Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Absorption: The physical or physiological processes by which substances, tissue, cells, etc. take up or take in other substances or energy.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Substance-Related Disorders: Disorders related to substance abuse.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Hospital Auxiliaries: Volunteer organizations whose members perform work for the hospital without compensation.Dental Auxiliaries: Personnel whose work is prescribed and supervised by the dentist.Nurses' Aides: Allied health personnel who assist the professional nurse in routine duties.Fonofos: An organothiophosphorus cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Iridium: A metallic element with the atomic symbol Ir, atomic number 77, and atomic weight 192.22.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Apiaceae: A large plant family in the order Apiales, also known as Umbelliferae. Most are aromatic herbs with alternate, feather-divided leaves that are sheathed at the base. The flowers often form a conspicuous flat-topped umbel. Each small individual flower is usually bisexual, with five sepals, five petals, and an enlarged disk at the base of the style. The fruits are ridged and are composed of two parts that split open at maturity.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.Pimenta: A plant genus in the family MYRTACEAE, order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known for allspice from the dried berry of Pimenta diocia.Piper nigrum: A plant species in the PIPERACEAE plant family. It is a common spice on foods and is used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs. Piperine is a key component. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Acoraceae: A plant family of the order Arales, subclass Arecidae, class Liliopsida (monocot).Black Pepper: A common spice from fruit of PIPER NIGRUM. Black pepper is picked unripe and heaped for a few days to ferment. White Pepper is the ripe fruit dehulled by maceration in water. Piperine is a key component used medicinally to increase gastrointestinal assimilation of other supplements and drugs.Spices: The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.Cuscuta: A plant genus of the family Cuscutaceae. It is a threadlike climbing parasitic plant that is used in DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Blood Volume: Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.Brain Stem Neoplasms: Benign and malignant intra-axial tumors of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; or MEDULLA OBLONGATA of the BRAIN STEM. Primary and metastatic neoplasms may occur in this location. Clinical features include ATAXIA, cranial neuropathies (see CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES), NAUSEA, hemiparesis (see HEMIPLEGIA), and quadriparesis. Primary brain stem neoplasms are more frequent in children. Histologic subtypes include GLIOMA; HEMANGIOBLASTOMA; GANGLIOGLIOMA; and EPENDYMOMA.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Perfusion Imaging: The creation and display of functional images showing where the blood flow reaches by following the distribution of tracers injected into the blood stream.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Blood Volume Determination: Method for determining the circulating blood volume by introducing a known quantity of foreign substance into the blood and determining its concentration some minutes later when thorough mixing has occurred. From these two values the blood volume can be calculated by dividing the quantity of injected material by its concentration in the blood at the time of uniform mixing. Generally expressed as cubic centimeters or liters per kilogram of body weight.Gadolinium DTPA: A complex of gadolinium with a chelating agent, diethylenetriamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA see PENTETIC ACID), that is given to enhance the image in cranial and spinal MRIs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p706)Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Factor VIII: Blood-coagulation factor VIII. Antihemophilic factor that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. Factor VIII is produced in the liver and acts in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. It serves as a cofactor in factor X activation and this action is markedly enhanced by small amounts of thrombin.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.Cellulose: A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.Drug Compounding: The preparation, mixing, and assembling of a drug. (From Remington, The Science and Practice of Pharmacy, 19th ed, p1814)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Excipients: Usually inert substances added to a prescription in order to provide suitable consistency to the dosage form. These include binders, matrix, base or diluent in pills, tablets, creams, salves, etc.Carboxymethylcellulose Sodium: A cellulose derivative which is a beta-(1,4)-D-glucopyranose polymer. It is used as a bulk laxative and as an emulsifier and thickener in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals and as a stabilizer for reagents.Sulfadimethoxine: A sulfanilamide that is used as an anti-infective agent.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium oxide (MgO). An inorganic compound that occurs in nature as the mineral periclase. In aqueous media combines quickly with water to form magnesium hydroxide. It is used as an antacid and mild laxative and has many nonmedicinal uses.Tissue Conditioning (Dental): The use of a treatment material (tissue conditioner) to re-establish tone and health to irritated oral soft tissue, usually applied to the edentulous alveolar ridge.Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Methylmethacrylates: The methyl esters of methacrylic acid that polymerize easily and are used as tissue cements, dental materials, and absorbent for biological substances.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Panophthalmitis: Acute suppurative inflammation of the inner eye with necrosis of the sclera (and sometimes the cornea) and extension of the inflammation into the orbit. Pain may be severe and the globe may rupture. In endophthalmitis the globe does not rupture.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.HemocyaninAntibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
(1/102) Acarbose is an effective adjunct to dietary therapy in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemias.

AIMS: In diabetics, acarbose causes a reduction of blood glucose and triglyceride levels. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this drug in non diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridaemia. METHODS: Thirty non diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridaemia type IIb or IV (24 males, six females; mean age 51.1+/-10.2 years) were studied. They were stratified into two groups depending on their basal triglyceride concentration (group A: triglyceride values 4.5 mmol l-1 ). Treatment consisted of 4 week courses of diet plus acarbose (50 mg twice daily) alternating with 4 weeks of diet alone for a total period of 16 weeks. RESULTS: Mean triglyceride values decreased significantly during the first and third cycles of therapy, i.e. diet plus acarbose treatment cycles in both patient groups. Group A also had significant reductions in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations after completion of the acarbose treatment. Reduction of triglyceride levels was observed after both acarbose courses in patients affected by hypertriglyceridaemia type IIb. A marked reduction of triglyceride concentrations was achieved by patients affected by hypertriglyceridaemia type IV after the second acarbose course only. CONCLUSIONS: Diet alone did not reduce triglyceride concentrations to normal values in our patients. The data suggest that acarbose is a useful adjunct to dietary control in non-diabetic patients affected by severe hypertriglyceridaemia.  (+info)

(2/102) Resolution of rhinocerebral zygomycosis associated with adjuvant administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

We successfully treated 3 consecutive patients who had nonneutropenic rhinocerebral zygomycosis, by use of subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy combined with traditional surgical and medical treatment. All patients are currently free of disease. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor should be considered as adjuvant therapy for rhinocerebral zygomycosis; however, optimum dose and length of therapy are unknown.  (+info)

(3/102) National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, November 1-3, 2000.

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to provide health-care providers, patients, and the general public with an assessment of currently available data regarding the use of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: The participants included a non-Federal, non-advocate, 14-member panel representing the fields of oncology, radiology, surgery, pathology, statistics, public health, and health policy as well as patient representatives. In addition, 30 experts in medical oncology, radiation oncology, biostatistics, epidemiology, surgical oncology, and clinical trials presented data to the panel and to a conference audience of 1000. EVIDENCE: The literature was searched with the use of MEDLINE(TM) for January 1995 through July 2000, and an extensive bibliography of 2230 references was provided to the panel. Experts prepared abstracts for their conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Evidence from randomized clinical trials and evidence from prospective studies were given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. CONSENSUS PROCESS: The panel, answering predefined questions, developed its conclusions based on the evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft statement was made available on the World Wide Web immediately after its release at the conference and was updated with the panel's final revisions. The statement is available at http://consensus.nih.gov. CONCLUSIONS: The panel concludes that decisions regarding adjuvant hormonal therapy should be based on the presence of hormone receptor protein in tumor tissues. Adjuvant hormonal therapy should be offered only to women whose tumors express hormone receptor protein. Because adjuvant polychemotherapy improves survival, it should be recommended to the majority of women with localized breast cancer regardless of lymph node, menopausal, or hormone receptor status. The inclusion of anthracyclines in adjuvant chemotherapy regimens produces a small but statistically significant improvement in survival over non-anthracycline-containing regimens. Available data are currently inconclusive regarding the use of taxanes in adjuvant treatment of lymph node-positive breast cancer. The use of adjuvant dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens in high-risk breast cancer and of taxanes in lymph node-negative breast cancer should be restricted to randomized trials. Ongoing studies evaluating these treatment strategies should be supported to determine if such strategies have a role in adjuvant treatment. Studies to date have included few patients older than 70 years. There is a critical need for trials to evaluate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in these women. There is evidence that women with a high risk of locoregional tumor recurrence after mastectomy benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. This high-risk group includes women with four or more positive lymph nodes or an advanced primary cancer. Currently, the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy for patients with one to three positive lymph nodes remains uncertain and should be tested in a randomized controlled trial. Individual patients differ in the importance they place on the risks and benefits of adjuvant treatments. Quality of life needs to be evaluated in selected randomized clinical trials to examine the impact of the major acute and long-term side effects of adjuvant treatments, particularly premature menopause, weight gain, mild memory loss, and fatigue. Methods to support shared decision-making between patients and their physicians have been successful in trials; they need to be tailored for diverse populations and should be tested for broader dissemination.  (+info)

(4/102) Initial experience of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with abciximab during carotid stenting: a safe and effective adjunctive therapy.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abciximab has been shown to decrease periprocedural ischemic complications after coronary intervention. However, the adjunctive use of abciximab in carotid stenting has not been adequately studied. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of abciximab in carotid stenting. METHODS: Carotid stenting was performed in 151 consecutive patients determined to be at high surgical risk by a vascular surgeon. Of these, 128 consecutive patients received adjuvant therapy with abciximab (0.25 mg/kg bolus before the lesion was crossed with guidewire and 0.125 micro. kg(-1). min(-1) infusion for 12 hours.). A heparin bolus of 50 U/kg was given, and activated clotting time was maintained between 250 to 300 seconds. All patients received aspirin and thienopyridine. Procedural and 30-day outcomes were compared between the control (n=23) and abciximab (n=128) groups. RESULTS: The 2 groups had similar baseline characteristics. Procedural events were more frequent in the control group (8%; 1 major stroke and 1 neurological death) compared with the abciximab group (1.6%; 1 minor stroke and 1 retinal infarction; P=0.05). On 30-day follow-up, 1 patient presented with delayed intracranial hemorrhage in the abciximab group. There were no other major bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive use of abciximab for carotid stenting is safe with no increase in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. This adjunctive therapy with potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition may help to reduce periprocedural adverse events in patients undergoing carotid stenting.  (+info)

(5/102) Felbamate, gabapentin and topiramate as adjuvant antiepileptic drugs in experimental models of epilepsy.

Newly diagnosed epileptic patients start their medication with monotherapy. Around 30% of epileptic patients require more than one antiepileptic drug. Results from experimental studies provide evidence that administration of two antiepileptic drugs may result in antagonistic, additive, or supra-additive (synergistic) anticonvulsant effects. If adverse effects of a synergistic combination also show supra-additive summation then the protective index may not change. In this context, drug combinations, possessing synergistic anticonvulsant effects and additive (or infra-additive) toxicity, are of clinical interest. Recent experimental data indicate that topiramate and gabapentin generally potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. The anticonvulsant action of carbamazepine, diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, and valproate was not modified in this test by felbamate at subprotective doses against threshold electroconvulsions. Interestingly, conventional antiepileptics (at subeffective doses) enhanced the protection offered by felbamate. It may indicate that beneficial effects of a drug combination may be observed at only some drug ratios.  (+info)

(6/102) Adjuvant L-arginine treatment in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: a double-blind, randomized study.

BACKGROUND: Enhanced vascularization appears to be important for follicular selection and maturation in both spontaneous and stimulated IVF cycles. Nitric oxide, formed in vivo from L-arginine, may play a key role in follicular maturation and ovulation. METHODS: To evaluate the role of L-arginine supplementation in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, 37 IVF patients were divided into two groups according to ovarian stimulation protocols: group I, GnRH agonist plus pure (p)FSH plus oral L-arginine (n = 18); and group II, GnRH agonist plus pFSH plus placebo (n = 19). Hormonal, ultrasonographic and Doppler evaluations were performed, and plasma and follicular fluid nitrite/nitrate concentrations were monitored. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients completed the study. In group I (n = 16), plasma L-arginine concentrations increased from (basal) 87 +/- 12 micromol to 279 +/- 31 micromol (P = 0.002) on the day of beta-HCG administration. In this group, pFSH treatment was shorter (P = 0.039) than in group II (n = 16). The number of the follicles > or =17mm was lower (P = 0.038) in group I than group II. The "good quality" embryos were fewer in number (P = 0.034) and pregnancy rate, both per patient (P = 0.024) and per embryo transfer (P = 0.019), was lower in group I. In the L-arginine group, an increased follicular fluid concentration of nitrite/nitrate was observed. On day 8 of the cycle, elevated plasma estradiol levels were associated with decreased blood flow resistances of perifollicular arteries. Follicular fluid concentrations of nitrite/nitrate were inversely correlated with embryo quality (r = -0.613; P = 0.005) and perifollicular artery pulsatility index (r = -0.609; P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: L-Arginine supplementation may be detrimental to embryo quality and pregnancy rate during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles.  (+info)

(7/102) A pilot study of N-acetylcysteine as adjunctive therapy for severe malaria.

BACKGROUND: The case fatality rate of severe malaria remains unacceptably high. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a safe compound that inhibits tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and impedes cytoadherence, both of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria complications. AIM: To evaluate NAC as adjunctive therapy in severe malaria. DESIGN: A placebo-controlled, double-blind prospective study, with serum lactate level as the principal objective measure of response. METHODS: Thirty adult males with severe, quinine-treated malaria received either 300 mg/kg of NAC or placebo, over 20 h. RESULTS: Serum lactate levels normalized twice as quickly after NAC (median 21 h, 95%CI 12-36 h) as after placebo (median 42 h, 95%CI 30-84 h; p=0.002, Mann-Whitney U test). Twenty-four hours after admission, 10/15 (67%) NAC-group patients but only 3/15 (20%) placebo-group patients had normal lactate concentrations (p=0.01, Fisher exact test). NAC-treated patients could be switched from intravenous to oral therapy earlier than individuals who received placebo (42 h vs. 51 h after admission) but the difference was not significant (p=0.28, Mann-Whitney U test). DISCUSSION: NAC's mechanism of action in malaria is unclear, since it did not markedly alter plasma cytokine profiles. Trials of NAC adjunctive therapy for complicated malaria, with mortality as an endpoint, appear to be warranted.  (+info)

(8/102) Intestinal absorption enhancement of the ester prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate through modulation of the biochemical barrier by defined ester mixtures.

The effect of discrete esters and ester mixtures on the intestinal stability and absorption of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF, an esterase-sensitive prodrug of the antiviral tenofovir) was compared with the effect of strawberry extract, which has been shown to enhance the absorption of the prodrug across Caco-2 monolayers and in rat ileum. In addition, the mechanism of absorption enhancement was investigated. In rat intestinal homogenates, complete inhibition of the conversion of tenofovir DF (as obtained by strawberry extract) could only be obtained at relatively high concentrations of the discrete esters or by using mixtures of esters (e.g., propyl p-hydroxybenzoate 0.02%, octyl acetate 0.02%, ethyl caprylate 0.01%). Coincubation of tenofovir DF with this mixture also resulted in an enhancement of its absorption in the in vitro Caco-2 system as well as in rat ileum. As tenofovir DF is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-related efflux carriers in the Caco-2 model, the modulatory effect of the ester mixtures was studied on the functionality of P-gp using cyclosporin A (CsA) as a model substrate. Strawberry extract as well as the mixture of three esters interfered with the absorptive transport of CsA across Caco-2 monolayers, illustrating that both mixtures interfere with both esterase-activity and P-gp functionality. This concerted barrier was not observed in rat ileum, suggesting differential functional activities of the biochemical barrier toward tenofovir DF in different absorption systems. Overall, our results illustrate that modulation of the biochemical barrier (metabolism and efflux) of tenofovir DF by ester mixtures can be used to increase the intestinal absorption of tenofovir DF in an in vitro and an in situ absorption model; the mechanism of action appears to be a complex interplay of different systems; the differential expression of carriers and enzymes in different systems illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating observations between different systems/species.  (+info)

*  Immunologic adjuvant
Beta-glucan Medicinal mushrooms Pharmaceutic adjuvant AS03, a proprietary adjuvant Recommendations for Use and Alternatives to ... The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any ... There are many known adjuvants in widespread use, including oils, aluminium salts, and virosomes. Adjuvants in immunology are ... University of Iowa Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database. "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF). ...
*  Pharmaceutic adjuvant
doi:10.1002/psb.895 PMID 25502052 Pharmaceutic Adjuvant at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Immunologic adjuvant Zhang, WY, A benefit-risk assessment of caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant, Drug Safety (2001), 24(15): ... In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy ... For instance, caffeine has minimal analgesic effect on its own, but may have an adjuvant effect when given with paracetamol ( ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D15)
... adjuvants, pharmaceutic MeSH D26.650.523 --- ointment bases MeSH D26.650.771 --- preservatives, pharmaceutical MeSH D26.650.931 ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D16)
... adjuvants, pharmaceutic MeSH D27.720.744.523 --- ointment bases MeSH D27.720.744.771 --- preservatives, pharmaceutical MeSH ... adjuvants, anesthesia MeSH D27.505.954.427.020 --- alcohol deterrents MeSH D27.505.954.427.040 --- analgesics MeSH D27.505. ... adjuvants, immunologic MeSH D27.505.696.477.274.400 --- interferon inducers MeSH D27.505.696.477.656 --- immunosuppressive ...
*  Catalysis
Enzyme catalysis Epicatalysis Industrial catalysts Kelvin probe force microscope Limiting reagent Pharmaceutic adjuvant Phase- ...
A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine  A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic (2) • Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ... Adjuvants, Anesthesia (21) • Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve ... Adjuvants, Immunologic (125) • Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at ... The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous ( ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/drug/categories
A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine  A Category Names List - Drug Information Portal - U.S. National Library of Medicine
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic (2) • Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ... Adjuvants, Anesthesia (21) • Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve ... Adjuvants, Immunologic (125) • Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at ... The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous ( ...
more infohttps://druginfo.nlm.nih.gov/drugportal/jsp/drugportal/drugNamesAndCategories.jsp
Pharmaceutic adjuvant - Wikipedia  Pharmaceutic adjuvant - Wikipedia
doi:10.1002/psb.895 PMID 25502052 Pharmaceutic Adjuvant at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Immunologic adjuvant Zhang, WY, A benefit-risk assessment of caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant, Drug Safety (2001), 24(15): ... In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy ... For instance, caffeine has minimal analgesic effect on its own, but may have an adjuvant effect when given with paracetamol ( ...
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Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic | CTD  Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic | CTD
Adjuvant, Pharmaceutic , Adjuvant, Pharmaceutical , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutical , Pharmaceutic Adjuvant , Pharmaceutic Adjuvants ... Pharmaceutical Adjuvant , Pharmaceutical Adjuvants Definition Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug ( ...
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Pharmacokinetics Study of Eplerenone Coated Tablets  Pharmacokinetics Study of Eplerenone Coated Tablets
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ...
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Beliefs about medicine and illness are associated with fear of cancer recurrence in women taking adjuvant endocrine therapy for...  Beliefs about medicine and illness are associated with fear of cancer recurrence in women taking adjuvant endocrine therapy for...
Adjuvant endocrine therapy for early-stage breast cancer has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with breast ... 0/Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0/Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use*. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use*. Anxiety ... OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant endocrine therapy for early-stage breast cancer has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated ...
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0 (Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic); 0 (Anticonvulsants); 0 (Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors); 614OI1Z5WI (Valproic Acid). ... Conclusion BRAF V600E PLGG constitutes a distinct entity with poor prognosis when treated with current adjuvant therapy.. ... Repurposing the anti-epileptic drug sodium valproate as an adjuvant treatment for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.. ... These findings support the use of sodium valproate as an adjuvant treatment for DIPG.. ...
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adjuvant concentrate - adjuvant concentrate for sale.  adjuvant concentrate - adjuvant concentrate for sale.
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Pharmaceutical Blank Pellets - Starch Pellets - Buy Starch Pellets,Pharmaceutical Starch Pellets,Corn Starch Pellets Product on...  Pharmaceutical Blank Pellets - Starch Pellets - Buy Starch Pellets,Pharmaceutical Starch Pellets,Corn Starch Pellets Product on...
... as cores to be coated in the manufacture of controlled-release or sustained-release pellets as critical pharmaceutic adjuvant. ... Application As pharmaceutic cores for the manufacture of Enteric-coated pellets, sustained and controlled-release pellets. ...
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Immunologic adjuvant - Wikipedia  Immunologic adjuvant - Wikipedia
Beta-glucan Medicinal mushrooms Pharmaceutic adjuvant AS03, a proprietary adjuvant Recommendations for Use and Alternatives to ... The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any ... There are many known adjuvants in widespread use, including oils, aluminium salts, and virosomes. Adjuvants in immunology are ... University of Iowa Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database. "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF). ...
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Research Interests for Francis J. Keefe  Research Interests for Francis J. Keefe
Abdominal Fat, Access to Information, Activities of Daily Living, Acute Lung Injury, Adaptation, Psychological, Adjuvants, ... Pharmaceutic, Adolescent, Adult, Affect, Affective Symptoms, Afghanistan, African Americans, African Continental Ancestry Group ... Adjuvant, Chest Pain, Child, Child Behavior, Child Welfare, Child, Preschool, Chronic Disease, Chronic Pain, Clinical Protocols ...
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Since TPGS has been approved by FDA as a safe pharmaceutic adjuvant, many TPGS-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have been ... adjuvant in vaccine systems, nutrition supplement, plasticizer of film, anticancer reagent and so on. This review will greatly ...
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TPGS Water Soluble Natural Vitamin E Cas 9002-96-4 - Triode - Electronic Tube & Transistor - Electrical & Electronics -...  TPGS Water Soluble Natural Vitamin E Cas 9002-96-4 - Triode - Electronic Tube & Transistor - Electrical & Electronics -...
Since TPGS has been approved by FDA as a safe pharmaceutic adjuvant, many TPGS-based drug delivery systems (DDS) have been ... adjuvant in vaccine systems, nutrition supplement, plasticizer of film, anticancer reagent and so on. This review will greatly ...
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Indian Patents. 253900:BISHETEROCYCLE TANDEM COMPOUNDS USEFUL AS ANTIVIRAL AGENTS  Indian Patents. 253900:'BISHETEROCYCLE TANDEM COMPOUNDS USEFUL AS ANTIVIRAL AGENTS'
... and this composition can also contain conventional pharmaceutic adjuvant.. According to the aspect of the present invention, ...
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Catalysis - Wikipedia  Catalysis - Wikipedia
Pharmaceutic adjuvant. *Phase-boundary catalysis. *Phase transfer catalyst. *Photocatalysis. *Ribozyme (RNA biocatalyst) ...
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  • Adjuvants in immunology are often used to modify or augment the effects of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are many adjuvants, some of which are inorganic (such as alum), that also carry the potential to augment immunogenicity. (wikipedia.org)
  • No matter what the mechanism is, alum is not a perfect adjuvant because it does not work with all antigens (e.g. malaria and tuberculosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionarily conserved molecules, so called PAMPs, which include liposomes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), molecular cages for antigen, components of bacterial cell walls, and endocytosed nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps as adjuvants in antibiotic treatments and diagnostic tools for detection of resistance by efflux. (uclouvain.be)
  • OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant endocrine therapy for early-stage breast cancer has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer recurrence. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Because immune systems have evolved to recognize these specific antigenic moieties, the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the vaccine can greatly increase the innate immune response to the antigen by augmenting the activities of dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes, and macrophages by mimicking a natural infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy or potency of other drugs when given at the same time. (wikipedia.org)