The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Glucose in blood.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The consumption of edible substances.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The physical measurements of a body.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
Abstaining from all food.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
The Republic of Belarus is a sovereign country located in Eastern Europe, known for its advanced medical facilities and highly trained healthcare professionals, offering a wide range of medical services including but not limited to cardiology, oncology, neurology, and transplantation, among others.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Female parents, human or animal.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Changes in weight and lean body mass during highly active antiretroviral therapy. (1/2014)

BACKGROUND: Few studies have prospectively evaluated the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on body weight and lean body mass (LBM) or explored the impact of baseline immunologic or virological changes on these parameters. METHODS: Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocol 892 was a prospective, 48-week, multisite observational study of body composition conducted during 1997-2000 among 224 antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced subjects coenrolled into various adult ACTG antiretroviral studies. Assessments included human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA load (by polymerase chain reaction); T lymphocyte subset analysis; Karnofsky score; height (baseline only); weight, LBM, and fat (by bioelectrical impedance analysis); and functional performance (by questionnaire). RESULTS: Overall, only modest median increases in body weight (1.9 kg) and LBM (0.6 kg) occurred after 16 weeks of therapy. Significantly greater median increases in body weight (2.1 vs. 0.5 kg; P=.045) occurred in subjects who achieved virological suppression (HIV-1 RNA load, <500 copies/mL) at week 16 than in subjects who did not. Subjects who were antiretroviral naive at baseline gained more weight (median increase in body weight, 2.6 vs. 0.0 kg; P<.001) and LBM (1.0 vs. 0.1 kg; P=.002) after 16 weeks of treatment than did subjects who were antiretroviral experienced. Subjects with lower baseline CD4 cell counts (<200 cells/mm3) and subjects with higher baseline HIV-1 RNA loads (> or =100,000 copies/mL) were more likely to show increases in LBM of >1.5 kg (P=.013 and P=.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HAART had modestly favorable effects on body composition, particularly in patients with greater pretreatment immunocompromise and virological compromise. The difference between antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced subjects with regard to the ability to achieve increased body weight and LBM requires more study.  (+info)

Elevated soluble ICAM-1 levels induce immune deficiency and increase adiposity in mice. (2/2014)

Elevated soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels have been found in many pathological conditions, including obesity. To determine the effects of elevated sICAM-1 on immune responses and metabolism, we generated a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the extracellular domain of mouse ICAM-1 in the liver. The mice, showing 10-fold higher sICAM-1 levels than wild-type mice, presented elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, after intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate, neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity was reduced, and the delayed macrophage recruitment was also affected in the transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Inhibition of contact hypersensitivity response in the sICAM-1 transgenic mice was comparable to ICAM-1-deficient mice and characterized by significantly less ear swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration than in wild-type mice. sICAM-1transgenic mice were more susceptible to weight gain on a Western-type diet than wild-type mice, and older animals showed excessive fat accumulation, again reminiscent of ICAM-1-deficient mice. Together, these data indicate that sICAM-1 interferes with ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell interactions, which could produce immune-suppressant effects and alteration of metabolism in persons with high levels of this soluble adhesion receptor.  (+info)

Rise in insulin resistance is associated with escalated telomere attrition. (3/2014)

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance predisposes to cardiovascular disease and shortens human lifespan. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a rise in insulin resistance in concert with gain in body mass is associated with accelerated white blood cell telomere attrition. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured white blood cell telomere dynamics and age-related changes in insulin resistance and body mass index in young adults of the Bogalusa Heart Study. Over 10.1 to 12.8 years, the relative changes in telomere length were correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=-0.531, P<0.001) and changes in the body mass index (r=-0.423, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first tangible nexus of telomere biology with insulin resistance and adiposity in humans.  (+info)

Genetic modifiers interact with Cpe(fat) to affect body weight, adiposity, and hyperglycemia. (4/2014)

Obesity and Type II diabetes are complex diseases in the human population. The existence of a large number of contributing loci and gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions make it difficult to identify the disease genes underlying these complex traits. In mouse models of obesity and Type II diabetes such as the murine fat mutation, genetic crosses can be used to dissect the genetic complexity influencing the observed phenotypes. The underlying defect in the fat mutant is a Ser202Pro change in carboxypeptidase E (CPE), an enzyme responsible for the final proteolytic processing step of prohormone intermediates. On the HRS/J (HRS) inbred strain background, mice homozygous for the fat mutation exhibit early onset hyperinsulinemia followed by postpubertal moderate obesity without hyperglycemia. In contrast, on the C57BLKS/J (BKS) genetic background, fat/fat mice become severely obese, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic. Therefore, in the Cpe(fat) genetic model, the fat mutation is necessary but not sufficient for the development of obesity, Type II diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. To dissect the susceptibility loci responsible for modifying obesity- and diabetes-associated traits, we characterized, both genetically and phenotypically, fat/fat male progeny from a large intercross between BKS. HRS-fat/fat and HRS-+/+ mice. Four major loci were mapped, including a locus for body weight (body weight 1) on chromosome 14; a locus for hyperglycemia (fat-induced diabetes 1) on chromosome 19; a locus for hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia (fat-induced diabetes 2) on chromosome 5; and a locus for adiposity and body weight (fat-induced adiposity 1) on chromosome 11. The identification of these interacting genetic determinants for obesity and Type II diabetes may allow better definition of the obesity/diabetes-related hormone signaling pathways and ultimately may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of these complex diseases.  (+info)

Body mass index in relation to ovarian cancer survival. (5/2014)

Evidence for an association between indicators of adiposity and survival after ovarian cancer has been inconsistent. A prospective cohort study was conducted in China to examine the relationship between ovarian cancer survival and body mass index (BMI). From the 214 patients recruited in 1999 to 2000 with histopathologically confirmed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 207 patients or their close relatives (96.7% of cases) were traced and followed to 2003. Deaths were recorded and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from multivariate models. Reduced survival was observed among patients with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) at 5 years before diagnosis (P = 0.001). There were 98 (59.8%) of 164 patients with BMI <25 kg/m(2) survived to the time of interview compared with only 15 women (34.9%) among the 43 patients whose BMI was > or =25 kg/m(2). The HRs significantly increased with higher BMI at 5 years before diagnosis but not at diagnosis nor at age 21 years. The adjusted HR was 2.33 (95% CI, 1.12-4.87) for BMI of > or =25 versus <20 kg/m(2), with a significant dose-response relationship. The HR was 3.31 (95% CI, 1.26-8.73) among patients who had been overweight or obese at age 21 years, but a linear dose-response was not found. We conclude that premorbid BMI may have independent prognostic significance in ovarian cancer.  (+info)

Recombinant leptin promotes atherosclerosis and thrombosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (6/2014)

OBJECTIVE: The direct role of leptin in vascular disease remains controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of leptin treatment on atherosclerosis and thrombosis in atherosclerotic-prone mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen-week-old, male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were treated with injections of recombinant leptin (125 microg per day IP; n=10) or vehicle (n=10) for 4 weeks. Leptin treatment resulted in reduced epididymal fat (352+/-30.7 versus 621+/-61.5 mg; P=0.005) and fasting insulin (0.57+/-0.25 versus 1.7+/-0.22 ng/mL; P=0.014). Despite these metabolic benefits, leptin treatment resulted in an increase in atherosclerosis (8.0+/-0.95% versus 5.4+/-0.59% lesion surface coverage; P<0.05). Leptin treatment also resulted in a shortened time to occlusive thrombosis after vascular injury (21+/-2.1 versus 34.6+/-5.4 minutes; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that exogenous leptin promotes atherosclerosis and thrombosis and support the concept that elevations of leptin may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

Cathepsin S, a novel biomarker of adiposity: relevance to atherogenesis. (7/2014)

The molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate biomarkers overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects that could link expanded fat mass to atherosclerosis. We compared gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scWAT) of 28 obese and 11 lean subjects using microarray technology. This analysis identified 240 genes significantly overexpressed in scWAT of obese subjects. The genes were then ranked according to the correlation between gene expression and body mass index (BMI). In this list, the elastolytic cysteine protease cathepsin S was among the highly correlated genes. RT-PCR and Western blotting confirmed the increase in cathepsin S mRNA (P=0.006) and protein (P<0.05) in obese scWAT. The circulating concentrations of cathepsin S were also significantly higher in obese than in nonobese subjects (P<0.0001). Both cathepsin S mRNA in scWAT and circulating levels were positively correlated with BMI, body fat, and plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, we show that the proinflammatory factors, lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increase cathepsin S secretion in human scWAT explants. This study identifies cathepsin S as a novel marker of adiposity. Since this enzyme has been implicated in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, we propose that cathepsin S represents a molecular link between obesity and atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Body fatness during childhood and adolescence and incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study. (8/2014)

INTRODUCTION: Body mass index (BMI) during adulthood is inversely related to the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, but the role of body fatness earlier in life is less clear. We examined prospectively the relation between body fatness during childhood and adolescence and the incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women. METHODS: Participants were 109,267 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10 and 20 years using a validated 9-level figure drawing. Over 12 years of follow up, 1318 incident cases of breast cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for body fatness at each age and for average childhood (ages 5-10 years) and adolescent (ages 10-20 years) fatness. RESULTS: Body fatness at each age was inversely associated with premenopausal breast cancer incidence; the multivariate RRs were 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.55) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.39-0.83) for the most overweight compared with the most lean in childhood and adolescence, respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). The association for childhood body fatness was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for later BMI, with a multivariate RR of 0.52 (95% CI 0.38-0.71) for the most overweight compared with the most lean (P for trend = 0.001). Adjustment for menstrual cycle characteristics had little impact on the association. CONCLUSION: Greater body fatness during childhood and adolescence is associated with reduced incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, independent of adult BMI and menstrual cycle characteristics.  (+info)

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Waist circumference is a measurement of the distance around a person's waist. It is typically taken at the narrowest point between the bottom of the ribcage and the top of the hips, also known as the natural waist. This measurement is used as an indicator of abdominal obesity and health status. A high waist circumference (generally 35 inches or more for women and 40 inches or more for men) is associated with an increased risk of conditions such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. It is often used in conjunction with other measures like blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and cholesterol levels to assess overall health.

Intra-abdominal fat, also known as visceral fat, is the fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines. It's different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat found just under the skin. Intra-abdominal fat is metabolically active and has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. The accumulation of intra-abdominal fat can be influenced by factors such as diet, physical activity, genetics, and age. Waist circumference and imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRIs, are commonly used to measure intra-abdominal fat.

Abdominal fat, also known as visceral fat, is the fat that is stored in the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines. It is different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat located just under the skin, and is often measured using techniques such as CT scans or MRI to assess health risks. Excess abdominal fat has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measurement of the proportion of fat distribution around the waist and hips. It's calculated by dividing the circumference of the waist by the circumference of the hips. A higher waist-hip ratio indicates an increased risk for obesity-related health conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Generally, a healthy WHR is considered to be less than 0.9 for men and less than 0.8 for women.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

Subcutaneous fat, also known as hypodermic fat, is the layer of fat found beneath the skin and above the muscle fascia, which is the fibrous connective tissue covering the muscles. It serves as an energy reserve, insulation to maintain body temperature, and a cushion to protect underlying structures. Subcutaneous fat is distinct from visceral fat, which is found surrounding internal organs in the abdominal cavity.

Skinfold thickness is a measurement of the thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer (the layer of fat directly beneath the skin) at specific sites on the body. It's typically measured using calipers and is expressed in millimeters (mm). This measurement is often used in health assessments to estimate body fat percentage and overall health status. The most commonly used sites for skinfold thickness measurements are the triceps, biceps, suprailiac (just above the iliac crest), subscapular (underneath the shoulder blade), and abdominal areas.

Photon Absorptiometry is a medical technique used to measure the absorption of photons (light particles) by tissues or materials. In clinical practice, it is often used as a non-invasive method for measuring bone mineral density (BMD). This technique uses a low-energy X-ray beam or gamma ray to penetrate the tissue and then measures the amount of radiation absorbed by the bone. The amount of absorption is related to the density and thickness of the bone, allowing for an assessment of BMD. It can be used to diagnose osteoporosis and monitor treatment response in patients with bone diseases. There are two types of photon absorptiometry: single-photon absorptiometry (SPA) and dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA). SPA uses one energy level, while DPA uses two different energy levels to measure BMD, providing more precise measurements.

Abdominal obesity is a type of obesity that is defined by an excessive accumulation of fat in the abdominal region. It is often assessed through the measurement of waist circumference or the waist-to-hip ratio. Abdominal obesity has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

In medical terms, abdominal obesity is also known as central obesity or visceral obesity. It is characterized by the accumulation of fat around internal organs in the abdomen, such as the liver and pancreas, rather than just beneath the skin (subcutaneous fat). This type of fat distribution is thought to be more harmful to health than the accumulation of fat in other areas of the body.

Abdominal obesity can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise, as well as addressing any underlying medical conditions that may be contributing to the problem. In some cases, medication or surgery may also be recommended.

Body fat distribution refers to the way in which adipose tissue (fat) is distributed throughout the body. There are two main types of body fat distribution: android or central/abdominal distribution and gynoid or peripheral distribution.

Android or central/abdominal distribution is characterized by a higher proportion of fat deposited in the abdominal area, surrounding internal organs (visceral fat) and between muscle fibers (intramuscular fat). This pattern is more common in men and is associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and cardiovascular disease.

Gynoid or peripheral distribution is characterized by a higher proportion of fat deposited in the hips, thighs, and buttocks. This pattern is more common in women and is generally considered less harmful to health than android distribution. However, excessive accumulation of body fat, regardless of its distribution, can lead to obesity-related health problems.

It's important to note that body fat distribution can be influenced by various factors, including genetics, hormones, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Assessing body fat distribution is an essential aspect of evaluating overall health and disease risk.

Viscera is a medical term that refers to the internal organs of the body, specifically those contained within the chest and abdominal cavities. These include the heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and intestines. In some contexts, it may also refer to the reproductive organs. The term viscera is often used in anatomical or surgical descriptions, and is derived from the Latin word "viscus," meaning "an internal organ."

Anthropometry is the scientific study of measurements and proportions of the human body. It involves the systematic measurement and analysis of various physical characteristics, such as height, weight, blood pressure, waist circumference, and other body measurements. These measurements are used in a variety of fields, including medicine, ergonomics, forensics, and fashion design, to assess health status, fitness level, or to design products and environments that fit the human body. In a medical context, anthropometry is often used to assess growth and development, health status, and disease risk factors in individuals and populations.

Medically, 'overweight' is a term used to describe a person whose body weight is greater than what is considered healthy for their height. This excess weight often comes from fat, muscle, bone, or water accumulation. The most commonly used measure to define overweight is the Body Mass Index (BMI), which is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. A BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 is considered overweight, while a BMI of 30.0 or higher is considered obese. However, it's important to note that BMI doesn't directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status for all individuals, such as athletes with high muscle mass.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Subcutaneous fat in the abdominal area refers to the adipose tissue located beneath the skin and above the abdominal muscles in the stomach region. It is the layer of fat that you can pinch between your fingers. While some level of subcutaneous fat is normal and healthy, excessive amounts can increase the risk of various health conditions such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders.

It's worth noting that there is another type of fat called visceral fat, which is found deeper within the abdominal cavity, surrounding the internal organs. Visceral fat is often referred to as "active" fat because it releases hormones and inflammatory substances that can have a negative impact on health, even if overall body weight is normal. High levels of visceral fat are associated with an increased risk of developing conditions such as metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

While subcutaneous fat is less metabolically active than visceral fat, excessive amounts can still contribute to health problems. Therefore, it's important to maintain a healthy body weight through regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Adiponectin is a hormone that is produced and secreted by adipose tissue, which is another name for body fat. This hormone plays an important role in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. It helps to regulate glucose levels, break down fatty acids, and has anti-inflammatory effects.

Adiponectin is unique because it is exclusively produced by adipose tissue, and its levels are inversely related to body fat mass. This means that lean individuals tend to have higher levels of adiponectin than obese individuals. Low levels of adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk of developing various metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Overall, adiponectin is an important hormone that plays a crucial role in maintaining metabolic health, and its levels may serve as a useful biomarker for assessing metabolic risk.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

The term "body constitution" is often used in traditional systems of medicine, such as Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurveda. It refers to the unique combination of physical and psychological characteristics that make up an individual's inherent nature and predisposition to certain health conditions. In TCM, for example, a person's body constitution may be classified as being predominantly hot, cold, damp, or dry, which can influence their susceptibility to certain diseases and their response to treatment. Similarly, in Ayurveda, an individual's constitution is determined by the balance of three fundamental energies or doshas: Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. Understanding a person's body constitution is thought to be essential for developing a personalized approach to healthcare that addresses their unique needs and tendencies. However, it should be noted that this concept is not widely recognized in modern Western medicine.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

The abdomen refers to the portion of the body that lies between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis. It is a musculo-fascial cavity containing the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. The abdominal cavity is divided into several regions and quadrants for medical description and examination purposes. These include the upper and lower abdomen, as well as nine quadrants formed by the intersection of the midline and a horizontal line drawn at the level of the umbilicus (navel).

The major organs located within the abdominal cavity include:

1. Stomach - muscular organ responsible for initial digestion of food
2. Small intestine - long, coiled tube where most nutrient absorption occurs
3. Large intestine - consists of the colon and rectum; absorbs water and stores waste products
4. Liver - largest internal organ, involved in protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism
5. Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin
6. Spleen - filters blood and removes old red blood cells
7. Kidneys - pair of organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine
8. Adrenal glands - sit atop each kidney, produce hormones that regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response

The abdomen is an essential part of the human body, playing a crucial role in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and waste materials, as well as various metabolic processes.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

Adipose tissue, white is a type of fatty tissue in the body that functions as the primary form of energy storage. It is composed of adipocytes, which are specialized cells that store energy in the form of lipids, primarily triglycerides. The main function of white adipose tissue is to provide energy to the body during periods of fasting or exercise by releasing free fatty acids into the bloodstream. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. White adipose tissue can be found throughout the body, including beneath the skin (subcutaneous) and surrounding internal organs (visceral).

The term "European Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification that refers to individuals who trace their genetic ancestry to the continent of Europe. This group includes people from various ethnic backgrounds and nationalities, such as Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western European descent. It is often used in research and medical settings for population studies or to identify genetic patterns and predispositions to certain diseases that may be more common in specific ancestral groups. However, it's important to note that this classification can oversimplify the complex genetic diversity within and between populations, and should be used with caution.

A high-fat diet is a type of eating plan that derives a significant proportion of its daily caloric intake from fat sources. While there is no universally agreed-upon definition for what constitutes a high-fat diet, it generally refers to diets in which total fat intake provides more than 30-35% of the total daily calories.

High-fat diets can vary widely in their specific composition and may include different types of fats, such as saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats. Some high-fat diets emphasize the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods that are naturally high in fat, like nuts, seeds, avocados, fish, and olive oil. Others may allow for or even encourage the inclusion of processed and high-fat animal products, such as red meat, butter, and full-fat dairy.

It's important to note that not all high-fat diets are created equal, and some may be more healthful than others depending on their specific composition and the individual's overall dietary patterns. Some research suggests that high-fat diets that are low in carbohydrates and moderate in protein may offer health benefits for weight loss, blood sugar control, and cardiovascular risk factors, while other studies have raised concerns about the potential negative effects of high-fat diets on heart health and metabolic function.

As with any dietary approach, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian before making significant changes to your eating habits, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medications that may be affected by dietary changes.

A Glucose Tolerance Test (GTT) is a medical test used to diagnose prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes. It measures how well your body is able to process glucose, which is a type of sugar.

During the test, you will be asked to fast (not eat or drink anything except water) for at least eight hours before the test. Then, a healthcare professional will take a blood sample to measure your fasting blood sugar level. After that, you will be given a sugary drink containing a specific amount of glucose. Your blood sugar levels will be measured again after two hours and sometimes also after one hour.

The results of the test will indicate how well your body is able to process the glucose and whether you have normal, impaired, or diabetic glucose tolerance. If your blood sugar levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be diagnosed with diabetes, you may have prediabetes, which means that you are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future.

It is important to note that a Glucose Tolerance Test should be performed under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as high blood sugar levels can be dangerous if not properly managed.

"Body weights and measures" is a general term that refers to the various methods used to quantify an individual's physical characteristics, particularly those related to health and fitness. This can include:

1. Body weight: The total amount of weight that a person's body possesses, typically measured in pounds or kilograms.
2. Height: The vertical distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head, usually measured in inches or centimeters.
3. Blood pressure: The force exerted by the blood on the walls of the arteries as it circulates through the body, typically measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).
4. Body mass index (BMI): A measure of body fat based on an individual's weight and height, calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared.
5. Waist circumference: The distance around the narrowest part of the waist, typically measured at the level of the belly button.
6. Hip circumference: The distance around the widest part of the hips, usually measured at the level of the greatest protrusion of the buttocks.
7. Blood glucose levels: The concentration of glucose in the blood, typically measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L).
8. Cholesterol levels: The amount of cholesterol present in the blood, usually measured in milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) or millimoles per liter (mmol/L).

These and other body weights and measures are commonly used by healthcare professionals to assess an individual's health status, identify potential health risks, and guide treatment decisions.

Hyperphagia is a medical term that describes excessive eating or increased appetite, often to the point of compulsive overeating. It's more than just a simple increase in hunger or appetite; it's characterized by consuming large amounts of food beyond what is needed for normal growth and health.

This condition can be associated with several medical conditions. For instance, it's a common symptom in Prader-Willi syndrome, a genetic disorder that affects appetite, growth, and cognitive development. It can also occur in certain types of brain injuries or disorders affecting the hypothalamus, a part of the brain that regulates hunger and fullness signals.

However, it's important to note that hyperphagia should not be confused with binge eating disorder, another eating disorder characterized by consuming large amounts of food in a short period of time, but without the feeling of loss of control that is typical of binge eating.

As always, if you or someone else is experiencing symptoms of hyperphagia, it's important to seek medical advice to identify and treat any underlying conditions.

Adipocytes are specialized cells that comprise adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue. They are responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, particularly triglycerides, and releasing energy when needed through a process called lipolysis. There are two main types of adipocytes: white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes primarily store energy, while brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adipocytes also secrete various hormones and signaling molecules that contribute to whole-body homeostasis. These include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of adipocyte function has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

A diet, in medical terms, refers to the planned and regular consumption of food and drinks. It is a balanced selection of nutrient-rich foods that an individual eats on a daily or periodic basis to meet their energy needs and maintain good health. A well-balanced diet typically includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and low-fat dairy products.

A diet may also be prescribed for therapeutic purposes, such as in the management of certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypertension, or obesity. In these cases, a healthcare professional may recommend specific restrictions or modifications to an individual's regular diet to help manage their condition and improve their overall health.

It is important to note that a healthy and balanced diet should be tailored to an individual's age, gender, body size, activity level, and any underlying medical conditions. Consulting with a healthcare professional, such as a registered dietitian or nutritionist, can help ensure that an individual's dietary needs are being met in a safe and effective way.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

"Body height" is a measure of the vertical length of a person's body from the top of their head to the bottom of their feet. It is typically measured in units such as centimeters (cm) or inches (in). In medical settings, body height is often used as a basic anthropometric measurement to assess overall health status, growth and development, nutritional status, and aging-related changes.

There are different methods for measuring body height, but the most common one involves having the person stand upright against a vertical surface (such as a wall or a stadiometer) with their heels, buttocks, shoulders, and head touching the surface. The measurement is taken at the point where the top of the person's head meets the surface.

Body height can be influenced by various factors, including genetics, nutrition, health status, and environmental conditions. Changes in body height over time can provide important insights into a person's health trajectory and potential health risks. For example, a significant decrease in body height may indicate bone loss or spinal compression, while a rapid increase in height during childhood or adolescence may suggest optimal growth and development.

Adipokines are hormones and signaling molecules produced by adipose tissue, which is composed of adipocytes (fat cells) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. Adipokines play crucial roles in various biological processes such as energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, and neuroendocrine regulation.

Some well-known adipokines include:

1. Leptin - regulates appetite, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis
2. Adiponectin - improves insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammation, and has anti-atherogenic properties
3. Resistin - impairs insulin sensitivity and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes
4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) - contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction
5. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) - involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, immune response, and inflammation
6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) - associated with cardiovascular risk by impairing fibrinolysis and promoting thrombosis
7. Visfatin - has insulin-mimetic properties and contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance
8. Chemerin - regulates adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and immune response
9. Apelin - involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and fluid balance
10. Omentin - improves insulin sensitivity and has anti-inflammatory properties

The dysregulation of adipokine production and secretion is associated with various pathological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood glucose (or sugar) levels resulting from the body's inability to produce sufficient amounts of insulin or effectively use the insulin it produces. This form of diabetes usually develops gradually over several years and is often associated with older age, obesity, physical inactivity, family history of diabetes, and certain ethnicities.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body's cells become resistant to insulin, meaning they don't respond properly to the hormone. As a result, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. Over time, the pancreas can't keep up with the increased demand, leading to high blood glucose levels and diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes is managed through lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, regular exercise, and a healthy diet. Medications, including insulin therapy, may also be necessary to control blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications associated with the disease, such as heart disease, nerve damage, kidney damage, and vision loss.

Puberty is the period of sexual maturation, generally occurring between the ages of 10 and 16 in females and between 12 and 18 in males. It is characterized by a series of events including rapid growth, development of secondary sexual characteristics, and the acquisition of reproductive capabilities. Puberty is initiated by the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, leading to the secretion of hormones such as estrogen and testosterone that drive the physical changes associated with this stage of development.

In females, puberty typically begins with the onset of breast development (thelarche) and the appearance of pubic hair (pubarche), followed by the start of menstruation (menarche). In males, puberty usually starts with an increase in testicular size and the growth of pubic hair, followed by the deepening of the voice, growth of facial hair, and the development of muscle mass.

It's important to note that the onset and progression of puberty can vary widely among individuals, and may be influenced by genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Leptin receptors are cell surface receptors that bind to and respond to the hormone leptin. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the hypothalamus in the brain, which plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose (fat) tissue that signals information about the size of fat stores to the brain. When leptin binds to its receptors, it activates signaling pathways that help regulate energy intake and expenditure, body weight, and glucose metabolism.

There are several subtypes of leptin receptors (LEPR), including LEPRa, LEPRb, LEPC, and LEPD. Among these, the LEPRb isoform is the most widely expressed and functionally important form. Mutations in the gene encoding the leptin receptor can lead to obesity, hyperphagia (excessive hunger), and impaired energy metabolism, highlighting the importance of this receptor in maintaining energy balance and overall health.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

"Body size" is a general term that refers to the overall physical dimensions and proportions of an individual's body. It can encompass various measurements, including height, weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure, and other anthropometric measures.

In medical and public health contexts, body size is often used to assess health status, risk factors for chronic diseases, and overall well-being. For example, a high body mass index (BMI) may indicate excess body fat and increase the risk of conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Similarly, a large waist circumference or high blood pressure may also be indicators of increased health risks.

It's important to note that body size is just one aspect of health and should not be used as the sole indicator of an individual's overall well-being. A holistic approach to health that considers multiple factors, including diet, physical activity, mental health, and social determinants of health, is essential for promoting optimal health outcomes.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a class of diseases that affect the heart and blood vessels. They are the leading cause of death globally, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). The term "cardiovascular disease" refers to a group of conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of cholesterol, fat, and other substances in the walls of the arteries. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.
3. Stroke: A stroke occurs when the blood supply to a part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, often due to a clot or a ruptured blood vessel. This can cause brain damage or death.
4. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): This occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the limbs become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, numbness, or weakness in the legs or arms.
5. Rheumatic heart disease: This is a complication of untreated strep throat and can cause damage to the heart valves, leading to heart failure or other complications.
6. Congenital heart defects: These are structural problems with the heart that are present at birth. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.
7. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, and certain medications.
8. Heart arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms that can cause the heart to beat too fast, too slow, or irregularly. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, or fainting.
9. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when one or more of the heart valves become damaged or diseased, leading to problems with blood flow through the heart.
10. Aortic aneurysm and dissection: These are conditions that affect the aorta, the largest artery in the body. An aneurysm is a bulge in the aorta, while a dissection is a tear in the inner layer of the aorta. Both can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

It's important to note that many of these conditions can be managed or treated with medical interventions such as medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes. If you have any concerns about your heart health, it's important to speak with a healthcare provider.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

A melanocortin receptor (MCR) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds melanocortin peptides. The melanocortin system plays crucial roles in various biological processes such as pigmentation, energy homeostasis, sexual function, and inflammation.

The melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R) is one of the five subtypes of MCRs, which is widely expressed in the central nervous system, including the hypothalamus, and some peripheral tissues. MC4R is a key component in the regulation of energy balance, appetite, and body weight. Activation of MC4R by melanocortin peptides, such as α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH), leads to decreased food intake and increased energy expenditure, while antagonism or deficiency of MC4R results in obesity.

In summary, the medical definition of 'Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 4' is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds melanocortin peptides and plays a critical role in regulating energy balance, appetite, and body weight.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Pediatric obesity is a medical condition where a child or adolescent has an excessive amount of body fat. This is typically defined as having a body mass index (BMI) at or above the 95th percentile for their age and sex, according to growth charts developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

It's important to note that BMI is not a direct measure of body fat, but it's widely used as a screening tool because it correlates well with more direct measures of body fat.

Pediatric obesity can lead to various health complications, including type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and psychological issues like depression and low self-esteem. It's also associated with an increased risk of obesity in adulthood.

The causes of pediatric obesity are multifactorial, including genetic, environmental, behavioral, and societal factors. Treatment often involves a combination of dietary changes, increased physical activity, behavior modification, and sometimes medication or surgery in severe cases.

Fasting is defined in medical terms as the abstinence from food or drink for a period of time. This practice is often recommended before certain medical tests or procedures, as it helps to ensure that the results are not affected by recent eating or drinking.

In some cases, fasting may also be used as a therapeutic intervention, such as in the management of seizures or other neurological conditions. Fasting can help to lower blood sugar and insulin levels, which can have a variety of health benefits. However, it is important to note that prolonged fasting can also have negative effects on the body, including malnutrition, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalances.

Fasting is also a spiritual practice in many religions, including Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Hinduism. In these contexts, fasting is often seen as a way to purify the mind and body, to focus on spiritual practices, or to express devotion or mourning.

Ghrelin is a hormone primarily produced and released by the stomach with some production in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite, promotes food intake, and contributes to the regulation of energy balance.

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. In addition to its role in regulating appetite and meal initiation, ghrelin also has other functions, such as modulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, gastric motility, and cardiovascular function. Its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found in various tissues throughout the body, indicating its wide range of physiological roles.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

"Thinness" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. However, it generally refers to having a lower than average body weight or low body mass index (BMI) for a person's height. In medical terms, being significantly underweight might be defined as having a BMI of less than 18.5. It's important to note that while low body weight can be a sign of health issues like malnutrition or eating disorders, being thin does not necessarily equate to being healthy. A person's overall health is determined by a variety of factors, including diet, exercise, genetics, and the presence or absence of chronic diseases.

Glucose intolerance is a condition in which the body has difficulty processing and using glucose, or blood sugar, effectively. This results in higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood after eating, particularly after meals that are high in carbohydrates. Glucose intolerance can be an early sign of developing diabetes, specifically type 2 diabetes, and it may also indicate other metabolic disorders such as prediabetes or insulin resistance.

In a healthy individual, the pancreas produces insulin to help regulate blood sugar levels by facilitating glucose uptake in muscles, fat tissue, and the liver. When someone has glucose intolerance, their body may not produce enough insulin, or their cells may have become less responsive to insulin (insulin resistance), leading to impaired glucose metabolism.

Glucose intolerance can be diagnosed through various tests, including the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) test. Treatment for glucose intolerance often involves lifestyle modifications such as weight loss, increased physical activity, and a balanced diet with reduced sugar and refined carbohydrate intake. In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage blood sugar levels more effectively.

Physical fitness is a state of being able to perform various physical activities that require endurance, strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), physical fitness is defined as "a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity."

The AHA identifies five components of physical fitness:

1. Cardiorespiratory endurance: The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to muscles during sustained physical activity.
2. Muscular strength: The amount of force a muscle can exert in a single effort.
3. Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle or group of muscles to sustain repeated contractions or to continue to apply force against an external resistance over time.
4. Flexibility: The range of motion possible at a joint.
5. Body composition: The proportion of fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and organs) to fat mass in the body.

Being physically fit can help reduce the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, and some types of cancer. It can also improve mental health, increase energy levels, and enhance overall quality of life.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

"Prenatal exposure delayed effects" refer to the adverse health outcomes or symptoms that become apparent in an individual during their development or later in life, which are caused by exposure to certain environmental factors or substances while they were still in the womb. These effects may not be immediately observable at birth and can take weeks, months, years, or even decades to manifest. They can result from maternal exposure to various agents such as infectious diseases, medications, illicit drugs, tobacco smoke, alcohol, or environmental pollutants during pregnancy. The delayed effects can impact multiple organ systems and may include physical, cognitive, behavioral, and developmental abnormalities. It is important to note that the risk and severity of these effects can depend on several factors, including the timing, duration, and intensity of the exposure, as well as the individual's genetic susceptibility.

Exercise is defined in the medical context as a physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, with the primary aim of improving or maintaining one or more components of physical fitness. Components of physical fitness include cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and body composition. Exercise can be classified based on its intensity (light, moderate, or vigorous), duration (length of time), and frequency (number of times per week). Common types of exercise include aerobic exercises, such as walking, jogging, cycling, and swimming; resistance exercises, such as weightlifting; flexibility exercises, such as stretching; and balance exercises. Exercise has numerous health benefits, including reducing the risk of chronic diseases, improving mental health, and enhancing overall quality of life.

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

Adipogenesis is the process by which precursor cells differentiate into mature adipocytes, or fat cells. This complex biological process involves a series of molecular and cellular events that are regulated by various genetic and epigenetic factors.

During adipogenesis, preadipocytes undergo a series of changes that include cell cycle arrest, morphological alterations, and the expression of specific genes that are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. These changes ultimately result in the formation of mature adipocytes that are capable of storing energy in the form of lipids.

Abnormalities in adipogenesis have been linked to various health conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate adipogenesis is an active area of research, as it may lead to the development of new therapies for these and other related diseases.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

I cannot precisely define "obese mice" from a medical perspective because "obesity" is typically defined for humans and companion animals based on body weight relative to body size. However, I can provide you with relevant information regarding obese mice in a research or laboratory context.

Obesity in mice is often induced by providing them with a high-fat diet (HFD) to promote excessive weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. This allows researchers to study the effects of obesity on various health parameters, such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and cardiovascular function.

In laboratory settings, mice are often considered obese if their body weight is 10-20% higher than the average for their strain, age, and sex. Researchers also use body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage to determine obesity in mice. For example:

* Body Mass Index (BMI): Mice with a BMI greater than 0.69 g/cm² are considered obese. To calculate BMI, divide the body weight in grams by the square of the nose-to-anus length in centimeters.
* Body Fat Percentage: Obesity can also be determined based on body fat percentage using non-invasive methods like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. Mice with more than 45% body fat are generally considered obese.

It is important to note that these thresholds may vary depending on the mouse strain, age, and sex. Researchers should consult relevant literature for their specific experimental setup when defining obesity in mice.

Homeostasis is a fundamental concept in the field of medicine and physiology, referring to the body's ability to maintain a stable internal environment, despite changes in external conditions. It is the process by which biological systems regulate their internal environment to remain in a state of dynamic equilibrium. This is achieved through various feedback mechanisms that involve sensors, control centers, and effectors, working together to detect, interpret, and respond to disturbances in the system.

For example, the body maintains homeostasis through mechanisms such as temperature regulation (through sweating or shivering), fluid balance (through kidney function and thirst), and blood glucose levels (through insulin and glucagon secretion). When homeostasis is disrupted, it can lead to disease or dysfunction in the body.

In summary, homeostasis is the maintenance of a stable internal environment within biological systems, through various regulatory mechanisms that respond to changes in external conditions.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

The term "African Continental Ancestry Group" is a racial category used in the field of genetics and population health to describe individuals who have ancestral origins in the African continent. This group includes people from diverse ethnic backgrounds, cultures, and languages across the African continent. It's important to note that this term is used for genetic and epidemiological research purposes and should not be used to make assumptions about an individual's personal identity, culture, or experiences.

It's also worth noting that there is significant genetic diversity within Africa, and using a single category to describe all individuals with African ancestry can oversimplify this diversity. Therefore, it's more accurate and informative to specify the particular population or region of African ancestry when discussing genetic research or health outcomes.

Metabolic diseases are a group of disorders caused by abnormal chemical reactions in your body's cells. These reactions are part of a complex process called metabolism, where your body converts the food you eat into energy.

There are several types of metabolic diseases, but they most commonly result from:

1. Your body not producing enough of certain enzymes that are needed to convert food into energy.
2. Your body producing too much of certain substances or toxins, often due to a genetic disorder.

Examples of metabolic diseases include phenylketonuria (PKU), diabetes, and gout. PKU is a rare condition where the body cannot break down an amino acid called phenylalanine, which can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Diabetes is a common disorder that occurs when your body doesn't produce enough insulin or can't properly use the insulin it produces, leading to high blood sugar levels. Gout is a type of arthritis that results from too much uric acid in the body, which can form crystals in the joints and cause pain and inflammation.

Metabolic diseases can be inherited or acquired through environmental factors such as diet or lifestyle choices. Many metabolic diseases can be managed with proper medical care, including medication, dietary changes, and lifestyle modifications.

Electric impedance is a measure of opposition to the flow of alternating current (AC) in an electrical circuit or component, caused by both resistance (ohmic) and reactance (capacitive and inductive). It is expressed as a complex number, with the real part representing resistance and the imaginary part representing reactance. The unit of electric impedance is the ohm (Ω).

In the context of medical devices, electric impedance may be used to measure various physiological parameters, such as tissue conductivity or fluid composition. For example, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) uses electrical impedance to estimate body composition, including fat mass and lean muscle mass. Similarly, electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique that uses electric impedance to create images of internal organs and tissues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Western World" is a geopolitical and cultural term, rather than a medical one. It generally refers to societies or countries in Europe, North America, Australia, and New Zealand that share common cultural and historical roots. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in medical literature to compare and contrast health statistics, disease prevalence, and healthcare systems between Western and non-Western countries.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is named after its ability to bind to the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcus, a type of bacteria. CRP levels can be measured with a simple blood test and are often used as a marker of inflammation or infection. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a variety of conditions, including infections, tissue damage, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP is not specific to any particular condition, so additional tests are usually needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Republic of Belarus" is a country located in Eastern Europe, and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any questions related to medical topics or health care in Belarus, I would be happy to try to help with those!

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Agouti-related protein (AGRP) is a neuropeptide that functions as an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors, specifically MC3R and MC4R. It is expressed in the hypothalamus and plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance, body weight, and glucose homeostasis. AGRP increases food intake and decreases energy expenditure by inhibiting melanocortin signaling in the hypothalamus. Dysregulation of AGRP has been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including obesity and type 2 diabetes.

Birth weight refers to the first weight of a newborn infant, usually taken immediately after birth. It is a critical vital sign that indicates the baby's health status and is used as a predictor for various short-term and long-term health outcomes.

Typically, a full-term newborn's weight ranges from 5.5 to 8.8 pounds (2.5 to 4 kg), although normal birth weights can vary significantly based on factors such as gestational age, genetics, maternal health, and nutrition. Low birth weight is defined as less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg), while high birth weight is greater than 8.8 pounds (4 kg).

Low birth weight babies are at a higher risk for various medical complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. High birth weight babies may face challenges with delivery, increased risk of obesity, and potential metabolic issues later in life. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor fetal growth and ensure a healthy pregnancy and optimal birth weight for the baby.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a rather broad and vague phrase that combines several concepts: prenatal (occurring before birth), nutritional (relating to nutrition), physiological (relating to the functioning of living organisms and their parts), and phenomena (observable events or occurrences).

If you're interested in a specific aspect of maternal and fetal nutrition, physiology, or related processes during pregnancy, I would be happy to help further if you could provide a more precise term or question. For example, prenatal nutritional physiological phenomena could refer to the process of how certain nutrients are transported across the placenta, how maternal nutrition affects fetal growth and development, or how various hormonal and metabolic changes occur during pregnancy.

Fatty liver, also known as hepatic steatosis, is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fat in the liver. The liver's primary function is to process nutrients, filter blood, and fight infections, among other tasks. When excess fat builds up in the liver cells, it can impair liver function and lead to inflammation, scarring, and even liver failure if left untreated.

Fatty liver can be caused by various factors, including alcohol consumption, obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), viral hepatitis, and certain medications or medical conditions. NAFLD is the most common cause of fatty liver in the United States and other developed countries, affecting up to 25% of the population.

Symptoms of fatty liver may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, loss of appetite, nausea, abdominal pain or discomfort, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes). However, many people with fatty liver do not experience any symptoms, making it essential to diagnose and manage the condition through regular check-ups and blood tests.

Treatment for fatty liver depends on the underlying cause. Lifestyle changes such as weight loss, exercise, and dietary modifications are often recommended for people with NAFLD or alcohol-related fatty liver disease. Medications may also be prescribed to manage related conditions such as diabetes, high cholesterol, or metabolic syndrome. In severe cases of liver damage, a liver transplant may be necessary.

Hyperinsulinism is a medical condition characterized by an excess production and release of insulin from the pancreas. Insulin is a hormone that helps regulate blood sugar levels by allowing cells in the body to take in sugar (glucose) for energy or storage. In hyperinsulinism, the increased insulin levels can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), which can lead to symptoms such as sweating, shaking, confusion, and in severe cases, seizures or loss of consciousness.

There are several types of hyperinsulinism, including congenital forms that are present at birth and acquired forms that develop later in life. Congenital hyperinsulinism is often caused by genetic mutations that affect the way insulin is produced or released from the pancreas. Acquired hyperinsulinism can be caused by factors such as certain medications, hormonal disorders, or tumors of the pancreas.

Treatment for hyperinsulinism depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Treatment options may include dietary changes, medication to reduce insulin secretion, or surgery to remove part or all of the pancreas.

Caloric restriction refers to a dietary regimen that involves reducing the total calorie intake while still maintaining adequate nutrition and micronutrient intake. This is often achieved by limiting the consumption of high-calorie, nutrient-poor foods and increasing the intake of nutrient-dense, low-calorie foods such as fruits, vegetables, and lean proteins.

Caloric restriction has been shown to have numerous health benefits, including increased lifespan, improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and decreased risk of chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. It is important to note that caloric restriction should not be confused with starvation or malnutrition, which can have negative effects on health. Instead, it involves a careful balance of reducing calorie intake while still ensuring adequate nutrition and energy needs are met.

It is recommended that individuals who are considering caloric restriction consult with a healthcare professional or registered dietitian to ensure that they are following a safe and effective plan that meets their individual nutritional needs.

Appetite regulation refers to the physiological and psychological processes that control and influence the desire to eat food. This complex system involves a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters, and neural pathways that work together to help maintain energy balance and regulate body weight. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a key role in appetite regulation by integrating signals from the digestive system, fat cells, and other organs to adjust feelings of hunger and fullness.

The hormones leptin and ghrelin are also important regulators of appetite. Leptin is released from fat cells and acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and promote weight loss, while ghrelin is produced in the stomach and stimulates appetite and promotes weight gain. Other factors that can influence appetite regulation include stress, emotions, sleep patterns, and cultural influences.

Abnormalities in appetite regulation can contribute to the development of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, as well as obesity and other health problems. Understanding the mechanisms of appetite regulation is an important area of research for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Adipose tissue, brown, also known as brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a type of fat in mammals that plays a crucial role in non-shivering thermogenesis, which is the process of generating heat and maintaining body temperature through the burning of calories. Unlike white adipose tissue, which primarily stores energy in the form of lipids, brown adipose tissue contains numerous mitochondria rich in iron, giving it a brown appearance. These mitochondria contain a protein called uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which allows for the efficient conversion of stored energy into heat rather than ATP production.

Brown adipose tissue is typically found in newborns and hibernating animals, but recent studies have shown that adults also possess functional brown adipose tissue, particularly around the neck, shoulders, and spine. The activation of brown adipose tissue has been suggested as a potential strategy for combating obesity and related metabolic disorders due to its ability to burn calories and increase energy expenditure. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying brown adipose tissue function and its therapeutic potential in treating these conditions.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin (SHBG) is a protein produced mainly in the liver that plays a crucial role in regulating the active forms of the sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol, in the body. SHBG binds to these hormones in the bloodstream, creating a reservoir of bound hormones. Only the unbound (or "free") fraction of testosterone and estradiol is considered biologically active and can easily enter cells to exert its effects.

By binding to sex hormones, SHBG helps control their availability and transport in the body. Factors such as age, sex, infection with certain viruses (like hepatitis or HIV), liver disease, obesity, and various medications can influence SHBG levels and, consequently, impact the amount of free testosterone and estradiol in circulation.

SHBG is an essential factor in maintaining hormonal balance and has implications for several physiological processes, including sexual development, reproduction, bone health, muscle mass, and overall well-being. Abnormal SHBG levels can contribute to various medical conditions, such as hypogonadism (low testosterone levels), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and certain types of cancer.

In the context of medicine, growth generally refers to the increase in size or mass of an organism or a specific part of the body over time. This can be quantified through various methods such as measuring height, weight, or the dimensions of particular organs or tissues. In children, normal growth is typically assessed using growth charts that plot measurements like height and weight against age to determine whether a child's growth is following a typical pattern.

Growth can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, nutrition, hormonal regulation, and overall health status. Abnormalities in growth patterns may indicate underlying medical conditions or developmental disorders that require further evaluation and treatment.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "life style" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It generally refers to the way an individual or group lives, including their habits, behaviors, and preferences in areas such as diet, exercise, recreation, and stress management. Some lifestyle factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes and risk for certain diseases. However, it is not a medical term with a specific clinical meaning.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

The glucose clamp technique is a method used in medical research, particularly in the study of glucose metabolism and insulin action. It's a controlled procedure that aims to maintain a steady state of plasma glucose concentration in an individual for a specific period.

In this technique, a continuous infusion of glucose is administered intravenously at a variable rate to balance the amount of glucose being removed from the circulation (for example, by insulin-stimulated uptake in muscle and fat tissue). This creates a "clamp" of stable plasma glucose concentration.

The rate of glucose infusion is adjusted according to frequent measurements of blood glucose levels, typically every 5 to 10 minutes, to keep the glucose level constant. The glucose clamp technique allows researchers to study how different factors, such as various doses of insulin or other drugs, affect glucose metabolism under standardized conditions.

There are two primary types of glucose clamps: the hyperglycemic clamp and the euglycemic clamp. The former aims to raise and maintain plasma glucose at a higher-than-normal level, while the latter maintains plasma glucose at a normal, euglycemic level.

Postmenopause is a stage in a woman's life that follows 12 months after her last menstrual period (menopause) has occurred. During this stage, the ovaries no longer release eggs and produce lower levels of estrogen and progesterone hormones. The reduced levels of these hormones can lead to various physical changes and symptoms, such as hot flashes, vaginal dryness, and mood changes. Postmenopause is also associated with an increased risk of certain health conditions, including osteoporosis and heart disease. It's important for women in postmenopause to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and routine medical check-ups to monitor their overall health and manage any potential risks.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

"The body adiposity index (hip circumference ÷ height(1.5)) is not a more accurate measure of adiposity than is BMI, waist ... The body adiposity index (BAI) is a method of estimating the amount of body fat in humans. The BAI is calculated without using ... Adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (for example waist-to-height ratio WHtR) may be better than BAI and BMI ... 2013). "Body Adiposity Index and Cardiovascular Health Risk Factors in Caucasians: A Comparison with the Body Mass Index and ...
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This regulates adiposity, insulin resistance, and caloric expenditure. Dysregulation of this causes persistent type 1 ... and increased adiposity. The frequency of ILC2s is higher in the inflamed skin of patients with atopic dermatitis than in ... resulting in reduced energy expenditure and increased adiposity. In addition to ILC2s, ILC1s contribute to the homeostasis of ...
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"Increased adiposity in animals due to a human virus". Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord. 24 (8): 989-96. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo. ...
Body adiposity index Body mass index Waist-to-height ratio Foods and Nutrition Encyclopedia, Audrey H. Ensminger, Marion Eugene ... Babar, Sultan (March 2016). "The Use of Adiposity Indices for Wide Receivers From 2015 NFL Combine". Clinical Journal of Sport ... and positive and negative predictive values than body mass index for determining adiposity. It is used to calculate ectomorphy ... "Evaluating the Performance of 4 Indices in Determining Adiposity". Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine. Lippincott Williams & ...
Ukkola O, Santaniemi M (November 2002). "Adiponectin: a link between excess adiposity and associated comorbidities?". Journal ...
"The body adiposity index (hip circumference ÷ height(1.5)) is not a more accurate measure of adiposity than is BMI, waist ... The body adiposity index (BAI) is a method of estimating the amount of body fat in humans. The BAI is calculated without using ... Adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (for example waist-to-height ratio WHtR) may be better than BAI and BMI ... 2013). "Body Adiposity Index and Cardiovascular Health Risk Factors in Caucasians: A Comparison with the Body Mass Index and ...
... the largest epigenome-wide association study to date that provides evidence that factors contributing to childhood adiposity ( ... Factors contributing to childhood adiposity begin before birth, study shows. *Download PDF Copy ... These factors, alone and in combination with each other, could have pre-determined effects on a childs size, adiposity and ... Eleven of 30 maternal factors, including maternal adiposity, smoking, blood glucose and plasma unsaturated fatty acid levels ...
Deliverables, publications, datasets, software, exploitable results
... Int J ... Objective: Early-life growth characteristics and in particular age at adiposity rebound (AR), have been shown to impact ...
The aim of this study was to examine modification of genetic influences on changes across age in adiposity during mid-adulthood ... Healthy lifestyle behaviours appeared to attenuate the genetic influence on changes across age in BMI and central adiposity ... that indicates total genetic susceptibility on total body adiposity (indicated by BMI) and central adiposity (indicated by ... As smokers tend to have greater central adiposity and actually lower BMI than non-smokers,23, 24, 25, 26, 27 a clearer pattern ...
Our 7 faculties and 12 professional schools offer more than 200 programmes to some 18,000 graduate, undergraduate and continuing studies students.. The UWI, Mona ranks first in Jamaica among accredited tertiary-level programmes. In 2012, the University was again one of Jamaicas Top 100 Employers.. ...
The age of adiposity rebound (AR), at which time body mass index (BMI) starts to rise after infancy, is associated with future ... HealthDay News) - The age of adiposity rebound (AR), at which time body mass index (BMI) starts to rise after infancy, is ...
... May 10, 2023 , Magazine: Reviews ... Noteworthy, excess adiposity is accompanied by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and subsequent organ ...
Abdominal Adiposity and Diabetes Risk: The Importance of Precise Measures and Longitudinal Studies Anthony J.G. Hanley; Anthony ... Visceral Adiposity, Not Abdominal Subcutaneous Fat Area, Is Associated With an Increase in Future Insulin Resistance in ... Hayashi T, Boyko EJ, Leonetti DL, McNeely MJ, Newell-Morris L, Kahn SE, Fujimoto WY: Visceral adiposity and the risk of ... Anthony J.G. Hanley, Lynne E. Wagenknecht; Abdominal Adiposity and Diabetes Risk: The Importance of Precise Measures and ...
... body adiposity index (BAI). Childhood BMI at AR was positively associated with LTL at 31 years in women (P = 0.041). Adult BMI ... BMI and age at adiposity rebound (AR)); ii) change in BMI from childhood to adulthood and iii) adult BMI, waist-to-hip ratio ( ... and adiposity have produced conflicting results, and the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and telomere length ... We show that LTL is inversely associated with multiple measures of adiposity in both men and women. Additionally, BMI increase ...
Identifying the best body mass index metric to assess adiposity change in children ... Identifying the best body mass index metric to assess adiposity change in children ...
Povertys latent effect on adiposity during childhood: evidence from a Québec birth cohort ... Povertys latent effect on adiposity during childhood: evidence from a Québec birth cohort ...
OP31 Effect of adiposity in early and middle adult life on cardiovascular disease and diabetes in later life; findings from the ... OP31 Effect of adiposity in early and middle adult life on cardiovascular disease and diabetes in later life; findings from the ... OP31 Effect of adiposity in early and middle adult life on cardiovascular disease and diabetes in later life; findings from the ...
Adiposity changes after a 1-year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. ... Adiposity changes after a 1-year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. ... Adiposity changes after a 1-year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial. ... Adiposity changes after a 1-year aerobic exercise intervention among postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial ...
Purpose: To compare objectively measured habitual physical activity, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in adolescents ... and BMI z-scores were used to assess adiposity. Results: Rural males spent more time in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical ... and have lower indices of adiposity compared with urban adolescents and this is a likely refection of the impact of ... Effect of Urbanization on Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels, Sedentary Time, and Indices of Adiposity in Kenyan ...
Childhood adiposity, adult adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors. N. Engl. J. Med. 2011;365(20):1876-1885. [PubMed] ... Indications for an Association between Higher PUFA Intake with Improved Lean Mass and Reduced Adiposity in Children. Posted by ... Abdominal adiposity was measured by computed tomography scanning (in two-thirds of the children), permitting quantification of ... The ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 PUFA intake was found to be negatively associated with intra-abdominal adiposity, but not with ...
Development of Early Adiposity in Infants of Mothers With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. File. Description. Size. Format. ... Development of Early Adiposity in Infants of Mothers With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. ...
Adiposity was assessed at 8-10 yrs, 10-12 yrs and 15-17 yrs. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured using ... Conclusions: These preliminary data in a small sample of chil-dren suggest that increased adiposity in early life is associated ... Correlations between Measures of Adiposity Across Childhood and Adolescence and the Intestinal Microbiota in 15-17 Year-Old ... Objective: To explore the correlations between measures of adiposity from childhood and adolescence with intestinal micro-biota ...
Fogel, A & Blissett, J 2019, Associations between Otitis media, taste sensitivity and adiposity: Two studies across childhood ... Fogel, A., & Blissett, J. (2019). Associations between Otitis media, taste sensitivity and adiposity: Two studies across ... Associations between Otitis media, taste sensitivity and adiposity: Two studies across childhood. In: Physiology & Behavior. ... Associations between Otitis media, taste sensitivity and adiposity: Two studies across childhood. / Fogel, Anna; Blissett, ...
Adiposity Adult Article Body Mass Index Chi-Square Distribution Female Humans Law Enforcement Male Middle Aged Surveys And ... Adiposity measures were not associated with work hours among women on any shift. Conclusion Working longer hours was ... 2012). Long Work Hours and Adiposity Among Police Officers in a US Northeast City. 54(11). Gu, Ja K. et al. "Long Work Hours ... and Adiposity Among Police Officers in a US Northeast City" 54, no. 11 (2012). Gu, Ja K. et al. "Long Work Hours and Adiposity ...
... en_GB. dc.contributor.department. UCD School of Medicine and Medical Science, Coombe ...
Evaluating Inflammatory and Genotoxic Consequences of Adiposity in Adolescents: a Non-Invasive Approach. The 12th International ... Evaluating Inflammatory and Genotoxic Consequences of Adiposity in Adolescents: a Non-Invasive Approach. Usman, M. and Volpi, E ... Emerging evidence indicates a correlation between increased adiposity and markers of oxidative DNA damage. One such marker is 8 ... Correlations of these markers is explored against three different measures of adiposity - waist to hip ratio, body fat ...
Learn audio pronunciation of adiposity at PronounceHippo.com ... How to pronounce adiposity. How do you say adiposity, learn the ... "he recommended exercise to reduce my adiposity". the condition of having an excess of body fat. beneath that adiposity of flesh ... Meanings for adiposity. adiposity, adiposeness, fattiness(noun). having the property of containing fat ... Synonyms for adiposity. adiposeness fattiness fatness fat chubbiness corpulence corpulency embonpoint fleshiness grossness ...
Upload your DNA data to explore genetic variants linked to visceral adiposity (Karlsson, 2019) and discover your polygenic ... STUDY TITLE: Contribution of genetics to visceral adiposity and its relation to cardiovascular and metabolic disease ... VARIANTS RELATED TO VISCERAL ADIPOSITY: rs56094641, rs538656, rs13393304, rs62106258, rs539515, rs62262093, rs11030112, ...
Increased adiposity in the subscapular and tricep region in middle age was associated with a 60-70% increase in risk of ... Adiposity is also one component of the metabolic syndrome, which has also been shown to cause cognitive decline, particularly ... Adiposity in mid-life is associated with an increased risk of dementia in old age independent of sociodemographic ... Assessment of obesity before old age may be a more accurate representation of adiposity as the ratio of lean to fat mass ...
Aim(s) •Founded after 2021 Summer School•Bring together young investigators working or interested in BMA field•Attract young scientists and clinicians from other fields•Create space for discussion•Offer educational resources to foster professional career Members 1) Xiao Zhang2) Tânia Amorim 3) Ahmed Al Saedi 4) Rossella Labella5) Rita Sarkis6) Sarah Little7) Andrea Benova 8) Drenka Trivanovic 9) Biagio
... had excess adiposity. Significant discordance was observed between BMI categorization and DXA-derived excess adiposity among ... had excess adiposity. Significant discordance was observed between BMI categorization and DXA-derived excess adiposity among ... had excess adiposity. Significant discordance was observed between BMI categorization and DXA-derived excess adiposity among ... had excess adiposity. Significant discordance was observed between BMI categorization and DXA-derived excess adiposity among ...
To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI- ... In additional genome-wide meta-analyses adjusting for PA and interaction with PA, we identify 11 novel adiposity loci, ... suggesting that accounting for PA or other environmental factors that contribute to variation in adiposity may facilitate gene ... To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI- ...
  • Healthy lifestyle behaviours appeared to attenuate the genetic influence on changes across age in BMI and central adiposity during mid-adulthood. (nature.com)
  • The objective was to identify the prevalence of excess central adiposity and peripheral schoolchildren and its relationship with sedentary activities and physical activity level. (bvsalud.org)
  • The measurement of the abdominal girth may be helpful in evaluating central adiposity. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This study aimed to determine the effects of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on steatohepatitis and visceral adiposity in an obese mouse model of NASH. (biomedcentral.com)
  • FOS ameliorates steatohepatitis, visceral adiposity, and chronic inflammation by increasing SCFA production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intramyocellular lipid is associated with visceral adiposity, markers of insulin resistance, and cardiovascular risk in prepubertal children: the EPOCH study. (cuanschutz.edu)
  • 1). Conclusion: Serum adiponectin levels were inversely associated with cross-sectional measures of thoracic and lumbar vertebral vBMD, inflammation, and visceral adiposity in African Americans but not with vascular AZD6244 CP after adjustment for covariates. (technuc.com)
  • Although plasma aldosterone concentration is positively correlated with visceral fat area (VFA) in non-PA individuals, the role of visceral adiposity associated with clinical success after surgery is not known. (bmj.com)
  • Clinical complete cure of hypertension after surgery was associated with smaller VFA and shorter duration of hypertension at PA diagnosis, suggesting a potential interplay of visceral adiposity and aldosterone of the patients with APA. (bmj.com)
  • In the small, single-center, prospective study , Hearon and colleagues found that "[o]ne year of HIIT training reduces adiposity but had no consistent effect on myocardial triglyceride content or visceral adiposity," whereas "long-duration HIIT improves fitness and induces favorable cardiac remodeling. (medscape.com)
  • Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) demonstrated strong association of a locus on chromosome 3 (3q25.31) with newborn sum of skinfolds, a measure of overall adiposity. (asoi.info)
  • tion with lipid profile, analysis should be adjusted for overall adiposity. (who.int)
  • Objectives To determine the proportion of youth within a given body mass index (BMI) obesity category with excess adiposity using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). (umn.edu)
  • Furthermore, to examine whether mean differences in cardiometabolic risk factors based upon various excess adiposity cutpoints were present. (umn.edu)
  • Excess adiposity was defined using cohort-specific cutpoints at 75th, 85th, and 90th percentiles of DXA body fat (%) by age and sex using quantile regression models. (umn.edu)
  • 85th) above and below various excess adiposity cutpoints. (umn.edu)
  • and 76% male, 76% female) had excess adiposity. (umn.edu)
  • Significant discordance was observed between BMI categorization and DXA-derived excess adiposity among youth with class 1 obesity or overweight. (umn.edu)
  • Elevated cardiometabolic risk factors were present in youth with excess adiposity, regardless of the cutpoint used. (umn.edu)
  • Conclusions BMI correctly identifies excess adiposity in most youth with class 2 and 3 obesity but a relatively high degree of discordance was observed in youth with obesity and overweight. (umn.edu)
  • Cardiometabolic risk factors are increased in the presence of excess adiposity, regardless of the cutpoint used. (umn.edu)
  • This study had two main objectives: To examine the association between body fat distribution and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fat content, and to determine whether the relationship between NAFLD and regional body fat distribution, with respect to liver fat content in youths with excess adiposity, is independent of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and a healthy diet. (unavarra.es)
  • These results may have implications for the clinical management of youths with excess adiposity given the high prevalence of NAFLD in children and young adults. (unavarra.es)
  • Going beyond (but including screening and classification via) BMI, an exam to confirm excess adiposity, waist circumference to refine cardiometabolic risk of adiposity, advanced modalities, and emphasis on a complications-centric staging approach were outlined in order to treat patients based upon the pathophysiologic hostility of adiposity versus weight per se. (medpagetoday.com)
  • For example, physical fitness has been noted to be a vital factor in discerning the so-called "metabolically healthy obesity," which per the AACE/ACE guideline and ABCD model would be "stage 0" assuming true clinical obesity or excess adiposity. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Evidence suggests that increased and excess fat mass, adiposity, is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. (who.int)
  • Eleven of 30 maternal factors, including maternal adiposity, smoking, blood glucose and plasma unsaturated fatty acid levels influenced birth weight. (news-medical.net)
  • A new article, published in the journal BMC Medicine, reports the largest epigenome-wide association study to date that provides evidence that factors contributing to childhood adiposity (level of body fat) begin before birth and are influenced by mother's lifestyle, and fetal genetic and epigenetic factors. (news-medical.net)
  • Whether this locus is associated with childhood adiposity is unknown. (asoi.info)
  • The 3q25.31 locus strongly associated with newborn adiposity had no significant association with childhood adiposity suggesting that its impact may largely be limited to fetal fat accretion. (asoi.info)
  • Adiposity indexes that include the waist circumference (for example waist-to-height ratio WHtR) may be better than BAI and BMI in evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular risk in both clinical practice and research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Correlations of these markers is explored against three different measures of adiposity - waist to hip ratio, body fat percentage and body mass index. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • To identify adiposity loci whose effects are modified by PA, we performed genome-wide interaction meta-analyses of BMI and BMI-adjusted waist circumference and waist-hip ratio from up to 200,452 adults of European (n = 180,423) or other ancestry (n = 20,029). (ox.ac.uk)
  • This study assessed the association between adiposity measures and hypertension risk and analyzed various anthropometric indices (body mass index (BMI), waist-height ratio, waist-hip ratio, waist and hip circumferences) as predictors of hypertension among non obese adults of Samaru, a suburb of Zaria in Kaduna state, Nigeria. (primescholarslibrary.org)
  • Results showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships between the systolic blood pressure (BP), diastolic blood pressure (BP) as well as mean arterial blood pressure (BP) and the indices of adiposity in male (waist circumference, BMI and waist-height ratio) than in female (waist-height ratio) group. (primescholarslibrary.org)
  • Waist-height ratio was the most important and consistent index of adiposity that associated with the hypertensive risk in both male and female non obese adult groups, particularly with systolic BP. (primescholarslibrary.org)
  • Measures of adiposity (Body Mass Index [BMI], abdominal height, waist circumference) and depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] scale) were obtained from a random sample of 115 officers in an urban police department. (cdc.gov)
  • No significant associations were found between CES-D score and adiposity in women officers (p = 0.075 for BMI, p = 0.317 for abdominal height, p = 0.114 for waist circumference). (cdc.gov)
  • To compare objectively measured habitual physical activity, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in adolescents from rural and urban areas of Kenya. (humankinetics.com)
  • Rural Kenyan adolescents are significantly more physically active (and less sedentary) and have lower indices of adiposity compared with urban adolescents and this is a likely refection of the impact of urbanization on lifestyle in Kenya. (humankinetics.com)
  • Pearson's correlations assessed associations between di-versity indices and measures of adiposity. (inrs.ca)
  • Conclusions: These preliminary data in a small sample of chil-dren suggest that increased adiposity in early life is associated with differences in gut microbiota diversity indices in late adolescence. (inrs.ca)
  • Researchers from the Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences assessed the association of maternal lifestyle and environmental factors, fetal epigenetics, and fetal genetics on birth weight and adiposity in early childhood. (news-medical.net)
  • Utilizing umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (uMSC) from offspring of normal weight and obese mothers, we tested whether energy metabolism and gene expression differ in differentiating uMSC myocytes and adipocytes, in relation to maternal obesity exposures and/or neonatal adiposity. (jci.org)
  • Biomarkers of incomplete β-oxidation were uniquely positively correlated with infant adiposity and maternal lipid levels in uMSC myocytes from offspring of obese mothers only. (jci.org)
  • Overall, our data revealed cell-specific alterations in metabolism and gene expression that correlated with maternal obesity and adiposity of their offspring, suggesting tissue-specific metabolic and regulatory changes in these newborn cells. (jci.org)
  • Exploring the causal effect of maternal pregnancy adiposity on offspring adiposity: Mendelian randomisation using polygenic risk scores. (cam.ac.uk)
  • BACKGROUND: Greater maternal adiposity before or during pregnancy is associated with greater offspring adiposity throughout childhood, but the extent to which this is due to causal intrauterine or periconceptional mechanisms remains unclear. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Here, we use Mendelian randomisation (MR) with polygenic risk scores (PRS) to investigate whether associations between maternal pre-/early pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and offspring adiposity from birth to adolescence are causal. (cam.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that higher maternal pre-/early-pregnancy BMI is not a key driver of higher adiposity in the next generation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • AIMS: To determine if prenatal exposure to maternal adiposity or hyperglycemia is associated with neurodevelopmental problems in 3-4 year old children, and if links persist following adjustment for confounding variables, including prenatal diet. (mcmaster.ca)
  • This study aims to compare the differences in circulating adiponectin levels and their relationships to regional adiposity , insulin resistance , serum lipid , and inflammatory factors in young, healthy Japanese women with different physical activity statuses. (bvsalud.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Midlife overall and abdominal adiposity were similarly associated with lower executive functioning scores. (univ-lille.fr)
  • Background: Cryofrequency is a characteristic used in clinical practice to reduce localized and flaccid adiposity, and promotes heat in our tissues by maintaining a surface. (submission-mtprehabjournal.com)
  • Measurements of TST and SST have long been used to estimate central and peripheral adiposity on field and clinical situations due to its ease of use, high accuracy and relatively low cost (compared to other techniques) 5 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Last month, the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists and American College of Endocrinology published a position statement introducing "ABCD," for Adiposity-based Chronic Disease, as a new diagnostic term. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Although the mechanisms linking adiposity to associated clinical conditions are poorly understood, recent studies suggest that adiposity may influence DNA methylation, a key regulator of gene expression and molecular phenotype. (scilifelab.se)
  • Correlations between Measures of Adiposity Across Childhood and Adolescence and the Intestinal Microbiota in 15-17 Year-Old Children with a Family History of Obesity: Preliminary Findings from the QUALITY Cohort In: 57th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), 27-29 September 2018, Athens, Greece. (inrs.ca)
  • Objective: To explore the correlations between measures of adiposity from childhood and adolescence with intestinal micro-biota composition and diversity at 15-17 years. (inrs.ca)
  • In contrast, measures of adiposity across all ages were positively correlated with measures of richness. (inrs.ca)
  • 8 Obtaining weight measurements many years before the onset of dementia, as well as other measures of adiposity, would provide stronger evidence of causality between obesity and increased risk of dementia. (bmj.com)
  • We subsequently performed multivariable MR to assess the potential mediating affect of proteins which are associated with both adiposity measures (ii) and colorectal cancer (iii). (who.int)
  • Preliminary results of over 500,000 models suggest adiposity measures are associated with over half of the 4,907 proteins and that the majority of these proteins are associated with colorectal cancer. (who.int)
  • We investigated the predictive performance of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) measures of both calf muscle density (an established surrogate for muscle adiposity, with higher values indicating lower muscle adiposity and higher muscle quality) and size (cross-sectional area [CSA]) for incident fracture. (lu.se)
  • This study is justified by presenting data on the prevalence of adiposity of adolescents from the city of Bauru and on the variables that influence overweight. (bvsalud.org)
  • The objective was to identify the prevalence of excessive central and peripheral adiposity of adolescents and its relationship with sedentary activities (TV, computer and/or videogame hours) and physical activity levels. (bvsalud.org)
  • Analysis of fetal DNA (from umbilical cord blood) revealed that genetic markers commonly associated with high BMI in adults were detectable in fetal DNA and found to be related to birth weight and adiposity in childhood. (news-medical.net)
  • Emerging evidence indicates a correlation between increased adiposity and markers of oxidative DNA damage. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • We investigated in a cross-time design the relationships between two different midlife adiposity markers and subsequent cognitive function, testing midlife dietary patterns as a potential confounder of the associations. (univ-lille.fr)
  • Relationships of adiponectin to regional adiposity, insulin sensitivity, serum lipids, and inflammatory markers in sedentary and endurance-trained Japanese young women. (bvsalud.org)
  • We determined the predictive value of mid-life adiposity, including body mass index and tricep and subscapular skinfold thickness, on the risk of developing dementia in a large multiethnic cohort of men and women followed for an average of 27 years. (bmj.com)
  • Body Mass Index (BMI) and BMI z-scores were used to assess adiposity. (humankinetics.com)
  • The primary objective of this study was to compare weight changes in two groups of ageing Irish adults with overweight and adiposity-based chronic disease: participants who had dietary energy requirements prescribed on the base of measured RMR and participants whose RMR was estimated by a prediction equation. (thea.ie)
  • 50 years) with overweight and adiposity-based chronic disease is equal to employing a reduced-calorie diet based on the Mifflin et al. (thea.ie)
  • Applying these adiposity, were more predictive of cardio- criteria, 728 overweight and obese women vascular disease risk factors than BMI, a were eligible to participate in the study. (who.int)
  • These factors, alone and in combination with each other, could have pre-determined effects on a child's size, adiposity and future metabolic outcomes later in life. (news-medical.net)
  • Epigenome-wide association study of body mass index, and the adverse outcomes of adiposity. (scilifelab.se)
  • Increased newborn adiposity is associated with later adverse metabolic outcomes. (asoi.info)
  • Genome-wide physical activity interactions in adiposity - A meta-analysis of 200,452 adults. (ox.ac.uk)
  • METHODS: The cognitive performance of 2,817 middle-aged adults participating in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydant) study was assessed in 2007-2009 using 6 neuropsychological tests. (univ-lille.fr)
  • Assessment of obesity before old age may be a more accurate representation of adiposity as the ratio of lean to fat mass changes with ageing, 5 resulting in a decreased body mass index. (bmj.com)
  • Early-life growth characteristics and in particular age at adiposity rebound (AR), have been shown to impact nutritional status later in life but studies investigating the association with long-term health remain scarce. (nih.gov)
  • HealthDay News) - The age of adiposity rebound (AR), at which time body mass index (BMI) starts to rise after infancy, is associated with future development of metabolic syndrome, according to a study published online Dec. 23 in Pediatrics . (empr.com)
  • Genome-wide association studies have identified common genetic variants robustly associated with anthropometric indicators of adiposity. (nature.com)
  • 2012) Body Adiposity Index Utilization in a Spanish Mediterranean Population: Comparison with the Body Mass Index" PLoS ONE 7(4): e35281 Freedman DS, Thornton JC, Pi-Sunyer FX, Heymsfield SB, Wang J, Pierson RN Jr, Blanck HM, Gallagher D (2012). (wikipedia.org)
  • New obesity scale proposed (Ottawa Citizen, originally Reuters) Body Adiposity Index Utilization in a Spanish Mediterranean Population: Comparison with the Body Mass Index. (wikipedia.org)
  • Despite its adipose tissue origin, circulating adiponectin concentrations are inversely associated with adiposity and body mass index (BMI), decreasing with weight gain and increasing with weight loss (2C5). (technuc.com)
  • Objectives We investigated the associations between OM, taste sensitivity and adiposity across two studies in early childhood and conducted exploratory post-hoc analyses of sex differences. (aston.ac.uk)
  • Associations between midlife adiposity and cognitive functioning were estimated through covariance analyses. (univ-lille.fr)
  • The frequency and number of hours in sedentary and low physical activity are important predictors of adiposity among children. (bvsalud.org)
  • The etiology for increased central and peripheral adiposity is multifactorial and involves behavioral aspects (low physical activity level, excessive hours of sedentary activities and high caloric intake), as well as genetic and socioeconomic conditions 6 . (bvsalud.org)
  • For public municipal schools of Campo Grande (Mato Grosso do Sul State), there was excessive central and peripheral adiposity, although no association was found with sedentary activities 7 . (bvsalud.org)
  • Background: While differences in gut microbiota between obese and lean subjects have been described, few studies have ex-amined how adiposity across childhood relates to intestinal micro-biota composition and diversity in late adolescence. (inrs.ca)
  • For adiposity at most older ages, although MV estimates indicated a strong positive association, MR estimates did not support a causal effect. (cam.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, the largest PRS yielded MR estimates with narrower confidence intervals, providing strong evidence that the true causal effect on adolescent adiposity is smaller than the MV estimates (Pdifference = 0.001 for 15-year BMI). (cam.ac.uk)
  • The aim of this study was to examine modification of genetic influences on changes across age in adiposity during mid-adulthood by physical activity and smoking. (nature.com)
  • These findings suggest that adiponectin is primarily associated with regional adiposity and HDL-C regardless of insulin sensitivity and physical activity status in young, healthy women . (bvsalud.org)
  • Simple baseline survey-assessment defined employees who reported room to change their dietary and physical activity patterns as well as an accurate realization of their level of excessive adiposity. (cdc.gov)
  • The mechanisms responsible for the increased adiposity are changes in gene expression of multiple enzymes and transcription factors by the virus ( 8 - 15 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Results: There was a reduction of the adiposity located in the flank region, with a significant decrease in the values of perimetry, plicometry and ultrasonography, and positive results in the questionnaire evaluating satisfaction and criofrequence reactions. (submission-mtprehabjournal.com)
  • Comparing BAI with "gold standard" dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) results, the correlation between DXA-derived percentage of adiposity and the BAI in a target population was R = 0.85, with a concordance of C_b = 0.95. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regional adiposity [trunk fat mass (TFM), lower- body fat mass (LFM), and arm fat mass (AFM)] was evaluated using the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method . (bvsalud.org)
  • There is also evidence that concentrations of many circulating proteins are altered in individuals with adiposity and colorectal cancer. (who.int)
  • Whether these proteins mediate the association between adiposity and colorectal cancer is not clear. (who.int)
  • METHODS: The study was based on the «Supplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux Antioxydants» randomized trial (SU.VI.MAX, 1994-2002) and the SU.VI.MAX 2 observational follow-up study (2007-2009). (univ-lille.fr)