Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Glucagon-Like Peptide 1: A peptide of 36 or 37 amino acids that is derived from PROGLUCAGON and mainly produced by the INTESTINAL L CELLS. GLP-1(1-37 or 1-36) is further N-terminally truncated resulting in GLP-1(7-37) or GLP-1-(7-36) which can be amidated. These GLP-1 peptides are known to enhance glucose-dependent INSULIN release, suppress GLUCAGON release and gastric emptying, lower BLOOD GLUCOSE, and reduce food intake.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.Ethylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.N-Ethylmaleimide-Sensitive Proteins: ATPases that are members of the AAA protein superfamily (ATPase family Associated with various cellular Activities). The NSFs functions, acting in conjunction with SOLUBLE NSF ATTACHMENT PROTEINS (i.e. SNAPs, which have no relation to SNAP 25), are to dissociate SNARE complexes.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
(1/644) Rb and p107 regulate preadipocyte differentiation into white versus brown fat through repression of PGC-1alpha.

The Rb family, Rb, p107, and p130, play important roles in cell cycle control and cellular differentiation, and Rb has been suggested to regulate adipocyte differentiation. We report here that mice lacking p107 displayed a uniform replacement of white adipose tissue (WAT) with brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mutant WAT depots contained mutilocular adipocytes that expressed elevated levels of PGC-1alpha and UCP-1 typical of BAT. WAT from p107-/- mice contained markedly elevated numbers of adipogenic precursors that displayed downregulated expression of pRb. Consistent with the hypothesis that pRb is required for adult adipocyte differentiation, Cre-mediated deletion of Rb in adult primary preadipocytes blocked their differentiation into white adipocytes. Importantly, pRb was observed to bind the PGC-1alpha promoter and repress transcription. Therefore, p107 and pRb regulate PGC-1alpha expression to control the switch between white and brown adipocyte differentiation from a common pool of presumptive adult progenitors in fat tissue.  (+info)

(2/644) Assessment of brown adipose tissue activity in rats by 99mTc-sestamibi uptake.

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) physiology and imaging have recently attracted considerable attention. BAT is characterized both by enhanced perfusion and increased mitochondrial activity. (99m)Tc-sestamibi is a lipophilic cationic tracer that concentrates in mitochondria. Data on the accumulation of (99m)Tc-sestamibi in BAT are currently lacking. This study investigates the in vivo (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake in rat BAT. (99m)Tc-sestamibi was administered in male Wistar rats of various age and body size. (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake was measured in vitro in BAT and white fat (WF) together with cytochrome c oxidase activity. Both (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake and cytochrome c oxidase activity were higher in BAT than in WF (P<0.05). (99m)Tc-Sestamibi uptake in both BAT and WF was negatively related to body weight (r = -0.96 and -0.89, respectively) as was the BAT/WF uptake ratio (r = -0.85). These data show a higher (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake in BAT compared to WF, in agreement with the high mitochondrial content and respiratory activity of the former. The strong negative correlation between (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake in BAT and body weight (negative allometry), is in accordance to increased needs of thermogenesis in smaller animals. Implications of increased (99m)Tc-sestamibi uptake in BAT in radionuclide imaging are also discussed.  (+info)

(3/644) Increased infiltration of macrophages in omental adipose tissue is associated with marked hepatic lesions in morbid human obesity.

In human obesity, white adipose tissue (WAT) is enriched in macrophages. How macrophage infiltration in WAT contributes to the complications of obesity is unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that recruitment of macrophages in omental WAT is associated with hepatic damage in obese patients. Paired biopsies of subcutaneous and omental WAT and a liver biopsy were collected during gastric surgery in 46 obese women and 9 obese men (BMI 47.9 +/- 0.93 kg/m(2)). The number of HAM56+ macrophages in WAT was quantified microscopically, and correlations with clinical and biological parameters and histological liver pathology were investigated. There were twice as many macrophages in omental as in subcutaneous WAT (P<0.0001). After adjustment for age, omental WAT macrophage infiltration was correlated to fasting glucose and insulin, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase. We propose an easy equation to estimate the amount of macrophages in omental WAT. Increased macrophage accumulation specifically in omental WAT was associated with hepatic fibroinflammatory lesions (P=0.01). The best predictive model for the severity of hepatic damage includes adiponectinemia, AST, and omental WAT macrophages. These data suggest that the presence of macrophages in omental WAT participates in the cellular mechanisms favoring hepatic fibroinflammatory lesions in obese patients.  (+info)

(4/644) Nutritional supplementation with trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid induces inflammation of white adipose tissue.

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) are conjugated dienoic isomers of linoleic acid. Many people supplement their diets with CLAs to attempt weight loss, and the trans-10,cis-12 isomer (t10,c12-CLA) of CLA reduces adiposity in animal models and humans. However, CLA treatment in mice causes insulin resistance that has been attributed to the lipoatrophic state, which is associated with hyperinsulinemia and hepatic steatosis. Here, we investigated the effect of t10,c12-CLA on adipose tissue inflammation, another factor promoting insulin resistance. We confirmed that t10,c12-CLA daily gavage performed in mice reduces white adipose tissue (WAT) mass and adiponectin and leptin serum levels and provokes hyperinsulinemia. In parallel, we demonstrated that this CLA isomer led to a rapid induction of inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 gene expression in WAT without affecting their serum levels. In vitro, t10,c12-CLA directly induced IL-6 secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by an nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent mechanism. In vivo, however, the lipoatrophic adipose tissue of CLA-treated mice was notable for a dramatic increase in macrophage infiltration and gene expression. Thus, CLA supplementation directly induces inflammatory gene expression in adipocytes and also promotes macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue to a local inflammatory state that contributes to insulin resistance.  (+info)

(5/644) Trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid causes inflammation and delipidation of white adipose tissue in mice: a microarray and histological analysis.

A combined histological and microarray analysis of the white adipose tissue (WAT) of mice fed trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (t10c12 CLA) was performed to better define functional responses. Mice fed t10c12 CLA for 14 days lost 85% of WAT mass, 95% of adipocyte lipid droplet volume, and 15 or 47% of the number of adipocytes and total cells, respectively. Microarray profiling of replicated pools (n = 2 per day x diet) of control and treated mice (n = 140) at seven time points after 1-17 days of t10c12 CLA feeding found between 2,682 and 4,216 transcript levels changed by twofold or more. Transcript levels for genes involved in glucose and fatty acid import or biosynthesis were significantly reduced. Highly expressed transcripts for lipases were significantly reduced but still abundant. Increased levels of mRNAs for two key thermogenesis proteins, uncoupling protein 1 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, may have increased energy expenditures. Significant reductions of mRNAs for major adipocyte regulatory factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma, sterol regulatory binding protein 1, CAAT/enhancer binding protein-alpha, and lipin 1 were correlated with the reduced transcript levels for key metabolic pathways in the WAT. A prolific inflammation response was indicated by the 2- to 100-fold induction of many cytokine transcripts, including those for IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF ligands, and CXC family members, and an increased density of macrophages. The mRNA changes suggest that a combination of cell loss, increased energy expenditure, and residual transport of lipids out of the adipocytes may account for the cumulative mass loss observed.  (+info)

(6/644) White adipose tissue: storage and effector site for environmental pollutants.

White adipose tissue (WAT) represents a reservoir of lipophilic environmental pollutants, especially of those which are resistant to biological and chemical degradation - so-called persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Large amounts of different congeners and isomers of these compounds exhibit a variety of adverse biological effects. Interactions among different classes of compounds, frequently with opposing effects, complicate hazard evaluation and risk assessment. WAT is the key organ for energy homeostasis and it also releases metabolites into the circulation and adipokines with systemic effects on insulin sensitivity and fuel partitioning in muscles and other tissues. Its beneficial role is lost in obesity when excessive accumulation of WAT contributes to severe diseases, such as diabetes. POPs may crossroad or modulate the effect of endogenous ligands of nuclear transcription factors, participating in differentiation, metabolism and the secretory function of adipocytes. These mechanisms include, most importantly: i) endocrine disrupting potency of POPs mixtures on androgen, estrogen or thyroid hormone metabolism/functions in WAT, ii) interference of dioxin-like chemicals with retinoic acid homeostasis, where impact on retinoid receptors is expected, and iii) interaction with transcriptional activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors is likely. Thus, the accumulation and action of POPs in WAT represents a unitary mechanism explaining, at least in part, the effects of POPs in the whole organism. By modulating WAT differentiation, metabolism and function, the POPs could affect not only the physiological role of WAT, but they may also influence the development of obesity-associated diseases.  (+info)

(7/644) Effect of nutritional counselling on hepatic, muscle and adipose tissue fat content and distribution in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

AIM: To assess the effectiveness of the current UK clinical practice in reducing hepatic fat (IHCL). METHODS: Whole body MRI and (1)H MRS were obtained, before and after 6 mo nutritional counselling, from liver, soleus and tibialis muscles in 10 subjects with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). RESULTS: A 500 Kcal-restricted diet resulted in an average weight loss of 4% (-3.4 kg,) accompanied by significant reductions in most adipose tissue (AT) depots, including subcutaneous (-9.9%), abdominal subcutaneous (-10.2%) and intra-abdominal-AT (-11.4%). Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) were significantly reduced in the tibialis muscle (-28.2%). Decreases in both IHCL (-39.9%) and soleus IMCL (-12.2%) content were also observed, although these were not significant. Several individuals showed dramatic decreases in IHCL, while others paradoxically showed increases in IHCL content. Changes in body composition were accompanied by improvements in certain liver function tests: serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Significant correlations were found between decreases in IHCL and reductions in both intra-abdominal and abdominal subcutaneous AT. Improvements in liver function tests were associated with reductions in intra-abdominal AT, but not with changes in IHCL. CONCLUSION: This study shows that even a very modest reduction in body weight achieved through lifestyle modification can result in changes in body fat depots and improvements in LFTs.  (+info)

(8/644) Combined leptin actions on adipose tissue and hypothalamus are required to deplete adipocyte fat in lean rats: implications for obesity treatment.

Intense hyperleptinemia completely depletes adipocyte fat of normal rats within 14 days. To determine the mechanism, epididymal fat pads from normal wild-type (+/+) and obese (fa/fa) Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) donor rats were transplanted into normal +/+ and fa/fa ZDF recipients. Hyperleptinemia induced by adenovirus-leptin administration depleted all fat from native fat pads and from fat transplants from +/+ donors but not from transplants from ZDF(fa/fa) donors with defective leptin receptors. In both native and transplanted +/+ fat pads, large numbers of mitochondria were apparent, and genes involved in fatty acid oxidation were up-regulated. However, +/+ fat pads transplanted into fa/fa recipients did not respond to hyperleptinemia, suggesting lack of an essential leptin-stimulated cohormone(s). In +/+ but not in fa/fa rats, plasma catecholamine levels rose, and both P-STAT3 and P-CREB increased in adipose tissue, suggesting that both direct and indirect (hypothalamic) leptin receptor-mediated actions of hyperleptinemia are involved in depletion of adipocyte fat.  (+info)

*  AGPAT2
... a disease characterized by a near absence of adipose tissue and severe insulin resistance. Alternate transcriptional splice ... West J, Tompkins CK, Balantac N, Nudelman E, Meengs B, White T, Bursten S, Coleman J, Kumar A, Singer JW, Leung DW (Jun 1997 ...
*  White adipose tissue
... (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. The other kind of adipose ... White adipose tissue is used as a store of energy. Upon release of insulin from the pancreas, white adipose cells' insulin ... tissue is brown adipose tissue. In healthy, non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as much as 20% of the body ... White adipose tissue also acts as a thermal insulator, helping to maintain body temperature. The hormone leptin is primarily ...
*  Marrow adipose tissue
... approximates that of white adipose tissue (WAT). MAT has qualities of both white and brown fat. Subcutaneous white fat contain ... Wronska, A.; Kmiec, Z. (June 2012). "Structural and biochemical characteristics of various white adipose tissue depots". Acta ... Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, ... Methods for Quantification of Marrow Adipose Tissue (MAT) Figure. This figure demonstrates the use of the osmium- μCT method ...
*  Brown adipose tissue
... (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are also named 'beige' or 'brite'. Brown adipose tissue is ... Brown adipose tissue activation may play an important role in bone health and bone density. Brown adipose tissue activation ... in brown adipose tissue disappear, and the tissue becomes similar in function and appearance to white fat. In rare cases, brown ...
*  Adipose tissue
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ... Vernon, R. G.; Flint, D. J. (2003). "Adipose Tissue / Structure and Function of White Adipose Tissue". Encyclopedia of Food ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ...
*  Leptin
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". Biofactors. 37 (6): 413-20. ... both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the ... "Leptin produced by joint white adipose tissue induces cartilage degradation via upregulation and activation of matrix ...
*  Adipokine
... biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". BIOFACTORS. 37 (6): 413-420 ... secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines ...
*  Adipogenesis
Wang, Qiong A; Tao, Caroline; Gupta, Rana K; Scherer, Philipp E (2013). "Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue ... An approach of studying adipose tissue development and regulation of adipose specific gene expression in an in vivo context was ... mice gave rise to fat pads that were similar to endogenous white adipose tissue. Another approach, developed by Scherer and his ... Primary preadipose cells can be isolated from the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue; and when treated in cell culture ...
*  Haptoglobin
... inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue". Br. J. Nutr. 92 (3): 347-55. doi:10.1079/BJN20041213. PMID ... the haptoglobin gene is expressed in murine and human adipose tissue. Haptoglobin had been shown to be expressed in adipose ... Haptoglobin is produced mostly by hepatic cells but also by other tissues such as skin, lung and kidney. In addition, ... Serum concentrations and tissue expression in dairy cows receiving a conjugated linoleic acids supplement throughout lactation ...
*  Lipogenesis
"Leptin-specific patterns of gene expression in white adipose tissue". Genes & Development. 14 (8): 963-980. ISSN 0890-9369. PMC ... The major sites of fatty acid synthesis are adipose tissue and the liver. Insulin is a peptide hormone that is critical for ... Insulin stimulation of lipogenesis also occurs through the promotion of glucose uptake by adipose tissue. The increase in the ... Etherton, T. D. (2000-11-01). "The biology of somatotropin in adipose tissue growth and nutrient partitioning". The Journal of ...
*  Inflammation
Loss of white adipose tissue reduces levels of inflammation markers. The association of systemic inflammation with insulin ... In the obese mouse models, inflammation and macrophage-specific genes are upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT). There were ... When expanded fat cells leak or break open, macrophages mobilize to clean up and embed into the adipose tissue. Then ... Kershaw, E. E.; Flier, J. S. (2004). "Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ". J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 89 (6): 2548-56. doi: ...
*  SMIM23
It functions in the differentiation between white and brown adipose tissue. It can also be a repressor of transforming growth ...
*  ZNF423
"Fetal development of subcutaneous white adipose tissue is dependent on Zfp423". Molecular Metabolism. 6 (1): 111-124. doi: ...
*  PRDM16
The activity of PRDM16 in white adipose tissue leads to the production of brown fat-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue ... White adipose tissue (WAT) primarily stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides. Recent research has shown that PRDM16 ... This up-regulation lead to the development of a BAT-like phenotype within the white adipose tissue. Expression of PRDM16 has ... PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown adipose cells as compared to white adipose cells, and plays a role in these thermogenic ...
*  3D cell culture
Boudreau, Nancy (5 May 2006). "A pericellular collagenase directs the 3-dimensional development of white adipose tissue". Cell ... There are also problems using spheroids as a model for cancerous tissue. Although beneficial for 3D tissue culture, tumor ... In living tissue, cells exist in 3D microenvironments with intricate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions and complex ... These matrices help the cells to be able to move within their spheroid similar to the way cells would move in living tissue. ...
*  Ccaat-enhancer-binding proteins
"C/EBPalpha is required for differentiation of white, but not brown, adipose tissue". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... shows abnormal adipose tissue formation. Moreover, ectopic expression of C/EBPα in various fibroblast cell lines promotes ... Cao Z, Umek RM, McKnight SL (Sep 1991). "Regulated expression of three C/EBP isoforms during adipose conversion of 3T3-L1 cells ... For example, mice lacking C/EBPα in all tissues except the liver (where it is needed to avoid postnatal lethality) ...
*  Fat-tailed dwarf lemur
doi:10.1007/s10682-007-9186-4. Fietz, J.; Tataruch, F.; Dausmann, K.; Ganzhorn, J. (February 2003). "White adipose tissue ... a relatively short white median facial stripe, and black eye-rings. However, in 2009, Groeneveld et al. demonstrated ...
*  SERCA
"The thermogenic activity of rat brown adipose tissue and rabbit white muscle Ca2+-ATPase". IUBMB Life. 57 (4-5): 337-45. doi: ...
*  Lipoprotein lipase
Induction of ANGPTL4 accounts for the inhibition of LPL activity in white adipose tissue during fasting. Growing evidence ... This helps to explain why during fasting, LPL activity increases in muscle tissue and decreases in adipose tissue, whereas ... thereby making circulating triglycerides available for uptake by white adipose tissue, in which LPL activity is elevated owing ... A high (?adipose) tissue LPL response to a high-carbohydrate diet may predispose toward fat gain. One study reported that ...
*  Ceramide synthase 2
The administration of leptin to rats induced a decrease in CerS2 was observed in white adipose tissue. GRCh38: Ensembl release ... CerS2 levels are significantly elevated in breast cancer tissue compared to normal tissue, along with increased levels of ... CerS2 mRNA (TRH3) has been found in most tissues and it is strongly expressed in liver, intestine and brain. CerS2 is much more ... In the mouse brain, CerS2 is mainly expressed white matter tracts, specifically in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. ...
*  Lipolysis
It has been shown to suppress lipolysis due to lower sympathetic nervous outflow to white adipose tissue. The regulation of ... Predominantly occurring in adipose tissue, lipolysis is used to mobilize stored energy during fasting or exercise. Lipolysis is ... In adipose tissue, intracellular triglycerides are stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. When lipases are phosphorylated, they ... Perilipin 1A is a key protein regulator of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This lipid droplet-associated protein, when deactivated ...
*  Wakame
... shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... Studies conducted at Hokkaido University have found that a compound in wakame known as fucoxanthin can help burn fatty tissue. ... Studies in mice have shown that fucoxanthin induces expression of the fat-burning protein UCP1 that accumulates in fat tissue ...
*  Seaweed
... shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ...
*  Fucoxanthin
... shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... on rats and mice at Hokkaido University indicate that fucoxanthin promotes fat burning within fat cells in white adipose tissue ...
*  Asprosin
... white adipose) tissues that stimulates the liver to release glucose into the blood stream. In these tissues, asprosin is ... Asprosin is a protein hormone that has been found to be produced by white adipose tissue in mammals; it is transported to the ... "Datasets of genes coexpressed with FBN1 in mouse adipose tissue and during human adipogenesis". primary. Data in Brief. 8: 851- ...
*  Dormancy
... proton gradient generated by electron transport in mitochondria is used to produce heat instead of ATP in brown adipose tissue ... Dormancy of various kinds is expressed in white spruce (Romberger 1963). White spruce, like many woody plants in temperate and ... Dormancy is a general term applicable to any instance in which a tissue predisposed to elongate or grow in some other manner ... Dormancy and dormancy release in white spruce. For. Sci. 12:374-384. Owens, J.N.; Molder, M.; Langer, H. 1977. Bud development ...
*  Abdominal obesity
Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and perirenal ... And it is waistline adipose tissue (central obesity) which seems to be the foremost type of fat deposits contributing to rising ... Techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging made it possible to categorize mass of adipose tissue ... on the adipose tissue located there. Several colloquial terms used to refer to central obesity, and to people who have it, ...
Mice deleted for GPAT3 have reduced GPAT activity in white adipose tissue and altered energy and cholesterol homeostasis in...  Mice deleted for GPAT3 have reduced GPAT activity in white adipose tissue and altered energy and cholesterol homeostasis in...
GPAT activities in white adipose tissue (WAT) were significantly reduced in Gpat3−/− mice. A: TLC-based analysis of total GPAT ... Total GPAT activity in white adipose tissue of Gpat3−/− mice was reduced by 80%, suggesting that GPAT3 is the predominant GPAT ... These data establish GPAT3 as the primary GPAT in white adipose tissue and reveal an important role of the enzyme in regulating ... Mice deleted for GPAT3 have reduced GPAT activity in white adipose tissue and altered energy and cholesterol homeostasis in ...
more infohttp://ajpendo.physiology.org/content/306/10/E1176.long
The secretome of brown adipose tissue  The secretome of brown adipose tissue
... changes in expression were paralleled in brite/beige adipose tissues (e.g. inguinal), whereas white adipose tissue (epididymal ... nonrecruited molecular signatures of brown, "brite," and white adipose tissues. Open this publication in new window or tab ,, ... nonrecruited molecular signatures of brown, "brite," and white adipose tissues. Walden, Tomas B. Stockholm University, Faculty ... Zic1 for the classical brown adipose tissue depots, Hoxc9 for the brite depots, Hoxc8 for the brite and white in contrast to ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:714076
Science  Science
... or technically Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), which was known in 1964:. "Brown adipose tissue has been shown to be a strongly ... of white fat to be burned in one week:. "One week of 2.5 hours/day of mild exercise with cold exposure led to a loss of body ... "Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and plays a role in energy metabolism. ... "In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether ...
more infohttps://coldshoulderweightloss.com/science
Science  Science
... or technically Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), which was known in 1964:. "Brown adipose tissue has been shown to be a strongly ... of white fat to be burned in one week:. "One week of 2.5 hours/day of mild exercise with cold exposure led to a loss of body ... "Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and plays a role in energy metabolism. ... "In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether ...
more infohttp://coldshoulderweightloss.com/science
WAT, white adipose tissue | Diabetes  WAT, white adipose tissue | Diabetes
Forkhead Transcription Factor FoxO1 in Adipose Tissue Regulates Energy Storage and Expenditure Jun Nakae, Yongheng Cao, Miyo ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/keyword/wat-white-adipose-tissue
Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue.  - PubMed - NCBI  Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue. - PubMed - NCBI
It is therefore not surprising that white adipose tissue function can be perturbed by altering mitochondrial components or ... Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue.. Boudina S1, Graham TE2. ... Adipocytes, White/pathology. *Adipose Tissue, White/metabolism*. *Adipose Tissue, White/pathology. *Adipose Tissue, White/ ... The role of mitochondria in white adipocytes has long been neglected due in part to their lower abundance in these cells. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25128326
Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue development, expansion and regeneration.  - PubMed - NCBI  Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue development, expansion and regeneration. - PubMed - NCBI
Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue development, expansion and regeneration.. Wang QA1, Tao C, Gupta RK, Scherer ... White adipose tissue displays high plasticity. We developed a system for the inducible, permanent labeling of mature adipocytes ... HFD-induced adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia. (a-d) Representative β-gal staining of eWAT (a,b) and sWAT (c,d) from 9 ... HFD-induced adipose tissue expansion is contributed mainly by hypertrophy in both eWAT and sWAT at the early stages. After ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23995282?dopt=Abstract
Quercetin is Effective at Lowering White Adipose Tissue Inflammation  Quercetin is Effective at Lowering White Adipose Tissue Inflammation
... Study Abstract. BACKGROUND: Quercetin and trans- ... an inflammatory cytokine elevated in the plasma and adipose tissue of obese, diabetic individuals.. DESIGN: Cultures of human ...
more infohttps://www.wellnessresources.com/studies/quercetin-is-effective-at-lowering-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation
Fish oil increases cholesterol storage in white adipose tissue with  Fish oil increases cholesterol storage in white adipose tissue with
... concomitant decreases in inflammation, hepatic steatosis, ... Although fish oil has hypolipidemic and antiatherosclerotic properties, the potential for white adipose tissue (WAT) to mediate ... Fish oil increases cholesterol storage in white adipose tissue with concomitant decreases in inflammation, hepatic steatosis, ... Fish oil increases cholesterol storage in white adipose tissue with concomitant decreases in inflammation, hepatic steatosis, ...
more infohttps://www.greenmedinfo.com/article/fish-oil-increases-cholesterol-storage-white-adipose-tissue-concomitant-decrea
Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations | Diabetes  Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations | Diabetes
Diabetes Symposium: Browning of Adipose Tissue-What's New?. Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic ... Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations. Kristin I. Stanford, Roeland J.W. Middelbeek, ... Exercise Effects on White Adipose Tissue: Beiging and Metabolic Adaptations. Kristin I. Stanford, Roeland J.W. Middelbeek, ... not adipose tissue-specific deletions in eNOS; thus, this effect may not be adipose tissue specific (24,41). ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/64/7/2361
Nutrients  | Free Full-Text | Tributyrin in Inflammation: Does White Adipose Tissue Affect Colorectal Cancer? | HTML  Nutrients | Free Full-Text | Tributyrin in Inflammation: Does White Adipose Tissue Affect Colorectal Cancer? | HTML
Colon carcinogenesis decreased adipose mass in subcutaneous, epididymal, and retroperitoneal tissues, while also reducing serum ... leading to loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) and alterations in adipokine secretion. Lower incidence of colorectal cancer is ... This inflammation of adipose tissue is common in cachexia syndrome, resulting in a deep reduction of adipose tissue mass in ... Tributyrin in Inflammation: Does White Adipose Tissue Affect Colorectal Cancer?. Luana Amorim Biondo 1,*. , Alexandre Abilio S ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/2072-6643/11/1/110/htm
Frontiers | TGF-β/Smad3 Signaling Regulates Brown Adipocyte Induction in White Adipose Tissue | Endocrinology  Frontiers | TGF-β/Smad3 Signaling Regulates Brown Adipocyte Induction in White Adipose Tissue | Endocrinology
Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown ... Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown ... to support the concept of an alteration in energy balance through acquisition of brown fat features in traditional white fat ... role played by the TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in traditional white fat, ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2012.00035/full
DHA Reduces Monocyte Inflammatory Signalling and NF-kappaB Activation in White Adipose Tissue  DHA Reduces Monocyte Inflammatory Signalling and NF-kappaB Activation in White Adipose Tissue
... Study Abstract. OBJECTIVE: ... Obesity is associated with monocyte-macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue. Previously, we showed that glucose-stimulated ...
more infohttps://www.wellnessresources.com/studies/dha-reduces-monocyte-inflammatory-signalling-and-nf-kappab-activation-in-wh
IJMS | Free Full-Text | SREBP-1c-Dependent Metabolic Remodeling of White Adipose Tissue by Caloric Restriction  IJMS | Free Full-Text | SREBP-1c-Dependent Metabolic Remodeling of White Adipose Tissue by Caloric Restriction
White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a major tissue for energy storage, but also an endocrine tissue that secretes various ... white adipose tissue; SREBP-1c; fatty acid synthesis; PGC-1α; mitochondrion caloric restriction; white adipose tissue; SREBP-1c ... White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a major tissue for energy storage, but also an endocrine tissue that secretes various ... SREBP-1c-Dependent Metabolic Remodeling of White Adipose Tissue by Caloric Restriction by Masaki Kobayashi 1,2. , Namiki Fujii ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/11/3335
White adipose tissue - Wikipedia  White adipose tissue - Wikipedia
White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. The other kind of adipose ... White adipose tissue is used as a store of energy. Upon release of insulin from the pancreas, white adipose cells' insulin ... tissue is brown adipose tissue. In healthy, non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as much as 20% of the body ... White adipose tissue also acts as a thermal insulator, helping to maintain body temperature. The hormone leptin is primarily ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_adipose_tissue
Targeting white, brown and perivascular adipose tissue in atherosclerosis development  Targeting white, brown and perivascular adipose tissue in atherosclerosis development
Adipose tissue comprises various depots including white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thoracic and ... in which atherosclerosis is promoted by energy-storing adipose depots and attenuated by energy-combusting adipose tissue. In ... Here, we review the distinct roles of the adipose tissue depots in the development of atherosclerosis with the ultimate aim to ... However, the mechanistic link between accumulation of adipose tissue and development of atherosclerosis is not clear. ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?PMID=28347739
Angiotensin type 2 receptor activation promotes browning of white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis | Signal Transduction...  Angiotensin type 2 receptor activation promotes browning of white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis | Signal Transduction...
Angiotensin type 2 receptor activation promotes browning of white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis. *Aung Than1. *, ... The excess white adipose tissue (WAT) that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for the development of many diseases, ... Burn induces browning of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue in mice and humans. . Cell Rep 2015; 13: 1538-1544. ... AT2R activation increases UCP1 and CITED1 expressions in white adipocytes. (a and b) Mouse white adipose cells (day 4) were ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/sigtrans201722?error=cookies_not_supported&code=e9eb300c-2774-48c4-92a8-0f416b0c1191
Abstract 447: ZAG promotes cachexia-associated white adipose tissue browning and energy wastage | Cancer Research  Abstract 447: ZAG promotes cachexia-associated white adipose tissue browning and energy wastage | Cancer Research
Abstract 447: ZAG promotes cachexia-associated white adipose tissue browning and energy wastage. Sawsan Elattar and ... Energy wasting in cachexia is caused by excessive lipid and protein turnover in the body, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT ... ZAG promotes cachexia-associated white adipose tissue browning and energy wastage [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the American ... Abstract 447: ZAG promotes cachexia-associated white adipose tissue browning and energy wastage ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/77/13_Supplement/447
DISSERTATIONS.SE: Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in human white adipose tissue  DISSERTATIONS.SE: Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in human white adipose tissue
Dissertation: Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in human white adipose tissue. ... Abstract: This thesis aimed to study inflammation and adipogenesis capacity in human subcutaneous white adipose tissue with ... However, MAFB was highly expressed in white adipose tissue (WAT) macrophages, which most likely explains its association with ... Inflammation and impaired adipogenesis in human white adipose tissue. University dissertation from Stockholm : Karolinska ...
more infohttp://www.dissertations.se/dissertation/9cc56a7327/
A Novel Microphysiologic Platform for Studying Human Obesity: Sandwiched White Adipose Tissue - Deans Research Seminar Series  A Novel Microphysiologic Platform for Studying Human Obesity: Sandwiched White Adipose Tissue - Dean's Research Seminar Series
List the challenges of culturing adipose tissue.. *Describe sandwiched white adipose tissue as a microphysiologic model of ... A Novel Microphysiologic Platform for Studying Human Obesity: Sandwiched White Adipose Tissue. Dr. Frank Lau. Assistant ... The Damage Control Continuum and Mucosal Candidiasis: It's All About the Tissue - March 14, 2018 ...
more infohttps://www.medschool.lsuhsc.edu/deanseminar/2016/02/23/a-novel-microphysiologic-platform-for-studying-human-obesity-sandwiched-white-adipose-tissue/
WAT-on-a-chip: a physiologically relevant microfluidic system incorporating white adipose tissue  WAT-on-a-chip: a physiologically relevant microfluidic system incorporating white adipose tissue
... ... an organ frequently overlooked in this context is white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT-on-a-chip systems are required to create ... Using optimized injection parameters, we were able to inject pre-adipocytes, which subsequently formed adipose tissue featuring ... the system has the potential to be a powerful tool for the study of adipose tissue associated diseases such as obesity and type ...
more infohttp://publica.fraunhofer.de/documents/N-480695.html
PGC-1α Is Required for Exercise- and Exercise Training-Induced UCP1 Up-Regulation in Mouse White Adipose Tissue  PGC-1α Is Required for Exercise- and Exercise Training-Induced UCP1 Up-Regulation in Mouse White Adipose Tissue
... the present findings suggest that acute exercise elicits regulation of several brown adipose tissue genes in mouse WAT. ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0064123
Characterization of DLK1(PREF1)(+)/CD34(+) cells in vascular stroma of human white adipose tissue. | StemBook  Characterization of DLK1(PREF1)(+)/CD34(+) cells in vascular stroma of human white adipose tissue. | StemBook
Characterization of DLK1(PREF1)(+)/CD34(+) cells in vascular stroma of human white adipose tissue.. Zwierzina, M.E., Ejaz, A., ... cells in vascular stroma of human white adipose tissue.Stem Cell Res15, 403-418. ...
more infohttps://www.stembook.org/node/13297
Frontiers | Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue...  Frontiers | Novel GLP-1 Analog Supaglutide Reduces HFD-Induced Obesity Associated with Increased Ucp-1 in White Adipose Tissue...
Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues ... Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues ... effect on established obesity through reducing energy intake and is associated with brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. ... Cold tolerance test was performed to evaluate brown-adipose tissue (BAT) activities in response to cold challenge. Glucose ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2017.00294/full
Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice | Cancer Prevention Research  Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice | Cancer Prevention Research
Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice. Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya ... Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice. Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya ... Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice. Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya ... Systemic correlates of white adipose tissue inflammation in early-stage breast cancer. Clin Cancer Res 2016;22:2283-9. ...
more infohttps://cancerpreventionresearch.aacrjournals.org/content/11/4/215
  • Circadian disruption promotes obesity and the development of obesity-associated disorders, but it remains unclear to which extent peripheral tissue clocks contribute to this effect. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • There is also evidence suggesting that acylation stimulating protein (ASP) promotes the aggregation of triglycerides in adipose cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notably, this is not the same as the presence of Myf5 protein, which is involved in the development of many tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, we have demonstrated our LC-MS/MS method can detect 25(OH)D3 in human subcutaneous fat tissue from overweight and obese individuals and is consistent with previously reported concentrations in swine. (nih.gov)
  • Collectively, our observations are consistent with a model in which adipose tissue hypoxia serves as an early upstream initiator for adipose tissue dysfunction by inducing a local state of fibrosis. (asm.org)
  • HFD-induced adipose tissue expansion is contributed mainly by hypertrophy in both eWAT and sWAT at the early stages. (nih.gov)