Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Glucose in blood.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
The consumption of edible substances.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Abstaining from all food.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.

Rb and p107 regulate preadipocyte differentiation into white versus brown fat through repression of PGC-1alpha. (1/644)

The Rb family, Rb, p107, and p130, play important roles in cell cycle control and cellular differentiation, and Rb has been suggested to regulate adipocyte differentiation. We report here that mice lacking p107 displayed a uniform replacement of white adipose tissue (WAT) with brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mutant WAT depots contained mutilocular adipocytes that expressed elevated levels of PGC-1alpha and UCP-1 typical of BAT. WAT from p107-/- mice contained markedly elevated numbers of adipogenic precursors that displayed downregulated expression of pRb. Consistent with the hypothesis that pRb is required for adult adipocyte differentiation, Cre-mediated deletion of Rb in adult primary preadipocytes blocked their differentiation into white adipocytes. Importantly, pRb was observed to bind the PGC-1alpha promoter and repress transcription. Therefore, p107 and pRb regulate PGC-1alpha expression to control the switch between white and brown adipocyte differentiation from a common pool of presumptive adult progenitors in fat tissue.  (+info)

Assessment of brown adipose tissue activity in rats by 99mTc-sestamibi uptake. (2/644)

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology and imaging have recently attracted considerable attention. BAT is characterized both by enhanced perfusion and increased mitochondrial activity. (99m)Tc-sestamibi is a lipophilic cationic tracer that concentrates in mitochondria. Data on the accumulation of (99m)Tc-sestamibi in BAT are currently lacking. This study investigates the in vivo (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake in rat BAT. (99m)Tc-sestamibi was administered in male Wistar rats of various age and body size. (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake was measured in vitro in BAT and white fat (WF) together with cytochrome c oxidase activity. Both (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake and cytochrome c oxidase activity were higher in BAT than in WF (P<0.05). (99m)Tc-Sestamibi uptake in both BAT and WF was negatively related to body weight (r = -0.96 and -0.89, respectively) as was the BAT/WF uptake ratio (r = -0.85). These data show a higher (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake in BAT compared to WF, in agreement with the high mitochondrial content and respiratory activity of the former. The strong negative correlation between (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake in BAT and body weight (negative allometry), is in accordance to increased needs of thermogenesis in smaller animals. Implications of increased (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake in BAT in radionuclide imaging are also discussed.  (+info)

Increased infiltration of macrophages in omental adipose tissue is associated with marked hepatic lesions in morbid human obesity. (3/644)

In human obesity, white adipose tissue (WAT) is enriched in macrophages. How macrophage infiltration in WAT contributes to the complications of obesity is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that recruitment of macrophages in omental WAT is associated with hepatic damage in obese patients. Paired biopsies of subcutaneous and omental WAT and a liver biopsy were collected during gastric surgery in 46 obese women and 9 obese men (BMI 47.9 +/- 0.93 kg/m(2)). The number of HAM56+ macrophages in WAT was quantified microscopically, and correlations with clinical and biological parameters and histological liver pathology were investigated. There were twice as many macrophages in omental as in subcutaneous WAT (P<0.0001). After adjustment for age, omental WAT macrophage infiltration was correlated to fasting glucose and insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. We propose an easy equation to estimate the amount of macrophages in omental WAT. Increased macrophage accumulation specifically in omental WAT was associated with hepatic fibroinflammatory lesions (P=0.01). The best predictive model for the severity of hepatic damage includes adiponectinemia, AST, and omental WAT macrophages. These data suggest that the presence of macrophages in omental WAT participates in the cellular mechanisms favoring hepatic fibroinflammatory lesions in obese patients.  (+info)

Nutritional supplementation with trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid induces inflammation of white adipose tissue. (4/644)

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid. Many people supplement their diets with CLAs to attempt weight loss, and the trans-10,cis-12 isomer (t10,c12-CLA) of CLA reduces adiposity in animal models and humans. However, CLA treatment in mice causes insulin resistance that has been attributed to the lipoatrophic state, which is associated with hyperinsulinemia and hepatic steatosis. Here, we investigated the effect of t10,c12-CLA on adipose tissue inflammation, another factor promoting insulin resistance. We confirmed that t10,c12-CLA daily gavage performed in mice reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and adiponectin and leptin serum levels and provokes hyperinsulinemia. In parallel, we demonstrated that this CLA isomer led to a rapid induction of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 gene expression in WAT without affecting their serum levels. In vitro, t10,c12-CLA directly induced IL-6 secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by an nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent mechanism. In vivo, however, the lipoatrophic adipose tissue of CLA-treated mice was notable for a dramatic increase in macrophage infiltration and gene expression. Thus, CLA supplementation directly induces inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes and also promotes macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue to a local inflammatory state that contributes to insulin resistance.  (+info)

Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid causes inflammation and delipidation of white adipose tissue in mice: a microarray and histological analysis. (5/644)

A combined histological and microarray analysis of the white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) was performed to better define functional responses. Mice fed t10c12 CLA for 14 days lost 85% of WAT mass, 95% of adipocyte lipid droplet volume, and 15 or 47% of the number of adipocytes and total cells, respectively. Microarray profiling of replicated pools (n = 2 per day x diet) of control and treated mice (n = 140) at seven time points after 1-17 days of t10c12 CLA feeding found between 2,682 and 4,216 transcript levels changed by twofold or more. Transcript levels for genes involved in glucose and fatty acid import or biosynthesis were significantly reduced. Highly expressed transcripts for lipases were significantly reduced but still abundant. Increased levels of mRNAs for two key thermogenesis proteins, uncoupling protein 1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, may have increased energy expenditures. Significant reductions of mRNAs for major adipocyte regulatory factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, sterol regulatory binding protein 1, CAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha, and lipin 1 were correlated with the reduced transcript levels for key metabolic pathways in the WAT. A prolific inflammation response was indicated by the 2- to 100-fold induction of many cytokine transcripts, including those for IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF ligands, and CXC family members, and an increased density of macrophages. The mRNA changes suggest that a combination of cell loss, increased energy expenditure, and residual transport of lipids out of the adipocytes may account for the cumulative mass loss observed.  (+info)

White adipose tissue: storage and effector site for environmental pollutants. (6/644)

White adipose tissue (WAT) represents a reservoir of lipophilic environmental pollutants, especially of those which are resistant to biological and chemical degradation - so-called persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Large amounts of different congeners and isomers of these compounds exhibit a variety of adverse biological effects. Interactions among different classes of compounds, frequently with opposing effects, complicate hazard evaluation and risk assessment. WAT is the key organ for energy homeostasis and it also releases metabolites into the circulation and adipokines with systemic effects on insulin sensitivity and fuel partitioning in muscles and other tissues. Its beneficial role is lost in obesity when excessive accumulation of WAT contributes to severe diseases, such as diabetes. POPs may crossroad or modulate the effect of endogenous ligands of nuclear transcription factors, participating in differentiation, metabolism and the secretory function of adipocytes. These mechanisms include, most importantly: i) endocrine disrupting potency of POPs mixtures on androgen, estrogen or thyroid hormone metabolism/functions in WAT, ii) interference of dioxin-like chemicals with retinoic acid homeostasis, where impact on retinoid receptors is expected, and iii) interaction with transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors is likely. Thus, the accumulation and action of POPs in WAT represents a unitary mechanism explaining, at least in part, the effects of POPs in the whole organism. By modulating WAT differentiation, metabolism and function, the POPs could affect not only the physiological role of WAT, but they may also influence the development of obesity-associated diseases.  (+info)

Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (7/644)

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the current UK clinical practice in reducing hepatic fat (IHCL). METHODS: Whole body MRI and (1)H MRS were obtained, before and after 6 mo nutritional counselling, from liver, soleus and tibialis muscles in 10 subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). RESULTS: A 500 Kcal-restricted diet resulted in an average weight loss of 4% (-3.4 kg,) accompanied by significant reductions in most adipose tissue (AT) depots, including subcutaneous (-9.9%), abdominal subcutaneous (-10.2%) and intra-abdominal-AT (-11.4%). Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were significantly reduced in the tibialis muscle (-28.2%). Decreases in both IHCL (-39.9%) and soleus IMCL (-12.2%) content were also observed, although these were not significant. Several individuals showed dramatic decreases in IHCL, while others paradoxically showed increases in IHCL content. Changes in body composition were accompanied by improvements in certain liver function tests: serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Significant correlations were found between decreases in IHCL and reductions in both intra-abdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT. Improvements in liver function tests were associated with reductions in intra-abdominal AT, but not with changes in IHCL. CONCLUSION: This study shows that even a very modest reduction in body weight achieved through lifestyle modification can result in changes in body fat depots and improvements in LFTs.  (+info)

Combined leptin actions on adipose tissue and hypothalamus are required to deplete adipocyte fat in lean rats: implications for obesity treatment. (8/644)

Intense hyperleptinemia completely depletes adipocyte fat of normal rats within 14 days. To determine the mechanism, epididymal fat pads from normal wild-type (+/+) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) donor rats were transplanted into normal +/+ and fa/fa ZDF recipients. Hyperleptinemia induced by adenovirus-leptin administration depleted all fat from native fat pads and from fat transplants from +/+ donors but not from transplants from ZDF(fa/fa) donors with defective leptin receptors. In both native and transplanted +/+ fat pads, large numbers of mitochondria were apparent, and genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated. However, +/+ fat pads transplanted into fa/fa recipients did not respond to hyperleptinemia, suggesting lack of an essential leptin-stimulated cohormone(s). In +/+ but not in fa/fa rats, plasma catecholamine levels rose, and both P-STAT3 and P-CREB increased in adipose tissue, suggesting that both direct and indirect (hypothalamic) leptin receptor-mediated actions of hyperleptinemia are involved in depletion of adipocyte fat.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - A fish oil diet induces mitochondrial uncoupling and mitochondrial unfolded protein response in epididymal white adipose tissue of mice. AU - Bhaskaran, Shylesh. AU - Unnikrishnan, Archana. AU - Ranjit, Rojina. AU - Qaisar, Rizwan. AU - Pharaoh, Gavin. AU - Matyi, Stephanie. AU - Kinter, Michael. AU - Deepa, Sathyaseelan S.. PY - 2017/7/1. Y1 - 2017/7/1. N2 - White adipose tissue (WAT) mitochondrial dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis of obesity driven insulin resistance. Dietary conditions that alter fat mass are known to affect white adipocyte mitochondrial function, however, the impact of high calorie diets on white adipocyte mitochondria is not fully understood. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of a diet rich in saturated or polyunsaturated fat on mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt), a retrograde signaling response that maintains mitochondrial homeostasis, in epididymal WAT (eWAT). Mice were fed a low fat diet (LFD), saturated fat diet (SFD) or ...
MicroRNAs are emerging as new mediators in the regulation of adipocyte physiology and have been approved to play a role in obesity. Despite several studies have focused on microRNA expression profiles and functions in different metabolic tissues, little is known about their response to nutritional interventions in white adipose tissue during obesity stages, and whether they differ in this response to weight-reduction strategy is poorly understood. Our objectives were to study the dysregulation of some miRNAs in subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue during weight change, expansion/reduction; in response to both a high-fat diet and switching to a normal diet feeding, and to evaluate them as potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for early obesity management A hundred 6-week-old male Wister rats were randomly divided into a normal diet group (N.D), a high-fat diet group (H.F.D), and a switched to a normal diet group (H.F.D/N.D). At the beginning and at intervals 2 weeks, serum lipid, hormone
TY - JOUR. T1 - FGF-10 is a growth factor for preadipocytes in white adipose tissue. AU - Yamasaki, Masahiro. AU - Emoto, Hisayo. AU - Konishi, Morichika. AU - Mikami, Tadahisa. AU - Ohuchi, Hideyo. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. AU - Itoh, Nobuyuki. PY - 1999/4/29. Y1 - 1999/4/29. N2 - FGF-10 is a mesenchymal factor affecting epithelial cells during pattern formation. However, the expression and physiological role of FGF-10 in adults remains to be elucidated. We examined the expression of FGF-10 mRNA in a variety of adult rat tissues, and found to be most abundant in white adipose tissue. In white adipose tissue, FGF-10 mRNA was expressed in preadipocytes but not in mature adipocytes. The expression in white adipose tissue during postnatal development was also examined. The expression level was low at postnatal day 10 (P10). However, FGF-10 mRNA was abundantly detected later on (P28 and P48) when white adipose tissue growth was stimulated. We also examined the activity of recombinant FGF-10 for primary ...
Increasing the thermogenic capacity of adipose tissue to enhance organismal energy expenditure is considered a promising therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. Here, we report that expression of MKK6, a p38MAPK activator, is elevated in white adipose tissue of obese individuals.. Using knockout animals and shRNA, we show that Mkk6 deletion increases energy expenditure and thermogenic capacity of white adipose tissue, protecting mice against diet-induced obesity and the development of diabetes. Deletion of Mkk6 increases T3-stimulated UCP1 expression in adipocytes, thereby increasing their thermogenic capacity. Mechanistically we demonstrate that, in white adipose tissue, p38 is activated by an alternative pathway involving AMPK, TAK and TAB.. Our results identify MKK6 in adipocytes as a potential therapeutic target to reduce obesity.. ...
Effect of dietary fat modification on subcutaneous white adipose tissue insulin sensitivity in patients with metabolic syndrome.: Our data suggest that the LFHC
Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces white adipocytes with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Obesity modulates the expression of haptoglobin in the white adipose tissue via TNFα. AU - Chiellini, Chiara. AU - Bertacca, Anna. AU - Novelli, Silvia E.. AU - Görgün, Cem Z.. AU - Ciccarone, Annamaria. AU - Giordano, Antonio. AU - Xu, Haiyan. AU - Soukas, Alexander. AU - Costa, Mario. AU - Gandini, Daniele. AU - Dimitri, Roberto. AU - Bottone, Pietro. AU - Cecchetti, Paolo. AU - Pardini, Ennia. AU - Perego, Lucia. AU - Navalesi, Renzo. AU - Folli, Franco. AU - Benzi, Luca. AU - Cinti, Saverio. AU - Friedman, Jeffrey M.. AU - Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.. AU - Maffei, Margherita. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Increase in adipose mass results in obesity and modulation of several factors in white adipose tissue (WAT). Two important examples are tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and leptin, both of which are upregulated in adipose tissue in obesity. In order to isolate genes differentially expressed in the WAT of ...
BACKGROUND Beige adipose tissue is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in mice. Adipose tissue contains β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), and this study was intended to determine whether the treatment of obese, insulin-resistant humans with the β3-AR agonist mirabegron, which stimulates beige adipose formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT), would induce other beneficial changes in fat and muscle and improve metabolic homeostasis.METHODS Before and after β3-AR agonist treatment, oral glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic clamps were performed, and histochemical analysis and gene expression profiling were performed on fat and muscle biopsies. PET-CT scans quantified brown adipose tissue volume and activity, and we conducted in vitro studies with primary cultures of differentiated human adipocytes and muscle.RESULTS The clinical effects of mirabegron treatment included improved oral glucose tolerance (P , 0.01), reduced hemoglobin A1c levels (P = 0.01), and improved ...
BACKGROUND. Beige adipose tissue is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in mice. Adipose tissue contains β3 adrenergic receptors (β3-AR), and this study was intended to determine whether the treatment of obese, insulin-resistant humans with the β3AR agonist mirabegron, which stimulates beige adipose formation in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SC WAT), would induce other beneficial changes in fat and muscle, and improve metabolic homeostasis. METHODS. Before and after β3AR agonist treatment, oral glucose tolerance tests and euglycemic clamps were performed, and histochemistry and gene expression profiling were performed from fat and muscle biopsies. PET CT scans quantified brown adipose tissue volume and activity and we conducted in vitro studies with primary cultures of differentiated human adipocytes and muscle.RESULTS. Clinical effects of mirabegron treatment included improved oral glucose tolerance (P,0.01), reduced hemoglobin A1c (P=0.01), and improved insulin sensitivity ...
Talk Page}} ==2018== ===A Renewable Source of Human Beige Adipocytes for Development of Therapies to Treat Metabolic Syndrome=== Cell Rep. 2018 Dec 11;25(11):3215-3228.e9. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2018.11.037. Su S1, Guntur AR1, Nguyen DC1, Fakory SS1, Doucette CC1, Leech C1, Lotana H1, Kelley M1, Kohli J1, Martino J2, Sims-Lucas S3, Liaw L4, Vary C4, Rosen CJ4, Brown AC5. Author information Abstract Molecular- and cellular-based therapies have the potential to reduce obesity-associated disease. In response to cold, beige adipocytes form in subcutaneous white adipose tissue and convert energy stored in metabolic substrates to heat, making them an attractive therapeutic target. We developed a robust method to generate a renewable source of human beige adipocytes from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Developmentally, these cells are derived from FOXF1+ mesoderm and progress through an expandable mural-like mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) to form mature beige adipocytes that display a ...
Obesity is an increasingly prevalent disease regulated by genetic and environmental factors. Emerging studies indicate that immune cells, including monocytes, granulocytes and lymphocytes, regulate metabolic homeostasis and are dysregulated in obesity. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can regulate adaptive immunity and eosinophil and alternatively activated macrophage responses, and were recently identified in murine white adipose tissue (WAT) where they may act to limit the development of obesity. However, ILC2s have not been identified in human adipose tissue, and the mechanisms by which ILC2s regulate metabolic homeostasis remain unknown. Here we identify ILC2s in human WAT and demonstrate that decreased ILC2 responses in WAT are a conserved characteristic of obesity in humans and mice. Interleukin (IL)-33 was found to be critical for the maintenance of ILC2s in WAT and in limiting adiposity in mice by increasing caloric expenditure. This was associated with recruitment of uncoupling protein 1
The overall goal of this study was to evaluate and apply the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for fecal bacteria modeling. Methods were developed to characterize fecal coliform bacteria (FCB) from livestock, human, and wildlife sources to use as input in the model. Model. sensitivity to predict FCB concentration was evaluated for the model parameters and input. parameters using both SWAT 2000 and 2005 versions. Sensitivity of input parameters generally,. ranked as Bacteria concentration ? TBACT > Wildlife source loads > Livestock stocking rate ? Livestock manure production rate > BACTKDQ for SWAT 2000 whereas it was ranked as. BACTKDQ > TBACT > Bacteria concentration > WDLPQ > WDLPS for SWAT 2005. Sensitivity. of model and input parameters were found changed from SWAT 2000.. The SWAT (2005) model was calibrated and validated for daily flow, sediment, and fecal. bacteria concentration using one year of measured data (January to December, 2004). The SWAT. model predicted results with ...
The Relationship Between White Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Overweight/Obesity in Chinese Female Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lipolysis defect in white adipose tissue and rapid weight regain. AU - Kasher-Meron, Michal. AU - Youn, Dou Y.. AU - Zong, H.. AU - Pessin, J. E.Jeffery E.. PY - 2019/8. Y1 - 2019/8. N2 - Weight regain after weight loss is a well-described phenomenon in both humans and animal models of obesity. Reduced energy expenditure and increased caloric intake are considered the main drivers of weight regain. We hypothesized that adipose tissue with obesity memory (OM) has a tissueautonomous lipolytic defect, allowing for increased efficiency of lipid storage. We utilized a mouse model of diet-induced obesity, which was subjected to 60% caloric restriction to achieve lean body weight, followed by a short period of high-fat diet (HFD) rechallenge. Agematched lean mice fed HFD for the first time were used as the control group. Upon rechallenge with HFD, mice with OM had higher respiratory exchange ratios than lean mice with no OM despite comparable body weight, suggesting higher utilization ...
The location of AT is equally as essential as the absolute amount of AT during reduced IS. Fat redistribution in the elderly has been associated with an increased risk of IS (37). Subcutaneous WAT and VAT are diverse with regards to their metabolic effects; for example, subcutaneous WAT has been associated with increased IS and a lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes, while VAT has been associated with IR (38). Furthermore, pear-shaped fat distribution with more gluteal femoral AT was associated with an increased IS and lower risk of CVD and diabetes, while apple-shaped fat distribution with an increased waist circumference was associated with VAT mass and IR. Individuals with relatively higher amounts of VAT compared with WAT were also at an increased risk of developing IR (39). The loss of subcutaneous fat is a well-established feature in aging (38), as the distribution of AT primarily moves from subcutaneous fatty tissue deposition to ectopic sites, muscle and visceral ...
Reducing RIP140 expression in macrophage alters ATM infiltration, facilitates white adipose tissue browning and prevents high fat diet-induced insulin ...
Obesity has a profound adverse impact on health. In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We studied adult males f
Altered Lipid Metabolism in Residual White Adipose Tissues of Bscl2 Deficient Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Streambanks can be a significant source of sediment and phosphorus to aquatic ecosystems. Although the streambank-erosion routine in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) has improved in recent versions, the recently developed routine in SWAT 2012 has undergone limited testing, and the lack of site or watershed specific streambank data increases the uncertainty in the streambank-erosion predictions. There were two primary objectives of this research: (1) modify and test the 2012 SWAT streambank-erosion routine on composite streambanks, and (2) compare SWAT default and field-measured channel parameters and assess their influence on predicted streambank erosion. Three modifications were made to the SWAT 2012 streambank-erosion routine: (1) replacing the empirical effective shear stress equation with a process-based equation, (2) replacing bankfull width and depth measurements with top width and streambank height, and (3) incorporating an area-adjustment factor to account for non-trapezoidal ...
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The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is recognized by its pivotal role on cardiovascular regulation and more recently also on metabolism. Angiotensin-(1-7) has b...
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Bezaire and Langin have produced a very good review of the hormonal regulation of adipocyte lipolysis White adipose tissue is an unlimited pool of energy. In White adipose tissue non esterified fatty acids originating from dietary intake or de novo synthesis are stored as triacylglycerides in highly-structured hydrophobic lipid droplets (LD). As a consequence of…. Read more ...
The line states in part: If xinetd was compiled with tcpwrapper flag enabled. Does anyone know how one might know if this is the case? - KitchM 00:18, 24 March 2010 (EDT) When I started xinetd according to instructions I got this message in everything.log: Port not specified and cant find service: swat with getservbyname Portnumber was not set in the default SWAT configuration file /etc/xinetd.d/swat. I added the line port = 901. When I restarted xinetd I got the message service/protocol combination not in /etc/services: swat/tcp. I selected an unassigned number and added the line swat 1001/tcp in /etc/services. I changed port number to 1001 in /etc/xinetd.d/swat. Now I could log into SWAT on http://localhost:1001. Erlhel 18:45, 7 April 2012 (EDT) ...
Callie Briggs’s support of the SWAT Kats is no secret, even though the masked duo’s identities are to her. When the SWAT Kats disappear, trouble arises in Megakat City, and Callie must rely on a …
Callie Briggs’s support of the SWAT Kats is no secret, even though the masked duo’s identities are to her. When the SWAT Kats disappear, trouble arises in Megakat City, and Callie must rely on a …
The linear motor driving the target for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment has been redesigned to improve its reliability and performance. A new coil-winding technique is described which produces better magnetic alignment and improves heat transport out of the windings. Improved field-mapping has allowed the more precise construction to be demonstrated, and an enhanced controller exploits the full features of the hardware, enabling increased acceleration and precision. The new user interface is described and analysis of performance data to monitor friction is shown to allow quality control of bearings and a measure of the ageing of targets during use.. ...
Objective: Based on its role as an energy storage compartment and endocrine organ, white adipose tissue (WAT) fulfils a critical function in the maintenance of whole-body energy homeostasis. Indeed, WAT dysfunction is connected to obesity-related type 2 diabetes triggered at least partly by an inflammatory response in adipocytes. The pseudokinase tribbles (TRB) 3 has been identified by us and others as a critical regulator of hepatic glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetes and WAT lipid homeostasis. Therefore, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the TRB gene family fulfils broader functions in the integration of metabolic and inflammatory pathways in various tissues.. Research Design and Methods: To determine the role of TRB family members for WAT function, we profiled the expression patterns of TRB1-3 under healthy and metabolic stress conditions. The differentially expressed TRB1 was functionally characterized in loss-of-function animal and primary adipocyte models.. Results: Here we ...
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IFNβ promoters associated with IRF3 are reduced in MEFs from DEAF1−/− mice.A, MEFs from wild type mice (black bars) or DEAF1−/− mice (white bars) were
Several years ago, the Tactical Operations Technology Working Group identified the need for an affordable and realistic training environment specifically
Hi Alexandre, Great work on creating a schedule that might be more predictable! Just a heads up, the date you have me is right over the Christmas break. I am not saying drop me as I might be working ...
Scientists have developed a unique therapeutic strategy, using genetic information initially uncovered in fruit fly studies, that stops an aggressive and deadly form of leukemia in laboratory models of the disease.
When I walk or run and at the same time move my mouse it lags. I first thought it was just another RavenShield MP bug, but then I tried the single part and SWAT4 and they had same lag issue. I have no idea what is causing this, because I havent made any technical changes on my machine in some time. So any help would be appreciated.
24 yrs old Male asked about I have Joundice, 1 doctor answered this and 29 people found it useful. Get your query answered 24*7 only on | Practo Consult
Accumulation of visceral adipose tissue correlates with elevated inflammation and increased risk of metabolic diseases. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that control its pathological expansion. Transcription factor interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has been implicated in polarizing macrophages towards an inflammatory phenotype. Here we demonstrate that mice lacking Irf5, when placed on a high-fat diet, show no difference in the growth of their epididymal white adipose tissue (epiWAT) but they show expansion of their subcutaneous white adipose tissue, as compared to wild-type (WT) mice on the same diet. EpiWAT from Irf5-deficient mice is marked by accumulation of alternatively activated macrophages, higher collagen deposition that restricts adipocyte size, and enhanced insulin sensitivity compared to epiWAT from WT mice. In obese individuals, IRF5 expression is negatively associated with insulin sensitivity and collagen deposition in visceral adipose tissue. Genome-wide
TY - JOUR. T1 - Transcriptional Response of White Adipose Tissue to Withdrawal of Vitamin B3. AU - Shi, Wenbiao. AU - Hegeman, Maria A.. AU - Doncheva, Atanaska. AU - van der Stelt, Inge. AU - Bekkenkamp‐Grovenstein, Melissa. AU - van Schothorst, Evert M.. AU - Brenner, Charles. AU - Boer, Vincent C.J.. AU - Keijer, Jaap. PY - 2019/4/16. Y1 - 2019/4/16. N2 - SCOPE: Distinct markers for mild vitamin B3 deficiency are lacking. To identify these, the molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to vitamin B3 withdrawal are examined.METHODS AND RESULTS: A dietary intervention is performed in male C57BL/6JRccHsd mice, in which a diet without nicotinamide riboside (NR) is compared to a diet with NR at the recommended vitamin B3 level. Both diets contain low but adequate level of tryptophan. Metabolic flexibility and systemic glucose tolerance are analyzed and global transcriptomics, qRT-PCR, and histology of epididymal WAT (eWAT) are performed. A decreased insulin sensitivity and a shift from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chronological analysis of caloric restriction-induced alteration of fatty acid biosynthesis in white adipose tissue of rats. AU - Okita, Naoyuki. AU - Tsuchiya, Takuro. AU - Fukushima, Mayumi. AU - Itakura, Kaho. AU - Yuguchi, Keiko. AU - Narita, Takumi. AU - Hashizume, Yukari. AU - Sudo, Yuka. AU - Chiba, Takuya. AU - Shimokawa, Isao. AU - Higami, Yoshikazu. PY - 2015/3/1. Y1 - 2015/3/1. N2 - The beneficial actions of caloric restriction (CR) could be mediated in part by metabolic remodeling of white adipose tissue (WAT). Recently, we suggested that CR for 6. months increased the expressions of proteins involved in de novo fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis in WAT of 9-month-old rats. Herein, we compared the CR-induced chronological alterations of the expression of mRNAs and/or proteins involved in FA biosynthesis in the WAT and liver of rats subjected to CR starting from 3. months of age and their age-matched controls fed ad libitum. The findings suggested that CR was more effective ...
Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermogenesis and whole body metabolism in mammals. Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging has identified depots of BAT in adult humans, igniting scientific interest. The purpose of this study is to characterize both active and inactive supraclavicular BAT in adults and compare the values to those of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 25 healthy adults. Unlike [18F]FDG PET, which can detect only active BAT, MRI is capable of detecting both active and inactive BAT. The MRI-derived fat signal fraction (FSF) of active BAT was significantly lower than that of inactive BAT (means ± SD; 60.2 ± 7.6 vs. 62.4 ± 6.8%, respectively). This change in tissue morphology was also reflected as a significant increase in Hounsfield units (HU; −69.4 ± 11.5 vs. −74.5 ± 9.7 HU, respectively). Additionally, the CT HU, MRI
In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. Here, we show that a 10-day cold acclimation protocol in humans increases BAT activity in parallel with an increase in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). No sex differences in BAT presence and activity were found either before or after cold acclimation. Respiration measurements in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria revealed no significant contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling to the increased NST. Based on cell-specific markers and on uncoupling protein-1 (characteristic of both BAT and beige/brite cells), this study did not show browning of abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue upon cold acclimation. The observed physiological acclimation is in line with the subjective changes in temperature sensation; upon cold acclimation, the subjects ...
Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-|i|α|/i| and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR) not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for
SWAT 3: Close Quarters Battle is a tactical shooter, developed by Sierra Northwest and published by Sierra Entertainment for Microsoft Windows-based PCs. It is the seventh installment of the Police Quest series. As the first first-person shooter of the Police Quest series, SWAT 3 received a new game engine with cell and portal technologies for simulation of environments and advanced AI and ballistics. The developers spent some time consulting with LAPD SWAT, including a real-life SWAT element leader and LAPD SWAT founder Daryl Gates in order to create an accurate, realistic simulation. Most of the animations in the game were motion captured from a real-life SWAT officer. Unlike many other first-person shooter games, SWAT3 places an emphasis on realistic police methods and tactics, including proper room clearance, use of less-lethal weaponry, ordering compliance and arresting enemies rather than shooting on sight, and differentiating between authorized and unauthorized use of lethal force. SWAT 3 ...
In this new paper, we report that CD137, a cell surface protein used in several studies as a marker for beige adipocytes, is detectable at the protein in beige adipocytes in vivo or in vitro, and its expression is not upregulated by adrenergic stimulation or cold exposure, as expected for a beige cell marker. Moreover, CD1377 knock-out mice showed elevated levels of thermogenic markers, including UCP1, increased numbers of beige adipocyte precursors, and expanded UCP1-expressing cell clusters in inguinal WAT after chronic cold exposure. CD137 knock-out mice also showed enhanced cold resistance. These results indicate that CD137 functions as a negative regulator of browning in white adipose tissue, and call into question the use of this protein as a functional marker for beige adipocytes.. The paper has just been published in The Journal of Biological Chemistry.. ...
The manner in which white adipose tissue (WAT) expands and remodels directly impacts the risk of developing metabolic syndrome in obesity. Preferential accumulation of visceral WAT is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, whereas subcutaneous WAT expansion is protective. Moreover, pathologic WAT remodeling, typically characterized by adipocyte hypertrophy, chronic inflammation, and fibrosis, is associated with insulin resistance. Healthy WAT expansion, observed in the metabolically healthy obese, is generally associated with the presence of smaller and more numerous adipocytes, along with lower degrees of inflammation and fibrosis. Here, we highlight recent human and rodent studies that support the notion that the ability to recruit new fat cells through adipogenesis is a critical determinant of healthy adipose tissue distribution and remodeling in obesity. Furthermore, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the identity of tissue-resident progenitor populations in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New members of uncoupling protein family implicated in energy metabolism. AU - Hosoda, Kiminori. AU - Matsuda, Junichi. AU - Itoh, Hiroshi. AU - Cheol, Son. AU - Kentaro, Doi. AU - Tanaka, Tokuji. AU - Fukunaga, Yasutomo. AU - Yamori, Yukio. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. PY - 1999/7/14. Y1 - 1999/7/14. N2 - 1. The regulation of energy metabolism involves food intake and energy expenditure. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are implicated in energy expenditure. 2. cDNA of a homologue of UCP highly expressed in rat skeletal muscle, UCP-3, is isolated and sequenced. Rat UCP-2 cDNA is also isolated and sequenced. 3. Rat UCP-3 cDNA probe hybridized two bands, a major band at 2.5 kb and a minor band at 2.8 kb in rat tissues. The mRNA was expressed at the highest level in the skeletal muscle, and moderately in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT). Only weak signals were detected in the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the heart. Rat UCP-2 cDNA probe hybridized a 1.7 kb band ...
White adipose tissue is mainly located in the hipodermis of the skin, i.e. it is subcutaneous. In humans, there area differences between men and women regarding the subcutaneous areas where white fat is more abundantly stored. In the inner part of the body, white fat is abundant in the mesenteries and intraperitoneal, and it is present, but less abundant, in the bone marrow and around inner organs. Hipodermis is a major storage location of white fat, but it is also an isolating layer that protect from low temperatures. Furthermore, instead of storage, white fat in the palm of feet and hands is intended for protecion against mechanical stress. White adipose tissue is one of the tissues that can increase and decrease its volumen dramatically during the adult period. This is mainly caused by the increase in size of the adipocytes, as well as the recruitment of new adipocytes by proliferation of precursor cells. In athletes, the white fat may be up to 2 to 3 % of the body weight, whereas an obese ...
The graphic to the left is from the web site of the Lima, Ohio, SWAT team. In January 2008, the team stormed the home of Tarika Wilson and Anthony Terry during an ordinary drug investigation. A member of the SWAT team shot and killed Wilson -- an unarmed 26-year old -- also blowing a finger off the one-year old son she was holding. Another member of the SWAT team killed two family dogs on a different floor. The police department removed the graphic from the web site following the incident. Wilsons killer was charged with two misdemeanors, acquitted, and continues to work for the Lima police department, though not for the SWAT team. ...
Females are in general more insulin sensitive than males. To investigate if this is a direct effect of sex-steroids (SS) in white adipose tissue (WAT), we developed a male mouse model over expressing the aromatase enzyme, converting testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2), specifically in WAT (Ap2-arom mice). Adipose tissue E2 levels were increased while circulating SS levels were unaffected in male Ap2-arom mice. Importantly, male Ap2-arom mice were more insulin sensitive compared with WT mice and exhibited increased serum adiponectin levels and upregulated expression of Glut4 and Irs1 in WAT. The expression of markers of macrophages and immune cell infiltration was markedly decreased in WAT of male Ap2-arom mice. The adipogenesis was enhanced in male Ap2-arom mice, supported by elevated Pparg expression in WAT and enhanced differentiation of pre-adipocyte into mature adipocytes. In summary, increased adipose tissue aromatase activity reduces adipose tissue inflammation and improves insulin ...
This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0.. Obesity has become an epidemic in the United States and the western world1. Individuals living with obesity have a higher risk of developing other diseases such high blood pressure, diabetes, heart attack, and even some types of cancers1. Normally, the food that we eat is converted into energy that we use for activities in our daily life. However, with the large portion sizes that are present in our diets today, not all the food we eat is needed for our basic energy needs. Moreover, western diet is usually full of fatty calories that remain unutilized in our body and stored in the form of white fat. Accumulation of this white fat may lead to obesity. In addition, some individuals are genetically more sensitive to weight gain which makes them susceptible to obesity even with normal diet2-6. Insulin is an important hormone in our body that helps us utilize the food that contains glucose, proteins, and fat ...
The nervous system plays a critical role in controlling obesity. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which serves as the principal initiator of lipid mobilization (lipolysis) in white adipose tissue in mammals including, of course, humans, is being studied for its role in obesity reversal. How the sympathetic and sensory nerves find their adipose tissue targets during development and adipose tissue transplants is also being researched. In addition, the role of the sensory innervation of white adipose tissue for control of lipolysis and/or sensation of the degree of adiposity is being studied to understand its role in obesity reversal. Finally, the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activation or inactivation on obesity-related normal and pathological respiratory function also are being examined ...
Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide, and nonsurgical strategies to treat obesity have remained rather inefficient. We here show that acute loss of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in adipocytes results in an increased rate of apoptotic adipocyte death and increased numbers of M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Mice with adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency have reduced adipocyte numbers and are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency. In addition, adipocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice under a high-fat diet showed increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein UCP1. Interestingly, acute induction of adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency in mice already under a high-fat diet was able to stop further weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Thus, loss of TAK1 in adipocytes reduces the total number of adipocytes, increases browning of white adipose tissue, and may be an attractive strategy to treat ...
The conversion of white adipose to the highly thermogenic beige adipose tissue has been proposed as a potential strategy to counter the unfavorable consequences of obesity. Three regulators of this conversion have recently emerged but information regarding their control is limited, and contradictory. We present two studies examining the control of these regulators. Study 1: In 10 young men, the plasma concentrations of irisin and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) were determined prior to and during activation of the sympathetic nervous system via hypoxic gas breathing (FIO2 = 0.11). The ...
In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-κB activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-κB resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2) in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of ...
There is something fishy about the Pakistani militarys reporting of its campaign against the Taliban in Swat, according to the Pakistani press.. Dawn uses the phrase, With scepticism growing about the progress of the month-old army offensive in the north-western region . . . and notes, From the air, there was little evidence of the fierce fighting and air strikes that the military claims have already killed more than 1,000 militants as well as some 60 soldiers.. Mingora, the largest town in Swat and the expected site of a Taliban-military showedown, just seemed like a ghost town to reporters brought up by the military. Also suspicious is the report that Taliban in parts of Lower Dir are offering voluntarily to withdraw, in negotiations with local tribal chieftains.. Pakistani government officials had earlier claimed that military action had cleared most important centers in lower Dir of the Taliban.. Hundreds of thousands of Pakistani civilians have been displaced from Swat by the ...
GLP-1, an important incretin hormone plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. However, the therapeutic use of native GLP-1 is limited due to its short half-life. We recently developed a novel GLP-1 mimetics (supaglutide) by genetically engineering recombinant fusion protein production techniques. We demonstrated that this formulation possessed long-lasting GLP-1 actions and was effective in glycemic control in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes rodent models. Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice. Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months to induce obesity and then subjected to supaglutide treatment (300 μg/kg, bi-weekly for 4 weeks), and placebo as control. Metabolic conditions were monitored and energy expenditure was assessed by indirect calorimetry (CLAMS). Cold tolerance test was performed to evaluate brown-adipose tissue (BAT) activities in response to cold challenge. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance
Comments are welcomed and encouraged. The purpose of comments on our site is to expand knowledge, engage in thoughtful discussion, and learn more from readers. Criticism and skepticism can be far more useful than praise and unflinching belief. Theres an art and science to critical thinking and how to conduct yourself. Theres a multitude of fallacious appeals we could spell out, but a good rule of thumb is not to attack the person, attack the ideas. Dont look for the flaws in the person, look for the flaws in the hypothesis. Lets keep the brawling to movies depicting minor league hockey teams and political news shows. Thank you for adding to the discussion ...
Interesting. Im a fatty. A weight reduced fatty (went from 310 to 250 lbs through a combination of low carb and some resistance training), but still a fatty. I find the best way to shut down non-terminating hunger and increase energy for the rest of the day is to engage in a quick session of intense resistance training. Its like it almost instantaneously changes my phenotype from that of an obese person to one of a lean person. The thought of food is disgusting after intense resistance training. It is only after intense resistance training that I know what it feels like to be a skinny food adverse ectomorph (i.e. a hardgainer). Eventually Glut 4s on the surface of my skeletal muscle tissue downregulate and my phenotype reverts back to that of an obese person. Ive been thinking of engaging in resistance training every single day for this reason. It might not be ideal for recovery, but it might be a great idea if I want to drop the rest of my excess weight, leptin levels be damned ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
This sultry SWAT costume will let you become the sexiest member of the team. Dont be just another sexy police officer this year, be a sexy member of the elite SWAT forces!
Redistribution of white adipose tissue is a long-term symptom of several chronic diseases. Although the roles of adipocytes in acute illness have been thoroughly studied, how or why short-term responses of adipose tissue to disease sometimes produce long-term redistribution, and the causal relationship between the anatomical changes and the associated metabolic syndromes are poorly understood. The present paper reviews explanations for the redistribution of adipose tissue after infection with HIV, and in Crohns disease; both conditions that share the peculiarity of selective expansion of certain adipose depots while others are depleted. HIV adipose tissue redistribution syndrome (HARS) develops gradually after several months of infection with the HIV both in untreated patients and in those taking protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Some current theories about the causes of HARS are critically assessed, and reasons presented for implicating local interactions ...
In addition to energy storage and insulation, the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of a high number of adipocyte-originated signaling molecules. These...
Irisin, a myokine derived from the extracellular domain of FNDC5, has been shown to mediate thermogenesis of white adipose tissue. Biochemical data have shown that N-glycosylation of FNDC5 is unlikely to affect ligand or receptor activation of irisin. The N-glycosylation of FNDC5 remains poorly understood. In the present study, we analysed N-glycosylation sites of FNDC5 and found that two potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn36 and Asn81) could indeed be occupied by N-glycan. Furthermore we showed that the lack of N-glycosylation decreases the secretion of irisin, which is relevant to the instability of FNDC5 and the deficiency of cleavage of the signal peptide. We also found that the expression level of N-glycosylated FNDC5 was elevated after myoblast differentiation. These findings show that the secretion of irisin is modulated by N-glycosylation, which in turn enhances our understanding of the secretion of glycosylated irisin. ...
Despite the importance of the IL-33-ST2 pathway in regulating immune cell homeostasis in WAT, the sources of IL-33 have remained elusive. In this report, we identify WAT-resident mesenchyme-derived stromal cells as the dominant producers of IL-33. ASPCs produced IL-33 in WAT of visceral and subcutaneous origin, which, in turn, promoted the production of type 2 cytokines by ILC2s that are known to maintain an anti-inflammatory immune tone. Consistent with this, the loss of IL-33 expression enabled rapid growth of visceral WAT mass and an increase in body weight via elevated ASPC proliferation. Furthermore, IL-33 signaling in WAT suppressed the recruitment of proinflammatory immune cells after HFD feeding. We also identify that mesothelial cells that line internal organs, including WAT depots in visceral body cavities, highly expressed nuclear IL-33 that acted as an alarmin by inducing a peritoneal immune response upon infection.. IL-33 is constitutively expressed in a broad range of cell types in ...
During the incident a woman sent text messages to the police saying she, a man and a baby were hiding in a closet and the suspect had told them he would not let them leave. SWAT officer were called to the scene.. ...
The SWAT Portal is the best source for Scifi Games on the net. We support games like Starlancer, Freelancer, Freespace, Wing Commander, Star Trek Online, EVE Online, Darkstar One, Privateer, Tarr Chronicles, Spaceforce, StarCitizen, Elite: Dangerous and the games of the X Universe.
BOUNTIFUL, Utah - Bountiful Police officers and SWAT team members responded to arrest an uncooperative parole fugitive Tuesday afternoon. The activity occurred in the area of 300 W 200 N around 3 p.m. A Bountiful PD spokesman told FOX 13 the parole fugitive was believed to be armed. The individual s
The fragile truce between the Pakistani Taliban and local authorities in Swat valley came to the brink of collapse today as militants ambushed a group of soldiers killing two of them, prompting retaliation from the security forces.
Swat Fly Repellent Ointment helps repel flies, mosquitoes and gnats while protecting sensitive areas as well as wounds, sores, scratches and abrasions. 7 oz - Clear.
Griefing over Xbox Live has taken on new, dangerous proportions. One particularly bitter opponent called the Long Island SWAT team on his opponent after losing a game of Call of Duty. Read more at Yahoo! Games
Expression of JAG2 in mice HMDP. (A) Correlation between JAG2 expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and body fat mass (%) in HMDP of 86 mice fed a chow diet.
Putting this link here for future reference. Its a full text article on this hormone produced by white adipose tissue that is associated with insulin resistance ...
Can cold showers, winter plunges, and brisk walks in the chilly outdoors provide some of the same benefits as intense exercise-including weight loss and increased energy levels? Such a link has been suspected, because cold exposure is known to convert metabolically docile white adipose tissue
Farnam Vetrolin White n Brite shampoo is very suitable for horses with a light coat, but brings out the best in every coat colour!
The implantation of the Yoshida AH- 130 ascites hepatoma (a fast growing tumour) to rats resulted in a drarnatic loss of both white adipose tissue and muscle (skeletal and cardiac) mass. Administration of &adrenergic ...
Z7_3054ICK0KGTE30AQO5O3KA30R1 hp-pdp-secondary-navigation-portlet Actions ${title} Loading... Expert: Richard replied4 years ago. Adalsteinn Bjarnthorsson 20.919 weergaven 3:11 solucionar error en impresora hp f4280 - Duur: 7:41. Hp Deskjet F4480 Orange Light Blinking I changed the ink cartriges but the same! Solved! Sluiten Meer informatie View this message in English Je gebruikt YouTube in het Nederlands. if so black cartridge was faulty. More about the author More Support Options Related Videos - of Video Tutorials , Show all Show less HP Download and Install Assistant HP Download and Install Assistant makes it easy to download and install Your answer needs to include more details to help people. Replace black cartridge with a new one. Price (1) Wet carbohydrates (1) Wheat (9) Whey (2) White adipose tissue. (1) Whole grains (4) Whole-foods (1) Wholegrains (1) Wikipedia (2) Windows Media Player (1) WinPatrol (1) Worms (1) Worry Hall (1) Kitavan (2) kJ (2) Klebsiella (1) Kleibers Law (1) ...
KEGG Orthology (KO) [BR:hsa00001] 09150 Organismal Systems 09151 Immune system 04662 B cell receptor signaling pathway [PATH:hsa04662] 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen 09180 Brite Hierarchies 09183 Protein families: signaling and cellular processes 04090 CD molecules [BR:hsa04090] 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen CD molecules [BR:hsa04090] Proteins 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen ...
The JAM Paper #12 (4.75 x 11) brite hue recycled envelope is a perfect option to consider for those who are eco-conscious as well as style-savvy. Use this minimalistic envelope to send event invites, personal or official letters, invoices, promotional material and much more. Keep the documents and other things secure within the envelope with the assistance of the gum closure. The conventional v-flap flap makes it apt to be used in offices or institutions. It comes in the charming orange color. Sturdy enough to last considerably long, it is made of recycled paper. 500 units are included in this pack.
I must say, as a lot as I enjoyed reading what you had to say, I couldnt help but lose interest after a while. Its as if you had a wonderful grasp on the subject matter, but you forgot to include your readers. Perhaps you should think about this from far more than one angle. Or maybe you shouldnt generalise so considerably. Its better if you think about what others may have to say instead of just going for a gut reaction to the subject. Think about adjusting your own believed process and giving others who may read this the benefit of the doubt. singapore identity access management ...
How to Shoot a Rifle Quick tract on how to shoot a rifle, laid out to be published as a credit card size tract you can print out and plant anywhere and everywhere. INSTRUCTIONS: Print onto two, two sided pages if you cant have that option with your printer, you will have to feed and switch sides yourself. Cut horizontally along the dividing lines, top and bottom of the panels and along the outside edge. BE CERTAIN NOT TO LOSE TRACK OF YOUR SECTIONS OR HOW THEYRE ORIENTED!!!! You need to cut so that pages one and three are facing up. When you have your horizontal sections-you should have eight-you then start stacking them, top section, first page over next section down first page, then those two sections placed over the third section down, then the three stacked sections over the bottom section, first page. Then, your stacked sections go atop the top section, second page, then that stack goes over the next section down of the second page, then the stack goes over the third section down of the ...
Different angle of view on the Dionysus, in background is huge gas giant with movable asteroid ring. Here is however little weird logic used, because if you reach this asteroid field, its static (means it looks rotating only from distance). But nonetheles its still a great view a nice place worth to be visit more as once.
K00816 CCBL; kynurenine---oxoglutarate transaminase / cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase / glutamine---phenylpyruvate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.7 4.4.1.13 2.6.1.64 ...
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... Biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". BioFactors. 37 (6): 413-20. ... both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the ... "Leptin produced by joint white adipose tissue induces cartilage degradation via upregulation and activation of matrix ...
BioFactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". BioFactors. 37 (6): 413-420 ... secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines ...
... inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue". Br. J. Nutr. 92 (3): 347-55. doi:10.1079/BJN20041213. PMID ... the haptoglobin gene is expressed in murine and human adipose tissue. Haptoglobin had been shown to be expressed in adipose ... Haptoglobin is produced mostly by hepatic cells but also by other tissues such as skin, lung and kidney. In addition, ... The free heme can then accelerate tissue damage by promoting peroxidative reactions and activation of inflammatory cascades. ...
The white round structures are fat cells. Adipose tissue comprises 25-40% of normal parathyroid gland tissue. High ... Occasionally, an individual's tissues are resistant to the effects of parathyroid hormone. This is known as ... If this situation exists for a prolonged period of time of 2ry hyperparathyrodism, the parathyroid tissue may become ... changes because of the migration of embryological tissues. Hyperparathyroidism and hypoparathyroidism, characterized by ...
It consists of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and ... The skin colour of people with light skin is determined mainly by the bluish-white connective tissue under the dermis and by ... The subcutaneous tissue (also hypodermis and subcutis) is not part of the skin, but lies below the dermis of the cutis. Its ... The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and ...
"Leptin-specific patterns of gene expression in white adipose tissue". Genes & Development. 14 (8): 963-980. ISSN 0890-9369. PMC ... Both processes take place mainly in liver and adipose tissue. Nevertheless, it also occurs to some extent in other tissues such ... Both the adipose tissue and the liver can synthesize triglycerides. Those produced by the liver are secreted from it in the ... The major sites of fatty acid synthesis are adipose tissue and the liver. Triglycerides are synthesized by esterification of ...
Loss of white adipose tissue reduces levels of inflammation markers. The association of systemic inflammation with insulin ... Kershaw, E. E.; Flier, J. S. (2004). "Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 89 (6): 2548-56. doi: ... 2001). "beta-Adrenergic regulation of IL-6 release from adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies". J Clin Endocrinol Metab ... 2000). "Elevated levels of interleukin 6 are reduced in serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women after weight loss ...
"Predominant expression of the mitochondrial dicarboxylate carrier in white adipose tissue". The Biochemical Journal. 344 (2): ... Dicarboxylate carriers are highly abundant in the adipose tissue and play a central role in supplying cytosolic malate for the ...
It functions in the differentiation between white and brown adipose tissue. It can also be a repressor of transforming growth ...
"Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423". Molecular Metabolism. 6 (1): 111-124. doi: ...
BMPs are also involved in adipogenesis and functional regulation of adipose tissue. BMP4 favors white adipogenesis, whereas ... Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in adipose tissue". Obesity Reviews. 20 (5): 648-658. doi:10.1111/obr.12822. ISSN 1467- ... There are reports of this therapy causing swelling of soft tissue which in turn can cause life-threatening complications due to ... Bessa PC, Casal M, Reis RL (Jan 2008). "Bone morphogenetic proteins in tissue engineering: the road from the laboratory to the ...
The increase in fatty tissue infiltration occurred regardless of changes in weight or subcutaneous thigh adipose tissue. The ... Rantanen T, Guralnik JM, Foley D, Masaki K, Leveille S, Curb JD, White L (February 1999). "Midlife hand grip strength as a ... December 2009). "Longitudinal study of muscle strength, quality, and adipose tissue infiltration". The American Journal of ... and inter muscular fat showed an increase in adipose tissue infiltration of mid thigh skeletal muscle in both men and women ...
... lacking ANGPTL8 exhibit markedly decreased uptake of Very low-density lipoprotein-derived fatty acids into white adipose tissue ... In mice ANGPTL8 is secreted by the liver and by adipose tissue. Despite having elevated post-heparin plasma LPL activity, mice ... because of the elevated LPL activity in these two tissues, as suggested by the ANGPTL3-4-8 model. ANGPTL8 was proposed to ...
Hutchinson defended adipose tissue against the viewpoint that it was a health risk. He commented that adipose "is really a most ... 2008). White bread bio-politics: Purity, health, and the triumph of industrial baking. Cultural Geographies 15 (1): 19-40. ... New York: James T. White Company. pp. 376-377. Warren, Wilson J. (2018). Meat Makes People Powerful: A Global History of the ... Hutchinson promoted the consumption of red meat and white bread and was strongly opposed to the ideas of vegetarianism. ...
"C/EBPalpha is required for differentiation of white, but not brown, adipose tissue". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... show abnormal adipose tissue formation. Moreover, ectopic expression of C/EBPα in various fibroblast cell lines promotes ... Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Sep 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... For example, mice lacking C/EBPα in all tissues except the liver (where it is needed to avoid postnatal lethality) ...
doi:10.1007/s10682-007-9186-4. Fietz, J.; Tataruch, F.; Dausmann, K.; Ganzhorn, J. (February 2003). "White adipose tissue ... a relatively short white median facial stripe, and black eye-rings. However, in 2009, Groeneveld et al. demonstrated ...
"The thermogenic activity of rat brown adipose tissue and rabbit white muscle Ca2+-ATPase". IUBMB Life. 57 (4-5): 337-45. doi: ... In addition to its calcium-transporting functions, SERCA1 generates heat in brown adipose tissue and in skeletal muscles. Along ...
ColVI also plays a key role in the extracellular matrix of white adipose tissue. Lack of ColVI in the extracellular matrix of ... Endotrophin, a peptide generated by ColVI in white adipose tissue, has been shown to promote the growth of breast cancer cells ... myocardium and adipose tissue. Collagen VI plays many different roles in the cell depending on which tissue in which it is ... white adipose tissue leads to molecular characteristic notably seen in obese individuals. ...
Deletion of Alzheimer's Disease Risk Gene ABCA7 Alters White Adipose Tissue Development and Leptin Levels. J Alzheimers Dis Rep ... "Deletion of Alzheimer's Disease Risk Gene ABCA7 Alters White Adipose Tissue Development and Leptin Levels". Journal of ... Lack of ABCA7 gene exhibits phenotypes in mice, such as moderate decrease in plasma HDL and adipose tissues only in female, ... This full transporter has been detected predominantly in myelo-lymphatic tissues with the highest expression in peripheral ...
Induction of ANGPTL4 accounts for the inhibition of LPL activity in white adipose tissue during fasting. Growing evidence ... This helps to explain why during fasting, LPL activity increases in muscle tissue and decreases in adipose tissue, whereas ... thereby making circulating triglycerides available for uptake by white adipose tissue, in which LPL activity is elevated owing ... A high adipose tissue LPL response to a high-carbohydrate diet may predispose toward fat gain. One study reported that subjects ...
The administration of leptin to rats induced a decrease in CerS2 was observed in white adipose tissue. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... CerS2 levels are significantly elevated in breast cancer tissue compared to normal tissue, along with increased levels of ... CerS2 mRNA (TRH3) has been found in most tissues and it is strongly expressed in liver, intestine and brain. CerS2 is much more ... In the mouse brain, CerS2 is mainly expressed white matter tracts, specifically in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. ...
... the fat-storing cells in adipose tissue. In fact, PLIN1 is greatly expressed in white adipocytes. It controls adipocyte lipid ... May 2004). "Adipose tissue expression of the lipid droplet-associating proteins S3-12 and perilipin is controlled by peroxisome ... Phosphorylation of perilipin is essential for the mobilization of fats in adipose tissue. Perilipin is part of a gene family ... Kern PA, Di Gregorio G, Lu T, Rassouli N, Ranganathan G (March 2004). "Perilipin expression in human adipose tissue is elevated ...
... is readily distributed to all tissues in the body apart from bone matrix and white adipose tissue. Notably, the ... The manufacturer advises against the use of linezolid for community-acquired pneumonia or uncomplicated skin and soft tissue ... Grammatikos A, Falagas ME (2008). "Linezolid for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infection". Expert Review of Dermatology ... and beta-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) caused by Gram-positive bacteria, and ...
Mice lacking GPR3 were found to develop late-onset obesity owing to decreased UCP-1 expression in brown adipose tissue and ... Godlewski, Grzegorz; Jourdan, Tony; Szanda, Gergő; Tam, Joseph; Cinar, Resat; Harvey-White, Judith; Liu, Jie; Mukhopadhyay, ... "Mice lacking GPR3 receptors display late-onset obese phenotype due to impaired thermogenic function in brown adipose tissue". ... where it maintains meiotic arrest and is thought to be a communication link between oocytes and the surrounding somatic tissue ...
Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and perirenal ... And it is waistline adipose tissue (central obesity) which seems to be the foremost type of fat deposits contributing to rising ... Misra A, Wasir JS, Vikram NK, Pandey RM, Kumar P (June 2010). "Cutoffs of abdominal adipose tissue compartments as measured by ... Techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging made it possible to categorize mass of adipose tissue ...
BMP4 also plays important roles in adipose tissue: it is essential for white adipogenesis, and promotes adipocyte ... Blázquez-Medela AM, Jumabay M, Boström KI (May 2019). "Beyond the bone: Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in adipose tissue ... BMP4 antagonizes organizer tissue and is expressed in early development in ectoderm and mesoderm tissue. Upon gastrulation, the ... Tissue Int. 63 (3): 221-9. doi:10.1007/s002239900518. PMID 9701626. S2CID 8339465. Tucker AS, Matthews KL, Sharpe PT (1998). " ...
The data indicates an example of cross talk between white adipose tissue and pancreatic β cells mediated through modulation of ... The enhancement of insulin secretion resulted from down-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in white adipose tissue ... KLF15 in adipose tissue is down-regulated in obese mice. aP2-KLF15 Tg mice which overexpress KLF15 manifest insulin resistance ... In silico and RT-PCR analyses showed that the KLF15 gene promoter undergoes alternative splicing in a tissue-specific manner ...
It is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. ... PLIN4 is a member of the perilipin family, a group of proteins that coat lipid droplets in adipocytes, the adipose tissue cells ... Calcified Tissue International. 90 (2): 96-107. doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9552-7. PMC 3628693. PMID 22210160. Peters SJ, Samjoo IA ... Calcified Tissue International. 90 (2): 96-107. doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9552-7. PMC 3628693. PMID 22210160. Brasaemle DL ( ...
The tail is thickened by the adipose tissue beneath the skin and has a flattened, terminal, black bushy section. It can be ... A white band stretches across the hips and the underparts are white. The central toe on the hind foot is the longest and the ... The crown of the head is grey with white spots above the eye and another behind the ear. The rest of the coat is buffish grey. ...
Badoud, F; Perreault, M; Zulyniak, MA; Mutch, DM (19 November 2014). "Molecular insights into the role of white adipose tissue ... people with MHO relative to metabolically unhealthy obese people has been attributed to differences in white adipose tissue ... MHO individuals display less visceral adipose tissue, smaller adipocytes, and a reduced inflammatory profile relative to ...
... and are as diverse as brown and white adipose tissue, blood, cartilage and bone.[15]:158 Cells of the immune system, such as ... Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.[8] Other kinds ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ... Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose tissue and blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical cushioning" to the body, among ...
In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ... White, Ellen G (1938). Counsels on Diet and Foods (PDF). ePub.. *^ a b Bloomer, Richard J; Mohammad M Kabir; Robert E Canale; ...
Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. 2006: 222. ISBN 1-58829- ... Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. The New England Journal of Medicine. 2010, 363 (23): 2211-9. PMC ... Prospective study of intentional weight loss and mortality in never-smoking overweight US white women aged 40-64 years. Am. J. ...
Adipose tissue possesses aromatase(英语:aromatase), an enzyme that converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to ... Laparoscopic examination may reveal a thickened, smooth, pearl-white outer surface of the ovary. (This would usually be an ... The excess of adipose tissue in obese women creates the paradox of having both excess androgens (which are responsible for ...
Kahn PC, Gochfeld M, Nyugen M, Hansson M, Rappe C, Velez H. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in blood and adipose tissue of Agent ... Off-white to yellow crystalline solid Odor odorless Density 1.80 g/cm3, 20 °C ... Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues. Am J Public Health. 1995;85:516- ...
মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium). *বহিঃক্ষরা গ্রন্থি (Exocrine gland) * ... শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil). *ক্ষারাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা ...
Adipose *Brown. *White. Dense. *Dense irregular connective tissue *Submucosa. *Dermis. *Dense regular connective tissue * ...
adipose tissue. A type of loose connective tissue made of mostly adipocytes and found in human and animal tissue, where it is ... white blood cell. See leukocyte.. whole genome sequencing. The process of determining the complete DNA sequence of a particular ... tissue. trait. transcription. The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the ... Rather, semi-solid mesodermal tissues between the gut and body wall hold the animal's organs in place. Contrast coelomate and ...
adipose tissue development. • cellular response to lipopolysaccharide. • cellular response to interleukin-4. • cellular ... Mitchell EL, White GR, Santibanez-Koref MF, et al. (1995). "Mapping of gene loci in the Q13-Q15 region of chromosome 12". ...
He is also credited with being the first person to describe brown adipose tissue, in 1551,[14] in 1565 the first to document ... Gilbert White (The Natural History of Selborne). *Thomas Bewick (A History of British Birds) ...
Patterson BE, Bates CJ (May 1989). "Riboflavin deficiency, metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue function in sucking and ... In 1923[chronology citation needed], Paul Gyorgy in Heidelberg was investigating egg-white injury in rats; the curative factor ... This observation enabled them to develop a rapid chemical and bioassay to isolate the factor from egg white in 1933[chronology ... The milling of cereals results in considerable loss (up to 60%) of vitamin B2, so white flour is enriched in some countries ...
Mazzone, Theodore; Fantuzzi, Giamila (2006). Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa ... Berrington de Gonzalez A (december 2010). "Body-Mass Index and Mortality among 1.46 Million White Adults". N. Engl. J. Med. Vol ...
This can be contrasted with the density of adipose tissue (fat), which is 0.9196 kg/liter.[9] This makes muscle tissue ... Type IIb is anaerobic, glycolytic, "white" muscle that is least dense in mitochondria and myoglobin. In small animals (e.g., ... Muscle tissue is a soft tissue, and is one of the four fundamental types of tissue present in animals. There are three types of ... This is larger than adipose tissue (fat) at 18.8 kJ/kg (4.5 kcal/kg), and bone at 9.6 kJ/kg (2.3 kcal/kg).[15] ...
... particles which are taken up by adipose tissue, there to be stored as fats. The fat cells take up glucose through special ... White, Douglas. "Advanced automation technology reduces refinery energy costs". Oil and Gas Journal. Retrieved 13 July 2018.. ... Biosphere , Ecosystem , Community (Biocoenosis) , Population , Organism , Organ system , Organ , Tissue , Cell , Organelle , ... act on effector tissues, chief of which are the liver, fat cells and muscle cells. The liver is inhibited from producing ...
... and increased lipolysis by adipose tissue. Together, these effects lead to increased blood glucose and fatty acids, providing ... White RD, Hess EP, Tang W, Davis D, Sinz E, Morrison LJ (November 2010). "Part 8: adult advanced cardiovascular life support: ... As a hormone, epinephrine acts on nearly all body tissues. Its actions vary by tissue type and tissue expression of adrenergic ...
Adipose fin Adipose fin of a trout. The adipose fin is a soft, fleshy fin found on the back behind the dorsal fin and just ... The dorsal fin of a white shark contain dermal fibers that work "like riggings that stabilize a ship's mast", and stiffen ... "A Swimming Robot Actuated by Living Muscle Tissue". Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 1 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/1743 ... One is the salmoniform-type way, where the adipose fin develops from the larval-fin fold at the same time and in the same ...
The dorsal fin of a white shark contain dermal fibers that work "like riggings that stabilize a ship's mast", and stiffen ... 1) pectoral fins (paired), (2) pelvic fins (paired), (3) dorsal fin, (4) adipose fin, (5) anal fin, (6) caudal (tail) fin. ... "A Swimming Robot Actuated by Living Muscle Tissue". Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation. 1 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/1743 ... Lingham; Soliar, T (2005). "Dorsal fin in the white shark, Carcharodon carcharias: A dynamic stabilizer for fast swimming". ...
Concentrations in fat seem to be relatively similar, be it serum fat, adipose tissue fat, or milk fat. This permits measuring ... the white-tailed eagle is recovering (see White-tailed eagle). Also, ringed seals in the Baltic Sea are recovering. ... adipose tissue will predominate. In rat liver, however, high doses cause induction of CYP1A2 enzyme, and this binds dioxins. ... Measured as TEQs, the dominant congeners in human tissues are 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDD, 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD and 2,3,4,7,8- ...
Continual daily doses of diazepam quickly build to a high concentration in the body (mainly in adipose tissue), far in excess ... Diazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine.[3] Diazepam occurs as solid white or yellow crystals with a melting point of 131.5 to 134.5 ° ... After absorption, diazepam is redistributed into muscle and adipose tissue. ...
Some explanatory hypotheses for the rising prevalence of eating disorders in adolescence are "increase of adipose tissue in ... Complete Blood Count (CBC): a test of the white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets used to assess the presence of ... brain and adipose tissue, such as ghrelin, leptin, neuropeptide Y and orexin, may contribute to the pathogenesis of anorexia ... due to factors such as long-term reduced estrogen-producing adipose tissue levels compared to premorbid levels.[medical ...
It has been shown that there are significant correlations between the expression of miR-181a and both adipose tissue morphology ... white-lipped tamarin (Saguinus labiatus), zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), tetraodon(Tetraodon nigroviridis), the western ... The expression of miR-181a may contribute to intrinsic differences between omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue. miR-181a is ... "MicroRNA expression in human omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue". PLoS One. 4 (3): e4699. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0004699 ...
Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 222. ISBN 1-58829-721- ... Body-Mass Index and Mortality among 1.46 Million White Adults". N. Engl. J. Med. 363 (23): 2211-9. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1000367. ...
... a novel use for adipose tissue". Tissue Eng. 9 (4): 733-44. doi:10.1089/107632703768247412. PMID 13678450.. ... White, YAR; Woods DC; Takai Y; Ishihara O; Seki H; Tilly JL. (2012). "Oocyte formation by mitotically active germ cells ... In the case of wounded fetal tissue, however, wounded tissue is replaced with normal tissue through the activity of stem cells. ... Although adipose-derived tissue also requires processing prior to use, the culturing methodology for adipose-derived stem cells ...
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose tissue important ... Vernon RG, Flint DJ (2003). "Adipose Tissue / Structure and Function of White Adipose Tissue". Encyclopedia of Food Sciences ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ...
মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium). *বহিঃক্ষরা গ্রন্থি (Exocrine gland) * ... শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil). *ক্ষারাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা ... "The development of the human spleen"। Cell and Tissue Research (ইংরেজি ভাষায়)। 242 (3): 579-592। আইএসএসএন 0302-766X। ডিওআই: ...
From cytokines and microRNA to aging and adipose tissue, European Journal of Immunology, 42. väljaanne, nr 5, lk 1075, lk 1073- ... Chuang SS, Helvig C, Taimi M, Ramshaw HA, Collop AH, Amad M, White JA, Petkovich M, Jones G, Korczak B., CYP2U1, a novel human ... Mi-Yeon Kim, Roles of Embryonic and Adult Lymphoid Tissue Inducer Cells in Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Tissues, Yonsei Med J ... Lühikokkuvõte., Cell Tissue Res. 1981;217(1):49-54. 1981. *Minoru Amano ja Kiyohiro Hamatani, The Short-Lived Lymphocyte in the ...
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white ... however both brown and white fat cells are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly ... Marrow adipose tissue expands in states of low bone density but additionally expands in the setting of obesity.[3] Marrow ... Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing ...
... shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues". Biochemical and biophysical research communications ...
... proton gradient generated by electron transport in mitochondria is used to produce heat instead of ATP in brown adipose tissue ... Dormancy of various kinds is expressed in white spruce (Romberger 1963). White spruce, like many woody plants in temperate and ... Dormancy is a general term applicable to any instance in which a tissue predisposed to elongate or grow in some other manner ... 11 p. Logan, K.T. (1977). "Photoperiodic induction of free growth in juvenile white spruce and black spruce". Can. Dep. Fish ...
In humans, white adipose tissue starts to develop during early to mid-gestation period. White adipose tissue consists of white ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. The other kind is brown ... The visceral adipose tissue is part of the intra-abdominal adipose tissue that surrounds the intestine for the most part. White ... subcutaneous adipose tissue and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is located directly underneath the ...
Forkhead Transcription Factor FoxO1 in Adipose Tissue Regulates Energy Storage and Expenditure Jun Nakae, Yongheng Cao, Miyo ...
Berberine activates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue.. Zhang Z1, Zhang H1, Li B1, Meng X2, Wang J1, Zhang Y1, ... Promoting brown adipose tissue formation and function increases energy expenditure and hence may counteract obesity. Berberine ... improves cold tolerance and enhances brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in obese db/db mice. BBR markedly induces the ... BBR also increases expression of UCP1 and other thermogenic genes in white and BAT and primary adipocytes via a mechanism ...
It is therefore not surprising that white adipose tissue function can be perturbed by altering mitochondrial components or ... Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue.. Boudina S1, Graham TE2. ... Adipocytes, White/pathology. *Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism*. *Adipose Tissue, White/pathology. *Adipose Tissue, White/ ... The role of mitochondria in white adipocytes has long been neglected due in part to their lower abundance in these cells. ...
Leptin administration to lean and ob/ob mice activates a novel metabolic program that depletes adipose tissue. Although this re ... Leptin-specific patterns of gene expression in white adipose tissue Genes Dev. 2000 Apr 15;14(8):963-80. ... that leptin decreases the levels of SREBP-1/ADD1 RNA and transcriptionally active SREBP-1/ADD1 protein in white adipose tissue ... of leptin revealed that differences in ambient leptin levels have dramatic effects on the phenotype of white adipose tissue. ...
The Mammalian Phenotype (MP) Ontology is a community effort to provide standard terms for annotating phenotypic data. You can use this browser to view terms, definitions, and term relationships in a hierarchical display. Links to summary annotated phenotype data at MGI are provided in Term Detail reports.
Circadian regulation of lipid mobilization in white adipose tissues Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ...
... concomitant decreases in inflammation, hepatic steatosis, ... Although fish oil has hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic properties, the potential for white adipose tissue (WAT) to mediate ... Fish oil increases cholesterol storage in white adipose tissue with concomitant decreases in inflammation, hepatic steatosis, ... Fish oil increases cholesterol storage in white adipose tissue with concomitant decreases in inflammation, hepatic steatosis, ...
Colon carcinogenesis decreased adipose mass in subcutaneous, epididymal, and retroperitoneal tissues, while also reducing serum ... leading to loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) and alterations in adipokine secretion. Lower incidence of colorectal cancer is ... This inflammation of adipose tissue is common in cachexia syndrome, resulting in a deep reduction of adipose tissue mass in ... Tributyrin in Inflammation: Does White Adipose Tissue Affect Colorectal Cancer?. Luana Amorim Biondo 1,*. , Alexandre Abilio S ...
Angiotensin type 2 receptor activation promotes browning of white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis. *Aung Than1. *, ... The excess white adipose tissue (WAT) that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for the development of many diseases, ... Burn induces browning of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue in mice and humans. . Cell Rep 2015; 13: 1538-1544. ... AT2R activation increases UCP1 and CITED1 expressions in white adipocytes. (a and b) Mouse white adipose cells (day 4) were ...
White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a major tissue for energy storage, but also an endocrine tissue that secretes various ... white adipose tissue; SREBP-1c; fatty acid synthesis; PGC-1α; mitochondrion caloric restriction; white adipose tissue; SREBP-1c ... White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a major tissue for energy storage, but also an endocrine tissue that secretes various ... SREBP-1c-Dependent Metabolic Remodeling of White Adipose Tissue by Caloric Restriction by Masaki Kobayashi 1,2. , Namiki Fujii ...
White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved ... Adipokines secreted by white adipose tissue. White adipose tissue (WAT) secretes various humoral factors called adipokines. ... White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved ... BMI and visceral adipose tissue area (cm2): decrease; subcutaneous adipose tissue (cm2): NS. ...
Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown ... Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown ... to support the concept of an alteration in energy balance through acquisition of brown fat features in traditional white fat ... role played by the TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in traditional white fat, ...
Background The degree of adipose tissue development at birth may influence neonatal survival and subsequent health outcomes. ... Lipid content in adipose tissue. Triglycerides content in subcutaneous fetal adipose tissue was determined using the method ... Fetal development of adipose tissue could also be important in predetermining postnatal growth of adipose tissue and ... Any residual skin fragments were carefully trimmed off the adipose tissue samples, and the adipose tissue was cut into small ...
Gender-specific response to interstitial angiotensin II in human white adipose tissue View in MDC Repository ... Adipose tissue was perfused with 0.01, 0.1, and 1 micro M angiotensin II. Dialysate concentrations of ethanol, glycerol, ... In men, interstitial Ang II has only a minimal effect on adipose tissue blood flow and metabolism. In women, however, a high ... We characterized the effect of interstially applied angiotensin II in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of young, normal- ...
... the present findings suggest that acute exercise elicits regulation of several brown adipose tissue genes in mouse WAT. ...
Abstract 447: ZAG promotes cachexia-associated white adipose tissue browning and energy wastage. Sawsan Elattar and ... Energy wasting in cachexia is caused by excessive lipid and protein turnover in the body, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT ... ZAG promotes cachexia-associated white adipose tissue browning and energy wastage [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American ... Abstract 447: ZAG promotes cachexia-associated white adipose tissue browning and energy wastage ...
Adipose tissue comprises various depots including white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thoracic and ... in which atherosclerosis is promoted by energy-storing adipose depots and attenuated by energy-combusting adipose tissue. In ... Here, we review the distinct roles of the adipose tissue depots in the development of atherosclerosis with the ultimate aim to ... However, the mechanistic link between accumulation of adipose tissue and development of atherosclerosis is not clear. ...
D. Gallagher, P. Kuznia, S. Heshka et al., "Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue ... Whole-Body MRI and Ethnic Differences in Adipose Tissue and Skeletal Muscle Distribution in Overweight Black and White ... "Visceral adipose tissue and markers of the insulin resistance syndrome in obese black and white teenagers," Obesity Research, ... "Comparison of visceral adipose tissue mass in adult African-Americans and whites," Obesity Research, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 66-74 ...
However, the mechanisms underlying leptin effects on lipid metabolism in liver and white adipose tissue have not been fully ... Leptin reduces adiposity and exerts antisteatotic effects on nonadipose tissues. ... Tissue-specific effects of central leptin on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in liver and white adipose ... However, the mechanisms underlying leptin effects on lipid metabolism in liver and white adipose tissue have not been fully ...
White adipose tissue (WAT) expansion during e.g. obesity reduces oxygen availability in WAT in mice. Little is known on the ... Metabolic adaptation of white adipose tissue to acute, short-term environmental oxygen restriction in mice [Mus musculus]. ...
List the challenges of culturing adipose tissue.. *Describe sandwiched white adipose tissue as a microphysiologic model of ... A Novel Microphysiologic Platform for Studying Human Obesity: Sandwiched White Adipose Tissue. Dr. Frank Lau. Assistant ... The Damage Control Continuum and Mucosal Candidiasis: Its All About the Tissue - March 14, 2018 ...
"Adipose Tissue, White" by people in this website by year, and whether "Adipose Tissue, White" was a major or minor topic of ... "Adipose Tissue, White" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Adipose Tissue, White" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Adipose Tissue, White". ...
... induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We ... In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue ( ... 22127958 - Characterization of the regional distribution of skeletal muscle adipose tissue in type.... 2355798 - Effects of ...
... adipose tissue, have not been studied, although adipose tissue is an important endocrine tissue secreting obesity/diabetes- ... Expression and Induction of Cytochromes P450 in Rat White Adipose Tissue. Kouichi Yoshinari, Takeshi Sato, Nao Okino, Junko ... Expression and Induction of Cytochromes P450 in Rat White Adipose Tissue. Kouichi Yoshinari, Takeshi Sato, Nao Okino, Junko ... Expression and Induction of Cytochromes P450 in Rat White Adipose Tissue. Kouichi Yoshinari, Takeshi Sato, Nao Okino, Junko ...
... um método de isolamento e transplante de isto de murina no tecido adiposo branco subcutâneo inguinal é descrito.... ... Inguinal Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue (ISWAT) Transplantation Model of Murine Islets. J. Vis. Exp. (156), e60679, doi: ... CD31+ Endothelial Cells from Human Omental and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue… ... Modelo de transplante de tecido adiposo branco subcutâneo inguinal (ISWAT) de Isletas murina. Yuanzheng Peng*1, Zhicheng Zou*1 ...
Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues ... Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues ... effect on established obesity through reducing energy intake and is associated with brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. ... Cold tolerance test was performed to evaluate brown-adipose tissue (BAT) activities in response to cold challenge. Glucose ...
Chronic l-menthol-induced browning of white adipose tissue hypothesis: A putative therapeutic regime for combating obesity and ... Adipose Tissue, BrownAdipose Tissue, WhiteAnimalsBody WeightComorbidityDietEnergy MetabolismHumansMentholModels, Theoretical ... Loss of ADAMTS5 enhances brown adipose tissue mass and promotes browning of white adipose tissue via CREB signaling. ... Physiological regulation and metabolic role of browning in white adipose tissue.. *White and beige adipocytes: are they ...
Dissertation: Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in human white adipose tissue. ... Abstract: This thesis aimed to study inflammation and adipogenesis capacity in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue with ... However, MAFB was highly expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT) macrophages, which most likely explains its association with ... Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in human white adipose tissue. University dissertation from Stockholm : Karolinska ...
ACL and ACC purified from white adipose tissue were poor substrates for PKBa in vitro. However, effects of wortmannin and torin ... of PKB/AKT inhibitors on insulin-stimulated lipogenesis and phosphorylation state of lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue ... of PKB/AKT inhibitors on insulin-stimulated lipogenesis and phosphorylation state of lipogenic enzymes in white adipose tissue ...
  • This thesis aimed to study inflammation and adipogenesis capacity in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue with respect to the development of obesity and associated comorbidities, including insulin resistance. (dissertations.se)
  • Chronic low-grade inflammation is commonly found in the visceral and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) of obese humans and mice ( 7-9 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Increased Fat Cell Size: A Major Phenotype of Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue in Non-Obese Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes. (ki.se)
  • Subcutaneous white adipose tissue of patients and epidydimal white adipose tissue of animals were investigated regarding molecular aspects by determining the protein content and gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), comparative gene identification-58 (CGI-58), perilipin 1, leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) is found under the skin throughout the body and has several functions including acting as a layer of insulation 1 . (alpco.com)
  • Aging leads to a programmed loss of brown adipocytes in murine subcutaneous white adipose tissue. (qxmd.com)
  • The residual subcutaneous white adipose tissue ScWAT was not browning but displays similar changes in lipid metabolism. (duhnnae.com)
  • Interest in BAT has been spurred by the recognition that in addition to classical BAT depots, other brown-fat-like cells are present in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) in animals and also in humans.These cells have structural and functional properties that resemble brown adipocytes, and they are referred to as beige or 'brite' (brown-in-white) adipocytes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, accumulating evidence suggests that mitochondria are vital for maintaining metabolic homeostasis in white adipocytes because of their involvement in adipogenesis, fatty acid synthesis and esterification, branched-chain amino acid catabolism and lipolysis. (nih.gov)
  • Leptin administration to lean and ob/ob mice activates a novel metabolic program that depletes adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
  • it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. (hindawi.com)
  • These data suggested that the adipose tissue of these fetuses had superior metabolic functionality, whatever their paternal genes. (springer.com)
  • Energy wasting in cachexia is caused by excessive lipid and protein turnover in the body, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), and futile metabolic cycling such as glucose recycling between the liver and tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, MAFB was highly expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT) macrophages, which most likely explains its association with BMI and metabolic syndrome. (dissertations.se)
  • Inhibition of LOX activity by β-aminoproprionitrile treatment results in a significant improvement in several metabolic parameters and further reduces local adipose tissue inflammation. (asm.org)
  • Angiotensin-(1-7) has been described as a new potential therapeutic tool on treating and preventing metabolic disorders by regulating several pathways in visceral white adipose tissue (vWAT). (omicsonline.org)
  • This tissue has an important role on the corporal and metabolic homeostasis. (omicsonline.org)
  • However, ILC2s have not been identified in human adipose tissue, and the mechanisms by which ILC2s regulate metabolic homeostasis remain unknown. (harvard.edu)
  • Collectively, these studies indicate that, in addition to responding to infection or tissue damage, ILC2s can regulate adipose function and metabolic homeostasis in part via production of enkephalin peptides that elicit beiging. (harvard.edu)
  • In the present study we have investigated the metabolic effect of BAR501 in a model of NASH, induced by feeding wild type and Gpbar1 −/− mice a high fat diet and fructose (HFD-F). In this model 11 , 12 , BAR501 effectively protected against liver damage by resetting the partition of lipid between liver and adipose tissues. (medicalrecords.com)
  • The proper functional interaction between different tissues represents a key component in systemic metabolic control. (nature.com)
  • Indeed, disruption of endocrine inter-tissue communication is a hallmark of severe metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. (nature.com)
  • Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome characterized by marked loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipose tissue is the body's largest energy reservoir and a major source of metabolic fuel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cancer cachexia is a multifactorial metabolic syndrome characterized by marked loss of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, which cannot be fully reversed by conventional nutritional support and leads to progressive functional impairment [ 2 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Changes in adipose tissue and its mitochondrial content/function are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance and attendant metabolic complications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We postulate that exposure to PM 2.5 may induce imbalance between white and brown adipose tissue functionality and thereby predispose to metabolic dysfunction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipose tissue, a key organ in metabolic syndrome, shows evident gender disparities in the production of adipokines. (sabiolab.com)
  • Thus, ectopic deposits of brown adipose tissue in intermuscular depots with regulatable expression of UCP1 provide a genetically based mechanism of protection from weight gain and metabolic syndrome between strains of mice. (pnas.org)
  • The metabolic role of white fat is, however, complex. (healthproo2.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has a unique capacity to expend calories by decoupling energy expenditure from ATP production, therefore BAT could realize therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. (elsevier.com)
  • In this study, we engineered BAT from both human and rat adipose precursors and determined whether these ex vivo constructs could mimic in vivo tissue form and metabolic function. (elsevier.com)
  • By utilizing this "browning" process, the abundant and accessible WAT stem cell population can be engineered into 3D tissue constructs with the metabolic capacity of native BAT, ultimately for therapeutic intervention in vivo and as a tool for studying BAT and its metabolic properties. (elsevier.com)
  • Accumulating evidence suggests that the communication pathways linking the brain, gut and adipose tissue might be promising intervention points for metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • Two major groups of metabolic inputs inform the brain about the peripheral energy state: short-term signals produced by the gut system and long-term signals produced by adipose tissue. (biologists.org)
  • This poster article overviews current knowledge about communication pathways between the brain, gut and adipose tissue, and discusses potential research directions that might lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • The most well-studied metabolic sensing region in the forebrain is the hypothalamus, where a number of nuclei such as the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) express high levels of receptors that bind adipokines (cell signaling molecules secreted by adipose tissue, such as leptin) and gut hormones. (biologists.org)
  • In this article and the accompanying poster, we provide an overview of current knowledge regarding coordinated system-wide connections that maintain energy homeostasis, highlighting how disruptions in metabolic sensing and integration between the brain, white adipose tissue (WAT) and the gastrointestinal system can contribute to metabolic disorders. (biologists.org)
  • It boils down to their metabolic activity and strong ability to utilize the fat accumulated in white adipocytes.Therefore, the excess of "bad" fat can beto do so by increasing the amount of "good" fat in the body. (gogo6.com)
  • Men regularly for 12 weeks They rode a bike, while the mice were running on a spinning wheel for 11 days.In both humans and mice, an increase in the content of brown adipose tissue and its increased metabolic activity was noticed.In the case of animals, the newly formed adipose tissue was transplanted into organisms of mice that were not active. (gogo6.com)
  • Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. (jci.org)
  • Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces "white adipocytes" with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. (qxmd.com)
  • While we consider mitochondrial function primarily in the context of brown and beige adipose tissue, our recent data suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction at the level of the white adipocyte, can exert a significant metabolic impact. (grantome.com)
  • Hyperinsulinemia is thus a driving force in stimulating adipose tissue metabolic activity, while bringing about incipient muscle insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • Selective suppression of adipose tissue apoE expression impacts systemic metabolic phenotype and adipose tissue inflammation. (jax.org)
  • Although the constitutive expression of lncRNAs was ubiquitous within the enterohepatic (liver and intestine) and the peripheral metabolic tissues (fat and muscle) in conventional mice, differential expression of lncRNAs by lack of gut microbiota was highly tissue specific. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study is among the first to demonstrate that gut microbiota critically regulates the expression of lncRNAs not only locally in intestine but also remotely in other metabolic organs, suggesting that common transcriptional machinery may be shared to transcribe lncRNA-PCG pairs, and lncRNAs may interact with PCGs to regulate tissue-specific pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Promoting brown adipose tissue formation and function increases energy expenditure and hence may counteract obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Recent studies have shown that adult humans possess both classical brown and beige adipocytes (brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue, WAT), and stimulating brown and beige adipocyte formation can be a new avenue to treat obesity. (nature.com)
  • The excess white adipose tissue (WAT) that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for the development of many diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stoke and some types of cancers (for example, colorectal cancer). (nature.com)
  • In recent years, obesity caused by the hypertrophy of white adipose tissue (WAT) has steadily increased worldwide, and has become a serious social problem [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • We recently described an important role played by the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in traditional white fat, and its implications to thermogenesis, mitochondrial energetics, energy expenditure, and protection from diabetes and obesity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown fat state as a potential therapeutic option for obesity and diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with monocyte-macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Visceral adipose tissue and markers of the insulin resistance syndrome in obese black and white teenagers," Obesity Research , vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 287-293, 2000. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action and the target tissues of a pepsin egg white hydrolysate (EWH) which had previously demonstrated to improve some obesity-related disorders on high-fat/high-glucose rat model. (rsc.org)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) expansion during e.g. obesity reduces oxygen availability in WAT in mice. (wur.nl)
  • Describe sandwiched white adipose tissue as a microphysiologic model of obesity. (lsuhsc.edu)
  • However, the effects of these chemicals on the depot, adipose tissue, have not been studied, although adipose tissue is an important endocrine tissue secreting obesity/diabetes-related hormones and cytokines. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Our findings suggest that supaglutide exerts beneficial effect on established obesity through reducing energy intake and is associated with brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • White adipose tissue plasticity has important clinical implications for obesity prevention and/or treatment because higher levels of UCP1-dependent thermogenesis can lead to enhanced energy expenditure at a considerable extent. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Due to its physiological, highly controlled, and computationally predictable character, the system has the potential to be a powerful tool for the study of adipose tissue associated diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The dramatic rise in the prevalence of obesity has lead to increased efforts aimed at gaining a better understanding of the physiology and pathophysiology of adipose tissue and adipocytes. (asm.org)
  • Recently, we showed that obesity-related periprostatic white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages, was associated with high-grade prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) can regulate adaptive immunity and eosinophil and alternatively activated macrophage responses, and were recently identified in murine white adipose tissue (WAT) where they may act to limit the development of obesity. (harvard.edu)
  • Fat tissues in the upper and lower body may gain weight differently, says a new study which deepens our understanding of fat accumulation and obesity. (foodnavigator.com)
  • An extract from white tea can reduce the number of new fat cells produced and break down the fat in existing ones, according to new research which could help in the battle against obesity. (foodnavigator.com)
  • Adipose tissues are major actors in both obesity and the emergence of a cluster of associated diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), cardiovascular diseases, and hypertension. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In rodents and human infants, a major defense mechanism against obesity is brown adipose tissue (BAT), which serves to increase energy expenditure through dissipation in the form of heat (thermogenesis) ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • The study aimed to evaluate the effects of father's obesity upon white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling, resulting in activation of signaling pathways and inflammation in male and female offspring. (springer.com)
  • We observed that father's obesity influences the offspring in adult life, with an impairment in insulin homeostasis, adipocyte remodeling, and adipose tissue overexpression of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in male offspring. (springer.com)
  • We hypothesized that adipose tissue with obesity memory (OM) has a tissueautonomous lipolytic defect, allowing for increased efficiency of lipid storage. (elsevier.com)
  • Vaspin cDNA was isolated by from visceral white adipose tissues (WATs) of Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rat, an animal model of abdominal obesity with type 2 diabetes. (pnas.org)
  • Eating in excess over a prolonged period causes white fat cells to swell, resulting in obesity. (healthproo2.com)
  • However, in obese adipose tissue, ATMs regain their ability to metabolize AKGs, which reduces obesity. (jci.org)
  • To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti ( Ay ) and obese ( Lepob ). (jci.org)
  • Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose tissues of obese individuals. (jci.org)
  • Inhibition of Notch signaling promotes browning of white adipose tissue and ameliorates obesity. (qxmd.com)
  • However, the majority of these studies used waist circumference as a proxy for abdominal obesity, which does not allow for the differentiation between subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and VAT. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Emodin protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity via regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase pathways in white adipose tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Increasing the thermogenic capacity of adipose tissue to enhance organismal energy expenditure is considered a promising therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. (mfbiomarkers.com)
  • Using knockout animals and shRNA, we show that Mkk6 deletion increases energy expenditure and thermogenic capacity of white adipose tissue, protecting mice against diet-induced obesity and the development of diabetes. (mfbiomarkers.com)
  • Our results identify MKK6 in adipocytes as a potential therapeutic target to reduce obesity.Brown and beige adipose tissues dissipate heat via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (mfbiomarkers.com)
  • doi = { 10.1038/s41467-017-00948-z }, pmid = {29021624}, pmcid = {PMC5636784}, language = {English}, rating = {0}, date-added = {2017-11-14T14:58:43GMT}, date-modified = {2020-07-09T13:27:48GMT}, abstract = {Increasing the thermogenic capacity of adipose tissue to enhance organismal energy expenditure is considered a promising therapeutic strategy to combat obesity. (mfbiomarkers.com)
  • Here we show that BBR increases energy expenditure, limits weight gain, improves cold tolerance and enhances brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity in obese db/db mice. (nih.gov)
  • Expression monitoring of 6500 genes using oligonucleotide microarrays in wild-type, ob/ob, and transgenic mice expressing low levels of leptin revealed that differences in ambient leptin levels have dramatic effects on the phenotype of white adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
  • A novel application of k-means clustering identified 8 clusters of adipose tissue genes whose expression was different between leptin treatment and food restriction in ob/ob mice and 10 such clusters in wild-type experiments. (nih.gov)
  • Fish oil increases cholesterol storage in white adipose tissue with concomitant decreases in inflammation, hepatic steatosis, and atherosclerosis in mice. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Deletion of the gene encoding G0/G 1 switch protein 2 (G0s2) alleviates high-fat-diet-induced weight gain and insulin resistance, and promotes browning of white adipose tissue in mice. (umassmed.edu)
  • Total GPAT activity in white adipose tissue of Gpat3 −/− mice was reduced by 80%, suggesting that GPAT3 is the predominant GPAT in this tissue. (physiology.org)
  • Recent studies examining expression and regulation of these two genes, knockdown experiments in adipocytes, as well as analysis of GPAT4 knockout mice suggest that GPAT3 and GPAT4 may control lipid metabolism in a tissue- and stimulus-dependent fashion: GPAT4 constitutes the major microsomal GPAT activity in liver, whereas GPAT3 appears to be a critical regulator for lipid accumulation in white adipocytes ( 2 , 5 , 17 , 22 , 26 ). (physiology.org)
  • Mice bearing the C26 tumour exhibited reduced adipose mass, elevated adipose tissue lipolysis and a 5-fold increase in plasma levels of free fatty acids. (garvan.org.au)
  • Indeed, supplementation with FcsFNDC4 in prediabetic mice improved glucose tolerance and inflammatory markers in a white-adipocyte selective and GPR116-dependent manner. (nature.com)
  • Whole body weights and white adipose depots from wild-type and Mmp12-deficient mice were collected during early postnatal development and after chronic CS exposure. (elsevier.com)
  • MMP12 content and activity were increased in the adipose tissue of wild-type mice at 2 weeks of age, leading to elevated endostatin production, inhibition of VEGF secretion, and decreased adipose tissue vascularity. (elsevier.com)
  • and changes in white and brown adipocyte-specific gene profiles by real-time PCR and mitochondria by transmission electron microscopy in response to PM 2.5 exposure in different adipose depots of ApoE -/- mice to understand responses to chronic inhalational stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taken together, white adipose tissue of lean mice with OM shows increased sensitization to HFD compared with white adipose tissue with no OM, rendering it resistant to catecholamineinduced lipolysis. (elsevier.com)
  • Mice have eight major adipose depots, four of which are within the abdominal cavity . (wikipedia.org)
  • Bone marrow transplant studies and quantitation of macrophage number in adipose tissue from macrophage-deficient ( Csf1op/op ) mice suggest that these F4/80 + cells are CSF-1 dependent, bone marrow-derived adipose tissue macrophages. (jci.org)
  • Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. (qxmd.com)
  • In Aim 3, we will determine the effect of MRTF-A deficiency on browning of white adipose tissue and energy balance in mice. (grantome.com)
  • Methods and results: We investigated the gene expression effects induced by beta-carotene (BC) supplementation, knockout of beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (Bcmo1) and differences between male and female mice in lung, liver and inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT). (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • We recently showed that a 5-h intravenous or intracerebroventricular infusion of leptin elevated basal glucose uptake in skeletal muscle (SM) and brown adipose tissue and increased whole-body glucose turnover in C57Bl/6J mice (Kamohara S, Burcelin R, Halaas JL, Friedman JM, Charron MJ: Acute stimulation of glucose metabolism in mice by leptin treatment. (elsevier.com)
  • In vivo palmitate turnover analysis revealed that blunted lipolytic capacity is associated with diminution in FA uptake and storage in peripheral tissues of obese HSL haploinsufficient mice. (nih.gov)
  • When these mutant mice are bred to mice that express Cre recombinase, resulting offspring will have exon 3 deleted in the cre -expressing tissues. (jax.org)
  • When bred to a strain with Cre recombinase expression in adipose tissue (see Stock No. 005069 for example) to generate SEKO (selective apoE knockout- adipose tissue) mice, this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of lipid metabolism and adipose tissue inflammation. (jax.org)
  • ATGL is highly expressed in adipose tissue of mice and humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the nonobese phenotype of HSL knock-out (HSL-KO) mice ( 7 - 9 ) and the accumulation of diglycerides (DGs) in their adipose tissue ( 10 ) suggest that there may be one or more additional lipases in adipose tissue that preferentially hydrolyzes the first ester bond of the TG molecule. (sciencemag.org)
  • To identify these, the molecular responses of white adipose tissue (WAT) to vitamin B3 withdrawal are examined.METHODS AND RESULTS: A dietary intervention is performed in male C57BL/6JRccHsd mice, in which a diet without nicotinamide riboside (NR) is compared to a diet with NR at the recommended vitamin B3 level. (wur.nl)
  • We previously reported that Bscl2−-− mice develop lipodystrophy of white adipose tissue WAT due to unbridled lipolysis. (duhnnae.com)
  • Moreover, analysis of miRNA expression in adipose tissue-specific Dicer knockout mice (GitHub dataset) and diabetic model mice (GSE81976 and GSE85101 datasets), gonadal white adipose tissue (gWAT) was the main source of serum exosomal miR-222. (aging-us.com)
  • MiR-222 levels were significantly elevated in the serum, serum exosomes and gWAT of mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), and there was a corresponding downregulation of IRS1 and phospho-AKT levels in their liver and skeletal muscle tissues, which correlated with impaired insulin sensitivity and glucose intolerance. (aging-us.com)
  • Total RNA was isolated from various tissues (liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle) from adult male conventional and germ-free mice ( n = 3 per group). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The visceral adipose tissue is part of the intra-abdominal adipose tissue that surrounds the intestine for the most part. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visceral fat in white and African American prepubertal children," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 1703-1708, 1997. (hindawi.com)
  • Adipose tissue in muscle: a novel depot similar in size to visceral adipose tissue," American Journal of Clinical Nutrition , vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 903-910, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Tenomodulin promotes human adipocyte differentiation and beneficial visceral adipose tissue expansion. (umassmed.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to access the proteins differentially regulated by Ang- (1-7) using proteomic analysis of visceral white adipose tissue. (omicsonline.org)
  • Differential proteomic analysis using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) combined with mass spectrometry were performed to elucidate the molecular action of Ang-(1-7) on the antiobesity effect in visceral white adipose tissue. (omicsonline.org)
  • We identified an adipocytokine, designated as visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin (vaspin), which is a member of serine protease inhibitor family. (pnas.org)
  • Previously, we isolated a ≈135-bp cDNA fragment during differential screening of the genes up-regulated in visceral adipose tissues of obese OLETF rats and down-regulated in nonobese and diabetes-resistant Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats ( 22 ). (pnas.org)
  • In this study, we describe the isolation of the full-length cDNA of this potential inhibitor, designated as "vaspin" (visceral adipose tissue-derived serpin). (pnas.org)
  • In humans, adipose tissue is located: beneath the skin ( subcutaneous fat ), around internal organs ( visceral fat ), in bone marrow ( yellow bone marrow ), intermuscular ( Muscular system ) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can be found under the skin (subcutaneous fat), packed around internal organs (visceral fat), between muscles, within bone marrow and in breast tissue. (healthproo2.com)
  • Visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) is located around the internal organs and is the main type of adipose tissue used for energy storage. (alpco.com)
  • OBJECTIVE - The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between lifestyle factors and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community-based setting. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in particular may be a pathogenic fat compartment ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • White adipose tissue exists in various depots that may have different types of adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This led to various theories to find the adipogenic lineage of the white adipose tissue depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • BBR markedly induces the development of brown-like adipocytes in inguinal, but not epididymal adipose depots. (nih.gov)
  • 5 Although BAT is rare (present as small clusters in supraclavicular and paraspinal regions) in adult humans and even less in obese people, brown-like adipose cells (called beige cells) have been identified in certain WAT depots (for example, subcutaneous WAT). (nature.com)
  • In addition, there is accumulating evidence to support the concept of an alteration in energy balance through acquisition of brown fat features in traditional white fat depots. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adipose tissue comprises various depots including white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). (ovid.com)
  • Here, we review the distinct roles of the adipose tissue depots in the development of atherosclerosis with the ultimate aim to understand how these can be targeted to reduce atherosclerosis. (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, different adipose depots differentially affect atherosclerosis development, in which atherosclerosis is promoted by energy-storing adipose depots and attenuated by energy-combusting adipose tissue. (ovid.com)
  • Our results reveal a novel systemic role for MMP12 in postnatal adipose tissue expansion and smoking-associated weight loss by suppressing vascularity within the white adipose tissue depots. (elsevier.com)
  • We investigated changes in adipose tissue structure and function in brown and white adipose depots in response to chronic ambient air pollutant exposure in a rodent model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Exposure to PM 2.5 induced an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in brown adipose depots. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • [4] Adipose depots in different parts of the body have different biochemical profiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the mesenteric and omental depots incorporate much lymphoid tissue as lymph nodes and milky spots , respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two superficial depots are the paired inguinal depots, which are found anterior to the upper segment of the hind limbs (underneath the skin) and the subscapular depots, paired medial mixtures of brown adipose tissue adjacent to regions of white adipose tissue, which are found under the skin between the dorsal crests of the scapulae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, to gain a deeper understanding of the molecular events underlying the effects of IT surgery, we examined the changes in the proteome of four white adipose depots (retroperitoneal, mesenteric, inguinal, and epididymal) and plasma-free fatty acid profile in pre-diabetic rats 1.5 months following IT or sham surgery. (biochemj.org)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two types of adipose tissue exist based on morphological appearance and biological function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are three types of adipose tissue: white, brown, and beige adipose. (healthproo2.com)
  • What are the two types of adipose tissue? (healthproo2.com)
  • There is actually no evidence at present that glucagon has any effect on lipolysis in white adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • We conclude that the black men, who are relatively insulinopenic postprandially, have a brisker lipolysis and also release more lactate from sc fat tissue than white men. (nih.gov)
  • This hypertrophic status was associated with insulin resistance, inflammation and adipose tissue lipolysis indicating fat cell size to be a marker of pathogenesis. (dissertations.se)
  • Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα) in white adipose tissue (WAT). (biologists.org)
  • Fat loss from adipose tissue in cancer cachexia is partly the result of increased lipolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the growing amount of studies focused on elucidating the mechanisms through which lipolysis-related proteins regulate the lipolytic process, there are scarce data concerning that profile in the adipose tissue of cancer cachectic patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Considering its fundamental importance, it was our main purpose to characterize the expression of the lipolysis-related proteins in the white adipose tissue of cachectic cancer patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When muscles and other tissues need energy, certain hormones bind to adipose cells and trigger the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol , resulting in the release of energy-rich fatty acids and glycerol -a process known as lipolysis. (britannica.com)
  • When energy is needed, white adipose tissue (WAT) provides fatty acids (FAs) for use in peripheral tissues via stimulation of fat cell lipolysis. (nih.gov)
  • PKA phosphorylates two important proteins with established functions in lipolysis: HSL, an enzyme that catabolizes adipose tissue TGs, and perilipin A, an abundant structural protein located on the surface of lipid droplets. (sciencemag.org)
  • S. Lee, N. Guerra, and S. Arslanian, "Skeletal muscle lipid content and insulin sensitivity in black versus white obese adolescents: is there a race differential? (hindawi.com)
  • The components of the RAS are present locally in white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle, which act co-operatively, through specific mediators, in response to pathophysiological changes. (portlandpress.com)
  • The etiology of cachexia is multifactorial involving loss of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue associated with high systemic levels of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines. (garvan.org.au)
  • Gpbar1 (also known as TGR5 or MBAR) is a G protein-coupled receptor activated by secondary bile acids 5 , highly expressed in entero-hepatic tissues, pancreatic β cells, skeletal muscles and white and brown adipocytes (WAT and BAT). (medicalrecords.com)
  • Progressive insulin resistance and the subsequent failure to cope with dietary glucose, i.e., glucose intolerance, mostly reflects the inability of the adipose tissue (AT) and skeletal muscle to sufficiently eliminate circulating glucose in response to insulin. (nature.com)
  • These adipokines allow an extensive cross talk among adipose tissue and other organs, including the brain, the liver, and the skeletal muscle. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although it was initially thought that UCP2 and UCP3 might allow tissues such as skeletal muscle also to contribute to thermogenesis and energy expenditure ( 22 ), subsequent studies have found that this theory is not the case ( 23 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • Eventually Glut 4s on the surface of my skeletal muscle tissue downregulate and my phenotype reverts back to that of an obese person. (blogspot.com)
  • Combatsiaris, TP & Charron, MJ 1999, ' Downregulation of uncoupling protein 2 mRNA in white adipose tissue and uncoupling protein 3 mRNA in skeletal muscle during the early stages of leptin treatment ', Diabetes , vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 128-133. (elsevier.com)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the extent to which quercetin and trans-RSV prevented inflammation or insulin resistance in primary cultures of human adipocytes treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-an inflammatory cytokine elevated in the plasma and adipose tissue of obese, diabetic individuals. (wellnessresources.com)
  • Tributyrin in Inflammation: Does White Adipose Tissue Affect Colorectal Cancer? (mdpi.com)
  • In addition, butyrate worsened adipose tissue inflammation. (mdpi.com)
  • Hepatic acetyl CoA links adipose tissue inflammation to hepatic insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. (umassmed.edu)
  • To conclude the finding in this thesis, we defined a role for MAFB in adipose tissue inflammation, which can possibly serve as a biomarker of insulin resistance and inflammation in WAT. (dissertations.se)
  • In contrast, we observed that HIF1α initiates adipose tissue fibrosis, with an associated increase in local inflammation. (asm.org)
  • These findings strengthen the rationale for future efforts to determine whether targeting the PPARγ-adiponectin-MCP-1 axis will decrease periprostatic adipose inflammation and thereby reduce the risk of high-grade prostate cancer or improve outcomes for men with prostate cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • I. MAFB as a Novel Regulator of Human Adipose Tissue Inflammation. (ki.se)
  • The ketone bodies can then be transmitted to other tissues as an power resource.The hibernation phenotype effects from modulation of current mammalian biochemical abilities by way of the differential expression of existing genes, and considerably work has been devoted to deciding the genes that are differentially expressed during hibernation. (wallinside.com)
  • The brown characteristics of the perirenal adipose depot change dramatically to a white adipose phenotype within a few weeks after birth [ 3 , 9 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. (qxmd.com)
  • Perilipin overexpression in white adipose tissue induces a brown fat-like phenotype. (qxmd.com)
  • The residual epididymal WAT EWAT displays a browning phenotype with much smaller lipid droplets LD and higher expression of brown adipose tissue marker proteins. (duhnnae.com)
  • Fatty acids are taken up by muscle and cardiac tissue as a fuel source, and glycerol is taken up by the liver for gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT) β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. (biologists.org)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) stores energy in the form of triacylglycerol (TAG) for later release and use by other tissues, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) metabolizes fatty acids and glucose for heat production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The traditional role attributed to white adipose tissue is energy storage, fatty acids being released when fuel is required. (healthproo2.com)
  • When hormones signal the need for energy, fatty acids and glycerol are released from triglycerides stored in fat cells (adipocytes) and are delivered to organs and tissues in the body. (britannica.com)
  • The free fatty acids are taken up by cells of adipose tissues and stored again as triglycerides through a complex process. (ayurhelp.com)
  • Mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipose tissue requires lipolytic enzymes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mobilization of stored fat is mediated by lipolytic enzymes, which degrade adipose TGs and release nonesterified fatty acids (FAs) into the circulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Colon carcinogenesis decreased adipose mass in subcutaneous, epididymal, and retroperitoneal tissues, while also reducing serum glucose and leptin concentrations. (mdpi.com)
  • Epididymal, subcutaneous and retroperitoneal adipose tissues have been studied to state whether hysteresis occurs similarly in different localizations. (scirp.org)
  • Both the serum concentration of PAI-1 and mRNA levels were similar between groups in retroperitoneal and epididymal white adipose tissue . (bvsalud.org)
  • The abundance levels of proteins known to be responsive to nutrient levels such as aldolase and fatty acid binding proteins, as well as the expression levels of FASN, a key lipogenic enzyme, and MLXIPL , a pivotal transcriptional mediator of glucose-related stimulation of lipogenic genes, were elevated in the adipose tissue of pure and crossbred fetuses from Meishan sows. (springer.com)
  • In the postabsorptive state, the plasma glucose and insulin levels of the black men and white men were similar. (nih.gov)
  • These differences in adipose tissue metabolism may be related to differences in the lipid profiles and glucose metabolism previously documented in these ethnic groups. (nih.gov)
  • Adipose tissue mTORC2 regulates ChREBP-driven de novo lipogenesis and hepatic glucose metabolism. (umassmed.edu)
  • These data establish GPAT3 as the primary GPAT in white adipose tissue and reveal an important role of the enzyme in regulating energy, glucose, and lipid homeostasis. (physiology.org)
  • However, it is currently unknown which tissue(s) contribute to this glucose lowering effect. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Treatment with H7 increased basal glucose uptake in white and brown adipose tissues (WAT and BAT respectively), the brain and liver, but reduced it in the quadricep muscles. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • We demonstrated, in vitro, this is a direct effect of treatment in adipose tissue as basal cellular respiration and glucose uptake were increased in response to treatment. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Taken together, these data suggest that antibody-mediated targeting of FGFR1c exerts its powerful glucose-lowering efficacy primarily due to increased glucose uptake in adipose tissue. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Here, we show that the FNDC4-GPR116, liver-white adipose tissue endocrine axis controls glucose homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • Upon direct and high affinity binding of sFNDC4 to GPR116, sFNDC4 promoted insulin signaling and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in white adipocytes. (nature.com)
  • Recent research progress has clearly promoted the concept that systemic glucose homeostasis is determined by a variety of inter-tissue communication pathways, and most peripheral organs have been described to exhibit a secretory, endocrine function, including the liver. (nature.com)
  • Adipose tissue is now recognized as not only an energy reservoir for lipid storage, but also an active endocrine organ and an important regulator in glucose homeostasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, the tissue is needed for normal glucose homeostasis and a role in inflammatory processes has been proposed. (healthproo2.com)
  • Enhanced polyamine catabolism alters homeostatic control of white adipose tissue mass, energy expenditure, and glucose metabolism. (qxmd.com)
  • These findings were accompanied, in all tissues considered, except the diaphragm, by parallel changes in the amount of the glucose transporter protein and by parallel changes in the in vivo glucose utilization index. (blogspot.com)
  • The effect of 4 days of stable hyperglycaemia and resulting hyperinsulinaemia on insulin-induced glucose utilization by individual rat tissues was studied in vivo. (blogspot.com)
  • The treatment produced a net increase in the glucose utilization index under both basal and insulin-stimulated (euglycaemic/hyperinsulinaemic clamp) conditions in white adipose tissue. (blogspot.com)
  • Berberine activates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
  • A number of environmental, physiological, pathological, and pharmacological stimuli have been proposed to induce BAT-mediated thermogenesis and functional thermogenic BAT-like activity in white adipose tissue (WAT), opening new avenues for therapeutic strategies based on enhancing the number of beige adipocytes in WAT. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical to maintain homoeothermia and is centrally controlled via sympathetic outputs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is important for thermogenesis during arousals from hibernation, whereas white adipose tissue (WAT) serves as energy storage and thermal insulation. (biologists.org)
  • In addition to heat produced by shivering muscle, brown adipose tissue produces heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • While brown adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining core body temperature and energy balance, brown fat adaptive thermogenesis can be detrimental to the hypermetabolic response to heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important source of thermogenesis which is nearly exclusively dependent on its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, based on the in vitro studies on primary cultures of mouse white adipocytes, we report that, AT2R activation, either by AngII or AT2R agonist (C21), induces white adipocyte browning, by increasing PPARγ expression, at least in part, via ERK1/2, PI3kinase/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. (nature.com)
  • 1 , 2 In contrast to the notorious WAT that stores energy as lipids, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy directly as heat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production through the action of brown adipocyte-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (nature.com)
  • Finally, the perirenal adipose tissue expressed both brown and brite/beige adipocyte marker genes at birth, the expression of which changed substantially over time. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In BAT, PM 2.5 exposure down-regulated brown adipocyte-specific genes, while white adipocyte-specific genes were differentially up-regulated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If the concept of hysteresis is true, after calorie restriction animals should have the same body weight, the same adipose tissues masses, but the size of adipocyte should be significantly decreased compared to the one at T0. (scirp.org)
  • ac, white adipocyte. (jci.org)
  • Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through white fat tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed that the percentage of cells expressing the macrophage marker F4/80 (F4/80 + ) was significantly and positively correlated with both adipocyte size and body mass. (jci.org)
  • Each type of adipose tissue and adipocyte contributes differently to energy metabolism and overall homeostasis 3 . (alpco.com)
  • The function of adipose tissue not only depends on the type of adipocyte, but the location of the fat deposit as well. (alpco.com)
  • In Aim 2, we will define the effects of adipocyte-specific mitochondrial dysfunction and mitochondria-generated ROS on the local ADIPOSE TISSUE microenvironment, function and remodeling. (grantome.com)
  • Combined, these studies enable us to carefully dissect the effects of altered mitochondrial function on adiponectin production, cellular physiology of the white adipocyte and adaptive remodeling of adipose tissue. (grantome.com)
  • While the established role of mitochondrial function in brown adipocytes is widely appreciated, our data argues that the relevance of mitochondrial function in the white adipocyte has been mistakenly undervalued. (grantome.com)
  • The prostate is contained within a thin connective tissue capsule and is surrounded by adipose tissue. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Adipose tissue is one of the main types of connective tissue . (wikipedia.org)
  • In biology, adipose tissue , body fat , or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • Quick Answer: Where is adipose connective tissue found in the body? (healthproo2.com)
  • Adipose tissue , or fatty tissue , connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells ( adipose cells , or adipocytes), specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat , within a structural network of fibres. (britannica.com)
  • Adipose tissue is specialized connective tissue that functions as the major storage site for fat in the form of triglycerides. (ayurhelp.com)
  • Using global gene expression profiling of the postnatal BAT to WAT transformation in sheep, we provide novel insight into adipose tissue plasticity in a large mammal, including identification of novel transcriptional components linked to adipose tissue remodeling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To gain greater insight into adipose tissue wasting during cancer cachexia progression, we have also analyzed an experimental model of cachexia (Walker 256 carcinosarcoma). (biomedcentral.com)
  • In conditions of energy excess, the white adipose tissue accumulates fat in the form of triglycerides, whilst brown adipose tissue has the potential stimulate energy expenditure by dissipation of fat to produce heat and maintain body temperature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Treatment with H7 decreased triglyceride content and increased adipose triglyceride lipase content in white adipose tissue, whilst increasing activation of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, suggesting futile cycling of triglycerides, albeit favouring net hydrolysis. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) is highly adapted to store any excess energy as triglycerides, while brown adipose tissue (BAT), on the other hand, functions to dissipate chemical energy in the form of heat. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White adipose tissue is the main site of energy storage as triglycerides. (scirp.org)
  • The expansion of adipose tissue in obese individuals is a direct cause of these diseases due to an excessive accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) within white adipose (WAT) adipocytes. (grantome.com)
  • The carbohydrates can be stored as glycogen in the liver and muscle and can also be converted to triglycerides in the liver and transferred to adipose tissue for storage. (ayurhelp.com)
  • Until now, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was the only enzyme known to hydrolyze triglycerides in mammalian adipose tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, ATGL and HSL coordinately catabolize stored triglycerides in adipose tissue of mammals. (sciencemag.org)
  • WAT is not just a passive depot for lipid storage, but also the largest endocrine organ secreting a variety of signaling molecules called adipokines, which play critical roles in regulating energy metabolism in adipose tissue and whole body. (nature.com)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a major tissue for energy storage, but also an endocrine tissue that secretes various adipokines. (mdpi.com)
  • These compounds have been well studied in terms of their cell toxicity in organs such as liver and kidney, and their xenoestrogenic action on reproductive tissues as endocrine disruptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition to its primary role, white adipose tissue has been affirmed as a major endocrine organ, since the tissue synthesizes and secretes an array of hormones and proteins, the adipokines [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, [2] as it produces hormones such as leptin , estrogen , resistin , and the cytokine TNFα . (wikipedia.org)
  • Research over the past several decades examining adipokines and adipose tissue-liver crosstalk in energy metabolism has revealed that adipose tissue is a very important metabolically active endocrine organ 1 . (alpco.com)
  • White adipose tissue also is a source of a number of different hormones, which serve various roles in metabolism and endocrine function. (britannica.com)
  • Gene expression levels of acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, lipoprotein lipase, hormone-sensitive lipase, adipose triglyceride lipase, PPAR-gamma, SREBP-1c and perilipin were assessed by Real time RT-PCR. (ehu.es)
  • Here, we report that a second enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzes the initial step in triglyceride hydrolysis. (sciencemag.org)
  • Only one previously undescribed enzyme fulfilled these requirements, and we named it "adipose triglyceride lipase" (ATGL). (sciencemag.org)
  • Using optimized injection parameters, we were able to inject pre-adipocytes, which subsequently formed adipose tissue featuring fully functional lipid metabolism. (fraunhofer.de)
  • The aim of this study was to examine the effect of emodin on the reducing lipid accumulation in white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed rats, and on the regulation of the expression of the genes involved in lipid metabolism to elucidate the mechanisms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conversely, proteins participating in redox homeostasis and apoptotic cell clearance had a lower abundance in Meishan than in Large White fetuses. (springer.com)
  • Although we focus here on brain-gut-adipose-tissue communication pathways, it is important to acknowledge that other important CNS-peripheral communications (such as those involving muscle and brown adipose tissue) also contribute to energy homeostasis. (biologists.org)
  • Adipose tissue (AT), also referred to as fat tissue, is found throughout the body and is vital for maintaining energy homeostasis 1 . (alpco.com)
  • However, the role of interstitial angiotensin II in the regulation of regional metabolism and tissue perfusion has not as yet been clearly defined. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • In men, interstitial Ang II has only a minimal effect on adipose tissue blood flow and metabolism. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • We observed changes in tissue morphology, gene expression and metabolism within the first two weeks of postnatal life consistent with the expected transition from BAT to WAT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We provide evidence for dramatic changes in mitochondrial function and fatty acid metabolism during the adipose remodeling and we identified a number of transcriptional components linked to this adipose tissue transformation process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One way adipose tissue supports energy metabolism is through the generation and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and hormones. (alpco.com)
  • Due to these differences, some researchers refer to each site of adipose tissue as a mini organ, contributing differently to energy metabolism 2 . (alpco.com)
  • Consumption of dietary fat in obese individuals leads to storage in white adipose tissue (WAT) as opposed to its metabolism in brown adipose (BAT);consequently, enhancement of BAT mass has the potential to diminish WAT mass and reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (grantome.com)
  • The adipose-produced hormones adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are involved in energy metabolism, for example, whereas plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 prevents the dissolution of blood clots. (britannica.com)
  • Conclusion: These data demonstrate that gene expression differences induced by BC are limited to the tissue and sex that is analyzed, and that differences in metabolism induced by for example single nucleotide polymorphisms, should be taken into account as much as possible. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • [1] In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes , fibroblasts , vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages . (wikipedia.org)
  • SVF includes preadipocytes , fibroblasts , adipose tissue macrophages , and endothelial cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Breast milk AKGs are metabolized by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to platelet-activating factor (PAF), which ultimately activates IL-6/STAT3 signaling in adipocytes and triggers BeAT development in the infant. (jci.org)
  • Expression analysis of macrophage and nonmacrophage cell populations isolated from adipose tissue demonstrates that adipose tissue macrophages are responsible for almost all adipose tissue TNF-α expression and significant amounts of iNOS and IL-6 expression. (jci.org)
  • Circulating APOE is associated with chylomicron and Intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDLs) and is mostly produced by the liver, although other tissues and cells, including adrenal gland, macrophages, vascular smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes, are also known to synthesize and secrete APOE. (jax.org)
  • The results showed that β-naphthoflavone was a strong CYP1A inducer in adipose tissue as well as in liver. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, we demonstrated that 48 h of fasting was as effective in adipose tissue as in the liver in the induction of CYP2E1 mRNA and protein. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that the mechanisms by which cytochrome P450 genes are regulated in the liver are also functional in rat adipose tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, Gpbar1 agonism ameliorates liver histology in a rodent model of NASH and promotes the browning of white adipose tissue. (medicalrecords.com)
  • Of note, the sFNDC4-GPR116, liver-adipose tissue axis was dampened in (pre) diabetic human patients. (nature.com)
  • White, brown, and beige adipose tissue generate and secrete adipokines, such as adiponectin and leptin, which facilitate adipose tissue-liver crosstalk and insulin sensitivity 1 . (alpco.com)
  • Each type of AT releases a different combination of these cell signaling molecules which enable the highly regulated crosstalk between adipose tissue and other organs such as the liver and brain to maintain energy balance 4 . (alpco.com)
  • Gene expression response of mouse lung, liver and white adipose tissue to ß-carotene supplementation, knockout of Bcmo1 and sex. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • The most well studied models whereby brown adipocytes appear in white fat are upon cold exposure or after stimulation of the beta(3)-adrenoceptor pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • To identify the main pathways involved in subcutaneous adipose tissue maturation during the last month of gestation, we compared the proteome and the expression levels of some genes at d 90 and d 110 of gestation in purebred and crossbred Large White or Meishan fetuses gestated by sows of either breed. (springer.com)
  • We propose to study gene expression in the WAT and prostate tissues of Glipr1 WT and Glipr1 KO animals to characterize the genetic pathways that are affected by the presence or absence of Glipr1. (dtic.mil)
  • Further studies confirmed that leptin decreases the levels of SREBP-1/ADD1 RNA and transcriptionally active SREBP-1/ADD1 protein in white adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Time-course differences in adipose tissue protein abundance were revealed between fetal genotypes for a few secreted proteins participating in responses to organic substances, such as alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, transferrin and albumin. (springer.com)
  • Phenobarbital and dexamethasone also induced both the mRNA and protein of CYP2Bs and CYP3As, respectively, in adipose tissue, although significant interindividual differences were observed. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues was evaluated by Western blotting. (frontiersin.org)
  • By 8 weeks of age, adipose MMP12 levels subsided, and the protein was no longer detectable. (elsevier.com)
  • Additionally, exposure to PM 2.5 decreased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue as measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • We extended the previous study by measuring steady-state levels of uncoupling protein (UCP)-2 mRNA and UCP- 3 mRNA in white adipose tissue (WAT) and SM. (elsevier.com)
  • There are at least two distinct types of adipose cells, white and brown adipocytes, with opposing effects on energy balance and body weight regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of (iron-containing) mitochondria, which gives the tissue its color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells that form white adipose tissue have a much larger volume than brown adipocytes and accumulate larger amounts of fat. (gogo6.com)
  • The main difference in the functionality of fat cells is that white adipocytes store fat, whereas brown adipocytes use it to generate energy. (gogo6.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains brown adipocytes. (alpco.com)
  • Unlike white adipocytes, brown adipocytes contain many small vacuoles that hold lipids 3,5 . (alpco.com)
  • We have found that breast milk-specific lipid species, so-called alkylglycerol-type (AKG-type) ether lipids, which are absent from infant formula and adult-type diets, maintain beige adipose tissue (BeAT) in the infant and impede the transformation of BeAT into lipid-storing white adipose tissue (WAT). (jci.org)
  • 95% of the volume of white fat cells are lipids in the form of a single vesicle, which increases as they accumulate, whereas in a brown fat cell it is 30-50 % lipids and occur in the form of numerous and small droplets.Black cells are distinguished primarily by a large number of mitochondria and better innervation and blood supply.These cells are much more active. (gogo6.com)
  • White adipocytes contain a single large vacuole that stores lipids produced via lipogenesis and lipids from food consumed 6 . (alpco.com)
  • Compared to WAT, beige adipose tissue has more mitochondria and performs more fatty acid oxidation, but stores less lipids 9 . (alpco.com)
  • The quantification of lipids from Adipose tissue (AT) is particularly challenging due to the predominance of triacylglycerides, which elicit high ion suppression of the remaining lipid classes. (mendeley.com)
  • Hyperinsulinemia increases the amount of GLUT4 mRNA in white adipose tissue and decreases that of muscles: a clue for increased fat depot and insulin resistance. (blogspot.com)
  • High-fat diet induces emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). (biomedsearch.com)
  • The hormone leptin is primarily manufactured in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue which also produces another hormone, asprosin. (wikipedia.org)
  • BBR also increases expression of UCP1 and other thermogenic genes in white and BAT and primary adipocytes via a mechanism involving AMPK and PGC-1α. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, AT2R-induced browning effect is also observed in human white adipocytes, as evidenced by the increased UCP1 expression and oxygen consumption. (nature.com)
  • For examples, TNFα suppresses UCP1 expression in white adipocytes via extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) activation 11 whereas both apelin and adiponectin enhance WAT browning. (nature.com)
  • Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial ( Cox4i1 , Cox4i2 ) and BAT ( Fgf21 , Prdm16 ) genes were overexpressed in eWAT. (biologists.org)
  • Two other uncoupling proteins, UCP2 and UCP3, are more widely expressed than UCP1, but they appear to play important roles in mitochondrial function in only a few tissues. (pnas.org)
  • Here the authors show that the stress activated kinase MKK6 acts as a repressor of UCP1 expression, suggesting that its inhibition promotes adipose tissue browning and increases organismal energy expenditure. (mfbiomarkers.com)
  • Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
  • It is therefore not surprising that white adipose tissue function can be perturbed by altering mitochondrial components or oxidative capacity. (nih.gov)
  • Mitochondrial DNA quantification and immunohistochemistry results showed an increase of mitochondrial content in this tissue. (rsc.org)
  • Mitochondrial number was significantly reduced in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissues (BAT), while mitochondrial size was also reduced in BAT. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White Adipose Tissue Physiology, Mitochondrial Function and Adiponectin Much attention has been dedicated over recent years towards a better understanding of brown and beige adipocytes, which are classically characterized by high mitochondrial content. (grantome.com)
  • White adipose tissue is the most abundant in mammals and its distribution greatly varies among different species.Usually white adipose tissue can be found in two different locations of the body where it is stored: subcutaneous adipose tissue and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subcutaneous adipose tissue is located directly underneath the skin, while the intra-abdominal adipose tissue surrounds the organs inside the abdomen such as intestine and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The intra-abdominal adipose tissues covers the thoracic and abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
  • We characterized the effect of interstially applied angiotensin II in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of young, normal-weight, healthy men (n = 8) and women (n = 6) using the microdialysis technique. (mdc-berlin.de)
  • Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). (umassmed.edu)
  • However, the mechanistic link between accumulation of adipose tissue and development of atherosclerosis is not clear. (ovid.com)
  • The accumulation of adipose tissue and muscle mass loss is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and mortality, which could be related, in part, to overactivation of the RAS. (portlandpress.com)
  • Bioinformatics analyses showed that miR-222 levels were significantly upregulated in the white adipose tissue of obese patients with insulin resistance (GSE25402 dataset) and in serum samples from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients (GSE90028 dataset). (aging-us.com)
  • There are two major types of adipose, white that stores TGs and brown (BAT) that oxidizes them to produce heat. (grantome.com)
  • This effect of BMP4 on WAT appears to extend to human adipose tissue, because the level of expression of BMP4 in WAT correlates inversely with body mass index. (qxmd.com)
  • In healthy, non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as much as 20% of the body weight in men and 25% in women. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, white adipose tissue starts to develop during early to mid-gestation period. (wikipedia.org)
  • The existence of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans has provoked intense research interest in the role of this metabolically active tissue in whole-body energy balance and body weight regulation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The presence of brown adipose tissue in adult humans was discovered in 2003 during FDG-PET scans to detect metastatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) contains white adipocytes and is the most common type found in adult humans 3,5 . (alpco.com)
  • The third type of adipose tissue found in humans is beige adipose tissue. (alpco.com)
  • In humans, the percentage of brown adipose found in the body decreases with age. (britannica.com)
  • In humans, the distribution of adipose tissue in the body can vary depending on sex. (britannica.com)
  • One appealing new target for treatment is the activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), an organ recently found to be functional in adult humans. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At the end of the experimental period, the abundance of mRNA was increased in white adipose tissue (WAT) and decreased in muscles of "insulinized" rats compared to controls. (blogspot.com)
  • All rats were fed an obesogenic diet and after six weeks of treatment white adipose tissues were dissected. (ehu.es)
  • A hypothesis is that the precursors for the different types of adipocytes are mesenchymal stem cells which differentiates by the influence of specific gene expression into specialized white preadipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has raised the possibility that lipophilic environmental contaminants accumulated in adipose tissue may dysregulate the gene expression profile. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Global gene expression profiling demonstrated that the time points grouped into three phases: a brown adipose phase, a transition phase and a white adipose phase. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We identified a number of regulated transcription factors, including NR1H3, MYC, KLF4, ESR1, RELA and BCL6, which were linked to the overall changes in gene expression during the adipose tissue remodeling. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we report a comprehensive time course analysis of the postnatal BAT to WAT transformation process of the perirenal adipose depot in lambs, including histological, biochemical and molecular examination as well as analyses of global gene expression profiles. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • A positive correlation between adipose tissue gene expression of PAI-1 and its serum concentration has been reported. (bvsalud.org)
  • The present study evaluates the impact of thyroid hormone treatment on white adipose tissue PAI-1 gene expression and its serum concentration. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results underline the importance of not only fetal age but also maternal intrauterine environment in the regulation of several proteins in subcutaneous adipose tissue. (springer.com)
  • Here we have investigated the mechanistic role of Gpbar1 in the regulation of adipose tissues functionality in a murine model of steatohepatitis (NASH). (medicalrecords.com)
  • Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4: regulation by thiazolidinediones and implication in glyceroneogenesis in adipose tissue. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our findings show that cachexia induces important morphological, molecular, and humoral alterations in the white adipose tissue, which are specific to the stage of the syndrome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ng SF, Lin RC, Maloney CA, Youngson NA, Owens JA, Morris MJ (2014) Paternal high-fat diet consumption induces common changes in the transcriptomes of retroperitoneal adipose and pancreatic islet tissues in female rat offspring. (springer.com)
  • β-Aminoisobutyric acid induces browning of white fat and hepatic β-oxidation and is inversely correlated with cardiometabolic risk factors. (qxmd.com)
  • WAT-on-a-chip systems are required to create safety profiles of a large number of drugs due to their interactions with adipose tissue and other organs via paracrine signals, fatty acid release, and drug levels through sequestration. (fraunhofer.de)
  • Adipose tissue helps to store energy in the form of fat, cushion internal organs, and insulate the body. (healthproo2.com)
  • White adipose, the most common type, provides insulation, serves as an energy store for times of starvation or great exertion, and forms pads between organs. (healthproo2.com)
  • Adipose tissue also surrounds internal organs and provides protection for these organs. (ayurhelp.com)
  • We observed tissue-specific and diet-related differences, with Brown AT exhibiting a distinct lipidomic profile with the greatest lipid class diversity and responding to high-fat diet by altering its lipid composition, so that it becomes more similar to that of white AT. (mendeley.com)
  • Therefore, the investigators hypothesized that sildenafil can promote browning of white adipose tissue and improves insulin sensitivity in human adults. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The study subjects will be taken placebo (first stage) and sildenafil (second stage) intervention for 7 days, respectively afterward.Subcutaneous fat tissue and muscle samples will be obtained by biopsy from some individuals and measure the browning of white adipose tissue and insulin signaling.The insulin sensitivity will be tested by insulin clamp assay before and after each intervention, respectively. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Here, we report that expression of the p38 MAPK activator MKK6 is elevated in white adipose tissue of obese individuals. (mfbiomarkers.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue is especially abundant in newborns and in hibernating mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • We examined the expression of FGF-10 mRNA in a variety of adult rat tissues, and found to be most abundant in white adipose tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • Adipose tissue in the adult human appears white or yellowish in colour. (healthproo2.com)
  • It is thought that in adult organisms, brown adipose tissue plays an important role in maintaining normal body weight and preventing insulin resistance.The amount of it is variable, decreases with age and weight gain. (gogo6.com)
  • Samples of retroperitoneal adipose tissue were collected by biopsies along the study. (scirp.org)
  • It has been shown that beige adipocytes have the ability to revert back to white adipocytes once the body reaches normal temperature again, then back to beige adipocytes upon more prolonged cold exposure 1 . (alpco.com)
  • Upon release of insulin from the pancreas, white adipose cells' insulin receptors cause a dephosphorylation cascade that lead to the inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase. (wikipedia.org)