Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A blocking of nerve conduction to a specific area by an injection of an anesthetic agent.
Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Anesthesia caused by the breathing of anesthetic gases or vapors or by insufflating anesthetic gases or vapors into the respiratory tract.
Injection of an anesthetic into the nerves to inhibit nerve transmission in a specific part of the body.
Process of administering an anesthetic through injection directly into the bloodstream.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
The period of emergence from general anesthesia, where different elements of consciousness return at different rates.
An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.
A range of methods used to reduce pain and anxiety during dental procedures.
Agents that are administered in association with anesthetics to increase effectiveness, improve delivery, or decrease required dosage.
Gases or volatile liquids that vary in the rate at which they induce anesthesia; potency; the degree of circulation, respiratory, or neuromuscular depression they produce; and analgesic effects. Inhalation anesthetics have advantages over intravenous agents in that the depth of anesthesia can be changed rapidly by altering the inhaled concentration. Because of their rapid elimination, any postoperative respiratory depression is of relatively short duration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p173)
Ultrashort-acting anesthetics that are used for induction. Loss of consciousness is rapid and induction is pleasant, but there is no muscle relaxation and reflexes frequently are not reduced adequately. Repeated administration results in accumulation and prolongs the recovery time. Since these agents have little if any analgesic activity, they are seldom used alone except in brief minor procedures. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p174)
An intravenous anesthetic agent which has the advantage of a very rapid onset after infusion or bolus injection plus a very short recovery period of a couple of minutes. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, 1st ed, p206). Propofol has been used as ANTICONVULSANTS and ANTIEMETICS.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
A group of compounds that contain the general formula R-OCH3.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Drugs that block nerve conduction when applied locally to nerve tissue in appropriate concentrations. They act on any part of the nervous system and on every type of nerve fiber. In contact with a nerve trunk, these anesthetics can cause both sensory and motor paralysis in the innervated area. Their action is completely reversible. (From Gilman AG, et. al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed) Nearly all local anesthetics act by reducing the tendency of voltage-dependent sodium channels to activate.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially to induce anesthesia. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
Nitrogen oxide (N2O). A colorless, odorless gas that is used as an anesthetic and analgesic. High concentrations cause a narcotic effect and may replace oxygen, causing death by asphyxia. It is also used as a food aerosol in the preparation of whipping cream.
A nonflammable, halogenated, hydrocarbon anesthetic that provides relatively rapid induction with little or no excitement. Analgesia may not be adequate. NITROUS OXIDE is often given concomitantly. Because halothane may not produce sufficient muscle relaxation, supplemental neuromuscular blocking agents may be required. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p178)
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
Inhalation anesthesia where the gases exhaled by the patient are rebreathed as some carbon dioxide is simultaneously removed and anesthetic gas and oxygen are added so that no anesthetic escapes into the room. Closed-circuit anesthesia is used especially with explosive anesthetics to prevent fires where electrical sparking from instruments is possible.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
Agents that induce various degrees of analgesia; depression of consciousness, circulation, and respiration; relaxation of skeletal muscle; reduction of reflex activity; and amnesia. There are two types of general anesthetics, inhalation and intravenous. With either type, the arterial concentration of drug required to induce anesthesia varies with the condition of the patient, the desired depth of anesthesia, and the concomitant use of other drugs. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p.173)
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
A cyclohexanone derivative used for induction of anesthesia. Its mechanism of action is not well understood, but ketamine can block NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and may interact with sigma receptors.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Epidural anesthesia administered via the sacral canal.
A barbiturate that is administered intravenously for the induction of general anesthesia or for the production of complete anesthesia of short duration.
A short-acting barbiturate that is effective as a sedative and hypnotic (but not as an anti-anxiety) agent and is usually given orally. It is prescribed more frequently for sleep induction than for sedation but, like similar agents, may lose its effectiveness by the second week of continued administration. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p236)
Intravenous anesthetics that induce a state of sedation, immobility, amnesia, and marked analgesia. Subjects may experience a strong feeling of dissociation from the environment. The condition produced is similar to NEUROLEPTANALGESIA, but is brought about by the administration of a single drug. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed)
An extremely stable inhalation anesthetic that allows rapid adjustments of anesthesia depth with little change in pulse or respiratory rate.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
An adrenergic alpha-2 agonist used as a sedative, analgesic and centrally acting muscle relaxant in VETERINARY MEDICINE.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients respond purposefully to verbal commands, either alone or accompanied by light tactile stimulation. No interventions are required to maintain a patent airway. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Pain during the period after surgery.
A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.
The period during a surgical operation.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Medical methods of either relieving pain caused by a particular condition or removing the sensation of pain during a surgery or other medical procedure.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A local anesthetic that is similar pharmacologically to LIDOCAINE. Currently, it is used most often for infiltration anesthesia in dentistry.
An intravenous anesthetic with a short duration of action that may be used for induction of anesthesia.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A local anesthetic that is chemically related to BUPIVACAINE but pharmacologically related to LIDOCAINE. It is indicated for infiltration, nerve block, and epidural anesthesia. Mepivacaine is effective topically only in large doses and therefore should not be used by this route. (From AMA Drug Evaluations, 1994, p168)
One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
A short-acting opioid anesthetic and analgesic derivative of FENTANYL. It produces an early peak analgesic effect and fast recovery of consciousness. Alfentanil is effective as an anesthetic during surgery, for supplementation of analgesia during surgical procedures, and as an analgesic for critically ill patients.
Drugs used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Surgery restricted to the management of minor problems and injuries; surgical procedures of relatively slight extent and not in itself hazardous to life. (Dorland, 28th ed & Stedman, 25th ed)
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A noble gas with the atomic symbol Xe, atomic number 54, and atomic weight 131.30. It is found in the earth's atmosphere and has been used as an anesthetic.
A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.
Emesis and queasiness occurring after anesthesia.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
Drugs that interrupt transmission at the skeletal neuromuscular junction without causing depolarization of the motor end plate. They prevent acetylcholine from triggering muscle contraction and are used as muscle relaxants during electroshock treatments, in convulsive states, and as anesthesia adjuvants.
Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Compounds with activity like OPIATE ALKALOIDS, acting at OPIOID RECEPTORS. Properties include induction of ANALGESIA or NARCOSIS.
A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
A derivative of CHLORAL HYDRATE that was used as a sedative but has been replaced by safer and more effective drugs. Its most common use is as a general anesthetic in animal experiments.
Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
An opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent.
Devices used to assess the level of consciousness especially during anesthesia. They measure brain activity level based on the EEG.
A type of oropharyngeal airway that provides an alternative to endotracheal intubation and standard mask anesthesia in certain patients. It is introduced into the hypopharynx to form a seal around the larynx thus permitting spontaneous or positive pressure ventilation without penetration of the larynx or esophagus. It is used in place of a facemask in routine anesthesia. The advantages over standard mask anesthesia are better airway control, minimal anesthetic gas leakage, a secure airway during patient transport to the recovery area, and minimal postoperative problems.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An agonist of RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 that is used in veterinary medicine for its analgesic and sedative properties. It is the racemate of DEXMEDETOMIDINE.
Drugs that interrupt transmission of nerve impulses at the skeletal neuromuscular junction. They can be of two types, competitive, stabilizing blockers (NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS) or noncompetitive, depolarizing agents (NEUROMUSCULAR DEPOLARIZING AGENTS). Both prevent acetylcholine from triggering the muscle contraction and they are used as anesthesia adjuvants, as relaxants during electroshock, in convulsive states, etc.
A thiophene-containing local anesthetic pharmacologically similar to MEPIVACAINE.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
Occurence of a patient becoming conscious during a procedure performed under GENERAL ANESTHESIA and subsequently having recall of these events. (From Anesthesiology 2006, 104(4): 847-64.)
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The period following a surgical operation.
A quaternary skeletal muscle relaxant usually used in the form of its bromide, chloride, or iodide. It is a depolarizing relaxant, acting in about 30 seconds and with a duration of effect averaging three to five minutes. Succinylcholine is used in surgical, anesthetic, and other procedures in which a brief period of muscle relaxation is called for.
The intentional interruption of transmission at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION by external agents, usually neuromuscular blocking agents. It is distinguished from NERVE BLOCK in which nerve conduction (NEURAL CONDUCTION) is interrupted rather than neuromuscular transmission. Neuromuscular blockade is commonly used to produce MUSCLE RELAXATION as an adjunct to anesthesia during surgery and other medical procedures. It is also often used as an experimental manipulation in basic research. It is not strictly speaking anesthesia but is grouped here with anesthetic techniques. The failure of neuromuscular transmission as a result of pathological processes is not included here.
Books designed to give factual information or instructions.
Methods of PAIN relief that may be used with or in place of ANALGESICS.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the larynx performed with a specially designed endoscope.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
Androstanes and androstane derivatives which are substituted in any position with one or more hydroxyl groups.
Procedure in which arterial blood pressure is intentionally reduced in order to control blood loss during surgery. This procedure is performed either pharmacologically or by pre-surgical removal of blood.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
Drug-induced depression of consciousness during which patients cannot be easily aroused but respond purposely following repeated painful stimulation. The ability to independently maintain ventilatory function may be impaired. (From: American Society of Anesthesiologists Practice Guidelines)
Facilities equipped for performing surgery.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
A phenethylamine found in EPHEDRA SINICA. PSEUDOEPHEDRINE is an isomer. It is an alpha- and beta-adrenergic agonist that may also enhance release of norepinephrine. It has been used for asthma, heart failure, rhinitis, and urinary incontinence, and for its central nervous system stimulatory effects in the treatment of narcolepsy and depression. It has become less extensively used with the advent of more selective agonists.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
An abdominal hernia with an external bulge in the GROIN region. It can be classified by the location of herniation. Indirect inguinal hernias occur through the internal inguinal ring. Direct inguinal hernias occur through defects in the ABDOMINAL WALL (transversalis fascia) in Hesselbach's triangle. The former type is commonly seen in children and young adults; the latter in adults.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A butyrophenone with general properties similar to those of HALOPERIDOL. It is used in conjunction with an opioid analgesic such as FENTANYL to maintain the patient in a calm state of neuroleptanalgesia with indifference to surroundings but still able to cooperate with the surgeon. It is also used as a premedicant, as an antiemetic, and for the control of agitation in acute psychoses. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p593)
A imidazole derivative that is an agonist of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS. It is closely-related to MEDETOMIDINE, which is the racemic form of this compound.
Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.
An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
The large network of nerve fibers which distributes the innervation of the upper extremity. The brachial plexus extends from the neck into the axilla. In humans, the nerves of the plexus usually originate from the lower cervical and the first thoracic spinal cord segments (C5-C8 and T1), but variations are not uncommon.
Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A disorder in which the adductor muscles of the VOCAL CORDS exhibit increased activity leading to laryngeal spasm. Laryngismus causes closure of the VOCAL FOLDS and airflow obstruction during inspiration.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.
Monoquaternary homolog of PANCURONIUM. A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with shorter duration of action than pancuronium. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination as well as its short duration of action and easy reversibility provide advantages over, or alternatives to, other established neuromuscular blocking agents.
A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.
A phenothiazine that is used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Injections made into a vein for therapeutic or experimental purposes.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Introduction of substances into the body using a needle and syringe.
A potent local anesthetic of the ester type used for surface and spinal anesthesia.
A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four CERVICAL SPINAL CORD segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders, and back of the head. It also distributes motor fibers to muscles of the cervical SPINAL COLUMN, infrahyoid muscles, and the DIAPHRAGM.
Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.
A class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are GABA MODULATORS used as HYPNOTICS AND SEDATIVES, as ANESTHETICS, or as ANTICONVULSANTS.
A non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent with short duration of action. Its lack of significant cardiovascular effects and its lack of dependence on good kidney function for elimination provide clinical advantage over alternate non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Sharp instruments used for puncturing or suturing.
Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.
The principal alkaloid in opium and the prototype opiate analgesic and narcotic. Morphine has widespread effects in the central nervous system and on smooth muscle.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.
The surgical removal of a tooth. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.
Operative procedures performed on the SKIN.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
Proposed anesthetic with possible anticonvulsant and sedative properties.
Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.
Surgery performed on the female genitalia.
A 3:1 mixture of alfaxalone with alfadolone acetate that previously had been used as a general anesthetic. It is no longer actively marketed. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1445)
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
Compounds capable of relieving pain without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
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Pentobarbital-sensitive EDHF comediates ACh-induced arteriolar dilation in the hamster microcirculation. (1/245)

It is unclear to what extent the endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) contributes to the control of microcirculatory blood flow in vivo. We analyzed, by intravital microscopy in hamster muscles, the potential role of EDHF along the vascular tree under stimulated (ACh) or basal conditions. Experiments were performed in conscious as well as anesthetized (pentobarbital, urethan) animals. Additionally, cellular effects of the potential EDHF were studied in isolated small arteries. In pentobarbital-anesthetized animals, treatment with Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA; 30 micromol/l) and indomethacin (3 micromol/l) reduced the dilation in response to 10 micromol/l ACh from 60 +/- 6 to 20 +/- 4%. This nitric oxide/prostaglandin-independent dilation (NPID), which was of a similar magnitude in large and small arterioles, was abolished by potassium depolarization or charybdotoxin (ChTX, 1 micromol/l) but not by glibenclamide. In conscious animals, NPID amounted to 33 +/- 3%. The inhibitor of the P-450 monooxygenase 17-octadecynoic acid (ODYA) reduced NPID further to 9 +/- 4%. ChTX abolished the NPID and also reduced basal diameters (by -11 +/- 3%). The induction of anesthesia with pentobarbital reduced NPID (to 12 +/- 6%), whereas urethan anesthesia was without effect. Pentobarbital also reduced the ACh-induced hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle in isolated arteries, whereas ChTX abolished it. This study suggests that a considerable part of the ACh dilation in the microcirculation is mediated by EDHF, which also contributes to the control of basal tone in conscious animals. The direct inhibitory effect of pentobarbital and ODYA supports the idea that "microcirculatory" EDHF is a product of the cytochrome P-450 pathway. The role of EDHF might be underestimated in pentobarbital-anesthetized animals.  (+info)

Dose effect and benefits of glycopyrrolate in the treatment of bradycardia in anesthetized dogs. (2/245)

This study evaluated the effectiveness of glycopyrrolate (0.005 or 0.01 mg/kg body weight (BW)) in anesthetized dogs (n = 40) for reversal of bradycardia (< 65 beats/min). Following random intravenous (i.v.) treatment, heart rate was determined at 5 min and, if it was < or = 70 beats/min, the lower dose was repeated. A 2-way analysis of variance considered dose and animal size (< or = 10 kg, > 10 kg) effects (P < 0.05). Glycopyrrolate produced a significant increase in heart rate and infrequent tachycardia (< or = 150 beats/min), which was not dose-related. The size of the dog produced a significant effect on baseline heart rate (higher in small), rate following the first dose (lower in small), and requirement for retreatment (47% in small, 13% in large). In a separate group of anesthetized dogs (n = 20), the blood pressure effect of glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg BW, i.v.) treatment of bradycardia (65-85 beats/min, weight-adjusted) was studied. A significant increase in systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure was produced. In conclusion, the effective dose of glycopyrrolate treatment is size-related and produces a beneficial effect on blood pressure.  (+info)

Dual effects of pentobarbital on rat sacral dorsal commissural neurons in vitro. (3/245)

AIM: To study the effects of pentobarbital (PB) on acutely dissociated rat sacral dorsal commissural neurons (SDCN). METHODS: Nystatin-perforated patch clamp recording was used. RESULTS: (1) At a holding potential of -40 mV, PB induced inward Cl- current (IPB) in a concentration-dependent manner with a EC50 (95% confidence limits) of 416 (385-477) mumol.L-1 and a Hill coefficient of 1.08. (2) Picrotoxin reversibly blocked IPB. (3) The reversal potential of IPB was close to the Cl- equilibrium potential. (4) PB enhanced GABA-induced Cl- influx (IGABA). In the presence of PB 30 mumol.L-1, the EC50 (95% confidence limits) of IGABA decreased from 6.9 (5.4-8.4) mumol.L-1 to 3.5 (2.9-4.1) mumol.L-1. CONCLUSION: PB had dual effects on SDCN, facilitated GABAA receptor-mediated currents and at higher concentrations induced Cl- influx itself.  (+info)

Glucocorticoid effects on mesotelencephalic dopamine neurotransmission. (4/245)

Multiple neurochemical estimates were used to examine peripheral corticosterone (CORT) effects in dopaminergic terminal regions. Acute CORT administration, which elevated plasma CORT (5 h), slightly decreased dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) to dopamine (DA) ratios in the striatum but not in other regions examined. Two weeks of adrenalectomy (ADX) increased both medial prefrontal cortex DOPAC/DA and homovanillic acid (HVA)/DA and striatal HVA/DA. A reciprocal pattern of changes was observed with CORT replacement in ADX animals. In contrast, CORT replacement in ADX animals did not significantly influence tyrosine hydroxylase content, basal dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) accumulation after NSD 1015 treatment or the decline in DA after alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, suggesting that neither DA neuronal activity nor release are altered by CORT. Moreover, neither gamma-hydroxybutyric acid lactone-induced increases in DOPA accumulation or stress-induced increases in DA utilization were influenced by CORT replacement, indicating that neither autoreceptor regulation of DA synthesis nor acute stress regulation of DA utilization are changed by CORT. The findings are most consistent with direct inhibition of basal DA metabolism in the medial prefrontal cortex and striatum. The possible physiological and behavioral significance of this inhibition is being further explored.  (+info)

Gamma-hydroxybutyrate and cocaine administration increases mRNA expression of dopamine D1 and D2 receptors in rat brain. (5/245)

The effects of acute and repeated gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and cocaine administration on D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression were examined using in situ hybridization histochemistry in different rat brain structures rich in GHB receptors. Six hours after a single GHB administration (500 mg/kg i.p.), an increase in D1 and D2 mRNA expression was observed in almost all regions examined; whereas, acute cocaine injection (20 mg/kg i.p.) had no effect. Repeated exposure to GHB (500 mg/kg i.p. twice daily) for 10 days, followed by a 14-h withdrawal period, induced increasing effects on D1 and D2 dopamine receptor mRNA expression, similar to those caused by chronic treatment with cocaine (20 mg/kg i.p. once a day). These effects of GHB and cocaine on dopamine receptor mRNA expression could be a consequence, for both compounds, of the modulation of dopaminergic activity; thus, supporting the benefit of GHB in cocaine substitution therapy.  (+info)

Echocardiographic assessment of cardiac function in conscious and anesthetized mice. (6/245)

Using a high-frequency linear transducer (15L8), we studied 1) the feasibility of performing echocardiography in nonanesthetized mice compared with mice given pentobarbital sodium (Pento) or a mixture of ketamine and xylazine and 2) the feasibility of echocardiographic evaluation of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, dilatation, and function in mice with two-kidney, one-clip hypertension or myocardial infarction (MI). Heart rate (HR) in awake mice was 658 +/- 9 beats/min; Pento and ketamine plus xylazine reduced HR to 377 +/- 11 and 293 +/- 19 beats/min, respectively, associated with a significant decrease in shortening fraction (SF), ejection fraction (EF), and cardiac output (CO) and an increase in LV end-diastolic (LVEDD) and end-systolic dimensions (LVESD). Mice with 4 wk of two-kidney, one-clip hypertension had increased LV mass (15.62 +/- 0. 62 vs. 22.17 +/- 1.79 mg) without altered LV dimensions, SF, EF, or CO. Mice studied 4 wk post-MI exhibited obvious LV dilatation and systolic dysfunction, as evidenced by increased LVEDD and LVESD and decreased SF, EF, and CO. Our findings clearly show the adverse impact of anesthesia on basal cardiac function and the difficulty in interpreting data obtained from anesthetized mice. We believe this is the first study to demonstrate the feasibility of using echocardiography to assess cardiovascular function in the nonanesthetized mouse.  (+info)

Antinociceptive effect of R-(+)-hyoscyamine on the conjunctival reflex test in rabbits. (7/245)

R-(+)-Hyoscyamine (1-10 microg/kg, s.c.) dose-dependently increased the local anesthetic effect of procaine (50 microg/ml) and lidocaine (50 microg/ml) in the conjunctival reflex test in the rabbit. This potentiating effect is completely prevented by the M1 antagonist dicyclomine (10 mg/kg, s.c.). The intensity of R-(+)-hyoscyamine antinociception was comparable to that induced by morphine (2 mg/kg, s.c.) and minaprine (15 mg/kg, s.c.), used as analgesic reference drugs. In the same experimental conditions, the S-(-)-enantiomer of atropine (0.1-10 microg/kg, s.c.), was completely ineffective. The present results confirm the ability of R-(+)-hyoscyamine to produce a paradoxical antinociceptive effect mediated by a cholinergic mechanism not only in rodents but also in the rabbit.  (+info)

Closed-loop control of propofol anaesthesia. (8/245)

We describe the use of a closed-loop system to control depth of propofol anaesthesia automatically. We used the auditory evoked potential index (AEPindex) as the input signal of this system to validate it as a true measure of depth of anaesthesia. Auditory evoked potentials were acquired and processed in real time to provide the AEPindex. The AEPindex was used in a proportional integral (PI) controller to determine the target blood concentration of propofol required to induce and maintain general anaesthesia automatically. We studied 100 spontaneously breathing patients. The mean AEPindex before induction of anaesthesia was 73.5 (SD 17.6), during surgical anaesthesia 37.8 (4.5) and at recovery of consciousness 89.7 (17.9). Twenty-two patients required assisted ventilation before incision. After incision, ventilation was assisted in four of these 22 patients for more than 5 min. There was no incidence of intraoperative awareness and all patients were prepared to have the same anaesthetic in future. Movement interfering with surgery was minimal. Cardiovascular stability and overall control of anaesthesia were satisfactory.  (+info)

We propose an open label, proof of concept study evaluating the effect of sodium oxybate on insomnia in schizophrenia. The primary hypothesis of the study is that patients treated with sodium oxybate will show improved subjective sleep as measured by the overall Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Secondarily, we expect superior reduction in total psychopathology and PANSS factor scales (PANSS), polysomnographic measures, and neurocognition (MATRICS).. Design and dosage schedule:. We plan to enroll eight hospitalized patients with diagnostic & statistical manual text revision (DSM-IV-TR) schizophrenia and insomnia related to schizophrenia. The study will include: a one-week evaluation period, which will include tapering of any hypnotics, baseline diagnostic, psychopathology, neurocognitive, electrophysiological and polysomnographic measurements. Patients will then begin a four-week trial of adjunctive sodium oxybate, with a three-week taper of sodium oxybate to ...
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1. The threshold pain stimulus was elevated in cats after doses of 3.0-15.0 mgm. per kilogram of body weight of 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride intraperitoneally.. 2. Local anesthesia was produced by tropical application of solutions of the hydrochloride or free base of 2-amino-6-methylheptane to rabbits eyes.. 3. Intravenously in dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride exhibited 1/500-1/1000 the pressor activity of epinephrine.. 4. As determined with a Cushny Myocardiograph, 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride was found to cause an increase in cardiac rate and amplitude of contraction.. 5. Intravenously in dogs, anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, doses of 0.5 to 1.0 mgm. per kilogram of body weight of 2-amino-6-methylheptane hydrochloride had no detectable effect on the small intestine, detrusor of the urinary bladder, urine secretion or respiration.. 6. In general, concentrations of 1:10,000 to 1:200,000 of 2-amino-6-methylheptane ...
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Adults can follow the XYREM® (sodium oxybate) step-by-step dosing instructions and learn about the dosing schedule. See XYREM® prescribing information & BOXED Warning about serious side effects, CNS depression, misuse and abuse.
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disabling, unexplained disorder characterized by physical and mental exhaustion. Complaints of disturbed and unrefreshing sleep are very common in CFS patients, however, the relationship between (disturbed) sleep quality and fatigue is still not fully elucidated. To evaluate the effect of sodium oxybate on fatigue and to explore the interdependence of sleep quality and fatigue in CFS, a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled cross-over trial with sodium oxybate is carried out in CFS patients.. The aim of this study is to address the issue of the effect of sodium oxybate on fatigue as a presenting symptom in chronic fatigue (CF) and CFS patients, in the absence of underlying medical or psychiatric illness. The answer to this question may shed further light on the enigmatic relationship between sleep and fatigue. We also want to investigate the effect of sodium oxybate on sleepiness and general health in the same target population.. Zero-hypothesis: there ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential Effects of Diazepam and Pentobarbital on Mood and Behavior. AU - Griffiths, Roland R. AU - Bigelow, George. AU - Liebson, Ira. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The effects of administering moderately high doses of diazepam and pentobarbital sodium for five consecutive days to subjects with histories of sedative drug abuse were examined. The two drugs produced similar dose-related effects on psychomotor performance, daytime sleeping, and ratings of magnitude of drug effects. Diazepam, but not pentobarbital, produced dose-related decreases in staff ratings of subjects mood and social interactions and increases in staff ratings of subjects hostility, complaining, and unusual behavior. During the placebo washout periods that followed drug administration, diazepam, but not pentobarbital, was associated with carry-over effects. The diazepam-produced deterioration in mood and social behavior was a subtle effect observed in a population for which usual therapeutic indications ...
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Eisai Corporation of North America has received a not approvable letter from the FDA, which outlines a pathway to potential approval of fospropofol disodium for use by appropriately trained physicians. Eisais Fospropofol disodium injection has been in review at the FDA for use as an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent for sedation in adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. The fospropofol disodium injection is a product candidate in development for sedation of adult patients undergoing diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. Mary Hedley, executive vice president of Eisai, said: We look forward to working with the FDA to help ensure that appropriately trained physicians have this new option for patients. We believe that our clinical data submitted to the FDA supports the approval of fospropofol disodium as a potential new option for sedation of patients undergoing important diagnostic or therapeutic procedures.. ...
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WASHINGTON -- The FDA has told Jazz Pharmaceutical it cant approve sodium oxybate (JZP-6) -- also known as GHB -- in its current form for treating fibromyalgia.
The FDA is reminding healthcare professionals and patients that combined use of Xyrem (sodium oxybate; Jazz) solution with alcohol or central nervous system (CNS) depressant drugs can impair consciousness and may lead to respiratory depression.
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Well I just had some good news regarding a FIBROMYALGIA HOSPITAL BEING BUILT?! (see bottom of page) I received this from a blog writer while I was looking up Sodium oxybate and it efficacy for Fibromyalgia Syndrome.. It is a very, very sad state of affairs and I am not impressed at all at the way medicine is being handled either here or over in America. After an impressive clinical trials of Sodium oxybate that worked so well that pateients were balling tears over the relief the morons on the FDA panel did that which I absolutely hate, actually took these positive trials and said they were shit and not proof!. Why?. Because this drug can be used like a drug and has drug like effects on people?! ARe they for fecking real?! Lol, I have never heard anyone sound so bloody stupid in all my life! What is a moron like that doing on a board to decide what drugs get approved or not?!. If this is because of drugs getting out there then your doing something very wrong and to refuse patients like me who ...
PALO ALTO, Calif., Feb 18, 2010 /PRNewswire via COMTEX/ -- Jazz Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq: JAZZ) announced today that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for filing the New Drug Application (NDA) for JZP-6 (sodium oxybate) for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Based on a standard 10-month review, the target date for the FDA to complete its review of the NDA under the Prescription Drug User Fee Act (PDUFA) is October 11, 2010. The submission is based on a comprehensive clinical development program including results from two Phase III clinical trials. In both trials, sodium oxybate significantly decreased pain and fatigue as well as improved daily function, patient global impression of change, and sleep quality. Sodium oxybate was generally well tolerated, with the majority of adverse events reported being mild to moderate in nature and similar to those seen in previous trials with narcolepsy. Sodium oxybate has not been evaluated by regulators for the treatment of ...
Oculomotor nerve stimulation causes vasoconstriction in the anterior uvea, which is due partly to a muscarinic mechanism and partly to a non-sympathetic aminergic mechanism. The labelled microsphere method was used to analyze the effect of pentobarbital anesthesia on the resting cholinergic vasomotor tone in the anterior uvea and to determine the relationship between stimulation frequency and vasomotor response. An attempt was made also to ascertain whether the aminergic part of the vasoconstriction is caused by release of 5-hydroxytryptamine or norepinephrine. Induction of pentobarbital anesthesia caused a marked vasodilation in the iris and the ciliary processes and a subsequent muscarinic blockade had no effect on the blood flow. A similar result was obtained in the optic nerve. In the choroid plexus, heart muscle, pineal body and coecum, pentobarbital anesthesia caused vasodilation and a subsequent muscarinic blockade caused vasoconstriction. In the brain pentobarbital anesthesia caused a marked
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According to a report by Pharmalive, the European Commission has approved sodium oxybate (Xyrem®) for treating narcolepsy with cataplexy in adult patients.. Narcolepsy is a disorder which typically begins with excessive daytime sleepiness during the second and third decades of life, progressing to include disturbed night-time sleep, cataplexy, sleep paralysis and hypnagogic hallucinations (hallucinations while falling asleep).. The most commonly reported adverse drug reactions with sodium oxybate are dizziness, nausea, and headache, all occurring in 10% to 20% of patients.. National Electronic Library for Medicines 13/03/2007. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of the effects of propofol and pentobarbital on left ventricular adaptation to an increased afterload. AU - Kolh, Philippe. AU - Lambermont, Bernard. AU - Ghuysen, Alexandre. AU - Tchana-Sato, Vincent. AU - Dogné, Jean-Michel. AU - DOrio, Vincent. AU - Gerard, Paul. AU - Larbuisson, Robert. AU - Limet, Raymond. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - The purpose of this study was to compare the hemodynamic effects of pentobarbital and propofol and their effects on cardiovascular adaptation to an abrupt increase in left ventricular afterload. Experiments were performed in 12 open-chest pigs instrumented for measurement of aortic pressure and flow, and left ventricular pressure and volume. In one group (n = 6), anesthesia was obtained with sodium pentobarbital (3 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)), and, in the second group B (n = 6), with propofol (10 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Both groups received sufentanil (0.5 microg x kg(-1) x h(-1)) and pancuronium bromide (0.1 mg x kg(-1)). Left ...
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Hot flash scores were lower in the clonidine group than the placebo group at week 12 ( p = .03), and lower in the venlaxafine group than placebo, though not statistically significant ( p = .07). Over the 12-week period, reduction in the venlaxafine group was 41% ( P,.001), 26% in the clonidine group ( p=.045), and 29% in the placebo group (p,.001). Those on venlaxafine tended to have some loss of appetite ( p = .003) as well as symptoms of nausea. Sleep and sexual function were not different between the two treatment groups. At week 12, anxiety and depression scores were higher in the venlafaxine than the clonidine group. (p = .03). Significantly lower hot flash scores began in the venlafaxine group compared to placebo in weeks 1-4 (p =.01), and in the clonidine group, lower scores began compared to placebo in weeks 5-8 ( p = .04). ...
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Adjuvants are used to improve or enhance an immune response to antigens. Most adjuvants provide for an injection site, antigen ... allowable volumes of blood per collection and safety precautions including appropriate restraint and sedation or anesthesia of ... This includes adjuvant selection, routes and sites of administration, injection volumes per site and number of sites per animal ... Many adjuvants also contain or act directly as: surfactants which promote concentration of protein antigens molecules over a ...
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For anesthesia, he took oral barbiturates. He also took hydrocortisone and prepared a canister of vaporized adrenalin, readying ... luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and Freund's adjuvant. When this produced an abscess at the injection site, he resorted ... For local anesthesia, he injected lidocaine hydrochloride into each successive tissue layer during the opening. He controlled ... Wiener, Joseph (1916). "Appendectomy Under Local Anesthesia". Journal of the American Medical Association. LXVI (15): 1078-1079 ...
... adjuvants, anesthesia MeSH D27.505.954.427.020 - alcohol deterrents MeSH D27.505.954.427.040 - analgesics MeSH D27.505.954.427. ... adjuvants, immunologic MeSH D27.505.696.477.274.400 - interferon inducers MeSH D27.505.696.477.656 - immunosuppressive agents ... adjuvants, pharmaceutic MeSH D27.720.744.523 - ointment bases MeSH D27.720.744.771 - preservatives, pharmaceutical MeSH D27.720 ...
Reddy S, Patt RB (November 1994). "The benzodiazepines as adjuvant analgesics". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 9 (8): ... Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of ... General anesthesia (as opposed to sedation or regional anesthesia) has three main goals: lack of movement (paralysis), ... Alice Magaw, born in November 1860, is often referred to as "The Mother of Anesthesia". Her renown as the personal anesthesia ...
Rarely general anesthesia will be used, in patients with an inability to cooperate during surgery. An initial pocket is created ... Alternatively, non-chemotherapeutic adjuvants can be implemented to prevent super scarring by wound modulation, such as the ... A shield is applied to cover the eye until anesthesia has worn off (that also anesthetizes the optic nerve) and vision resumes ... This outpatient procedure was most commonly performed under monitored anesthesia care using a retrobulbar block or peribulbar ...
Adjuvants improve the safety of IVRA by promoting anesthetic action and minimizing side effects. For example, benzodiazepine ... Intravenous regional anesthesia (IVRA) or Bier's block anesthesia is an anesthetic technique on the body's extremities where a ... The use of tourniquets and injected anesthesia to induce localized anesthesia was first introduced by August Bier in 1908. He ... Anesthesia August Bier Regional Anesthesia Surgical Tourniquets Matt, Corinna (2007). "Intravenous regional anaesthesia". ...
In one study in 2007, scans were taken of patients exposed to adjuvant chemotherapy. Significantly altered blood flow in the ... Menopause, the biological impact of a surgical procedure with anesthesia, medications prescribed in addition to the ... Matsuda T, Takayama T, Tashiro M, Nakamura Y, Ohashi Y, Shimozuma K (2005). "Mild cognitive impairment after adjuvant ... 2007). "Smaller regional volumes of brain gray and white matter demonstrated in breast cancer survivors exposed to adjuvant ...
Epidural anesthesia and hyperbaric oxygen therapy also have vasodilator effect. There is moderate certainty evidence that ... Streptokinase has been proposed as adjuvant therapy in some cases. Despite the clear presence of inflammation in this disorder ... Hussein EA, el Dorri A (1993). "Intra-arterial streptokinase as adjuvant therapy for complicated Buerger's disease: early ...
Derry CJ, Derry S, Moore RA (December 2014). "Caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant for acute pain in adults". The Cochrane ... Horlocker TT, Cousins MJ, Bridenbaugh PO, Carr DL (2008). Cousins and Bridenbaugh's Neural Blockade in Clinical Anesthesia and ... report less labor pain and are less likely to use epidural anesthesia during childbirth, or suffer from chest pain after ...
The addition of another modality of treatment is referred to as adjuvant (literally helping) therapy, compared to its use as ... Patient factors also need to be taken into account, including general baseline functionality, smoking history, anesthesia risk ... The adequacy of surgical resection is a major factor in determining the role of postoperative adjuvant therapy. In the presence ... Such patient selection may enable them to avoid the morbidity of additional adjuvant treatment. In the absence of favourable ...
It is used as an adjuvant, adulterant, and diluent to street drugs such as cocaine and heroin. It is one of the three common ... The use of lidocaine for spinal anesthesia may lead to an increased risk of transient neurological symptoms, a painful ... His colleague Bengt Lundqvist performed the first injection anesthesia experiments on himself. It was first marketed in 1949. ... Kumar M, Chawla R, Goyal M (2015). "Topical anesthesia". Journal of Anaesthesiology Clinical Pharmacology. 31 (4): 450-6. doi: ...
Aside from effects in the brain, the general physical risks of ECT are similar to those of brief general anesthesia.: 259 ... Limited evidence suggests stimulants, such as amphetamine and modafinil, may be effective in the short term, or as adjuvant ... ECT is administered under anesthesia with a muscle relaxant. Electroconvulsive therapy can differ in its application in three ...
... anesthesia commonly causes tonic-clonic movements (greater than 10% of people) and rarely hypertonia. Vomiting can be ... "Ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for cancer pain" (PDF). The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 6 (9): CD003351. doi: ... 1 Anesthesia and Analgesia in Rodents, Washington College, 2012, pp. 1-2, archived from the original on 4 August 2013, ... The use of ketamine in anesthesia reflects its characteristics. It is a drug of choice for short-term procedures when muscle ...
Several TLR ligands are in clinical development or being tested in animal models as vaccine adjuvants, with the first clinical ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 112 (2): 454-9. doi:10.1213/ANE.0b013e3182025b15. PMID 21081778. S2CID 12295407. Hook MA, Washburn SN ... NOD-like receptor Immunologic adjuvant RIG-I-like receptor Toll-Like+Receptors at the US National Library of Medicine Medical ... Toussi DN, Massari P (April 2014). "Immune Adjuvant Effect of Molecularly-defined Toll-Like Receptor Ligands". Vaccines. 2 (2 ...
Improvements in anesthesia and blood transfusions made it possible for surgeons to perform more extensive operations". Such was ... He was Chairman of the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. His work ... "Pathobiology of small invasive breast cancers without metastases" (T1a/b, N0, M0): National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel ... "Postoperative radiotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer: results of National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project ( ...
Depending on the kind of operation, anesthesia may be provided locally or as general anesthesia. Spinal anesthesia may be used ... Postoperative therapy may include adjuvant treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or administration of medication ... Modern pain control through anesthesia was discovered in the mid-19th century. Before the advent of anesthesia, surgery was a ... if general anesthesia was administered). After completion of surgery, the person is transferred to the post anesthesia care ...
Anesthesia recovery in young animals is usually more rapid and there are fewer complications. One study found that in female ... with an adjuvant, latest US patent RE37,224 (as of 2006-06-06), CA patent 2137263 (issued 1999-06-15). Product commercially ...
In the 19th century, Seishu Hanaoka, a Japanese surgeon, performed the first surgery in the world under general anesthesia. ... the availability of adjuvant radiation, and the willingness of the patient to accept higher rates of tumor recurrences after ... Many more advancements in anesthesia and aseptic technique were made during this century. William Roentgen discovered x-rays in ... At this time, surgeries were still performed without proper aseptics and without anesthesia. ...
Deva S, Jameson M (15 August 2012). "Histamine type 2 receptor antagonists as adjuvant treatment for resected colorectal cancer ... 275-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. Anita Gupta; Nina Singh-Radcliff (12 March 2013). Pharmacology in Anesthesia Practice. Oxford ...
The advantages of nerve blocks over general anesthesia include faster recovery, monitored anesthesia care vs. intubation with ... These drugs are often combined with adjuvants, drugs that boost the effect of each other, with the end goal of increasing the ... Journal of Clinical Anesthesia. 35: 524-529. doi:10.1016/j.jclinane.2016.08.041. ISSN 0952-8180. "About Regional Anesthesia / ... "Regional anesthesia for surgery". ASRA. Retrieved 4 August 2017. Sabanathan, S.; Mearns, A. J.; Smith, P. J. Bickford; Eng, J ...
Biopsy samples are collected under general anesthesia, either through direct laryngoscopy or fiberoptic bronchoscopy. Little is ... Avelino MA, Zaiden TC, Gomes RO (September 2013). "Surgical treatment and adjuvant therapies of recurrent respiratory ... Bevacizumab has shown promising result as an adjuvant therapy in the management of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. ...
Caraceni A, Zecca E, Martini C, De Conno F (June 1999). "Gabapentin as an adjuvant to opioid analgesia for neuropathic cancer ... Techniques in Regional Anesthesia and Pain Management. 17 (2013): 188-94. doi:10.1053/j.trap.2014.07.006. "Pediatric Pain ... Clonidine, an alpha-2 receptor agonist, is another drug that has found use as an analgesic adjuvant. In 2021, researchers ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 127 (2): 529-538. doi:10.1213/ANE.0000000000002718. PMID 29239947. S2CID 33903526. Dunn KM, Saunders ...
Contrary to popular belief, Ganoderma lucidum mushroom extract, as an adjuvant for cancer immunotherapy, appears to have the ... Colquhoun D, Novella SP (June 2013). "Acupuncture is theatrical placebo" (PDF). Anesthesia and Analgesia. 116 (6): 1360-3. doi: ... A 2013 editorial in the American journal Anesthesia and Analgesia stated that acupuncture studies produced inconsistent results ...
This suggests that adjuvant stem cell transplantation can increase the efficacy of PVE without increasing risk. Abdalla, E. K ... but the majority is now done percutaneously under conscious sedation and local anesthesia by an interventional radiologist. ... as opposed to just being used as an adjuvant therapy for liver resection. Studies have shown that bone marrow-derived stem ...
General anesthesia is less commonly used for cryosurgery meaning it can often be performed in an outpatient clinic setting. It ... It may be used instead of surgery or after surgery in early-stage prostate cancer (adjuvant radiotherapy). Radiation treatments ... Thompson IM, Tangen CM, Paradelo J (2009). "Adjuvant radiotherapy for pathological T3N0M0 prostate cancer significantly reduces ... adjuvant radiation therapy may offer improved survival.[citation needed] Surgery may also be offered when a cancer is not ...
Falcetta FS, Medeiros LR, Edelweiss MI, Pohlmann PR, Stein AT, Rosa DD (November 2016). "Adjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy ... the surgeon is not able to microscopically confirm clear margins of cervical tissue once the woman is under general anesthesia ... Tangjitgamol S, Katanyoo K, Laopaiboon M, Lumbiganon P, Manusirivithaya S, Supawattanabodee B (December 2014). "Adjuvant ... which then usually requires adjuvant radiation therapy), or cisplatin chemotherapy followed by hysterectomy. When cisplatin is ...
The procedure is done under spinal anesthesia, a resectoscope is inserted inside the penis and the extra prostatic tissue is ... Rane JK, Pellacani D, Maitland NJ (October 2012). "Advanced prostate cancer--a case for adjuvant differentiation therapy". ... "Expression of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein in human prostate cancer specimens with and without neo-adjuvant hormonal ...
This can make it a useful adjuvant treatment to use alongside opioid drugs in the treatment of chronic pain conditions such as ... Anesthesia and Analgesia. 87 (5): 1117-20. doi:10.1213/00000539-199811000-00025. PMID 9806692. Rezvani A, Stokes KB, Rhoads DL ...
"General anesthesia versus local anesthesia for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair". Medicine. 97 (32): e11789. doi:10.1097/MD. ... Durability and problems such as 'endoleaks' may require careful surveillance and adjuvant procedures to ensure the success of ... The procedure can be performed under general, regional (spinal or epidural) or even local anesthesia. Access to the patient's ...
Punke MA, Friederich P (May 2007). "Amitriptyline is a potent blocker of human Kv1.1 and Kv7.2/7.3 channels". Anesthesia and ... The Role of Adjuvant Analgesics, a Systematic Review". Pain Pract. 17 (3): 409-419. doi:10.1111/papr.12459. PMID 27207115. ...
Watoh Y, Hirosawa J, Saitoh N, Oda M, Sato T, Yamauchi N (1989). "[Isoflurane anesthesia for a child with myotonic dystrophy ... a new class of adjuvant?". Journal of Immunology. 193 (12): 6031-40. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1302795. PMC 4258475. PMID 25392529. ...
... intraplantar complete Freund's adjuvant and plantar incision). The GS score significantly increased in all pain models and the ... Journal of Anesthesia. 28 (6): 932-936. doi:10.1007/s00540-014-1821-y. PMID 24676769. S2CID 25524002.{{cite journal}}: CS1 ...
In 1885, William Halsted demonstrated nerve-block anesthesia, and James Leonard Corning demonstrated peridural anesthesia. 1898 ... It has also been promoted as an adjuvant for the treatment of cocaine dependence. One study on coca leaf infusion used with ... Hamdan AL, Sataloff RT, Hawkshaw MJ (2022). "Topical Anesthesia in Office-Based Laryngeal Surgery". Office-Based Laryngeal ... Yentis SM, Vlassakov KV (March 1999). "Vassily von Anrep, forgotten pioneer of regional anesthesia". Anesthesiology. 90 (3): ...
... such as adverse reaction to anesthesia, hematoma (post-operative bleeding), late hematoma (post-operative bleeding after 6 ... especially in women who received adjuvant external radiation therapy. Moreover, besides breast reconstruction, breast cancer ...
Weaver JM (2013). "New FDA black box warning for codeine: how will this affect dentists?". Anesthesia Progress. 60 (2): 35-36. ... a relationship that appears to persist even with adjuvant bisphosphonate therapy. However, because the relationship between ...
Kushner, Rose (1984), Is Aggressive Adjuvant Chemotherapy the Halsted Radical of the '80s?, CA Cancer J Clin 1984; 34:345-351. ... were performed in a single surgical operation while the patient was under anesthesia. She had difficulty finding a doctor who ...
Danesi, R; Pasqualetti G; Giovannetti E; Del Tacca M (May 2007). "The role of pharmacogenetics in adjuvant treatment of non- ... Ablation is generally a lower risk procedure compared to surgery; it requires only local anesthesia and sometimes conscious ...
... regional anesthesia is often employed to mitigate the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications after general anesthesia-- ... Postoperative Pulmonary Complications With Adjuvant Regional Anesthesia Versus General Anesthesia Alone. A Sub-analysis of the ... Conclusion: After adjusting for surgical and patient complexity, adjuvant regional anesthesia versus general anesthesia alone ... Patients were classified as receiving either adjuvant regional anesthesia or general anesthesia alone. Predefined pulmonary ...
... regional anesthesia is often employed to mitigate the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications after general anesthesia-- ... Postoperative Pulmonary Complications With Adjuvant Regional Anesthesia Versus General Anesthesia Alone. A Sub-analysis of the ... Conclusion: After adjusting for surgical and patient complexity, adjuvant regional anesthesia versus general anesthesia alone ... Patients were classified as receiving either adjuvant regional anesthesia or general anesthesia alone. Predefined pulmonary ...
Copyright © 2022 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd & American Society for Regional Anesthesia & Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. ... Route of Administration Affects Outcomes of Dexamethasone as an Adjuvant for Peripheral Nerve Blocks ... Route of Administration Affects Outcomes of Dexamethasone as an Adjuvant for Peripheral Nerve Blocks ...
Local anesthetis and adjuvants in pediatric regional anesthesia. Valeria Mossetti, Noemi Vicchio, Giorgio Ivani ... This review focuses on the overview of local anesthetics and adjuvants used today in locoregional pediatric anesthesia, with an ... Levobupivacaine for regional anesthesia. A systematic review]. B Urbanek, S Kapral Der Anaesthesist 2006, 55 (3): 296-313 ... Regional anesthesia for postoperative pain control in children: focus on continuous central and perineural infusions. Giorgio ...
Anesthesia. Anesthesia is indicated (topical, local, or both). Such anesthesia can include combinations of the following:. * ... Dexamethasone as adjuvant therapy for severe acute pharyngitis. Ann Emerg Med. 1993 Feb. 22(2):212-5. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... What is the role of anesthesia in peritonsillar abscess drainage?. How is anesthesia administered for a peritonsillar abscess ... Technique for anesthesia. See the list below:. * Spray the tonsil and ipsilateral soft palate with benzocaine (eg, Cetacaine) ...
Reddy S, Patt RB (November 1994). "The benzodiazepines as adjuvant analgesics". Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. 9 (8): ... Spinal anesthesia is a "one-shot" injection that provides rapid onset and profound sensory anesthesia with lower doses of ... General anesthesia (as opposed to sedation or regional anesthesia) has three main goals: lack of movement (paralysis), ... Alice Magaw, born in November 1860, is often referred to as "The Mother of Anesthesia". Her renown as the personal anesthesia ...
Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Hypnotics and Sedatives. Central Nervous System Depressants. Anti-Anxiety Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. ... Participants who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and showed disease recurrence or progression within 12 months of ... Participants who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and showed disease recurrence or progression according to RECIST ...
Effects of magnetic auricular point-sticking on adjuvant anesthesia and postoperative recovery of body function]. Zhongguo Zhen ... Home page , Publications du WEB last year ,[Effects of magnetic auricular point-sticking on adjuvant anesthesia and ... Effects of magnetic auricular point-sticking on adjuvant anesthesia and postoperative recovery of body function]. Zhongguo Zhen ... Effects of magnetic auricular point-sticking on adjuvant anesthesia and postoperative recovery of body function].. ...
Adjuvants, Anesthesia / administration & dosage * Adolescent * Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity / complications* * ...
In this study, dexmedetomidine was better than morphine as an adjuvant in local epidural anesthesia and resulted in shorter ... When they used dexmedetomidine rather than fentanyl as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia in lower limb surgery, ... Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Morphine as Adjuvants to Bupivacaine for Epidural Anesthesia in Leg Fracture Surgery: A ... Lower limb surgery is performed under local, regional, or general anesthesia. Epidural anesthesia is a local anesthetic ...
Italian Society of Anesthesia Analgesia Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI).. Care pathway for the patient with COVID-19 ... Oxygen-Ozone as Adjuvant Treatment in Early Control of COVID-19 Progression and Modulation of the Gut Microbial Flora ( ... Oxygen-Ozone as Adjuvant Treatment in Early Control of Disease Progression in Patients With COVID-19 Associated With Modulation ... Hernandez A, Papadakos PJ, Torres A, Gonzalez DA, Vives M, Ferrando C, Baeza J. Two known therapies could be useful as adjuvant ...
eta anesthesia adjuvants (en) Identifikatzaileak. CAS zenbakia. 51-55-8. ChemSpider. 10194105. ...
Clonidine as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic ... Clonidine as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic ... Clonidine as an adjuvant to hyperbaric bupivacaine for spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lower limb orthopedic ... Lower doses of local anesthetics along with an adjuvant are preferred for spinal anesthesia in elderly patients. Clonidine, a ...
The aim of our study is to compare the effect of clonidine and dexmedetomidine when used as an adjuvant to epidural ropivacaine ... Still there is a scope for research on the effects of clonidine and dexmedetomidine as potent adjuvants in epidural local ... μg/kg of clonidine as aneffective adjuvant to10ml of 1% isobaric ropivacaine forepiduralanesthesia in lower limb and lower ... The potential and duration of analgesia can be increased by adding a suitable alpha 2 adrenergic agonists as adjuvants to ...
Atracurium is a neuromuscular-blocking agent, used as an adjuvant in anesthesia. ... Articane HCl and Epinephrine Injection is a local dental anesthetic, used as an anesthesia for dental procedures. ... hydrochloride injection is a powerful morphine-like drug used for relieving the pain during the surgery with general anesthesia ...
Anesthesia was induced with propofol (IV) and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. After extubation, medetomidine was ... 1. Lamont L & Mathews K. Opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, and analgesic adjuvants. In: Tranquilli WJ, Thurmon JC, ... Lumb & Jones veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. 4th ed. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing, 2007; 241-271. ... Lumb & Jones veterinary anesthesia and analgesia. . 4th ed.. Ames, Iowa. : Blackwell Publishing. , 2007. ; 241. -. 271. .. ), ...
Anesthesia Induction. Load. *IV: 1-4.5 mg/kg slow IV once *Alternatively (off-label): 0.5-2 mg/kg slow IV if adjuvant drugs (eg ... Occurrence may be decreased by using lower recommended dose in conjunction with a benzodiazepine for anesthesia induction ... Alternatively (off-label): 0.5-2 mg/kg slow IV if adjuvant drugs (eg, midazolam) are used, OR ... Alternatively (off-label): 4-10 mg/kg IM once if adjuvant drugs (eg, midazolam) are used ...
Postop Pulmonary Complications With Adjuvant Regional Anesthesia. BMC Anesthesiology July 14, 2022 ...
Adjuvant Pharmacologic Pain Management Agents. * Regional and Neuraxial Analgesia * Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia ...
548-73-2 - RMEDXOLNCUSCGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N - Droperidol [USAN:USP:INN:BAN:JAN] - Similar structures search, synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
Q&A PANEL WITH THE EXPERTS: ADJUVANTS, CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS, PRACTICAL TIPS AND MORE. 15:30 - 16:30 SCANNING PRACTICE. 16:30 - ... Q&A PANEL WITH THE EXPERTS: ADJUVANTS, CONTROVERSIAL TOPICS, PRACTICAL TIPS AND MORE. 15:30 - 16:30 SCANNING PRACTICE. 16:30 - ... Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia Boutique Workshop (Weehawken, NJ). Why you should attend?. ... Anesthesia CME Retreat (Vilamoura, the Algarve, Portugal) Tivoli Marina Vilamoura Algarve Resort, Marina de Vilamoura, ...
ketamine HCL is using as adjuvant agent with local anesthetic agent in regional intravenous anesthesia procedure routinely ... IVRA can be performed with many local anesthetics and adjuvant agents. Investigators planned to compare cardiac effects and ECG ... Agents Management on Electrocardiographic Changes of Patients Who Were Operated Under Regional Intravenous Anesthesia ...
... and dexmedetomidine is an analgesic adjuvant with an opioid-sparing effect. But up to now, it is still unclear whether d... ... Background: The Surgical Pleth Index (SPI) is a monitoring method that reflects painful stimuli during general anesthesia, ... Background: The Surgical Pleth Index (SPI) is a monitoring method that reflects painful stimuli during general anesthesia, and ... 0.8 μg/kg administered for 10 min before anesthesia) or normal saline group (equal volume of normal saline). SPI and vital ...
Postop Pulmonary Complications With Adjuvant Regional Anesthesia Adjuvant regional anesthesia is often employed to mitigate the ... This study indicates that ciprofol is as effective as propofol for general anesthesia induction in individuals undergoing ... risk of postoperative pulmonary complications after general anesthesia--but is it effective?. BMC Anesthesiology, July 14, 2022 ...
... supporting its use as an anesthetic adjuvant. Lidocaine can reduce nociception and/or cardiovascular responses to surgical ... Nakhli MS, Kahloul M, Guizani T, Intravenous lidocaine as adjuvant to general anesthesia in renal surgery: Libyan J Med, 2018; ... Neal JM, Barrington MJ, Fettiplace MR, The third american society of regional anesthesia and pain medicine practice advisory on ... Keywords: Infusions, Intravenous, Lidocaine, Sleep apnea, obstructive, Analgesics, Analgesics, Opioid, Anesthesia Recovery ...
He received adjuvant chemo-radiation. In his follow up he was found to have increasing CEA levels. A PET scan showed a solitary ... The procedure was performed under general anesthesia through 5 trocars, including 3 ports for the robot and 2 ports for the ...
... as an adjuvant or neo-adjuvant. Besides the concentration of the drug, timing, duration and sequencing of individual drugs in ... with the advent of anesthesia, surgical techniques became wider and more extensive without any real benefit for either relapse ... 1988) Controlled Trial of Tamoxifen as a Single Adjuvant Agent in the Management of Early Breast Cancer. Nolvadex Adjuvant ... Limited Resource Countries-Optimizing Adjuvant Tamoxifen (Other Such Hormones Used for Adjuvant Treatment for Breast Cancer) ...
TextPublication details: London : Butterworths, 1984. Edition: 6th edDescription: 607 pISBN: 0407155058Subject(s): Adjuvants, ... Anesthesia , AnestheticsNLM classification: QV 81 Tags from this library: No tags from this library for this title. Log in to ...
Introduction to Multimodal Perineural Analgesia: Basics of Adjuvants. Brian Williams, MD, MBA. ... Regional Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine: Complete Review Series Regional Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine: Complete ... Anesthesia-related Neurotoxicity and Offsite Anesthesia. Phillip Adams, DO, and Brian Blasiole, MD, PhD. ... Module 10: Special Topics in Thoracic and General Anesthesia. Anesthesia in Patients with COVID-19. Kim Cantees, MD, MBA. ...
  • Low-dose combined spinal-epidural anesthesia for cesarean delivery: a comparison of three plain local anesthetics. (
  • analgesia (lack of sensation which also blunts autonomic reflexes) muscle relaxation Different types of anesthesia affect the endpoints differently. (
  • The potential and duration of analgesia can be increased by adding a suitable alpha 2 adrenergic agonists as adjuvants to ropivacaine during elective lower limb surgical procedures under epidural anaesthesia. (
  • 3β-OH can be used to reduce T-channel-dependent excitability of peripheral sensory neurons as an adjuvant for induction and maintenance of general anaesthesia while improving analgesia and lowering the amount of volatile anaesthetic needed for surgery. (
  • Therapeutic doses of opiates should be used in patients with severe pain syndrome or in those who are unable to achieve adequate analgesia while using anesthesia scheme of stage 2. (
  • Clonidine 1 μ −1 when added as an adjuvant to bupivacaine for pediatric supraclavicular brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of analgesia and motor block as compared to the dose of 0.5 μ −1 . (
  • The addition of adjuvants has been found to provide remarkably prolonged analgesia but may be associated with certain adverse effects. (
  • Opioid-based analgesics and landmark approaches have negative side effects, while ultrasound-based regional analgesia necessitates resources and experience, but various wound infiltration adjuvants are innovative with few side effects and are simple to use. (
  • [1] Subarachnoid block is safe and effective means of providing surgical anesthesia and postoperative analgesia for lower abdominal surgeries, but even with long-acting local anesthetic (LA) such as bupivacaine, the duration of postoperative analgesia is often inadequate. (
  • Dexmedetomidine is being used widely as adjuvant to LA's nowadays, as it enhances analgesia when used with bupivacaine due to synergistic action. (
  • The Response of the Anesthesia & Analgesia Community to COVID-19. (
  • Intravenous dexmedetomidine has been reported to potentiate the anesthetic effect of local anesthetics and improve the quality of postoperative analgesia when used as an adjuvant in neuraxial block. (
  • CSE anesthesia also offers the speed of onset, efficacy, and minimal toxicity of spinal anesthesia and extends the analgesia into the postoperative period [ 2 ]. (
  • Several recent studies have shown that dexmedetomidine could potentiate the anesthetic effect of local anesthetics and improve the quality of postoperative analgesia when used as an adjuvant through the perineural, intrathecal, epidural, or systemic (intravenous) route [ 5 , 6 ]. (
  • However, a literature search revealed no human clinical trials comparing the effects of an intravenous sedative dose of intraoperative dexmedetomidine and midazolam on CSE anesthesia and postoperative analgesia. (
  • We hypothesized that a sedative dose of intravenous dexmedetomidine would enhance sensory and motor blocks under CSE anesthesia, as well as improve the quality of postoperative analgesia, than would a sedative dose of midazolam in patients undergoing TKA. (
  • We planned a prospective, double-blind study to compare the effects of an intraoperative infusion of dexmedetomidine and midazolam for sedation with respect to sensory and motor blocks, postoperative analgesia, additional analgesic demand, and adverse events in CSE anesthesia for TKA. (
  • Anesthesia & Analgesia Case Reports. (
  • The main difference between Analgesia and Anesthesia is that Analgesia is a pain-free state without loss of consciousness, whereas anesthesia is a state achieved when there is a loss of touch, pain, and temperature sensations with or without loss of consciousness. (
  • Anesthesia is associated with some degree of analgesia but not vice versa. (
  • Intrathecal Morphine as adjuvant can provide safe and effective post-operative analgesia for up to 24 hours. (
  • The development of new, more selective α 2 -adrenoceptor agonists with improved side effect profiles may provide a new concept for the administration of perioperative anesthesia and analgesia. (
  • The study aims to compare dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone as adjuvants to ropivacaine for FICB for onset and duration of analgesia. (
  • Various adjuvants have been used in intrathecal anesthesia to avoid intraoperative visceral and somatic pain and prolong postoperative analgesia. (
  • Clonidine added to bupivacaine for intrathecal anesthesia effectively increases the duration of sensory block, duration of motor block and duration of analgesia and does not produce any significant hemodynamic changes. (
  • The recent study shows that isovaline combined with propofol can yield effective general anesthesia: hypnosis, analgesia, and conscious sedation. (
  • Multimodal analgesia combines neuronal blockade, opioids, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and other adjuvant medications (e.g., clonidine, dexmedetomidine) and directs therapy at multiple anatomic and pharmacologic sites of action to provide the best analgesia possible with minimal adverse side effects. (
  • The quality of local anesthesia is influenced by structural and biophysical characteristics of local anesthetics drug, dose, site of injection, mixture of local anesthetics and possible addition of a vasoconstrictor or an adjuvant to prolong the analgesic effect. (
  • The study aimed to compare the analgesic effects of dexmedetomidine and morphine as adjuvants to bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia in leg fracture surgery. (
  • Background: The Surgical Pleth Index (SPI) is a monitoring method that reflects painful stimuli during general anesthesia, and dexmedetomidine is an analgesic adjuvant with an opioid-sparing effect. (
  • Infusion of intravenous (IV) lidocaine has anti-inflammatory, antihyperalgesic, and analgesic properties, supporting its use as an anesthetic adjuvant. (
  • Here, we examine its potential analgesic effects and adjuvant anaesthetic properties using a post-surgical pain model in rodents. (
  • If opioid pain medication is used along with non-narcotic drugs and adjuvant therapy, effectiveness of analgesic therapy will significantly increase. (
  • It is an opioid analgesic that is used as an adjunct in anesthesia, in balanced anesthesia, and as a primary anesthetic agent. (
  • A mixture of propofol, which on its own causes hypnosis, and an analgesic like an opioid can result in general anesthesia. (
  • Epidural anesthesia is a local anesthetic technique used in lower limb surgery ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • Clonidine as an adjuvant to local anesthetic for regional anesthesia in upper limb surgeries has been extensively studied in adults, but there is a paucity of data regarding the dose of clonidine which is effective and safe as an adjuvant in children. (
  • Group A was given 0.5 μ −1 of clonidine in addition to 0.5 −1 of 0.25% bupivacaine and Group B received 1 μ −1 of clonidine added to the same volume and concentration of local anesthetic for supraclavicular brachial plexus block under general anesthesia using ultrasound guidance. (
  • The concentration of free propofol (not bound to protein) during anesthesia is approximately 1 μm in plasma, 41and this most lipophilic anesthetic is known to concentrate into brain. (
  • It is useful as a primary anesthetic, but most commonly, it is used as a pain management adjuvant. (
  • One can be awakened from a sleep state, whereas someone under general anesthesia has to be monitored carefully for a few hours and recovers only after the effect of the anesthetic agent wears off. (
  • Epidural anesthetic resembles back anesthesia, however is actually utilized extra frequently for lesser limb surgical operation. (
  • anesthesia induction, maintenance and emergence 3) post-anesthetic care and recovery 4) peri-anesthetic and clinical support functions and 5) Critical Care Medicine. (
  • Neuromuscular blocking drugs, such as vecuronium [7] and atracurium, [8] have also been added to the local anesthetic mixture and have been shown to improve the quality of peribulbar anesthesia. (
  • We hypothesized that the addition of low-dose rocuronium to the local anesthetic mixture would decrease block onset time and the need for supplemental local anesthetic injection, and would also decrease the local anesthetic concentration required for adequate anesthesia, which in turn would decrease the inherent risk of local anesthetic toxicity. (
  • General anesthetic, epidural anesthesia as well as neighborhood anaesthesia are actually all used in different circumstances. (
  • Epidural anesthetic is similar to vertebral anesthesia, however is actually utilized more frequently for reduced limb surgical operation. (
  • Modern day cancer chemotherapy is complex and involves multiple drugs given either sequentially or concurrently, as an adjuvant or neo-adjuvant. (
  • In an adjuvant setting, when Tamoxifen is used as part of treatment, the optimum timing of sequencing hormones with chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery has been frequently queried. (
  • Sequencing chemotherapy with radiation and surgery for patients with breast cancer has been well studied in classical investigative work by Abraham Recht [1] Adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiotherapy, preoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy, radiotherapy sandwiched between cycles of chemotherapy, and neo-adjuvant chemotherapy all have been extensively studied by many investigators following Recht's historical publication. (
  • In 1981, it was proposed that adjuvant hormone therapy should be deferred during the course of chemotherapy. (
  • How can you tell if adjuvant chemotherapy works? (
  • The field of insurance chemotherapy, properly called "adjuvant chemotherapy," meaning to help or assist, was born. (
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy is based on the idea that even when the original mass is surgically removed there may be tiny nests of tumor cells that have floated through the lymph or blood to other parts of the body. (
  • some adjuvant chemotherapy lasts only six weeks, and less than three-month breast cancer treatment is common. (
  • After several unsuccessful studies, it was finally discovered how to give adjuvant chemotherapy for lung cancer to decrease its very high rate of recurrence. (
  • Even pancreatic cancer patients, who have undergone massive "Whipple" surgery to remove the mass, usually have adjuvant chemotherapy, combined with radiation. (
  • A further innovation, which is used in patients whose original tumor is too big to be removed easily by surgery, is "neo-adjuvant chemotherapy. (
  • So back to our quiz: You have removed the obvious cancer and the patient looks like they are in a complete remission, but you are worried it might come back, so you decide to give adjuvant chemotherapy. (
  • So, with adjuvant chemotherapy the best answer of all might just be, "well, I really don't know. (
  • Association between variants of 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 3C (HTR3C) and chemotherapy-induced symptoms in women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. (
  • In one study of breast cancer survivors who had, on average, completed treatment with adjuvant cyclophosphamide, methotrexane, and fluorouracil (CMF) chemotherapy more than 20 years prior to enrollment, cognitive deficits were observed compared with a control group who underwent the same neuropsychological tests as part of a population-based assessment. (
  • Moreover, in pilot clinical trials, patients who received adjuvant psychoanalysis with adoptive trans- fer of tumor-derived lymphocytes expanded ex vivo with IL-2, following surgical debulking and frontline chemotherapy, L. Annul drinkable medications definitions. (
  • Historically, this has been accomplished through the use of bladder-sparing procedures, such as transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and adjuvant intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy. (
  • Complications, including partial or total flap loss, mastectomy flap loss, wound breakdown, infection, and problems related to the flap donor site like back seroma and hematoma can be encountered with any form of breast reconstruction and may cause delay in adjuvant chemotherapy. (
  • Single agent oral capecitabine is a good option for patients of gallbladder cancer in the adjuvant or palliative settings with less toxicity and requiring less hospital visits compared to intravenous chemotherapy. (
  • Treatment consists of surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy or radiation for early operable cases [8]. (
  • Alternatively, epidural and spinal anesthesia can be performed in the region of the central nervous system itself, suppressing all incoming sensation from nerves supplying the area of the block. (
  • In elderly patients, use of adjuvant with small doses of local anesthetics is a preferred technique for spinal anesthesia for lower limb surgeries. (
  • Group C received 9 mg hyperbaric bupivacaine without clonidine while Group C 15 and Group C 30 received 15 μg and 30 μg clonidine with hyperbaric bupivacaine respectively for spinal anesthesia. (
  • [2] Spinal anesthesia is frequently used in these patients for a number of surgeries. (
  • [4] , [5] Ageing changes in the cardiovascular system may lead to a frequent incidence of systemic hypotension and bradycardia associated with spinal anesthesia than the young. (
  • Lower doses of local anesthetics along with an adjuvant are preferred for spinal anesthesia in elderly patients. (
  • Clonidine, a selective partial alpha 2 adrenergic agonist, when administered intrathecally in adults for unilateral spinal anesthesia in very small doses of less than 1 μg/kg, has shown contradicting results in extending the sensory and motor blockade effects of local anesthetics with low incidence of side-effects e.g., hypotension, sedation and bradycardia. (
  • Totally 140 patients of the American Society of Anesthesiologists Grade I or II, posted for abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia, were randomized to four groups using computer-generated random number list. (
  • Totally 140 female patients, 35-65 years of age, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical Status of I or II, posted for abdominal hysterectomy under spinal anesthesia were considered for enrollment into four groups. (
  • We compared the effects of intravenous dexmedetomidine and midazolam for sedation on combined spinal-epidural (CSE) anesthesia. (
  • Combined spinal-epidural (CSE) anesthesia is widely used for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) because it can reduce the disadvantages of general and spinal or epidural anesthesia alone. (
  • The purpose of this study is to improve anesthesia provider knowledge on the role of continuous dexmedetomidine infusion to reduce opioid consumption in patients undergoing spinal lumbar surgery. (
  • Currently, continuous dexmedetomidine infusion is not used as an adjuvant with opioids for spinal lumbar surgery patients. (
  • The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. (
  • Introduction Hypotension following spinal anesthesia in obstetric patients is commonplace. (
  • Incidence of post-operative nausea vomiting (PONV) after spinal anesthesia is 21%, which increases to 50% when we add opioid (morphine) adjuvant. (
  • Rochette A, Raux O, Troncin R, Dadure C, Verdier R, Capdevila X. Clonidine prolongs spinal anesthesia in newborns: a prospective dose-ranging study. (
  • 1 ], spinal hematoma following the administration of regional anesthesia was associated with coagulation abnormalities in 68% of cases. (
  • Combined bupivacaine + dexmedetomidine prolongs the sensory and motor block duration and controls postoperative pain more effectively, indicating that it is an appropriate combination for epidural anesthesia. (
  • The comparison of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl as intrathecal adjuvant drugs to bupivacaine showed that dexmedetomidine could prolong motor and sensory blockade and reduce the anesthetics consumption during the initial 24 h post-surgery ( 15 ). (
  • CSE anesthesia was given using 10 mg bupivacaine for all patients. (
  • The addition of rocuronium 5 mg to a mixture of lidocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5% shortened the onset time of peribulbar anesthesia in patients undergoing cataract surgery without causing adverse effects. (
  • Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was undertaken to determine the effects of adding rocuronium 5 mg to two different concentrations of lidocaine and bupivacaine mixture on orbital akinesia in patients undergoing cataract surgery under peribulbar anesthesia. (
  • Clonidine, partially selective α2-agonist, is being evaluated as a neuraxial adjuvant with intrathecal bupivacaine. (
  • The objective of the study was to evaluate and compare safety and efficacy of intrathecal clonidine as adjuvant to bupivacaine with control normal saline. (
  • After obtaining approval from our Ethical Committee (no: 17100267), we conducted this prospective, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical study at the Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit during the period between April 2018 and March 2020. (
  • Ciprofol Use for the Induction of GA in Gynecological Surgery This study indicates that ciprofol is as effective as propofol for general anesthesia induction in individuals undergoing gynecological surgery, with lower rates of adverse events. (
  • Abstract Although plasma concentrations of propofol during anesthesia are well known, the free concentration remains unknown because of uncertainties regarding plasma protein binding, interaction with other protein-bound substances, the level of binding to its lipid carrier, and the use of adjuvants. (
  • The mean target plasma concentration of propofol required to place a LMA was +/- [micro sign]g/mL compared with +/- [micro sign]g/mL to place a COPA (P ). Plasma propofol concentrations at loss of consciousness using target-controlled infusions (TCI) of propofol for anesthesia have been reported previously. (
  • 42 Thus, the propofol concentrations that we observed to defend astrocytes in primary culture from oxidative stress are similar to those that occur in brain during anesthesia and improve outcome from experimental cerebral ischemia. (
  • Plasma propofol concentrations at loss of consciousness using target-controlled infusions (TCI) of propofol for anesthesia have been reported previously. (
  • Propofol is an intravenous agent used commonly for induction and maintenance of anesthesia, procedural and critical care sedation in children. (
  • Of 1,289 colon cancer patients, 913 patients with propofol anesthesia and 376 with sevoflurane anesthesia were eligible for analysis. (
  • There were no benefits in 5-year survival in propofol anesthesia vs. sevoflurane anesthesia after colon cancer surgery. (
  • Xu J, Gao Z, Coburn M, Ma D, Wang K. Postoperative 5-Year Survival and Related Risk Factors of Colon Cancer Patients Undergoing Propofol vs. Sevoflurane Anesthesia: A Retrospective Cohort Study. (
  • A study just published in December of 2015 demonstrates isovaline's potentially significant contribution to medicine as an adjuvant for propofol, the hypnotic agent that is increasingly used in procedural sedation. (
  • At all stages of alleviating physical and emotional suffering, adjuvant therapy should be used together with analgesics. (
  • When they are used for chronic pain their purpose is most often as adjuvant analgesics . (
  • Conclusion: The study results strongly conclude the use of 0.5μg/kg Dexmedetomidine and 0.5μg/kg of clonidine as aneffective adjuvant to10ml of 1% isobaric ropivacaine forepiduralanesthesia in lower limb and lower abdominal surgeries. (
  • this includes the use of midazolam or dexmedetomidine, which are the most commonly used drugs during surgeries under CSE anesthesia [ 3 ]. (
  • Local anesthesia is preferred for minor surgeries where the pain is tolerable, and the patient is calm. (
  • Subramanya V, Kapinigowda ST, Math AT, Chennaiah VB (2017) Dexmedetomidine as an Adjuvant for Intravenous Regional Anesthesia in Upper Limb Surgeries. (
  • Gupta A, Mahobia M, Narang N, Mahendra R (2014) A comparative study of two different doses of dexmedetomidine as adjunct to lignocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia of upper limb surgeries. (
  • As in all surgeries, lumpectomies involve anesthesia, which in rare cases is dangerous, and incisions, so there may be some pain during recovery. (
  • A pre-implementation survey assessed anesthesia provider knowledge of the current opioid crisis in the United States, dexmedetomidine's role in reducing opioid requirements, and factors that have prevented the use of dexmedetomidine. (
  • Depending on the situation, this may be used either on its own (in which case the individual remains fully conscious), or in combination with general anesthesia or sedation. (
  • Intravenous injection of dexmedetomidine, rather than midazolam, for procedural sedation is associated with prolonged sensory block, with comparable incidences of adverse events during CSE anesthesia. (
  • Ketamine is used to induce anesthesia or provide conscious sedation for minor surgical operations in patients 16 years of age or older. (
  • The procedure is done beneath local anesthesia with light sedation. (
  • Adjuvant regional anesthesia is often selected for patients or procedures with high risk of pulmonary complications after general anesthesia. (
  • In a prospective observational multicenter study, patients scheduled for non-cardiothoracic surgery with at least one postoperative pulmonary complication surprisingly received adjuvant regional anesthesia more frequently than those with no complications. (
  • Patients were classified as receiving either adjuvant regional anesthesia or general anesthesia alone. (
  • After adjusting for surgical and patient complexity, adjuvant regional anesthesia versus general anesthesia alone was not associated with a greater incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications in this multicenter cohort of non-cardiothoracic surgery patients. (
  • This is an interventional, non-pharmacological, open, randomized, prospective, non-profit study on the adjuvant use of oxygen ozone therapy plus probiotic supplementation in the early control of disease progression in patients with COVID-19. (
  • Patients were randomly assigned to a dexmedetomidine group (dexmedetomidine: 0.8 μg/kg administered for 10 min before anesthesia) or normal saline group (equal volume of normal saline). (
  • It has 28 new chapters, such as Blood Product Conservation, Tranexamic Acid Use in Orthopedic Surgery, Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation, Cardiovascular Opioids, Anesthesia for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis, Neurointerventional Anesthesiology, and the Perioperative Surgical Home. (
  • Patients were randomly allocated to either the ITM group that received 0.2 mg of ITM or the control (CON) group that received 2 ml of 0.9% saline as a skin infiltration 30 minutes prior to anesthesia induction. (
  • Previous investigators revealed that hypertensive patients would experience periods of circulatory instability during general anesthesia either during endotracheal intubation or following emergence from anesthesia. (
  • Seventy patients with controlled hypertension undergoing general anesthesia were enrolled in the study with the ages ranging from 20 to 60 years old with American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class II. (
  • Patients aged yr who were classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2 and had surgery during general anesthesia were approached for the. (
  • In the next 25 years, dozens of successful studies were done in breast cancer patients, attempting to perfect adjuvant therapy. (
  • In 2013, most breast cancer patients will receive some sort of adjuvant therapy, after surgery and in addition to radiation if required. (
  • Melanoma patients may receive adjuvant immunotherapy, if the tumor is very deep or has spread to nodes, even though they have been removed. (
  • METHODS: All patients received contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MRI while under general anesthesia in the supine position, followed by standard BCT with or without wire guidance and sentinel node biopsy. (
  • FICB is an effective alternative to intravenous opioids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for acute pain relief in patients with femoral fractures, and dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone can be used as adjuvants to ropivacaine as they both enhance quality of block. (
  • This prospective study was conducted in 350, ASA I and II patients undergoing various routine surgical procedures under general anesthesia, over a period of 18 months. (
  • Breast cancer patients often receive adjuvant radiation - radiation designed to reduce the risk of cancer's return, specifically external beam radiation therapy . (
  • Patients receiving adjuvant pembrolizumab after nephrectomy for renal-cell carcinoma showed significantly improved disease-free survival compared to patients receiving placebo treatment. (
  • Patients would recover from general anesthesia more quickly and experience fewer adverse effects, reducing their health care costs. (
  • Both general anesthesia induction and initiation of mechanical ventilation have negatively affected patients' oxygenation. (
  • Postop Pulmonary Complications With Adjuvant Regional Anesthesia Adjuvant regional anesthesia is often employed to mitigate the risk of postoperative pulmonary complications after general anesthesia--but is it effective? (
  • Chilvers CR, Kinahan A, Vaghadia H, Merrick PM (1997) Pharmacoeconomics of intravenous regional anaesthesia vs general anesthesia for outpatient hand surgery. (
  • 2009) Addition of dexmedetomidine or lornoxicam to prilocaine in intravenous regional anesthesia for hand or forearm surgery: A randomized controlled study. (
  • Nilekani E, Menezes Y, D'souza SA (2016) A Study on the Efficacy of the Addition of Low Dose Dexmedetomidine as an Adjuvant to Lignocaine in Intravenous Regional Anaesthesia (IVRA). (
  • Memis D, Turan A, Karamanlioglu B, Pamukcu Z, Kurt I (2004) Adding Dexmedetomidine to lidocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia. (
  • Esmaoglu A, Mizrak A, Akin A, Turk Y, Boyaci A (2005) Addition of dexmedetomidine to lignocaine for intravenous regional anesthesia. (
  • The recommended dosage of Palonosetron Hydrochloride Injection in adults for PONV is 0.075 mg administered as a single intravenous dose over 10 seconds immediately before the induction of anesthesia. (
  • This review focuses on the overview of local anesthetics and adjuvants used today in locoregional pediatric anesthesia, with an emphasis on the advantages and disadvantages of each drug. (
  • New local anesthetics for pediatric anesthesia. (
  • Pediatric Anesthesia 2007;17:189-198. (
  • Relation between general and regional anesthesia, upper- and lower-body warming: what strategies in pediatric anesthesia? (
  • A New Technique for Probe Insertion in Pediatric Anesthesia. (
  • Pediatric Anesthesia 2009 19: 1229-1236. (
  • Therefore, the use of enantiomers, in association with adjuvants as clonidine or ketamine, using the multimodal approach of integrated anesthesia, makes the clinical practice effective and safe in the pediatric operating rooms. (
  • BACKGROUND: The rate of reexcision in breast-conserving surgery remains high, leading to delay in initiation of adjuvant therapy, increased cost, increased complications, and negative psychological impact to the patient.1 (-) 3 We initiated a phase 1 clinical trial to determine the feasibility of the use of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess margins in the advanced multimodal image-guided operating (AMIGO) suite. (
  • Journal of clinical anesthesia 2011 Sep 23 (6): 482-8. (
  • Neural Blockade in clinical Anesthesia and Management of pain. (
  • Depending on the kind of surgery, it may include Anesthesia to avoid pain during the incision, tissue adjustment, and suturing. (
  • Depending upon the sort of surgery, it might include Anesthesia to avoid ache during the incision, tissue adjustment, and also suturing. (
  • The tumor was excised under local anesthesia, repaired with low-inflammation monofilament sutures, and treated with adjuvant intralesional steroid injections into the area of scar. (
  • The procedure was performed under general anesthesia through 5 trocars, including 3 ports for the robot and 2 ports for the first assistant. (
  • Laparoscopy is almost always performed under general anesthesia. (
  • These advantages make CSE anesthesia useful for surgical anesthesia and postoperative pain control in TKA. (
  • Regional anesthesia is actually utilized to reduce a tiny region of the physical body. (
  • Lower limb surgery is performed under local, regional, or general anesthesia. (
  • In plasma, miRNA upregulation was observed for miR-133a and miR-133b following PH and SL, whereas miR-100 and miR-466c were similarly downregulated following anesthesia and surgery. (
  • Based on these considerations, we investigated the effect of sham surgery and anesthesia on microRNA expression profiles in the liver. (
  • Relying on the form of surgery, it may involve Anesthesia to avoid ache during the course of the opening, cells control, and suturing. (
  • Epidural anaesthesia corresponds to vertebral anesthesia, yet is actually made use of even more often for lesser limb surgery. (
  • Depending on the sort of surgery, it might involve Anesthesia to prevent pain in the course of the incision, tissue adjustment, as well as suturing. (
  • The use of PRP has become widespread in sports trauma for the last decade, as an alternative to surgery or as a surgical adjuvant. (
  • Peribulbar anesthesia is widely used for cataract surgery. (
  • Treatment given after the surgery, to lower the risk that the cancer will come back, is called adjuvant therapy. (
  • Healthcare providers worry that anesthesia and other medications during and after surgery might increase this effect. (
  • Diagnostic accuracy of anesthesiology evaluation timing: the 'One-Stop Anesthesia' in pediatric day-surgery. (
  • Among the adjuvant, clonidine and ketamine showed the best pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of effective and safety, improving and prolonging the action of associated local anesthetics. (
  • The present article attempts to review the current useful applications of ketamine in anesthesia, pain and critical care. (
  • Ketamine: Current applications in anesthesia, pain, and critical care. (
  • Based on this, the current indications of ketamine in anesthesia, pain and critical care are discussed in this review article. (
  • Rapid-acting anesthetics like ketamine powder can generate anesthesia while stimulating the heart and lungs, maintaining the tone of skeletal muscles, and laryngeal-pharyngeal reflexes. (
  • In addition to being used as a sedative during non-skeletal muscle relaxing minor surgical or diagnostic procedures, ketamine is also utilized as an adjuvant in general anesthesia. (
  • Faust's Anesthesiology Review has a new chapter on Sugammadex, a drug that reverses the effects of anesthesia on muscles. (
  • Epidural anesthesia is a technique for perioperative pain management with multiple applications in anesthesiology. (
  • As an all-inclusive online CME program geared toward optimizing competence in procedural skills, the University of Pittsburgh's Regional Anesthesia and Perioperative Medicine: Complete Review Series takes a highly focused look at relevant topics in 10 key areas - from pediatric to obstetric, cardiothoracic to neuro, general to intensive, and more. (
  • With this combination of effects, α 2 -adrenoceptor agonists may offer benefits in the prophylaxis and adjuvant treatment of perioperative myocardial ischemia. (
  • Still there is a scope for research on the effects of clonidine and dexmedetomidine as potent adjuvants in epidural local anesthetics. (
  • The procedure was conducted under general endotracheal anesthesia using an aluminum-wrapped rubber tube. (
  • IVRA can be performed with many local anesthetics and adjuvant agents. (
  • At elevated surrounding pressure, all general anesthetics require higher concentrations to reach adequate levels of anesthesia. (
  • Rocuronium, on the other hand, is devoid of this adverse effect, has a faster onset of action, and its effects in a low dose on the quality of peribulbar anesthesia (onset time and need for supplemental injection with lower concentration of local anesthetics) have not been fully explored. (
  • Kaur M. Adjuvants to Local Anesthetics: Combination Wisdom. (
  • In preparing for a medical or veterinary procedure, the clinician chooses one or more drugs to achieve the types and degree of anesthesia characteristics appropriate for the type of procedure and the particular patient. (
  • The risks of complications during or after anesthesia are often difficult to separate from those of the procedure for which anesthesia is being given, but in the main they are related to three factors: the health of the individual, the complexity and stress of the procedure itself, and the anaesthetic technique. (
  • The goal of anesthesia is to achieve the endpoints required for the given surgical procedure with the least risk to the animal. (
  • During the course of surgical operation, using anesthesia is an essential step in the procedure. (
  • During surgical treatment, using anesthesia is a significant action in the procedure. (
  • The benefit of adjuvant regional anesthesia to reduce postoperative pulmonary complications remains uncertain. (
  • We hypothesized that, after adjusting for surgical and patient complexity variables, the incidence of postoperative pulmonary complications would not be associated with adjuvant regional anesthesia. (
  • This technique is associated with fewer serious complications compared with retrobulbar anesthesia. (
  • These techniques include topical anesthesia, infiltrative anesthesia, ring blocks, and peripheral nerve blocks (see the Technique section below for links to detailed, illustrated articles demonstrating these techniques). (
  • Racial/ethnic differences in use and duration of adjuvant hormonal therapy for breast cancer in the women's health initiative. (
  • Peribulbar anesthesia is associated with delayed and/or incomplete orbital akinesia compared with retrobulbar anesthesia. (
  • General anesthesia, epidural anesthesia and neighborhood anesthesia are all used in various scenarios. (
  • General anaesthesia, epidural anesthesia and also neighborhood anesthesia are all made use of in different situations. (
  • Stop medications as adjuvant therapy. (
  • It might additionally entail Postoperative treatment, which includes adjuvant therapy. (
  • Adjuvant therapy has proven effective in other cancers. (
  • It might likewise include Postoperative therapy, that includes adjuvant therapy. (
  • Pathologic result revealed cervical lymph node metastasis and the patient underwent 8-weeks of adjuvant radiation therapy. (
  • As persons with hsv-2, the risk for a thrombus in the preoperative and postoperative adjuvant treatment with application of topical antibacterial therapy, biologic dressings, and wound drainage. (
  • This is called adjuvant (or multi-modality) therapy. (
  • Adjuvant therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis Conținutul The lack of a curative treatment and the tendency of the papillomatosis to recur in an extensive manner require an aggressive treatment. (
  • Regional anesthesia for postoperative pain control in children: focus on continuous central and perineural infusions. (
  • Anesthesia enables the painless performance of procedures that would otherwise cause severe or intolerable pain in a non-anesthetized individual, or would otherwise be technically unfeasible. (
  • Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis in rats is a common animal model for studying chronic inflammatory pain. (
  • Adjuvant drugs to reduce pain symptoms can be anxiolytics, antidepressants, antipsychotics, anticonvulsants and other drugs. (
  • Relying on the kind of surgical treatment, it may entail Anesthesia to prevent pain during the opening, tissue manipulation, as well as suturing. (
  • Furthermore, their role in pain management and regional anesthesia is expanding. (
  • Join us and discover why U.S. News & World Report has named us one of America's Best Hospitals.A Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA) is an advanced practice registered nurse (APRN) who practices in collaboration with a variety of health providers on the team to deliver high-quality anesthesia and pain care services. (
  • Anesthesia and Pain Medicine 2019;14(4):371-379. (
  • He received adjuvant chemo-radiation. (
  • Pediatric regional anesthesia - update. (
  • Levobupivacaine for regional anesthesia. (
  • Regional and local anesthesia, which blocks transmission of nerve impulses from a specific part of the body. (
  • This is NYSORA's fabled, most popular workshop on ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia! (
  • Faculty selected for the workshops are some of the best instructors and clinicians recognized for their expertise in regional anesthesia. (
  • Registration includes 6 months complimentary access to the NYSORA Compendium of Regional Anesthesia. (
  • A practical approach to regional anesthesia. (
  • RESULTS: All interventions were performed under combined general and regional anesthesia and concluded uneventfully with moderate blood loss. (
  • Eisenach JC, De Kock M, Klimscha W. Alpha(2)-adrenergic agonists for regional anesthesia. (
  • Platelet count and function and the effect of anticoagulant treatment should be assessed to determine the risk of hematoma associated with regional anesthesia. (
  • Anesthesiologists should understand both physiological changes in the coagulation system and diseaseand medication-induced pathophysiological changes during pregnancy and increase the safety of regional anesthesia for painless delivery and cesarean section. (
  • It also aims to determine the risk for coagulation during pregnancy, incidence of hereditary or acquired coagulation disorders in pregnant women, risk for regional anesthesia administration in pregnant women with coagulation abnormalities, rate of transfusion in women with PPH, and pharmacological treatment for pregnant women with coagulation disorders under special circumstances such as intrauterine fetal death. (
  • Many protocols exist no scientific consensus on the ideal platelet concentrate, the number and frequency of injections, local anesthesia, the use of anti inflammatories and ice, rehabilitation and return to physical activity. (
  • Sometimes the probe is inserted directly through the skin and only local anesthesia is needed. (
  • Biopsies for histopatholgical diagnosis may be obtained using surgical scalpels or biopsy punches and typically can be performed under local anesthesia. (
  • Anesthesia induction and maintenance and mechanical ventilation settings were similar in both study Groups. (
  • Throughout surgical treatment, using anesthesia is an important action in the method. (
  • The efficacy of vitamin D supplementation really should be investigated as an adjuvant to treatment regimens for individuals with scarring alopecias. (
  • BACKGROUND: Cryosurgery is an adjuvant surgical technique for the treatment of benign aggressive, low-grade malignant and metastatic tumors of long bones. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cryosurgery is a conservative, feasible, and safe adjuvant technique in the treatment of sacral tumors. (