Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Proton Therapy: The use of an external beam of PROTONS as radiotherapy.Scintillation Counting: Detection and counting of scintillations produced in a fluorescent material by ionizing radiation.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Adjuvants, Immunologic: Substances that augment, stimulate, activate, potentiate, or modulate the immune response at either the cellular or humoral level. The classical agents (Freund's adjuvant, BCG, Corynebacterium parvum, et al.) contain bacterial antigens. Some are endogenous (e.g., histamine, interferon, transfer factor, tuftsin, interleukin-1). Their mode of action is either non-specific, resulting in increased immune responsiveness to a wide variety of antigens, or antigen-specific, i.e., affecting a restricted type of immune response to a narrow group of antigens. The therapeutic efficacy of many biological response modifiers is related to their antigen-specific immunoadjuvanticity.Radiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Proton Pumps: Integral membrane proteins that transport protons across a membrane. This transport can be linked to the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. What is referred to as proton pump inhibitors frequently is about POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE.Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.Radiotherapy, High-Energy: Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.Particle Accelerators: Devices which accelerate electrically charged atomic or subatomic particles, such as electrons, protons or ions, to high velocities so they have high kinetic energy.Radiotherapy, Conformal: Radiotherapy where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.Organs at Risk: Organs which might be damaged during exposure to a toxin or to some form of therapy. It most frequently refers to healthy organs located in the radiation field during radiation therapy.Chordoma: A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Heavy Ion Radiotherapy: The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Freund's Adjuvant: An antigen solution emulsified in mineral oil. The complete form is made up of killed, dried mycobacteria, usually M. tuberculosis, suspended in the oil phase. It is effective in stimulating cell-mediated immunity (IMMUNITY, CELLULAR) and potentiates the production of certain IMMUNOGLOBULINS in some animals. The incomplete form does not contain mycobacteria.Photons: Discrete concentrations of energy, apparently massless elementary particles, that move at the speed of light. They are the unit or quantum of electromagnetic radiation. Photons are emitted when electrons move from one energy state to another. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated: CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Skull Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the bony part of the skull.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Radiation Injuries: Harmful effects of non-experimental exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation in VERTEBRATES.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Uveal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UVEA.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Scattering, Radiation: The diversion of RADIATION (thermal, electromagnetic, or nuclear) from its original path as a result of interactions or collisions with atoms, molecules, or larger particles in the atmosphere or other media. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Radiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Equipment Failure Analysis: The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phantoms, Imaging: Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines. (From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990)Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PARANASAL SINUSES.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Polystyrenes: Polymerized forms of styrene used as a biocompatible material, especially in dentistry. They are thermoplastic and are used as insulators, for injection molding and casting, as sheets, plates, rods, rigid forms and beads.Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic: Agents that aid or increase the action of the principle drug (DRUG SYNERGISM) or that affect the absorption, mechanism of action, metabolism, or excretion of the primary drug (PHARMACOKINETICS) in such a way as to enhance its effects.Induction Chemotherapy: Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: Computed tomography modalities which use a cone or pyramid-shaped beam of radiation.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Dose Fractionation: Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Nose Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the NOSE.Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Melanoma: A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)Proton-Motive Force: Energy that is generated by the transfer of protons or electrons across an energy-transducing membrane and that can be used for chemical, osmotic, or mechanical work. Proton-motive force can be generated by a variety of phenomena including the operation of an electron transport chain, illumination of a PURPLE MEMBRANE, and the hydrolysis of ATP by a proton ATPase. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed, p171)Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Aluminum Hydroxide: A compound with many biomedical applications: as a gastric antacid, an antiperspirant, in dentifrices, as an emulsifier, as an adjuvant in bacterins and vaccines, in water purification, etc.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Fluorouracil: A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.Tamoxifen: One of the SELECTIVE ESTROGEN RECEPTOR MODULATORS with tissue-specific activities. Tamoxifen acts as an anti-estrogen (inhibiting agent) in the mammary tissue, but as an estrogen (stimulating agent) in cholesterol metabolism, bone density, and cell proliferation in the ENDOMETRIUM.Brachytherapy: A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.Bacteriorhodopsins: Rhodopsins found in the PURPLE MEMBRANE of halophilic archaea such as HALOBACTERIUM HALOBIUM. Bacteriorhodopsins function as an energy transducers, converting light energy into electrochemical energy via PROTON PUMPS.Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal: Antineoplastic agents that are used to treat hormone-sensitive tumors. Hormone-sensitive tumors may be hormone-dependent, hormone-responsive, or both. A hormone-dependent tumor regresses on removal of the hormonal stimulus, by surgery or pharmacological block. Hormone-responsive tumors may regress when pharmacologic amounts of hormones are administered regardless of whether previous signs of hormone sensitivity were observed. The major hormone-responsive cancers include carcinomas of the breast, prostate, and endometrium; lymphomas; and certain leukemias. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual 1994, p2079)Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Inbred BALB CElectrons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known negative charge, present in all elements; also called negatrons. Positively charged electrons are called positrons. The numbers, energies and arrangement of electrons around atomic nuclei determine the chemical identities of elements. Beams of electrons are called CATHODE RAYS.Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa), antigenic proteins, synthetic constructs, or other bio-molecular derivatives, administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.Administration, Intranasal: Delivery of medications through the nasal mucosa.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Synchrotrons: Devices for accelerating protons or electrons in closed orbits where the accelerating voltage and magnetic field strength varies (the accelerating voltage is held constant for electrons) in order to keep the orbit radius constant.Hydrogen: The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide: A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)SqualeneAntineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted: Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles: Compounds that contain benzimidazole joined to a 2-methylpyridine via a sulfoxide linkage. Several of the compounds in this class are ANTI-ULCER AGENTS that act by inhibiting the POTASSIUM HYDROGEN ATPASE found in the PROTON PUMP of GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Choline: A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.Transducers: Any device or element which converts an input signal into an output signal of a different form. Examples include the microphone, phonographic pickup, loudspeaker, barometer, photoelectric cell, automobile horn, doorbell, and underwater sound transducer. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Ovalbumin: An albumin obtained from the white of eggs. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Immunity, Mucosal: Nonsusceptibility to the pathogenic effects of foreign microorganisms or antigenic substances as a result of antibody secretions of the mucous membranes. Mucosal epithelia in the gastrointestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts produce a form of IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) that serves to protect these ports of entry into the body.Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Computer-Aided Design: The use of computers for designing and/or manufacturing of anything, including drugs, surgical procedures, orthotics, and prosthetics.Levamisole: An antihelminthic drug that has been tried experimentally in rheumatic disorders where it apparently restores the immune response by increasing macrophage chemotaxis and T-lymphocyte function. Paradoxically, this immune enhancement appears to be beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis where dermatitis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia, and nausea and vomiting have been reported as side effects. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p435-6)Mice, Inbred C57BLSchiff Bases: Condensation products of aromatic amines and aldehydes forming azomethines substituted on the N atom, containing the general formula R-N:CHR. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Saponins: A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each consists of a sapogenin as the aglycone moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.Aromatase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit AROMATASE in order to reduce production of estrogenic steroid hormones.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Radiography, Dental: Radiographic techniques used in dentistry.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Radiographic Image Enhancement: Improvement in the quality of an x-ray image by use of an intensifying screen, tube, or filter and by optimum exposure techniques. Digital processing methods are often employed.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Omeprazole: A 4-methoxy-3,5-dimethylpyridyl, 5-methoxybenzimidazole derivative of timoprazole that is used in the therapy of STOMACH ULCERS and ZOLLINGER-ELLISON SYNDROME. The drug inhibits an H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE which is found in GASTRIC PARIETAL CELLS.Cholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Fiducial Markers: Materials used as reference points for imaging studies.Four-Dimensional Computed Tomography: Three-dimensional computed tomographic imaging with the added dimension of time, to follow motion during imaging.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Rhodobacter sphaeroides: Spherical phototrophic bacteria found in mud and stagnant water exposed to light.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Halobacterium salinarum: A species of halophilic archaea found in salt lakes. Some strains form a PURPLE MEMBRANE under anaerobic conditions.Acetylmuramyl-Alanyl-Isoglutamine: Peptidoglycan immunoadjuvant originally isolated from bacterial cell wall fragments; also acts as pyrogen and may cause arthritis; stimulates both humoral and cellular immunity.Cancer Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines designed to prevent or treat cancer. Vaccines are produced using the patient's own whole tumor cells as the source of antigens, or using tumor-specific antigens, often recombinantly produced.Radiobiology: Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Halobacterium: A genus of HALOBACTERIACEAE whose growth requires a high concentration of salt. Binary fission is by constriction.Radiotherapy, Image-Guided: The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.Anti-Ulcer Agents: Various agents with different action mechanisms used to treat or ameliorate PEPTIC ULCER or irritation of the gastrointestinal tract. This has included ANTIBIOTICS to treat HELICOBACTER INFECTIONS; HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS to reduce GASTRIC ACID secretion; and ANTACIDS for symptomatic relief.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Nigericin: A polyether antibiotic which affects ion transport and ATPase activity in mitochondria. It is produced by Streptomyces hygroscopicus. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Radiation ProtectionMastectomy: Surgical procedure to remove one or both breasts.Arylsulfonates: Organic sulfonic acid esters or salts which contain an aromatic hydrocarbon radical.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Hypersensitivity, Delayed: An increased reactivity to specific antigens mediated not by antibodies but by cells.Film Dosimetry: Use of a device (film badge) for measuring exposure of individuals to radiation. It is usually made of metal, plastic, or paper and loaded with one or more pieces of x-ray film.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.Epirubicin: An anthracycline which is the 4'-epi-isomer of doxorubicin. The compound exerts its antitumor effects by interference with the synthesis and function of DNA.Receptors, Estrogen: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind estrogens and migrate to the nucleus where they regulate DNA transcription. Evaluation of the state of estrogen receptors in breast cancer patients has become clinically important.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.ISCOMs: A formulation for presenting an antigen to induce specific immunologic responses. It consists of an assembly of antigens in multimeric form. The assembly is attached to a matrix with a built-in adjuvant, saponin. ISCOMs induce strong serum antibody responses, and are used as highly immunogenic forms of subunit vaccines.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Vaccines, DNA: Recombinant DNA vectors encoding antigens administered for the prevention or treatment of disease. The host cells take up the DNA, express the antigen, and present it to the immune system in a manner similar to that which would occur during natural infection. This induces humoral and cellular immune responses against the encoded antigens. The vector is called naked DNA because there is no need for complex formulations or delivery agents; the plasmid is injected in saline or other buffers.Radiation Oncology: A subspecialty of medical oncology and radiology concerned with the radiotherapy of cancer.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Rats, Inbred LewMembrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Particle therapy is a special case of external beam radiation therapy where the particles are protons or heavier ions. ... Preventive (adjuvant) doses are typically around 45-60 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy fractions (for breast, head, and neck cancers.) Many ... External beam radiation therapy[edit]. Main article: External beam radiation therapy. The following three sections refer to ... Due to their relatively large mass, protons and other charged particles have little lateral side scatter in the tissue-the beam ...
... proton beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Skull Base 2008; 18: pp. 327-337 Nichols A.C., Chan A.W., Curry W.T., et al: ... Cisplatin and etoposide are often used to treat esthesioneuroblastoma as neoadjuvants or adjuvants with radiotherapy or surgery ... Both photon and proton radiotherapy have been used effectively to treat esthesioneuroblastoma. Proton radiotherapy has recently ... proton beam radiation, and chemotherapy. Skull Base 2008; 18: pp. 327-337 Sheehan, J. M. (2011). Esthesioneuroblastoma. In J. A ...
Eleven centers in the United States are now using proton therapy for prostate cancer, which uses protons rather than X-rays to ... External beam radiation therapy uses a linear accelerator to produce high-energy x-rays that are directed in a beam towards the ... In the event of positive margins or locally advanced disease found on pathology, adjuvant radiation therapy may offer improved ... External beam radiation therapy is generally given over several weeks, with daily visits to a radiation therapy center. New ...
... proton beam radiation therapy - proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging - PS-341 - PSA - psammoma body - PSC 833 - ... incomplete Freund's adjuvant - indinavir - indium In 111 ibritumomab tiuxetan - indium In 111 pentetreotide - indole-3-carbinol ... external-beam radiation - extrahepatic - extrapleural pneumonectomy false-negative test result - false-positive test result - ... adjuvant therapy - adrenocortical - Adriamycin - adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma - AE-941 - AEE788 - aerobic metabolism - ...
The inner two protons of a free-base porphyrin can be removed by strong bases such as alkoxides, forming a dianionic molecule; ... The photosensitizer should not be harmful to the target tissue until the treatment beam is applied.) ... "Photothermal therapy with immune-adjuvant nanoparticles together with checkpoint blockade for effective cancer immunotherapy" ...
Particle therapy, Neutron, proton or heavy ions (e.g. carbon) Fast neutron therapy Proton therapy Barth, R.F.; Soloway, A.H.; ... The neutron beam has a mixed thermal-hyperthermal neutron spectrum that can be use to treat superficial tumors. Finally, as ... 2009). "Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in ... Until 1994, low-energy (< 0.5 eV) thermal neutron beams were used in Japan and the United States, but since they have a limited ...
2005). "3-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of central neurocytoma: 3 case reports and review of the literature". J ... Two adjuvant therapeutic strategies are Stereotactic surgery (SRS) and fractionated convention radiotherapy (FCRT). Both are ... Gamma knife surgery is a form of radiotherapy, more specifically radiosurgery that uses beams of gamma rays to deliver a ...
The high LET components include protons resulting from the capture reaction with normal tissue nitrogen, and recoil protons ... Until 1994, low-energy (, 0.5 eV) thermal neutron beams were used in Japan[8] and the United States,[4][5] but since they have ... 2009). "Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in ... The neutron beam has a mixed thermal-hyperthermal neutron spectrum that can be use to treat superficial tumors.[58] Finally, as ...
Particle therapy is a special case of external beam radiation therapy where the particles are protons or heavier ions. ... Preventive (adjuvant) doses are typically around 45-60 Gy in 1.8-2 Gy fractions (for breast, head, and neck cancers.) Many ... External beam radiation therapy[edit]. Main article: External beam radiation therapy. The following three sections refer to ... Due to their relatively large mass, protons and other charged particles have little lateral side scatter in the tissue-the beam ...
The patient underwent adjuvant proton beam radiation therapy.. Discussion. The foramen lacerum was introduced to the anatomical ...
Oropharyngeal cancer resected using transoral surgery with positive lymphadenopathy requiring adjuvant radiation therapy. ... A Study of Mucosal Sparing Proton Beam Therapy (PBT) in Resected Oropharyngeal Tumors. The safety and scientific validity of ... This study is an observational study evaluating the clinical outcomes of mucosal sparing proton beam therapy (PBT) after ... Local Control Rate in Patients Treated with Proton Beam Therapy after Resection Using Transoral Surgery [ Time Frame: 24 months ...
PSA 5.1Father treated for Prostate Cancer in 1997 with Proton Beam - Still ... ... What is the difference between adjuvant and salvage radiation? Age at diagnosis 54, ... Father treated for Prostate Cancer in 1997 with Proton Beam - Still doing well. ... So is it adjuvant or salvage if you are two years out from surgery but your psa is .1 I dont know and I dont think it really ...
Intraocular recurrence of uveal melanoma after proton beam irradiation. Ophthalmology 1992;99:760-6.doi:10.1016/S0161-6420(92) ... Adjuvant intra-arterial hepatic fotemustine for high-risk uveal melanoma patients. Melanoma Res 2008;18:220-4.doi:10.1097/CMR. ... Adjuvant dendritic cell vaccination in high-risk uveal melanoma. Ophthalmology 2016;123:2265-7.doi:10.1016/j.ophtha.2016.06.027 ... Adjuvant interferon therapy for patients with uveal melanoma at high risk of metastasis. Ophthalmology 2009;116:2206-12.doi: ...
Adjuvant brachytherapy or neoadjuvant proton-beam therapy is often administered. Experience is limited to retrospective, single ... TTT is also under evaluation as an adjunct to primary therapy with proton-beam radiation. In the setting of large uveal ... A large, single-center, single-surgeon series of 2,069 patients treated with proton-beam therapy had an actuarial local control ... Caujolle JP, Mammar H, Chamorey E, et al.: Proton beam radiotherapy for uveal melanomas at nice teaching hospital: 16 years ...
The majority of children had adjuvant therapy comprising proton beam therapy (18/59; 30.5%) or conventional radiotherapy (16/59 ...
Adjuvant radiation is recommended for chordomas and chondrosarcomas, as opposed to delayed radiation initiated at recurrence. ... Proton Therapy for Anal Cancer Bowel Issues After Proton Therapy 3D- Radiation versus IMRT versus Proton Therapy Proton Therapy ... Proton Therapy for Lung Cancer Chondrosarcoma in Dogs Proton Therapy For Prostate Cancer Proton Therapy for Prostate Cancer ... Proton beam therapy is ideally suited to the treatment of the clival region as the distal fall-off of the Bragg peak permits ...
Potential benefit of scanned proton beam versus photons as adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer2015Inngår i: ... Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using scanned proton beams as adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer. Long- ... thus suggesting that this motion might have little impact for the chosen beam orientations with scanned proton beams. ... Radiotherapy with scanned proton beams has the potential of maintaining low cardiovascular burden when including the IMN into ...
Potential benefit of scanned proton beam versus photons as adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer2015In: International ... Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of using scanned proton beams as adjuvant radiation therapy for breast cancer. Long- ... Respiratory gating for proton beam scanning versus photon 3D-CRT for breast cancer radiotherapy2016In: Acta Oncologica, ISSN ... The results from this study indicate a potential for protons as adjuvant radiation therapy in breast cancer and a further step ...
Adjuvant therapy includes cryotherapy [4], topical mitomycin C [5], brachytherapy [6-8], proton beam radiotherapy [9], or ... Proton bean radiotherapy has been used widely as adjuvant treatment in recurrent conjunctival melanoma and is associated with ... H. Westekemper, G. Anastassiou, W. Sauerwein et al., "Analysis of ocular surface alterations following proton beam radiation in ... The aim of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of Sr90 applicators as adjuvant treatment in a cohort of patients ...
Gamma-knife/Cyberknife), proton beam irradiation, neutron capture therapy, and chemotherapies except standard dose TMZ and ... as an adjuvant treatment have been given. ...
An in-silico comparison of proton beam and IMRT for postoperative radiotherapy in completely resected stage IIIA non-small cell ... Adjuvant radiotherapy for completely resected stage 2 thymoma. Cancer 117(15): 3502-8, Aug 2011.. Berman Abigail T, Rengan ... thoracic malignancies; lung cancer; thymoma; gastrointestinal malignancies; stereotactic radiation; proton beam therapy; ... She specializes in the treatment of patients with lung cancer and other thoracic malignancies with photon and proton radiation ...
Journal Article] RBE and OER within the spread-out Bragg peak for proton beam therapy: in vitro study at the Proton Medical ... 3) Local cancer radiotherapy may have an effect as an immune adjuvant. We found that a tumor-specific immune system was ... Proton for Innovative Applications of Particle Beam Therapy Do physical and biological differences between protons and carbon ... Presentation] Clinical Proton beam induced DNA damage and its repair mechanism2013. *. Author(s). ゲレルチュルン アリウンゲレル、石川隆昭、鈴木健之、洪正善 ...
Adjuvant sunitinib for renal cell carcinoma 29.09.16. Potential of laser-driven methods for proton beam delivery ...
Proton beam therapy is safe and effective for the treatment of bone sarcomas of the skull base and spine in Japan. However, ... nationwide multicenter study to evaluate the clinical outcomes of proton beam therapy for bone sarcomas of the skull base and ... Efficacy and Safety of Adjuvant Proton Therapy Combined With Surgery for Chondrosarcoma of the Skull Base : a Retrospective , ... Hyperfractionated high-dose proton beam radiotherapy for clival chordomas after surgical removal.. *Yasutaka Hayashi, Masashi ...
... incidence and severity of ototoxicity in young patients with medulloblastoma or pineoblastoma treated with adjuvant proton beam ... Patients receive proton beam craniospinal and posterior fossa radiotherapy once daily 5 days a week for 6-8 weeks*. ... Proton Beam Radiation Therapy in Treating Young Patients Who Have Undergone Biopsy or Surgery for Medulloblastoma or ... PURPOSE: This phase II trial is studying how well proton beam radiation therapy works in treating young patients who have ...
Objective: Surgical patients diagnosed with chordoma or chondrosarcoma will receive adjuvant proton beam therapy to prevent ... The department includes cutting edge technologies such as gamma knife, Varian Edge, Varian True Beam and a state of the art ... OSU 12079: An International, Randomized, Double-Blind, Controlled Study of Rindopepimut/GM-CSF with Adjuvant Temozolomide in ... Phase III Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Conventional Concurrent Chemoradiation and Adjuvant Temozolomide Plus ...
Further management will consist of testosterone (epiphyseal closure), adjuvant Pegvisomant and proton beam radiotherapy. ...
PBT is also utilized for other malignant and benign tumors as primary, salvage, or adjuvant treatment with combined modality ... the photon beam, demonstrating that, at the prescribed depth, the proton beam does not deliver a dose, whereas the photon beam ... The RBE of the proton beam is generally considered to be 1.1 (6). However, near the end of the proton range, the stopping power ... Proton beam therapy patient statistics until the end of 2015 (data collected by the Particle Therapy Cooperative Group). ...
... or proton beam and magnetic nanoparticles [2-4]. However, adjuvant treatments such as chemotherapeutic drugs have side effects ... "Anti-angiogenic activity in metastasis of human breast cancer cells irradiated by a proton beam," Journal of the Korean ... To reduce the risk of recurrence by residual cancer cells, an adjuvant treatment is used that consists of radio-radiation, ...
... as well as proton beam therapy, which uses rays of protons, a very small subatomic particle. Other advances include adjuvant ...
Two patients found to have extensive invasion were also treated with adjuvant proton beam radiotherapy during their course of ... Conclusions : Minimalist excision of invasive or in situ conjunctival carcinoma, with adjuvant topical 5-FU, and with ...
... intensified photon IMRT or proton beam therapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide and the standard-dose photon ... Experimental: Arm C (proton beam radiation therapy) Patients undergo dose-escalated and -intensified proton beam therapy QD, 5 ... Radiation: proton beam radiation therapy Undergo dose-escalated and -intensified proton beam radiation therapy ... It is not yet known whether dose-escalated photon IMRT or proton beam radiation therapy is more effective than standard-dose ...
The majority of children had adjuvant therapy comprising proton beam therapy (18/59; 30.5%) or conventional radiotherapy (16/59 ...
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Imaging data from five patients undergoing proton beam-therapy were used. The dose-painting target was ... Given the unsatisfactory rates of disease control and survival after primary or adjuvant radiation therapy, optimization of ... MATERIAL AND METHODS: Imaging data from five patients undergoing proton beam-therapy were used. The dose-painting target was ... We investigated the potential of dose-painting intensity-modulated proton beam-therapy (IMPT) for intermediate- and high-risk ...
  • 2-5) Adjustment of the initial energy of a collimated proton beam allows precise targetting of this Bragg peak on the tumor, causing maximum damage where desired, with minimal collateral tissue effect. (harvard.edu)
  • The results of the biopsy may mandate en bloc excision and spinal column reconstruction rather than simple decompression. (spotidoc.com)
  • To spare normal tissues (such as skin or organs which radiation must pass through to treat the tumor), shaped radiation beams are aimed from several angles of exposure to intersect at the tumor, providing a much larger absorbed dose there than in the surrounding healthy tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several radiation beams are then shaped and aimed at the tumour from different directions to treat the tumour from all angles. (cancer.ca)
  • In addition to shaping and aiming the radiation beams, the strength (intensity) of the beams can be adjusted. (cancer.ca)