direct administration through the fibrous tunic is common. This is made difficult due to the numerous defense ... With a 0.1-0.7 mm thick mucus layer, the oral cavity serves as an important route of administration for mucoadhesive dosages. ...
*  Inferior alveolar nerve anaesthesia
However, depending on technique, the long buccal nerve may not be anesthetized by an IANB and therefore an area of buccal ... Administration of anesthesia near the mandibular foramen causes blockage of the inferior alveolar nerve and the nearby lingual ... Another symptom that can occur is "lingual shock" as the needle passes by the lingual nerve during administration. The patient ... Aker, F. D. (2001). "Blocking the buccal nerve using two methods of inferior alveolar block injection". Clinical Anatomy (New ...
*  Oxytocin (medication)
Buccal: Oxytocin used to be delivered in buccal tablets but it is not common practice any more. Under the tongue: Oxytocin is ... Nasal administration: Oxytocin is a peptide that is effectively distributed to the brain when administered intranasally via a ... Mehta AC (1986). "Buccal and oral drugs: induction of labour". Acta Chirurgica Hungarica. 27 (3): 157-63. PMID 3469841. De ... Also, systemic oxytocin administration can impair memory retrieval in certain aversive memory tasks. However, oxytocin does ...
*  Diphtheritic stomatitis
Main treatment involved the administration of antibiotics, in some cases glucose solution or dietary mixtures were additionally ... tongue and buccal mucosa Mouth can often not be closed due to lesions, in serious cases tongue exposed Isolation of ...
*  DNA database
This provides a mechanism for judges to request the offender to provide blood, buccal swabs, or hair samples from DNA profiles ... It has become one of the most powerful tools available to law enforcement agencies for the administration of justice. NDDB ...
*  Orally disintegrating tablet
Food and Drug Administration (36 ed.). Food and Drug Administration. 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2016. Abilify Prescribing ... Tablets designed to dissolve on the buccal (cheek) mucous membrane were a precursor to the ODT. This dosage form was intended ... The first ODT form of a drug to get approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was a Zydis ODT formation of ... However, a fast disintegration time and a small tablet weight can enhance absorption in the buccal area. The first ODTs ...
*  Paan
In one study (c. 1985), scientists linked malignant tumours to the site of skin or subcutaneous administration of aqueous ... In human populations, they reported observing elevated frequencies of micronucleated cells in buccal mucosa of people who chew ...
*  Testosterone (medication)
Testosterone buccal tablets and pellet implants do not appear to be available in Canada. Testosterone and/or its esters are ... The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) stated in 2015 that neither the benefits nor the safety of testosterone ... The elimination half-life of testosterone varies depending on the route of administration and formulation and on whether or not ... Strahm E, Emery C, Saugy M, Dvorak J, Saudan C (Dec 2009). "Detection of testosterone administration based on the carbon ...
*  Cathinone
The absorption of cathinone has two phases: one in the buccal mucosa and one in the stomach and small intestine. The stomach ... The effects of cathinone on the body can be countered by a preceding administration of a dopamine-receptor antagonist. The ...
*  Nitroglycerin (drug)
It may also be given as a sublingual or buccal dose in the form of a tablet placed under the tongue or a spray into the mouth ... Continuous administration and absorption (such as provided by daily pills and especially skin patches) accelerate onset of ... "Association of methemoglobinemia and intravenous nitroglycerin administration". Am J Cardiol. 55: 181-3. doi:10.1016/0002-9149( ...
*  Prochlorperazine
Intravenous administration can be used to treat status migrainosus. Prochlorperazine is used to prevent vomiting caused by ... Rapid action is also noted after buccal treatment. With oral dosing, the start of action is delayed but the duration somewhat ...
*  Resveratrol
However, the viability of a buccal delivery method is called into question due to the low aqueous solubility of the molecule. ... In a human study involving oral administration of 500 mg over 13 weeks, resveratrol was detected in cerebrospinal fluid, ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Shojaei AH (1998). "Buccal mucosa as a route for systemic drug delivery: a ... The low aqueous solubility greatly limits the amount that can be absorbed through the buccal mucosa. Resveratrol that is ...
*  Thiomer
In case of oral administration this 'enzymatic barrier' is even more pronounced as an additional degradation caused by ... Langoth, N; Kalbe, J; Bernkop-Schnürch, A (2005). "Development of a mucoadhesive and permeation enhancing buccal delivery ... Madgulkar, AR; Bhalekar, MR; Kadam, AA (2017). "Improvement of oral bioavailability of lopinavir without co-administration of ... buccal and vaginal route. Moreover, thiomers show great potential in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine ...
*  Joseph R. Robinson
... buccal, and vaginal drug delivery systems and mechanisms, with a strong emphasis on bioadhesion as a control phenomenon. ... and included routes and mechanisms of drug administration, dosage form design, formulation issues, and extended even to ...
*  Palifermin
Avoid administration of Palifermin within 24 hours of myeltoxic chemotherapy, as this could result in increased oral mucositis ... subjects that received three daily doses of 40 micrograms/kg demonstrated adequate production of epithelial cells in the buccal ... Co-administration of Palifermin with Heparin should be avoided. Drug interactions with Heparin include a significantly ... Study 950170: The first in human study included administration via the subcutaneous route. This study was ended early due to ...
*  Midazolam
Paradoxical reactions are particularly associated with intravenous administration. After nighttime administration of midazolam ... There is evidence buccal and intranasal midazolam is easier to administer and more effective than rectally administered ... Atorvastatin administration along with midazolam results in a reduced elimination rate of midazolam. St John's wort decreases ... In 2011, the European Medicines Agency granted a marketing authorisation for a buccal application form of midazolam, sold under ...
*  Hormone replacement therapy (menopause)
... an effect which is not seen with topical administration. Transdermal and transvaginal administration are not subject to first ... HRT appears to slow down the biological/epigenetic aging rate of buccal cells but not that of blood cells . Conversely, the ... The FDA has stated that BHT is unsupported by medical evidence, and its administration is considered false and misleading by ... The current indications for use from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration include short-term treatment of menopausal symptoms ...
*  Oral candidiasis
The most common site of involvement is the commissural region of the buccal mucosa, usually on both sides of the mouth. Another ... depending on the route of administration. Topically administered corticosteroids in the mouth may take the form of mouthwashes ... The greatest quantity of Candida species are harbored on the posterior dorsal tongue, followed by the palatal and the buccal ... Pseudomembraneous candidiasis can involve any part of the mouth, but usually it appears on the tongue, buccal mucosae or palate ...
Buccal administration - Wikipedia  Buccal administration - Wikipedia
Buccal administration refers to a topical route of administration by which drugs held or applied in the buccal (/ˈbʌkəl/) area ... Sublabial administration Sublingual administration Route of administration Pharmacology Sattar, M; Sayed, OM; Lane, ME (Aug ... Buccal administration may provide better bioavailability of some drugs and a more rapid onset of action compared to oral ... Buccal administration of vaccines has been studied, but there are challenges to this approach due to immune tolerance ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buccal_administration
Buccal administration of human colostrum: impact on the oral microbiota of premature infants.  - PubMed - NCBI  Buccal administration of human colostrum: impact on the oral microbiota of premature infants. - PubMed - NCBI
Buccal administration of human colostrum: impact on the oral microbiota of premature infants.. Sohn K1, Kalanetra KM2, Mills DA ... Buccal administration of mother's colostrum to VLBW infants influenced the colonization of the oral cavity with differences ... To determine whether the administration of mother's colostrum into the buccal pouch in the first days of life alters the oral ... infants were randomly assigned to receive either colostrum from their mothers directly into the buccal pouch every 2 h for 46 h ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26658119
About Sublingual and Buccal Medication Administration  About Sublingual and Buccal Medication Administration
Sublingual and buccal medication administration are ways to take certain oral drugs. Learn the differences, pros, cons, and ... Sublingual and buccal medication administration are two different ways of giving medication by mouth. Sublingual administration ... Buccal administration involves placing a drug between your gums and cheek, where it also dissolves and is absorbed into your ... Sublingual and Buccal Medication Administration. Medically reviewed by Zara Risoldi Cochrane, PharmD, MS, FASCP on December 5, ...
more infohttps://www.healthline.com/health/sublingual-and-buccal-medication-administration
Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases | The Journal of the American Osteopathic...  Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases | The Journal of the American Osteopathic...
Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases. J Am Osteopath Assoc 1973;72(11):1110. doi: . ... Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases. The Journal of the American Osteopathic ... Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases ... Induction of labor by buccal administration of oxytocin: review of 50 cases ...
more infohttp://jaoa.org/article.aspx?articleid=2096698
Impact of the blood sampling site on time-concentration drug profiles following intravenous or buccal drug administration -...  Impact of the blood sampling site on time-concentration drug profiles following intravenous or buccal drug administration -...
Impact of the blood sampling site on time-concentration drug profiles following intravenous or buccal drug administration. ... E Impact of the blood sampling site on time-concentration drug profiles following intravenous or buccal drug administration. J ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/jvp.12075/references?globalMessage=0
Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal Diazepam - Full Day | Epilepsy Active  Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal Diazepam - Full Day | Epilepsy Active
Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam - Full Day * Epilepsy and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam ... Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam - Full Day * Epilepsy and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam ... Rectal Diazepam Administration Refresher - Half Day * Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal ... Rectal Diazepam Administration Refresher - Half Day * Epilepsy Awareness and the Administration of Buccal Midazolam and Rectal ...
more infohttps://www.epilepsyactive.co.uk/Courses/epilepsy-awareness-and-the-administration-of-buccal-midazolam-and-rectal-diazepam-full-day.html
Exam 2  Flashcards by Catie Straut | Brainscape  Exam 2 Flashcards by Catie Straut | Brainscape
then insert more water through after administration. *if multiple medications, flush every time, document Ins and Outs is very ... Methods of administration include oral, sublingual (dissolving the drug under the tongue), and rectal ... Oral administration of meds means that they are intended for absorption in the ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/exam-2-4043664/packs/5819752
Norvic Training - Administration of Rectal Diazepam and Buccal Midazolam Courses in Norwich, Cambridge and Kings Lynn  Norvic Training - Administration of Rectal Diazepam and Buccal Midazolam Courses in Norwich, Cambridge and Kings Lynn
Norvic train delegates in the safe and effective administration of rectal diazepam and buccal midazolam. ... Norvic Training offers courses on Administration of Rectal Diazepam and Buccal Midazolam, in Norwich, King's Lynn, Norfolk, ... Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam. *Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam ... Administration of Rectal Diazepam & Buccal Midazolam. Course Aims. To train delegates in the safe and effective administration ...
more infohttp://www.norvictraining.co.uk/clinical/Administration-of-Rectal-Diazepam/
Suboxone Dosage Guide - Drugs.com  Suboxone Dosage Guide - Drugs.com
Detailed dosage guidelines and administration information for Suboxone (buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride ... Switching Between Sublingual and Buccal Sites of Administration. The systemic exposure of buprenorphine between buccal and ... Buccal Administration. Place one film on the inside of the right or left cheek. If an additional film is necessary to achieve ... Because the exposure to naloxone is somewhat higher after buccal than after sublingual administration, it is recommended that ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dosage/suboxone.html
Patent US4861800 - Method for administering the drug deprenyl so as to minimize the danger of ... - Google Patents  Patent US4861800 - Method for administering the drug deprenyl so as to minimize the danger of ... - Google Patents
Sublingual and buccal administration of selegiline. WO2010144508A1. 8 Jun 2010. 16 Dec 2010. Amunix Operating Inc.. Glucose- ... Sublingual and buccal administration of selegiline for treating certain selegiline-responsive diseases and conditions. ... Modes of Administration: There are three general modes of administration of drugs, such as the antidepressants under ... Dosing method of administering deprenyl via intraoral administration or inhalation administration. US6316022. 26 Dec 1995. 13 ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US4861800
Buprenorphine and Naloxone Sublingual Film - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses  Buprenorphine and Naloxone Sublingual Film - FDA prescribing information, side effects and uses
Switching Between Sublingual and Buccal Sites of Administration. The systemic exposure of buprenorphine between buccal and ... Buccal Administration Place one film on the inside of the right or left cheek. If an additional film is necessary to achieve ... Sublingual Film for sublingual or buccal administration (CIII). IMPORTANT:. Keep buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film in ... Because the exposure to naloxone is somewhat higher after buccal than after sublingual administration, it is recommended that ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/pro/buprenorphine-and-naloxone-sublingual-film.html
Patent US5053032 - Method of signalling a patient during buccal agent delivery - Google Patents  Patent US5053032 - Method of signalling a patient during buccal agent delivery - Google Patents
Compact dosage unit for buccal administration of a pharmacologically active agent. US6432447. May 17, 2001. Aug 13, 2002. ... there are several problems with buccal administration. As with drug-containing lozenges, there is a natural tendency for the ... When administering a drug buccally (i.e., by absorption of the drug through the highly vascularized buccal tissues of the mouth ... This has been a particular problem in treating diseases of the mouth which require constant local administration of drug. One ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5053032?dq=7253017
Patent US4127118 - Method of effecting and enhancing an erection - Google Patents  Patent US4127118 - Method of effecting and enhancing an erection - Google Patents
Controlled release of drugs delivered by sublingual or buccal administration. US5731339 *. 28 Apr 1995. 24 Mar 1998. Zonagen, ... Controlled release of drugs delivered by sublingual or buccal administration. US5908853 *. 18 Aug 1993. 1 Jun 1999. Cesar ... The problem is to find a drug that will work in treating impotence, and to devise a means of administration that is both ... There have been numerous attempts to treat impotence by the administration of certain drugs, but none thus far has been really ...
more infohttp://www.google.com.au/patents/US4127118
Treatment of female sexual dysfunction - Pentech Pharmaceuticals, Inc.  Treatment of female sexual dysfunction - Pentech Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
... by sublingual administration of apomorphine dosage forms. Administration of apomorphine increases ... Controlled release of drugs delivered by sublingual or buccal administration. 1997-04-29. El-Rashidy et al.. 424/435. ... by sublingual administration of apomorphine dosage forms. Administration of apomorphine increases nerve stimulated clitoral ... Intravenous administration of apomorphine at a concentration of 0.1 mg/kg, 0.2 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg caused a significant ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5945117.html
Paola Perugini - PubMed - NCBI  Paola Perugini - PubMed - NCBI
5-methyl-pyrrolidinone chitosan films as carriers for buccal administration of proteins. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?cmd=Search&term=Paola%20Perugini
Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects  Rectal dexmedetomidine in rats: evaluation of sedative and mucosal effects
Buccal administration of dexmedetomidine as a preanesthetic in children. J Anesth. 2010;24:49-53. [ Links ] ... 14 Rectal premedication administration is particularly preferred for young children due to the ease of administration.2 , 3 , 9 ... administration of saline, our histopathological evaluations showed that the rectal administration of 100 µg kg-1 ... 16 , 17 and 28 After the administration of dexmedetomidine, we measured the anesthesia duration in the rats. 26 ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0034-70942015000100001&lng=en&tlng=en
Patent US8747005 - Oral care implement with cavitation system - Google Patentsuche  Patent US8747005 - Oral care implement with cavitation system - Google Patentsuche
Buccal and sublingual administration of physostigmine. US6280394. 15. M rz 1999. 28. Aug. 2001. Sean R. Maloney. Apparatus and ... Controlled release of drugs delivered by sublingual or buccal administration. US5894620. 26. Juni 1996. 20. Apr. 1999. U.S. ... Compact dosage unit for buccal administration of a pharmacologically active agent. US6326022. 4. Nov. 1999. 4. Dez. 2001. Harry ... Method for manufacturing buccal delivery device. US5650284. 14. M rz 1995. 22. Juli 1997. The Trustees Of Columbia University ...
more infohttps://www.google.ch/patents/US8747005
US4820515A - Method of using interferon in low dosage to regulate appetite and efficiency of food utilization 
        - Google...  US4820515A - Method of using interferon in low dosage to regulate appetite and efficiency of food utilization - Google...
A pharmaceutical composition comprising interferon for buccal administration. Citations (12). * Cited by examiner, † Cited by ... Low-dose oral administration of interferons US5817307A (en) * 1986-11-06. 1998-10-06. The Texas A&M University System. ... Low-dose oral administration of interferons US20020141971A1 (en) * 1999-12-09. 2002-10-03. Chiron Corporation. Method for ... Low-dose oral administration of interferons Related Parent Applications (1). Application Number. Title. Priority Date. Filing ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US4820515?oq=U.S.+patent+number+7%2C325%2C728
Nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of pharmaceutical formulations | SpringerLink  Nuclear medicine techniques in the evaluation of pharmaceutical formulations | SpringerLink
The design and evaluation of sustained release formulations for oral and buccal administration. Adv Pharmacother 1981;1:17-25. ... Farr SJ, Rowe AM, Rubsamen R, Taylor G. Aerosol deposition in the human lung following administration from a microprocessor ... A comparison of intratracheal and aerosol administration to the rabbit. Pharmaceutical Research, 1992;9:764-768.Google Scholar ... Application of gamma scintigraphy to non-enteral routes of administration. Journal of Drug Targeting. 1994;2:269-288.Google ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00417757
  • To determine whether the administration of mother's colostrum into the buccal pouch in the first days of life alters the oral microbiota compared with control infants. (nih.gov)
  • In this pilot study, 12 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants were randomly assigned to receive either colostrum from their mothers directly into the buccal pouch every 2 h for 46 h or standard care. (nih.gov)
  • This invention relates to the therapeutic administration of the drug L-deprenyl (levo phenyl isopropyl methyl propynyl amine), useful in the treatment of depression as well as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. (google.com.au)
  • Patient education to provide the necessary information to the patient and family about why, how and when medications are to be administered and potential side effects and precautions with administeration by the layperson. (freezingblue.com)
  • Respondents who expressed their willingness to join the study, provided their informed consent, were willing to provide buccal exfoliated epithelial cells, and were willing to be interviewed were included in the study. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • A total of 378 patients were randomized to receive the acyclovir buccal tablet, while 397 were randomized to placebo. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For this reason, buprenorphine monotherapy is recommended in patients taking long-acting opioids when used according to approved administration instructions. (drugs.com)
  • Buccal administration of vaccines has been studied, but there are challenges to this approach due to immune tolerance mechanisms that prevent the body from over-reacting to immunogens encountered in the course of daily life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Locations of application of parenteral administration include: central nervous system epidural (synonym: peridural) (injection or infusion into the epidural space), e.g. epidural anesthesia intracerebral (into the cerebrum) direct injection into the brain. (wikipedia.org)