Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Mice, Inbred BALB CSurvival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.SqualeneVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Mice, Inbred C57BLMethotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.ISCOMs: A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Rats, Inbred LewRandomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Leucovorin: The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.HemocyaninDendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.TriazolesReceptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Quillaja: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE whose members produce SAPONINS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.ArthritisImmunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Tetanus ToxoidEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Semustine: 4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Estrogen Receptor Modulators: Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Mastectomy, Radical: Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.Poly A-U: A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Goserelin: A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.DeoxycytidineGuinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mice, Inbred C3HCystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Acarbose is an effective adjunct to dietary therapy in the treatment of hypertriglyceridaemias. (1/102)

AIMS: In diabetics, acarbose causes a reduction of blood glucose and triglyceride levels. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of this drug in non diabetic subjects with hypertriglyceridaemia. METHODS: Thirty non diabetic patients with hypertriglyceridaemia type IIb or IV (24 males, six females; mean age 51.1+/-10.2 years) were studied. They were stratified into two groups depending on their basal triglyceride concentration (group A: triglyceride values 4.5 mmol l-1 ). Treatment consisted of 4 week courses of diet plus acarbose (50 mg twice daily) alternating with 4 weeks of diet alone for a total period of 16 weeks. RESULTS: Mean triglyceride values decreased significantly during the first and third cycles of therapy, i.e. diet plus acarbose treatment cycles in both patient groups. Group A also had significant reductions in total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations after completion of the acarbose treatment. Reduction of triglyceride levels was observed after both acarbose courses in patients affected by hypertriglyceridaemia type IIb. A marked reduction of triglyceride concentrations was achieved by patients affected by hypertriglyceridaemia type IV after the second acarbose course only. CONCLUSIONS: Diet alone did not reduce triglyceride concentrations to normal values in our patients. The data suggest that acarbose is a useful adjunct to dietary control in non-diabetic patients affected by severe hypertriglyceridaemia.  (+info)

Resolution of rhinocerebral zygomycosis associated with adjuvant administration of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. (2/102)

We successfully treated 3 consecutive patients who had nonneutropenic rhinocerebral zygomycosis, by use of subcutaneous granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor therapy combined with traditional surgical and medical treatment. All patients are currently free of disease. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor should be considered as adjuvant therapy for rhinocerebral zygomycosis; however, optimum dose and length of therapy are unknown.  (+info)

National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement: adjuvant therapy for breast cancer, November 1-3, 2000. (3/102)

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to provide health-care providers, patients, and the general public with an assessment of currently available data regarding the use of adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. PARTICIPANTS: The participants included a non-Federal, non-advocate, 14-member panel representing the fields of oncology, radiology, surgery, pathology, statistics, public health, and health policy as well as patient representatives. In addition, 30 experts in medical oncology, radiation oncology, biostatistics, epidemiology, surgical oncology, and clinical trials presented data to the panel and to a conference audience of 1000. EVIDENCE: The literature was searched with the use of MEDLINE(TM) for January 1995 through July 2000, and an extensive bibliography of 2230 references was provided to the panel. Experts prepared abstracts for their conference presentations with relevant citations from the literature. Evidence from randomized clinical trials and evidence from prospective studies were given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. CONSENSUS PROCESS: The panel, answering predefined questions, developed its conclusions based on the evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The panel composed a draft statement, which was read in its entirety and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. Thereafter, the panel resolved conflicting recommendations and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The panel finalized the revisions within a few weeks after the conference. The draft statement was made available on the World Wide Web immediately after its release at the conference and was updated with the panel's final revisions. The statement is available at http://consensus.nih.gov. CONCLUSIONS: The panel concludes that decisions regarding adjuvant hormonal therapy should be based on the presence of hormone receptor protein in tumor tissues. Adjuvant hormonal therapy should be offered only to women whose tumors express hormone receptor protein. Because adjuvant polychemotherapy improves survival, it should be recommended to the majority of women with localized breast cancer regardless of lymph node, menopausal, or hormone receptor status. The inclusion of anthracyclines in adjuvant chemotherapy regimens produces a small but statistically significant improvement in survival over non-anthracycline-containing regimens. Available data are currently inconclusive regarding the use of taxanes in adjuvant treatment of lymph node-positive breast cancer. The use of adjuvant dose-intensive chemotherapy regimens in high-risk breast cancer and of taxanes in lymph node-negative breast cancer should be restricted to randomized trials. Ongoing studies evaluating these treatment strategies should be supported to determine if such strategies have a role in adjuvant treatment. Studies to date have included few patients older than 70 years. There is a critical need for trials to evaluate the role of adjuvant chemotherapy in these women. There is evidence that women with a high risk of locoregional tumor recurrence after mastectomy benefit from postoperative radiotherapy. This high-risk group includes women with four or more positive lymph nodes or an advanced primary cancer. Currently, the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy for patients with one to three positive lymph nodes remains uncertain and should be tested in a randomized controlled trial. Individual patients differ in the importance they place on the risks and benefits of adjuvant treatments. Quality of life needs to be evaluated in selected randomized clinical trials to examine the impact of the major acute and long-term side effects of adjuvant treatments, particularly premature menopause, weight gain, mild memory loss, and fatigue. Methods to support shared decision-making between patients and their physicians have been successful in trials; they need to be tailored for diverse populations and should be tested for broader dissemination.  (+info)

Initial experience of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with abciximab during carotid stenting: a safe and effective adjunctive therapy. (4/102)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Abciximab has been shown to decrease periprocedural ischemic complications after coronary intervention. However, the adjunctive use of abciximab in carotid stenting has not been adequately studied. We sought to determine the efficacy and safety of abciximab in carotid stenting. METHODS: Carotid stenting was performed in 151 consecutive patients determined to be at high surgical risk by a vascular surgeon. Of these, 128 consecutive patients received adjuvant therapy with abciximab (0.25 mg/kg bolus before the lesion was crossed with guidewire and 0.125 micro. kg(-1). min(-1) infusion for 12 hours.). A heparin bolus of 50 U/kg was given, and activated clotting time was maintained between 250 to 300 seconds. All patients received aspirin and thienopyridine. Procedural and 30-day outcomes were compared between the control (n=23) and abciximab (n=128) groups. RESULTS: The 2 groups had similar baseline characteristics. Procedural events were more frequent in the control group (8%; 1 major stroke and 1 neurological death) compared with the abciximab group (1.6%; 1 minor stroke and 1 retinal infarction; P=0.05). On 30-day follow-up, 1 patient presented with delayed intracranial hemorrhage in the abciximab group. There were no other major bleeding complications. CONCLUSIONS: Adjunctive use of abciximab for carotid stenting is safe with no increase in the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. This adjunctive therapy with potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition may help to reduce periprocedural adverse events in patients undergoing carotid stenting.  (+info)

Felbamate, gabapentin and topiramate as adjuvant antiepileptic drugs in experimental models of epilepsy. (5/102)

Newly diagnosed epileptic patients start their medication with monotherapy. Around 30% of epileptic patients require more than one antiepileptic drug. Results from experimental studies provide evidence that administration of two antiepileptic drugs may result in antagonistic, additive, or supra-additive (synergistic) anticonvulsant effects. If adverse effects of a synergistic combination also show supra-additive summation then the protective index may not change. In this context, drug combinations, possessing synergistic anticonvulsant effects and additive (or infra-additive) toxicity, are of clinical interest. Recent experimental data indicate that topiramate and gabapentin generally potentiate the protective activity of conventional antiepileptic drugs against maximal electroshock-induced convulsions in mice. The anticonvulsant action of carbamazepine, diphenylhydantoin, phenobarbital, and valproate was not modified in this test by felbamate at subprotective doses against threshold electroconvulsions. Interestingly, conventional antiepileptics (at subeffective doses) enhanced the protection offered by felbamate. It may indicate that beneficial effects of a drug combination may be observed at only some drug ratios.  (+info)

Adjuvant L-arginine treatment in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation: a double-blind, randomized study. (6/102)

BACKGROUND: Enhanced vascularization appears to be important for follicular selection and maturation in both spontaneous and stimulated IVF cycles. Nitric oxide, formed in vivo from L-arginine, may play a key role in follicular maturation and ovulation. METHODS: To evaluate the role of L-arginine supplementation in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation, 37 IVF patients were divided into two groups according to ovarian stimulation protocols: group I, GnRH agonist plus pure (p)FSH plus oral L-arginine (n = 18); and group II, GnRH agonist plus pFSH plus placebo (n = 19). Hormonal, ultrasonographic and Doppler evaluations were performed, and plasma and follicular fluid nitrite/nitrate concentrations were monitored. RESULTS: Thirty-two patients completed the study. In group I (n = 16), plasma L-arginine concentrations increased from (basal) 87 +/- 12 micromol to 279 +/- 31 micromol (P = 0.002) on the day of beta-HCG administration. In this group, pFSH treatment was shorter (P = 0.039) than in group II (n = 16). The number of the follicles > or =17mm was lower (P = 0.038) in group I than group II. The "good quality" embryos were fewer in number (P = 0.034) and pregnancy rate, both per patient (P = 0.024) and per embryo transfer (P = 0.019), was lower in group I. In the L-arginine group, an increased follicular fluid concentration of nitrite/nitrate was observed. On day 8 of the cycle, elevated plasma estradiol levels were associated with decreased blood flow resistances of perifollicular arteries. Follicular fluid concentrations of nitrite/nitrate were inversely correlated with embryo quality (r = -0.613; P = 0.005) and perifollicular artery pulsatility index (r = -0.609; P = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: L-Arginine supplementation may be detrimental to embryo quality and pregnancy rate during controlled ovarian hyperstimulation cycles.  (+info)

A pilot study of N-acetylcysteine as adjunctive therapy for severe malaria. (7/102)

BACKGROUND: The case fatality rate of severe malaria remains unacceptably high. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a safe compound that inhibits tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and impedes cytoadherence, both of which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of malaria complications. AIM: To evaluate NAC as adjunctive therapy in severe malaria. DESIGN: A placebo-controlled, double-blind prospective study, with serum lactate level as the principal objective measure of response. METHODS: Thirty adult males with severe, quinine-treated malaria received either 300 mg/kg of NAC or placebo, over 20 h. RESULTS: Serum lactate levels normalized twice as quickly after NAC (median 21 h, 95%CI 12-36 h) as after placebo (median 42 h, 95%CI 30-84 h; p=0.002, Mann-Whitney U test). Twenty-four hours after admission, 10/15 (67%) NAC-group patients but only 3/15 (20%) placebo-group patients had normal lactate concentrations (p=0.01, Fisher exact test). NAC-treated patients could be switched from intravenous to oral therapy earlier than individuals who received placebo (42 h vs. 51 h after admission) but the difference was not significant (p=0.28, Mann-Whitney U test). DISCUSSION: NAC's mechanism of action in malaria is unclear, since it did not markedly alter plasma cytokine profiles. Trials of NAC adjunctive therapy for complicated malaria, with mortality as an endpoint, appear to be warranted.  (+info)

Intestinal absorption enhancement of the ester prodrug tenofovir disoproxil fumarate through modulation of the biochemical barrier by defined ester mixtures. (8/102)

The effect of discrete esters and ester mixtures on the intestinal stability and absorption of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (tenofovir DF, an esterase-sensitive prodrug of the antiviral tenofovir) was compared with the effect of strawberry extract, which has been shown to enhance the absorption of the prodrug across Caco-2 monolayers and in rat ileum. In addition, the mechanism of absorption enhancement was investigated. In rat intestinal homogenates, complete inhibition of the conversion of tenofovir DF (as obtained by strawberry extract) could only be obtained at relatively high concentrations of the discrete esters or by using mixtures of esters (e.g., propyl p-hydroxybenzoate 0.02%, octyl acetate 0.02%, ethyl caprylate 0.01%). Coincubation of tenofovir DF with this mixture also resulted in an enhancement of its absorption in the in vitro Caco-2 system as well as in rat ileum. As tenofovir DF is a substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-related efflux carriers in the Caco-2 model, the modulatory effect of the ester mixtures was studied on the functionality of P-gp using cyclosporin A (CsA) as a model substrate. Strawberry extract as well as the mixture of three esters interfered with the absorptive transport of CsA across Caco-2 monolayers, illustrating that both mixtures interfere with both esterase-activity and P-gp functionality. This concerted barrier was not observed in rat ileum, suggesting differential functional activities of the biochemical barrier toward tenofovir DF in different absorption systems. Overall, our results illustrate that modulation of the biochemical barrier (metabolism and efflux) of tenofovir DF by ester mixtures can be used to increase the intestinal absorption of tenofovir DF in an in vitro and an in situ absorption model; the mechanism of action appears to be a complex interplay of different systems; the differential expression of carriers and enzymes in different systems illustrates the difficulty of extrapolating observations between different systems/species.  (+info)

Polyethylene Glycol 4000 for Pharmaceutical Adjuvant picture from ANSHAN HENGTAI PHARMACEUTICAL EXCIPIENTS MANUFACTURING CO., LTD view photo of Polyethylene Glycol, Top Quality Peg-4000, High Purity Peg- 4000.Contact China Suppliers for More Products and Price.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amino acids protect epithelial cells from local toxicity by absorption enhancer, sodium laurate. AU - Yata, Takashi. AU - Endo, Yoko. AU - Sone, Miki. AU - Ogawara, Ken Ichi. AU - Higaki, Kazutaka. AU - Kimura, Toshikiro. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - To develop the safe absorption-enhancing formulation attenuating the local toxicity caused by an absorption enhancer, sodium laurate (C12), the effects of amino acids on the local toxicity by C12 were examined in rats. The absorption of phenol red, an unabsorbable marker drug, was significantly enhanced by 10 mM C12 in an in situ colon loop study and the addition of L-glutamine (L-Gln), L-arginine, or L-methionine at 10 mM did not change the promoting effect of C12. However, C12 significantly increased the elution of phospholipids, total protein, and lactate dehydrogenase, which are markers for local toxicity, from colon, but these amino acids attenuated the local toxicity caused by C12 significantly. Transport study using an ...
Buying cheap Armodafinil and good quality medication online is a tiring job. If you want to buy cheap Armodafinil then expresspharmacyrxt.com is the best website you can buy your medication. Expresspharmacyrxt.com provides you with top notch quality of products with easy order option, without troubling you to fill long forms. There are easy paying options and the delivery is made to you within 5 working days. You can get 30 pills free with your order on payment of e-check and cash on delivery. ...
Buy Armodafinil online at cheap prices . Its doctors recommended medication for treating the problem of excessive day time sleepiness. Order now!
Use of smart drugs is on the rise. To be safe and to accrue maximum benefits, it is important for people to understand the difference between various drugs.
Pill with imprint C 205 is White, Round and has been identified as Armodafinil 50 mg. It is supplied by Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc..
The photoreduction of water-soluble cationic manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (1-methylpyridium-4-yl)porphyrin (Mn-III(TMPyP)(4+)) bound to a synthetic polynucleotide, either poly[d(A-T)(2)] or poly[d(G-C)(2)], was examined by conventional absorption and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, transient absorption, and transient Raman spectroscopy. Upon binding, Mn-III(TMPyP)(4+) produced a positive CD signal for both polynucleotides, suggesting external binding. In the poly[d(A-T)(2)]-Mn-III(TMPyP)(4+) adduct case, an interaction between the bound porphyrin was suggested. The transient absorption spectral features of Mn-III(TMPyP)(4+) in the presence of poly[d(A-T)(2)] and poly[d(G-C)(2)] were similar to those of the photoreduced products, Mn-II(TMPyP)(4+), whereas Mn-III(TMPyP)(4+) in the absence of polynucleotides retained its oxidation state. This indicated that both poly[d(A-T)(2)] and poly[d(G-C)(2)] act as electron donors, resulting in photo-oxidized G and A bases. The transient Raman bands ...
Fatigue is a common problem for many people with HIV/AIDS, interfering with daily activities and serving as a significant barrier to working among those whose health is otherwise stable or restored by antiretroviral (ARV) medication. Fatigue in HIV is associated with disability and diminished quality of life. It may be caused by ARVs or by the virus itself. A related study tested whether modafinil, of which armodafinil is an r-isomer, could reduce fatigue in HIV/AIDS patients. Armodafinil, believed to have a longer duration and greater effect than modafinil, will be tested on the same criteria.. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive either armodafinil or a placebo daily for 4 weeks. Participants randomized to active medication and who show improvements in symptoms will be offered armodafinil for an additional 12 weeks. For them, the study duration is 16 weeks. Participants who did not receive armodafinil will be offered armodafinil for 16 weeks. For these participants, the study ...
Fatigue is a common problem for many people with HIV/AIDS, interfering with daily activities and serving as a significant barrier to working among those whose health is otherwise stable or restored by antiretroviral (ARV) medication. Fatigue in HIV is associated with disability and diminished quality of life. It may be caused by ARVs or by the virus itself. A related study tested whether modafinil, of which armodafinil is an r-isomer, could reduce fatigue in HIV/AIDS patients. Armodafinil, believed to have a longer duration and greater effect than modafinil, will be tested on the same criteria.. Participants will be randomly assigned to receive either armodafinil or a placebo daily for 4 weeks. Participants randomized to active medication and who show improvements in symptoms will be offered armodafinil for an additional 12 weeks. For them, the study duration is 16 weeks. Participants who did not receive armodafinil will be offered armodafinil for 16 weeks. For these participants, the study ...
Vaccines can have adverse side-effects, and these are predominantly associated with the inclusion of chemical additives such as aluminum hydroxide adjuvant. The objective of this study was to establish an in vitro model system amenable to mechanistic investigations of cytotoxicity induced by hepatitis B vaccine, and to investigate the mechanisms of vaccine-induced cell death.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/?term=hepatitis+b+vaccine+apoptosis+hamza. ...
A method of inducing hyperthermia in at least a portion of a target area-e.g., a tumor or a portion of a tumor or targeted cancerous cells-is provided. Targeted RF absorption enhancers, e.g., antibodies bound to RF absorbing particles, are introduced into a patient. These targeted RF absorption enhancers will target certain cells in the target areas and enhance the effect of a hyperthermia generating RF signal directed toward the target area. The targeted RF absorption enhancers may, in a manner of speaking, add one or more RF absorption frequencies to cells in the target area, which will permit a hyperthermia generating RF signal at that frequency or frequencies to heat the targeted cells.
Roundup is safe for dogs and has virtually no health risks when used properly, according to the Roundup website. Once the application of Roundup is finished and the weedkiller has dried, dogs can use...
Cheap probenecid guidelines, Probenecid online payment mail order, Order probenecid roche, Discount probenecid royal, Probenecid shop japan, Generic probenecid buy visa otc, Buy probenecid rezeptfrei
File RoundUp combines the fastest cataloger and the most powerful search function available and batch file capabilities to provide the ultimate file utility File RoundUp is over twice as fast as CDFinder and DiskTrackeron Jaquar and even faster
vomiting, that affect the result are often unknown. In contrast to the therapeutic setting, atypical solubility characteristics are noted, and saturation of enzymatic processes occurs. Intestinal or hepatic enzymatic saturation or alterations in transporters may lead to enhanced absorption through a decrease in first-pass effect. Metabolism before the xenobiotic reaches the blood is referred to as the first-pass effect.2,76 Saturation of plasma protein binding results in more free xenobiotic available in the serum, plasma, and blood. Saturation of hepatic enzymes or active renal tubular secretion leads to prolonged elimination. In addition, age, obesity, gender, genetics, chronopharmacokinetics (diurnal variations), and the effects of illness and compromised organ perfusion all further inhibit attempts to achieve precise analyses.3,17,40,45,68,72 In addition, various treatments may alter one or more pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic ...
Roundup PRO® Concentrate is part of the Industrial, Turf and Ornamental family and helps control weeds and brush through a more concentrated formulation.
Welcome to the Mile High Roundup, a look at some of the interesting things that have happened over the past two weeks in the tech scene in Boulder,
With the NBA draft just nine days away, heres a roundup of mock drafts, along with projections for the Sixers at No. 15. - Sheil Kapadia, Philadelphia Philly.com
Join Dennis Taylor for an in-depth discussion in this video Working with ROUND, ROUNDUP, and ROUNDDOWN, part of Excel 2011 for the Mac: Advanced Formulas and Functions
A roundup of managed services (MSP) news includes expansion by Autotask, Salesforce.com integration from Level Platforms and more. Page: 3
In terms of medical adjunctive therapies, we offer a large variety from Traditional European Medicine (TEM) as well as from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) …
It is also used for liver cirrhosis, kidney impairment, nephrotic syndrome, in adjunct therapy for swelling of the brain or lungs where rapid diuresis is
probenecid auf nachnahme bestellen, wo bekomme ich günstig probenecid her, probenecid kaufen online In unserer Versandapotheke kГ¶nnen Sie Medikamente bis...
Exposure to glyphosate-the worlds most widely used, broad-spectrum herbicide and the primary ingredient in the weedkiller Roundup-increases the risk of s
Greenmedinfo.com - Natural Health Resource - The worlds most widely referenced, open access, natural medicine database, with 30,000+ study abstracts and growing daily
After the disappointment of being disqualified for alleged drafting in the British Time Trial Championship last weekend, I-Ride Racing
One of the most challenging parts of having three children of different ages is that they seem to pick up sicknesses then pass them to each other, and just
Vendor Page News this week: OnRamp is sponsoring the High Tech Happy Hour on June 2nd, so swing by if you find yourself in Austin. AMD will b...
If you own or have used this lens, let us know what you think! Leave your comments and thoughts below. Get information and user reviews for this lens from
Happy April First, errybody! Yes, thats right, weve reached that special, inimitable time of year. April Fools Day 2013. At TechCrunch, we have a long..
Check out our expert WoD Alpha patch notes analysis topics! Over the month of April, we have reached out to some of the most talented minds in Warcraft the...
A helpful guide to the sports world youre waking up to on March 5, 2015. Get the scoop on todays big NBA, NFL and NHL stories in one convenient catch call.
We looked back at 2018s mobile threat landscape to see the possible threats that lie ahead and help users and organizations proactively defend against them.
Oh, youre the dude that bought that pair. I have no clue as to how to repair a sheared strut. Honestly, its probably smarter to gut the original...
FCA's November regulation round up outlines key publications and upcoming deadlines and looks in more detail at: preparing for SMR implementation…
Buy waklert online waklert nasal adrafinil vs waklert waklert armodafinil review waklert does it work waklert meaning waklert erfahrung waklert là gì
Hello there! Yes, there are many whimsical, irreverant, hilarious web roundups on the market. This, however, is the most delectable, growing in stature, as it does, with each mouthful.
Looking for online definition of armodafinil in the Medical Dictionary? armodafinil explanation free. What is armodafinil? Meaning of armodafinil medical term. What does armodafinil mean?
Most purified protein and peptide antigens are poorly immunogenic so adjuvants must be included in vaccines to activate and direct adaptive immune responses. The most commonly used adjuvants in clinical use are aluminium salts, particularly aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, which is chemically crystalline aluminium oxyhydroxide 1, 2 and comprises nanoparticles that form porous aggregates of 1-20 μm in diameter 2. Although not technically correct, aluminium-containing adjuvants are generally referred to as "alum". Alum is not an optimal adjuvant for all protein antigens and is a relatively poor inducer of cell-mediated immunity. As a result, other particulate adjuvants, including chitosan, liposomes and biodegradable microparticles and nanoparticles are being investigated 3. However, despite the widespread use of particulates in both clinical and research settings for over 80 years, their mode of action is still not fully understood.. In 2007 it was found that aluminium-containing adjuvants enhanced ...
The herbicide Roundup® is widely used to eradicate weeds. But a study ...Pitt assistant professor of biology Rick Relyea found that Roundup® t...In a paper titled The Impact of Insecticides and Herbicides on the Bi...Relyea found that Roundup® caused a 70 percent decline in amphibian bi... The most shocking insight coming out of this was that Roundup® somet...,Roundup®highly,lethal,to,amphibians,,finds,University,of,Pittsburgh,researcher,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The in vitro cytotoxic response of human dermal and colon cell lines to structurally well-defined full generation cationic dendritic polyamidoamine (PAMAM) nanoparticles of generations G4, G5, G6 was investigated. PAMAM dendrimers have been demonstrated to elicit a well defined cytotoxicological response from Alamar Blue, Neutral Red and MTT assays, where the response increases systematically with dendrimer generation and number of surface amino groups. A good correlation was found between the EC50 values of these assays. This systematic response is furthermore demonstrated for the generation of reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, inflammatory responses, lysosomal activity, caspase activation, apoptosis and DNA damage. The mechanism of endosomal escape of PAMAM by the so-called proton-sponge effect was also studied. The results are consistent with a pathway of endosomal uptake of PAMAM, followed by endosomal rupture and subsequent localisation of PAMAM dendrimers in the
Armodafinil reduces extreme sleepiness due to narcolepsy and other sleep problems, such as periods of stopped breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea) - armodafinil shipped by cash on delivery - buy armodafinil without rx - buy armodafinil us pharmacy. Buy armodafinil online
The immune system represents a promising novel target for prevention of atherosclerosis. Several pilot vaccines that reduce atherosclerosis in experimental animals have been developed. The aluminum hydroxide adjuvant Alum has been shown to have antiatherogenic properties in itself, suggesting that it may be a suitable adjuvant in possible future atherosclerosis vaccines. To characterize the immune pathways mediating this protection, we treated wild-type C57BL/6 and Apoe(-)(/)(-) mice with Alum or PBS. Analyses of splenocytes isolated from 12-week-old mice demonstrated that Alum increased the presence of CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells and downregulated the expression of T cell activation markers CD28 and ICOS in Apoe(-)(/)(-) mice but not in C57BL/6 wild-type mice. A similar immunosuppressive phenotype was found also in 25-week-old Apoe(-)(/)(-) mice and was associated with reduced atherosclerosis. Alum precipitates recovered from the injection site of Apoe(-)(/)(-) mice contained ...
Buy probenecid online pharmacy europe, Buy probenecid otc online, Order probenecid online uk, Probenecid buy probenecid, Generic probenecid guideline, Probenecid can i purchase store
Armodafinil (trade name Nuvigil / Waklert / Artvigil) is the enantiopure compound of the wakefulness-promoting agent, or eugeroic, modafinil (Provigil / Modalert / Modvigil). It consists of only the (R)-(−)-enantiomer of the racemic modafinil. Armodafinil is produced by the pharmaceutical company Cephalon Inc. and was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in June 2007.[3][4]In 2016, the FDA granted Mylan rights for the first generic version of Cephalons Nuvigil to be marketed in the U.S ...
Texas Round-Ups mission is to improve the health of Texas through education and promotion of physical activity and healthy living. Texas Round-Up works to achieve its mission through three...
Im not going to have time to get to a complete Weekly Roundup this week. Ill get most of the stories up in next weeks roundup, but there are a couple of stories I think are really important from this...
The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader).. Alternatively, you can also download the PDF file directly to your computer, from where it can be opened using a PDF reader. To download the PDF, click the Download link below.. If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.. ...
Modafinil or armodafinil. Provigil (Modafinil / Modalert) Without prescription. Modafinil drug interactions, modalert reddit - 1852
If Monsantos Roundup herbicide were actually safer than table salt as they once advertised, the consumption of GM food wouldnt be nearly as controversial.

The truth, however, is that virtually all GM food today contains residues of this toxic chemical.

Incidentally, this disproves that GM and non-GM foods are substantially equivalent, which is the primary doctrinal justification behind why GM foods are not properly safety tested... | GMOs & FOOD, WATER & SOIL MATTERS
by Sayer Ji GreenMedInfo.com Could Monsantos glyphosate-based herbicide Roundup be leading to the overgrowth of deadly bacteria in animals and humans
Roundup of recent publications in Womens Mental Health from the week of July 1, 2016: migration, bipolar II, health-related apps, and more.
What a difference a year (and three months) makes! Yes - thats how long its been since our last Rabbit Roundup post. Check out some recent projects!
HP announced a series of management changes on Monday, with some executives changing roles and others departing. Heres a roundup of the notable analysis and commentary from around the web.
Thoroughbred racing roundup: Tepin, The Pizza Man are big winners in Canada; Winx scores again in Australia; first points awarded for 2017 Kentucky Derby and Oaks.
This weeks roundup is sure to have something for every writer.. Elisa is a big believer in routine, and fully appreciates the psychology of a good writing routine. But not living alone means she has to sacrifice some of the best advice in this article. Still, when she does get her perfect office, shes implementing some of these ideas.. https://www.brainpickings.org/2014/08/25/the-psychology-of-writing-daily-routine/. ...
The latest round-up talks about the current situation in PvP, Heirlooms in 7.2, the Balance of Power quest line and improved developer communication. ...
This weeks Roundup discusses Dr. Sharmas opinion on the inconclusive evidence for salt reduction, which Ive covered extensively in my special report on salt.
... has the latest on Episode VIII, the Han Solo movie, The Force Awakens, Disney Infinity, and more.
Whats happened this week around the Nutra-Verse? Stay on top of things with our weekly round-up of key news from across the globe.
Abciximab is an anti platelet anti thrombotic drug. The half life of abciximab is 10 - 30 minute. Abciximab is useful as an additional/ adjunct therapy with aspirin and heparin in patient ( high risk) while undergoing clinical procedure such as coronary a
partners - Microbiome 2017 will discuss how to successfully commercialize microbiome-based diagnostics, therapeutics, adjunct therapies and direct-to-consumer.
The discovery reveals the role of a growth factor and endothelial cells in thymus repair, and could have implications for chemotherapy and radiation patients recovery following treatment.. 0 Comments. ...
Mammoth: Having risen to international fame with films such as Together and Lilya 4-Ever, Moodysson now takes a shot at making an English-language pic.
The 36-year tradition of the cable TV industry offering its Western Show will come to a close this year when the final conference takes place in December.
British Columbia government backs 5 clinics for integrated cancer care Integrated cancer care is part of our commitment to support British Columbians make
Yes, we spend a lot of time fiddling with Perceus but we dont do it in a hap-hazard way. We have release guidelines and API standards that we maintain for each major.minor version release. Fixes only get posted as patch releases to the major.minor release. So for example the current 1.4 series has its own upgrade path within the 1.4 tree.. So far each minor version update has been an easy upgrade to the next, so we have made sure that was an upgrade path from one to the next rather then maintaining a long string of subsequent releases.. And while it is fun, Perceus is geared very much towards enterprise level computing. If there is something that we can improve on we request that people contribute their ideas and code rather then create yet another project.. I am working with several other engineers right now to finish Warewulf 3, and make it a very tightly coupled and high performance monitoring toolkit (capable for both HPC clusters as well as loosely coupled enterprise systems).. Thanks and ...
free gay jerk offf hoodcanalbridge girl scout uniforms tulare horse cock penetration Posted by: Alina_m on October 29, 2008 07:08 AM ...
I wanted to answer the criticism of my earlier posting.. Some of it was justified. I was in a rush when I wrote it, and there were lots of details to cover. I had to look up some things, and in my haste I made some factual mistakes. They dont change the conclusion, but I wanted to correct them, and to answer some other things written in response to me.. Its been three or four years since I gave Amtrak a try. My recall of details has faded. I never did bother combining Amtrak and Portland MAX for my trips there. This isnt out of hostility to MAX, but because it ends well short of my destination there. Therefore, when I was experimenting with taking the train, I used cabs on each end.. My two biggest errors were ones that no one here caught. The first is that I neglected to include the cost of cabs in the train trip. When I tried Amtrak, I recall cabs totaling $40 or $45, but fares have gone up. So I researched that, and todays cab fares including tips would run $60 for the two ends combined. ...
Metabolic disorders in patients with diabetes place them at particularly high risk for CV morbidity. Find insights on Dx and Tx in these slides.
All of these mini-PCs are equipped with dual-core Hyper-Threaded CPUs, so they should fall into the same league when it comes to application performance. Most of the differences will probably involve the different graphics engines being utilized.
Ye L, Allen WE, Thompson KR, Tian Q, Hsueh B, Ramakrishnan C, Wang AC, Jennings JH, Adhikari A, Halpern CH, Witten IB, Luo L, McNab J, Deisseroth ...
Rob Gronkowski is active for the New England Patriots against the New York Jets. For who else is starting or sitting, check out the latest injury report.
Security researchers have revealed hackers spent years burrowing into ten different telecoms. Using a common method of an email with a link leading to malware, the hackers then used sophisticated techniques to target specific individuals.
Paraxylene prices fell as energy market declined yesterday. It was important to note that many Asian PX manufacturers announced a shutdown ......
Last week I prepared a comment defending McLeans SOI paper. I shall send it in shortly. Basically, I extend their analysis a little and show that the majority of variation in a linear regression model predicting global temperature (not differences) can be accounted for using SOI-related terms. The sorry-state of Dr. Hathaways prediction record is…
HRSA offers $3.3-million in grants related to new National Coordinating Center for Integrative MedicineThe U.S. Health Resources and Services Administ
A study of U.S.-based malware analysts by Threat Track Security found 38% said malware defense has become easier in the past year.
I post a lot of freebies every week, and I know sometimes it can be hard to wade through which are still available, so each week I put together a list of samples and other freebies you can still request if you havent already. Some of the best freebies disappear too quickly to make this list, but there are still some great ones available. Enjoy!. ...
Used to spray that junk all over my yard... since I got hens and let them free range, they devour them first... Loving herbicide free!
The blog has officially been around for a year! What a year it has been. Thank you to everyone who reads; I hope that my posts are helpful to you. Over the course of this year Ive tried a bunch of new products, many of which were just ok, a few that were absolutely phenomenal,…
Information, guidance and support for readers interested in applying the principles of The Blood Type Diet as outlined by The New York Times best-selling author Dr. Peter DAdamo.
One of the most important  The most important thing that a person can do is properly calibrate their HDTV. It is absolutely imperative that it is done to g...
Tom Cruises Mummy reboot faltered with just over $32 million, while Wonder Woman continued in first with a second strong weekend.
Well, however superficial they might be, theres no doubting the popularity of the end of year roundup and predictions for the coming year. We dont argue with the box office down at CHYP End, ... [Continue reading] ...
The latest from http://brainblogger.com! As usual, heres our monthly roundup of the best and worst news I came across. July brought us some important findings, namely in the understanding of the mechanisms of different diseases. These are personal opinions, presented in no particular order and we welcome your comments and suggestions. If you have come…
Im slowly gathering all the good articles and information that I come across in regards to the EVE Online Fanfest Coverage - articles, facts, photos, blog roundups,etc. Ill keep updating this post as I find new info. If youve written something or are aware of a great article I havent linked too (and there are plenty of these), then please add them to the comments and Ill add it to the list ...
Status Series II 5 string from IM & RW December 1987 - Round-up of British 5-strings; in addition to the series II are Overwater, Wal and Wilkes.
Monsantos Roundup is the most popular herbicide in the world. In 2015, the International Agency for Research on Cancer ("IARC") found that glyphosate, the active ingredient in Roundup, was a probable carcinogen. This led IARC to classify glyphosate as a level 2A cancer-causing substance.. Roundup is an important product in the lives of many farmers and other agricultural workers, especially given the prevalence of Roundup-Ready seeds. As weed resistance to Roundup has increased over time, farmers have been forced to apply more and more Roundup each season. As the need for more Roundup has increased, so has farmers exposure to the potentially lethal substance.. While there are a few studies that conflict with one another, the studies concluding that glyphosate is non-carcinogenic were funded by major players, like Monsanto, in the herbicide industry. Here is a link to an article discussing the issue in more detail ...
The whole grain phytonutrient phytic acid (phytate) partially inhibits mineral absorption, but has a wide range of health-promoting properties, such as anticancer activity. By concurrently eating mineral absorption enhancers, such as garlic and onions, one can get the best of both worlds by improving the bioavailability of iron and zinc in plant foods.
1 TWENTIETH ANNUAL RETIREES ROUNDUP AT HOME OF HARLAN AND HELEN JOHNSON VARIOUS SPEAKERS HARLAN AND HELEN JOHNSON: Welcome to the twentieth annual Retirees Roundup. This is September 10, 1992. Every year since I retired in 1972 we have had a gathering of retired Fishery and Fish Hatchery employees of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This is the twentieth, and its going to be the last one. Most of those who attend these roundups are former employees at the Hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. All of our parties had been held here at our residence. This is our home, in Cook, Washington in the Columbia River Gorge. We have no set agenda for these parties. We just sit or stand around and talk, laugh, drink, eat, and tell stories about the good old days, and maybe some lies about our grandchildren, and children. This twentieth Roundup will be the last one that we shall sponsor. And we hope that some of the more recent retirees will take over where we have left off, and continue the tradition. We ...
1 TWENTIETH ANNUAL RETIREES ROUNDUP AT HOME OF HARLAN AND HELEN JOHNSON VARIOUS SPEAKERS HARLAN AND HELEN JOHNSON: Welcome to the twentieth annual Retirees Roundup. This is September 10, 1992. Every year since I retired in 1972 we have had a gathering of retired Fishery and Fish Hatchery employees of the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This is the twentieth, and its going to be the last one. Most of those who attend these roundups are former employees at the Hatcheries in the Pacific Northwest. All of our parties had been held here at our residence. This is our home, in Cook, Washington in the Columbia River Gorge. We have no set agenda for these parties. We just sit or stand around and talk, laugh, drink, eat, and tell stories about the good old days, and maybe some lies about our grandchildren, and children. This twentieth Roundup will be the last one that we shall sponsor. And we hope that some of the more recent retirees will take over where we have left off, and continue the tradition. We ...
Scientists say that some of the rats experienced "25 percent body weight loss, presence of tumors over 25 percent bodyweight, hemorrhagic bleeding, or prostration." The studys conclusions indicate that there is an association between wide-scale alterations in liver and kidney gene expression and the consumption of small quantities of Roundup, even at admissible glyphosate-equivalent concentrations. As the dose used is "environmentally relevant in terms of human, domesticated animals and wildlife levels of exposure,"the results potentially have significant health implications for animal and human populations, the study warned. "There were more than 4,000 genes in the liver and kidneys [of the rats that were fed Roundup] whose levels of expression had changed," the studys leading scientist, Michael Antoniou, head of the Gene Expression and Therapy Group at Kings College London, said, as quoted by the Environmental Health News. "Given even very low levels of exposure, Roundup can potentially ...
View Mump 0805 Spr 18 Z+2008 Silver Springs All Ford Roundup+ - Photo 9738058 from 2008 Silver Springs All-Ford Roundup - Winter Wonderland
In an adjuvant breast cancer trial conducted more than 20 years ago, older patients were randomized to treatment with tamoxifen and prednisone or no adjuvant therapy. Now, at 21 years of follow-up, it is clear that disease-free and overall survival remain better for those who received treatment.
Roundup is perhaps the best-known and most widely used herbicide for home gardens. It is effective at killing a large number of unwanted plants. The active chemical ingredient of Roundup is ...
On my way to work, I pass by a vineyard that uses Round-Up to control weeds around the vines. If I see the tell tale signs of spraying, I roll up the car windows and put the vents on recirculation; however, it is usually too late.. When I was pregnant, I was especially concerned as I drove by this killer chemical wafting in the breeze. When my son was born with a congenital heart defect, I couldnt help but wonder. Unfortunately, its not something easily proven. Ironically, the vineyard is owned by a doctor.. I knew seven years ago the potential of Round-Up to cause birth defects. Monsantos known even longer, and a new study confirms these concerns. ...
Numerous research papers have linked glyphosate, the main ingredient in Monsantos Roundup, with non-Hodgkin lymphoma - cancer of the lymph tissue.
This topic contains 107 study abstracts on Roundup (herbicide) indicating it may contribute to Lymphoma: Non-Hodgkin, DNA damage, and Glyphosate Toxicity
A new study by scientists in Europe has revealed that Glyphosate (Roundup) is toxic to the normal metabolism of dairy cows. In the new paper titled Field
... adjuvants, pharmaceutic MeSH D26.650.523 --- ointment bases MeSH D26.650.771 --- preservatives, pharmaceutical MeSH D26.650.931 ...
... adjuvants, pharmaceutic MeSH D27.720.744.523 --- ointment bases MeSH D27.720.744.771 --- preservatives, pharmaceutical MeSH ... adjuvants, anesthesia MeSH D27.505.954.427.020 --- alcohol deterrents MeSH D27.505.954.427.040 --- analgesics MeSH D27.505. ... adjuvants, immunologic MeSH D27.505.696.477.274.400 --- interferon inducers MeSH D27.505.696.477.656 --- immunosuppressive ...
Enzyme catalysis Epicatalysis Industrial catalysts Kelvin probe force microscope Limiting reagent Pharmaceutic adjuvant Phase- ...
Beta-glucan Medicinal mushrooms Pharmaceutic adjuvant AS03, a proprietary adjuvant Recommendations for Use and Alternatives to ... The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any ... There are many known adjuvants in widespread use, including oils, aluminium salts, and virosomes. Adjuvants in immunology are ... University of Iowa Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database. "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF). ...
doi:10.1002/psb.895 PMID 25502052 Pharmaceutic Adjuvant at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Immunologic adjuvant Zhang, WY, A benefit-risk assessment of caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant, Drug Safety (2001), 24(15): ... In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy ... For instance, caffeine has minimal analgesic effect on its own, but may have an adjuvant effect when given with paracetamol ( ...
Pharmaceutic adjuvant. *Phase-boundary catalysis. *Phase transfer catalyst. *Photocatalysis. *Ribozyme (RNA biocatalyst) ...
doi:10.1002/psb.895 PMID 25502052 Pharmaceutic Adjuvant at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ... Immunologic adjuvant Zhang, WY, A benefit-risk assessment of caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant, Drug Safety (2001), 24(15): ... In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy ... For instance, caffeine has minimal analgesic effect on its own, but may have an adjuvant effect when given with paracetamol ( ...
Adjuvant, Pharmaceutic , Adjuvant, Pharmaceutical , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutical , Pharmaceutic Adjuvant , Pharmaceutic Adjuvants ... Pharmaceutical Adjuvant , Pharmaceutical Adjuvants Definition Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug ( ...
Pharmaceutic Adjuvants Polysorbate 80. Polysorbate 85 25L. Iran buy digital weighing indicator XK3190-DS3, DHM9BD10-C3-40t-12B3 ...
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic* * Aromatase / genetics * Aromatase / metabolism* * Cell Line, Tumor * Cell Survival / drug effects* ... We suggest that the presence of Roundup adjuvants enhances glyphosate bioavailability and/or bioaccumulation. ... and this effect increases with concentration and time or in the presence of Roundup adjuvants. Surprisingly, Roundup is always ...
Adjuvant endocrine therapy for early-stage breast cancer has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with breast ... 0/Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic; 0/Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of ... Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use*. Analysis of Variance. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use*. Anxiety ... OBJECTIVES: Adjuvant endocrine therapy for early-stage breast cancer has greatly reduced the morbidity and mortality associated ...
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ...
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ...
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ...
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ...
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ...
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic (2) • Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the ... Adjuvants, Anesthesia (21) • Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve ... Adjuvants, Immunologic (125) • Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at ... The classical agents (Freunds adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous ( ...
0 (Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic); 0 (Anticonvulsants); 0 (Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors); 614OI1Z5WI (Valproic Acid). ... Conclusion BRAF V600E PLGG constitutes a distinct entity with poor prognosis when treated with current adjuvant therapy.. ... Repurposing the anti-epileptic drug sodium valproate as an adjuvant treatment for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma.. ... These findings support the use of sodium valproate as an adjuvant treatment for DIPG.. ...
These preliminary results suggest that vitamin C may be an effective adjuvant agent in the treatment of MDD in pediatric ... Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use* * Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use* * Ascorbic Acid / therapeutic use* ... The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of vitamin C as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of pediatric major ... Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that vitamin C may be an effective adjuvant agent in the treatment of MDD in ...
Beta-glucan Medicinal mushrooms Pharmaceutic adjuvant AS03, a proprietary adjuvant Recommendations for Use and Alternatives to ... The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any ... There are many known adjuvants in widespread use, including oils, aluminium salts, and virosomes. Adjuvants in immunology are ... University of Iowa Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database. "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF). ...
... as cores to be coated in the manufacture of controlled-release or sustained-release pellets as critical pharmaceutic adjuvant. ... Application As pharmaceutic cores for the manufacture of Enteric-coated pellets, sustained and controlled-release pellets. ...
adjuvant concentrate catologs and adjuvant concentrate manufacturers - 587 adjuvant concentrate Manufacturers, Exporters & ... Pharmaceutic Adjuvants Carbomer ... with suggested concentration of 0.1%~0.5%. When work as thickener and suspending agent, the ... Silibase-2886 Spray Adjuvant ...: Silicone Surfactant / Spray Adjuvant Item No.: Silibase-2886 Countertype Product: Silwet 806 ... silicone adjuvant , hospital concentrate , spray adjuvant , zinc sulfide concentrate , poultry feed concentrate , precious ...
... adjuvants, pharmaceutic MeSH D26.650.523 --- ointment bases MeSH D26.650.771 --- preservatives, pharmaceutical MeSH D26.650.931 ...
... adjuvants, pharmaceutic MeSH D27.720.744.523 --- ointment bases MeSH D27.720.744.771 --- preservatives, pharmaceutical MeSH ... adjuvants, anesthesia MeSH D27.505.954.427.020 --- alcohol deterrents MeSH D27.505.954.427.040 --- analgesics MeSH D27.505. ... adjuvants, immunologic MeSH D27.505.696.477.274.400 --- interferon inducers MeSH D27.505.696.477.656 --- immunosuppressive ...
Enzyme catalysis Epicatalysis Industrial catalysts Kelvin probe force microscope Limiting reagent Pharmaceutic adjuvant Phase- ...
Abdominal Fat, Access to Information, Activities of Daily Living, Acute Lung Injury, Adaptation, Psychological, Adjuvants, ... Pharmaceutic, Adolescent, Adult, Affect, Affective Symptoms, Afghanistan, African Americans, African Continental Ancestry Group ... Adjuvant, Chest Pain, Child, Child Behavior, Child Welfare, Child, Preschool, Chronic Disease, Chronic Pain, Clinical Protocols ...
MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast ... Title] Long-term follow-up of a phase II trial studying a weekly doxorubicin-based multiple drug adjuvant therapy for stage II ... Long-term follow-up of a phase II trial studying a weekly doxorubicin-based multiple drug adjuvant therapy for stage II node- ... This single-arm study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an intensive doxorubicin-based multidrug regimen as adjuvant ...
Adjuvants and antibody production: dispelling the myths associated with Freunds complete and other adjuvants. Ilar J 2005;46: ... Newer adjuvants include toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, saponins, RNA and nanoparticles.1 More traditional adjuvants include ... Notwithstanding the promise of TLR-based adjuvants and other novel adjuvants, the data in the present report support the ... where that immunization was either adjuvant only (group 1) or MELITAC 12.1+adjuvant (group 2). For the present study, we have ...
Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic. dc.subject.mesh. Palliative Care. dc.subject.mesh. Cross-Sectional Studies. ... As the standard dose of adjuvant analgesics for CNP refractory to opioid therapy is not clear, the purpose of this study is to ... As the standard dose of adjuvant analgesics for CNP refractory to opioid therapy is not clear, the purpose of this study is to ... Attitude of Japanese palliative care specialists towards adjuvant analgesics cancer-related neuropathic pain refractory to ...
Other adjuvant medication can be considered, as previously described. Different pharmaceutic interventions can then be ... Cost-effectiveness analysis of adjuvant physical or occupational therapy for patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy. Arch ... For a variety of reasons, CRPS patients are commonly excluded from pharmaceutic studies. ...
Complete Freunds adjuvant (CFA) induced inflammation in rat was used as an experimental model. Effects of the treatment in ... Int J Pharm Pharmaceutic Sci. 2013a;5:239-43. 10. Nagarkar B, Jagtap S, Narkhede A, Nirmal P, Pawar N, Kuvalekar A, et al. ... Extract of the Chinese herbal formula Huo Luo Xiao Ling Dan inhibited adjuvant arthritis in rats. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;121: ... Colpaert FC, Meert T, De Witte P, Schmitt P. Further evidence validating adjuvant arthritis as an experimental model of chronic ...
  • The results indicated that FFEJJ could directly resist tumors by regulating cancer cell differentiation, growth, proliferation and apoptosis, and show an adjuvant therapeutic effect by enriching the blood and increasing the immunity. (bvsalud.org)
  • The use of adjuvants associated with herbicides aims at improving the performance of application and the consequent increase in the biological effect of the treatment. (bvsalud.org)
  • A magazine article about vaccine adjuvants in 2007 was headlined "Deciphering Immunology's Dirty Secret" to refer to the early days of vaccine manufacture, when significant variations in the effectiveness of different batches of the same vaccine were observed, correctly assumed to be due to contamination of the reaction vessels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adjuvants in immunology are often used to modify or augment the effects of a vaccine by stimulating the immune system to respond to the vaccine more vigorously, and thus providing increased immunity to a particular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because immune systems have evolved to recognize these specific antigenic moieties, the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the vaccine can greatly increase the innate immune response to the antigen by augmenting the activities of dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes, and macrophages by mimicking a natural infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to understand the links between the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response to help substantiate an adjuvant function in enhancing adaptive immune responses to the specific antigen of a vaccine, the following points should be considered: Innate immune response cells such as Dendritic Cells (DCs) engulf pathogens through a process called phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstract: Purpose: To investigate the microbiological, inflammatory and oxidant effects of adjuvant ozone administration in experimental rat vascular graft infection model which has not been previously investigated. (bvsalud.org)
  • 1028 Silicone Surfactant /spreading agent for agro-chemicals (silicone adjuvant ) 1 Chemical Name --modified polytrisiloxane ---- 2 Product charact. (everychina.com)
  • Two herbicide doses (1 and 2 L c.p. ha-1) associated with the adjuvants mineral oil (MO), silicone polyether copolymer (SIL), and a mixture of phosphatidylcholine and propionic acid (LEC), all in the proportion of 0.3% v v-1, with alternate addition to the spray solution to evaluate the effects of the preparation sequence. (bvsalud.org)
  • Methods Biopsies of the VSME were obtained from participants on two clinical trials who were immunized with multiple melanoma peptides (MELITAC 12.1) in adjuvants comprising IFA and/or the TLR3-agonist pICLC. (bmj.com)
  • In pharmacology, adjuvants are drugs that have few or no pharmacological effects by themselves, but may increase the efficacy or potency of other drugs when given at the same time. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the standard dose of adjuvant analgesics for CNP refractory to opioid therapy is not clear, the purpose of this study is to clarify the opinions of specialists about the usage of duloxetine and pregabalin for patients with CNP refractory to opioid therapy. (edu.au)
  • The treatment with the adjuvant LEC previously added to the herbicide provided a higher control rate at the highest dose, while the adjuvant SIL had the opposite effect. (bvsalud.org)
  • No matter what the mechanism is, alum is not a perfect adjuvant because it does not work with all antigens (e.g. malaria and tuberculosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • spray containing Crop Oil Concentrate is applied to new varieties or highly inbred lines not previously treated with spray tank adjuvants . (everychina.com)
  • Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the control of Senna obtusifolia as a function of the sequence of addition of the herbicide aminopyralid + fluroxypyr and adjuvants in the preparation of spray solution. (bvsalud.org)
  • Adjuvants accomplish this task by mimicking specific sets of evolutionarily conserved molecules, so called PAMPs, which include liposomes, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), molecular cages for antigen, components of bacterial cell walls, and endocytosed nucleic acids such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), and unmethylated CpG dinucleotide-containing DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibitors of bacterial efflux pumps as adjuvants in antibiotic treatments and diagnostic tools for detection of resistance by efflux. (uclouvain.be)
  • Based on the fact that chromogenic reaction of blue complex, a reaction product which can be dissolved in organic solvents, can be realized by polyethoxy and ammonium thiocyanate in tween 80, a rapid and accurate way for the determination for tween 80 in pharmaceutical adjuvant was established in this study, providing reliable technical means for quality control of traditional Chinese medicine injections. (bvsalud.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of vitamin C as an adjuvant agent in the treatment of pediatric major depressive disorder in a six-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. (nih.gov)
  • These preliminary results suggest that vitamin C may be an effective adjuvant agent in the treatment of MDD in pediatric patients. (nih.gov)
  • The results showed that the adjuvant therapy had a significant effect on the shift of intestinal flora, which was associated with the decrease in the similarity difference to the normal control group and the increase in the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) shared with the normal control group. (bvsalud.org)
  • Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards model were used to assess progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of patients receiving 6 adjuvant TMZ cycles compared with patients treated with more than 6 cycles.Twenty of 75 patients received more than 6 cycles of TMZ, and the other 55 patients were treated with a median of 6 cycles ranging from 1 to 6. (bvsalud.org)
  • For instance, caffeine has minimal analgesic effect on its own, but may have an adjuvant effect when given with paracetamol (acetaminophen). (wikipedia.org)
  • Here we show that glyphosate is toxic to human placental JEG3 cells within 18 hr with concentrations lower than those found with agricultural use, and this effect increases with concentration and time or in the presence of Roundup adjuvants. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, with the assistance of pediatric practitioners, the automated ribosomal intergenic-spacer analysis (ARISA) was adopted to study the effect of the adjuvant therapy with Dingguier umbilical paste on intestinal flora of diarrhea infants, in which Dingguier umbilical paste served as the adjuvant therapy in oral traditional Chinese medicines and fecal samples of infants with different diarrhea symptoms were collected and used as the study materials. (bvsalud.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Pharmaceutic Aids" by people in this website by year, and whether "Pharmaceutic Aids" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Application As pharmaceutic cores for the manufacture of Enteric-coated pellets, sustained and controlled-release pellets. (alibaba.com)