The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
The measurement of subcutaneous fat located directly beneath the skin by grasping a fold of skin and subcutaneous fat between the thumb and forefinger and pulling it away from the underlying muscle tissue. The thickness of the double layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue is then read with a caliper. The five most frequently measured sites are the upper arm, below the scapula, above the hip bone, the abdomen, and the thigh. Its application is the determination of relative fatness, of changes in physical conditioning programs, and of the percentage of body fat in desirable body weight. (From McArdle, et al., Exercise Physiology, 2d ed, p496-8)
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Glucose in blood.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The consumption of edible substances.
The physical characteristics of the body, including the mode of performance of functions, the activity of metabolic processes, the manner and degree of reactions to stimuli, and power of resistance to the attack of pathogenic organisms.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Measurements of the height, weight, length, area, etc., of the human and animal body or its parts.
Ingestion of a greater than optimal quantity of food.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A period in the human life in which the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system takes place and reaches full maturity. The onset of synchronized endocrine events in puberty lead to the capacity for reproduction (FERTILITY), development of secondary SEX CHARACTERISTICS, and other changes seen in ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
The physical measurements of a body.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A melanocortin receptor subtype found primarily in BRAIN. It shows specificity for ALPHA-MSH; BETA-MSH and ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
BODY MASS INDEX in children (ages 2-12) and in adolescents (ages 13-18) that is grossly above the recommended cut-off for a specific age and sex. For infants less than 2 years of age, obesity is determined based on standard weight-for-length percentile measures.
Abstaining from all food.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
The ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities in a highly functional state, often as a result of physical conditioning.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The resistance to the flow of either alternating or direct electrical current.
A historical and cultural entity dispersed across the wide geographical area of Europe, as opposed to the East, Asia, and Africa. The term was used by scholars through the late medieval period. Thereafter, with the impact of colonialism and the transmission of cultures, Western World was sometimes expanded to include the Americas. (Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
A secreted protein of approximately 131 amino acids that is related to AGOUTI SIGNALING PROTEIN and is also an antagonist of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTOR activity. It is expressed primarily in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the ADRENAL GLAND. As a paracrine signaling molecule, AGRP is known to regulate food intake and body weight. Elevated AGRP has been associated with OBESITY.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A glycoprotein migrating as a beta-globulin. Its molecular weight, 52,000 or 95,000-115,000, indicates that it exists as a dimer. The protein binds testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, and estradiol in the plasma. Sex hormone-binding protein has the same amino acid sequence as ANDROGEN-BINDING PROTEIN. They differ by their sites of synthesis and post-translational oligosaccharide modifications.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Female parents, human or animal.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.

Changes in weight and lean body mass during highly active antiretroviral therapy. (1/2014)

BACKGROUND: Few studies have prospectively evaluated the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on body weight and lean body mass (LBM) or explored the impact of baseline immunologic or virological changes on these parameters. METHODS: Adult AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) protocol 892 was a prospective, 48-week, multisite observational study of body composition conducted during 1997-2000 among 224 antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced subjects coenrolled into various adult ACTG antiretroviral studies. Assessments included human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA load (by polymerase chain reaction); T lymphocyte subset analysis; Karnofsky score; height (baseline only); weight, LBM, and fat (by bioelectrical impedance analysis); and functional performance (by questionnaire). RESULTS: Overall, only modest median increases in body weight (1.9 kg) and LBM (0.6 kg) occurred after 16 weeks of therapy. Significantly greater median increases in body weight (2.1 vs. 0.5 kg; P=.045) occurred in subjects who achieved virological suppression (HIV-1 RNA load, <500 copies/mL) at week 16 than in subjects who did not. Subjects who were antiretroviral naive at baseline gained more weight (median increase in body weight, 2.6 vs. 0.0 kg; P<.001) and LBM (1.0 vs. 0.1 kg; P=.002) after 16 weeks of treatment than did subjects who were antiretroviral experienced. Subjects with lower baseline CD4 cell counts (<200 cells/mm3) and subjects with higher baseline HIV-1 RNA loads (> or =100,000 copies/mL) were more likely to show increases in LBM of >1.5 kg (P=.013 and P=.005, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: HAART had modestly favorable effects on body composition, particularly in patients with greater pretreatment immunocompromise and virological compromise. The difference between antiretroviral-naive and antiretroviral-experienced subjects with regard to the ability to achieve increased body weight and LBM requires more study.  (+info)

Elevated soluble ICAM-1 levels induce immune deficiency and increase adiposity in mice. (2/2014)

Elevated soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) levels have been found in many pathological conditions, including obesity. To determine the effects of elevated sICAM-1 on immune responses and metabolism, we generated a transgenic mouse model overexpressing the extracellular domain of mouse ICAM-1 in the liver. The mice, showing 10-fold higher sICAM-1 levels than wild-type mice, presented elevated neutrophil count. Despite this, after intraperitoneal injection of thioglycollate, neutrophil recruitment into the peritoneal cavity was reduced, and the delayed macrophage recruitment was also affected in the transgenic mice compared with wild-type mice. Inhibition of contact hypersensitivity response in the sICAM-1 transgenic mice was comparable to ICAM-1-deficient mice and characterized by significantly less ear swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration than in wild-type mice. sICAM-1transgenic mice were more susceptible to weight gain on a Western-type diet than wild-type mice, and older animals showed excessive fat accumulation, again reminiscent of ICAM-1-deficient mice. Together, these data indicate that sICAM-1 interferes with ICAM-1-mediated cell-cell interactions, which could produce immune-suppressant effects and alteration of metabolism in persons with high levels of this soluble adhesion receptor.  (+info)

Rise in insulin resistance is associated with escalated telomere attrition. (3/2014)

BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance predisposes to cardiovascular disease and shortens human lifespan. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a rise in insulin resistance in concert with gain in body mass is associated with accelerated white blood cell telomere attrition. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured white blood cell telomere dynamics and age-related changes in insulin resistance and body mass index in young adults of the Bogalusa Heart Study. Over 10.1 to 12.8 years, the relative changes in telomere length were correlated with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r=-0.531, P<0.001) and changes in the body mass index (r=-0.423, P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide the first tangible nexus of telomere biology with insulin resistance and adiposity in humans.  (+info)

Genetic modifiers interact with Cpe(fat) to affect body weight, adiposity, and hyperglycemia. (4/2014)

Obesity and Type II diabetes are complex diseases in the human population. The existence of a large number of contributing loci and gene-gene as well as gene-environment interactions make it difficult to identify the disease genes underlying these complex traits. In mouse models of obesity and Type II diabetes such as the murine fat mutation, genetic crosses can be used to dissect the genetic complexity influencing the observed phenotypes. The underlying defect in the fat mutant is a Ser202Pro change in carboxypeptidase E (CPE), an enzyme responsible for the final proteolytic processing step of prohormone intermediates. On the HRS/J (HRS) inbred strain background, mice homozygous for the fat mutation exhibit early onset hyperinsulinemia followed by postpubertal moderate obesity without hyperglycemia. In contrast, on the C57BLKS/J (BKS) genetic background, fat/fat mice become severely obese, hyperinsulinemic, and hyperglycemic. Therefore, in the Cpe(fat) genetic model, the fat mutation is necessary but not sufficient for the development of obesity, Type II diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. To dissect the susceptibility loci responsible for modifying obesity- and diabetes-associated traits, we characterized, both genetically and phenotypically, fat/fat male progeny from a large intercross between BKS. HRS-fat/fat and HRS-+/+ mice. Four major loci were mapped, including a locus for body weight (body weight 1) on chromosome 14; a locus for hyperglycemia (fat-induced diabetes 1) on chromosome 19; a locus for hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hypercholesterolemia (fat-induced diabetes 2) on chromosome 5; and a locus for adiposity and body weight (fat-induced adiposity 1) on chromosome 11. The identification of these interacting genetic determinants for obesity and Type II diabetes may allow better definition of the obesity/diabetes-related hormone signaling pathways and ultimately may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of these complex diseases.  (+info)

Body mass index in relation to ovarian cancer survival. (5/2014)

Evidence for an association between indicators of adiposity and survival after ovarian cancer has been inconsistent. A prospective cohort study was conducted in China to examine the relationship between ovarian cancer survival and body mass index (BMI). From the 214 patients recruited in 1999 to 2000 with histopathologically confirmed invasive epithelial ovarian cancer, 207 patients or their close relatives (96.7% of cases) were traced and followed to 2003. Deaths were recorded and Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from multivariate models. Reduced survival was observed among patients with BMI > or = 25 kg/m(2) at 5 years before diagnosis (P = 0.001). There were 98 (59.8%) of 164 patients with BMI <25 kg/m(2) survived to the time of interview compared with only 15 women (34.9%) among the 43 patients whose BMI was > or =25 kg/m(2). The HRs significantly increased with higher BMI at 5 years before diagnosis but not at diagnosis nor at age 21 years. The adjusted HR was 2.33 (95% CI, 1.12-4.87) for BMI of > or =25 versus <20 kg/m(2), with a significant dose-response relationship. The HR was 3.31 (95% CI, 1.26-8.73) among patients who had been overweight or obese at age 21 years, but a linear dose-response was not found. We conclude that premorbid BMI may have independent prognostic significance in ovarian cancer.  (+info)

Recombinant leptin promotes atherosclerosis and thrombosis in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. (6/2014)

OBJECTIVE: The direct role of leptin in vascular disease remains controversial. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of leptin treatment on atherosclerosis and thrombosis in atherosclerotic-prone mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixteen-week-old, male apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were treated with injections of recombinant leptin (125 microg per day IP; n=10) or vehicle (n=10) for 4 weeks. Leptin treatment resulted in reduced epididymal fat (352+/-30.7 versus 621+/-61.5 mg; P=0.005) and fasting insulin (0.57+/-0.25 versus 1.7+/-0.22 ng/mL; P=0.014). Despite these metabolic benefits, leptin treatment resulted in an increase in atherosclerosis (8.0+/-0.95% versus 5.4+/-0.59% lesion surface coverage; P<0.05). Leptin treatment also resulted in a shortened time to occlusive thrombosis after vascular injury (21+/-2.1 versus 34.6+/-5.4 minutes; P=0.045). CONCLUSIONS: These studies indicate that exogenous leptin promotes atherosclerosis and thrombosis and support the concept that elevations of leptin may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease.  (+info)

Cathepsin S, a novel biomarker of adiposity: relevance to atherogenesis. (7/2014)

The molecular mechanisms by which obesity increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to identify candidate biomarkers overexpressed in adipose tissue of obese subjects that could link expanded fat mass to atherosclerosis. We compared gene expression profile in subcutaneous adipose tissue (scWAT) of 28 obese and 11 lean subjects using microarray technology. This analysis identified 240 genes significantly overexpressed in scWAT of obese subjects. The genes were then ranked according to the correlation between gene expression and body mass index (BMI). In this list, the elastolytic cysteine protease cathepsin S was among the highly correlated genes. RT-PCR and Western blotting confirmed the increase in cathepsin S mRNA (P=0.006) and protein (P<0.05) in obese scWAT. The circulating concentrations of cathepsin S were also significantly higher in obese than in nonobese subjects (P<0.0001). Both cathepsin S mRNA in scWAT and circulating levels were positively correlated with BMI, body fat, and plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, we show that the proinflammatory factors, lipopolysaccharide, interleukin-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha increase cathepsin S secretion in human scWAT explants. This study identifies cathepsin S as a novel marker of adiposity. Since this enzyme has been implicated in the development of atherosclerotic lesions, we propose that cathepsin S represents a molecular link between obesity and atherosclerosis.  (+info)

Body fatness during childhood and adolescence and incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women: a prospective cohort study. (8/2014)

INTRODUCTION: Body mass index (BMI) during adulthood is inversely related to the incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, but the role of body fatness earlier in life is less clear. We examined prospectively the relation between body fatness during childhood and adolescence and the incidence of breast cancer in premenopausal women. METHODS: Participants were 109,267 premenopausal women in the Nurses' Health Study II who recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10 and 20 years using a validated 9-level figure drawing. Over 12 years of follow up, 1318 incident cases of breast cancer were identified. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compute relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for body fatness at each age and for average childhood (ages 5-10 years) and adolescent (ages 10-20 years) fatness. RESULTS: Body fatness at each age was inversely associated with premenopausal breast cancer incidence; the multivariate RRs were 0.48 (95% CI 0.35-0.55) and 0.57 (95% CI 0.39-0.83) for the most overweight compared with the most lean in childhood and adolescence, respectively (P for trend < 0.0001). The association for childhood body fatness was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for later BMI, with a multivariate RR of 0.52 (95% CI 0.38-0.71) for the most overweight compared with the most lean (P for trend = 0.001). Adjustment for menstrual cycle characteristics had little impact on the association. CONCLUSION: Greater body fatness during childhood and adolescence is associated with reduced incidence of premenopausal breast cancer, independent of adult BMI and menstrual cycle characteristics.  (+info)

Our study elucidates the distinct links among birth weight adjusted for length, postnatal weight gain during the first 2 years of life, childhood adiposity, and cardiovascular risk factors in young adolescents who were born at term and who have at least 1 obese parent. With the exception of diastolic BP, we found no evidence of direct effects of early growth (at birth or in the first 2 years of life) on cardiovascular risk factors in early adolescence once childhood adiposity was accounted for. Rate of postnatal weight gain, however, was positively associated with childhood adiposity, which in turn predicted unfavorable lipid and BP outcomes in early adolescence.. The absence of a direct association between birth weight for length and plasma lipid levels is consistent with findings reported elsewhere.17, 39, 40, 41, 42 A systematic review by Huxley et al called into question previous reports of associations between birth weight and cholesterol levels, stating that these associations are likely ...
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to examine whether habitual snoring was independently associated with risk of type 2 diabetes among Chinese adults, and to assess the role that adiposity measures play in the snoring-diabetes association, as well as to evaluate the joint influence of snoring and adiposity measures on diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The China Kadoorie Biobank study recruited 512 715 adults aged 30-79 years from 10 regions in China during 2004 and 2008. Data from 482 413 participants without baseline diabetes were analyzed in the present study. Autoregressive cross-lagged panel analysis was used to assess the longitudinal relationship between adiposity measures and habitual snoring. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between habitual snoring and diabetes risk. RESULTS: Both higher body mass index and waist circumference were associated with higher risks of subsequent habitual snoring, whereas no reverse association was detected. A total of 16 479
Although loss in body fat is common in patients with clinical PD,24,25⇓ reported findings have been limited to cross-sectional and case-control studies with uncertain recall and timing of anthropometric histories. Rarely are different adiposity measures (BMI, SSF, and TSF) available for the assessment of their effects on future disease. We are not aware of another study that has been able to prospectively examine the association between midlife adiposity and the future risk of PD. A major strength of the current report also includes the measurement of adiposity following a standardized protocol well before the development of PD. Because subjects did not have PD when follow-up began, effects of medication for PD on patterns of adiposity are also absent.. These findings suggest that adiposity in middle-adulthood is related to an increased risk of PD in later life. Although PD risk was consistently less in men in the bottom vs higher quartiles of each adiposity measure, associations were ...
Visceral adiposity index (VAI) has recently been developed based on waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), triglycerides (TGs), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). We examined predictive performances for incident diabetes of the VAI per se and as compared to the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and waist-to-height-ratio (WHtR). Participants free of diabetes at baseline with at least one follow-up examination (5,964) were included for the current study. Weibull regression models were developed for interval-censored survival data. Absolute and relative integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) and cut-point-based and cut-point-free net reclassification improvement index (NRI) were used as measures of predictive ability for incident diabetes added by VAI, as compared to the MetS and WHtR. The annual incidence rate of diabetes was 0.85 per 1000 person. Mean VAI was 3.06 (95%CIs 2.99-3.13). Diabetes risk factors levels increased in stepwise fashion across VAI quintiles. Risk gradient
It is unclear whether adiposity leads to changes in movement behaviors, and there is a lack of compositional analyses of longitudinal data which focus on these associations. Using a compositional approach, this study aimed to examine the associations between baseline adiposity and 7-year changes in physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) among elderly women. We also explored the longitudinal associations between change in adiposity and change in movement-behavior composition. This longitudinal study included 176 older women (mean baseline age 62.8 (4.1) years) from Central Europe. Movement behavior was assessed by accelerometers and adiposity was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis at baseline and follow-up. A set of multivariate least-squares regression analyses was used to examine the associations of baseline adiposity and longitudinal changes in adiposity as explanatory variables with longitudinal changes in a 3-part movement-behavior composition consisting of SB, light PA (LPA)
Summary: Researchers explored whether the types of fats in a mothers pregnancy diet influence body composition of her developing baby. Among 1250 mother/child pairs from Massachusetts, higher omega-3 levels in moms diets from fish were associated with lower adiposity in their children at age 3 years.. ...
Elevated bone marrow adiposity (BMA) is defined as an increase in the proportion of the bone marrow (BM) cavity volume occupied by adipocytes. This can be caused by an increase in the size and/or number of adipocytes. BMA increases with age in a bone-site-specific manner. This increase may be linked to certain pathophysiological situations. Osteoporosis or compromised bone quality is frequently associated with high BMA. The involvement of BM adipocytes in bone loss may be due to commitment of mesenchymal stem cells to the adipogenic pathway rather than the osteogenic pathway. However, adipocytes may also act on their microenvironment by secreting factors with harmful effects for the bone health. Here, we review evidence that in a context of energy deficit (such as anorexia nervosa (AN) and restriction rodent models) bone alterations can occur in the absence of an increase in BMA. In severe cases, bone alterations are even associated with gelatinous BM transformation. The relationship between BMA and
To increase our understanding of the genetic basis of adiposity and its links to cardiometabolic disease risk, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of body fat percentage (BF%) in up to 100,716 individuals. Twelve loci reached genome-wide significance (P|5 × 10(-8)), of which eight were previously associated with increased overall adiposity (BMI, BF%) and four (in or near COBLL1/GRB14, IGF2BP1, PLA2G6, CRTC1) were novel associations with BF%. Seven loci showed a larger effect on BF% than on BMI, suggestive of a primary association with adiposity, while five loci showed larger effects on BMI than on BF%, suggesting association with both fat and lean mass. In particular, the loci more strongly associated with BF% showed distinct cross-phenotype association signatures with a range of cardiometabolic traits revealing new insights in the link between adiposity and disease risk.
Introduction: Leptin is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that circulates in proportion to body fat. Placenta also produces leptin suggesting a specific role during pregnancy, maybe contributing to pregnancy-induced insulin resistance.. Objective: To determine the associations between maternal levels of leptin, glucose and insulin and weight/adiposity measures in newborns.. Methods: A population-based cohort of pregnant women in the region of Sherbrooke, Canada was recruited in early pregnancy (n=1040 at 1st trimester). Maternal anthropometry was measured and blood samples were collected at the 1st and 2nd trimesters to measure glucose (hexokinase), leptin and insulin (ELISA Luminex, Millipore Canada). Birth weights were recorded from the medical records in 783 newborns (full term ,36 weeks). We measured skinfolds in 199 newborns within 72h after birth, using a standardized caliper. We measured triceps, biceps, subscapular and supra-iliac skinfolds and the sum of skinfolds was used for analysis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity in children. AU - Yin, Zenong. AU - Moore, Justin B.. AU - Johnson, Maribeth H. AU - Vernon, Marlo M Cavnar. AU - Grimstvedt, Megan. AU - Gutin, Bernard. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - CONTEXT: Recently, studies using a social ecological perspective have identified important micro- and macro-level risk factors for excessive adiposity in youth. Although considerable research exists examining these relationships, few studies have applied a socioecological approach to simultaneously examine both micro- and macro-level factors in young children while objectively assessing adiposity via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). OBJECTIVE: To examine race and sex differences in adiposity measured by DXA in a large sample of young children and to identify both micro- and macro-level correlates of adiposity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Elementary school children (N = 495) from the southeastern United States ...
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine which components of youths diets were related to adiposity while controlling for potential often-neglected confounders such as moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and dietary reporting error. Secondary goals of this study were to determine the extent to which MVPA confounded the associations between diet and adiposity and whether associations between diet and adiposity would differ depending on reporting error. METHODS: An ethnically diverse urban sample of 342 children aged 9-10 years and 323 adolescents aged 17-18 years were recruited for this cross-sectional study. Body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were measured in the school; dietary assessment included three 24-hour recalls via telephone in the evenings, and MVPA assessment included 5 days of accelerometry. Over (n = 68), under (n = 250), or plausible (n = 347) dietary intake reporters were identified with the Huang calculation method. Linear regression assessed the ...
CDC, Early Child Feeding Patterns and Risk of Childhood Obesity: Longitudinal Analyses of Project Viva, PI: Elsie M. Taveras, MD, MPH, To 1) examine the longitudinal relationship between parental control of infant feeding, in particular restriction and pressure to eat, with measures of overweight and adiposity at age 3 years, and 2) examine if maternal prenatal concern about her childs future weight and eating is associated with the use of controlling and restrictive feeding practices in early childhood and with obesity and adiposity at age 3 years ...
To the Editor:. Tankó et al1 observed that peripheral adiposity in elderly women may be associated with a relatively reduced risk of insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and vascular calcification. They suggested that this benefit reflects an antiatherogenic effect of peripheral fat. However, we believe their findings support the concept that subtly increased glucocorticoid activity may exert dysmetabolic and atherogenic effects. It is well known, for example, that supraphysiologic levels of glucocorticoids, as seen in Cushing syndrome, increase central adiposity at the expense of peripheral adiposity and muscle mass. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that connects physiologically elevated endogenous glucocorticoid activity with visceral obesity-a phenomenon that may be mediated at the central level via increased activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and at the peripheral level via increased conversion of cortisone to cortisol by ...
Obesity is associated with impaired glucose tolerance which is a risk factor for cardiovascular risk. However, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) is not usually performed in patients with normal fasting glycaemia, thus offering false reassurance to patients with overweight or obesity who may have post-prandial hyperglycaemia. As an alternative to resource demanding OGTTs, we aimed to examine the predictive value of anthropometric measures of total and central fat distribution for post-prandial hyperglycaemia in patients with overweight and obesity with normal fasting glycaemia enrolled in the DICAMANO study. We studied 447 subjects with overweight/obesity with a fasting glucose value ≤ 5.5 mmol l−1 (99 mg dl−1) and BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 who underwent a 75-g OGTT. Post-prandial hyperglycaemia was defined as a glucose level ≥ 7.8 mmol l−1 (140 mg dl−1) 2-h after the OGTT. The anthropometric measurements included body mass index, body adiposity index, waist circumference, neck circumference,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abdominal adiposity by ultrasonography. T2 - A pocket database for reference standard in Italian people. AU - Bazzocchi, Alberto. AU - Ponti, Federico. AU - Diano, Danila. AU - Moio, Antonio. AU - Albisinni, Ugo. AU - Pasquali, Renato. AU - Battista, Giuseppe. PY - 2014/12/1. Y1 - 2014/12/1. N2 - Aims To provide a reference standard database of ultrasonographic parameters of abdominal adiposity in healthy people.Methods Italian non-obese volunteers among blood donors were enrolled in 5 age bands (from 18 to 70 year-old) to reach the threshold of 25 males and 25 females per single band (total: 250). All subjects were measured for weight, height and waist circumference and underwent ultrasonography (US) by an expert radiologist for the assessment of several abdominal fat thicknesses (minimum and maximum subcutaneous fat thickness, maximum preperitoneal fat thickness, intrabdominal fat thickness, aorto-mesenteric thickness, and mesenteric fat thickness). In addition, US data were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adenovirus 36, adiposity, and bone strength in late-adolescent females. AU - Laing, Emma M.. AU - Tripp, Ralph A.. AU - Pollock, Norman K.. AU - Baile, Clifton A.. AU - Della-Fera, Mary Anne. AU - Rayalam, Srujana. AU - Tompkins, Stephen M.. AU - Keys, Deborah A.. AU - Lewis, Richard D.. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Adenovirus 36 (Ad36) is the only adenovirus to date that has been linked with obesity in humans. Our previous studies in late-adolescent females suggest that excess weight in the form of fat mass is associated with lower cortical bone strength. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between Ad36-specific antibodies, adiposity, and bone strength in our sample of late-adolescent females. A cross-sectional study of 115 females aged 18 to 19 years was performed. Participants were classified according to adiposity by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (body fat percentage as normal-fat [ , 32% body fat; n = 93] or high-fat [ ≥ 32% body fat; n = ...
Design and methods Relationships between a direct measure of adiposity (fat mass index from bioimpedance) and a proxy measure (waist circumference), and a generic (KIDSCREEN-27) and a weight-specific measure of health-related quality of life (HRQoL, Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Kids (IWQOL-Kids)) were examined in a longitudinal population-based cohort of young adolescents aged 12 years (n=519). The effects of change in adiposity over time (from 7 years and 9 years) were also examined (n=331-445 in longitudinal analyses). ...
Results Maternal TNFα in early pregnancy was associated with neonatal anthropometry including biceps [p = 0.048], triceps [p = 0.027] and subscapular [p = 0.002] skinfold thicknesses. TNFα in early and late pregnancy correlated with general adiposity in the neonate [SS + TR p = 0.003, p = 0.008 respectively; Sum of skinfolds p = 0.011, p = 0.002 respectively] [Table 1]. Maternal early and late pregnancy TNFα was also associated with 6-month-old central adiposity [SS/TR ratio p = 0.002, p = 0.030, respectively]. Fetal TNFα did not exert a significant influence on neonatal anthropometry but was associated with infant triceps skinfold at 6 months.. While fetal IL-6 was associated with birth length and waist:height ratio, maternal IL-6 was not significantly associated with adiposity.. ...
Higher SBP per standard deviation of each adiposity measure among men. The differences in SBP per 1 SD of each adiposity measure were calculated, with SBP regre
Weighing New Options to Measure Obesity Researchers have identified a new way of determining whether or not a person is obese, according to a study published online March 3, 2011, in the journal Obesity. The scale is called the body adiposity index, or BAI, and relies on a ratio of hip and height measurements rather than body weight.. Lead author Richard Bergman, PhD, professor and chair of physiology and biophysics at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, said the new index proved a useful measure of percent fat that can be calculated without using a scale-a major benefit for clinics in remote areas without access to reliable measuring devices.. Although the BAI measures body fat accurately, researchers wrote that more studies are needed to determine whether it is a better indicator of overall health and wellness than body mass index (BMI). Still, Dr. Bergman noted, the results show promise for more precise alternatives to BMI, which he said is known to be of ...
It was expected that UCP1-deficient mice would have increased susceptibility to obesity caused by a high-fat adipogenic diet. The reasons for this expectation followed from the considerable body of evidence showing that increases in brown adipocyte number and ectopic Ucp1 expression reduce excessive adiposity (reviewed in ref. 24). On the contrary, UCP1-deficient mice are resistant to the development of obesity in a manner similar to that of transgenic mice overexpressing Ucp1. That the mechanism causing the reduction in adiposity is principally thermogenic is evident from the fact that the differences in adiposity vanish when the mice are not challenged thermogenically (Figure 1). Furthermore, when the temperature is elevated, both wild-type and UCP1-deficient mice increase adiposity at the same rate, illustrating that the decreased rate of weight gain at the lower temperature was due to nonshivering thermogenesis.. We hypothesize that UCP1-deficient mice use alternative mechanisms of ...
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a common component in plastic consumer products and epoxy resin linings. Initially developed in the 1930s-40s as a synthetic hormone treatment, it is now widely considered an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC). A growing body of epidemiological literature suggests that ubiquitous exposures to BPA may be contributing to the global epidemic of obesity, with children a particularly vulnerable population. Obesity in children, defined by a body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for age and sex, is an epidemic of great concern in the United States. As with other chemicals, the prenatal and early life period are critical windows of exposure to BPA; however, the mechanism by which BPA may influence the development of body size in children remains unclear. Experimental studies have found that BPA influences adipogenesis in both murine and adult human preadipocyte cell lines and BPA is hypothesized to play a role in enhancing adipogenic regulation by nuclear
Aim: To examine the relationship between birth weight (BW) and abdominal adiposity in adolescents.. Research Design and Methods: A total of 284 adolescents (49.3% females) aged 14.9±1.2 years were included in the study. BW and gestational age were obtained from parental records. Abdominal adiposity (in three regions: R1, R2, and R3), trunk and total body fat mass (FM) were measured by DXA. Regional FM indexes (FMI=FM/height2) were thereafter calculated (Trunk FMI and abdominal FMI R1, R2, and R3).. Results: BW was negatively associated with abdominal FMI R1, R2 and R3 independently of total FM, gestational age, gender, breastfeeding duration, pubertal stage, physical activity and socioeconomic status (all P,0.01).. Conclusions: Our study shows an inverse association between BW and abdominal adiposity in adolescents, independently of total FM and other potential confounders. These findings suggest that fetal nutrition, as reflected by BW, may have a programming effect on abdominal adiposity ...
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Tratwal, Josefine ; Labella, Rossella ; Bravenboer, Nathalie ; Kerckhofs, Greet ; Douni, Eleni ; Scheller, Erica L. ; Badr, Sammy ; Karampinos, Dimitrios C. ; Beck-Cormier, Sarah ; Palmisano, Biagio ; Poloni, Antonella ; Moreno-Aliaga, Maria J. ; Fretz, Jackie ; Rodeheffer, Matthew S. ; Boroumand, Parastoo ; Rosen, Clifford J. ; Horowitz, Mark C. ; van der Eerden, Bram C. J. ; Veldhuis-Vlug, Annegreet G. ; Naveiras, Olaia. Reporting Guidelines, Review of Methodological Standards, and Challenges Toward Harmonization in Bone Marrow Adiposity Research. Report of the Methodologies Working Group of the International Bone Marrow Adiposity Society. In: Frontiers in Endocrinology, Vol. 11, no.-, p. - (2020). doi:10.3389/fendo.2020.00065. http://hdl.handle.net/2078.1/227854. ...
We found that adiposity and suboptimal-25(OH)D have independent effects on IR at puberty-onset. It is well accepted that obesity is associated with a decrease in peripheral glucose uptake that predisposes to IR condition.33 In this same cohort, we have previously shown that excessive gain in BMI predicted a higher cardio-metabolic risk.22,34 Our work demonstrates that prepubertal adiposity (whole body or central distribution) predicts higher HOMA-IR levels at puberty-onset.. Additionally, our data show that low serum-25(OH)D concentrations may be considered as an additional stressor of the physiologic IR that accompanies pubertal progression. Those children with suboptimal-25(OH)D showed higher IR in comparison with their counterparts even after adjusting by covariates. The biological mechanisms by which 1,25(OH)2D influenced the IR in children and adolescents remains to be unraveled. The evidence suggests that 1,25(OH)2D might improve peripheral uptake of glucose through the regulation of ...
Comparison of the associations of BMI and measures of central adiposity and fat mass with coronary heart disease, diabetes and all cause mortality: a study using data from four UK ...
Wormser, D., Di Angelantonio, E., Sattar, N. , Collins, R., Thompson, S. and Danesh, J. (2011) Body-mass index, abdominal adiposity, and cardiovascular risk - Authors reply. Lancet, 378(9787), p. 228. (doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)61122-7) ...
2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature. All rights reserved. Background/Objectives:Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition.Subjects/Methods:To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed ...
Calcium (Ca(2+)) intake may play a role in the regulation of body weight. Increased Ca(2+) intake has been associated with lower body weight, BMI, and adiposity measures in cross-sectional studies. We examined the association between Ca(2+) intake, d
In a large community-based population of adults, we identify circulating ex-RNAs that are associated with markers of IR and adiposity, independent of age, sex, and BMI. Specifically, miR-122 was consistently related to dysfunctional adiposity phenotypes previously demonstrated to influence downstream cardiometabolic risk, including visceral and hepatic fat and selected adipokines and inflammatory mediators. In a separate cohort of 90 overweight/obese youth without diabetes, we demonstrated that miR-122 was associated with IR independent of metabolite profile (via metabolomics), age, sex, or BMI, suggesting that ex-RNAs may have a role in IR independent of emerging metabolic markers of IR. Based on in silico pathway analyses for the 16 miRNAs found in FHS (of total 18 ex-RNAs), we found that the identified miRNAs targeted several key pathways previously implicated in IR (including mammalian target of rapamycin, insulin signaling, and AMPK), with significant cross-targeting of multiple IR-related ...
In addition to advocating behavioral lifestyles to curb the epidemic of obesity among at-risk populations in the United States, there is also the need for primary health care practitioners to craft their advice to the degree and type of obesity in these at-risk groups.
In their effort to identify a susceptibility gene for adiposity, Suviolahti et al. (10) have used a standard research design (as depicted in Figure 2), and their results are impressive. However, future functional analysis in vitro and in vivo may lead to a better understanding of the causal influence (or lack thereof) of SLC6A14 on the obesity phenotype.. Other related findings. There are very few reports describing significant linkage of BMI with markers on the X chromosome (10, 14-16). Using sibpair data, Hagar et al. (14) reported linkage of BMI to markers on the X chromosome with test statistics, denoted as maximum likelihood score (MLS) statistics, as high as 2.42, which is generally taken to be suggestive evidence for linkage (17). Price et al. (15) tested for evidence of linkage of five adiposity-related traits (BMI, percent body fat, hip and waist circumferences, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR)] to genetic variation in the X-chromosome in two cohorts of European-American and African ...
Wright, M.E., Chang, S.C., Schatzkin, A., Albanes, D., Kipnis, V., Mouw, T., et al. (2007) Prospective Study of Adiposity and Weight Change in Relation to Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality. Cancer, 109, 675-684. PubMed PMID 17211863.
Ожирение или лишний вес - бич современного общества. Люди, страдающие ожирением и лишним весом, сталкиваются с эстетическими, психологическими, и главное различными проблемами со здоровьем.. Для лечения от ожирения в настоящее время наибольшее распространение получили различные диеты и пищевые добавки для похудения. Такие добавки для похудения способствуют быстрому заполнению желудка, подавляют чувство голода, усиливают сжигание жира.. Попытки похудеть таким способом обычно приносят лишь временные результаты, при этом проблема лишнего веса ...
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has shown a positive correlation between obesity and viral infections with a particular emphasis on the human adenovirus-36 (Ad-36). Ad-36 is the first human virus that may increase adiposity in animals, and it is considered as a possible risk factor for obesity in humans; however, the results were not consistent across all the studies. The present study was conducted to examine the influence of Ad-36 infection on obesity in a rat model. METHODS: Eight-week-old male Wistar rats weighing 170-240 gram (g), were randomly divided into two groups, infection group (48 rats) and a control group (12 rats ...
This study utilizes an F16 AIL segregated by diet to map gene-by-diet interactions in previously identified adiposity QTLs. Of the previously identified adiposity QTLs, five of the original eight replicated at the 5% level or better. Two of the previously identified adiposity QTLs did not replicate. However, the lack of replication may be explained by discrepancies in the genetic maps used for each study. The 2001 study relied on recombinational mapping to determine marker position (22), and markers were chosen for the genome-wide scan on the basis of F10 recombinational data (data not shown). Subsequent examination of the Ensembl physical database (www.ensembl.org) reveals that the marker chosen to replicate Adip1, D1Mit178, is actually centromeric of its original apparent map position. Examination of other experimental samples derived from the same parental cross by our group has replicated Adip1 (data not shown). Similarly, the markers chosen to replicate Adip4, D8Mit56 and D8Mit324, are ...
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Increasing evidence supports the role of adipose tissue in the development of a systemic inflammatory state, which contributes to obesity-associated vasculopathy and cardiovascular risk. In addition t
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Summary: The major fat pads of mice will be dissected and weighed. This approach provides a way to determine if an intervention has an impact on specific depots of fat.
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Important information: All information in the case reports refer to the energetic approach and must not be confused with the conventional medical point of view. Bioresonance falls within the domain of empirical medicine. Traditional orthodox medicine does not currently accept or even recognise the effects of bioenergetic oscillations. Therefore, the correlations described go sometimes far beyond the current state of science. These pages are for your information and inspiration only. They are not a substitute for a doctor or naturopath in case of a specific illness. The specialist reports are meant for orientation and learning purposes. They are not suitable as therapy recommendations for other cases. This also applies to similar cases. It always depends on the individual circumstances of each case. The specialist reports are therefore no substitute for a specific individual examination and treatment of each patient. The reports are mere reproductions of experiences that individual users had in ...
Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P , 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the ,55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a ...
Observational studies have reported different effects of adiposity on cardiovascular risk factors across age and sex. Since cardiovascular risk factors are enriched in obese individuals, it has not been easy to dissect the effects of adiposity from those of other risk factors. We used a Mendelian randomization approach, applying a set of 32 genetic markers to estimate the causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, glycemic indices, circulating lipid levels, and markers of inflammation and liver disease in up to 67,553 individuals. All analyses were stratified by age (cutoff 55 years of age) and sex. The genetic score was associated with BMI in both nonstratified analysis (P = 2.8 × 10(-107)) and stratified analyses (all P | 3.3 × 10(-30)). We found evidence of a causal effect of adiposity on blood pressure, fasting levels of insulin, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides in a nonstratified analysis and in the |55-year stratum. Further, we found evidence of a smaller
Among Hispanics, young-adult and current body mass index (BMI) were inversely associated with both ER+PR+ and ER−PR− breast cancer. For ER+PR+ disease, risk was substantially reduced among those with elevated BMI throughout adulthood (OR=0.35, 95% CI=0.19-0.62). Height and height-to-waist ratio were positively associated with ER−PR− breast cancer. After adjustment for current BMI, two-fold increased risks were seen for large waist and hip circumferences, regardless of tumor receptor status. Genetic ancestry appeared to modify some of the associations with overall and abdominal adiposity. Among NHWs, findings for overall adiposity were similar to those for Hispanics, but there was no evidence of associations with abdominal adiposity ...
Both central and upper-body adiposity are associated with high rates of type II non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), high triglyceride levels, and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol levels. Previous data have also suggested that central and upperbody adiposity are relatively uncorrelated and hence may measure different aspects of regional body fat distribution. We assessed body mass index (BMI), the ratio of subscapular-to-triceps skinfold (STR), the ratio of waist-to-hip circumference (WHR), lipids, lipoproteins, and glucose tolerance in 738 Mexican Americans (ages 25-64 yr), who participated in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. NIDDM was diagnosed according to National Diabetes Data Group criteria. In general, STR and WHR were associated with high NIDDM rates, low HDL cholesterol levels, and high triglyceride levels, although WHR was somewhat more predictive of these than STR. In females, BMI, WHR, and STR ...
There is limited evidence on the prospective association of time spent in activity intensity (sedentary (SED), moderate (MPA) or vigorous (VPA) physical activity) and dietary intake with adiposity indicators in young people. This study aimed to assess associations between (1) baseline objectively measured activity intensity, dietary energy density (DED) and 4-year change in adiposity and (2) 4-year change in activity intensity/DED and adiposity at follow-up. We conducted cohort analyses including 367 participants (10 years at baseline, 14 years at follow-up) with valid data for objectively measured activity (Actigraph), DED (4-d food diary), anthropometry (waist circumference (WC), %body fat (%BF), fat mass index (FMI), weight status) and covariates. Linear and logistic regression models were fit, including adjustment for DED and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Results showed that baseline DED was associated with change in WC (β for 1kJ/g difference: 0·71; 95% CI 0·26, 1·17), ...
BACKGROUND: Whether measures of central adiposity are more or less strongly associated with risk of albuminuria than body mass index (BMI), and by how much diabetes/levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) explain or modify these associations, is uncertain. METHODS: Ordinal logistic regression was used to estimate associations between values of central adiposity (waist-to-hip ratio) and, separately, general adiposity (BMI) with categories of urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) in 408,527 UK Biobank participants. Separate central and general adiposity-based models were initially adjusted for potential confounders and measurement error, then sequentially, models were mutually adjusted (e.g. waist-to-hip ratio adjusted for BMI, and vice versa), and finally they were adjusted for potential mediators. RESULTS: Levels of albuminuria were generally low: 20,425 (5%) had a uACR ≥3 mg/mmol. After adjustment for confounders and measurement error, each 0.06 higher waist-to-hip ratio was associated with a
Krzeczkowski JE, Boylan K, Arbuckle TE, Dodds L, Muckle G, Fraser WD, Favotto LA, Van Lieshout RJ, on behalf of The MIREC Study Group. Early Human Development. 2018 Oct;125:8-16. doi: 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2018.08.005.. Pre-pregnancy obesity (adiposity) or maternal high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) have been linked to altered brain development in infants. A babys brain is rapidly developing both during pregnancy and in early life. Thus, maternal adiposity or hyperglycemia during pregnancy may impact the childs cognition (IQ) and behavior. This study was designed to look at the associations between pre-pregnancy adiposity or hyperglycemia and child IQ and behavior at around 3 years of age.. Data from 808 mother-child pairs from the MIREC-CD Plus study were analysed. Pre-pregnancy adiposity was assessed by calculating the womans body mass index (BMI: weight in kg/height in m2). If the women had gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance (measures of high blood glucose), they were ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex and area differences in the association between adiposity and lipid profile in Malawi. AU - Soares, Ana Luiza G.. AU - Banda, Louis. AU - Amberbir, Alemayehu. AU - Jaffar, Shabbar. AU - Musicha, Crispin. AU - Price, Alison. AU - Nyirenda, Moffat J.. AU - Lawlor, Debbie A.. AU - Crampin, Amelia. PY - 2019/9/11. Y1 - 2019/9/11. N2 - Background: Evidence from high-income countries shows that higher adiposity results in an adverse lipid profile, but it is unclear whether this association is similar in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations. This study aimed to assess the association between total and central adiposity measures and lipid profile in Malawi, exploring differences by sex and area of residence (rural/urban). Methods: In this cross-sectional study, data from 12,096 rural and 12,847 urban Malawian residents were used. The associations of body mass index (BMI) and waist-hip ratio (WHR) with fasting lipids (total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol ...
The purpose of the current study was to examine putative mediators and moderators in the association between adiposity and anxiety in a sample of overweight and obese youth. In addition, anxiety was examined as a potential moderator between adiposity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants were youth (N = 137) between 8 and 17 years old (M = 13.09, SD = 2.61) and their legal caregivers recruited from four medical clinics affiliated with the University of South Florida. Youth were primarily overweight (28.5%) or obese (64.2%) and ethnically diverse. Data were analyzed by path analysis. Weight-related teasing significantly mediated the association between adiposity and child reported anxiety, but competency-related teasing and peer victimization were not significant mediators. Internalization of appearance ideals significantly moderated the association between adiposity and anxiety by child report; however, no significant moderations were found for parent report. Additionally,
This dissertation project describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study (ACLS) women and mens association between adiposity and the development of hypertension and Lifestyle Education for Activity and Nutrition (LEAN) Study primary outcomes with the SenseWearTM Armband. The ACLS was used for studies 1 and 2 in this dissertation project. General obesity is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension (HTN). However, it is not well-studied whether central obesity and fat distribution are also related to the future HTN. 13,897men and 5,296 women healthy normotensive aged 20-100 years completed a baseline examination during 1976-2004 and were followed for HTN incidence. Incident HTN was identified via follow-up mail-back surveys. Obesity was defined as Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/m2, waist circumference (WC) ≥ 102 cm, or percent body fat ≥ 25%. In a subgroup of women (n = 3,189) with complete data on all the five adiposity measures, significant positive associations with HTN were seen
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The use of structural equation modeling and latent variables remains uncommon in epidemiology despite its potential usefulness. The latter was illustrated by studying cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between eating behavior and adiposity, using four different indicators of fat mass. METHODS: Using data from a longitudinal community-based study, we fitted structural equation models including two latent variables (respectively baseline adiposity and adiposity change after 2 years of follow-up), each being defined, by the four following anthropometric measurement (respectively by their changes): body mass index, waist circumference, skinfold thickness and percent body fat. Latent adiposity variables were hypothesized to depend on a cognitive restraint score, calculated from answers to an eating-behavior questionnaire (TFEQ-18), either cross-sectionally or longitudinally. RESULTS: We found that high baseline adiposity was associated with a 2-year increase of the cognitive
Introduction. This study aimed to evaluate the screening performance of different measures of adiposity: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for high metabolic risk in a sample of adolescents. Methods. A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 517 adolescents aged 15-18, from the Azorean Islands, Portugal. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and systolic blood pressure. HOMA and TC/HDL-C ratio were calculated. For each of these variables, a Z-score was computed by age and sex. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was constructed by summing the Z-scores of all individual risk factors. High risk was considered when the individual had ≥1SD of this score. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) were used. Results. Linear regression analyses showed that, after adjusting for age and pubertal stage, all different measures of adiposity are positively and significantly associated with MRS in both sexes,
An increasing dissatisfaction with the use of Body Mass Index (BMI) for measuring obesity has led scientists to develop a new way to measure obesity without having people step on the scale.. The new measure, called the Body Adiposity Index, or BAI, relies on height and hip measurements whereas BMI relies on a ratio of height and weight.. Richard Bergman of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, and colleagues have published their findings on the new BAI in the journal Obesity.. Obesity is a growing problem in the United States and throughout the world. It is a risk factor for many chronic diseases. BMI is used in many schools to assess at risk children for obesity.. BMI was invented by Lambert Adolphe Quetelet more than 200 years ago. His Body Mass Index (also called the Quetelet Index) which remains the current simple measurement for obesity to this day. BMI is not without its flaws. Many believe it is only valid for people over the age of 20. It often puts professional ...
Several anthropometric measures, indices and other techniques have been used in the literature on associations between adiposity and MC. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the ability of different measures of adiposity to discriminate between low/high motor coordination (MC). Methods A cross-sectional school-based study was conducted on 596 Portuguese childrens, aged 9- 12 years during the 2009/2010 academic year. Weight, height and waist circumference (WC) were objectively measured by standardized protocols. Body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated by bioelectric impedance. Body mass index (weight/hight2) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were computed. MC was assessed with the Körperkoordination Test für Kinder (Kiphard & Schiling, 1974). Cardiorespiratory fitness was predicted by a maximal multistage 20m shuttle-run test of the Fitnessgram Test Battery (Welk & Meredith, 2008). A questionnaire was used for assess mothers educational level. Receiver operating characteristic ...
SILVA, Diego Augusto S. et al. Differences and similarities in stages of behavioral change related to physical activity in adolescents from two regions of Brazil. Rev. paul. pediatr. [online]. 2011, vol.29, n.2, pp.193-201. ISSN 0103-0582. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-05822011000200010.. OBJECTIVE: To establish differences and similarities in stages of behavioral change related to physical activity and associated factors in adolescents from two regions of Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on public school students aged 14 to 17 years, including 601 from the mid-west of Santa Catarina (SC, Brazil) and 464 from the north of Minas Gerais (MG, Brazil). Stages of behavioral change related to physical activity were identified using a standard questionnaire. Sociodemographic data, body adiposity indexes and nutritional status were collected. The following were used for data analysis: chi-square test, Fishers exact test, comparison of proportions and multivariable analysis using ...
Socioeconomic gradients in adiposity were not present during childhood for previous generations, but have emerged in contemporary children. It is unknown whether this translates to socioeconomic gradients in associated cardiovascular risk factors in children, with consequent implications for inequalities in coronary heart disease (CHD) and diabetes when these children reach adulthood. Using data from 7772 participants aged 10-years from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined the association between maternal education and a large number of cardiovascular risk factors (cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, apolipoprotein, adiponectin, leptin, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), and examined whether inequalities were mediated by adiposity, measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-assessed total fat mass. There were socioeconomic differences in a number of the cardiovascular risk factors
Mediators of Inflammation is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research and review articles on all types of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines, histamine, bradykinin, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, PAF, biological response modifiers and the family of cell adhesion-promoting molecules.
The present study was designed to investigate the impact and to identify potential mechanisms for dietary energy balance effects on prostate cancer progression in an established mouse model of prostate cancer (i.e., Hi-Myc mice; ref. 21). Diets of varying caloric density, which have been used in numerous studies to evaluate the effects of dietary energy balance on chronic disease (including cancer), were used and the resulting body weights and adiposity levels corresponded with previously published data using the same diets (32, 33). These previous reports classified mouse adiposity levels and provide a corresponding body phenotype as a function of both human body fat content and BMI classification. As such, the mice in the current study correspond to lean, overweight, and obese phenotypes. The DIO regimen used has consistently been shown to effectively induce an obese state in mice, enabling evaluation of the direct effects of obesity on prostate cancer as well as comparisons among obese, ...
Background: The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings: We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the FTO locus as an instrumental variable (IV) for body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses. Age-and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i) rs9939609 and BMI (n = 198,502), (ii) rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii) BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI-trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we ...
Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder caused by haploinsufficiency of RAI1 and characterized by sleep disturbances, behavioral abnormalities, mental retardation, and obesity in teens and adults. Rai1+/- mice are obese after 20 weeks. Dup(17)(p11.2) syndrome is a complex disorder associated with overexpression of RAI1. A transgenic mouse model of dup(17)(p11.2) syndrome overexpresses Rai1 and results in a mouse that is growth delayed. In order to characterize the obese phenotypes of mouse models of SMS and the role of RAI1 in obesity, daily food intake and serum levels of insulin, glucose, PPY, and leptin were measured; adiposity was studied by characterizing fat deposition; and gene expression was studied in the hypothalamus. These studies show that Rai1+/- mice are hyperphagic, consume more during the inactive light phase, and have altered satiety genes in the hypothalamus. Adiposity studies have shown WT females have a higher body fat content and visceral fat proportion than males,
Site of the Professor Professor Omar Al Attas: Professor of Biochemistry / Director, Center of Excellence in Biotechnology Research related to Faculties Websites at King Saud University
Background: Some reports suggest that body mass index (BMI) is not strongly associated with mortality in Hispanic populations. Objective: To assess the causal relevance of adiposity to mortality in Mexican adults, avoiding reverse causality biases. Design: Prospective study. Setting: 2 Mexico City districts. Participants: 159 755 adults aged 35 years and older at recruitment, followed for up to 14 years. Participants with a hemoglobin A1c level of 7% or greater, diabetes, or other chronic diseases were excluded. Measurements: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, and cause-specific mortality. Cox regression, adjusted for confounders, yielded mortality hazard ratios (HRs) after at least 5 years of follow-up and before age 75 years. Results: Among 115 400 participants aged 35 to |75 years at recruitment, mean BMI was 28.0 kg/m2 (SD, 4.1 kg/m2) in men and 29.6 kg/m2 (SD, 5.1 kg/m2) in women. The association of BMI at recruitment with all-cause mortality was J-shaped, with the minimum at 25 to |27.5
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Central adiposity measures such as waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with cardiometabolic disorders independently of body mass index (BMI) and are gaining clinically utility. Several studies report genetic variants associated with central adiposity, but most utilize only European ancestry populations. Understanding whether the genetic associations discovered among mainly European descendants are shared with African ancestry populations will help elucidate the biological underpinnings of abdominal fat deposition. SUBJECTS/METHODS:To identify the underlying functional genetic determinants of body fat distribution, we conducted an array-wide association meta-analysis among persons of African ancestry across seven studies/consortia participating in the Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) consortium. We used the Metabochip array, designed for fine-mapping cardiovascular-associated loci, to explore novel array-wide ...
Aging is a contributing factor in cancer occurrence. We recently demonstrated that systemic immunotherapy (IT) administration in aged, but not young, mice resulted in induction of rapid and lethal cytokine storm. We found that aging was accompanied by increases in visceral fat similar to that seen in young obese (ob/ob or diet-induced obese [DIO]) mice. Yet, the effects of aging and obesity on inflammatory responses to immunotherapeutics are not well defined. We determine the effects of adiposity on systemic IT tolerance in aged compared with young obese mice. Both young ob/ob- and DIO-generated proinflammatory cytokine levels and organ pathologies are comparable to those in aged ad libitum mice after IT, culminating in lethality. Young obese mice exhibited greater ratios of M1/M2 macrophages within the peritoneal and visceral adipose tissues and higher percentages of TNF+ macrophages in response to. CD40/IL-2 as compared with young lean mice. Macrophage depletion or TNF blockade in conjunction ...
Groups of obese subjects and those with central adiposity consumed higher proportions of energy as fat and lower as carbohydrate than those without obesity and central adiposity (p,0.05). Stratifying by generation, second-generation was shown to take more energy as fat than the first-generation (p,0.05). In the regression models, protein intake was the only variable significantly associated with body mass index. Replacing body mass index by the waist circumference, male sex and protein intake were shown to be independent predictors of central adiposity. When second-generation was taken, total energy intake and all macronutrient intakes became significantly associated with body mass index (p,0.05) but only protein intake predicted waist circumference. We speculate that Japanese-Brazilians, genetically prone to insulin resistance, when exposed to unfavorable environment will express a number of metabolic disturbances. A deleterious dietary pattern may contribute to weight gain, was associated with ...
Background: Changes in body weight and adiposity levels can follow breast cancer (BC) diagnosis and treatment, which could result in poor long-term BC outcomes. The factors associated with these changes and the biological mechanisms underlying them remain unclear. Aims, methods, sample and data analysis: A longitudinal retrospective study was conducted to explore weight change post- diagnosis and its association with BC treatment, disease characteristics and biological and behavioural factors. A second aim was to examine factors associated with adiposity and metabolic parameters measured at the end of the follow up. 239 women diagnosed with BC one to seven years prior to study entry attending a specialist BC centre were recruited. Weight from BC diagnosis to the study entry, BC treatments received, disease characteristics, menopausal status, smoking status and age were collected from medical notes. Genetic profile (FTO, Mc4R), body fat and fat free mass, waist circumference and fasting glucose ...
Paller et al conducted an international study to evaluate the association between adiposity and the severity of psoriasis in children.
Commentary: The paradox of body mass index in obesity assessment: not a good index of adiposity, but not a bad index of cardio-metabolic risk
LRRC8A is an essential component of a mechanoresponsive ion channel signaling complex that tunes skeletal muscle differentiation, muscle cell size, function and metabolic pathways to regulate adiposity and systemic glycemia.
A sedentary lifestyle results in numerous physiologic and functional declines that increase risk for disease. Obesity and weight gain in sedentary adults are
Houghton D, Thoma C, Hallsworth K, Cassidy S, Hardy T, Burt AD, Tiniakos D, Hollingsworth KG, Taylor R, Day CP, McPherson S, Anstee QM, Trenell ...
DISCUSSION. Analyzing results presented in table 1, one observes that the body mass, stature and BMI variables were not different between genders, what is not in agreement with literature, which establishes lower values for boys when compared with girls(33); however, recent researches have demonstrated a considerable increase on the BMI in Brazilian male adolescents while the BMI presents stability among female adolescents(34). In relation to the body fat percentage, girls (21.85 ± 7.7) demonstrated values significantly higher than boys (17.43 ± 9.4). This difference may be explained by the fact that girls present the beginning of the maturational process before boys and at the pubescent stage, the sexual differences generated by maturation provide fat accumulation in the adipocytes in girls and gain of muscular mass in boys(35,36), or even due to the fact that the equation used for the estimation of the fat percentage, although widely employed in Brazilian studies(37), may present variation ...
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research aims to publish findings of doctors at grass root level and post graduate students, so that all unique medical experiences are recorded in literature.
Background In older adults, sedentary behaviors increase while physical activity decreases over time following the compositional nature of 24-h behaviors. These changes in movement-related behaviors...
The relationship between 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and metabolic traits appear to differ among ethnicities and may be influenced by obesity. The aim of the study was to examine the association ...
Dorothea Dumuid, T. Olds, L. K. Lewis, J. A. Martin-Fernández, Tiago Barreira, S. Broyles, J. P. Chaput, M. Fogelholm, G. Hu, R. Kuriyan, A. Kurpad, E. V. Lambert, J. Maia, V. Matsudo, V. O. Onywera, O. L. Sarmiento, M. Standage, M. S. Tremblay, C. Tudor-Locke, P. ...
Tip I Diabetes Mellituslu Hastalarda Serum Leptin D zeyi le Kan Lipitleri Ve V cut Adipozitesi Aras ndaki li ki = Correlation Between Serum Leptin Levels and Blood Lipits and Body Adiposity in the Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus ...
Russo MD, Ahrens W, De Henauw S, … Veidebaum T, et al. The impact of adding sugars to milk and fruit on adiposity and diet quality in children: a cross sectional and longitudinal analysis of the identification and prevention of dietary- and life-style-induced health effects in children and infants (IDEFICS) study. Nutrients 2018;10(10);pii:E1350 ...
P. L. Wander, Boyko, E. J., Leonetti, D. L., McNeely, M. J., Kahn, S. E., and Fujimoto, W. Y., Change in visceral adiposity independently predicts a greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes over 10 years in Japanese americans, Diabetes CareDiabetes Care, vol. 36, pp. 289-293, 2013. ...
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View KIN 405 Lecture 1 and 2 from KIN 405 at Waterloo. Asian)or) African)descent)-)are)considered)high)risk) • Overweight/Obese)(especially)visceral)adiposity)) •
It has been postulated that additional adiposity has a negative effect on performance in heterogeneous groups of runners. Previous studies have not tested this hypothesis in homogeneous groups of elite runners.

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