Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Vitamin D: A vitamin that includes both CHOLECALCIFEROLS and ERGOCALCIFEROLS, which have the common effect of preventing or curing RICKETS in animals. It can also be viewed as a hormone since it can be formed in SKIN by action of ULTRAVIOLET RAYS upon the precursors, 7-dehydrocholesterol and ERGOSTEROL, and acts on VITAMIN D RECEPTORS to regulate CALCIUM in opposition to PARATHYROID HORMONE.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Vitamin D Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN D in the diet, insufficient production of vitamin D in the skin, inadequate absorption of vitamin D from the diet, or abnormal conversion of vitamin D to its bioactive metabolites. It is manifested clinically as RICKETS in children and OSTEOMALACIA in adults. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1406)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Calcifediol: The major circulating metabolite of VITAMIN D3. It is produced in the LIVER and is the best indicator of the body's vitamin D stores. It is effective in the treatment of RICKETS and OSTEOMALACIA, both in azotemic and non-azotemic patients. Calcifediol also has mineralizing properties.Skinfold Thickness: The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Body Constitution: The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Magic: Beliefs and practices concerned with producing desired results through supernatural forces or agents as with the manipulation of fetishes or rituals.Picolinic AcidsEating: The consumption of edible substances.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Micronutrients: Essential dietary elements or organic compounds that are required in only small quantities for normal physiologic processes to occur.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Satiation: Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Biological Products: Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.United States Health Resources and Services Administration: A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.Materia Medica: Materials or substances used in the composition of traditional medical remedies. The use of this term in MeSH was formerly restricted to historical articles or those concerned with traditional medicine, but it can also refer to homeopathic remedies. Nosodes are specific types of homeopathic remedies prepared from causal agents or disease products.Naturopathy: A drugless system of therapy, making use of physical forces such as air, light, water, heat, massage. Treatments are often diet- and nutrition-oriented with attention given to the patient's personal history and lifestyle. (From Cassileth, Alternative Medicine Handbook, 1998, p329)Herb-Drug Interactions: The effect of herbs, other PLANTS, or PLANT EXTRACTS on the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of drugs.Overweight: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Physical Fitness: The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Pediatric Obesity: BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Glucocorticoids: A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.Cushing Syndrome: A condition caused by prolonged exposure to excess levels of cortisol (HYDROCORTISONE) or other GLUCOCORTICOIDS from endogenous or exogenous sources. It is characterized by upper body OBESITY; OSTEOPOROSIS; HYPERTENSION; DIABETES MELLITUS; HIRSUTISM; AMENORRHEA; and excess body fluid. Endogenous Cushing syndrome or spontaneous hypercortisolism is divided into two groups, those due to an excess of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN and those that are ACTH-independent.Cortisone: A naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver to the active metabolite HYDROCORTISONE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p726)Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Hydrocortisone: The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Pituitary-Adrenal System: The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
(1/2014) Changes in weight and lean body mass during highly active antiretroviral therapy.

BACKGROUND: Few studies have prospectively evaluated the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on body weight and lean body mass (LBM) or explored the impact of baseline immunologic or virological changes on these parameters. METHODS: Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocol 892 was a prospective, 48-week, multisite observational study of body composition conducted during 1997-2000 among 224 antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced subjects coenrolled into various adult ACTG antiretroviral studies. Assessments included human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA load (by polymerase chain reaction); T lymphocyte subset analysis; Karnofsky score; height (baseline only); weight, LBM, and fat (by bioelectrical impedance analysis); and functional performance (by questionnaire). RESULTS: Overall, only modest median increases in body weight (1.9 kg) and LBM (0.6 kg) occurred after 16 weeks of therapy. Significantly greater median increases in body weight (2.1 vs. 0.5 kg; P=.045) occurred in subjects who achieved virological suppression (HIV-1 RNA load, <500 copies/mL) at week 16 than in subjects who did not. Subjects who were antiretroviral naive at baseline gained more weight (median increase in body weight, 2.6 vs. 0.0 kg; P<.001) and LBM (1.0 vs. 0.1 kg; P=.002) after 16 weeks of treatment than did subjects who were antiretroviral experienced. Subjects with lower baseline CD4 cell counts (<200 cells/mm3) and subjects with higher baseline HIV-1 RNA loads (> or =100,000 copies/mL) were more likely to show increases in LBM of >1.5 kg (P=.013 and P=.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HAART had modestly favorable effects on body composition, particularly in patients with greater pretreatment immunocompromise and virological compromise. The difference between antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced subjects with regard to the ability to achieve increased body weight and LBM requires more study.  (+info)

(2/2014) Elevated soluble ICAM-1 levels induce immune deficiency and increase adiposity in mice.

Elevated soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels have been found in many pathological conditions, including obesity. To determine the effects of elevated sICAM-1 on immune responses and metabolism, we generated a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the extracellular domain of mouse ICAM-1 in the liver. The mice, showing 10-fold higher sICAM-1 levels than wild-type mice, presented elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, after intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate, neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity was reduced, and the delayed macrophage recruitment was also affected in the transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Inhibition of contact hypersensitivity response in the sICAM-1 transgenic mice was comparable to ICAM-1-deficient mice and characterized by significantly less ear swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration than in wild-type mice. sICAM-1transgenic mice were more susceptible to weight gain on a Western-type diet than wild-type mice, and older animals showed excessive fat accumulation, again reminiscent of ICAM-1-deficient mice. Together, these data indicate that sICAM-1 interferes with ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell interactions, which could produce immune-suppressant effects and alteration of metabolism in persons with high levels of this soluble adhesion receptor.  (+info)

(3/2014) Rise in insulin resistance is associated with escalated telomere attrition.

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance predisposes to cardiovascular disease and shortens human lifespan. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a rise in insulin resistance in concert with gain in body mass is associated with accelerated white blood cell telomere attrition. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured white blood cell telomere dynamics and age-related changes in insulin resistance and body mass index in young adults of the Bogalusa Heart Study. Over 10.1 to 12.8 years, the relative changes in telomere length were correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=-0.531, P<0.001) and changes in the body mass index (r=-0.423, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first tangible nexus of telomere biology with insulin resistance and adiposity in humans.  (+info)

(4/2014) Genetic modifiers interact with Cpe(fat) to affect body weight, adiposity, and hyperglycemia.

Obesity and Type II diabetes are complex diseases in the human population. The existence of a large number of contributing loci and gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions make it difficult to identify the disease genes underlying these complex traits. In mouse models of obesity and Type II diabetes such as the murine fat mutation, genetic crosses can be used to dissect the genetic complexity influencing the observed phenotypes. The underlying defect in the fat mutant is a Ser202Pro change in carboxypeptidase E (CPE), an enzyme responsible for the final proteolytic processing step of prohormone intermediates. On the HRS/J (HRS) inbred strain background, mice homozygous for the fat mutation exhibit early onset hyperinsulinemia followed by postpubertal moderate obesity without hyperglycemia. In contrast, on the C57BLKS/J (BKS) genetic background, fat/fat mice become severely obese, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic. Therefore, in the Cpe(fat) genetic model, the fat mutation is necessary but not sufficient for the development of obesity, Type II diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. To dissect the susceptibility loci responsible for modifying obesity- and diabetes-associated traits, we characterized, both genetically and phenotypically, fat/fat male progeny from a large intercross between BKS. HRS-fat/fat and HRS-+/+ mice. Four major loci were mapped, including a locus for body weight (body weight 1) on chromosome 14; a locus for hyperglycemia (fat-induced diabetes 1) on chromosome 19; a locus for hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia (fat-induced diabetes 2) on chromosome 5; and a locus for adiposity and body weight (fat-induced adiposity 1) on chromosome 11. The identification of these interacting genetic determinants for obesity and Type II diabetes may allow better definition of the obesity/diabetes-related hormone signaling pathways and ultimately may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of these complex diseases.  (+info)

(5/2014) Body mass index in relation to ovarian cancer survival.

Evidence for an association between indicators of adiposity and survival after ovarian cancer has been inconsistent. A prospective cohort study was conducted in China to examine the relationship between ovarian cancer survival and body mass index (BMI). From the 214 patients recruited in 1999 to 2000 with histopathologically confirmed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 207 patients or their close relatives (96.7% of cases) were traced and followed to 2003. Deaths were recorded and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from multivariate models. Reduced survival was observed among patients with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) at 5 years before diagnosis (P = 0.001). There were 98 (59.8%) of 164 patients with BMI <25 kg/m(2) survived to the time of interview compared with only 15 women (34.9%) among the 43 patients whose BMI was > or =25 kg/m(2). The HRs significantly increased with higher BMI at 5 years before diagnosis but not at diagnosis nor at age 21 years. The adjusted HR was 2.33 (95% CI, 1.12-4.87) for BMI of > or =25 versus <20 kg/m(2), with a significant dose-response relationship. The HR was 3.31 (95% CI, 1.26-8.73) among patients who had been overweight or obese at age 21 years, but a linear dose-response was not found. We conclude that premorbid BMI may have independent prognostic significance in ovarian cancer.  (+info)

(6/2014) Recombinant leptin promotes atherosclerosis and thrombosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

OBJECTIVE: The direct role of leptin in vascular disease remains controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of leptin treatment on atherosclerosis and thrombosis in atherosclerotic-prone mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen-week-old, male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were treated with injections of recombinant leptin (125 microg per day IP; n=10) or vehicle (n=10) for 4 weeks. Leptin treatment resulted in reduced epididymal fat (352+/-30.7 versus 621+/-61.5 mg; P=0.005) and fasting insulin (0.57+/-0.25 versus 1.7+/-0.22 ng/mL; P=0.014). Despite these metabolic benefits, leptin treatment resulted in an increase in atherosclerosis (8.0+/-0.95% versus 5.4+/-0.59% lesion surface coverage; P<0.05). Leptin treatment also resulted in a shortened time to occlusive thrombosis after vascular injury (21+/-2.1 versus 34.6+/-5.4 minutes; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that exogenous leptin promotes atherosclerosis and thrombosis and support the concept that elevations of leptin may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

(7/2014) Cathepsin S, a novel biomarker of adiposity: relevance to atherogenesis.

The molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate biomarkers overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects that could link expanded fat mass to atherosclerosis. We compared gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scWAT) of 28 obese and 11 lean subjects using microarray technology. This analysis identified 240 genes significantly overexpressed in scWAT of obese subjects. The genes were then ranked according to the correlation between gene expression and body mass index (BMI). In this list, the elastolytic cysteine protease cathepsin S was among the highly correlated genes. RT-PCR and Western blotting confirmed the increase in cathepsin S mRNA (P=0.006) and protein (P<0.05) in obese scWAT. The circulating concentrations of cathepsin S were also significantly higher in obese than in nonobese subjects (P<0.0001). Both cathepsin S mRNA in scWAT and circulating levels were positively correlated with BMI, body fat, and plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, we show that the proinflammatory factors, lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increase cathepsin S secretion in human scWAT explants. This study identifies cathepsin S as a novel marker of adiposity. Since this enzyme has been implicated in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, we propose that cathepsin S represents a molecular link between obesity and atherosclerosis.  (+info)

(8/2014) Body fatness during childhood and adolescence and incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

INTRODUCTION: Body mass index (BMI) during adulthood is inversely related to the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, but the role of body fatness earlier in life is less clear. We examined prospectively the relation between body fatness during childhood and adolescence and the incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women. METHODS: Participants were 109,267 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10 and 20 years using a validated 9-level figure drawing. Over 12 years of follow up, 1318 incident cases of breast cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for body fatness at each age and for average childhood (ages 5-10 years) and adolescent (ages 10-20 years) fatness. RESULTS: Body fatness at each age was inversely associated with premenopausal breast cancer incidence; the multivariate RRs were 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.55) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.39-0.83) for the most overweight compared with the most lean in childhood and adolescence, respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). The association for childhood body fatness was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for later BMI, with a multivariate RR of 0.52 (95% CI 0.38-0.71) for the most overweight compared with the most lean (P for trend = 0.001). Adjustment for menstrual cycle characteristics had little impact on the association. CONCLUSION: Greater body fatness during childhood and adolescence is associated with reduced incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, independent of adult BMI and menstrual cycle characteristics.  (+info)

*  Diet-induced obesity model
The results of the study illustrate that the high fat diet rats had a higher adiposity index than the low fat diet rats. Dogs ...
*  Body adiposity index
"The body adiposity index (hip circumference ÷ height(1.5)) is not a more accurate measure of adiposity than is BMI, waist ... The body adiposity index (BAI) is a method of measuring the amount of body fat in humans. The BAI is calculated without using ... Adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (for example waist-to-height ratio WHtR) may be better than BAI and BMI ... 2013). "Body Adiposity Index and Cardiovascular Health Risk Factors in Caucasians: A Comparison with the Body Mass Index and ...
*  Colorado School of Public Health
Lifecourse Epidemiology of Adiposity & Diabetes; Program for Injury Prevention, Education & Research (PIPER). "Colorado School ...
*  Calorie restriction
Fontana, L.; Klein, S. (2007). "Aging, Adiposity, and Calorie Restriction". JAMA. 297 (9): 986-94. doi:10.1001/jama.297.9.986. ... these effects are independent of adiposity. Lowering of the concentration of insulin and substances related to insulin, such as ...
*  Ghrelin
This data suggests that ghrelin functions as an adiposity signal, a messenger between the body's energy stores and the brain. ... Lall S, Tung LY, Ohlsson C, Jansson JO, Dickson SL (January 2001). "Growth hormone (GH)-independent stimulation of adiposity by ... Tschöp M, Smiley DL, Heiman ML (October 2000). "Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents". Nature. 407 (6806): 908-13. Bibcode: ... "Elevated fasting plasma ghrelin in prader-willi syndrome adults is not solely explained by their reduced visceral adiposity and ...
*  Adipose tissue
The effect of diet or exercise on ectopic adiposity in children and adolescents with obesity: a systematic review and meta- ... Bachmanov, Alexander; D. R. Reed; M. G. Tordoff; R. A. Price (March 2001). "Nutrient preference and diet-induced adiposity in ... Montague, CT; O'Rahilly, S (2000). "The perils of portliness: Causes and consequences of visceral adiposity". Diabetes. 49 (6 ... "Caloric restriction leads to high marrow adiposity and low bone mass in growing mice". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 25 ...
*  Abdominal obesity
The effect of abdominal adiposity occurs not just in those who are obese, but also affects people who are non-obese and it also ... The effect of abdominal adiposity occurs not just in those who are obese, but also affects people who are non-obese and it also ... Increased adiposity (obesity) raises serum resistin levels, which in turn directly correlate to insulin resistance. Studies ... Conversely, serum resistin levels have been found to decline with decreased adiposity following medical treatment. Developing ...
*  Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Shelton RC, Miller AH (2011). "Inflammation in depression: is adiposity a cause?". Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 13 (1): ...
*  Barrett's esophagus
"Central adiposity and risk of Barrett esophagus". Gastroenterology. 133 (2): 403-11. doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2007.05.026. PMID ...
*  Prostaglandin EP4 receptor
EP4 receptor-depleted mice exhibit slower weight gain; reduced adiposity upon high fat diet challenge; and shortened life span ...
*  Cryolipolysis
2016). "Effects of Cryolipolysis on Abdominal Adiposity". Case Reports in Dermatological Medicine. doi:10.1155/2016/6052194. ...
*  Waist-hip ratio
Wardle, J; Chida, Y; Gibson, EL; Whitaker, KL; Steptoe, A (2011). "Stress and adiposity: a meta-analysis of longitudinal ... Gomes-Santos, E (2014). "Increased visceral adiposity and cortisol to cortisone ratio in adults with congenital isolated GH ... Samaras, K; Campbell, LV (1997). "The non-genetic determinants of central adiposity". International Journal of Obesity and ... Samaras, K; Campbell, LV (1997). "The non-genetic determinants of central adiposity". International Journal of Obesity and ...
*  Father-Daughter Day
doi:10.1016/s0376-8716(96)01333-6. Ness, Roberta (1 January 1991). "Adiposity and age of menarche in Hispanic women". American ...
*  Weight loss
"Insufficient sleep undermines dietary efforts to reduce adiposity". Annals of Internal Medicine. 153 (7): 435-41. doi:10.7326/ ...
*  Composition of the human body
This varies substantially by age, sex, and adiposity. In a large sample of adults of all ages and both sexes, the figure for ...
*  Achim Peters
The development of a pathogenetically based adiposity therapy]. Med Klin 99:674-679 Merl V, Peters A, Oltmanns KM, Kern W, ...
*  Marrow adipose tissue
"Increased Marrow Adiposity in Premenopausal Women with Idiopathic Osteoporosis". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and ... "Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss". Frontiers in Endocrinology. 7: ...
*  Adiposopathy
Bays, H; Ballantyne, C. (2006). "Adiposopathy: why do adiposity and obesity cause metabolic disease?". Future Lipidology. 1 (4 ... adiposity) but must also correct fat dysfunction (adiposopathy)." This is in recognition that the use of weight loss therapies ... "Pathogenic potential of adipose tissue and metabolic consequences of adipocyte hypertrophy and increased visceral adiposity". ...
*  Tendinopathy
Gaida JE, Ashe MC, Bass SL, Cook JL (2009). "Is adiposity an under-recognized risk factor for tendinopathy? A systematic review ... Obesity, or more specifically, adiposity or fatness, has also been linked to an increasing incidence of tendinopathy. The most ...
*  Adenovirus serotype 36
"Increased adiposity in animals due to a human virus". Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 24 (8): 989-96. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo. ...
*  Corpulence index
Body adiposity index Body mass index Waist-to-height ratio Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, Audrey H. Ensminger, Marion Eugene ... by Lindsay H. Allen and Stuart R. Gillespie Babar, Sultan (March 2016). "The Use of Adiposity Indices for Wide Receivers From ... "Evaluating the Performance of 4 Indices in Determining Adiposity". Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine. Lippincott Williams & ...
*  Body mass index
BMI generally overestimates adiposity on those with more lean body mass (e.g., athletes) and underestimates excess adiposity on ... Allometry Body adiposity index Body Shape Index Body volume index Body water Corpulence index List of countries by Body Mass ... Babar, Sultan (March 2015). "Evaluating the Performance of 4 Indices in Determining Adiposity". Clinical Journal of Sports ... used as a means of correlation between groups related by general mass and can serve as a vague means of estimating adiposity. ...
*  Adiponectin
Ukkola O, Santaniemi M (November 2002). "Adiponectin: a link between excess adiposity and associated comorbidities?". Journal ...
*  PIKFYVE
... adiposity, and hyperinsulinemia but not muscle fiber-type switching. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jul 1;305(1):E119-31. ... and increased adiposity, i.e. symptoms, typical for human prediabetes. PIKfyve physically associates with its regulator ...
*  Frédéric Bremer
These lesions were also shown to induce sleepiness and adiposity. In addition, their data suggested the existence of a "thirst ...
adiposity - Wiktionary  adiposity - Wiktionary
Retrieved from "https://en.wiktionary.org/w/index.php?title=adiposity&oldid=51828693" ...
more infohttps://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/adiposity
Body adiposity index - Wikipedia  Body adiposity index - Wikipedia
"The body adiposity index (hip circumference ÷ height(1.5)) is not a more accurate measure of adiposity than is BMI, waist ... The body adiposity index (BAI) is a method of measuring the amount of body fat in humans. The BAI is calculated without using ... Adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (for example waist-to-height ratio WHtR) may be better than BAI and BMI ... 2013). "Body Adiposity Index and Cardiovascular Health Risk Factors in Caucasians: A Comparison with the Body Mass Index and ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_adiposity_index
Maternal Visceral Adiposity by Consistency of Lactation | SpringerLink  Maternal Visceral Adiposity by Consistency of Lactation | SpringerLink
The purpose of this study was to examine the assocation between lactation and maternal visceral adiposity among US women who ... Computed tomography was used to assess abdominal adiposity. History of lactation was self-reported. Visceral adiposity was ... The purpose of this study was to examine the assocation between lactation and maternal visceral adiposity among US women who ... greater visceral adiposity than mothers who consistently breastfed all their children for 3 or more months. This study found ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10995-011-0758-0
NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20041193 - Adiposity in policing: mental health consequences.  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20041193 - Adiposity in policing: mental health consequences.
Measures of adiposity (Body Mass Index [BMI], abdominal height, waist circumference) and de ... Previous research suggests that adiposity is a health problem among police officers. Stress is also a concern in police work ... Measures of adiposity (Body Mass Index [BMI], abdominal height, waist circumference) and depressive symptoms (Center for ... No significant associations were found between CES-D score and adiposity in women officers (p = 0.075 for BMI, p = 0.317 for ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20041193.html
Prepubertal Adiposity, Vitamin D Status, and Insulin Resistance | Articles | Pediatrics  Prepubertal Adiposity, Vitamin D Status, and Insulin Resistance | Articles | Pediatrics
Adiposity and Metabolic Indicators. High total adiposity was defined based on BAZ (weight/height2; kg/m2) by using the World ... Changes in Adiposity From Prepuberty to Puberty-Onset. We observed an increase in indicators of adiposity, such as weight (Δ = ... Effects of Prepubertal Adiposity on Serum-25(OH)D Changes During Puberty-Onset. Total and central adiposity were inversely ... In adults, vitamin D is associated with adiposity and insulin resistance. Puberty is a period of physiologic adiposity and ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/06/21/peds.2016-0076
Role of Obesity and Adiposity in PCOS | SpringerLink  Role of Obesity and Adiposity in PCOS | SpringerLink
Pasquali R., Patton L., Diamanti-Kandarakis E., Gambineri A. (2007) Role of Obesity and Adiposity in PCOS. In: Azziz R. (eds) ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-0-387-69248-7_6
Adiposity and Fat Patterning in Black Americans  Adiposity and Fat Patterning in Black Americans
More From BioPortfolio on "Adiposity and Fat Patterning in Black Americans". *Related Companies*Related Events*Related Clinical ... Since there are known racial differences in growth rates, body proportions, and adiposity, it cannot be assumed that studies ... Adiposity and Fat Patterning in Black Americans. 2014-08-27 03:57:57 , BioPortfolio ... and total adiposity and the dependent variables of diabetes, blood pressure, plasma lipids and glucose, and left ventricular ...
more infohttps://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/trial/125165/Adiposity-and-Fat-Patterning-in-Black-Americans.html
Development of adiposity in adolescence in Britain  Development of adiposity in adolescence in Britain
... May 10, 2006, 02:47, Reviewed by: Dr. Priya Saxena. ... Development of adiposity in adolescence: five year longitudinal study of an ethnically and socioeconomically diverse sample of ...
more infohttp://www.rxpgnews.com/research/metabolism/obesity/article_4266.shtml
Body Adiposity, Not BMI, Key to CV Risk in Colorectal Cancer  Body Adiposity, Not BMI, Key to CV Risk in Colorectal Cancer
CT analysis showed that BMI was positively correlated with visceral adiposity, subcutaneous adiposity, and muscle mass, and ... Subcutaneous adiposity and muscle mass were not associated with the risk of MACE, and the associations were not affected by ... Visceral adiposity was, in contrast, was significantly associated with MACE, at a multivariate adjusted hazard ratio for the ... Cite this: Body Adiposity, Not BMI, Key to CV Risk in Colorectal Cancer - Medscape - May 21, 2019. ...
more infohttps://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/913282
Role of Nampt and Visceral Adiposity in Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma  Role of Nampt and Visceral Adiposity in Esophagogastric Junction Adenocarcinoma
... Haijun Li,1 E. Bai,2 Yong Zhang,1 Zhuoqi Jia,1 ... Visceral adiposity was defined by waist circumference or VFA. eNampt in sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ... C. L. Donohoe, S. L. Doyle, S. McGarrigle et al., "Role of the insulin-like growth factor 1 axis and visceral adiposity in ... P. Beddy, J. Howard, C. McMahon et al., "Association of visceral adiposity with oesophageal and junctional adenocarcinomas," ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jir/2017/3970605/
Chronic Maternal Dietary Chromium Restriction Modulates Visceral Adiposity | Diabetes  Chronic Maternal Dietary Chromium Restriction Modulates Visceral Adiposity | Diabetes
Adiposity index.. Adiposity index, an index of visceral adiposity, was computed according to Taylor et al. (25). The wet ... Changes of adiposity in response to vitamin A status correlate with changes of PPAR gamma 2 expression. Obes Res 2001;9:500-509 ... HSD1 and leptin may underlie enhanced body adiposity (fat percentage and visceral adiposity) in the offspring. ... which indicate that maternal Cr restriction increased adiposity, especially visceral adiposity, in offspring and may therefore ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/59/1/98
A Tangled Threesome: Adiponectin, Insulin Sensitivity, and Adiposity | Diabetes  A Tangled Threesome: Adiponectin, Insulin Sensitivity, and Adiposity | Diabetes
This places adiposity primarily upstream of adiponectin, not downstream. Yet because adiposity in late adulthood should not ... "C" denotes gene × adiposity interaction as a potential violation of the assumption that AdipoQ is independent of environmental ... A Tangled Threesome: Adiponectin, Insulin Sensitivity, and Adiposity Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... In regard to assumption 2, the negative correlation observed between AdipoQ SNPs and adiposity is of particular concern. The ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/4/1007.full
Gluten-free diet reduces adiposity, inflammation and...  'Gluten-free diet reduces adiposity, inflammation and...
C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet containing 4.5% gluten (Control) or no gluten (GF). Body weight and adiposity gains, ... Gluten-free animals showed a reduction in body weight gain and adiposity, without changes in food intake or lipid excretion. ... Gluten-free diet reduces adiposity, inflammation and insulin resistance associated with the induction of PPAR-alpha and PPAR- ... Gluten-free diet reduces adiposity, inflammation and insulin resistance associated with the induction of PPAR-alpha and PPAR- ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/gluten-free-diet-reduces-adiposity-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
Dietary Fat Significantly Linked to an Increase in Abdominal Adiposity  Dietary Fat Significantly Linked to an Increase in Abdominal Adiposity
... by Bidita Debnath on January 9, 2014 at 11:49 PM ... the hypothesis and show that the percentage of dietary fat is significantly linked to an increase in abdominal adiposity and ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/news/dietary-fat-significantly-linked-to-an-increase-in-abdominal-adiposity-130262-1.htm
Time to Redefine Obesity as Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD)  Time to Redefine Obesity as Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD)
The complications that result from adiposity under these influences are adiposity-based chronic diseases, such as diabetes and ... adiposity-based chronic disease (ABCD)--as a new diagnostic term.3 Adiposity, which has been defined as total body fat, its ... Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease as a New Diagnostic Term: American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and the American ... Time to Redefine Obesity as Adiposity-Based Chronic Disease (ABCD). Written by J. Michael Gonzalez-Campoy MD, PhD, FACE ...
more infohttps://www.endocrineweb.com/amp/56888
The Clinical Utility of Adiposity-Related Hormones - AACC.org  The Clinical Utility of Adiposity-Related Hormones - AACC.org
While both subcutaneous and visceral fat contribute to adiposity, visceral fat has a much greater impact on cardiometabolic ... Adiposity is defined as an accumulation of excess adipose tissue composed of adipocytes, or fat cells. Adiposity develops when ... AACC.org // ... // Clinical Laboratory News // All CLN Articles // The Clinical Utility of Adiposity-Related Hormones ... Clinicians routinely measure adiposity using anthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI; kg/m2). Individuals with ...
more infohttps://www.aacc.org/publications/cln/articles/2017/august/the-clinical-utility-of-adiposity-related-hormones
NIOSHTIC-2  Publications Search - 20042812 - Central adiposity and subclinical cardiovascular disease in police officers.  NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search - 20042812 - Central adiposity and subclinical cardiovascular disease in police officers.
Given the associations between obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD), we evaluated a related but less well-established association between waist circumference and brachial artery reactivity (BAR), a functional measurement of subclinical CVD, where lower levels indicate dysfunction. Regression models examined trends in mean BAR across waist circumference tertiles in police officers, a high-stres
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/niosh/nioshtic-2/20042812.html
Cardiorespiratory fitness, different measures of adiposity, and cancer mortality in men.  - PubMed - NCBI  Cardiorespiratory fitness, different measures of adiposity, and cancer mortality in men. - PubMed - NCBI
Cardiorespiratory fitness, different measures of adiposity, and cancer mortality in men.. Farrell SW1, Cortese GM, LaMonte MJ, ... Adjustment of CRF for adiposity measures had little effect on mortality risk. When grouped into categories of fit and unfit ( ... Higher levels of CRF are associated with lower cancer mortality risk in men, independently of several adiposity measures. ... different measures of adiposity, and cancer mortality in men. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18198325?dopt=Abstract
Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity in Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obese Youth | Articles | Pediatrics  Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity in Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obese Youth | Articles | Pediatrics
Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity in Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obese Youth. Martin Sénéchal, Brandy Wicklow, ... Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity in Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obese Youth Message Subject (Your Name) has ... Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Adiposity in Metabolically Healthy Overweight and Obese Youth. Martin Sénéchal, Brandy Wicklow, ... OBJECTIVE: Controversy exists surrounding the contribution of fitness and adiposity as determinants of the Metabolically ...
more infohttp://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2013/06/19/peds.2013-0296
  • But determining whether this study supports a causal role for adiponectin as relates to insulin sensitivity, with adiposity as a mediator, requires careful assessment of the extent to which the three fundamental assumptions underpinning IV analysis are satisfied ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The relationship between insulin sensitivity and surrogates for adiposity in youth. (rti.org)
  • While both subcutaneous and visceral fat contribute to adiposity, visceral fat has a much greater impact on cardiometabolic disease because of its metabolic activity. (aacc.org)
  • Comparing BAI with "gold standard" dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results, the correlation between DXA-derived percentage of adiposity and the BAI in a target population was R = 0.85, with a concordance of C_b = 0.95. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an effort to shift the emphasis from a medical diagnostic focus to one that recognizes the pathophysiological effects of excess weight, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) and the American College of Endocrinology (ACE) published a position statement , arguing for--adiposity-based chronic disease (ABCD)--as a new diagnostic term. (endocrineweb.com)
  • To our great surprise, we have found that in all 4 groups, women with central adiposity had the highest bone mineral density (BMD) and the highest amount of muscle mass on the legs. (ahajournals.org)
  • It is well known, for example, that supraphysiologic levels of glucocorticoids, as seen in Cushing syndrome, increase central adiposity at the expense of peripheral adiposity and muscle mass. (ahajournals.org)
  • After 6 weeks of administration, mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited a marked reduction in adiposity. (jci.org)
  • Controversy exists surrounding the contribution of fitness and adiposity as determinants of the Metabolically Healthy Overweight (MHO) phenotype in youth. (aappublications.org)
  • Although sum of skinfolds may be least influenced by age, sex and race of all the adiposity surrogates, waist-height ratio provides a good alternative for both sexes. (rti.org)
  • Body adiposity index Body mass index Waist-to-height ratio Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, Audrey H. Ensminger, Marion Eugene Ensminger. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leitzmann MF, Flood A, Ferrucci LM et al (2009) Adiposity in relation to colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps in women. (springer.com)
  • Peripheral adiposity exhibits an independent dominant antiatherogenic effect in elderly women. (ahajournals.org)
  • 3 Adiposity, which has been defined as total body fat, its distribution and secretary function, is affected by physical and nonphysical environments including culture, beliefs, customs, society, politics and economics. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The BAI could be a good tool to measure adiposity due, at least in part, to the advantages over other more complex mechanical or electrical systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Collectively, our results shown that most of the dancers were eutrophic, but the female dancers had higher adiposity and presented a strong desire for a different shape. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Since there are known racial differences in growth rates, body proportions, and adiposity, it cannot be assumed that studies done on whites are applicable to Blacks. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between child adiposity at 8 y of age and repeated urinary biomarkers of phthalate exposure collected during gestation, infancy, and childhood to determine if there are distinct periods of vulnerability when the fetus or child is more vulnerable to the potential obesogenic effects of phthalate exposure. (thefreedictionary.com)