Antibiotic Prophylaxis: Use of antibiotics before, during, or after a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure to prevent infectious complications.Surgical Wound Infection: Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.Cefazolin: A semisynthetic cephalosporin analog with broad-spectrum antibiotic action due to inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It attains high serum levels and is excreted quickly via the urine.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Premedication: Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.Puerperal Infection: An infection occurring in PUERPERIUM, the period of 6-8 weeks after giving birth.Floxacillin: Antibiotic analog of CLOXACILLIN.Cefuroxime: Broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic resistant to beta-lactamase. It has been proposed for infections with gram-negative and gram-positive organisms, GONORRHEA, and HAEMOPHILUS.Bacterial Infections: Infections by bacteria, general or unspecified.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Oral Surgical Procedures: Surgical procedures used to treat disease, injuries, and defects of the oral and maxillofacial region.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Vesico-Ureteral Reflux: Retrograde flow of urine from the URINARY BLADDER into the URETER. This is often due to incompetence of the vesicoureteral valve leading to ascending bacterial infection into the KIDNEY.Prosthesis-Related Infections: Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Cerebrospinal Fluid Otorrhea: Discharge of cerebrospinal fluid through the external auditory meatus or through the eustachian tube into the nasopharynx. This is usually associated with CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE involving the TEMPORAL BONE;), NEUROSURGICAL PROCEDURES; or other conditions, but may rarely occur spontaneously. (From Am J Otol 1995 Nov;16(6):765-71)Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Post-Exposure Prophylaxis: The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.Gastrostomy: Creation of an artificial external opening into the stomach for nutritional support or gastrointestinal compression.Dental Care for Chronically Ill: Dental care for patients with chronic diseases. These diseases include chronic cardiovascular, endocrinologic, hematologic, immunologic, neoplastic, and renal diseases. The concept does not include dental care for the mentally or physically disabled which is DENTAL CARE FOR DISABLED.Cephalosporins: A group of broad-spectrum antibiotics first isolated from the Mediterranean fungus ACREMONIUM. They contain the beta-lactam moiety thia-azabicyclo-octenecarboxylic acid also called 7-aminocephalosporanic acid.Clindamycin: An antibacterial agent that is a semisynthetic analog of LINCOMYCIN.Perioperative Care: Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Cephradine: A semi-synthetic cephalosporin antibiotic.Gentamicins: A complex of closely related aminoglycosides obtained from MICROMONOSPORA purpurea and related species. They are broad-spectrum antibiotics, but may cause ear and kidney damage. They act to inhibit PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS.Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole Combination: This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Cefotetan: A semisynthetic cephamycin antibiotic that is administered intravenously or intramuscularly. The drug is highly resistant to a broad spectrum of beta-lactamases and is active against a wide range of both aerobic and anaerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Patient Isolators: Equipment used to prevent contamination of and by patients, especially those with bacterial infections. This includes plastic surgical isolators and isolators used to protect immunocompromised patients.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Endometritis: Inflammation of the ENDOMETRIUM, usually caused by intrauterine infections. Endometritis is the most common cause of postpartum fever.Cefonicid: A second-generation cephalosporin administered intravenously or intramuscularly. Its bactericidal action results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. It is used for urinary tract infections, lower respiratory tract infections, and soft tissue and bone infections.Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as pulmonary and cardiovascular.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bacteremia: The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.Endocarditis: Inflammation of the inner lining of the heart (ENDOCARDIUM), the continuous membrane lining the four chambers and HEART VALVES. It is often caused by microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and rickettsiae. Left untreated, endocarditis can damage heart valves and become life-threatening.Diagnostic Techniques, Urological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the urinary tract or its organs or demonstration of its physiological processes.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Dental Prophylaxis: Treatment for the prevention of periodontal diseases or other dental diseases by the cleaning of the teeth in the dental office using the procedures of DENTAL SCALING and DENTAL POLISHING. The treatment may include plaque detection, removal of supra- and subgingival plaque and calculus, application of caries-preventing agents, checking of restorations and prostheses and correcting overhanging margins and proximal contours of restorations, and checking for signs of food impaction.Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms.Anti-Infective Agents, Urinary: Substances capable of killing agents causing urinary tract infections or of preventing them from spreading.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Metronidazole: A nitroimidazole used to treat AMEBIASIS; VAGINITIS; TRICHOMONAS INFECTIONS; GIARDIASIS; ANAEROBIC BACTERIA; and TREPONEMAL INFECTIONS. It has also been proposed as a radiation sensitizer for hypoxic cells. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985, p133), this substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck, 11th ed).Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Injections, Intravenous: Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.Ampicillin: Semi-synthetic derivative of penicillin that functions as an orally active broad-spectrum antibiotic.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.Skull Fracture, Basilar: Fractures which extend through the base of the SKULL, usually involving the PETROUS BONE. Battle's sign (characterized by skin discoloration due to extravasation of blood into the subcutaneous tissue behind the ear and over the mastoid process), CRANIAL NEUROPATHIES, TRAUMATIC; CAROTID-CAVERNOUS SINUS FISTULA; and CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OTORRHEA are relatively frequent sequelae of this condition. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p876)Surgery, Oral: A dental specialty concerned with the diagnosis and surgical treatment of disease, injuries, and defects of the human oral and maxillofacial region.Ciprofloxacin: A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing: A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.Vancomycin: Antibacterial obtained from Streptomyces orientalis. It is a glycopeptide related to RISTOCETIN that inhibits bacterial cell wall assembly and is toxic to kidneys and the inner ear.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.New Caledonia: A group of islands in Melanesia constituting a French overseas territory. The group includes New Caledonia (the main island), Ile des Pins, Loyalty Island, and several other islet groups. The capital is Noumea. It was discovered by Captain Cook in 1774 and visited by various navigators, explorers, and traders from 1792 to 1840. Occupied by the French in 1853, it was set up as a penal colony 1864-94. In 1946 it was made a French overseas territory. It was named by Captain Cook with the 5th and 6th century A.D. Latin name for Scotland, Caledonia. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p830 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p375)Amoxicillin: A broad-spectrum semisynthetic antibiotic similar to AMPICILLIN except that its resistance to gastric acid permits higher serum levels with oral administration.Infection Control: Programs of disease surveillance, generally within health care facilities, designed to investigate, prevent, and control the spread of infections and their causative microorganisms.Catheters, Indwelling: Catheters designed to be left within an organ or passage for an extended period of time.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Levofloxacin: The L-isomer of Ofloxacin.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Dental Care: The total of dental diagnostic, preventive, and restorative services provided to meet the needs of a patient (from Illustrated Dictionary of Dentistry, 1982).Ofloxacin: A synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial agent that inhibits the supercoiling activity of bacterial DNA GYRASE, halting DNA REPLICATION.Cross Infection: Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.Antisepsis: The destruction of germs causing disease.Surgical Procedures, Operative: Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)Chemoprevention: The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Azithromycin: A semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic structurally related to ERYTHROMYCIN. It has been used in the treatment of Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infections, toxoplasmosis, and cryptosporidiosis.Hernia, Inguinal: An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.Peritonitis: INFLAMMATION of the PERITONEUM lining the ABDOMINAL CAVITY as the result of infectious, autoimmune, or chemical processes. Primary peritonitis is due to infection of the PERITONEAL CAVITY via hematogenous or lymphatic spread and without intra-abdominal source. Secondary peritonitis arises from the ABDOMINAL CAVITY itself through RUPTURE or ABSCESS of intra-abdominal organs.Amoxicillin-Potassium Clavulanate Combination: A fixed-ratio combination of amoxicillin trihydrate and potassium clavulanate.Polyethylene Terephthalates: Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Ceftriaxone: A broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic with a very long half-life and high penetrability to meninges, eyes and inner ears.American Heart Association: A voluntary organization concerned with the prevention and treatment of heart and vascular diseases.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Staphylococcus epidermidis: A species of STAPHYLOCOCCUS that is a spherical, non-motile, gram-positive, chemoorganotrophic, facultative anaerobe. Mainly found on the skin and mucous membrane of warm-blooded animals, it can be primary pathogen or secondary invader.Splenectomy: Surgical procedure involving either partial or entire removal of the spleen.Aminoglycosides: Glycosylated compounds in which there is an amino substituent on the glycoside. Some of them are clinically important ANTIBIOTICS.Skull Fractures: Fractures of the skull which may result from penetrating or nonpenetrating head injuries or rarely BONE DISEASES (see also FRACTURES, SPONTANEOUS). Skull fractures may be classified by location (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, BASILAR), radiographic appearance (e.g., linear), or based upon cranial integrity (e.g., SKULL FRACTURE, DEPRESSED).Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Infection: Invasion of the host organism by microorganisms that can cause pathological conditions or diseases.Gastroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the stomach.Appendectomy: Surgical removal of the vermiform appendix. (Dorland, 28th ed)Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Viridans Streptococci: A large heterogeneous group of mostly alpha-hemolytic streptococci. They colonize the respiratory tract at birth and generally have a low degree of pathogenicity. This group of species includes STREPTOCOCCUS MITIS; STREPTOCOCCUS MUTANS; STREPTOCOCCUS ORALIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SANGUIS; STREPTOCOCCUS SOBRINUS; and the STREPTOCOCCUS MILLERI GROUP. The latter are often beta-hemolytic and commonly produce invasive pyogenic infections including brain and abdominal abscesses.Antifungal Agents: Substances that destroy fungi by suppressing their ability to grow or reproduce. They differ from FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL because they defend against fungi present in human or animal tissues.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.Surgical Procedures, Elective: Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Transurethral Resection of Prostate: Removal of all or part of the PROSTATE, often using a cystoscope and/or resectoscope passed through the URETHRA.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Hospitals: Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Drug Administration Routes: The various ways of administering a drug or other chemical to a site in a patient or animal from where the chemical is absorbed into the blood and delivered to the target tissue.Orthopedics: A surgical specialty which utilizes medical, surgical, and physical methods to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the skeletal system, its articulations, and associated structures.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)United StatesUnited States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.Arthroplasty: Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.Hospitals, University: Hospitals maintained by a university for the teaching of medical students, postgraduate training programs, and clinical research.beta-Lactams: Four-membered cyclic AMIDES, best known for the PENICILLINS based on a bicyclo-thiazolidine, as well as the CEPHALOSPORINS based on a bicyclo-thiazine, and including monocyclic MONOBACTAMS. The BETA-LACTAMASES hydrolyze the beta lactam ring, accounting for BETA-LACTAM RESISTANCE of infective bacteria.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Surgical Mesh: Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.Venous Thromboembolism: Obstruction of a vein or VEINS (embolism) by a blood clot (THROMBUS) in the blood stream.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.MycosesTetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Pneumonia, Pneumocystis: A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.Knee Prosthesis: Replacement for a knee joint.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Cicatrix: The fibrous tissue that replaces normal tissue during the process of WOUND HEALING.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Macrolides: A group of often glycosylated macrocyclic compounds formed by chain extension of multiple PROPIONATES cyclized into a large (typically 12, 14, or 16)-membered lactone. Macrolides belong to the POLYKETIDES class of natural products, and many members exhibit ANTIBIOTIC properties.Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
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In possible cases of pulmonary anthrax, early antibiotic prophylaxis treatment is crucial to prevent possible death. In recent ... The US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health - and Mine Safety and Health Administration-approved high- ... If antibiotics are administered too late, even if the antibiotics eradicate the bacteria, some hosts still die of toxemia ... If infection occurs treatment is with antibiotics and possibly antitoxin. The type and number of antibiotics used depends on ...
Coalition troops trained with protective gear and stockpiled the antibiotic ciprofloxacin for use as post-exposure prophylaxis ... Approximately 150,000 US troops received the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-licensed anthrax vaccine (BioThrax), and 8,000 ...
Currently, the only reliable way to prevent GBS-EOD is intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) - administration of antibiotics ... antibiotics for prevention and treatment" states: "Intrapartum Antibiotic Prophylaxis should be offered if group B ... Sutkin G, Krohn MA, Heine RP, Sweet RL (2005). "Antibiotic prophylaxis and non-group B streptococcal neonatal sepsis". Obstet. ... In 2008, after widespread use of antenatal screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis, the Centers for Disease Control ...
The only reliable way to prevent EOD currently is intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), that is to say administration of ... There are two ways to identifying female candidates to receive intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis: a risk-based approach or a ... after widespread use of antenatal screening and intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), the CDC reported an incidence of 0.28 ... GBS Intrapartum Antibiotic Investigator Group. (2017). "Intrapartum Antibiotic Chemoprophylaxis Policies for the Prevention of ...
... difficile prophylaxis among in-patients and, particularly, during administration of certain powerful antibiotics (i.e.: ... "Prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in children by Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI". Pediatrics International. 45 (1): ...
Antibiotics for bacterial lung infection. TB prophylaxis for those with positive tuberculin skin test or IGRA blood test. ... Oxygen administration to treat hypoxemia, if present. Bronchodilators to facilitate breathing. Lung transplantation to replace ... "Safety and Health Topics Silica, Crystalline". Occupational Safety and Health Administration. March 2007. Retrieved 2007-05-29 ...
Antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended because of the possibility of encouraging the development of multidrug-resistant ... The administration of intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIGs) has had some success in treating neutropenias of alloimmune and ... There are serious concerns regarding antibiotic-resistant organisms. These would include as methicillin-resistant ...
Official guidelines by the American Heart Association for dental antibiotic prophylaxis call for the administration of ... Antibiotic misuse, sometimes called antibiotic abuse or antibiotic overuse, refers to the misuse or overuse of antibiotics, ... Antibiotics can cause severe reactions and add significantly to the cost of care. In the United States, antibiotics and anti- ... Antibiotics have been around since 1928 when penicillin was invented by Alexander Fleming. In the 1980's antibiotics that were ...
... and with regard to respiratory and urinary tract infections Repeat administrations for prophylaxis are not necessary, so that ... Parenteral systemic antibiotics seem to be more appropriate than oral or topical antibiotics because the chosen antibiotics ... most commonly antibiotics). Antibiotic prophylaxis is most commonly used prior to surgery, however, may be used in other cases ... For prophylaxis in surgery, only antibiotics with good tolerability should be used. Cephalosporins remain the preferred drugs ...
... is the administration of antibiotics to a dental patient for prevention of harmful consequences ... Although there is little evidence to support antibiotic prophylaxis for dental treatment, the current AHA guidelines are highly ... Currently, there are official guidelines for dental antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of infective endocarditis and of ... In addition, there are various medical conditions for which clinicians recommended antibiotic prophylaxis, although there is no ...
There are many different routes of administration for antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics are usually taken by mouth. In more ... They have an important role in dental antibiotic prophylaxis where their use may prevent bacteremia and consequent infective ... This involves the administration of a broad-spectrum antibiotic based on the signs and symptoms presented and is initiated ... and total volumes of antibiotic required are reduced, thereby also reducing the risk of antibiotic misuse. Topical antibiotics ...
Use of antibiotic prophylaxis, surgical abscess drainage, and vaccination led to the term "fatal" being dropped from the name ... Interferon, in the form of interferon gamma-1b (Actimmune) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prevention ... diagnose the disease early so that antibiotic prophylaxis can be given to keep an infection from occurring, and 2) educate the ... Early diagnosis is important since these people can be placed on antibiotics to ward off infections before they occur. Small ...
Antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding: a meta- ... Early administration of vapreotide for variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis. „N Engl J Med". 344 (1), s. 23-8, Jan 2001 ... Antibiotic prophylaxis for cirrhotic patients with gastrointestinal bleeding. „Cochrane Database Syst Rev", s. CD002907, 2002. ... Antibiotic prophylaxis after endoscopic therapy prevents rebleeding in acute variceal hemorrhage: a randomized trial. „ ...
Short-term antibiotic prophylaxis is another method of prevention, particularly of meningococcal meningitis. In cases of ... It is recognized that administration of antibiotics may initially worsen the process outlined above, by increasing the amount ... Ratilal, BO; Costa, J; Pappamikail, L; Sampaio, C (28 April 2015). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing meningitis in ... some antibiotics have inadequate penetrance and therefore have little use in meningitis. Most of the antibiotics used in ...
Some studies show that use of antibiotics effective against anthrax plus administration of AVA is the most beneficial approach ... However, AVA is not licensed for post-exposure prophylaxis for inhalational anthrax or for use in a 3-dose regimen. Any such ... In 1973, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) first published standards for making, using and storing AVA. In the mid- ... Adverse events following AVA administration were assessed in several studies conducted by the DoD in the context of the routine ...
... and use of antibiotics increases antibiotics resistance. Pre-exposure prophylaxis may be beneficial for individuals traveling ... or oral administration of calcium carbonate, but not without first checking the serum calcium levels (these two levels are ... Brett-Major DM, Lipnick RJ (2009). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for leptospirosis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): ... The antibiotic doxycycline, when used in an effort to prevent infection among travellers, is of unclear benefit. Vaccines for ...
Ratilal, BO; Costa, J; Sampaio, C; Pappamikail, L. Antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing meningitis in patients with basilar ... Corticosteroid administration and outcome of adolescents and adults with acute bacterial meningitis: a meta-analysis. Mayo Clin ... Prasad, K; Kumar, A; Gupta, PK; Singhal, T. Third generation cephalosporins versus conventional antibiotics for treating acute ... Zalmanovici Trestioreanu, A; Fraser, A; Gafter-Gvili, A; Paul, M; Leibovici, L. Antibiotics for preventing meningococcal ...
AdministrationEdit. There are many different routes of administration for antibiotic treatment. Antibiotics are usually taken ... They have an important role in dental antibiotic prophylaxis where their use may prevent bacteremia and consequent infective ... The use of antibiotics in modern medicine began with the discovery of synthetic antibiotics derived from dyes.[ ... Main article: Antibiotic misuse. Per The ICU Book "The first rule of antibiotics is try not to use them, and the second rule is ...
Antibiotics given in concentrations too low to combat disease are called "subtherapeutic." The administration of these drugs ... would limit the use of antibiotics in prophylaxis and metaphylaxis. An agreement on the regulation between the Council of the ... Pew Trust campaign for restricting antibiotic use. *Antibiotic Resistance and the Use of Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture: ... Antibiotic use in livestock is the use of antibiotics for any purpose in the husbandry of livestock, which includes treatment ...
"Impact of the NICE guideline recommending cessation of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of infective endocarditis: before ... It is usually the drug of choice within the class because it is better-absorbed, following oral administration, than other β- ... Side effects are similar to those for other β-lactam antibiotics, including nausea, vomiting, rashes, and antibiotic-associated ... "CG64 Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: Full guidance" (PDF). NICE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November ...
Antimicrobial prophylaxis (giving antibiotics during or after surgery before an infection begins) reduces the rate of surgical ... Targeted anatomic administration of one of these anti-TNF agents, etanercept, a patented treatment method, has been suggested ... Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guideline, their antibiotic prophylaxis was changed to the day of ... In a Japanese study, utilizing the Centers for Disease Control recommendations for antibiotic prophylaxis, an overall rate of ...
Antibiotic resistance. Intrinsic resistance. A few Gram-positive bacteria are intrinsically resistant to vancomycin ... Intravenous vs oral administration. Vancomycin must be given intravenously (IV) for systemic therapy, since it is not ... Surgical prophylaxis for major procedures involving implantation of prostheses in institutions with a high rate of MRSA or MRSE ... Following oral administration, the fecal concentration of vancomycin is around 500 µg/ml (sensitive strains of C. difficile ...
... and use of antibiotics increases antibiotics resistance. Pre-exposure prophylaxis may be beneficial for individuals traveling ... Treatment for hyperphosphatemia consists of treating the underlying disease, dialysis where appropriate, or oral administration ... Brett-Major DM, Lipnick RJ (2009). "Antibiotic prophylaxis for leptospirosis". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): ... Antibiotics that may be used include penicillin G, ampicillin, amoxicillin and doxycycline. In more severe cases cefotaxime or ...
... antibiotics do so by binding reversibly to the P site on the 50S subunit of the bacterial ribosome. This action is ... ISBN 978-0-8138-0656-3. "DailyMed". Food and Drug Administration (US). Retrieved 22 March 2017. Protein synthesis inhibitors: ... "Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis after pertussis prophylaxis with erythromcyin: A case review and cohort study". Lancet ... The antimicrobial and antibiotic effects of macrolides, however, are not believed to be involved in their beneficial effects ...
"U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).. *Ebola: What You Need to Know - Scientific American articles related to Ebola; note ... Antimalarial medications and antibiotics are often used before the diagnosis is confirmed, though there is no evidence to ... "Emerging targets and novel approaches to Ebola virus prophylaxis and treatment". BioDrugs. 27 (6): 565-83. doi:10.1007/s40259- ... "U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) (Press release). 14 October 2020. Retrieved 14 October 2020.. This article incorporates ...
Find out what you can expect during your dental prophylaxis appointment, here. ... Has your doctor or dentist recommended a dental prophylaxis appointment? ... Some patients need antibiotic prophylaxis to help prevent infection before their appointment, explains the ADA. This is ... The American Dental Association (ADA) and the Food and Drug Administration teamed up to establish dental radiographic ...
Over the years, the role of the anaesthesiologist in the administration of prophylactic antibiotics has become prominent. ... We therefore sought to compare the effect of antibiotics prophylaxis within 1 hour before skin incision and after skin incision ... Therefore, there is an increasing need for anaesthesia providers to understand the rationale of antibiotic prophylaxis. ... They received the same prophylactic antibiotic according to their allotment, that is, either within 1 hour before skin incision ...
Timing of antibiotic administration is critical to efficacy. The first dose should always be given before the procedure, ... In general, postoperative administration is not recommended. Antibiotic selection is influenced by the organism most commonly ... Prophylaxis is uniformly recommended for all clean-contaminated, contaminated and dirty procedures. It is considered optional ... Readministration at one to two half-lives of the antibiotic is recommended for the duration of the procedure. ...
General dental practitioners certainty in administration of antibiotic prophylaxis (Boston). Details Files for download. There ... General dental practitioners certainty in administration of antibiotic prophylaxis (Boston). Author Ellervall, Eva ; Knutsson ... Objectives: To study GDPs certainty in administration of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with specific medical conditions, ... General dental practitioners certainty in administration of antibiotic prophylaxis (Boston). DSpace Repository. ...
The key aspects of planning and lessons learned from each of these mass prophylaxis operations are reviewed. Antibiotic ... Successful implementation of mass prophylaxis operations was characterized by clarity of mission and eligibility criteria, well ... Protocols for mass antibiotic prophylaxis against anthrax were under development in New York City beginning in early 1999. This ... distribution was facilitated by limiting medical histories to issues relevant to prescribing prophylactic antibiotic therapy, ...
The aim of this prospective double-blind study was to evaluate the value of long-term antibiotic prophylaxis using ... These results suggest that long-term preventive antibiotic prophylaxis based on the weekly administration of 750 mg of ... The aim of this prospective double-blind study was to evaluate the value of long-term antibiotic prophylaxis using ...
Administration, Topical. Antibiotic Prophylaxis. antibiotics. prophylaxis. neurosurgery. Bacterial Infections. Central Nervous ... routine use of systemic antibiotic prophylaxis is not without risks, as it may lead to rapid development of antibiotic ... Topical Vancomycin for Neurosurgery Wound Prophylaxis (Vanguard). The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Topical vancomycin for neurosurgery wound prophylaxis: an interim report of a randomized clinical trial on drug safety in a ...
... gastric or colorectal surgery were randomized to receive short-term or long-term antibiotic prophylaxis--cefotaxime for biliary ... Cefotaxime / administration & dosage. Clinical Trials as Topic. Duodenum / surgery*. Female. Gentamicins / administration & ... Preoperative cell-mediated immunity and duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in relation to postopertive infectious complications ... the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis influenced neither postopertive infectious complications nor mortality.. ...
Antibiotic Prophylaxis / veterinary * Preoperative Care / veterinary * Surgical Wound Infection / prevention & control * ... Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage * Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use* * Anti-Infective Agents, Local / ...
... both orthopedic surgeons and dentists recommended that people with artificial knees or hips get a shot of antibiotics before ... American Dental Association: "Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prior to Dental Procedures.". American Joint Replacement Registry: "Annual ... Transportation Security Administration: "Disabilities and Medical Conditions.". American Dental Association: "Antibiotic ... People with knee implants whose immune systems are weak or who may be prone to infections may still need antibiotics before a ...
These factors may be corrected by perioperative administration of probiotics in addition to antibiotics. Fourteen randomized ... The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. A restricted use of ... The use of probiotics must be better delineated in relation to type of bacteria, dose and length of administration. ... It is therefore of interest to test if these abilities of probiotics can be utilized in preoperative prophylaxis. ...
Antibiotic prophylaxis for transrectal needle biopsy of the prostate: a randomized controlled study. BJU Int 2000;85:682-5. ... A midstream specimen of urine was sent for culture immediately before antibiotic administration. Coumarin anticoagulant and ... All men received antibiotic prophylaxis according to contemporary practice; inter-centre variability existed, but each centre ... Thompson PM, Philpott-Howard J, Wang W. Is the current antibiotic prophylaxis policy in transrectal prostate biopsy still safe ...
Antibiotic Prophylaxis*. Aza Compounds / therapeutic use*. Bacteria / isolation & purification*. Colony Count, Microbial. ... Administration, Topical. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Anti-Infective Agents, Local / therapeutic use*. ...
Analysis 6.1. Comparison 6 Oral versus parenteral administration of antibiotic agent, Outcome 1 Deep surgical site infection. ... Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. Cochrane Database of Systematic ... Antibiotic prophylaxis for surgery for proximal femoral and other closed long bone fractures. ... Analysis 6.2. Comparison 6 Oral versus parenteral administration of antibiotic agent, Outcome 2 Superficial surgical site ...
BSG guidelines on antibiotic prophylaxis in gastrointestinal endoscopy. BSG Guidelines for postal consenting for outpatient ... BSG guidelines on prescription and administration of oral bowel-cleansing agents. BSG guidelines for the management of ...
... - Sergio Obeso, Juan P Rodrigo, Rafael Sánchez, Fernando López, Juan P Díaz ... length of treatment and administration route. There are no clinical trials for laryngo-pharyngeal laser surgery. Nor are there ... Antibiotic prophylaxis in otolaryngologic surgery.. Abstract. Since the beginning of the 80s, numerous clinical trials have ... due to perioperative use of antibiotics; however, there is no consensus about the best antibiotic protocol. Moreover, there are ...
Documentation of timing of administration was not submitted for more than half of all procedures. Timing was concordant with ... Compliance with surgical antibiotic prophylaxis--reporting from a statewide surveillance programme in Victoria, Australia.. ... A statewide assessment of the compliance of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) with guidelines was undertaken for large ... Prophylactic antibiotic choice was generally more concordant with guidelines for cardiac and orthopaedic procedures than for ...
We accepted that the protocol for administration, type of antibiotic, and duration of prophylaxis would vary between studies. ... continuous antibiotic prophylaxis. CI - confidence interval. HN - hydronephrosis. OR - odds ratio. SFU - Society for Fetal ... Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Urinary Tract Infections in Antenatal Hydronephrosis. Luis H. Braga, Hana Mijovic, Forough ... Is antibiotic prophylaxis necessary in infants with obstructive hydronephrosis? J Urol. 2007;177(3):1098-1101, discussion 1101 ...
Hypothesis: a short-term antibiotic prophylaxis of 1 day postoperatively is equally effective as a long-term administration of ... Duration of Postoperative Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Facial Fractures. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in intraoral orthognathic surgery. J Oral Surg. 1976 Dec;34(12):1088-91. ... Up to date there is no standard to support the administration of antibiotics after surgical repair of a facial fracture. ...
Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orthopaedic Traumatology: A Prospective, Randomized Trial of Duration of Administration. ... Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Orthopaedic Traumatology. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of ... However, the optimal duration of antibiotic prophylaxis after orthopaedic trauma surgery is not well-defined. Most studies ... A prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial will be conducted to evaluate the duration of antibiotic prophylaxis. ...
Before antibiotic administration, diphtheria patients and their close contacts should have nasal and throat swabs collected for ... Swabs were not collected from five contacts who had already started antibiotic prophylaxis. The patient and 12 contacts were up ... Clearance of the organism should be confirmed after completion of the antibiotic course by repeat swabbing and testing. If ... Because the wound had healed by the time the infecting organism was identified, no antibiotic treatment was administered. ...
Prophylactic administration of ceftriaxone for the prevention of meningitis after traumatic pneumocephalus: results of a ... The 109 patients were divided into two groups: 53 were assigned to the prophylactic antibiotics therapy group and 56 to the ... Prophylactic administration of ceftriaxone for the prevention of meningitis after traumatic pneumocephalus: results of a ... Antibiotic Prophylaxis. *Ceftriaxone (therapeutic use) *Female. *Follow-Up Studies. *Glasgow Coma Scale ...
Routes of administration of antibiotic prophylaxis for preventing infection after caesarean section. ...
Because of drawbacks associated with antibiotic prophylaxis, alternative treatments are sought. Bacterial viruses ( ... Enteritidis colonization more effectively than post-challenge administration. Furthermore, oral administration of PSE phage is ... In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via ... In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via ...
ProstheticDifferent antibiotic regimensProphylactic antibioticLong-term antibiotic prophylaxisCesarean sectionPerioperative Antibiotic ProphylaxisRoutine antibiotic prophylaxisRequire antibiotic prophylaxisIntravenous antibiotic prophylaxisCausing woundGastrointestinalAppropriate antibioticTherapeuticRetrospective2017AdverseChoice of antibioticCephalosporinClean-contaminatedConclusionsGuidelinesCardiac surgeryOutcomesPneumococcal vaccinePatientsMortalityDose of antibioticIntravenouslyDoxycycline prophylaxisMaternalClinical trialsCefuroximeSSIsSurgical site infectionPreoperative antibioticsColonizationInappropriate antibioticProcedures
- Many different antibiotic regimens have been reported to be effective. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- The effect of different antibiotic regimens was studied and similar reductions in the incidence of infections were seen for most of the antibiotics and combinations. (who.int)
- The efficacy of different antibiotic regimens for the prevention of AOM -- such as amoxicillin or sulfisoxazole at half the therapeutic daily doses -- has been evaluated in many previous controlled clinical trials. (medscape.com)
- The efficacy of different antibiotic regimens were not evaluated. (nih.gov)
- Antibiotic distribution was facilitated by limiting medical histories to issues relevant to prescribing prophylactic antibiotic therapy, formatting medical records to facilitate rapid decision making, and separating each component activity into discrete work stations. (cdc.gov)
- Prophylactic antibiotic choice was generally more concordant with guidelines for cardiac and orthopaedic procedures than for other types of surgery. (nih.gov)
- Prophylactic antibiotic use. (nursingcenter.com)
- Results from all three hospitals show higher compliance with the new protocols and procedures as measured by the use of the preferred prophylactic antibiotic (cefazolin), the timing of administration, and the number of doses administered, as well as significant cost savings. (msh.org)
- The Efficacy of Prophylactic Antibiotic Administration During Breast Cancer Surgery in Overweight Patients. (knowcancer.com)
- Timing of prophylactic antibiotic administration i. (who.int)
- Optimum timing was de fined as prophylactic antibiotic administration 15-60 min before skin incision or tourniquet application. (who.int)
- Antibiotic prophylaxis versus no prophylaxis for preventing infection after cesarean section. (nih.gov)
- Prophylactic antibiotics for cesarean section have been shown to reduce the incidence of maternal postoperative infectious morbidity. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- Although guidelines endorse the use of prophylactic antibiotics for women undergoing cesarean section, there is not uniform implementation of this recommendation. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotics compared with no prophylactic antibiotics on infectious complications in women undergoing cesarean section. (who.int)
- Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing the effects of prophylactic antibiotics versus no treatment in women undergoing cesarean section. (who.int)
- A study conducted by the Jordan Food and Drug Administration (JFDA) in 2009* found that antimicrobials used for prophylaxis during common surgical procedures, like cesarean section, were frequently administered inconsistently or inappropriately. (msh.org)
- To help address this issue, SIAPS and its predecessor program SPS provided technical assistance to three hospitals in Jordan to strengthen antibiotic prophylaxis practices for cesarean section. (msh.org)
- A cesarean section log, Excel monitoring tool, and indicators were established to help standardize the tracking of antibiotic prophylaxis practices in each facility. (msh.org)
- Based on the experience from the three hospitals, the Ministry of Health developed, approved, and mandated in February 2013 a unified antibiotic prophylaxis protocol for cesarean section in all public, ministry-run hospitals. (msh.org)
- The 2003 advisory statement concluded: "The risk/benefit and cost/effectiveness ratios fail to justify the administration of routine antibiotic prophylaxis" for patients with total joint replacements. (ada.org)
- Routine antibiotic prophylaxis is not recommended for women undergoing operative vaginal birth. (who.int)
- Among women undergoing operative vaginal birth (P), does routine antibiotic prophylaxis (I), compared with no prophylaxis (C), prevent infectious morbidities and improve outcomes (O)? (who.int)
- Patients at risk of developing infective endocarditis or infection of a prosthetic joint may require antibiotic prophylaxis during dental treatment. (nps.org.au)
- Treatment may require antibiotic prophylaxis should be repeated at the cD4 E. Adverse drug and sulphate, and allows for ranitidine are only modestly. (imagenenaccion.org)
- Treatment may require antibiotic prophylaxis should be repeated at the cD4. (imagenenaccion.org)
- Meta-analyses of randomised trials have established that wound infection rates decrease substantially when intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis is given before the PEG procedure. (bmj.com)
- Oral antibiotic prophylaxis (OAP) was considered as the administration of oral antibiotics the day before surgery combined with systemic intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Independent risk factors for organ-space SSI in colon surgery were male sex (Odds ratio -OR-: 1.57, 95% CI: 1.14-2.15) and ostomy creation (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.8-3.92) while laparoscopy (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.38-0.69) and OAP combined with intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis (OR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.51-0.97) were protective factors. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- In rectal surgery, independent risk factors for organ-space SSI were male sex (OR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.34-3.31) and longer surgery (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.03-2.15), whereas OAP with intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis (OR: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.32-0.73) was a protective factor. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- In certain gastrointestinal procedures, oral and intravenous administration of agents with activity against gram-negative and anaerobic bacteria is warranted, as well as mechanical preparation of the bowel. (aafp.org)
- GlaxoSmithKline, London), given one hour before the PEG procedure, is well established as the gold standard method of antibiotic prophylaxis and is recommended by the British Society of Gastroenterology (evidence grade Ia and recommendation grade A) 13 because of its good effect on the bacteria commonly found in the upper gastrointestinal tract. (bmj.com)
- Systemic antibiotic prophylaxis prior to gastrointestinal surgery - is oral administration of doxycycline and metronidazole adequate? (semanticscholar.org)
- Perhaps the most noteworthy recommendation in the statement emphasized that antibiotic prophylaxis for routine dental, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary procedures was not indicated in patients with these devices. (ahajournals.org)
- Ciprofloxacin given as an oral tablet is rapidly and well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. (nih.gov)
- Clinical expert panels from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and physician expert groups of clinical specialty boards have developed guidelines for appropriate antibiotic selection. (nursingcenter.com)
- 3 Despite appropriate antibiotic therapy and other intensive intervention, the reported mortality has ranged from 50 to 80 percent. (aafp.org)
- The secondary objective was to evaluate the patterns and predictors of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis. (ovid.com)
- Little is currently known about appropriate antibiotic use among hospitals in Lahore, the capital city of Pakistan. (springer.com)
- Moreover, we sought to determine how the timing (prophylactic or therapeutic) and route (oral gavage or vent lip) of PSE administration impacted its effectiveness. (frontiersin.org)
- In other experiments, we assessed the efficiency of PSE administration, in both prophylactic and therapeutic contexts, via either oral gavage or vent lip administration, on S. Enteritidis colonization of quail cecal tonsils. (frontiersin.org)
- 1 A systematic review showed that the antibiotics represent the most prescribed therapeutic class in the pediatric age group. (scielo.br)
- 2-4 Similarly, a recent retrospective study from our group did not show any SSI in 186 enucleations (without prophylactic antibiotics) by a single surgeon. (bmj.com)
- In this study, we evaluate the postoperative infection rate of orbital surgery without prophylactic systemic antibiotics in a retrospective case series. (bmj.com)
- Retrospective studies have revealed that antibiotic exposures after birth are associated with multiple subsequent poor outcomes among preterm infants, making the risk/benefit balance of these antibiotic treatments uncertain. (aappublications.org)
- A retrospective chart review of preoperative antibiotics for laparoscopic and hysteroscopic sterilization procedures was performed at a single institution, Banner University Medical Center - Phoenix (BUMCP), from 01/01/2014 to 12/31/2014. (ovid.com)
- Researchers from Boston, in collaboration with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, calculated the total antibiotic use over a retrospective 35-month period, and additionally followed 278 patients during a 12-month period and analyzed the antibiotics these patients received at two outpatient dialysis units. (eurekalert.org)
- In the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence update (February 2017) on (general) SSIs, it was advised to provide prophylactic antibiotics in clean-contaminated and in clean surgery with implants or prosthesis, by giving a single dose of intravenous antibiotics prior to incision on starting anaesthesia. (bmj.com)
- The study, presented at The International Liver Congress 2017 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, showed that norfloxacin administration for six months was associated with a reduced risk of death and infection at six months in patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis, a very severe and advanced stage of liver disease. (aidsmap.com)
- The review recommends administration after cord clamping to avoid the possibility of adverse effects of unnecessary antibiotic exposure to the baby. (who.int)
- No studies systematically collected and reported on adverse infant outcomes nor the effect of antibiotics on the developing infant immune system. (who.int)
- Antibiotic administration perioperatively has been shown to reduce associated morbidity, however, indiscriminate use has been associated with adverse outcomes. (ovid.com)
- Although the ADA, in collaboration with AHA and AAOS have published guidelines specifying those patients who should receive antibiotic prophylaxis, research continues to further define the role dental treatment may play in causing adverse outcomes in these patients. (wikipedia.org)
- The 2009 AAOS information statement promoted a different position: "Given the potential adverse outcomes and cost of treating an infected joint replacement, the AAOS recommends that clinicians consider antibiotic prophylaxis for all total joint patients prior to any procedure that may cause bacteremia. (ada.org)
- Shorter treatment would decrease antibiotic-related adverse events and costs hospital stay for patients awaiting an eventual reinsertion of a new implant. (bioportfolio.com)
- We reviewed clinical trials on different otorhinolaryngological procedures, assessing choice of antibiotic, length of treatment and administration route. (curehunter.com)
- Combining all procedures, 87% received SAP, the choice of antibiotic was concordant with guidelines for 53.3% of procedures, and the choice of antibiotic was considered to be 'adequate but not concordant' for 23.9% of procedures. (nih.gov)
- The most frequently used antibiotic therapy was a combination of metronidazole (98.2%) with a cephalosporin (89.9%), typically cefuroxime. (urotoday.com)
- Single dose antibiotic prophylaxis, with a first generation cephalosporin, is recommended for all women undergoing caesarean section, and should be an audited standard. (who.int)
- Cephalosporin antibiotics are generally used for surgical prophylaxis. (sooperarticles.com)
- Prophylaxis is uniformly recommended for all clean-contaminated, contaminated and dirty procedures. (aafp.org)
- Results Of the total of 608 patients, without systemic antibiotic prophylaxis, only five were diagnosed with SSI 5/608 (0.82%): 1/226 in the 'clean' group, 3/290 in the 'clean-with-implant' group and 1/92 in the 'clean-contaminated' group. (bmj.com)
- Conclusion In this study 'clean', 'clean-with-implant' and 'clean-contaminated' orbital surgery was safely performed without prophylactic antibiotics. (bmj.com)
- 4 In our hospital, however, we have not routinely used prophylactic systemic antibiotics in orbital surgery for clean, clean with implant or clean-contaminated surgery. (bmj.com)
- A statewide assessment of the compliance of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) with guidelines was undertaken for large public hospitals in Victoria, Australia. (nih.gov)
- Current guidelines recommend prophylaxis less often than in the past. (nps.org.au)
- Despite a long history of use and multiple guidelines for prophylaxis, there remains uncertainty about its effectiveness. (nps.org.au)
- In the last 10 years, there have been significant changes to the guidelines for antibiotic prophylaxis. (nps.org.au)
- Antibiotic guidelines' 9th Edition 1996 makes no reference to prophylaxis for in situ implants other than cardiac valves. (nps.org.au)
- Selective antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines have been published by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) for gynecologic procedures. (ovid.com)
- Of 165 women who met inclusion criteria, 50.9% received antibiotic prophylaxis outside of ACOG guidelines. (ovid.com)
- Currently, there are official guidelines for dental antibiotic prophylaxis for the prevention of infective endocarditis and of infection of prosthetic joint. (wikipedia.org)
- Antibiotics are administered to patients with certain heart conditions as a precaution, although this practice has changed in the US, with new American Heart Association guidelines released in 2007, and in the UK as of March 2008 due to new NICE guidelines. (wikipedia.org)
- One month before his febrile episode, he had received periodontal scaling without antibiotic prophylaxis based on the current guidelines. (ahajournals.org)
- Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis was not in accordance with the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines for almost half of all procedures. (neonatology.org)
- This electronic surveillance system provides a rapid, reproducible, and validated tool to measure easily the efforts to improve adherence to AAP surgical prophylaxis guidelines. (neonatology.org)
- Despite the general acceptance of this concept in guidelines, wide variations in preoperative antibiotic administration practices have been reported. (medindia.net)
- US health regulators have come out with voluntary guidelines that can cut back on antibiotics routinely fed to farm animals in order to address the rise of drug-resistant superbugs worldwide. (medindia.net)
- Dr. Finkelstein and his colleagues at Rambam Medical Center in Israel implemented a 10-year prospective cohort study emphasizing an optimized policy for preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis in cardiac surgery that included administering the first dose of antibiotic prophylaxis up to two hours before the first surgical incision. (medindia.net)
- Accordingly, several studies have reported large variations in general dental practitioners' (GDPs') administration strategies of antibiotic prophylaxis in patients with specific medical conditions. (mau.se)
- The GDPs' were presented with three simulated cases of patients with specific medical conditions (moderate hypertension, not well-controlled type 1 diabetes, and heart valve prosthesis) for which antibiotic prophylaxis might be considered necessary when performing dental procedures (scaling, tooth removal, and root canal treatment). (mau.se)
- These results suggest that long-term preventive antibiotic prophylaxis based on the weekly administration of 750 mg of ciprofloxacin is effective in the prevention of SBP in cirrhotic patients. (nih.gov)
- The wide-spread use of antibiotics in patients has contributed to the emergence of multiresistant bacteria. (mdpi.com)
- The recommended public health response for cutaneous diphtheria is similar to that for respiratory diphtheria and includes treating the index patient with antibiotics, identifying close contacts and observing them for development of diphtheria, providing chemoprophylaxis to close contacts, testing patients and close contacts for C. diphtheriae carriage in the nose and throat, and providing diphtheria toxoid-containing vaccine to incompletely immunized patients and close contacts. (cdc.gov)
- The 109 patients were divided into two groups: 53 were assigned to the prophylactic antibiotics therapy group and 56 to the control group. (curehunter.com)
- In this study, we describe a technique for the delivery of regional antibiotic prophylaxis in patients undergoing reconstructive surgery in the lower extremities and compare the tissue antibiotic concentrations achieved by this technique with those achieved by standard systemic intravenous prophylaxis. (springer.com)
- Hoddinott C, Lovering AM, Fernando HC, Dixon JH, Reeves DS (1990) Determination of bone and fat concentrations following systemic cefamandole and regional cefuroxime administration in patients undergoing knee arthroplasty. (springer.com)
- Conditions for which prophylaxis is still recommended include prosthetic heart valves and rheumatic heart disease in patients at high risk of endocarditis. (nps.org.au)
- Most experts no longer recommend antibiotic prophylaxis for dental procedures in patients with prosthetic joints. (nps.org.au)
- Antibiotic prophylaxis has been used in dentistry for patients at risk of infective endocarditis or prosthetic joint infection. (nps.org.au)
- The median of days of AB administration after RC was 7 days (IQR 5-14) but after cessation of the first AB therapy, additional antibiotics were used in 51.6% of the patients. (urotoday.com)
- Management of patients with these conditions includes a combination of immunization, antibiotic prophylaxis and patient education. (aafp.org)
- 1 - 3 With the growing concern about antibiotic-resistant pneumococci, the appropriate management of asplenic and hyposplenic patients has become increasingly important. (aafp.org)
- In the 2 clinical trials, complete continence was achieved in 22.9% and 31.4% of patients in the treatment groups, compared with 6.5% and 10.3% of patients in the placebo groups.2 Also, candidates for treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA should be free of any urinary tract infection and should take antibiotics before, during, and after treatment (a few days) to minimize the risk of the development of a cystoscopy-related urinary tract infection. (contemporaryobgyn.net)
- All five patients with SSI were effectively treated with antibiotics. (bmj.com)
- Where postoperative infection did occur, the patients were effectively treated with systemic antibiotics. (bmj.com)
- The only indications in our institute for preoperative or perioperative systemic antibiotics are severely immunocompromised patients and/or patients with an active infection such as endophthalmitis with corneal perforation, orbital cellulitis or patients with increased risk of endocarditis. (bmj.com)
- Patients with a phlegmon or a small abscess: After intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy, an interval appendectomy can be performed 4-6 weeks later. (medscape.com)
- Patients with a larger well-defined abscess: After percutaneous drainage with IV antibiotics is performed, the patient can be discharged with the catheter in place. (medscape.com)
- Although many controversies exist over the nonoperative management of acute appendicitis, antibiotics have an important role in the treatment of patients with this condition. (medscape.com)
- Antibiotics considered for patients with appendicitis must offer full aerobic and anaerobic coverage. (medscape.com)
- The administration of analgesics to patients with acute undifferentiated abdominal pain has historically been discouraged and criticized because of concerns that they render the physical findings less reliable. (medscape.com)
- Anecdotal reports describe the success of IV antibiotics in treating acute appendicitis in patients without access to surgical intervention (eg, submariners, individuals on ships at sea). (medscape.com)
- In a prospective study of 20 patients with ultrasonography-proven appendicitis, symptoms resolved in 95% of patients receiving antibiotics alone, but 37% of these patients had recurrent appendicitis within 14 months. (medscape.com)
- This evidence-based guideline, with three recommendations, replaces the previous AAOS Information Statement "Antibiotic Prophylaxis for Bacteremia in Patients with Joint Replacements 1 . (ada.org)
- The work group, at its first meeting, developed three recommendations regarding prophylaxis for patients with joint replacements who are undergoing dental procedures. (ada.org)
- Phase IV Study of Determining the Efficacy of Ampicillin/Sulbactam Combination as Antibiotic Prophylaxis During Breast Cancer Surgery in Patients With a Body Mass Index (BMI) Over 25. (knowcancer.com)
- All patients (Control Group) with BMI equal to or below 25 do not receive any antibiotics as prophylaxis. (knowcancer.com)
- Number of Patients With Body Mass Index (BMI) Over 25 Who Developed Surgical Site Infection (SSI) in Groups Who Received Antibiotic Prophylaxis (Prophylaxis Group) and no Prophylaxis (No Prophylaxis Group). (knowcancer.com)
- A total of 2022 antibiotics were given to 1185 patients. (springer.com)
- Regarding the administration of antibiotics, 62.2% were adequately prescribed, even though underdose was 11.7%, and overdose was 14.6% in the studied patients. (scielo.br)
- This prophylactic approach should be limited to only those few patients who have entered the vicious circle in which they spend weeks and months almost continuously taking antibiotic treatment for recurrent AOM. (medscape.com)
- Treatment of these patients can be optimized under shared care arrangements that enable referring physicians to manage long-term administration of immunosuppressive medications and supportive care with guidance from transplant center experts. (bloodjournal.org)
- This review evaluated the use of antibiotics compared to placebo or no treatment in patients undergoing appendectomy. (nih.gov)
- We evaluated Randomised Controlled Trials (RCTs) and Controlled Clinical Trials (CCTs) in which any antibiotic regime were compared to placebo in patients suspected of having appendicitis, and undergoing appendectomy. (nih.gov)
- However, macrolide or doxycycline prophylaxis should be used in households in which patients with underlying conditions may be predisposed to severe mycoplasmal infection, such as those with sickle cell disease or antibody deficiencies. (medscape.com)
- SSIs were significantly less common among patients who received prophylaxis during the optimized period than patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis at a different time. (medindia.net)
- Of the 2,637 patients included in the study, 8.3 percent (206 patients of 2,536) who received preoperative antibiotics within a two-hour window of the first incision developed an SSI, compared with 13.9 percent (14 patients of 101) of patients who received antibiotic prophylaxis at a different time. (medindia.net)
- Fifty patients (38.8%) had antibiotics determined by MCBT. (hindawi.com)
- Patients given antibiotics based on MCBT had significantly lower rates of septicaemia and lower rates of empyema. (hindawi.com)
- The conventional manner of managing patients who are colonised with these microorganisms is to empirically treat them with combinations of antibiotics in the peritransplant period. (hindawi.com)
- All suspected plague patients should be hospitalized and isolated, specimens should be obtained from patients for laboratory diagnosis, chest roentgenogram should be performed, and antibiotic therapy should be promptly initiated. (cdc.gov)
- There was no significant difference in septic complication or mortality rates following short-term vs. long-term prophylaxis. (biomedsearch.com)
- 1 - 4 Physicians are often reluctant to discontinue antibiotics once initiated for many reasons, including the relatively high risk of EOS among preterm infants and the relatively high rate of mortality attributable to infection. (aappublications.org)
- To determine if the administration of intramuscular penicillin to newborns at birth is a safe and effective method to prevent morbidity and mortality from EOGBSD. (cochrane.org)
- Frequency of antibioticassociated diarrhoea in antibiotic prophylaxis reduces mortality by the ed with permission from american psychiatric association. (roanokechowan.edu)
- Prophylactic antibiotics may be useful for other maternal conditions that could result from prolonged second stage of labour or the use of an instrument for vaginal birth (e.g. third- or fourth-degree perineal tear). (who.int)
- Current strategies used to prevent EOGBSD are focused upon maternal antibiotic prophylaxis to reduce transmission of GBS to the infant. (cochrane.org)
- Johnson DP (1987) Antibiotic prophylaxis with cefuroxime in arthroplasty of the knee. (springer.com)
- Over the past few decades, the implementation of a number of preventative measures-including improved techniques in preoperative skin antisepsis and antibiotic prophylaxis -have led to significant reductions in the rate of SSIs. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Studies have demonstrated that approximately half of all SSIs are preventable with the proper use of prophylactic antibiotics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Surgical site infection is more frequent in liver transplantation than in other types of solid organ transplantation with different antibiotics. (essentialevidenceplus.com)
- Background: Appropriate timing of administration is crucial to the effectiveness of prophylactic antibiotics in preventing surgical site infection. (who.int)
- Policies by healthcare and Government officials are also needed to minimize inappropriate antibiotic use. (springer.com)
- The second most common reason for inappropriate antibiotic administration was using a potent antibiotic when an equally efficacious and available antibiotic less likely to promote resistant bacteria could have been used. (eurekalert.org)
- For years, both orthopedic surgeons and dentists recommended that people with artificial knees or hips get a shot of antibiotics before any dental procedures, including simple cleaning, that might make gums bleed. (webmd.com)
- American Dental Association: "Antibiotic Prophylaxis Prior to Dental Procedures. (webmd.com)
- Documentation of timing of administration was not submitted for more than half of all procedures. (nih.gov)
- The scientific rationale for prophylaxis was to eliminate or reduce transient bacteraemia caused by invasive dental procedures. (nps.org.au)
- The value of antibiotic prophylaxis has not been established for procedures in which bacteraemia is likely to occur e.g. dental surgery, cystoscopy and surgical procedures on infected tissues. (nps.org.au)
- The primary objective of the group was to assess the antibiotic (AB) utilization, the percentage and severity of UTIs after surgery, the bacteria responsible for them and their AB sensitivity, frequency of in-hospital interventions (imaging or procedures) due to UTIs and 30-day readmission rate. (urotoday.com)
- 5 We are not aware of studies about the prophylactic antibiotics use in other intraorbital surgical procedures. (bmj.com)
- The hospital stakeholders fully owned this initiative, spearheading the development of customized protocols and procedures for the prophylactic use of antibiotics. (msh.org)
- antibiotics were given before skin incision in 53 (55.8) procedures and administration was optimum onlyin 16 (16.8) procedures. (who.int)