Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Mice, Inbred BALB CSurvival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.SqualeneVaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Mice, Inbred C57BLMethotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.ISCOMs: A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Mastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Rats, Inbred LewRandomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Immunity, Humoral: Antibody-mediated immune response. Humoral immunity is brought about by ANTIBODY FORMATION, resulting from TH2 CELLS activating B-LYMPHOCYTES, followed by COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION.Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Leucovorin: The active metabolite of FOLIC ACID. Leucovorin is used principally as an antidote to FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Adjuvants, Anesthesia: Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Th1 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, and interleukin-12. Due to their ability to kill antigen-presenting cells and their lymphokine-mediated effector activity, Th1 cells are associated with vigorous delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions.Vaccines, Inactivated: Vaccines in which the infectious microbial nucleic acid components have been destroyed by chemical or physical treatment (e.g., formalin, beta-propiolactone, gamma radiation) without affecting the antigenicity or immunogenicity of the viral coat or bacterial outer membrane proteins.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.HemocyaninDendritic Cells: Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.TriazolesReceptor, erbB-2: A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Rectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic: A specific immune response elicited by a specific dose of an immunologically active substance or cell in an organism, tissue, or cell.Quillaja: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE whose members produce SAPONINS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Injections, Subcutaneous: Forceful administration under the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the skin.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.ArthritisImmunization, Secondary: Any immunization following a primary immunization and involving exposure to the same or a closely related antigen.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Immunotherapy: Manipulation of the host's immune system in treatment of disease. It includes both active and passive immunization as well as immunosuppressive therapy to prevent graft rejection.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Lymph Node Excision: Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Cord Factors: Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Receptors, Progesterone: Specific proteins found in or on cells of progesterone target tissues that specifically combine with progesterone. The cytosol progesterone-receptor complex then associates with the nucleic acids to initiate protein synthesis. There are two kinds of progesterone receptors, A and B. Both are induced by estrogen and have short half-lives.Mastectomy, Segmental: Removal of only enough breast tissue to ensure that the margins of the resected surgical specimen are free of tumor.Mineral Oil: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons obtained from petroleum. It is used as laxative, lubricant, ointment base, and emollient.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Injections, Intradermal: The forcing into the skin of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle, piercing the top skin layer.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Viral Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed viruses administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious viral disease.Tetanus ToxoidEnzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent: Certain tumors that 1, arise in organs that are normally dependent on specific hormones and 2, are stimulated or caused to regress by manipulation of the endocrine environment.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Th2 Cells: Subset of helper-inducer T-lymphocytes which synthesize and secrete the interleukins IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-10. These cytokines influence B-cell development and antibody production as well as augmenting humoral responses.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Semustine: 4-Methyl derivative of LOMUSTINE; (CCNU). An antineoplastic agent which functions as an alkylating agent.BCG Vaccine: An active immunizing agent and a viable avirulent attenuated strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, var. bovis, which confers immunity to mycobacterial infections. It is used also in immunotherapy of neoplasms due to its stimulation of antibodies and non-specific immunity.Immunoglobulin A, Secretory: The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.Nasal Mucosa: The mucous lining of the NASAL CAVITY, including lining of the nostril (vestibule) and the OLFACTORY MUCOSA. Nasal mucosa consists of ciliated cells, GOBLET CELLS, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells (STEM CELLS) and glands containing both mucous and serous cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Estrogen Receptor Modulators: Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.AIDS Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.Antigens, Neoplasm: Proteins, glycoprotein, or lipoprotein moieties on surfaces of tumor cells that are usually identified by monoclonal antibodies. Many of these are of either embryonic or viral origin.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.Interleukin-12: A heterodimeric cytokine that plays a role in innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin-12 is a 70 kDa protein that is composed of covalently linked 40 kDa and 35 kDa subunits. It is produced by DENDRITIC CELLS; MACROPHAGES and a variety of other immune cells and plays a role in the stimulation of INTERFERON-GAMMA production by T-LYMPHOCYTES and NATURAL KILLER CELLS.T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic: Immunized T-lymphocytes which can directly destroy appropriate target cells. These cytotoxic lymphocytes may be generated in vitro in mixed lymphocyte cultures (MLC), in vivo during a graft-versus-host (GVH) reaction, or after immunization with an allograft, tumor cell or virally transformed or chemically modified target cell. The lytic phenomenon is sometimes referred to as cell-mediated lympholysis (CML). These CD8-positive cells are distinct from NATURAL KILLER CELLS and NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. There are two effector phenotypes: TC1 and TC2.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Immunotherapy, Active: Active immunization where vaccine is administered for therapeutic or preventive purposes. This can include administration of immunopotentiating agents such as BCG vaccine and Corynebacterium parvum as well as biological response modifiers such as interferons, interleukins, and colony-stimulating factors in order to directly stimulate the immune system.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Neoplasm Invasiveness: Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.Gastrectomy: Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Mastectomy, Radical: Removal of the breast, pectoral muscles, axillary lymph nodes, and associated skin and subcutaneous tissue.Poly A-U: A double-stranded polyribonucleotide comprising polyadenylic and polyuridylic acids.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Postoperative Care: The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.SEER Program: A cancer registry mandated under the National Cancer Act of 1971 to operate and maintain a population-based cancer reporting system, reporting periodically estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program is a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health. Among its goals, in addition to assembling and reporting cancer statistics, are the monitoring of annual cancer incident trends and the promoting of studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer control interventions. (From National Cancer Institute, NIH Publication No. 91-3074, October 1990)Goserelin: A synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE. Goserelin is used in treatments of malignant NEOPLASMS of the prostate, uterine fibromas, and metastatic breast cancer.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Axilla: Area of the human body underneath the SHOULDER JOINT, also known as the armpit or underarm.Mastectomy, Modified Radical: Total mastectomy with axillary node dissection, but with preservation of the pectoral muscles.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.DeoxycytidineGuinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mice, Inbred C3HCystectomy: Used for excision of the urinary bladder.Immunoglobulin Isotypes: The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.Immunity: Nonsusceptibility to the invasive or pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or to the toxic effect of antigenic substances.Orchitis: Inflammation of a TESTIS. It has many features of EPIDIDYMITIS, such as swollen SCROTUM; PAIN; PYURIA; and FEVER. It is usually related to infections in the URINARY TRACT, which likely spread to the EPIDIDYMIS and then the TESTIS through either the VAS DEFERENS or the lymphatics of the SPERMATIC CORD.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators: A structurally diverse group of compounds distinguished from ESTROGENS by their ability to bind and activate ESTROGEN RECEPTORS but act as either an agonist or antagonist depending on the tissue type and hormonal milieu. They are classified as either first generation because they demonstrate estrogen agonist properties in the ENDOMETRIUM or second generation based on their patterns of tissue specificity. (Horm Res 1997;48:155-63)Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Immunity, Active: Resistance to a disease agent resulting from the production of specific antibodies by the host, either after exposure to the disease or after vaccination.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Immunoglobulin E: An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).Immunization, Passive: Transfer of immunity from immunized to non-immune host by administration of serum antibodies, or transplantation of lymphocytes (ADOPTIVE TRANSFER).

Activity in saline of phthalylated or succinylated derivatives of mycobacterial water-soluble adjuvant. (1/6132)

A water-soluble fraction (WSA) of the cell wall can substitute for mycobacterial cells in Freund complete adjuvant. However, when WSA is administered in saline instead of in a water-in-oil emulsion, its adjuvant activity is very weak, and under certain experimental conditions it can even inhibit the humoral immune response. The data reported in the present study show that after treatment by phthalic or succinic anhydride the adjuvant activity of WSA was markedly changed, since high levels of circulating antibodies were produced when these derivatives were administered with an antigen in an aqueous medium. Moreover, the antigenic determinants of WSA were modified and acylated WSA had no tuberculin-like activity.  (+info)

Systemic administration of rIL-12 synergistically enhances the therapeutic effect of a TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine. (2/6132)

Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is a potent antitumor cytokine, which induces and enhances the activity of natural killer (NK) cells, lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). IL-12 also stimulates IFN-gamma production from both T cells and NK cells. In this study, we transfected methylcholanthrene-induced fibrosarcoma (MCA-D) with TNF gene and investigated the therapeutic effect of TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and whether the vaccination effect is enhanced by systemic administration of recombinant IL-12 (rIL-12), in a murine model. TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine or systemic administration of rIL-12 showed slight or moderate inhibition of pre-established tumor. However, simultaneous application of the vaccine and rIL-12 resulted in complete eradication. The cytotoxicity of CTL against parental tumor cells was enhanced with the combination of the vaccine and rIL-12, and IFN-gamma production from spleen cells also increased synergistically. Our findings show that synergistic enhancement of CTL activity and IFN-gamma production could play an important role in the antitumor effect of combination therapy using TNF gene-transduced cancer vaccine and rIL-12.  (+info)

Transcutaneous immunization with bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxins as antigens and adjuvants. (3/6132)

Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a new technique that uses the application of vaccine antigens in a solution on the skin to induce potent antibody responses without systemic or local toxicity. We have previously shown that cholera toxin (CT), a potent adjuvant for oral and nasal immunization, can induce both serum and mucosal immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA and protect against toxin-mediated mucosal disease when administered by the transcutaneous route. Additionally, CT acts as an adjuvant for coadministered antigens such as tetanus and diphtheria toxoids when applied to the skin. CT, a member of the bacterial ADP-ribosylating exotoxin (bARE) family, is most potent as an adjuvant when the A-B subunits are present and functional. We now show that TCI induces secondary antibody responses to coadministered antigens as well as to CT in response to boosting immunizations. IgG antibodies to coadministered antigens were also found in the stools and lung washes of immunized mice, suggesting that TCI may target mucosal pathogens. Mice immunized by the transcutaneous route with tetanus fragment C and CT developed anti-tetanus toxoid antibodies and were protected against systemic tetanus toxin challenge. We also show that bAREs, similarly organized as A-B subunits, as well as the B subunit of CT alone, induced antibody responses to themselves when given via TCI. Thus, TCI appears to induce potent, protective immune responses to both systemic and mucosal challenge and offers significant potential practical advantages for vaccine delivery.  (+info)

Zonula occludens toxin is a powerful mucosal adjuvant for intranasally delivered antigens. (4/6132)

Zonula occludens toxin (Zot) is produced by toxigenic strains of Vibrio cholerae and has the ability to reversibly alter intestinal epithelial tight junctions, allowing the passage of macromolecules through the mucosal barrier. In the present study, we investigated whether Zot could be exploited to deliver soluble antigens through the nasal mucosa for the induction of antigen-specific systemic and mucosal immune responses. Intranasal immunization of mice with ovalbumin (Ova) and recombinant Zot, either fused to the maltose-binding protein (MBP-Zot) or with a hexahistidine tag (His-Zot), induced anti-Ova serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers that were approximately 40-fold higher than those induced by immunization with antigen alone. Interestingly, Zot also stimulated high anti-Ova IgA titers in serum, as well as in vaginal and intestinal secretions. A comparison with Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) revealed that the adjuvant activity of Zot was only sevenfold lower than that of LT. Moreover, Zot and LT induced similar patterns of Ova-specific IgG subclasses. The subtypes IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b were all stimulated, with a predominance of IgG1 and IgG2b. In conclusion, our results highlight Zot as a novel potent mucosal adjuvant of microbial origin.  (+info)

Emergent immunoregulatory properties of combined glucocorticoid and anti-glucocorticoid steroids in a model of tuberculosis. (5/6132)

In Balb/c mice with pulmonary tuberculosis, there is a switch from a protective Th1-dominated cytokine profile to a non-protective profile with a Th2 component. This switch occurs while the adrenals are undergoing marked hyperplasia. Treatment with the anti-glucocorticoid hormones dehydroepiandrosterone or 3 beta, 17 beta-androstenediol, during the period of adrenal hyperplasia, maintains Th1 dominance and is protective. We investigated the effects of these hormones as therapeutic agents by administering them from day 60, when the switch to the non-protective cytokine profile was already well established. Given at this time (day 60), doses that were protective when given early (from day 0) were rapidly fatal. A physiological dose of the glucocorticoid corticosterone was also rapidly fatal. However when the corticosterone and the anti-glucocorticoid (AED or DHEA) were co-administered, there was protection, with restoration of a Th1-dominated cytokine profile, enhanced DTH responses, and enhanced expression of IL-1 alpha and TNF alpha. Therefore this combination of steroids has an emergent property that is quite unlike that of either type of steroid given alone. It may be possible to exploit the ant-inflammatory properties of glucocorticoids while preserving a Th1 bias, by combining glucocorticoids with DHEA or suitable metabolites.  (+info)

N,N'-Diacetyl-L-cystine-the disulfide dimer of N-acetylcysteine-is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity/delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in rodents. (6/6132)

Oral N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) is used clinically for treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NAC is easily oxidized to its disulfide. We show here that N,N'-diacetyl-L-cystine (DiNAC) is a potent modulator of contact sensitivity (CS)/delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions in rodents. Oral treatment of BALB/c mice with 0.003 to 30 micromol/kg DiNAC leads to enhancement of a CS reaction to oxazolone; DiNAC is 100 to 1000 times more potent than NAC in this respect, indicating that it does not act as a prodrug of NAC. Structure-activity studies suggest that a stereochemically-defined disulfide element is needed for activity. The DiNAC-induced enhancement of the CS reaction is counteracted by simultaneous NAC-treatment; in contrast, the CS reaction is even more enhanced in animals treated with DiNAC together with the glutathione-depleting agent buthionine sulfoximine. These data suggest that DiNAC acts via redox processes. Immunohistochemically, ear specimens from oxazolone-sensitized and -challenged BALB/c mice treated with DiNAC display increased numbers of CD8(+) cells. DiNAC treatment augments the CS reaction also when fluorescein isothiocyanate is used as a sensitizer in BALB/c mice; this is a purported TH2 type of response. However, when dinitrofluorobenzene is used as a sensitizer, inducing a purported TH1 type of response, DiNAC treatment reduces the reaction. Treatment with DiNAC also reduces a DTH footpad-swelling reaction to methylated BSA. Collectively, these data indicate that DiNAC in vivo acts as a potent and effective immunomodulator that can either enhance or reduce the CS or DTH response depending on the experimental conditions.  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (7/6132)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Soluble HLA class I, HLA class II, and Fas ligand in blood components: a possible key to explain the immunomodulatory effects of allogeneic blood transfusions. (8/6132)

The immunomodulatory effect of allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT) has been known for many years. However, a complete understanding of the effects of ABT on the recipient's immune system has remained elusive. Soluble HLA class I (sHLA-I), HLA class II (sHLA-II), and Fas ligand (sFasL) molecules may play immunoregulatory roles. We determined by double-determinant immunoenzymatic assay (DDIA) sHLA-I, sHLA-II, and sFasL concentrations in different blood components. sHLA-I and sFasL levels in red blood cells (RBCs) stored for up to 30 days and in random-donor platelets are significantly (P <.001) higher than in other blood components and their amount is proportionate to the number of residual donor leukocytes and to the length of storage. Blood components with high sHLA-I and sFasL levels play immunoregulatory roles in vitro as in allogeneic mixed lymphocyte responses (MLR) and antigen-specific cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) activity, and induce apoptosis in Fas-positive cells. These data suggest that soluble molecules in blood components are functional. If these results are paralleled in vivo, they should be taken into account in transfusion practice. Blood components that can cause immunosuppression should be chosen to induce transplantation tolerance, whereas blood components that lack immunosuppressive effects should be preferred to reduce the risk of postoperative complications and cancer recurrence.  (+info)

Traditionally immunostimulants have been believed to worsen autoimmune disease, to the point that some immunostimulants have originally been classified as immunosuppressants because they were found to improve autoimmune disease. But in practice it does not seem to work like that.. If the theory that autoimmune disease is in fact a type of an immune deficiency - or that there are components of immune deficiency, as the immune system is highly complex and not necessarily easy to define as "overactive" or "underactive" - is correct, immunostimulants would be the rational choice of treatment.. Immunostimulants are not completely without risks or side effects, but some of them can get quite close. They do not increase the risk of infections and cancer - and may even reduce the risk.. The most conventionally accepted immunostimulant therapy for autoimmune diseases is intravenous immunoglobulin (also known as IVIG and gammaglobulin), a blood product that contains antibodies from thousands of donors. It ...
In immunology, an adjuvant is a component that potentiates the immune responses to an antigen and/or modulates it towards the desired immune responses. The word "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any substance that acts to accelerate, prolong, or enhance antigen-specific immune responses when used in combination with specific vaccine antigens." A magazine article about vaccine adjuvants in 2007 was headlined "Deciphering Immunologys Dirty Secret" to refer to the early days of vaccine manufacture, when significant variations in the effectiveness of different batches of the same vaccine were observed, correctly assumed to be due to contamination of the reaction vessels. However, it was soon found that more scrupulous attention to cleanliness actually seemed to reduce the effectiveness of the vaccines, and that the contaminants - "dirt" - actually enhanced the immune response. There are many known adjuvants in widespread ...
Detailed Description of the Invention The present invention relates to the use of the A fraction of Quil A together with at least one other adjuvant for the production of an adjuvant composition having a synergistic effect that improves the level and quality of immunomodulatory activity. . In particular, regarding the use of the A fraction of Quil A with one or more other adjuvants, where the A fraction at a dose that is well tolerated at a low dose is itself co-administered as a prophylactic use Or synergistically improve the immune enhancing effect of an adjuvant that is too toxic for clinical use. That is, a co-administered, well-tolerated low dose (in other words, less than optimal dose) adjuvant is effective and suitable for use. Therefore, other adjuvants are preferred that are substantially toxic and whose dose is reduced to an extent acceptable for prophylactic and clinical use, but are weak and as such are effective in providing a level of immune response. Also preferred are adjuvants ...
Recent years have seen great interest in vaccine development. This has resulted in part from the clinical need for better ways to prevent infection, but there has also been much interest in the development of therapeutic vaccines for tumors and for the treatment of HIV infections (1, 2). New approaches to the production of vaccines include the use of synthetic peptides, DNA, RNA, and protein subunits. These approaches offer a number of advantages, including increased specificity and reduced toxicity (1, 2). However, many are poorly immunogenic when administered alone (1, 2, 3). Currently used adjuvants include mineral salts, immunostimulatory cytokines, lipid particles, microparticulates, and so-called mucosal adjuvants (1, 2, 3). Although the mechanisms of action for some of these, such as immunostimulatory cytokines, may be inferred from what is known of their physiologic activities, the mechanisms of action of many of these are poorly understood. Preclinical and clinical trials have been ...
Thirty brucellosis free calves with zero titres to the serum agglutination test (SAT), complement fixation test (CFT) and antiglobulin test (ABGT) were vaccinated with strain 19 at ages from seven hours to 198 days. Calves 75 days of age and older responded with normal serological patterns, developing high titres to all three tests. At 45 days and younger most calves responded with much reduced titres, some were negative to the SAT and CFT but all develped titres to the ABGT. Two of the younger group were subjected to an anamnestic test at about a year old and gave a positive response, indicating that the calf may be effectively primed with S19 as early as the first day of life. Three of the group were colostrumdeprived yet the patterns of their responses were similar to those of the colostrum-fed calves. Seventy-four zero titres calves were vaccinated with killed 45/20 adjuvant vaccine at ages from 60 to 320 days. Up to 200 days of age only seven of 33 calves gave positive response. From 200 to ...
The invention relates to a set of novel immunological adjuvants based upon so called polyladder proteins of nematode worms. These proteins are typified by repeating units separated by a protease cleavage motif of RX(K/R)R or RXFR where R is arginine, X is any amino acid, K is lysine and F is phenylalanine. These motifs are preceded by a cysteine residue at around 7, 8 or 9 residues upstream. Polyladder proteins or fragments of polyladder proteins may be used as immunological adjuvants either mixed with, or conjugated to a vaccine antigen, and will strongly enhance the immune response against the antigen. Conjugation may take the form of a genetic fusion between adjuvant and antigen. Antigens may be derived from pathogens, or may be tumour antigens, autoantigens, or antigens of other kinds. Vaccines may be used for prophylaxis or therapy ...
Health,Two new studies have found that new adjuvant treatments for breast can... Published in the August 1 2007 issue of Cancer a journal of t...In a Canadian economic study of estrogen receptor positive breas...In another of study of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 ...Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer mortality second only ...,New,Adjuvant,Breast,Cancer,Treatments,Found,Cost-effective,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
In this study, we report the development of a novel, rationally designed immunostimulatory adjuvant based on chemical conjugation of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) to the nontoxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB). We demonstrate that the immunostimulatory effects of CpG can be dramatically enhanced by conjugation to CTB. Thus, CpG ODN linked to CTB (CTB-CpG) was shown to be a more potent stimulator of proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses in murine splenocytes and human PBMCs than those of CpG ODN alone in vitro. The presence of CpG motif, but not modified phosphorothioate ODN backbone, was found to be critical for the enhanced immunostimulatory effects of CTB-CpG. Our mode-of-action studies, including studies on cells from specifically gene knockout mice suggest that similar to CpG, CTB-CpG exerts its immunostimulatory effects through a TLR9/MyD88- and NF-kappaB-dependent pathway. Surprisingly, and as opposed to CpG ODN, CTB-CpG-induced immunity was shown to be independent of ...
Adjuvants are molecules, compounds or macromolecular complexes that boost the potency and longevity of the specific immune response to antigens (1). Most adjuvant research has been an empirical process until recently, when an increased understanding of the mechanisms of immune response induction and the essential bridging of innate and adaptive immune responses has paved the way to a more rational adjuvant design. These breakthrough advances involve a deeper knowledge of how the innate immune system acts to recognize pathogens and damage-associated signals and how this recognition by different receptors may ultimately influence the potency and polarization of the immune responses.. A functional classification of adjuvants was elaborated by Schijns (2), categorizing these molecules as facilitators of signal 1 (delivery of antigen) or signal 2 (i.e., appropriate immunostimulation; costimulation). Later, Valenti and OHagan (3) divided adjuvants into immune potentiators (IP) and delivery systems ...
BELLEVILLE, ON, Oct. 15 PRNewswire - Bioniche Life Sciences Inc. (TSX BNC), a research-based, technology driven Canadian biopharmaceutical company, today announ
Adjuvants are crucial components of vaccines. They significantly improve vaccine efficacy by modulating, enhancing, or extending the immune response and at the same time reducing the amount of antigen needed. In contrast to previously licensed adjuvants, current successful adjuvant formulations often consist of several molecules, that when combined, act synergistically by activating a variety of immune mechanisms. These
Adjuvance Technologies is a private biopharmaceutical company dedicated to empowering global health through fundamental breakthroughs in adjuvant design. Adjuvants improve the efficacy, dose-sparing and immunopotentiation of otherwise inactive antigens and as important as adjuvants are, there are currently only two approved for use by the FDA. Adjuvance is commercializing synthetic methods of producing the worlds leading adjuvant molecule QS-21, which is extremely difficult to procure through other methods. Adjuvance is developing a portfolio of novel vaccine adjuvants using its proprietary Triterpene Saponin Synthesis Technology (TriSST). TriSST is a novel tool that allows us to synthesize a natural product that is the worlds leading vaccine adjuvant candidate (QS-21), which is extremely difficult to procure through either direct purchase or extraction/purification procedures. For the first time, TriSST provides a commercially viable source of QS-21 that is capable of large scale synthesis of pure
0110] 78 dairy replacement calves (initial age=18±6.3 days and body weight=43±6.1 kg) were fed with 2 L of milk replacer (MR) twice daily via a bottle at 07.30 h and 16.30 h until 45 days of life, and then a daily dose of 2 L of MR at 07.30 h for an additional week. At 37 day of age half of the calves received a daily dose of 3 g of the combination of Nucleoforce® (Bioiberica, Spain) and AHCC (AminoUp, Japan) supplemented through the morning feeding of MR until weaning time (52 days). After weaning, calves were moved from individual hutches into pens holding 8 animals until reaching 111±2.1 days (when the study was completed). Animal performance was monitored from 52 until 111 days of life. Respiratory afflictions were monitored daily from 37 to 111 days of life. Blood samples from half of the animals randomly chosen from each treatment group were obtained by venipuncture of the jugular vein at the age of 37 days and 52 days. Incidence of respiratory afflictions was analyzed using ...
Iomai Corporation (Nasdaq: IOMI) today announced that it has signed an agreement with Merck & Co., Inc. to conduct proof-of-principle preclinical studies evaluating the use of the
Incomplete Freund s Adjuvant (IFA);vaccine adjuvant Adjuvant AV-3015-10 Incomplete Freund s Adjuvant (IFA);vaccine adjuvant Adjuvant AV-3015-10
Immune challenges during early development, including those vaccine-induced, can lead to permanent detrimental alterations of the brain and immune function. Experimental evidence also shows that simultaneous administration of as little as two to three immune adjuvants can overcome genetic resistance to autoimmunity. In some developed countries, by the time children are 4 to 6 years old, they will have received a total of 126 antigenic compounds along with high amounts of aluminum (Al) adjuvants through routine vaccinations. According to the US Food and Drug Administration, safety assessments for vaccines have often not included appropriate toxicity studies because vaccines have not been viewed as inherently toxic. Taken together, these observations raise plausible concerns about the overall safety of current childhood vaccination programs. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, several key points ought to be considered: (i) infants and children should not be viewed as "small adults" with ...
New efficient vaccines against infectious diseases are in demand. Some important factors impeding the vaccine development are the poor immunogenicity and the MHC restriction of the immune responses to a number of antigens. The use of novel vaccine adjuvants or carrier proteins, which are known to enhance the immunogenicity of the subunit antigens and provide T-cell help, can circumvent these problems. The potential of heat shock proteins (HSPs) to function as adjuvants when fused to or co-delivered with protein antigens, make them attractive vaccine candidates. In this thesis we have evaluated the potency of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) as a possible vaccine adjuvant and studied the mechanisms behind the adjuvanticity.. The first article aims to evaluate the carrier effect of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) on a malarial antigen EB200 that induces a MHC restricted response in mice. Immunization of CBA and C57BL/6 mice, high and low responders to EB200, respectively, with the GST-EB200 fusion ...
Principal Investigator:AZUMA Ichiro, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1997, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A), Section:展開研究, Research Field:Immunology
adjuvant concentrate catologs and adjuvant concentrate manufacturers - 587 adjuvant concentrate Manufacturers, Exporters & suppliers from China
H ighly purified antigens suffer from poor immunogenicity. Current paradigms to address this problem focus onuse ofpotent innate immune activators as adjuvant...
Our cutting-edge adjuvants help protect your spray investment by optimizing product performance. We offer a complete line of rigorously tested adjuvants that can be added to a spray mix to aid or modify the activity of a pesticide. WinField® United adjuvants are formulated to help spray applications hit the intended target for improved coverage, optimized spray deposition and reduced drift. ...
The findings show that the bodys immune system is able to recognize SARS-CoV-2 in many ways, dispelling fears that the virus may elude ongoing efforts to create an effective vaccine.
I, for one, (and I think most of the field) would have said No; no matter what your adjuvant is, the response would be qualitatively the same. Why would one
To augment the immune responses elicited by these and other vaccines, scientists use immunologic adjuvants. Currently, only one adjuvant -- alum, first discovered in 1926 -- is incorporated into vaccines licensed for human use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). An adjuvant may work well with one experimental vaccine and not another. Therefore, the FDA licenses the vaccine formulation, or the antigen-adjuvant combination, rather than the adjuvant alone. Experimental adjuvants can increase the type, strength and durability of immune responses evoked by an experimental vaccine. For example, some vaccine antigen/adjuvant combinations can induce cell-mediated immune responses, even if the vaccine antigen by itself does not. Some adjuvants also stimulate mucosal immunity. Alum primarily increases the strength of antibody responses generated by the vaccine antigen. Because of its limited activity, other adjuvants may be better suited for the newer candidate HIV vaccines ...
Immunological adjuvants obtainable from already-known water-soluble adjuvants containing peptidoglycane fragments, which include saccharide units formed from N-acetylglucosamine and from an N-acyl-muramic acid wherein the acyl group is a glycolyl or acetyl group and to the muramyl group there are attached peptide chains, by modification of said already-known water-soluble adjuvants so that they bear acylating groups derived from physiologically-acceptable carboxylic polyacids, especially carboxylic diacids, and wherein preferably the acylating groups themselves include free carboxylic acid groups, for instance being derived from phthalic acid or succinic acid.
Immunostimulants, also known as immunostimulators, are substances (drugs and nutrients) that stimulate the immune system by inducing activation or increasing activity of any of its components. One notable example is the granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor. There are two main categories of immunostimulants: Specific immunostimulants provide antigenic specificity in immune response, such as vaccines or any antigen. Non-specific immunostimulants act irrespective of antigenic specificity to augment immune response of other antigen or stimulate components of the immune system without antigenic specificity, such as adjuvants and non-specific immunostimulators. Many endogenous substances are non-specific immunostimulators. For example, female sex hormones are known to stimulate both adaptive and innate immune responses. Some autoimmune diseases such as lupus erythematosus strike women preferentially, and their onset often coincides with puberty. Other hormones appear to regulate the immune ...
In Vivo Analysis of the Potency of Silicone Oil Microdroplets as Immunological Adjuvants in Protein Formulations Journal Article ...
One approach to improve the immunogenicity of an HIV-1 subunit protein vaccine is to combine the immunogen with an adjuvant. Adjuvants may augment vaccine immunogenicity by several mechanisms, and as a result induce a more favorable antibody response with high titers, which appear earlier in the course of immunization and persist over time.. Volunteers are randomized to receive 50 mcg rgp120/HIV-1SF2 in combination with one of seven different adjuvants: aluminum hydroxide (alum), monophosphoryl lipid A, liposome-encapsulated monophosphoryl lipid A, MF59, MTP-PE/MF59, Syntex adjuvant formulation (SAF/2), and SAF/2 plus threonyl muramyl dipeptide (threonyl MDP). An additional placebo control arm of volunteers receive alum only. Doses are administered at 0, 2, and 6 months. Volunteers are followed for 1 year after the last immunization. Per 8/5/94 amendment, eligible volunteers except those who received monophosphoryl lipid A for the first three immunizations may receive a fourth dose at month ...
Most purified protein and peptide antigens are poorly immunogenic so adjuvants must be included in vaccines to activate and direct adaptive immune responses. The most commonly used adjuvants in clinical use are aluminium salts, particularly aluminium hydroxide adjuvant, which is chemically crystalline aluminium oxyhydroxide 1, 2 and comprises nanoparticles that form porous aggregates of 1-20 μm in diameter 2. Although not technically correct, aluminium-containing adjuvants are generally referred to as "alum". Alum is not an optimal adjuvant for all protein antigens and is a relatively poor inducer of cell-mediated immunity. As a result, other particulate adjuvants, including chitosan, liposomes and biodegradable microparticles and nanoparticles are being investigated 3. However, despite the widespread use of particulates in both clinical and research settings for over 80 years, their mode of action is still not fully understood.. In 2007 it was found that aluminium-containing adjuvants enhanced ...
The invention consists of oligonucleotides which inhibit the immunostimulatory activity of ISS-ODN (immunostimulatory sequence oligodeoxynucleotides) as well as methods for their identification and use. The oligonucleotides of the invention are useful in controlling therapeutically intended ISS-ODN adjuvant activity as well as undesired ISS-ODN activity exerted by recombinant expression vectors, such as those used for gene therapy and gene immunization. The oligonucleotides of the invention also have anti-inflammatory activity useful in reducing inflammation in response to infection of a host with ISS-ODN containing microbes, in controlling autoimmune disease and in boosting host Th2 type immune responses to an antigen. The invention also encompasses pharmaecutically useful conjugates of the oligonucleotides of the invention (including conjugate partners such as antigens and antibodies).
New vaccines are presently under development and in testing for the control of infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis. Several of these vaccines are composed of synthetic, recombinant, or highly purified subunit antigens. Subunit vaccines are designed to include only the antigens required for protective immunization and to be safer than whole-inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. However, the purity of the subunit antigens and the absence of the self-adjuvanting immunomodulatory components associated with attenuated or killed vaccines often result in weaker immunogenicity. Immunologic adjuvants are agents that enhance specific immune responses to vaccines. Formulation of vaccines with potent adjuvants is an attractive approach for improving the performance of vaccines composed of subunit antigens. Adjuvants have diverse mechanisms of action and should be selected for use on the basis of the route of administration and the type of immune response ...
Vaccine adjuvants facilitate the production of long-lasting, efficient and specific immune responses and improve the protective effect of vaccines due to a higher antibody yield and the persistence of antibodies, as well as functional T cells at high levels. Currently, the most common adjuvant used in experimental animals is Freunds adjuvants, which can enhance strong antigen-specific immune responses. However, it causes strong inflammation and necrosis at the injection site, which prevents its use in vaccine development. Aluminium-derived adjuvants are often used in clinical trials and have the reputation of safety and the facilitation of long-lasting antibody responses [1], but the effect on cell-mediated immunity remains questionable when used along with small immunogenic antigens. To develop safe and effective adjuvants for enhancing both humoral and cellular immune responses, we focused on the selection of novel immunofacilitators based on their roles in initiating innate and adaptive ...
To generate vaccines that protect mucosal surfaces, a better understanding of the cells required in vivo for activation of the adaptive immune response following mucosal immunization is required. CD11c(high) conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) have been shown to be necessary for activation of naive CD8(+) T cells in vivo, but the role of cDCs in CD4(+) T cell activation is still unclear, especially at mucosal surfaces. The activation of naive Ag-specific CD4(+) T cells and the generation of Abs following mucosal administration of Ag with or without the potent mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin were therefore analyzed in mice depleted of CD11c(high) cDCs. Our results show that cDCs are absolutely required for activation of CD4(+) T cells after oral and nasal immunization. Ag-specific IgG titers in serum, as well as Ag-specific intestinal IgA, were completely abrogated after feeding mice OVA and cholera toxin. However, giving a very high dose of Ag, 30-fold more than required to detect T cell ...
Adjuvant activity of monophosphoryl lipid A for nasal and oral immunization with soluble or liposome-associated antigen.: The effectiveness of monophosphoryl li
We here study the adjuvant properties of immunostimulatory DNA sequences (ISS) and coinjected cytokine-coding cDNA in suppressive vaccination with DNA encoding an autoantigenic peptide, myelin basic protein peptide 68-85, against Lewis rat experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE is an autoaggressive, T1-mediated disease of the CNS. ISS are unmethylated CpG motifs found in bacterial DNA, which can induce production of type 1 cytokines in vertebrates through the innate immune system. Because ISS in the plasmid backbone are necessary for efficient DNA vaccination, we studied the effect of one such ISS, the 5-AACGTT-3 motif, in our system. Treatment with a DNA vaccine encoding myelin basic protein peptide 68-85 and containing three ISS of 5-AACGTT-3 sequence suppressed clinical signs of EAE, while a corresponding DNA vaccine without such ISS had no effect. We further observed reduced proliferative T cell responses in rats treated with the ISS-containing DNA vaccine, compared with ...
Vaccines against pneumococcal disease for use in developing countries should be safe, effective against a broad range of serotypes and affordable. The existing conjugate vaccines offer protection against the serotypes included in the vaccine which were selected based on their prevalence in North America and Europe, and are predicted to provide incomplete protection against pneumococcal infections in Asia and Africa. In addition, these conjugate vaccines are expensive to produce. The work in this report demonstrates that a vaccine composed of killed whole cell, nonencapsulated pneumococci and formulated with AH, induces a strong antibody and IL-17 response. Both the antigen and adjuvant are relatively inexpensive suggesting that the vaccine will be affordable for use in developing countries.. Previous work with a simple protein antigen, alpha casein, indicated that the strength of adsorption of antigens onto aluminum-containing adjuvants is inversely related to the antibody response to these ...
Medical definition of immunoadjuvant: a nonspecific substance acting to enhance the immune response to an antigen with which it is administered
Modern adjuvants should induce strong and balanced immune responses, and it is often desirable to induce specific types of immunity. As an example, efficient Th1-immunity-inducing adjuvants are highly in demand. Such adjuvants promote good cell-mediated immunity against subunit vaccines that have low immunogenicity themselves. The development of such adjuvants may take advantage of the increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms and factors controlling these responses. However, knowledge of such molecular details of immune mechanisms is relatively scarce for species other than humans and laboratory rodents, and in addition, there are special considerations pertaining to the use of adjuvants in veterinary animals, such as production and companion animals. With a focus on veterinary animals, this review highlights a number of approaches being pursued, including cytokines, CpG oligonucleotides, microparticles and liposomes. ...
Vice President, Formulation / Principal Investigator. Since joining IDRI in 2007, Chris has played an integral role in developing, characterizing, and manufacturing cGMP vaccine adjuvant formulations for clinical evaluation of vaccine candidates against a variety of infectious diseases, including leishmaniasis, malaria, tuberculosis, and pandemic influenza. He currently serves as principal investigator on multiple projects including a $17.5M contract from the National Institutes of Health to develop a first-in-human intranasal vaccine against amebiasis, a $11.9M contract from the NIH to develop and clinically test a thermostable tuberculosis vaccine, an $8M cooperative agreement from BARDA to establish IDRI as a global adjuvant hub for pandemic influenza preparedness, and a $4.4M R01 grant from the NIH to develop sustainable raw material sources for vaccine adjuvant formulations using bioengineering and chemical engineering approaches.. He also leads IDRIs efforts to supply adjuvant and ...
In a preclinical model, GSK scientists report a greater immune response to GSK Shingles vaccine (Hz/su) formulations that contain QS-21.. fochesato_AS01_ ...
Dr. Anthony Melvin Crasto, graduated from Mumbai University, Completed his Ph.D from ICT, 1991, Mumbai, India, in the field of Organic Chemistry, Currently he is working with GLENMARK PHARMACEUTICALS LTD, Research Centre as a Principal Scientist, in Process Research at Mahape, Navi Mumbai, India, for the last 10 years, His total Industry experience is 30 +yrs with major Multinationals companies.. Prior to joining Glenmark, he has worked with major multinationals like Hoechst Marion Roussel, now Sanofi, Searle India Ltd, now RPG lifesciences, etc. He has worked with notable Scientists like Dr K Nagarajan, Dr Ralph Stapel, Prof S Seshadri , Dr T.V. Radhakrishnan and Dr B. K. Kulkarni, etc, He did Custom Synthesis for various multinationals in his career like BASF, Novartis, Sanofi, Pfizer etc., He has worked in Drug Discovery, Natural products, Bulk Drugs, Generics, Intermediates, Fine chemicals, Neutraceuticals, GMP, Scaleups, Pharma Plant, API plant etc, he is now helping millions, His friends ...
- Protects and strengthens the intestinal mucosa - Stimulates the immune system, reducing the risk of diseases - Improves digestion - Optimizes the absorption of nutrients - It has an anti-stress effect, especially in situations such as transport, exp
The safety and immunogenicity of the vaccine with the antigen NY-ESO-1 in combination with the MPLA will be evaluated in a phase 1 clinical trial conducted in patients with malignancies that express the antigen (lung, ovarian and melanoma). This study will involve 15 patients, who will receive 250 mcg of NY-ESO-1 and 100 mcg of MPLA ...
Of 17 evaluable patients, five developed specific anti-vaccine antibodies, and eight developed anti-Fab T-cell responses. T-cell reactivity was independent of the cellular immune status and was idiotype specific as shown by statistical regression analysis (P = 0.0024) and epitope mapping studies. Intradermal administration of uncoupled recombinant idiotype with appropriate adjuvants may overcome profound clinical immunosuppression and induce specific immune responses. ...
The introduction of vaccines is regarded as one of the most successful medical interventions to date, due to their effectiveness at combating diseases that require the induction of a robust immune response. However there is a clear need for the development of new vaccines for diseases including HIV, TB and malaria and for cancer which require the induction of a potent cellular immune response. Advancements in the field of vaccine research have resulted in a move away from the use of whole organisms and towards the use of subunit vaccines which consist of highly purified antigens and thus offer a much more attractive safety profile. Adjuvants are immunostimulatory components that are included in subunit vaccine formulations to help to direct and amplify an appropriate adaptive immune response. The most commonly used adjuvant to date, alum, is incorporated into vaccine formulations that are aimed at inducing humoral immune responses however alum is a poor inducer of cellular immune re... ...
This BioFiles examines a large and diverse group of products currently being used as vaccine adjuvants-substances that are capable of enhancing immune responses to antigens. Many newer vaccines deliver less immunogenic antigens, which makes adjuvant selection even more important.
The development of vaccines to combat vaccine resistant cancers and infectious diseases has relied significantly on constructs employing subunit antigens. While...
Mac farlane, J O.; Roberts, D N.; Bailey, C A.; Monley, A; and Hardegree, M C., "Oncogenic evaluation of incomplete freunds adjuvant in three strains of mice. Abstr." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 1403 ...
Therapeutic cancer vaccines have shown limited clinical efficacy so far. Nevertheless, in the meantime, our understanding of immune cell function and
Here you get to know what are ISCOMS (Immune Stimulatory Complexes)? ACTION with detailed and pictorial explanation of the ISCOMs action
Lentinan, PSK, and PSP, are registered anticancer immunologic adjuvants. Irofulven and acylfulvene are anticancer derivatives ...
... is an immunologic adjuvant that uses squalene. It is Novartis' proprietary adjuvant that is added to influenza vaccines to ... MF59 is used as an adjuvant in Europe and in the United States. It was developed in the 1990s by researchers at Chiron ... MF59 is the first oil-in-water influenza vaccine adjuvant to be commercialized in combination with a seasonal influenza virus ... AS03, another squalene based adjuvant O'Hagan, Derek T; Ott, Gary S; Nest, Gary Van; Rappuoli, Rino; Giudice, Giuseppe Del ( ...
... is also being studied as a potential immunologic adjuvant. Karácsonyi S, Kuniak L (1994). "Polysaccharides of Pleurotus ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Vogel FR, Powell MF, Alving CR (1998). "A Compendium of Vaccine Adjuvants and ...
Aluminium compounds are used as immunologic adjuvants to increase the effectiveness of many vaccines. The aluminium apparently ... Vaccines pose a very small immunologic load compared to the pathogens naturally encountered by a child in a typical year; ... improvements in vaccine design have reduced the immunologic load from vaccines; the total number of immunological components in ...
Immunologic adjuvant Immune system Immunology Immunization Inoculation Virosomes Vaccination Isconova Morein, B; Sundquist, B; ... Most adjuvants on the market today mainly activate the humoral immune response (i.e. give an antibody response). There is, ... The complex displays immune stimulating properties and is thus mainly used as a vaccine adjuvant in order to induce a stronger ... ISCOM-Matrix technology offers several immunological and practical advantages over currently available adjuvants. ...
2009 flu pandemic Immunologic adjuvant "WHO cuts swine flu vaccine production estimate". AFP. 24 September 2009. Retrieved 25 ... A 2009 review of oil-based adjuvants in influenza vaccines stated that this type of adjuvant "neither stimulates antibodies ... about formulations of the vaccine that contain squalene as an adjuvant. An adjuvant is a substance that boosts the body's ... "WHO - Squalene-based adjuvants in vaccines". Frey S, Poland G, Percell S, Podda A (October 2003). "Comparison of the safety, ...
... and polysaccharide peptide as immunologic adjuvants. Evidence suggests this use as effective in prolonging and improving the ...
The antigen cannot elicit the immune response without the help of an immunologic adjuvant. Similarly, the adjuvant component of ... Gavin, AL; Hoebe, K; Duong, B; Ota, T; Martin, C; Beutler, B; Nemazee, D (22 December 2006). "Adjuvant-enhanced antibody ... Gallucci, S; Lolkema, M; Matzinger, P (November 1999). "Natural adjuvants: endogenous activators of dendritic cells". Nature ...
Given their role in antigen presentation, HSPs are useful as immunologic adjuvants in boosting the response to a vaccine. ...
It is currently being tested as an immunologic adjuvant in various vaccines in attempts to improve their efficacy. It is ... Success has been limited in synthetically producing QS-21 with similar adjuvant activity to the isolated natural product. QS-21 ... "Natural and synthetic saponin adjuvant QS-21 for vaccines against cancer". Expert Rev Vaccines. 10: 463-70. doi:10.1586/erv. ... "Synthesis and preclinical evaluation of QS-21 variants leading to simplified vaccine adjuvants and mechanistic probes". J Am ...
Immunologic adjuvants are substances, administered in conjunction with a vaccine, that stimulate the immune system and increase ... Squalene-based adjuvants in vaccines, Global Advisory Committee on Vaccine Safety, World Health Organization MF59 Adjuvant Fact ... Squalene is not itself an adjuvant, but it has been used in conjunction with surfactants in certain adjuvant formulations. An ... An influenza vaccine using MF59 as an adjuvant has been approved for use in the US in those 65 years of age and older, ...
Samter's Immunologic Diseases, 6th ed. Vol. 1, p. 281-298, Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, ISBN 0-7817-2120-2 ... Dempsey, P. W.; Allison, M. E.; Akkaraju, S.; Goodnow, C. C.; Fearon, D. T. (1996). "C3d of complement as a molecular adjuvant ...
section on Titermax Immunologic adjuvant Stills H.F. (2005) Adjuvants and antibody production: dispelling the myths associated ... Toxicity seems to be lower than other water in oil adjuvant such as Freund's adjuvant. The efficacy to elicit an immune ... Titermax is a recently developed immune adjuvant. It is a water-in-oil emulsion and consists of squalene, an emulsifier ( ... with Freund's complete and other adjuvants. ILAR journal. 46(3) 280-293 TiterMax on Wiki Doc Official web site. ...
... (for "Adjuvant System 03") is the trade name for a squalene-based immunologic adjuvant used in various vaccine products by ... 2009 flu pandemic MF59 - another squalene-based adjuvant by Novartis AS04 - another adjuvant by GSK. ... A dose of AS03 adjuvant contains 10.69 mg squalene 11.86 mg DL-α-tocopherol 4.86 mg polysorbate 80 Small observational studies ... As of 2016 it was unclear whether or not the adjuvant was responsible; other suspected causes include genetic susceptibility, ...
... a developing vaccination strategy that usually combines a genetically engineering sub-unit vaccine and an immunologic adjuvant ... No adjuvant(delivery mechanism)was provided in orally vaccinated mice. Further studies have been conducted in C. reinhardtii ... Currently, cholera toxin sub-unit B stands as the most serviceable adjuvant (delivery mechanism), however the development of a ...
... and can be synergysed with the combination of immunotherapy treatment and vaccine adjuvants. Various adjuvant immunotherapy and ... Sabel MS, Su G, Griffith KA, Chang AE (2010). "Rate of freeze alters the immunologic response after cryoablation of breast ... Thus, cryoablation of tumor elicits a systemic anti-tumor immunologic response. The resulting immunostimulation from ... "Immunologic response to cryoablation of breast cancer". Gland Surg. 3: 88-93. doi:10.3978/j.issn.2227-684X.2014.03.04. PMC ...
... immunologic adjuvant. A study of the response of non-human primate to the vaccine had been initiated. As of February 2015, ... The preliminary data indicated the prime-boost vaccine regimen elicited temporary immunologic response in the volunteers as ...
It is used as a lubricant, a transformer oil, an immunologic adjuvant, and an anti-corrosion agent, biological marker, ...
Several characteristics of the protein encoded by the gas vesicle gene gvpC allow it to be used as carrier and adjuvant for ... from various human pathogens have been recombined into the gvpC gene to create subunit vaccines with long-lasting immunologic ... cells show expression of the Chlamydia genes on cell surfaces through imagining techniques and show characteristic immunologic ...
In a clinical trial, 80% of volunteers who received two vaccine doses containing 3.8 mcg of antigen with an adjuvant (a ... They come with obstacles-immunologic, regulatory, and commercial-but they also have generated more excitement than any other ... By Marie-Eve Laforte THE PANDEMIC VACCINE PUZZLE - Part 3: H5N1 poses major immunologic challenges THE PANDEMIC VACCINE PUZZLE ... vaccine plus adjuvant, or placebo. All subjects will receive two injections of their assigned study product, about 28 days ...
... adjuvants, immunologic MeSH D27.505.696.477.274.400 --- interferon inducers MeSH D27.505.696.477.656 --- immunosuppressive ... adjuvants, anesthesia MeSH D27.505.954.427.020 --- alcohol deterrents MeSH D27.505.954.427.040 --- analgesics MeSH D27.505. ... immunologic factors MeSH D27.505.696.477.136 --- agglutinins MeSH D27.505.696.477.136.377 --- hemagglutinins MeSH D27.505. ... adjuvants, pharmaceutic MeSH D27.720.744.523 --- ointment bases MeSH D27.720.744.771 --- preservatives, pharmaceutical MeSH ...
T cells and immune system cytokines and have been investigated in clinical trials as immunologic adjuvants. Mitogenic ... Other adjuvants include proteins or other chemicals that attract and/or activate dendritic cells, such as granulocyte ... have disease progression within 12 months of neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment with platinum-containing chemotherapy. ... with optional adjuvants) are infused and provoke an immune response. Dendritic cell therapies include the use of antibodies ...
Because inactivated viruses tend to produce a weaker response by the immune system than live viruses, immunologic adjuvants and ... Petrovsky, Nikolai; Aguilar, Julio César (2004-09-28). "Vaccine adjuvants: Current state and future trends". Immunology and ...
... light chain Immunoglobulin M Immunoglobulin Y Immunohaematology Immunoisolate Immunologic activation Immunologic adjuvant ... synoviocyte FITkit FluoroSpot Forssman antigen Fragment antigen-binding Fragment crystallizable region Freund's adjuvant Gc-MAF ...
2008). "Safety and Immunologic Response of a Viral Vaccine to Prostate-Specific Antigen in Combination with Radiation Therapy ... when Metronomic-Dose Interleukin 2 is Used as an Adjuvant". Clinical Cancer Research. 14 (16): 5284-91. doi:10.1158/1078-0432. ... 2009). "Immunologic and prognostic factors associated with overall survival employing a poxviral-based PSA vaccine in ...
... "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any substance that ... Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database.. References[edit]. *^ "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF) ... Inorganic adjuvants[edit]. Aluminium salts[edit]. There are many adjuvants, some of which are inorganic (such as alum), that ... Organic adjuvants[edit]. Freund's complete adjuvant is a solution of inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic * Administration, Oral * Animals * CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes * Cholera Toxin * Cholera Vaccines ...
... "adjuvant" comes from the Latin word adiuvare, meaning to help or aid. "An immunologic adjuvant is defined as any substance that ... Vaxjo: Comprehensive vaccine adjuvant database.. References[edit]. *^ "Guideline on Adjuvants in Vaccines for Human Use" (PDF) ... Inorganic adjuvants[edit]. Aluminium salts[edit]. There are many adjuvants, some of which are inorganic (such as alum), that ... Organic adjuvants[edit]. Freunds complete adjuvant is a solution of inactivated Mycobacterium tuberculosis in mineral oil ...
Augmentation of Cutaneous Immune Responses by ATPγS: Purinergic Agonists Define a Novel Class of Immunologic Adjuvants. Richard ... Augmentation of Cutaneous Immune Responses by ATPγS: Purinergic Agonists Define a Novel Class of Immunologic Adjuvants ... Augmentation of Cutaneous Immune Responses by ATPγS: Purinergic Agonists Define a Novel Class of Immunologic Adjuvants ... Augmentation of Cutaneous Immune Responses by ATPγS: Purinergic Agonists Define a Novel Class of Immunologic Adjuvants ...
Immunologic Properties of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Correlation between the Mitogenic, Adjuvant, and Immunogenic ... Immunologic Properties of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Correlation between the Mitogenic, Adjuvant, and Immunogenic ... Immunologic Properties of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Correlation between the Mitogenic, Adjuvant, and Immunogenic ... Immunologic Properties of Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide (LPS): Correlation between the Mitogenic, Adjuvant, and Immunogenic ...
Immunologic" by people in this website by year, and whether "Adjuvants, Immunologic" was a major or minor topic of these ... "Adjuvants, Immunologic" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adjuvants, Immunologic" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Adjuvants, Immunologic". ...
... outpatient adjuvant immunotherapy regimen administered following standard therapy. Evidence supporting an immunologic basis for ... Adjuvant Immunotherapy to Improve Outcome in High-Risk Pediatric Sarcomas. Melinda S. Merchant, Donna Bernstein, Martha Amoako ... Adjuvant Immunotherapy to Improve Outcome in High-Risk Pediatric Sarcomas. Melinda S. Merchant, Donna Bernstein, Martha Amoako ... Adjuvant Immunotherapy to Improve Outcome in High-Risk Pediatric Sarcomas. Melinda S. Merchant, Donna Bernstein, Martha Amoako ...
Adjuvant GM-CSF improves survival in high-risk stage IIIc melanoma: a single-center study. Am J Clin Oncol 2014;37:467-72. ... Immunologic measurements. Frequencies and activation state (by CD83 expression levels) of migratory DC subsets [i.e., skin- ... Local Adjuvant Treatment with Low-Dose CpG-B Offers Durable Protection against Disease Recurrence in Clinical Stage I-II ... Local Adjuvant Treatment with Low-Dose CpG-B Offers Durable Protection against Disease Recurrence in Clinical Stage I-II ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic. All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryComplex MixturesFreunds Adjuvant ... Freunds Adjuvant. An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, ...
... is a adjuvant (CHEBI:60809) immunological adjuvant (CHEBI:50847) is a immunomodulator ( ... plumbagin (CHEBI:8273) has role immunological adjuvant (CHEBI:50847). poly(I:C) (CHEBI:84491) has role immunological adjuvant ( ... laminarin (CHEBI:6364) has role immunological adjuvant (CHEBI:50847). levamisole (CHEBI:6432) has role immunological adjuvant ( ... swainsonine (CHEBI:9367) has role immunological adjuvant (CHEBI:50847). tomatine (CHEBI:9630) has role immunological adjuvant ( ...
Adjuvant therapy of cancer III / edited by Sydney E. Salmon, Stephen E. Jones.. by Salmon, Sydney E , Jones, Stephen Ellis , ( ... Adjuvants de l immunité : rapport d un groupe scientifique de l OMS [réuni à Genève du 6 au 10 octobre 1975] by WHO ... by WHO Scientific Group on Immunological Adjuvants , World Health Organization Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher: ... by WHO Scientific Group on Immunological Adjuvants , World Health Organization Material type: Book; Format: print Publisher: ...
Vaccine Therapy With Either Neoadjuvant or Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in Treating Women With p53- ... therapy and to see how well they work in treating women who are receiving neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant ... cells in women with p53-overexpressing stage III breast cancer undergoing neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant ... Immunologic. *HIV negative. *No prior or concurrent autoimmune disorder. Other. *Not pregnant or nursing ...
Immunologic. *HIV negative. *No active infection. * No prior or concurrent autoimmune disease requiring treatment with systemic ... Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy: Within 16-28 days after the first vaccination, patients receive fluorouracil (5-FU) IV continuously ... Four to eight weeks following the completion of the last cycle of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy (chemo-radiation therapy ... Four to eight weeks following the completion of the last cycle of adjuvant radiation and chemotherapy (chemo-radiation therapy ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic* * Administration, Intranasal * Animals * Cell Proliferation * Cross Reactions * Emulsions / ... Nasal immunization with a recombinant HIV gp120 and nanoemulsion adjuvant produces Th1 polarized responses and neutralizing ... This study suggests that NE should be evaluated as a mucosal adjuvant for multivalent HIV vaccines. ... adjuvant. Mice and guinea pigs intranasally immunized by the application of recombinant HIV gp120 antigen mixed in NE ...
Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Adjuvants, Immunologic. Angiogenesis Inhibitors. Angiogenesis Modulating ... The HIV-MAG vaccine, IL-12 pDNA adjuvant, and placebos for IL-12 pDNA adjuvant/HIV-MAG vaccines will be delivered IM into the ... The HIV-MAG vaccine, IL-12 pDNA adjuvant, and placebos for IL-12 pDNA adjuvant/HIV-MAG vaccines will be delivered IM into the ... The HIV-MAG vaccine, IL-12 pDNA adjuvant, and placebos for IL-12 pDNA adjuvant/HIV-MAG vaccines will be delivered IM into the ...
Immunologic Factors. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antirheumatic Agents. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating. Alkylating Agents ... Adjuvant Pertuzumab and Trastuzumab in Early HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2017 Jul 13;377(2):122-131. doi: ... A Study of Pertuzumab in Addition to Chemotherapy and Trastuzumab as Adjuvant Therapy in Participants With Human Epidermal ... two-arm study will assess the safety and efficacy of pertuzumab in addition to chemotherapy plus trastuzumab as adjuvant ...
Adjuvants Many antigens evoke suboptimal immunologic responses. Efforts to enhance immunogenicity include mixing antigens with ... Immunologic investigations with oral live typhoid vaccine Ty21a strain. In: Steffen R, Lobel HO, Bradley DJ, eds. Travel ... Preparations with adjuvants should be administered intramuscularly. && Td = tetanus and diphtheria toxoids for use among ... In general, vaccines containing adjuvants should be injected into the muscle mass; when administered subcutaneously or ...
Aluminum (Al), the most commonly used vaccine adjuvant, is a demonstrated neurotoxin and a strong i … ... Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects* * Alum Compounds / adverse effects * Aluminum Compounds / adverse effects ... Hence, adjuvant Al has the potential to induce neuroimmune disorders. When assessing adjuvant toxicity in children, two key ... Do aluminum vaccine adjuvants contribute to the rising prevalence of autism? J Inorg Biochem. 2011 Nov;105(11):1489-99. doi: ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology. *Animals. *Brain Ischemia/blood*. *Brain Ischemia/immunology. *Brain Ischemia/pathology ...
An adjuvant is a substance that enhances the antigen-specific immune response, induces the release of inflammatory cytokines, ... Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage * Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects* * Aluminum Hydroxide / ... An adjuvant is a substance that enhances the antigen-specific immune response, induces the release of inflammatory cytokines, ... Autoimmune/inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants (Shoenfelds Syndrome): Clinical and Immunological Spectrum Expert Rev ...
el); gren af biomedicin (da) Immunologico (it); Immunologique, Immunobiologie (fr); Inmunologia (eu); Immunològica, ...
Vaccine Adjuvants (1) *Antimicrobial Drug Resistance (1) *Biodefense & Related Programs (1) *Emerging Infectious Diseases/ ...
The role of the adjuvant in particular warrants further research before drawing conclusions about the use of adjuvanted ... Immunologic adjuvants Is the Subject Area "Immunologic adjuvants" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... The role of the adjuvant in particular warrants further research before drawing conclusions about the use of adjuvanted ... Our finding raises concerns of lipid containing adjuvants. Animal models have suggested that squalene, although at higher doses ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic.. Subject:. Bacterial vaccines.. Subject:. Aids. Subject:. Bacterial Vaccines -- immunology -- ...
... that this response can be further enhanced by a clinically-relevant adjuvant, and that we can stabilise it such that it can ... Immunologic adjuvants Is the Subject Area "Immunologic adjuvants" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Adjuvants, Immunologic. *Adjuvants, Immunologic: therapeutic use. *Adolescent. *Adult. *Antibodies, Antinuclear. *Antibodies, ...
  • Adjuvants (Latin word adjuvare , meaning "to help or aid") were first described by Ramon as "substances used in combination with a specific antigen that produced a more robust immune response than the antigen alone" ( Ramon, 1924 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • AIDS Cooperative Adjuvant Groups conduct multidisciplinary research on the mechanisms of action of adjuvants, substances that can be combined with a vaccine to enhance immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • In order to overcome this interference of retroviral envelope, we employed plasmids encoding the cytokines interleukin (IL) 1 , IL2, IL12, IL15, IL21, IL28A or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as genetic adjuvants. (bireme.br)
  • Adjuvants may act by a combination of various mechanisms including formation of depot, induction of cytokines and chemokines, recruitment of immune cells, enhancement of antigen uptake and presentation, and promoting antigen transport to draining lymph nodes. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2) Other adjuvants are associated with transient secretion of cytokines and chemokines. (frontiersin.org)
  • These adjuvants might be compounds such as bacterial cell wall components that incite an inflammatory response or cytokines such as IL-12 or GM-CSF, as Dr. Weber described. (meds.com)
  • Immunopharmacology of infectious diseases : vaccine adjuvants and modulators of non-specific resistance, proceedings of the International Symposium on Immunological Adjuvants and Modulators of Non-Specific Resistance to Microbial Infections, held at Columbia, Maryland, June 30-July 3, 1986 / editor, Jeannine A. Majde. (who.int)
  • In this study we have investigated the induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to HIV gp120 monomer immunogen administered intranasally in a novel, oil-in-water nanoemulsion (NE) adjuvant. (nih.gov)
  • Two fundamental challenges plague clinical translation of vaccine-adjuvants: reducing acute toxicities that result from systemic diffusion of many soluble adjuvants, and delivering multiple adjuvants at the same time to mimic the synergistic immune-stimulation of pathogens, while being safe. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, 15 years after the first description of the detection of HIV-specific T helper cells in seronegative individuals, the 'immunologic advantage' possibly conferring resistance to HIV infection can be summarized as being correlated with the elicitation of systemic and mucosal cell-mediated immunity, presumably within favorable genetic and innate immunity settings. (lww.com)
  • Here, we provide clinical evidence that a local conditioning regimen, aimed at immunologic arming of the tumor-draining lymph nodes, may provide durable protection against disease recurrence (median follow-up, 88.8 months). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because immune systems have evolved to recognize these specific antigenic moieties , the presence of an adjuvant in conjunction with the vaccine can greatly increase the innate immune response to the antigen by augmenting the activities of dendritic cells (DCs), lymphocytes , and macrophages by mimicking a natural infection . (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to understand the links between the innate immune response and the adaptive immune response to help substantiate an adjuvant function in enhancing adaptive immune responses to the specific antigen of a vaccine, the following points should be considered: Innate immune response cells such as Dendritic Cells (DCs) engulf pathogens through a process called phagocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peptide-pulsed dendritic cells have superior ability to induce immune-mediated tissue destruction compared to peptide with adjuvant. (sickkids.ca)
  • Monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils, and T cells are all recruited to the site of the inflammation where adjuvant is used, but it is believed that in situ dendritic cells ultimately take up the proteins and peptides, process them if necessary, and present them on the cell surface as peptides capable of binding to the MHC molecules. (meds.com)
  • Although risk of recurrence after surgical removal of clinical stage I-II melanoma is considerable, there is no adjuvant therapy with proven efficacy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Potentially offering durable protection, local low-dose CpG-B administration in early-stage melanoma provides an adjuvant treatment option for a large group of patients currently going untreated despite being at considerable risk for disease recurrence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here, we show that local low-dose CpG type B administration provides an adjuvant treatment option at early stages of melanoma that can offer durable protection against (distant) recurrence with minimal side effects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Alum has been associated with local reactions in some individuals and is believed to be a relatively weak adjuvant for cell-mediated immunity and Ab induction to protein subunits. (jimmunol.org)
  • There are many known adjuvants in widespread use, including aluminium salts, oils and virosomes . (wikipedia.org)
  • At the current time, the only adjuvants proved for use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration are aluminum-based mineral salts (alum) ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The adjuvant dmLT, or more technically LT(R192G/L211A), is an 84-kDa polymeric protein with an AB 5 structure composed of an enzymatically active A subunit (28 kDa) noncovalently associated with a pentameric B subunit (consisting of five 11.5-kDa monomers) as shown in Fig. 1A . (asm.org)
  • We have found that the major outer membrane protein of these organisms, the Neisserial porin PorB, can work as an immune adjuvant due to it recognition by the pattern recognition receptor TOLL-like receptor (TLR) 2. (bu.edu)
  • AHR-5850 was 16.4 and 22.8 times more potent than phenylbutazone in suppressing acute (Evans blue-carrageenan pleural effusion) and chronic (adjuvant-induced arthritis) inflammation, respectively. (springer.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Immunologic Factors" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Immunologic Factors" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Immunologic Factors" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)