Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Activating Transcription Factor 3: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.TriglyceridesFatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Adipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Panniculitis: General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.Mice, Inbred C57BLLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Costa RicaHypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Lipomatosis: A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseHomeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.DioxolesSex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Clenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized: Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
In the obese mouse models, inflammation and macrophage-specific genes are upregulated in white adipose tissue (WAT). There were ... Loss of white adipose tissue reduces levels of inflammation markers. The association of systemic inflammation with insulin ... 2000). "Elevated levels of interleukin 6 are reduced in serum and subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women after weight loss ... When expanded fat cells leak or break open, macrophages mobilize to clean up and embed into the adipose tissue. Then ...
... in adipose tissue is down-regulated in obese mice. aP2-KLF15 Tg mice which overexpress KLF15 manifest insulin resistance ... The data indicates an example of cross talk between white adipose tissue and pancreatic β cells mediated through modulation of ... The enhancement of insulin secretion resulted from down-regulation of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1) in white adipose tissue ... In silico and RT-PCR analyses showed that the KLF15 gene promoter undergoes alternative splicing in a tissue-specific manner ...
... people with MHO relative to metabolically unhealthy obese people has been attributed to differences in white adipose tissue ... Badoud, F; Perreault, M; Zulyniak, MA; Mutch, DM (19 November 2014). "Molecular insights into the role of white adipose tissue ... MHO individuals display less visceral adipose tissue, smaller adipocytes, and a reduced inflammatory profile relative to ... One study found that 47.9% of obese people had MHO, while another found that 11% did. It seems to be more prevalent in women ...
... of patients with type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes as well as in the fat cells of white adipose tissue of morbidly obese type ... adipose cell/tissue dysfunction, and obesity; b) the development of atherosclerosis and Steatohepatitis; b) regulating blood ... inflammation which lead to losses in insulin-secreting beta cells and thereby types 1 and 2 diabetes and that in adipose tissue ... In a single study, ALOX12 mRNA was found elevated in the brain tissue of Alzheimer disease patients compared to control ...
Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and perirenal ... The effect of abdominal adiposity occurs not just in those who are obese, but also affects people who are non-obese and it also ... And it is waistline adipose tissue (central obesity) which seems to be the foremost type of fat deposits contributing to rising ... Techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging made it possible to categorize mass of adipose tissue ...
discovered the protein leptin that the genetically obese mouse lacked. Leptin is produced in the white adipose tissue and ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ... Vernon, R. G.; Flint, D. J. (2003). "Adipose Tissue / Structure and Function of White Adipose Tissue". Encyclopedia of Food ...
... shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications ... Abidov, M.; Ramazanov, Z.; Seifulla, R.; Grachev, S. (2010). "The effects of Xanthigen in the weight management of obese ... on rats and mice at Hokkaido University indicate that fucoxanthin promotes fat burning within fat cells in white adipose tissue ... weight loss in obese women over a 16-week period. Another 16-week trial is currently underway that is investigating the effects ...
Salicylate downregulates 11β-HSD1 expression in adipose tissue in obese mice and hence may explain why aspirin improves ... White PC, Mune T, Agarwal AK (February 1997). "11 beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the syndrome of apparent ... "Salicylate downregulates 11β-HSD1 expression in adipose tissue in obese mice and in humans, mediating insulin sensitization". ... adipose tissue, and the central nervous system. In these tissues, HSD11B1 reduces cortisone to the active hormone cortisol that ...
... approximates that of white adipose tissue (WAT). MAT has qualities of both white and brown fat. Subcutaneous white fat contain ... "Exercise Decreases Marrow Adipose Tissue Through ß-Oxidation in Obese Running Mice". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: n/a- ... Wronska, A.; Kmiec, Z. (June 2012). "Structural and biochemical characteristics of various white adipose tissue depots". Acta ... Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, ...
discovered the protein leptin that the genetically obese mouse lacked.[73][74][75] Leptin is produced in the white adipose ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose tissue important ... Vernon RG, Flint DJ (2003). "Adipose Tissue / Structure and Function of White Adipose Tissue". Encyclopedia of Food Sciences ...
Wang, Qiong A; Tao, Caroline; Gupta, Rana K; Scherer, Philipp E (2013). "Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue ... Mandrup, S; Loftus, TM; MacDougald, OA; Kuhajda, FP; Lane, MD (Apr 29, 1997). "Obese gene expression at in vivo levels by fat ... An approach of studying adipose tissue development and regulation of adipose specific gene expression in an in vivo context was ... mice gave rise to fat pads that were similar to endogenous white adipose tissue. Another approach, developed by Scherer and his ...
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... Lönnqvist F, Arner P, Nordfors L, Schalling M (1995). "Overexpression of the obese (ob) gene in adipose tissue of human obese ... biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". Biofactors. 37 (6): 413-20. ... both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the ...
... that are specific to blood vessels supplying white adipose tissue. Kolonin, Mikhail G; Saha, Pradip K; Chan, Lawrence; ... "A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys". Science ... Its mechanism of action is to target specific blood vessels supplying adipose tissue with blood, cause the vessels to shrink ... "Reversal of obesity by targeted ablation of adipose tissue". Nature Medicine. Nature Publishing Group. 10 (6): 625-632. doi: ...
On the other hand, adipose tissue is known to secrete various metabolites, hormones and cytokines that may play a role in ... This includes replacing white bread with whole-grain bread, reducing intake of foods composed primarily of starch such as ... Hyperinsulinemia has been shown to "play a role in obese hypertension by increasing renal sodium retention". In type 2 diabetes ... Obesity is characterized by an excess of adipose tissue - insulin increases the synthesis of fatty acids from glucose, ...
... biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". BIOFACTORS. 37 (6): 413-420 ... 159-161 Monzillo, Lais U. (2003) "Effect of Lifestyle Modification on Adipokine Levels in Obese Subjects with Insulin ... secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines ... associated with adiposity and reduced after weight loss in morbid obese subjects" International Journal of Obesity 29: pp. 146- ...
... increases PDK4 mRNA transcription in white adipose tissue, but not in liver or muscle tissue. Farnesoid X receptor, or FXR, ... In post-obese patients, there is a significant decrease in PDK4 mRNA expression, in conjunction with increased glucose uptake; ... regulation by thiazolidinediones and implication in glyceroneogenesis in adipose tissue". Diabetes. 57 (9): 2272-9. doi:10.2337 ... The mRNA of PDK4, along with PPARGC1A, increase in both types of muscle tissue after exercise. These metabolic effects can be ...
It is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. ... PLIN4 expression is elevated in obese animals and humans. Perilipin-null mice eat more food than wild-type mice, but gain 1/3 ... PLIN4 is a member of the perilipin family, a group of proteins that coat lipid droplets in adipocytes, the adipose tissue cells ... Calcified Tissue International. 90 (2): 96-107. doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9552-7. PMC 3628693 . PMID 22210160. Peters SJ, Samjoo ...
The excess of adipose tissue in obese women creates the paradox of having both excess androgens (which are responsible for ... Laparoscopic examination may reveal a thickened, smooth, pearl-white outer surface of the ovary. (This would usually be an ... Adipose tissue possesses aromatase, an enzyme that converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to estradiol. ... Li X, Lin JF (2005). "[Clinical features, hormonal profile, and metabolic abnormalities of obese women with obese polycystic ...
2004). "Adipose tissue expression of the lipid droplet-associating proteins S3-12 and perilipin is controlled by peroxisome ... 2005). "Obese subjects carrying the 11482G>A polymorphism at the perilipin locus are resistant to weight loss after dietary ... 2005). "Gender-specific association of a perilipin gene haplotype with obesity risk in a white population". Obes. Res. 12 (11 ... Perilipin is a protein that coats lipid droplets in adipocytes, the fat-storing cells in adipose tissue. Perilipin acts as a ...
The leptin hormone regulates adipose-tissue mass through hypothalamus effects on hunger and energy use. It acts through the ... "Structure and sequence variation at the human leptin receptor gene in lean and obese Pima Indians". Human Molecular Genetics. 6 ... lack of association in a white British male population". Human Molecular Genetics. 6 (6): 869-76. doi:10.1093/hmg/6.6.869. PMID ... "Leptin receptor isoforms expressed in human adipose tissue". Metabolism. 47 (7): 844-7. doi:10.1016/S0026-0495(98)90124-X. PMID ...
"Analysis of an expression profile of genes in the human adipose tissue". Gene. 190 (2): 227-35. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(96)00730 ... O'Rahilly S, Gray H, Humphreys PJ, Krook A, Polonsky KS, White A, Gibson S, Taylor K, Carr C (November 1995). "Brief report: ... "Hyperproinsulinaemia in obese fat/fat mice associated with a carboxypeptidase E mutation which reduces enzyme activity". Nature ... "Hyperproinsulinaemia in obese fat/fat mice associated with a carboxypeptidase E mutation which reduces enzyme activity". Nature ...
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white ... A study conducted in 2013 found that, while INSIG1 and SREBF1 mRNA expression was decreased in the adipose tissue of obese mice ... Marrow adipocytes, like brown and white adipocytes, are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. The marrow adipose tissue depot is ... "Exercise Decreases Marrow Adipose Tissue Through ß-Oxidation in Obese Running Mice". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 32 ( ...
In obesity, the excess of adipose tissue increases conversion of androstenedione into estrone, an estrogen. Higher levels of ... Obese women may need higher doses of progestin to be protected. Having had more than five infants (grand multiparity) is also a ... In the United States, white women have a higher survival rate than black women, who tend to develop more aggressive forms of ... removal of endometrial tissue; D&C). This tissue is then examined histologically for characteristics of cancer. If cancer is ...
... muscle and adipose tissue. The multiplicity of lep genes and their low conservation in Teleostei. suggest that their ... Baumann H, Morella KK, White DW, Dembski M, Bailon PS, Kim H, Lai CF, Tartaglia LA (August 1996). "The full-length leptin ... Zhang Y, Proenca R, Maffei M, Barone M, Leopold L, Friedman JM (December 1994). "Positional cloning of the mouse obese gene and ... The tissue expression pattern for the Atlantic salmon lep paralogues differs substantially (Fig.3) and hence indicates a ...
The cells of adipose (fat) tissue synthesizes hormones known as adipokines. In humans, dysfunction of adipose tissue, even in ... Obese horses are usually fed hay at a level of 1.5% ideal body weight, which may be dropped to 1% of body weight if no weight ... Kronfeld, DS; Treiber, KH; Hess, TM; Splan, RK; Byrd, BM; Staniar, WB; White, NW (July 2006). "Metabolic syndrome in healthy ... liver and adipose tissue. Tissue insulin resistance causes increased insulin secretion, which perpetuates the cycle. There does ...
In histology, adipose tissue or body fat or just fat is a tissue made up of cells called adipocytes. They store nutrients called fats in fat cells. Adipose tissue produce different compounds which are called adipokines. They include leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin 1 beta and others[1]. ...
This article deals with the pharmaceutical uses of human fat. For a general view, see Adipose tissue. Human fat (German Menschenfett, Latin Axungia hominis) was mentioned in European pharmacopoeias since the 16th century as an important fatty component of quality deemed ointments and other pharmaceuticals in Europe. In old recipes human adipose tissue was mentioned as Pinguedo hominis, or Axungia hominis (abbrev. Axung. hominis), besides other animal fats from bears (Axung. ursi), vipers (Axung. viperarum), beavers (Axung. castoris), cats (Axung. Cati sylvestris) and many others. The German medicinal Johann Agricola (1496-1570) described the recovery of human fat and its applications. In traditional medicine in Europe, human fat was believed to have a healing magic significance until the 19th century. Many executioners recovered the fat called "Armsünderfett" or ...
Body fat redistribution (BFR) syndrome, sometimes called fat derangement, is a medical condition characterized by fat loss (or occasionally fat gain), often in the cheeks or face. BFR most often occurs in HIV/AIDS patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy. No firm definition of body fat redistribution syndrome exists as yet. At least four syndromes have been described that are characterized by the accumulation of fat, and one by the loss of fat; combinations of these may occur in an individual. Gender, age, and pre-therapy body weight appear to influence the severity of BFR in patients. BFR is distinct from lipodystrophy, which simply refers to fat loss. The most common manifestations of body fat redistribution are accumulations of fat in the central body in the form of a fat pad on the back of the neck and an accumulation of visceral fat in the abdomen or belly. This fat accumulation is accompanied by a loss of subcutaneous fat in the face, arms, legs, and buttocks. Cosmetic concerns may cause ...
In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes. PPARs play essential roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, development, and metabolism (carbohydrate, lipid, protein), and tumorigenesis of higher organisms. Three types of PPARs have been identified: alpha, gamma, and delta (beta): α (alpha) - expressed in liver, kidney, heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and others β/δ (beta/delta) - expressed in many tissues but markedly in brain, adipose tissue, and skin γ (gamma) - although transcribed by the same gene, this PPAR through alternative splicing is expressed in three forms: γ1 - expressed in virtually all tissues, including heart, muscle, ...
... /lɪˈpɒlɪsɪs/ is the breakdown of lipids and involves hydrolysis of triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. Predominantly occurring in adipose tissue, lipolysis is used to mobilize stored energy during fasting or exercise. Lipolysis is directly induced in adipocytes by glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and cortisol. In adipose tissue, intracellular triglycerides are stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. When lipases are phosphorylated, they access lipid droplets and through multiple steps of hydrolysis, breakdown triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol. Each step of hydrolysis leads to the removal of one fatty acid. The first step and the rate-limiting step of lipolysis is carried out by adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). This enzyme catalyzes the ...
... is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation.[7] Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue (and also from the placenta in pregnancy[8]) into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma relative to many hormones. Many studies have found adiponectin to be inversely correlated with body mass index in patient populations.[9] However, a meta analysis was not able to confirm this association in healthy adults.[10] Circulating adiponectin concentrations increase during caloric restriction in animals and humans, such as in patients with anorexia nervosa. This observation is surprising, given that adiponectin is produced by adipose tissue. However, a recent study suggests that adipose tissue within bone marrow, which increases ...
Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2 , ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT family of cytoplasmic lipid droplet(CLD) binding protein. In humans it is encoded by the ADFP gene. This protein surrounds the lipid droplet along with phospholipids and are involved in assisting the storage of neutral lipids within the lipid droplets. The adipose differentiation related protein (ADRP) was first characterized as an mRNA molecule that express early in adipocyte differentiation. The full length cDNA was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends method and sequence analysis results in a protein with 425 amino acids that is unique and similar sequences had not previously been reported. In human, the gene for adipose differentiation related protein is located at short p arm of chromosome 9 at region 22 band 1 from base pair 19108391 to 19127606 (GRCh38.p7) (map). The ...
Cryolipolysis is a method to remove fat by freezing.[18][19][20] The method involves controlled application of cooling within the temperature range of -11 to +5 °C for the non-invasive, localized reduction of fat deposits, intending to reshape the contours of the body.[18][19] The degree of exposure to cooling causes cell death of subcutaneous fat tissue, without apparent damage to the overlying skin.[19][21] It appears primarily applicable to limited discrete fat bulges.[18][19][22] Adverse effects include transient local redness, bruising and numbness of the skin are common side effects of the treatment and are expected to subside.[19][22] Typically sensory deficits will subside within a month. The effect on peripheral nerves was investigated and failed to show permanent detrimental results.[21] Based on the premise that fat cells are more easily damaged by cooling than skin cells (such as popsicle panniculitis), cryolipolysis was developed to apply low temperatures to ...
The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by being fed high-fat and/or high-density diets. It is intended to mimic the most common cause of obesity in humans. Typically mice, rats, dogs, or non-human primates are used in these models. These animals can then be used to study in vivo obesity, obesity's comorbidities, and other related diseases. Users of such models must take into account the duration and type of diet (e.g. hydrated gels vs. dry pellets) as well as the environmental conditions and age of the animals, as each may promote different bodyweights, fat percentages, or behaviors. Driven by the worldwide epidemic of obesity, particularly in the Western world, the DIO model has been integral in understanding the relationship between high-fat/high-density diets and obesity, including the discovery of Akt and mTOR, signals in the body linked to obesity and insulin resistance. However, while many insights into the ...
In physical fitness, body composition is used to describe the percentages of fat, bone, water and muscle in human bodies. Because muscular tissue takes up less space in our body than fat tissue, our body composition, as well as our weight, determines leanness. Two people of the same sex and body weight may look completely different because they have a different body composition. The most accurate estimation of body composition is derived from body density by means of the equation of fractional densities which states that the overall density of a mixture containing more than one substance (each with a different density) can be calculated if the proportion and density of each component substance is known. For determination of body composition the body is often assumed to be composed of four basic substances ("four compartment model") with the general form of the equation as follows: 1 / D b = w / D w + f / D f + p / D p + m / D m ...
The percentage of total body mass that is lean is usually not quoted - it would typically be 60-90%. Instead, the body fat percentage, which is the complement, is computed, and is typically 10-40%. The lean body mass (LBM) has been described as an index superior to total body weight for prescribing proper levels of medications and for assessing metabolic disorders, as body fat is less relevant for metabolism. LBW is used by anesthesiologists to dose certain medications. For example, due to the concern of postoperative opioid-induced ventilatory depression in the obese patient, opioids are best based on lean body weight. The induction dose of propofol should also be based on LBW [1] ...
An adipose eyelid is a transparent eyelid found in fish, that covers some or all of the eye. They are most commonly found on deep sea (benthic) fish, but can also be seen on non-benthic fish. Some fish that this feature is found on include: milkfish, herring-like isospondyls, jacks, mullets, and mackerel. The overall anatomy of the eyelids plays an important role in understanding their possible purpose. Though the true purpose of these bodily structures is not known, it is generally accepted that the eyelids play some role in affecting the vision of the fish or otherwise serving to protect the fish. There are four proposed theories. The first is that the eyelids may act as a lens, increasing the fish's ability to focus on specific objects and interpreting its surroundings better. The second is providing the fish the capability of seeing polarized light. The third theory is that it may block out ultraviolet light, and finally, the fourth theory is the eyelids serve as a ...
Subcutaneous fat is the layer of subcutaneous tissue that is most widely distributed.[1] It is composed of adipocytes, which are grouped together in lobules separated by connective tissue.[4] The number of adipocytes varies among different areas of the body, while their size varies according to the body's nutritional state.[11] It acts as padding and as an energy reserve, as well as providing some minor thermoregulation via insulation.[9][4] Subcutaneous fat is found just beneath the skin, as opposed to visceral fat, which is found in the peritoneal cavity,[12] and can be measured using body fat calipers to give a rough estimate of total body adiposity.[13]. ...
Association between subcutaneous white adipose tissue and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D in overweight and obese adults.. Piccolo BD ... Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults ... Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults ... Association between Subcutaneous White Adipose Tissue and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Overweight and Obese Adults ...
WAT, white adipose tissue. Obesity is considered a chronic low-grade inflammatory disease (1). The white adipose tissue (WAT) ... adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans. Endocrinology ... Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese ... Reduction of Macrophage Infiltration and Chemoattractant Gene Expression Changes in White Adipose Tissue of Morbidly Obese ...
ob (obese) gene expression in white adipose tissue of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats. D. V. RAYNER, PAUL TRAYHURN ... ob (obese) gene expression in white adipose tissue of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats ... ob (obese) gene expression in white adipose tissue of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats ... ob (obese) gene expression in white adipose tissue of obese Zucker (fa/fa) rats ...
... ... on the antiobesity effect in visceral white adipose tissue. Results of protein mapping of mesenteric adipose tissue using 2-DE ... using proteomic analysis of visceral white adipose tissue. Male FVB/N mice were divided into three groups and fed for 60 days, ... therapeutic tool on treating and preventing metabolic disorders by regulating several pathways in visceral white adipose tissue ...
Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice. Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya ... Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice. Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya ... Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice. Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya ... Pioglitazone Inhibits Periprostatic White Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Obese Mice Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a ...
Here, we investigated the effects of supaglutide in regulating energy homeostasis in obese mice. Mice were fed with high-fat ... Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues ... Liver and adipose tissues were collected for histology analysis. Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues ... effect on established obesity through reducing energy intake and is associated with brown remodeling of white adipose tissue. ...
White MF. : The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase promotes insulin resistance during association with insulin receptor substrate-1 ... ER stress markers in muscle and adipose tissue.. Adipose tissue mRNA expression of spliced XBP-1, Grp78, and CHOP (Fig. 3A) and ... in adipose tissue (22). Frozen adipose tissue samples were homogenized in TRIzol reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA), and cDNA ... In contrast with adipose tissue and liver, ER stress indicators are not increased in skeletal muscle from obese mice (15,18) or ...
... in adult humans and even less in obese people, brown-like adipose cells (called beige cells) have been identified in certain ... Angiotensin type 2 receptor activation promotes browning of white adipose tissue and brown adipogenesis. *Aung Than1. *, ... The excess white adipose tissue (WAT) that characterizes obesity is a major risk factor for the development of many diseases, ... Burn induces browning of the subcutaneous white adipose tissue in mice and humans. . Cell Rep 2015; 13: 1538-1544. ...
Marked increase in white adipose tissue blood perfusion in the type 2 diabetic GK rat. Diabetes. 54:2620-2627. View this ... was significantly slower in obese adipose tissue than in lean adipose tissue (ob/+, 391 ± 21 μm/s; IgG-treated ob/ob, 187 ± 17 ... suggest that obese adipose tissue is a site of inflammation. However, it remains to be determined whether adipose tissue ... the cellular dynamics within intact living adipose tissue. The results presented clearly establish obese adipose tissue as a ...
discovered the protein leptin that the genetically obese mouse lacked.[73][74][75] Leptin is produced in the white adipose ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose tissue important ... Vernon RG, Flint DJ (2003). "Adipose Tissue / Structure and Function of White Adipose Tissue". Encyclopedia of Food Sciences ...
The conclusion is that the release of many inflammatory adipokines by adipose tissue is enhanced in obese humans. ... adipose tissue as well as their expression in the nonfat as compared to the fat cells of human omental adipose tissue is also ... well as in vitro release by fat are enhanced in obesity and are primarily released by the nonfat cells of human adipose tissue ... levels of leptin and FABP-4 are also enhanced in obesity and they are primarily released by fat cells of human adipose tissue. ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has thermogenic capacity that burns calories to produce heat, and it is a potential target for the ... and obese mice fed with a HFD. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis identified increased expression of genes involved in biological ... Quercetin Lowers Plasma Triglycerides Accompanied by White Adipose Tissue Browning in Diet-Induced Obese Mice ... "Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Mice." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 4: 1095. ...
Whether hypoxia also occurs in brown adipose tissue depots in obesity has been little considered. However, a recent study has ... However, a recent study has reported low pO2 in brown fat of obese mice, this involving mitochondrial loss and dysfunction. We ... Whether hypoxia also occurs in brown adipose tissue depots in obesity has been little considered. ... We suggest that obesity-linked hypoxia may lead to similar alterations in brown adipocytes as in white fat cells - particularly ...
2011) A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys. Sci Transl Med ... Massive expansion of adipose tissues such as white adipose tissue (WAT) leads to obesity, which has become a major threat to ... In this system, released Rosi promotes both transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown-like adipose tissue and ... S1). Rosi and PGE2 have adipose tissue browning effects, which can induce adipose tissue transformation and angiogenesis (17, ...
Black bars represent high-fat diet-induced obese mice that underwent caloric restriction for different time intervals. White ... perigonadal adipose tissue of high-fat diet-induced obese mice were cultured either alone or with perigonadal adipose tissue ... D) Macrophages as percentage of all cells in perigonadal adipose tissue from high-fat diet-induced obese ad libitum-fed and 24 ... Adipose tissue explants were isolated from high-fat diet-induced obese mice that were fasting for 24 hours. ...
Moreover, HFCR suppressed the expression levels of C- reactive protein and manganese superoxide dismutase in the adipose tissue ... Moreover, HFCR may be a good way to increase compliance in obese patients and to prevent obesity induced complications without ... We investigated effect of HFCR on inflammation and oxidative stress-related markers in liver and adipose tissues as well as ... Obesity characterized by increased mass of adipose tissue leads to systemic inflammation. Calorie restriction (CR) improves ...
Weight loss regulates inflammation-related genes in white adipose tissue of obese subjects. FASEB J. 2004;18(14):1657-1669. ... As expected, compared with adipose tissue isolated from ad libitum-fed mice, adipose tissue from fasted mice or adipose tissue ... Total basal lipolysis is chronically elevated in adipose tissue from obese compared with adipose tissue from lean individuals ( ... To isolate small intact pieces of adipose tissue for culture, perigonadal adipose tissue was remove from high-fat-fed obese ...
In this study we aimed to identify key disturbances in the diurnal rhythms of the white adipose tissue transcriptome in obese ... In this study we aimed to identify key disturbances in the diurnal rhythms of the white adipose tissue transcriptome in obese ... In this study we aimed to identify key disturbances in the diurnal rhythms of the white adipose tissue transcriptome in obese ... In this study we aimed to identify key disturbances in the diurnal rhythms of the white adipose tissue transcriptome in obese ...
Reduction of macrophage infiltration and chemoattractant gene expression changes in white adipose tissue of morbidly obese ... epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT), and mesenteric white adipose tissue. We ... S3 in the supplemental material, the HIF1α transgene is expressed in brown adipose tissue as well as in white adipose tissue. ... white adipose tissue expands to meet the need for extra triglyceride storage. As a consequence, adipose tissue becomes hypoxic ...
discovered the protein leptin that the genetically obese mouse lacked. Leptin is produced in the white adipose tissue and ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ... Vernon, R. G.; Flint, D. J. (2003). "Adipose Tissue / Structure and Function of White Adipose Tissue". Encyclopedia of Food ...
Home → Publications → CD137 negatively regulates "browning" of white adipose tissue during cold exposure ... CD137 negatively regulates "browning" of white adipose tissue during cold exposure. Journal of Biological Chemistry, jbc. ...
Why do macrophages localize in the white adipose tissue of obese animals? Whether enhanced lysis/death of large fat cells is ... adipose tissue matrix, and adipocytes from visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissues of obese humans. Endocrinology. ... subcutaneous adipose tissue. Implication of nonadipose cells in adipose tissue. American Journal of Physiology. 2004;286(1):E8- ... Differences in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 in subcutaneous versus omental adipose tissue in non-obese and obese subjects ...
Compared with adipose tissue of lean individuals, adipose tissue of the obese expresses increased amounts of proinflammatory ... Leptin-specific patterns of gene expression in white adipose tissue. Genes Dev. 2000. 14:963-980. View this article via: PubMed ... However, muscle from both lean and obese animals was infiltrated and surrounded by adipose tissue (Figure 4). Adipose tissue ... cells from adipose tissue. Perigonadal adipose tissue was collected from obese B6.V Lepob/ob female mice and digested with a ...
1997). Uncoupling protein gene: quantification of expression levels in adipose tissues of obese and non-obese humans. J. Lipid ... White (epididymal fat, eWAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues and liver were dissected out. Part of each sample was fixated with ... 2011). Prdm16 determines the thermogenic program of subcutaneous white adipose tissue in mice. J. Clin. Invest. 121, 96-105. ... 1992). Occurrence of brown adipocytes in rat white adipose tissue: molecular and morphological characterization. J. Cell Sci. ...
discovered the protein leptin that the genetically obese mouse lacked.[38][39][40] Leptin is produced in the white adipose ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). The formation of adipose tissue ... The obese mouse on the left has large stores of adipose tissue. For comparison, a mouse with a normal amount of adipose tissue ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ...
  • Here, based on the in vitro studies on primary cultures of mouse white adipocytes, we report that, AT2R activation, either by AngII or AT2R agonist (C21), induces white adipocyte browning, by increasing PPARγ expression, at least in part, via ERK1/2, PI3kinase/Akt and AMPK signaling pathways. (nature.com)
  • 1 , 2 In contrast to the notorious WAT that stores energy as lipids, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy directly as heat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production through the action of brown adipocyte-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (nature.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed that the percentage of cells expressing the macrophage marker F4/80 (F4/80 + ) was significantly and positively correlated with both adipocyte size and body mass. (jci.org)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma: adipose-predominant expression and induction early in adipocyte differentiation. (springer.com)
  • Therefore, we aimed at the characterization of the adipose tissue secretome rather than the adipocyte cell secretome. (mcponline.org)
  • Therefore, the tissue secretome provides more relevant information for the in vivo situation than the adipocyte cell secretome. (mcponline.org)
  • Development of atherosclerosis (AT) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) and anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS) involves both acquired, modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypercholesterolemia, tobacco smoking) and genetic factors. (termedia.pl)
  • Expression of uncoupling protein 1(Ucp1) in adipose tissues was evaluated by Western blotting. (frontiersin.org)
  • Studies conducted in obese mouse models found that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to insulin resistance, and treatment with tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a bile acid derivative that acts as a chemical chaperone to enhance protein folding and ameliorate ER stress, increases insulin sensitivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The term adipokine, as used in this review, means any protein released by adipose tissue without regard to whether it is released by the fat or the other cells (nonfat cells) found in human adipose tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • Moreover, HFCR suppressed the expression levels of C- reactive protein and manganese superoxide dismutase in the adipose tissue in the HF group. (hindawi.com)
  • CR and weight loss reduce the serum concentrations of IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) in obese subjects and suppresses the upregulation of NF- κ B, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in kidney [ 17 - 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Silencing the neuropeptide Y (NPY) protein in the brain may turn adipose tissue into a type of fat that burns excess energy rather than storing it, according to a new study from Johns Hopkins University researchers. (endocrineweb.com)
  • Noradrenaline controls the concentration of the uncoupling protein in brown adipose tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Researchers said one of the key differences between 'beige fat', which appears when administering melatonin, and 'white fat', is that 'beige fat' cell mitochondria express levels of UCP1 protein, responsible for burning calories and generating heat. (ausfoodnews.com.au)
  • In obese animals fed fucoxanthin, the compound appeared to stimulate a protein, UCP1, that causes fat oxidation and conversion of energy to heat, Miyashita says. (scienceblog.com)
  • The protein is found in white adipose tissue, the type of fat that surrounds internal organs. (scienceblog.com)
  • The research team analysed fat tissue samples from obese patients at the University Hospital in Salamanca, and found that these samples contained above-normal levels of the protein MKK6. (express.co.uk)
  • The researchers found that the inability to convert white fat to brown in obese patients is caused by increased amounts of the protein kinase MKK6. (express.co.uk)
  • The drug selectively binds to a protein on the surface of fat-supporting blood vessels and kills those cells within blood vessels of adipose tissue. (zdnet.com)
  • Furthermore, the gene and protein expression levels of PTP1B in the RYGB group were lower, while levels of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 protein were much higher compared with those in the Obese and SO groups. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Furthermore, we tested whether Cdkal1 loss in adipose tissue affects total protein levels or accurate Lys incorporation by tRNALys using quantitative mass spectrometry. (harvard.edu)
  • In a separate animal study, oleuropein increased noradrenaline and adrenaline secretions, as well as uncoupling protein 1 levels in brown adipose tissue, leading to increased thermogenesis and lipolysis. (aaa.com.au)
  • In this study, Ulrich and colleagues, including researchers from the University of North Carolina, conducted a literature review of PubMed/Medline, covering publications from January 1946 to March 2017, seeking studies that explored crosstalk between adipose tissues and carcinomas. (healthcanal.com)
  • For comparison, a mouse with a normal amount of adipose tissue is shown on the right. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study, published 4 November 2013 in the journal Pediatrics, found that children who increased their sleep time reported consuming an average of 134 fewer calories per day, weighed half a pound less and had lower fasting levels of leptin, a hunger-regulating hormone that is also highly correlated with the amount of adipose tissue, when compared to the week of decreased sleep. (ausfoodnews.com.au)
  • In the RYGB group, leptin receptor expression and proopiomelanocortin was significantly higher, while Neuropeptide Y levels were lower than those in the Obese and SO groups. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this system, released Rosi promotes both transformation of white adipose tissue (WAT) into brown-like adipose tissue and angiogenesis, which facilitates the homing of targeted NPs to adipose angiogenic vessels, thereby amplifying their delivery. (pnas.org)
  • We show that i.v. administration of these NPs can target WAT vasculature, stimulate the angiogenesis that is required for the transformation of adipose tissue, and transform WAT into brown-like adipose tissue, by the up-regulation of angiogenesis and brown adipose tissue markers. (pnas.org)
  • Cholecalciferol is known to be deposited in human adipose tissue, but it is not known whether 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) is found in detectable concentrations. (nih.gov)
  • This is the first study on the (human) adipose tissue secretome. (mcponline.org)
  • Why Are Some Obese People at Higher Risk for Diabetes Than Others? (utah.edu)
  • Despite the enormous importance of adipose tissue in human health and diseases (like diabetes), no standardized method existed so far, to quantitatively and reproducibly analyze its lipidome. (tu-dresden.de)
  • Upon formation, adipose tissue is highly 2 diabetes, and radiotherapy, with recent studies also showing active and responds rapidly to external and internal cues . (deepdyve.com)
  • White blood cells migrate into these tissues and release proteins that change the normal functions of these tissues, thereby contributing to the development of type II diabetes. (usda.gov)
  • There are many different types of white blood cells, and our work has been to define the specific types that migrate into the tissues, and define the role these cells play in causing type II diabetes. (usda.gov)
  • Much of this field is still not properly understood, but WAT-on-a-chip systems should help deepen our understanding of the role that white adipose tissue plays in the body and enable researchers to develop more selective treatment for associated diseases such as diabetes. (fraunhofer.de)
  • A cell population with progenitor-like phenotype (CD45-CD34 + ) resident in human white adipose tissue (WAT) is known to promote the progression of local and metastatic breast cancer and angiogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, repairing the risk allele in human adipocytes with the CRISPR-Cas9 genome-editing technique, the authors rescued the cells' obese phenotype and negated the risky genotype. (sciencemag.org)
  • Here we construct two peptide-functionalized nanoparticle (NP) platforms to deliver either Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activator rosiglitazone (Rosi) or prostaglandin E2 analog (16,16-dimethyl PGE2) to adipose tissue vasculature. (pnas.org)
  • Like a rapidly expanding tumor mass, obese adipose tissue becomes hypoxic due to the inability of the vasculature to keep pace with tissue growth. (asm.org)
  • At that point, when ceramides accrue, the adipose tissue stops working appropriately, and fat spills out into the vasculature or heart and does damage to other peripheral tissues. (utah.edu)
  • Indeed, the lowest serum concentrations of TNF occur in female obese rodents, which exhibit the most endotoxin-induced liver injury. (pnas.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, two different strains of genetically obese rodents (and their lean littermates) were treated with low levels of LPS, after which appearance of liver-specific enzymes in the blood, liver histology, and survival rates were compared. (pnas.org)
  • Los trastornos vinculados a la obesidad se correlacionan con una disfunción en la capacidad de expansión del tejido adiposo blanco (TAB), la cual se produce a través de la hipertrofia (aumento del tamaño de los adipocitos) y/o la hiperplasia (aumento del número de adipocitos). (tesisenred.net)
  • la expresión de genes de células mononucleares de sangre periférica y de tejido adiposo blanco es contradictoria. (isciii.es)
  • el objetivo de este estudio fue comparar, en individuos con obesidad, la expresión de genes que regulan los procesos de adipogénesis (PLIN1, ADRB3 y PPARg2) y el metabolismo energético (UCP1, UCP2 y UCP3) en sangre y tejido adiposo blanco. (isciii.es)
  • There were significant differences of PLIN1, ADRB3, PPARG2 and UCP3 expression between blood against adipose tissue samples, showing that these genes are upregulated in adipose tissue. (isciii.es)
  • The PLIN1, ADRB3, PPARG2 and UCP3 genes were preferentially expressed in adipose tissue. (isciii.es)
  • no se encontraron diferencias significativas en la expresión de genes PLIN1, ADRB3, PPARg2 y UCP3 entre la sangre y las muestras de tejido adiposo, mostrando que estos genes son regulados positivamente en el tejido adiposo. (isciii.es)
  • los genes PLIN1, ADRB3, PPARg2 y UCP3 se expresaron de forma preferente en el tejido adiposo. (isciii.es)
  • The insulin receptor is very well documented in the pancreas and in other peripheral tissues. (scripps.edu)
  • In addition, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDLR), scavenger receptor class B type 1 (SR-B1), and ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) play crucial roles in the uptake and efflux of cholesterol in the liver and peripheral tissues to control the cholesterol levels in the body. (biomedcentral.com)