Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.
Glucose in blood.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The consumption of edible substances.
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
Abstaining from all food.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (1/1528)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

Differential regulation of uncoupling protein-1, -2 and -3 gene expression by sympathetic innervation in brown adipose tissue of thermoneutral or cold-exposed rats. (2/1528)

The control of uncoupling protein-1, -2 and -3 (UCP-1, UCP-2, UCP-3) mRNA levels by sympathetic innervation in rats was investigated by specific and sensitive RT-PCR assays. In rats reared at thermoneutrality (25 degrees C), unilateral surgical sympathetic denervation of interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) markedly reduced the UCP-1 mRNA level (-38%) as compared with the contralateral innervated BAT pad, but was without significant effect on UCP-2 and -3 mRNA levels. Cold exposure (7 days, 4 degrees C) markedly increased UCP-1 (+180%), UCP-2 (+115%) and UCP-3 (+195%) mRNA levels in interscapular BAT. Unilateral sympathetic denervation prevented the cold-induced rise in BAT UCP-1 and UCP-2 mRNAs, but not that in BAT UCP-3 mRNA. Results were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These data indicate a differential endocrine control of UCP-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression in rat BAT both at thermoneutrality and during prolonged cold exposure.  (+info)

Nuclear bodies are usual constituents in tissues of hibernating dormice. (3/1528)

In previous studies we demonstrated in several tissues of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius that during hibernation cell nuclei contain particular structural constituents absent in euthermia. In the present study we examine the same tissues in euthermic and hibernating individuals of the edible dormouse Glis glis in order to investigate possible modifications of nuclear structural constituents occurring during hibernation in this species. Edible dormice were captured in the wild and maintained in an external animal house. Samples of liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue and adrenal cortex were taken from three hibernating and three euthermic animals and processed for resin embedding. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies were carried out on cell nuclei of these tissues. The most evident feature of cell nuclei of hibernating dormice was the presence of several nuclear bodies, namely fibro-granular material, amorphous bodies, coiled bodies, perichromatin granule-like granules and nucleoplasmic fibrils, the distribution of which was peculiar to each tissue. No one of these constituents was detectable during euthermia. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that they contain some splicing factors. Apart from some differences, maybe due to the different characteristics of lethargy, the nuclear bodies found in edible dormice were morphologically and immunocytochemically similar to those previously described in the same tissues of hazel dormice. They therefore seem to be strictly correlated to the hibernating state. If they represent storage and/or assembly sites of splicing factors to be rapidly used upon arousal, they could represent a usual structural feature in cells of hibernating species.  (+info)

ATP can stimulate exocytosis in rat brown adipocytes without apparent increases in cytosolic Ca2+ or G protein activation. (4/1528)

Extracellular ATP activates large increases in cell surface area and membrane turnover in rat brown adipocytes (Pappone, P. A., and Lee, S. C. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:393-404). We used whole-cell patch clamp membrane capacitance measurements of membrane surface area concurrently with fura-2 ratio imaging of intracellular calcium to test whether these purinergic membrane responses are triggered by cytosolic calcium increases or G protein activation. Increasing cytosolic calcium with adrenergic stimulation, calcium ionophore, or calcium-containing pipette solutions did not cause exocytosis. Extracellular ATP increased membrane capacitance in the absence of extracellular calcium with internal calcium strongly buffered to near resting levels. Purinergic stimulation still activated exocytosis and endocytosis in the complete absence of intracellular and extracellular free calcium, but endocytosis predominated. Modulators of G protein function neither triggered nor inhibited the initial ATP-elicited capacitance changes, but GTPgammaS or cytosolic nucleotide depletion did reduce the cells' capacity to mount multiple purinergic responses. These results suggest that calcium modulates purinergically-stimulated membrane trafficking in brown adipocytes, but that ATP responses are initiated by some other signal that remains to be identified.  (+info)

Metabolism and morphology of brown adipose tissue from Brahman and Angus newborn calves. (5/1528)

The objective of this study was to compare adipocyte morphology and lipogenesis between breed types (Angus vs Brahman) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) from newborn calves. The Brahman calves (n = 7) were born during the fall season, whereas the Angus calves were born in fall (n = 6) or the following spring (n = 4). At parturition, Brahman cows were lighter than fall Angus cows, but were heavier than spring Angus cows (P < .05). Birth weights and perirenal BAT weights were greater in spring-born, but not in fall-born Angus calves, than in Brahman calves (P < .05). Fall-born Angus BAT contained 63% more (P < .05) adipocytes/100 mg tissue and contained a greater proportion (P < .05) of adipocytes with mean diameters of 40 to 50 microm, and fewer adipocytes with diameters of 60 microm or greater, than Brahman BAT. Brahman BAT contained two-to-three times as many beta-receptors as Angus BAT (P < .05), although the dissociation constant (Kd) was not different between breed types. Mitochondria in Brahman BAT were primarily spherical, whereas Angus BAT mitochondria were elongated, and mitochondrial cross-sectional area tended (P = .08) to be greater in Brahman BAT than in Angus BAT. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA concentration (per 10(6) cells) was greater in Brahman BAT than in BAT from fall-born Angus calves. Lipogenesis from acetate was greater in Angus BAT than in Brahman BAT (P < .05), and glucose and palmitate contributed a greater proportion of carbon to lipogenesis in Brahman BAT than in Angus BAT. These differences in lipogenesis between breed types were not observed in s.c. WAT. The WAT from both breed types contained adipocytes with distinct brown adipocyte morphology, suggesting an involution of BAT to WAT in utero. We conclude that differences in UCP gene expression cannot cause the greater peak thermogenesis of Angus calves; however, differences between breed types in lipid metabolism and(or) mitochondrial morphology may contribute to this phenomenon.  (+info)

Mechanism of adipose tissue iNOS induction in endotoxemia. (6/1528)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of adipose tissue inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction in endotoxemia. Systemic administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rats for +info)

Effect of calorie restriction on in vivo glucose metabolism by individual tissues in rats. (7/1528)

We evaluated the effects of 8 mo of calorie restriction [CR: 60% of ad libitum (AL) food intake] on glucose uptake by 14 tissues in unanesthetized, adult (12 mo) F344xBN rats. Glucose metabolism was assessed by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose tracer technique at 1500 or 2100. Despite an approximately 60% decline in insulinemia with CR, plasma 2-[3H]deoxyglucose clearance for CR was greater than for AL at both times. A small, CR-related decrease in glucose metabolic index (R'g) occurred only at 1500 in the spleen and heart, and this decrease was reversed at 2100. In some tissues (cerebellum, lung, kidney, soleus, and diaphragm), R'g was unaffected by diet, regardless of time. In the other tissues (brown fat, 3 white fat pads, epitrochlearis, plantaris, and gastrocnemius), R'g was higher or tended to be higher for CR vs. AL at one or both times. These findings indicate that 8 mo of CR did not cause a continuous reduction in in vivo glucose uptake by any tissue studied, and, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, glucose uptake was at times greater for CR vs. AL rats.  (+info)

RVLM and raphe differentially regulate sympathetic outflows to splanchnic and brown adipose tissue. (8/1528)

To determine whether neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (RPa) specifically control the sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BAT SNA), thereby regulating adipocyte metabolism and BAT thermogenesis, the responses in BAT SNA to disinhibition of RPa neurons and to disinhibition of neurons in the vasomotor region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were compared with those in splanchnic (Spl) SNA, which primarily regulates visceral vasoconstriction. In urethan-chloralose-anesthetized ventilated rats, both acute hypothermia and microinjection of bicuculline into RPa produced significantly larger increases in BAT SNA (542 and 1,949% of control) than in Spl SNA (19 and 24% of control). The enhanced burst discharge in BAT SNA was not coherent with that in Spl SNA or with the arterial pressure (AP) at any frequency except the central respiratory frequency. Microinjections of bicuculline into RVLM evoked increases in Spl SNA (86% of control) and AP (32 mmHg), but reduced BAT SNA to low, normothermic levels. Microinjections of muscimol into RVLM reduced Spl SNA (-82% of control) and AP (-59 mmHg), but did not prevent the increase in BAT SNA after disinhibition of RPa neurons. These results indicate that the neural networks generating BAT SNA in response to disinhibition of RPa neurons are independent of those generating basal Spl SNA and support a model in which sympathetic outflow to tissues involved in thermoregulation and metabolism is regulated by central pathways, including neurons in RPa, that are distinct from those involved in the sympathetic control of the cardiovascular system.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in mouse brown adipose tissue. AU - Muralidhara, D. V.. AU - Desautels, M.. PY - 1996/4/1. Y1 - 1996/4/1. N2 - The present work provides evidence for the occurrence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in very minute concentration in mice brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice consuming 10% ethanol for 10 days showed significantly lowered enzyme activity in brown fat while liver ADH activity was increased but not significantly. Measurements of basal and norepinephrine stimulated oxygen consumption of isolated brown adipocytes indicated that the presence of ADH in BAT of mice is unlikely to play any role in ethanol oxidation.. AB - The present work provides evidence for the occurrence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in very minute concentration in mice brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice consuming 10% ethanol for 10 days showed significantly lowered enzyme activity in brown fat while liver ADH activity was increased but not significantly. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholinergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate mouse brown adipose tissue metabolism. AU - Jeong, Jae Hoon. AU - Lee, Dong Kun. AU - Blouet, Clemence. AU - Ruiz, Henry H.. AU - Buettner, Christoph. AU - Chua, Jr., Streamson C.. AU - Schwartz, Gary J.. AU - Jo, Young-Hwan. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical in maintaining body temperature. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) integrates cutaneous thermosensory signals and regulates adaptive thermogenesis. Here, we study the function and synaptic connectivity of input from DMH cholinergic neurons to sympathetic premotor neurons in the raphe pallidus (Rpa). Methods: In order to selectively manipulate DMH cholinergic neuron activity, we generated transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in cholinergic neurons (choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre::ChR2-YFP) with the Cre-LoxP technique. In addition, we used an adeno-associated ...
Joslin Scientists Advance Understanding of Human Brown Adipose Tissue and Grow New Cells | Joslin Diabetes Center Findings Open New Possibilities for Research and Testing Treatments to Combat Obesity
Brown adipose tissue has long been known for its heat-producing capacity, but less is known about its possible effects as a secretory organ. This thesis summarizes information about presently known factors secreted from brown adipose tissue and about their actions. We were able to add factors to the list by the use of a signal-sequence trap method. Results from the signal-sequence trap generated a list of suggested brown adipocyte secreted proteins; gene expression of these proteins was then further studied with microarray technique.. One of the genes further analyzed was the adipokine chemerin. Gene expression of chemerin in brown adipose tissue was decreased in cold acclimation but increased with a high-caloric diet. This indicates that factors other than norepinephrine influence chemerin gene expression. The effects on chemerin gene expression were not be reflected in serum levels; therefore, chemerin secreted from brown adipose tissue is ascribed an autocrine/paracrine role.. Signal-sequence ...
An increase in energy intake and/or a decrease in energy expenditure lead to fat storage, causing overweight and obesity phenotypes. The objective of this review was to analyse, for the first time using a systematic approach, all published evidence from the past 8 years regarding the molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity in mammals, focusing on mechanisms involved in brown adipose tissue development. Two major databases were scanned from 2006 to 2013 using brown adipose tissue AND uncoupling protein-1 AND mammalian thermoregulation AND obesity as key words. A total of 61 articles were retrieved using the search criteria. The available research used knockout methodologies, various substances, molecules and agonist treatments, or different temperature and diet conditions, to assess the molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity. By integrating the results of the evaluated animal and human studies, our analysis identified specific ...
to burning extra calories:. At doses leading to broad activation of the sympathetic nervous system, ephedrine does not stimulate BAT in humans. In contrast, mild cold exposure stimulates BAT energy expenditure with fewer systemic effects. - Aaron Cypess et al., Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences vol 109 no 25 (2012).. By 2013, scientists were starting to seriously consider mild cold as a way to treat obesity, and that its not as uncomfortable as one might first think. Heres a quote from scientists in the Netherlands:. In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. Here, we show that a 10-day cold acclimation protocol in humans increases BAT activity in parallel with an increase in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). No gender ...
Adenosine is a purine nucleoside released locally in BAT when noradrenaline and ATP are released from sympathetic nerves. Recently it was found that adenosine activates murine and human brown adipocytes, and recruits beiging of white fat via adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). Furthermore, studies with mice have shown improvements in glucose homeostasis after administration of A2AR agonists.. In this study the investigators use the PET radiotracer [15O]-H2O to quantify perfusion of BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT) and muscle in three conditions: room temperature, cold exposure and intravenous infusion of adenosine. Another PET radiotracer [11C]TMSX is used to quantify adenosine A2A receptor density of BAT, WAT and muscle in room temperature and during cold exposure. ...
FIG. 1. Whole-body FDG-PET images under cold or warm condition. A: A 25-year-old male subject fasted for 12 h and was kept in an air-conditioned room at 19°C with light clothing and put his legs on an ice block intermittently (for ∼4 min at every 5 min). After 1 h under this cold condition, he was given an intravenous injection of 18F-FDG and kept under the same cold condition. One hour after the 18F-FDG injection, whole-body PET/CT scans were performed in a room at 24°C. B: Two weeks after the first examination in the cold condition (A), the same subject underwent FDG-PET/CT examination as previously, but he was kept at 27°C with standard clothing and without leg icing (warm condition) for 2 h before the examination.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brown adipose tissue derived VEGF-A modulates cold tolerance and energy expenditure. AU - Sun, Kai. AU - Kusminski, Christine M.. AU - Luby-Phelps, Kate. AU - Spurgin, Stephen B.. AU - An, Yu A.. AU - Wang, Qiong A.. AU - Holland, William L.. AU - Scherer, Philipp E.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - We recently reported that local overexpression of VEGF-A in white adipose tissue (WAT) protects against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. The observation that VEGF-A induces a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype in WAT prompted us to further explore the direct function of VEGF-A in BAT. We utilized a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible, brown adipocyte-specific VEGF-A transgenic overexpression model to assess direct effects of VEGF-A in BAT invivo. We observed that BAT-specific VEGF-A expression increases vascularization and up-regulates expression of both UCP1 and PGC-1α in BAT. As a result, the transgenic mice show increased thermogenesis during chronic cold exposure. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complementary roles of estrogen-related receptors in brown adipocyte thermogenic function. AU - Gantner, Marin L.. AU - Hazen, Bethany C.. AU - Eury, Elodie. AU - Brown, Erin L.. AU - Kralli, Anastasia. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on a high abundance of mitochondria and the unique expression of the mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1), which uncouples substrate oxidation from ATP synthesis. Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes activates UCP1-mediated thermogenesis; it also induces the expression of Ucp1 and other genes important for thermogenesis, thereby endowing adipocytes with higher oxidative and uncoupling capacities. Adipocyte mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity are controlled by multiple transcription factors, including the estrogen-related receptor (ERR)β. Whole-body ERRβ knockout mice show decreased BAT mitochondrial content and oxidative function but normal induction of Ucp1 in response to ...
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume has been consistently claimed as inversely associated with whole-body adiposity. However, recent advances in the assessment of human BAT suggest that previously...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determinants of physiologic 18F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue in sequential PET/CT examinations. AU - Pace, Leonardo. AU - Nicolai, Emanuele. AU - DAmico, Domenico. AU - Ibello, Francesco. AU - Morte, Anna Maria Della. AU - Salvatore, Barbara. AU - Pizzuti, Laura Micol. AU - Salvatore, Marco. AU - Soricelli, Andrea. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess independent predictors of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18F]fluoro-Dglucose ( 18F-FDG) uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in patients undergoing repeated positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans. Procedures: Eight hundred forty-eight (mean age 50.9±16 years) patients in whom PET/CT scan was repeated (mean interval 5±1.5 months) constituted the study group. 18F-FDG uptake in characteristic areas of BAT, with CT density of adipose tissue, greater than background softtissue activity was considered as evidence of BAT uptake. Both distribution and maximum standardized uptake ...
Background Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam) and B2 (Tfb2m), whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Student: Mgr. Tereza Vašků Supervisor: Dr. Matthias Bauwens: Maastricht University, Netherlands Consultant: PharmDr. Jana Ramos Mandíková, PhD Title of diploma thesis: Comparison of radiolabelled fatty acid (18 F-FTHA) and 18 F-FDG in imaging of brown adipose tissue Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is highly metabolically active tissue, which consumes glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) during the process called thermogenesis. Due to these characteristic features, it is possible to quantify the activity of the BAT by non-invasive imaging methods (by using radiopharmaceuticals). Nowadays, one of the most frequently used substances is the radiopharmaceutical called 18 F -FDG (radiolabelled glucose by fluoride). The 18 F -FDG is in clinical practice used for metabolically active tissues diagnosis, notably tumours. We focused in this study on synthesis of radiolabelled fatty acid, namely on ...
In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. Here, we show that a 10-day cold acclimation protocol in humans increases BAT activity in parallel with an increase in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). No sex differences in BAT presence and activity were found either before or after cold acclimation. Respiration measurements in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria revealed no significant contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling to the increased NST. Based on cell-specific markers and on uncoupling protein-1 (characteristic of both BAT and beige/brite cells), this study did not show browning of abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue upon cold acclimation. The observed physiological acclimation is in line with the subjective changes in temperature sensation; upon cold acclimation, the subjects ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue of lactating rats fed a cafeteria diet. The possible involvement of insulin in brown adipose tissue hypertrophy. AU - Agius, Loranne. AU - Rolls, Barbara J.. AU - Rowe, Edward A.. AU - Williamson, Dermot H.. PY - 1981/1/12. Y1 - 1981/1/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019463374&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019463374&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0014-5793(81)80016-6. DO - 10.1016/0014-5793(81)80016-6. M3 - Article. C2 - 7009214. AN - SCOPUS:0019463374. VL - 123. SP - 45. EP - 48. JO - FEBS Letters. JF - FEBS Letters. SN - 0014-5793. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Whitening and Impaired Glucose Utilization of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. AU - Lapa, Constantin. AU - Arias-Loza, Paula. AU - Hayakawa, Nobuyuki. AU - Wakabayashi, Hiroshi. AU - Werner, Rudolf A.. AU - Chen, Xinyu. AU - Shinaji, Tetsuya. AU - Herrmann, Ken. AU - Pelzer, Theo. AU - Higuchi, Takahiro. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an attractive therapeutic target to combat diabetes and obesity due to its ability to increase glucose expenditure. In a genetic rat model (ZDF fa/fa) of type-2 diabetes and obesity, we aimed to investigate glucose utilization of BAT by 18F-FDG PET imaging. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Male Zucker lean (ZL) control rats were studied at 13 weeks. Three weeks prior to imaging, ZDF rats were randomized into a no-restriction (ZDF-ND) and a mild calorie restriction (ZDF-CR) group. Dynamic 18F-FDG PET using a dedicated small animal PET system was performed under ...
We provide evidence that ablation or inhibition of, uncoupling protein 1 increases the rate of reactive oxygen containing species production by mitochondria from brown adipose tissue, no matter what electron transport chain substrate is used (succinate, glycerol-3-phosphate or pyruvate/malate). Consistent with these data are our observations that (a) the mitochondrial membrane potential is maximal when uncoupling protein 1 is ablated or inhibited and (b) oxygen consumption rates in mitochondria from uncoupling protein 1 knock-out mice, are significantly lower than those from wild-type mice, but equivalent to those from wild-type mice in the presence of GDP. In summary, we show that uncoupling protein 1 can affect reactive oxygen containing species production by isolated mitochondria from brown adipose tissue.
We measured the effects of a diet in which D-β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3 butanediol monoester [ketone ester (KE)] replaced equicaloric amounts of carbohydrate on 8-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice. Diets contained equal amounts of fat, protein, and micronutrients. The KE group was fed ad libitum, whereas the control (Ctrl) mice were pair-fed to the KE group. Blood d-β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the KE group were 3-5 times those reported with high-fat ketogenic diets. Voluntary food intake was reduced dose dependently with the KE diet. Feeding the KE diet for up to 1 mo increased the number of mitochondria and doubled the electron transport chain proteins, uncoupling protein 1, and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [(18)F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in IBAT of the KE group was twice that in IBAT of the Ctrl group. Plasma leptin levels of the KE group were more than 2-fold those of the Ctrl group and were associated with increased sympathetic nervous
Using a micro-PET/CT scanner, we have measured (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) in C57Bl/6 mice at intervals across a 24-hour light-dark cycle. Our data reveals a strong 24-hour profile of glucose uptake of iBAT, peaking at approximately 9 hours into the light phase of the 12 hour light, 12 hour dark day. BAT is increasingly gaining attention as being involved in metabolic phenotypes and obesity, where BAT, as observed by PET analysis, negatively correlates with obesity and age. Conversely, animals that show perturbations in circadian clocks, behavior and physiology show metabolic phenotypes. The observation of a 24-hour rhythm in glucose uptake in iBAT makes this tissue a candidate site of interaction between metabolic and circadian systems.. ...
Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates (high fat, 19.4/61.9/18.7). Results: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat ...
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) presence, metabolic activity, and estimated mass are typically measured by imaging [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in response to cold exposure in regions of the body expected to contain BAT, using positron emission tomography combined with X-ray computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Efforts to describe the epidemiology and biology of human BAT are hampered by diverse experimental practices, making it difficult to directly compare results among laboratories. An expert panel was assembled by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases on November 4, 2014 to discuss minimal requirements for conducting FDG-PET/CT experiments of human BAT, data analysis, and publication of results. This resulted in Brown Adipose Reporting Criteria in Imaging STudies (BARCIST 1.0). Since there are no fully validated best practices at this time, panel recommendations are meant to enhance comparability across experiments, but not to constrain experimental ...
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary,
Researchers identified two receptors on brown adipose tissue cells, TRPM8 and TRPP3, that could be targeted to increase the amount of brown adipose tissue in people, serving as a possible therapy for obesity and type 2 diabetes, according to a press release from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.The receptors are involved in the creation of brown adipose tissue and
2+ Abstract Aim Serotonin (5‐hydroxytryptamine, 5‐HT), an important neurotransmitter and hormone, modulates many physiological functions including body temperature. We investigated neural mechanisms involved in the inhibition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and BAT thermogenesis evoked by 5‐HT. Methods Electrophysiological recordings, intravenous (iv) injections and nanoinjections in the brains of anesthetized rats. Results Cooling‐evoked increases in BAT SNA were inhibited by the intra‐rostral raphé pallidus (rRPa) and the iv administration of the 5‐HT1A receptor agonist, 8‐OH‐DPAT, or 5‐HT. The intra‐rRPa 5‐HT, the intra‐rRPa and the iv 8‐OH‐DPAT, but not the iv 5‐HT‐induced inhibition of BAT SNA were prevented by nanoinjection of a 5‐HT1A receptor antagonist in the rRPa. The increase in BAT SNA evoked by nanoinjection of NMDA in the rRPa was not inhibited by iv 5‐HT, indicating that iv 5‐HT does not inhibit BAT SNA by ...
結核は忘れられたパンデミックと呼ばれている。BCG誕生から100年経った今、BCG以降の進歩と展望を詳細に紹介した長い記事。 https://twitter.com/_atanas_/status/ ...
Lee P, Brychta RJ, Collins MT, Linderman J, Smith S, Herscovitch P, Millo C, Chen KY, Celi FS.. Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, CRC, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, USA, [email protected] In animals, defective brown adipogenesis leads to bone loss. Whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass relates to bone mineral density (BMD) in humans is unclear. We determined the relationship between BAT mass and BMD by cold-stimulated positron-emission tomography (PET) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy volunteers. Higher BAT mass was associated with higher BMD in healthy women, but not in men, independent of age and body composition. INTRODUCTION: Contrary to the traditional belief that BAT is present only in infants, recent studies revealed significant depots of BAT present in adult humans. In animals, defective brown adipogenesis leads to bone loss. While white adipose ...
We report the discovery of a low-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulation with unique molecular and metabolic features, coexisting with the classical brown adipocytes in vivo. The results presented here offer critical insight toward our understanding of how brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is regulated at the cellular level. The discovery of the new low-thermogenic subpopulation is of great interest since this population of cells does not have typical brown adipocyte morphology and displays a unique metabolic profile. However, the exact function of this subpopulation is largely unknown. These brown adipocytes have relatively large lipid droplets and low mitochondrial content and an extremely low respiration rate, compared with the high-thermogenic subpopulation. Are these brown adipocytes in a resting status and readily recruitable to convert into high-thermogenic cells? Or do they have critical metabolic functions other than thermogenesis? As the low-thermogenic brown adipocytes have a much ...
We report the discovery of a low-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulation with unique molecular and metabolic features, coexisting with the classical brown adipocytes in vivo. The results presented here offer critical insight toward our understanding of how brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is regulated at the cellular level. The discovery of the new low-thermogenic subpopulation is of great interest since this population of cells does not have typical brown adipocyte morphology and displays a unique metabolic profile. However, the exact function of this subpopulation is largely unknown. These brown adipocytes have relatively large lipid droplets and low mitochondrial content and an extremely low respiration rate, compared with the high-thermogenic subpopulation. Are these brown adipocytes in a resting status and readily recruitable to convert into high-thermogenic cells? Or do they have critical metabolic functions other than thermogenesis? As the low-thermogenic brown adipocytes have a much ...
Brown-adipose-tissue glucose utilization rate and its insulin-sensitivity were measured in vivo in the anaesthetized rat by a 2-deoxy[1-3H]glucose technique. Glucose utilization can be increased 60-fold by insulin, to reach extremely high rates. Glucose utilization and its insulin-sensitivity are modulated in accordance with physiological or pathological conditions. ...
Caffeine may reduce the potential for weight gain or obesity and improve insulin sensitivity because it is of the systems that burns brown fat. Studies have looked at the impact of caffeine on brown adipose tissue both in a test tube and in humans. Past studies have demonstrated the activation of brown adipose tissue through nutrients and exposure to cold. Caffeine causes an upregulation of UCP1 in obese mice, however, the direct impact that it has on humans is unknown. Researchers used several tests to analyze their data and then studied nine healthy human volunteers with a normal BMI. The subjects either drank a caffeinated beverage or water and then stayed seated for 30 minutes. The researchers found that those who drank caffeine had an increase in the expression of UCP1. They also analyzed the thermal imaging completed 30 minutes after the subjects drank their beverage against the images taken before. The images showed an increase in the brown adipose tissue temperature in adults after ...
Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermogenesis and whole body metabolism in mammals. Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging has identified depots of BAT in adult humans, igniting scientific interest. The purpose of this study is to characterize both active and inactive supraclavicular BAT in adults and compare the values to those of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 25 healthy adults. Unlike [18F]FDG PET, which can detect only active BAT, MRI is capable of detecting both active and inactive BAT. The MRI-derived fat signal fraction (FSF) of active BAT was significantly lower than that of inactive BAT (means ± SD; 60.2 ± 7.6 vs. 62.4 ± 6.8%, respectively). This change in tissue morphology was also reflected as a significant increase in Hounsfield units (HU; −69.4 ± 11.5 vs. −74.5 ± 9.7 HU, respectively). Additionally, the CT HU, MRI
Objective Previous research have shown energetic dark brown adipose tissue (BAT) exists in adults and could play essential roles in regulating energy homeostasis. topics who underwent checking for either regular medical check-up (MC) or cancers security (CS) in Shanghai. After that we investigated the predictors of active BAT in healthy individuals especially. LEADS TO both combined groupings the prevalence of BAT was higher in females than guys. Using a multivariate logistic Rabbit polyclonal to NF-kappaB p65.NFKB1 (MIM 164011) or NFKB2 (MIM 164012) is bound to REL (MIM 164910), RELA, or RELB (MIM 604758) to form the NFKB complex.The p50 (NFKB1)/p65 (RELA) heterodimer is the most abundant form of NFKB.. analysis we found in the MC group age sex BMI and thyroid tissue metabolism were significant predictors of BAT activity. Similarly in the CS group age sex and BMI were significant predictors of BAT activity but not thyroid metabolism. Conclusions In Chinese adults BAT activity correlates ...
Author(s): Kajimura, Shingo; Ohno, H; Shinoda, K; Ohyama, K; Sharp, LZ | Abstract: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat as a defence against hypothermia and obesity. Current evidence indicates that brown adipocytes arise from Myf5 + dermotomal precursors through the action of PR domain containing prot
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Much of the current excitement in the obesity field stems from recent observations highlighting that, even as adults, we have the ability to generate brown fat cells in response to cold exposure. Unlike white fat cells that mostly just store fat, brown adipocytes keep us warm by burning fat at a high rate, said Dr. Philipp Scherer, Director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study available online at Nature Medicine.. While generation of brown fat cells previously was thought to be mostly relevant for rodents and human infants, Dr. Scherer said, current evidence points to the observation that adults also generate these cells when exposed to cold.. Brown fat cells in adults tend to be randomly interspersed in subcutaneous white fat, with a trend toward increased accumulation in the upper chest and neck areas. In general, brown fat tissue makes up just a small percentage of total body fat mass.. The Touchstone Centers staff devotes its ...
Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse has been shown to induce alterations in mitochondrial function in the brain as well as to induce hyperthermia, which contributes to neurotoxicity and Meth-associated mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a thermogenic site known to be important in neonates, has recently regained importance since being identified in significant amounts and in correlation with metabolic balance in human adults. Given the high mitochondrial content of BAT and its role in thermogenesis, we aimed to investigate whether BAT plays any role in the development of Meth-induced hyperthermia. By ablating or denervating BAT, we identified a partial contribution of this organ to Meth-induced hyperthermia. BAT ablation decreased temperature by 0.5°C and reduced the length of hyperthermia by 1 h, compared to sham-operated controls. BAT denervation also affected the development of hyperthermia in correlation with decreased the expression of electron transport chain molecules, and increase on PCG1a ...
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Although insulin regulates metabolism in both brown and white adipocytes, the role of these tissues in energy storage and utilization is quite different. Recombination technology using the Cre-loxP approach allows inactivation of the insulin receptor in a tissue-specific manner. Mice lacking insulin receptors in brown adipocytes show an age-dependent loss of interscapular brown fat but increased expression of uncoupling protein-1 and -2. In parallel, these mice develop an insulin-secretion defect resulting in a progressive glucose intolerance, without insulin resistance. This model provides direct evidence for not only a role for the insulin receptors in brown fat adipogenesis, the data also suggest a novel role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. AU - Timmons, James A.. AU - Wennmalm, Kristian. AU - Larsson, Ola. AU - Walden, Tomas B.. AU - Lassmann, Timo. AU - Petrovic, Natasa. AU - Hamilton, D. Lee. AU - Gimeno, Ruth E.. AU - Wahlestedt, Claes. AU - Baar, Keith. AU - Nedergaard, Jan. AU - Cannon, Barbara. PY - 2007/3/13. Y1 - 2007/3/13. N2 - Attainment of a brown adipocyte cell phenotype in white adipocytes, with their abundant mitochondria and increased energy expenditure potential, is a legitimate strategy for combating obesity. The unique transcriptional regulators of the primary brown adipocyte phenotype are unknown, limiting our ability to promote brown adipogenesis over white. In the present work, we used microarray analysis strategies to study primary preadipocytes, and we made the striking discovery that brown preadipocytes demonstrate a myogenic transcriptional signature, whereas both brown and ...
Brown adipose tissue [BAT] metabolism in vivo is vital for the development of novel strategies in combating obesity and diabetes. Currently, BAT is activated at low temperatures and measured using 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose [18F-FDG] positron-emission tomography [PET]. We report the use of β3-adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of BAT at ambient temperatures using (R, R)-5-[2-[2,3-(3-chlorphenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl-amino]propyl]-1,3-benzodioxole-2,2-dicarboxylate, disodium salt [CL316,243] (a selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist) and measured by 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography [CT]. Control and CL316,243-treated (2 mg/kg) male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 18F-FDG for PET/CT studies and were compared to animals at cold temperatures. Receptor-blocking experiments were carried out using propranolol (5 mg/kg). Dose effects of CL316,243 were studied by injecting 0.1 to 1 mg/kg 30 min prior to 18F-FDG administration. Imaging results were confirmed by autoradiography, and histology was done to
The amount and sources of T3 associated with high affinity, low capacity cellular nuclear receptors in brown adipose tissue (BAT) have been estimated by in vivo pulse-labeling techniques. Maximal binding capacity was measured by in vivo saturation analysis. Nuclear receptor occupancy at endogenous levels of T3 and T4 in euthyroid rats was estimated from the equilibrium nuclear to serum ratio of tracer T3, and the locally generated nuclear T3 to serum T4 ratio after injecting tracer T3 and T4. These ratios were multiplied, respectively, by the endogenous concentrations of T3 and T4 as measured by RIA. The maximal binding capacity was 0.65 ng T3/mg DNA, and saturation was 71%. Fifty-five percent of the nuclear T3 was generated locally, and 45% was derived from circulating T3. BAT is, hence, comparable to the liver in number of receptors (approximately 5000/cell) and to the pituitary with regard to saturation and relative contributions of locally generated T3 and plasma T3 to nuclear T3. These ...
Article: Loss of UCP2 impairs cold-induced non-shivering thermogenesis by promoting a shift toward glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue.. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was discovered in 1997 and classified as an uncoupling protein largely based on its homology of sequence with UCP1. Since its discovery, the uncoupling function of UCP2 has been questioned and there is yet no consensus on the true function of this protein. UCP2 was first proposed to be a reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulator and an insulin secretion modulator. More recently, it was demonstrated as a regulator of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which prompted us to investigate its role in the metabolic and thermogenic functions of brown adipose tissue. We first investigated the role of UCP2 in affecting the glycolysis capacity by evaluating the extracellular flux in cells lacking UCP2. We thereafter investigated the role of UCP2 in BAT thermogenesis with positron emission tomography using the metabolic tracers ...
Indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to induce white adipocyte differentiation; however, its roles in brown adipocyte differentiation, and activation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and obesity are unknown. To address this issue, we treated mouse pre-brown cells with different doses of indomethacin, and delivered indomethacin to interscapular BAT (iBAT) of obese mice using implanted osmotic pumps. Indomethacin dose-dependently increased brown adipocyte differentiation, and upregulated both mRNA and protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (γ) coactivator 1-alpha. The mechanistic study showed that indomethacin significantly activated the reporter driven by PPAR response element, indicating that indomethacin may work as a PPARγ agonist in this cell line. Consistently, indomethacin significantly decreased iBAT mass and fasting blood glucose levels in the high-fat diet induced obese (DIO) mice. ...
We had previously demonstrated that mitochondrial fragmentation, induced by cold exposure in BAT, might represent an approach to increase fat oxidation [9]. Therefore, selectively inducing mitochondrial fragmentation in BAT could be a strategy mimicking Ucp1 activation and a potential therapy for obesity, which would bypass the need for adrenergic stimulation. However, the role of Mfn2 in obesity‐induced BAT remodeling and the effect of chronically reducing Mfn2 in BAT in vivo have not been explored.. Here we present a perturbation of brown adipocyte mitochondrial dynamics that enhances BAT capacity to negate the metabolic derangements associated with diet‐induced obesity, while impairing thermogenic capacity in response to cold in vivo. Our study identified for the first time a role for Mfn2 in the response of BAT to obesity and in a gender dependent manner. While in obese females deletion of Mfn2 results in increased coupled respiratory efficiency of BAT mitochondria oxidizing fat, Mfn2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New members of uncoupling protein family implicated in energy metabolism. AU - Hosoda, Kiminori. AU - Matsuda, Junichi. AU - Itoh, Hiroshi. AU - Cheol, Son. AU - Kentaro, Doi. AU - Tanaka, Tokuji. AU - Fukunaga, Yasutomo. AU - Yamori, Yukio. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. PY - 1999/7/14. Y1 - 1999/7/14. N2 - 1. The regulation of energy metabolism involves food intake and energy expenditure. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are implicated in energy expenditure. 2. cDNA of a homologue of UCP highly expressed in rat skeletal muscle, UCP-3, is isolated and sequenced. Rat UCP-2 cDNA is also isolated and sequenced. 3. Rat UCP-3 cDNA probe hybridized two bands, a major band at 2.5 kb and a minor band at 2.8 kb in rat tissues. The mRNA was expressed at the highest level in the skeletal muscle, and moderately in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT). Only weak signals were detected in the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the heart. Rat UCP-2 cDNA probe hybridized a 1.7 kb band ...
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Biologists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified a signaling pathway that switches on a powerful calorie-burning process in brown fat cells.
Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ, whose sole purpose is to burn calories, which it does with remarkable efficiency (to generate heat).. Not surprisingly, much current research focuses on harnessing this tissue to control or even reduce body weight.. Now a paper by Aaron Cypess and colleagues from the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, published in Cell Metabolism, describes the use of the β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist mirabegron, a drug normally used to treat bladder dysfunction, to stimulate brown adipose tissue in humans.. The studies were carried out in 12 healthy young lean male volunteers, who were each given a single 200 mm dose of mirabegron.. Subsequent imaging studies using PET and CT scanning showed substantial activation of brown adipose tissue depots associated with an rise in resting metabolic rate of over 200 cal per day.. Unfortunately, these changes were accompanied by a significant rise in heart rate and blood pressure, not exactly a desired effect when it comes ...
PubMed journal article: Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis: interdisciplinary studies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Alterations in nonshivering thermogenesis are presently discussed as being both potentially causative of and able to counteract obesity. However, the necessity for mammals to defend their body temperature means that the ambient temperature profoundly affects the outcome and interpretation of metabolic experiments. An adequate understanding and assessment of nonshivering thermogenesis is therefore paramount for metabolic studies. Classical nonshivering thermogenesis is facultative, i.e. it is only activated when an animal acutely requires extra heat (switched on in minutes), and adaptive, i.e. it takes weeks for an increase in capacity to develop. Nonshivering thermogenesis is fully due to brown adipose tissue activity; adaptation corresponds to the recruitment of this tissue. Diet-induced thermogenesis is probably also facultative and adaptive and due to brown adipose tissue activity. Although all mammals respond to injected/infused norepinephrine (noradrenaline) with an increase in metabolism, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brown adipose tissue and the regulation of nonshivering thermogenesis.. AU - van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent rediscovery of functional cold activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans fuelled an uprise in studies on this tissue. This review focuses on the contribution of human BAT to nonshivering thermogenesis and on factors other than cold that activate BAT. RECENT FINDINGS: Earlier studies revealed BAT activity using a glucose tracer for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning. Several recent studies, using a mix of tracers and PET/CT dynamic scanning showed that human brown fat is metabolically active and related to the perfusion of the tissue. The actual contribution of BAT to nonshivering thermogenesis still needs to be explored.The last few years, several new factors that activate human BAT have been described. These studies also highlight the plasticity of brown and white ...
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Objectives : This study was designed to examine the effect of Ecklonia cava on expressing of blood lipids and UCP-1 of brown adipose tissue(BAT) in zucker rats. Methods : Experimental groups were divided into 3 groups: normal group, control group and sample group for 7 separate rats as expriment. Control and sample groups were genetrically modified obesity. All groups didnt impose restrictions on food and water. And we gave a ecklonia cava to sample group for 6 weeks. Ecklonia cava was examined in effects of blood glucose, insulin concentration and UCP-1 in brown adipose tissue. Results : 1. Control and sample groups were increased in weight. But, sample group was decreased as compared to control group. 2. Sample group was decreased significantly as compared to control group with insulin concentration, HOMA, TG, FFA. 3. Sample group was increased significantly as compared to control group with UCP-1 mRNA. Conclusions : Based on these results, it was proved that Ecklonia cava on obesity effects in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hemangioendothelial sarcoma in brown adipose tissue of mouse induced by carcinogenic heterocyclic amine, Glu-P-1. AU - Sakamoto, M.. AU - Takayama, S.. AU - Hosoda, Y.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3,2-d]limidazole, a potent bacterial mutagen from glutamic acid pyrolysate, when give to male CDF1 mice at a concentration of 0.05% in the diet induced blood vessel tumors characterized histopathologically. These hemangioendothelial sarcomas showed positive alkaline phosphatase activity histochemically and Weibel-Palade bodies ultrastructurally. Neoplasms were predilective for brown adipose tissue and foci of atypical cells, not peliosis-like lesions, appear to be an early stage in tumor development.. AB - 2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3,2-d]limidazole, a potent bacterial mutagen from glutamic acid pyrolysate, when give to male CDF1 mice at a concentration of 0.05% in the diet induced blood vessel tumors characterized histopathologically. These ...
Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing β1-subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces browning of primary white adipocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that sGC is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. The enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) regulates
TY - JOUR. T1 - α2 adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of thermogenesis. AU - Madden, Christopher J.. AU - Tupone, Domenico. AU - Cano, Georgina. AU - Morrison, Shaun F.. PY - 2013/1/30. Y1 - 2013/1/30. N2 - α2 adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonists have been used as antihypertensive agents, in the management of drug withdrawal, and as sedative analgesics. Since α2-AR agonists also influence the regulation of body temperature, we explored their potential as antipyretic agents. This study delineates the central neural substrate for the inhibition of rat brown adipose tissue (BAT) and shivering thermogenesis by α2-AR agonists. Nanoinjection of the α2-AR agonist clonidine (1.2 nmol) into the rostral raphe pallidus area (rRPa) inhibited BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and BAT thermogenesis. Subsequent nanoinjection of the α2-AR antagonist idazoxan (6 nmol) into the rRPa reversed the clonidine-evoked inhibition of BAT SNA and BAT thermogenesis. Systemic administration of the α2-AR ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT; brown fat) is the principal site of adaptive thermogenesis in the human newborn and other small mammals. Of paramount importance for thermogenesis is vascular perfusion, which controls the flow of cool blood in, and warmed blood out, of BAT. We have developed an optical method for the quantitative imaging of BAT perfusion in the living, intact animal using the heptamethine indocyanine IR-786 and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light. We present a detailed analysis of the physical, chemical, and cellular properties of IR-786, its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics, and its uptake into BAT. Using transgenic animals with homozygous deletion of Type II iodothyronine deiodinase, or homozygous deletion of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 1 and 2, we demonstrate that BAT perfusion can be measured non- invasively, accurately, and reproducibly. Using these tech- niques, we show that UCP ¡1/¡2 knockout animals, when compared to wild-type animals, have a higher baseline perfusion ...
This study was undertaken to determine whether receptor and non-receptor components of the adenylate cyclase (AC) cascade were altered in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of 14-day-old pre-obese (fa/fa) rats, before endocrine status is strongly modified by fa gene expression. Activity of the AC catalytic subunit did not differ between the two genotypes. In fa/fa rats compared with control Fa/fa rats, there was a 50% decrease in the activity of alpha Gs (stimulated by NaF or guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) but no change in protein content (Western blotting). alpha Gi function, assessed by the inhibitory action of low concentrations of guanosine 5′-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate upon 10(-4) M forskolin-stimulated AC activity, was equally low in both genotypes. Analysis of dose-response curves for different beta-agonists revealed that (i) both the basal and the maximally stimulated activity of AC were 2-fold lower in fa/fa rats than in Fa/fa rats; (ii) BRL37344 and CGP12177 (beta 3 agonists) ...
Abstract: Prevalence of obesity and co-morbidities is increasing alarmingly in recent years with over 1 billion adults globally being classified as overweight. Importantly, this also applies to the population in Qatar where about 70% of the total population are expected to be overweight and nearly 20% diabetic by 2015. The profound increase in obesity has a severe socio-economic burden for public health systems worldwide. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has high metabolic activity. Increasing BAT mass in itself as well as through trans-differentiation of white adipose tissue (WAT) to BAT can combat obesity, reverse insulin resistance and diabetes. Orexin A (ORA) and orexin B (ORB) neuropeptides mediate multiple physiological functions including sleep and wakefulness, appetite, metabolism, analgesia, stress response and thermogenesis. Orexins mediate physiological responses via activating two GPCRs OXR1 and OXR2. In the current study we demonstrate for the first time the expression of OXR1 and OXR2 in human
Intracellular calcium-permeable channels have been implicated in thermogenic function of murine brown and brite/beige adipocytes, respectively transient receptor potential melastin-8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-4. Because the endo-lysosomal two-pore channels (TPCs) have also been ascribed with metabolic functionality, we studied the effect of simultaneously knocking out TPC1 and TPC2 on body composition and energy balance in male mice fed a chow diet. Compared with wild-type mice, TPC1 and TPC2 double knockout (Tpcn1/2(-/-)) animals had a higher respiratory quotient and became obese between 6 and 9 months of age. Although food intake was unaltered, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) maximal temperature and lean-mass adjusted oxygen consumption were lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) than in wild type mice. Phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase expression, lipid density and expression of β-adrenergic receptors were also lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) BAT, whereas mitochondrial respiratory chain
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are a novel class of insulin-sensitizing agents used in the treatment of NIDDM and are potent agonists for the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). The thiazolidinedione BRL 49653 has been shown to promote the differentiation of the HIB-1B brown preadipocyte cell line and to increase rat interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass. Given the importance of brown fat in the control of energy metabolism in rodents, this may represent an important therapeutic effect of this class of compound. To date, however, no studies examining the effects of TZDs on human brown fat have been reported. In the present study, we have measured uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) mRNA, a specific marker for BAT, in isolated adipocytes and subcultured preadipocytes prepared from different adult human adipose tissue depots. Consistent with previous studies of adult human whole adipose tissue, UCP-1 mRNA was detectable in isolated human adipocytes ...
Whittle AJ, Carobbio S, Martins L, Slawik M, Hondares E, Vázquez MJ, Morgan D, Csikasz RI, Gallego R, Rodriguez-Cuenca S, Dale M, Virtue S, Villarroya F, Cannon B, Rahmouni K, López M, Vidal-Puig A. BMP8B increases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis through both central and peripheral actions. Cell. 2012 May 11;149(4):871-85. Virtue S, Masoodi M, Velagapudi V, Tan CY, Dale M, Suorti T, Slawik M, Blount M, Burling K, Campbell M, Eguchi N, Medina-Gomez G, Sethi JK, Orešič M, Urade Y, Griffin JL, Vidal-Puig A. Lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase and PPARγ2 coordinate to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in vivo. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e39512. Virtue S, Even P, Vidal-Puig A. Below thermoneutrality, changes in activity do not drive changes in total daily energy expenditure between groups of mice. Cell Metab. 2012 Nov 7;16(5):665-71.. Whittle AJ, Vidal-Puig A. Physiology: Immune cells fuel the fire. Nature. 2011 Dec 1;480(7375):46-7.. Prieur X, Mok CY, Velagapudi VR, Núñez V, Fuentes L, ...
Measurement of energy balance during voluntary overeating in rats unequivocally establishes the quantitative importance of diet-induced thermogenesis in energy balance. Like cold-induced thermogenesis, this form of heat production involves changes in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system an …
We have recently generated immortalized fetal brown adipocyte cell lines from insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) knockout mice and demonstrated an impairment in insulin-induced lipid synthesis as compared to wild-type cell lines. In this study, we investigated the consequences of IRS-1 deficiency on mitogenesis in response to insulin. The lack of IRS-1 resulted in the inability of insulin-stimulated IRS-1-deficient brown adipocytes to increase DNA synthesis and enter into S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle. These cells showed a severe impairment in activating mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) and p42-p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) upon insulin stimulation. IRS-1-deficient cells also lacked tyrosine phosphorylation of SHC and showed no SHC-Grb-2 association in response to insulin. The mitogenic response to insulin could be partially restored by enhancing IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and its association with Grb-2 by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity through
We studied the effects of a 3-day fast and 20 days of refeeding on lipoprotein lipase activity (LPL) in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) of sexually mature male rats. Rats were refed either ad libitum or restricted quantities (75 or 50% of normal ad libitum food intake). BAT-LPL, expressed on a per depot basis, decreased with fasting and returned to control values by day 3 of refeeding ad libitum. In contrast, refeeding restricted quantities for 5 to 20 days limited regain of body weight and increased BAT-LPL significantly above the values observed in rats refed ad libitum ...
In the second part of this thesis, we investigated the role of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue with particular focus on how adipose mTORC2 affects non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and cold-induced glucose uptake. We found that mTORC2 signaling was induced in brown adipocytes by beta-adrenergic stimulation via cAMP, Epac1 and PI3K. Furthermore, mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue was required for temperature homeostasis, since mice lacking mTORC2 signaling in mature adipocytes (adipose tissue specific rictor knockout (AdRiKO) mice) were hypothermic and sensitive to cold stress. While lipid store mobilization and induction of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial uncoupling were not impaired in AdRiKO mice, inactivation of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue resulted in a significant impairment in cold-induced glucose uptake and glycolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Interestingly, restoration of glucose metabolism in BAT via introduction of a constitutively active form of Akt2 or via ...
Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mechanistically, a key change induced by Arc NPY signaling is a marked Y1 receptor-mediated reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is also associated with a reduction in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions in the brainstem. Consistent with this, Arc NPY signaling decreased sympathetically innervated BAT thermogenesis, involving the downregulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data reveal a powerful Arc-NPY-regulated neuronal circuit that controls BAT thermogenesis and sympathetic output via TH
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), the specific marker of brown adipose tissue, is transcriptionally activated in response to adrenergic stimuli and thyroid hormones are necessary for its full expression. We describe differences in the regulation of UCP-1 mRNA expression between rat and mouse brown adipocytes in culture, using norepinephrine (NE), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin and retinoic acid (RA). Results: NE and cAMP-elevating agents strongly increase UCP-1 mRNA levels in cultures of mouse adipocytes, but increases are low in those from rat. In rat adipocytes NE poorly increases UCP-1 mRNA expression and T3 markedly increases the adrenergic response of UCP-1, an effect not observed in mouse adipocytes. In the absence of insulin, T3 itself increases UCP-1 mRNA in rat adipocytes and enhances the response to NE, while in mouse adipocytes no effect of T3 is observed. RA by itself stimulates UCP-1 mRNA in mouse adipocytes, but not in those from rat. In rat cultures, RA requires the presence of NE ...
The NEJM showed that abdominal fat was reduced significantly, but we already know that cold-induced thermogenesis can enhance conversion of white fat into brown fat. Of course, cold is not a practical approach and it may not be pleasant, but if you have a high tolerance for cold- keep the air conditioning at high levels in the summer, wear as little clothing as possible and take cold showers!! You may also want to try swimming in a cold pool, the ocean or live a brown fat-activating lifestyle and become a fat-burning machine!. For more authoritative information on brown fat, see ThermoHeat Weight Loss Revolution, by Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D, including the foreword by Daniel L. Friedman, MD and Eugene B Friedman, MD. You can click the link to order or order on Amazon here. The Thermo Heat Weight Loss Revolution is a groundbreaking scientific plan based on research involving brown fat (BAT.) The ThermoHeat Weight Loss Revolution offers its readers a brown fat, thermogenic and brown fat-activating ...
Provides an aqueous formulation of the lipophilic squaraine rotaxane dye, SRfluor® 680 phenyl, in micelles composed of DPPE-PEG2000 which is known to accumulate in interscapular brown adipose tissue in mice. Spectral properties: abs max = 646 nm and emission max = 670 nm in PBS ...
Studies are being conducted concerning the activation of the SNS innervation of brown adipose tissue (energy dissipating fat) and its role as the primary stimulator of thermogenesis in this tissue, which increases energy expenditure and potentially decreases body fat if food intake is stable or decreased. SNS activation of white adipose tissue also can induce changes in white adipocytes such that they become browner adipocyte-like, making them thermogenic similar to that of true brown adipocytes. This is being researched for its ability to increase energy expenditure with the potential to contribute to obesity reversal ...
avUCP belongs to the UCP class of the mitochondrial transporter family, in which UCP1, the prime UCP discovered some 30 years ago, is clearly involved in mammalian brown adipose tissue NST. As its homologous mammalian UCP (Echtay et al., 2002), avUCP increases mitochondrial inner membrane conductance when activated in native mitochondria (Talbot et al., 2003) or when ectopically expressed in yeast (Vianna et al., 2001; Criscuolo et al., 2005). This uncoupling activity suggests that avUCP may have a physiological thermogenic activity through the regulation of the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The oxidative phosphorylation represents the biochemical process that couples the transfer of electrons from substrates to oxygen with the production of ATP, i.e. the main form of useable energy that organisms can allocate to fitness-related entities including maintenance, growth, reproduction, foraging and ultimately survival. The energy released when electrons are passed down the ...
This review attempts to cover the implication of the adipose tissue in controlling immune functions with emphasis on the structure and properties of adipose tissue, adipokines produced by adipose tissue, immune cells in adipose tissue and molecular mediators of adipose tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue (AT) in mammals is a complex, multi-depot, anatomically dissectible discrete structure with high metabolic activity. Both excess and deficiency of adipose tissue affect the normal homeostasis of the body. The AT comprises of two types of adipocytes, white adipocytes which store lipids whereas brown adipocytes which oxidize these lipids to produce heat. Further, to serving as a fat depot, AT also serves as endocrine adipose organ producing many bioactive molecules, called adipokines.
Thermogenin (called uncoupling protein by its discoverers and now known as uncoupling protein 1, or UCP1) is an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT). It is used to generate heat by non-shivering thermogenesis, and makes a quantitatively important contribution to countering heat loss in neonates which would otherwise occur due to their high surface area-volume ratio. UCPs are transmembrane proteins that decrease the proton gradient generated in oxidative phosphorylation. They do this by increasing the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, allowing protons that have been pumped into the intermembrane space to return to the mitochondrial matrix. UCP1-mediated heat generation in brown fat uncouples the respiratory chain, allowing for fast substrate oxidation with a low rate of ATP production. UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
Adipose tissue is a complex metabolic organ that regulates whole body energy balance. Two major types of adipose tissue are found in mammals, white fat and brown fat. Both types store energy as triglyceride in intracellular lipid droplets and secrete a host of hormones, called adipokines, which influence metabolic homeostasis. White adipose tissue primarily stores fat, which can be mobilized in times of need. In contrast, brown adipose tissue is highly specialized for transforming the chemical energy in food into heat through uncoupled respiration. The current studies are aimed at understanding the role of peroxisomal dynamics in adipose tissue development and function. In addition, we are interested in understanding the interaction of peroxisomes with other organelles and the role of these interactions in adipose tissue remodeling and thermogenesis ...
Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were used to study effects of oral administration of interferon tau (IFNT) in reducing obesity. Eighteen ZDF rats (28 days of age) were assigned randomly to receive 0, 4, or 8 μg IFNT/kg body weight (BW) per day (n = 6/group) for 8 weeks. Water consumption was measured every two days. Food intake and BW were recorded weekly. Energy expenditure in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old rats was determined using indirect calorimetry. Starting at 7 weeks of age, urinary glucose, and ketone bodies were tested daily. Rates of glucose and oleate oxidation in liver, brown adipose tissue, and abdominal adipose tissue, as well as leucine catabolism in skeletal muscle, and lipolysis in white and brown adipose tissues were greater for rats treated with 8 μg IFNT/kg BW/day in comparison with control rats. Treatment with 8 μg IFNT/kg BW/day increased heat production, reduced BW gain and adiposity, ameliorated fatty liver syndrome, delayed the onset of diabetes, and decreased ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is vital for proper thermogenesis during cold exposure in rodents, but until recently its presence in adult humans and its contribution to human metabolism were thought to be minimal or insignificant. Recent studies using PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) have shown the presence of BAT in adult humans. However, whether BAT contributes to cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis in humans has not been proven. Using PET with 11C-acetate, 18FDG, and 18F-fluoro-thiaheptadecanoic acid (18FTHA), a fatty acid tracer, we have quantified BAT oxidative metabolism and glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) turnover in 6 healthy men under controlled cold exposure conditions. All subjects displayed substantial NEFA and glucose uptake upon cold exposure. Furthermore, we demonstrated cold-induced activation of oxidative metabolism in BAT, but not in adjoining skeletal muscles and subcutaneous adipose tissue. This activation was associated with an increase in total energy ...
Principal Investigator:KUROSHIMA Akihiro, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Environmental physiology (including Physical medicine and Nutritional physiology)
What would we do if we couldnt shiver? . . . . Wed probably get really cold!. And this is why babies have a special kind of fat - because they cant shiver. Not all fat is created the same, we have two different types of it - white fat and brown fat.. The fat we call white, even though its actually yellow, is what we all think of when we talk about fat in the body. Its the stuff we consider bad and which collects around midriffs, thighs and bums. It stores calories and can be stubborn to reduce or remove.. The other type of fat - the brown stuff, is medically known as brown adipose tissue and scientists have known about it for decades. Unlike its white counterpart, brown fat actually burns excess energy to produce heat. But sadly, its something that is in short supply in adults.. Newborns, on the other hand, have an amazing source of brown fat. At birth, brown fat makes up about 5% of a babys total weight. Babies store brown fat in little pockets, mostly along and between their shoulder ...
This Microphotography Of Orange And Blue House Miniature On Brown Snail S Back Color Palette picture has 20 main colors. The main color names are; Gunmetal Green, Silver, Fife, Sunny Pavement, Epidote Olvene Ore, Iris Eyes, Orchilla, Presumption, Chinaberry, Hokey Pokey, Spring Roll, Blue Regal, Pioneer Village, Snowflake, Bleached Bone, Cool Black, Sambucus, Foundation White, Blue Ranger, Lovely Euphoric Delight. You can use this color scheme to create a beautiful color combination for your project design ...
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
aKeenan Research Center, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michaels Hospital. bDepartment of Medicine. cDepartment of Physiology. dDepartment of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Correspondence to Dominic S. Ng, PhD, MD, Keenan Research Center, St. Michaels Hospital, Shuter Wing Room 3-041, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B1W8, Canada. Tel: +1 416 864 5197; fax: +1 416 864 5584; e-mail: [email protected] ...
While some individuals believe that one way to utilize brown fat is to develop a cold sauna that individuals can simply sit in, wouldnt it be better to combine brown fat activation with white fat activation? There still is limited information on what type of exposure regiment is optimal for brown fat activation. For example is it better to be exposed to high intensity cold at low volume (-50 degrees F for 30 seconds) or low intensity cold at high volume (20 degrees F for 5 minutes)? Note that brown fat activates as long as the temperature is cold enough whether it is acute cold or eventual chronic cold; however, prolonged exposure to certain cold conditions can produce negative results for exposed skin, so determining a differentiated methodology would be advisable. Also gyms or cold saunas would have to set up a stepwise exposure protocol allowing users to move gradually from initial temperatures to final temperatures because a near instant temperature change from say 70 degrees F to 0 ...
Excess adipose tissue brings with it a number of adverse consequences, many of which may stem from the development of insulin resistance. An emerging view is that inflammatory changes occurring in expanding adipose tissue are associated with the secretion of peptide and other factors that can adversely affect metabolic processes in other key insulin-target tissues, especially liver and skeletal muscle. However, there is still a commonly-expressed view that the adverse changes in other tissues are ultimately due to an excess of fatty acids, liberated by a metabolically-challenged adipose tissue. Our own studies of adipose tissue metabolism and physiological function (especially blood flow) IN VIVO suggest that these two views of adipose tissue function may be closely linked. Enlarged adipocytes are less dynamic in their responses, just as enlarged adipose tissue is less dynamic in blood flow regulation. Adipocytes seem to be able to sense the appropriate level of fat storage. If the normal mechanisms
Objective: Obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic diseases that represent a critical health problem worldwide. Metabolic disease is differentially associated with fat distribution, while visceral white adipose tissue (VAT) is particularly prone to obesity-associated inflammation. Next to their canonical function of immune suppression, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key in controlling adipose tissue homeostasis. Towards understanding the molecular underpinnings of metabolic disease, we focus on how environmental-metabolic stimuli impinge on the functional interplay between Tregs and adipose tissue. Here, cold exposure or beta3-adrenergic signaling are a promising tool to increase energy expenditure by activating brown adipose tissue, as well as by reducing local inflammation within fat depots by supporting immunosuppressive Tregs. However, in humans, the underlying mechanisms that enable the environmental-immune crosstalk in the periphery and in the respective tissue remain currently ...
Distinct developmental origins contribute to white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice. In the trunk, white adipocytes arise from adipocyte progenitor cells (APs) present in the mural wall of WAT blood vessels (truncal WAT). These APs could stem from lateral mesoderm-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which originate from a common endothelial and mesenchymal cell precursor which also gives rise to the subcutaneous progenitor population. In contrast,,white adipose depots in the head originate from the cranial neural crest, and not the mesoderm progenitors. BAT and skeletal muscles share a common developmental origin, which is distinct from WAT. They originate from paraxial mesoderm-derived progenitor cells residing in the dermomyotome, a somite sub-domain. It is assumed that some WAT progenitor cells can transdifferntiate to give rise to brown-like progenitor cells.. ...
Researchers at UCSF have identified the lynchpin that activates brown fat cells, which burn fat molecules instead of storing them, making them the focus of pharmaceutical research aimed at fighting obesity.
Researchers at UCSF have identified the lynchpin that activates brown fat cells, which burn fat molecules instead of storing them, making them the focus of pharmaceutical research aimed at fighting obesity.
Comprehensive studies led by S. Cintis group identified several BAT depots in adult mice and provided a physiological blueprint for studying the function and metabolic contribution of mouse BAT (8). Here, we describe the existence of an additional BAT depot, scBAT, in mouse embryos and adult mice. Specifically, the mouse scBAT depot is situated above the clavicle bones in a region analogous to the region where human supraclavicular BAT resides. Like iBAT, mouse scBAT is densely packed with mitochondria, responds to β3-adrenergic stimulation, and expresses Ucp1 at levels comparable to iBAT, suggesting that scBAT also possesses the potential for thermoregulation. Adipose tissue transplantation studies further demonstrated that the effects of scBAT on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and maintenance of body temperature under cold exposure are similar to those of iBAT. Interestingly, we also observed increased endogenous BAT mass in mice transplanted with either iBAT or scBAT. However, ...
Thermogenesis and obesity: Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue as an energy buffer; Natural Alternatives to Over-the-Counter and Prescription Drugs
Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) functions as a sensor for lysosomal arginine levels and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). While the mTORC1 signaling pathway plays a key role in adipose tissue metabolism, the regulatory function of TM4SF5 in adipocytes remains unclear. This study aimed to establish a TM4SF5 knockout (KO) mouse model and investigated the effects of TM4SF5 KO on mTORC1 signaling-mediated autophagy and mitochondrial metabolism in adipose tissue. TM4SF5 expression was higher in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) than in brown adipose tissue and significantly upregulated by a high-fat diet (HFD). TM4SF5 KO reduced mTORC1 activation and enhanced autophagy and lipolysis in adipocytes. RNAseq analysis of TM4SF5 KO mouse iWAT showed that the expression of genes involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha signaling pathways and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism were upregulated. Consequently, TM4SF5 KO reduced adiposity and ...
Der molekulare Mechanismus der durch Thermogenin vermittelten Entkopplung ist recht gut verstanden - die Funktion dieses Ionenkanals stellt innerhalb der Oxidativen Phosphorylierung einen zusätzlichen Pfad für den Wiedereintritt von Protonen in die mitochondriale Matrix zur Verfügung. Wird Thermogenin aktiviert, schließt es - ähnlich wie 2,4-Dinitrophenol - den Protonen-Kreislauf kurz, der die Atmungskette an den ATP-Synthase-Komplex koppelt, welcher das Adenosintriphosphat (ATP) für den Energiehaushalt der Zelle liefert: Durch Thermogenin wird diese Kopplung aufgehoben und die durch Zellatmung gewonnene Energie ohne Bildung des Energiespeichers ATP unmittelbar in Wärme umgesetzt (Dissipation). Thermogenin steht in Beziehung zu anderen mitochondrialen Stoffwechseltransportern wie dem Adenin-Nukleotid-Transporter, einem Protonenkanal in der inneren Mitochondrienmembran, der den Transport von Protonen aus dem Membranzwischenraum in die mitochondriale Matrix vermittelt. UCP1 kommt ...
Ephedrine Powder promotes modest short-term weight loss, specifically fat loss, but its long-term effects are unknown. In mice, ephedrine is known to stimulate thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue, but because adult humans have only small amounts of brown fat, thermogenesis is assumed to take place mostly
"Brown adipose tissue , anatomy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-08. Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, ... "4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion". 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion - Anatomy and Physiology. opentextbc.ca. OpenStax. 6 March 2013. ... In addition, shivering also signals the body to produce irisin, a hormone that has been shown to convert white fat to brown fat ... The sustained supply of oxygen to body tissues determines the body temperature range of an organism. Eurytherms that live in ...
Non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue (brown fat) that is present in almost all eutherians (swine being ... Hou, Lianjie; Hu, Ching Yuan; Wang, Chong (April 2017). "Pig Has No Brown Adipose Tissue". The FASEB Journal. 31 (S1). doi: ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiol. Rev. 84 (1): 277- ... Brown adipose tissue has a unique uncoupling protein (thermogenin, also known as uncoupling protein 1) that allows the ...
Unique type of brown adipose tissue, allowing mammals to generate heat quickly. Mitochondria with five to seven times higher ... Cannon, B. (1 January 2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): ...
The uncoupling protein, thermogenin-present in the inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipose tissue-provides for an ... "Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): 277-359. doi:10.1152/physrev. ...
Heat production by brown adipose tissue which is activated after consumption of a meal is an additional component of dietary ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 ( ...
Interscapular brown adipose tissue, also known as Hibernating gland; Instruction Block Address Translation registers in PowerPC ...
Lowell, B.B.; Flier, J.S. (1997). "Brown adipose tissue, beta 3-adrenergic receptors, and obesity". Annu. Rev. Med. 48. pp. 307 ... β3 receptors are mainly located in adipose tissue. Activation of the β3 receptors induces the metabolism of lipids. Indications ... and in smooth muscle tissue; epinephrine expresses the higher affinity. The activation of β1, β2 and β3 activates the enzyme, ... ultimately inducing smooth muscle relaxation and contraction of the cardiac tissue. Activation of β1 receptors induces positive ...
In mice, PM20D1 is highly expressed and secreted into the blood by brown fat. Its expression in adipose tissues is increased ...
subscription or UK public library membership required) Rothwell, N.; Stock, M. (1979). "A role for brown adipose tissue in diet ... MacDonald, I. A.; Rothwell, N. J.; Stock, M. J. (1976). "Lipolytic and lipogenic activities of adipose tissue during ... Brown, Matthew (September 2004) "A Society Fellow", in: AUTlook. Association of University Teachers; no. 231, pp. 24-25. " ...
It consists of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and ... Melanin: It is brown in colour and present in the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanoid: It resembles melanin but is present ... The subcutaneous tissue (also hypodermis and subcutis) is not part of the skin, but lies below the dermis of the cutis. Its ... The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and ...
Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 9;360(15):1509-17. "Latino ... 2009: Researchers in the lab of C. Ronald Kahn discover that brown fat is present in some adults, providing a new target for ...
... it was found that TRPV2 is expressed in brown adipocytes and in brown adipose tissue (BAT). It can be concluded that TRPV2 ... March 2016). "Lack of TRPV2 impairs thermogenesis in mouse brown adipose tissue". EMBO Reports. 17 (3): 383-99. doi:10.15252/ ... The same channel can have different functions depending on the type of tissue. Other roles of TRPV2 continue to be explored in ... These channels are expressed in medium to large diameter neurons, motor neurons, and other non-neuronal tissues like the heart ...
2016). "USF1 deficiency activates brown adipose tissue and improves cardiometabolic health". Science Translational Medicine. 8 ... A study of mice suggested reduced USF1 levels increases metabolism in brown fat. USF1 (human gene) has been shown to interact ...
... brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, placenta, macrophages, and demonstrated additional roles in diabetes and cancer. ... "Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge". Nature. 546 (7659): 544-548. Bibcode: ... The contributions of individual ERRs to physiology continue to be elucidated through the generation of sophisticated tissue- ... "ERRγ enhances UCP1 expression and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipocytes". Obesity. 21 (3): 516-24. doi:10.1002/oby.20067. ...
The second is non-shivering, which occurs in brown adipose tissue. Population studies have shown that the San tribe of Southern ... OCLC 767567894.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link) Brown, Douglas J.A.; Brugger, Hermann; Boyd, Jeff; Paal, Peter ( ...
Klingenberg M (March 1990). "Mechanism and evolution of the uncoupling protein of brown adipose tissue". Trends in Biochemical ...
Many studies support that the orexin neurons regulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity via the sympathetic nervous system to ... Although orexin knockout mice were reported to show maldevelopment of brown adipose tissue (BAT), subsequent report has shown ... Sellayah D, Bharaj P, Sikder D (October 2011). "Orexin is required for brown adipose tissue development, differentiation, and ... "An orexinergic projection from perifornical hypothalamus to raphe pallidus increases rat brown adipose tissue thermogenesis". ...
It functions in the differentiation between white and brown adipose tissue. It can also be a repressor of transforming growth ...
... and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. It was recently identified as an important regulator of the mammalian circadian clock, ... brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, intestine, and skeletal muscle. Recently, ERRα has been detected in normal adrenal cortex ... "Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge". Nature. 546 (7659): 544-548. Bibcode: ... ERRα has wide tissue distribution but it is most highly expressed in tissues that preferentially use fatty acids as energy ...
"BMP8B increases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis through both central and peripheral actions". Cell. 149 (4): 871-85. doi: ... activation of thermogenesis in adipose tissue, molecular mechanisms controlling energy expenditure and brown fat activation, ... Novel concepts worked on by Vidal-Puig include: Adipose tissue expandability hypothesis. The concept was advanced by him in ... According to the hypothesis, the expansion of adipose tissue (AT) is a normal phenomenon when an individual undergoes sustained ...
... recently been found to augment the conversion of white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue as well as increase brown adipose ... "Ablation of endothelial VEGFR1 improves metabolic dysfunction by inducing adipose tissue browning". The Journal of Experimental ...
BMPs are also involved in adipogenesis and functional regulation of adipose tissue. BMP4 favors white adipogenesis, whereas ... BMP7 activates brown fat functionality; BMP inhibitors are also involved in this regulation Originally, seven such proteins ... Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in adipose tissue". Obesity Reviews. 20 (5): 648-658. doi:10.1111/obr.12822. ISSN 1467- ... There are reports of this therapy causing swelling of soft tissue which in turn can cause life-threatening complications due to ...
... and in brown adipose tissue. Their role in gallbladder physiology is unknown, but they are thought to play a role in lipolysis ... Thermogenesis in skeletal muscle It is located mainly in adipose tissue and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and ... Actions of the β3 receptor include Enhancement of lipolysis in adipose tissue. ... adiponectin receptors and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expressions in adipose tissues of obese diabetic KKAy mice". European ...
"Hibernation activates glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis in black bear brown adipose tissue". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ( ... While the DNA has been expressed in some tissues, including the liver and small intestine in test animals, the level of ... in some animal tissue has raised questions regarding the evolutionary relationship of enzymes in bacteria and animals and ... some studies show evidence of components of the glyoxylate cycle existing in significant amounts in the liver tissue of ...
"The expression of UCP3 directly correlates to UCP1 abundance in brown adipose tissue". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... an uncoupling protein homologue expressed preferentially and abundantly in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue". ... UCP1 is highly expressed in brown adipocytes, UCP2 is variably expressed in many different tissues, and UCP3 is expressed ... Argyropoulos G, Brown AM, Willi SM, Zhu J, He Y, Reitman M, Gevao SM, Spruill I, Garvey WT (October 1998). "Effects of ...
2006). "Expression of TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Relationship with other inflammatory ... Brown SA, Hanscom HN, Vu H, et al. (2006). "TWEAK binding to the Fn14 cysteine-rich domain depends on charged residues located ... Meighan-Mantha RL, Hsu DK, Guo Y, Brown SA, Feng SL, Peifley KA, Alberts GF, Copeland NG, Gilbert DJ, Jenkins NA, Richards CM, ...
"BMP7 activates brown adipose tissue and reduces diet-induced obesity only at subthermoneutrality". PLOS ONE. 8 (9): e74083. doi ... BMP7 not only stimulates brown adipogenesis, it also stimulates the "browning" of brite or beige adipocytes, turning them from ... The epithelial tissue emerging from this MET process eventually forms the tubules and glomeruli of the nephron. BMP-7 is also ... Brown A, Stock G, Patel AA, Okafor C, Vaccaro A (2006). "Osteogenic protein-1 : a review of its utility in spinal applications ...
Thermogenin is primarily found in brown adipose tissue, or brown fat, and is responsible for non-shivering thermogenesis. Brown ... In humans, brown adipose tissue is present at birth and decreases with age. The concentrations of free calcium in the cell can ... adipose tissue is found in mammals, and is at its highest levels in early life and in hibernating animals. ... Tissues from elderly humans show a decrease in enzymatic activity of the proteins of the respiratory chain. However, mutated ...
5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0116498. Bibcode: ... It has agonistic (thyromimetic) effects at myocardial tissue and pituitary, which results in 3,5-T2 suppressing TSH release. 3, ... causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues". The Journal of Endocrinology. 221 (3): 415-27. doi: ...
... and are as diverse as brown and white adipose tissue, blood, cartilage and bone.[15]:158 Cells of the immune system, such as ... Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.[8] Other kinds ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ... Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose tissue and blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical cushioning" to the body, among ...
In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ... Ornish, D.; Brown, S. E.; Scherwitz, L. W.; Billings, J. H.; Armstrong, W. T.; Ports, T. A.; McLanahan, S. M.; Kirkeeide, R. L ...
Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. 2006: 222. ISBN 1-58829- ... DiBaise JK, Zhang H, Crowell MD, Krajmalnik-Brown R, Decker GA, Rittmann BE. Gut microbiota and its possible relationship with ...
Although BDNF is needed in the developmental stages, BDNF levels have been shown to decrease in tissues with aging.[90] Studies ... The Val66Met mutation results in a reduction of hippocampal tissue and has since been reported in a high number of individuals ... Post mortem analysis has shown lowered levels of BDNF in the brain tissues of people with Alzheimer's disease, although the ...
Adipose *Brown. *White. Dense. *Dense irregular connective tissue *Submucosa. *Dermis. *Dense regular connective tissue * ...
adipose tissue. A type of loose connective tissue made of mostly adipocytes and found in human and animal tissue, where it is ... A dark green to yellowish-brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, which aids the digestion of lipids in the ... tissue. trait. transcription. The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the ... Rather, semi-solid mesodermal tissues between the gut and body wall hold the animal's organs in place. Contrast coelomate and ...
He is also credited with being the first person to describe brown adipose tissue, in 1551,[14] in 1565 the first to document ... Gessner is credited with a number of the first descriptions of species in Europe, both animals such as the brown rat (Rattus ...
Patterson BE, Bates CJ (May 1989). "Riboflavin deficiency, metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue function in sucking and ... However, most of the flavin content of whole brown rice is retained if the rice is steamed (parboiled) prior to milling. This ... when tissue saturation occurs. At higher intakes, the rate of excretion increases dramatically.[36] Once intakes of 2.5 mg/d ... It provides a measure of tissue saturation and long-term riboflavin status. In vitro enzyme activity in terms of activity ...
Mazzone, Theodore; Fantuzzi, Giamila (2006). Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa ... DiBaise, J.K.; Zhang, H.; Crowell, M.D.; Krajmalnik-Brown, R.; Decker, G.A.; Rittmann, B.E. (april 2008). "Gut microbiota and ...
This can be contrasted with the density of adipose tissue (fat), which is 0.9196 kg/liter.[9] This makes muscle tissue ... C. Brown Publishers. pp. 326-374. ISBN 0-697-23486-X.. *^ a b Poole, RM, ed. (1986). The Incredible Machine. Washington, DC: ... Muscle tissue is a soft tissue, and is one of the four fundamental types of tissue present in animals. There are three types of ... This is larger than adipose tissue (fat) at 18.8 kJ/kg (4.5 kcal/kg), and bone at 9.6 kJ/kg (2.3 kcal/kg).[15] ...
... estrogen causes stromal tissue to grow and adipose (fat) tissue to accumulate,[20][21] as well as the nipple-areolar complex to ... Jansen LA, Backstein RM, Brown MH (2014). "Breast size and breast cancer: a systematic review". J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg. ... Exposure of macromastic breast stromal tissue to non-macromastic breast epithelial tissue was found to cause increased alveolar ... Elevated levels of HGF and, to a lesser extent, IGF-1 (by 5.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively), in breast stromal tissue, have ...
Adipose tissue is another important means of storing energy and this occurs in the abdomen (in internal structures called fat ... Brown, J. L.; Morales, V.; Summers, K. (2010). "A key ecological trait drove the evolution of biparental care and monogamy in ... Damage to either of these areas can reduce the fitness of the rival, either because of the need to regenerate tissue or because ... A: Mucus gland, B: Chromatophore, C: Granular poison gland, D: Connective tissue, E: Stratum corneum, F: Transition zone, G: ...
Farvid MS, Ng TW, Chan DC, Barrett PH, Watts GF (2005)։ «Association of adiponectin and resistin with adipose tissue ... C. Brown Publishers։ էջեր 326-374։ ISBN 0-697-23486-X *↑ Larsson L, Edström L, Lindegren B, Gorza L, Schiaffino S (July 1991)։ ... OOta S., Saitou N. (1999)։ «Phylogenetic relationship of muscle tissues deduced from superimposition of gene trees»։ Molecular ...
This fast growing skeletal tissue fuses with the dense dentary, becoming a permanent, growing kype. Many male trout (e.g. Brown ... ISBN 978-0-7748-0359-5. Haugland, T., Rudolfsen, G., Figenschou, L. and Folstad, I. (2011). "Is the adipose fin and the lower ... doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00239.x. Witten, P.E.; Hall, B.K. (2002). "Differentiation and growth of kype skeletal tissues in ... The dentary itself is made of compact bone, but the kype tissue contains chondrocytes and cartilage. The kype formation process ...
... and increased lipolysis by adipose tissue. Together, these effects lead to increased blood glucose and fatty acids, providing ... Fisher, Brown, Cooke (Eds) (2006) Joint Royal Colleges Ambulance Liaison Committee. UK Ambulance Clinical Practice Guidelines. ... As a hormone, epinephrine acts on nearly all body tissues. Its actions vary by tissue type and tissue expression of adrenergic ...
"Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake". The American Journal of ... Reaume AG, Elliott JL, Hoffman EK, Kowall NW, Ferrante RJ, Siwek DF, Wilcox HM, Flood DG, Beal MF, Brown RH, Scott RW, Snider ... Akiba S, Matsugo S, Packer L, Konishi T (May 1998). "Assay of protein-bound lipoic acid in tissues by a new enzymatic method". ... Brigelius-Flohé R (November 1999). "Tissue-specific functions of individual glutathione peroxidases". Free Radical Biology & ...
... as blood vessels in adipose tissue never fully mature, and are thus destroyed by angiogenesis inhibitors.[28] Angiogenesis ... Rosenfeld, Philip J.; Brown, David M.; Heier, Jeffrey S.; Boyer, David S.; Kaiser, Peter K.; Chung, Carol Y.; Kim, Robert Y. ( ...
... ephedrine is known to stimulate thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue, but because adult humans have only small amounts of ... brown fat, thermogenesis is assumed to take place mostly in the skeletal muscle. Ephedrine also decreases gastric emptying. ...
The earlobe consists of areola and adipose tissue.[5] The symmetrical arrangement of the two ears allows for the localisation ... Stenström, J. Sten: Deformities of the ear; In: Grabb, W., C., Smith, J.S. (Edited): "Plastic Surgery", Little, Brown and ... endoderm and connective tissue). The pinna originates as a fusion of six hillocks. The first three hillocks are derived from ... Eventually cells from the tissue surrounding the ossicles will experience apoptosis and a new layer of endodermal epithelial ...
Born Without Adipose Tissue: 'Maybe You Should Stop Staring And Start Learning'". Huffington Post.. ... Eriksson, M; Brown, WT; Gordon, LB; Glynn, MW; Singer, J; Scott, L; Erdos, MR; Robbins, CM; et al. (2003). "Recurrent de novo ... Brown, Tara. "Race Against Time". 60 Minutes. MSN. Retrieved 21 March 2013.. ... Xu, D; Guo, R; Sobeck, A; Bachrati, CZ; Yang, J; Enomoto, T; Brown, GW; Hoatlin, ME; et al. (2008). "RMI, a new OB-fold complex ...
1c has also been shown to upregulate in a tissue specific manner the expression of PGC1alpha expression in brown adipose tissue ... Yokoyama C, Wang X, Briggs MR, Admon A, Wu J, Hua X, Goldstein JL, Brown MS (Oct 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix- ... Brown MS, Goldstein JL (Sep 1999). "A proteolytic pathway that controls the cholesterol content of membranes, cells, and blood" ... Brown MS, Goldstein JL (May 1997). "The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound ...
Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. p. 222. ISBN 1-58829-721- ... DiBaise JK, Zhang H, Crowell MD, Krajmalnik-Brown R, Decker GA, Rittmann BE (. 2008. ). „Gut microbiota and its possible ...
This shift of hormones initiates glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in the liver, and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Lipids are ... Brown et al., "Evaluation of glycogen storage disease as a cause of ketotic hypoglycemia in children", Journal of Inherited ...
Leng G, Brown CH, Russell JA (1999). "Physiological pathways regulating the activity of magnocellular neurosecretory cells". ... By chance, sodium ascorbate by itself was found to stimulate the production of oxytocin from ovarian tissue over a range of ... The authors noted these changes "may simply reflect contractile properties on reproductive tissue".[108]. *Oxytocin affects ... Guldenaar SE, Pickering BT (1985). "Immunocytochemical evidence for the presence of oxytocin in rat testis". Cell and Tissue ...
Brown fat[edit]. Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... a phenotype distinguishing brown adipocytes from interscapular brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue". The Journal of ...
From cytokines and microRNA to aging and adipose tissue, European Journal of Immunology, 42. väljaanne, nr 5, lk 1075, lk 1073- ... Roberto Kretschmer, M.D., Burhan Say, M.D., David Brown, M.D., ja Fred S. Rosen, M.D., Congenital Aplasia of the Thymus Gland ( ... Mi-Yeon Kim, Roles of Embryonic and Adult Lymphoid Tissue Inducer Cells in Primary and Secondary Lymphoid Tissues, Yonsei Med J ... Lühikokkuvõte., Cell Tissue Res. 1981;217(1):49-54. 1981. *Minoru Amano ja Kiyohiro Hamatani, The Short-Lived Lymphocyte in the ...
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white ... Marrow adipose tissue expands in states of low bone density but additionally expands in the setting of obesity.[3] Marrow ... Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing ... The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its physiologic function and relevance to bone health. ...
... shows antiobesity effect through UCP1 expression in white adipose tissues". Biochemical and biophysical research communications ... Red algae, Green algae and Brown algae are commonly considered to be seaweed. Seaweed gets its energy from photosynthesis just ...
Adipose tissue comprises 25-40% of normal parathyroid gland tissue. High magnification micrograph. H&E stain. The small, dark ... Each gland is a yellowish-brown flat ovoid that resembles a lentil seed, usually about 6 mm long and 3 to 4 mm wide, and 1 to 2 ... Occasionally, an individual's tissues are resistant to the effects of parathyroid hormone. This is known as ... If this situation exists for a prolonged period of time, the parathyroid tissue may become unresponsive to the blood calcium ...
Adipose *Brown. *White. Dense. *Dense irregular connective tissue *Submucosa. *Dermis. *Dense regular connective tissue * ... Mesodermal tissue will continue to differentiate and/or migrate throughout the embryo to ultimately form most connective tissue ... Mesenchymal tissue *^ Kierszenbaum, Abraham L.; Tres, Laura (2015). Histology and Cell Biology: An Introduction to Pathology E- ... undifferentiated tissue found in embryonic true mesoderm - entomesoderm - from which all connective tissues like blood vessels ...
Definition of brown adipose tissue. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Synonym(s): brown fat. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this ... brown adipose tissue. ...
Background Cold-stimulated adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) to increase energy expenditure is suggested as ... Brown adipose tissue Is the Subject Area "Brown adipose tissue" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Adipose tissue Is the Subject Area "Adipose tissue" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains mitochondria-enriched thermogenic fat cells (brown adipocytes) that play a crucial role in ... Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue. Yasuo Oguri1,2,3 and Shingo Kajimura1,2,3 1UCSF Diabetes Center, San Francisco ... The present study provides novel insight into our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues. ... It was presumed that brown adipocytes are composed of a homogeneous cell population. In this issue of the JCI, however, Song ...
You may recall the previous post on the seminar that I attended on Comparative Physiology of Brown Adipose Tissue at the ... You may recall the previous post on the seminar that I attended on Comparative Physiology of Brown Adipose Tissue at the ... Figure 2 from the research paper ("Functional Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue", Heart Metab. 2010;48:15-17) is shown below:. ... They hope to use this thermal imaging technique to further characterize the role of brown adipose tissue in children. ...
The activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the primary organ for heat production, confers beneficial effects on adiposity, ... Adipose tissue browning and metabolic health.. Bartelt A1, Heeren J2. ... Accumulation of excess white adipose tissue (WAT) has deleterious consequences for metabolic health. ... brown-in-white, or brite adipocytes), which are phenotypically distinct from both white and brown adipocytes. Stimulating the ...
Here we show that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic function requires an adaptive increase in proteasomal activity to ... In mice, under thermogenic conditions, brown-adipocyte-specific deletion of Nfe2l1 (Nrf1) resulted in ER stress, tissue ... In conclusion, Nrf1 emerges as a novel guardian of brown adipocyte function, providing increased proteometabolic quality ... Nrf1-mediated proteosome activity in brown fat is required for the normal thermogenic behavior of this tissue in mice. ...
Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.. Stanford KI1, Middelbeek RJ, Townsend KL, An D, ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, ... BAT transplantation increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo into endogenous BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), and ...
Increasing your brown fat, which burns energy and creates heat to help control your body temperature, may also regulate blood ... Increasing your brown fat, which burns energy and creates heat to help control your body temperature, may also regulate blood ...
Evolution has provided humans and other placental mammals with brown adipose tissue (BAT), a tissue that converts chemically ... Brown Adipose Tissue. Alexander Pfeifer, Martin Klingenspor, Stephan Herzig (red.). (Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology). ... The aim of this review is to summarize the literature and describe what is actually known about the tissue and its importance ... The thermogenic activity of this tissue is significant for the human infants ability to maintain a sufficiently high core body ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, ... BAT transplantation increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo into endogenous BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), and ...
... associated with a specialized fat tissue-brown adipose tissue (BAT)-is central to the development of obesity. Correspondingly, ... Increased brown adipose tissue oxidative capacity in cold-acclimated humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014;99:E438-E446pmid: ... Activation of human brown adipose tissue by a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Cell Metab 2015;21:33-38pmid:25565203. ... Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 2009;360:1500-1508pmid:19357405. ...
... of UCP1 demonstrates that metabolically active adipose tissue in the neck of adult humans truly represents brown adipose tissue ... High prevalence of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2011;96:2450-2455pmid:21613352. ... Increase in brown adipose tissue activity after weight loss in morbidly obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E1229- ... Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 2009;360:1500-1508pmid:19357405. ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... Brown adipose tissue activation may play an important role in bone health and bone density. Brown adipose tissue activation ... brown adipose tissue produces heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. While brown adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining core ... several brown adipose tissue deposits have been identified. In infants, brown adipose tissue depots include, but are not ...
... Umesh D. Wankhade,1,2 Michael Shen,3 ... and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue," BioMed Research International, vol. 2016, Article ID 2365609, 15 pages, ... Umesh D. Wankhade, Michael Shen, Hariom Yadav, and Keshari M. Thakali, "Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, ...
Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits. Vitaly Ryu, John T. Garretson, Yang Liu, Cheryl H. Vaughan, ... Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits. Vitaly Ryu, John T. Garretson, Yang Liu, Cheryl H. Vaughan, ... 2010b) Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue. Int J Obes (Lond) 34:S36-S42, doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.182, ... 2004) Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 84:277-359, doi:10.1152/physrev.00015.2003, ...
... Umesh D. Wankhade,1,2 Michael Shen,3 ... While browning of adipose tissue implies a state of increased energy expenditure and a high state of energy turnover in tissues ... Thus, adipose trauma as an unexpected driver of selected local and remote adipose tissue browning has important implications ... Mitochondrial Ucp1 and other markers of brown fat are upregulated in both white and brown FLCN-null adipose tissues, explaining ...
... brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of ... Here, Hoffman et al.show that a small molecule sGC stimulator increases brown fat activity and browning of white fat, thereby ... Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces browning of primary white ... The enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) regulates differentiation of brown fat. ...
Brown adipose tissue could potentially represent one such target. Unlike white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue has the ... Whether or not brown adipose tissue will be useful in the battle against obesity remains to be seen. However, this possibility ... In small mammals, the presence of active brown adipose tissue is pivotal for the maintenance of body temperature and possibly ... Animal studies have shown that expansion and/or activation of brown adipose tissue counteracts diet-induced weight gain and ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fatty acids for heat production to defend the body against cold and has recently been shown to ... Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance Nat Med. 2011 Feb;17(2):200-5. doi: 10.1038/nm.2297. Epub 2011 ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fatty acids for heat production to defend the body against cold and has recently been shown to ... Peripheral organs such as muscle and adipose tissue take up the fatty acids, whereas the remaining cholesterol-rich remnant ...
Fernando F Anhê, Renato T Nachbar, Thibault V Varin, Jocelyn Trottier, Stéphanie Dudonné, Mélanie Le Barz, Perrine Feutry, Geneviève Pilon, Olivier Barbier, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, André Marette ...
Effects of Wnt Signaling on Brown Adipocyte Differentiation and Metabolism Mediated by PGC-1α Sona Kang, Laszlo Bajnok, Kenneth ... Transcriptional Synergy and the Regulation of Ucp1 during Brown Adipocyte Induction in White Fat Depots Bingzhong Xue, Ann ... Cross Talk between Insulin and Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling Systems in Brown Adipogenesis Hongbin Zhang, Tim J. Schulz ... Differential Roles of Insulin Receptor Substrates in Brown Adipocyte Differentiation Yu-Hua Tseng, Kristina M. Kriauciunas, Efi ...
BAT is a flexible tissue that can be recruited by stimuli (including small molecules in animals), and atrophies in … ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been recognized for more than 20 years to play a key role in cold-induced non-shivering ... Recruitment of brown adipose tissue as a therapy for obesity-associated diseases Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2012 Feb 6;3:14. ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been recognized for more than 20 years to play a key role in cold-induced non-shivering ...
... mammalian brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a significant role. For a long time, the modulation of BAT activity by 3,3′,5- ... among which mammalian brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a significant role. For long time, the modulation of BAT activity by 3,3 ... triiodo-l-thyronine (T3) has been ascribed to its direct actions on this tissue; however, recent evidence indicates that T3, by ... 5-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) has been ascribed to its direct actions on this tissue; however, recent evidence indicates that T3, ...
"Adipose Tissue, Brown" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adipose Tissue, Brown" was a major or minor ... "Adipose Tissue, Brown" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, ... Adipose Tissue, Brown*Adipose Tissue, Brown. *Tissue, Brown Adipose. *Brown Adipose Tissue ...
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Home , February 2014 - Volume 25 - Issue 1 , Recent development in targeting brown adipose tissues for th... ... Recent development in targeting brown adipose tissues for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases. Nesan, Dinushana; Ng, ... Recent development in targeting brown adipose tissues for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases ... Lipoprotein lipase: the regulation of tissue specific expression and its role... * Structure, function and role of lipoprotein ...
... has recently been proposed as an indirect technique to assess brown adipose tissue (BAT) in young men. NIRS arises as a novel ... Khanna A, Branca RT (2012) Detecting brown adipose tissue activity with BOLD MRI in mice. Magn Reson Med 68:1285-1290CrossRef ... Virtanen KAK, Lidell MME, Orava J et al (2009) Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults. N Engl J Med 360:1518-1525 ... Cannon B, Nedergaard J (2004) Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 84:277-359CrossRef ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has thermogenic capacity that burns calories to produce heat, and it is a potential target for the ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has thermogenic capacity that burns calories to produce heat, and it is a potential target for the ... Cao J, Zhu Q, Liu L, Glazier BJ, Hinkel BC, Liang C, Shi H. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet- ... "Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Mice." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 4: 1095. ...
... of brown adipose tissue (BAT). The work summarizes the features and... ... Activation Brown adipose tissue Magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic resonance spectroscopy Morphology White adipose tissue ... Simchick G, Yin A, Yin H, Zhao Q (2017) Dynamic monitoring of brown adipose tissue activation and white adipose tissue beiging ... Magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigations of brown adipose tissue and isolated brown adipocytes. J Lipid Res 35:2191-2199 ...
Even the functionally different brown and white adipose tissues were generalized to share a common origin. Brown adipose tissue ... PPARa is not involved in the regulation of muscle-associated genesin brown adipose tissue.. Walden, Tomas B. Stockholm ... Since these energy-expending cells reside within certain white adipose tissues, we chose to name them brite (brown in white) ... Brown adipose tissue expends energy through sympathetic nervous system-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis, where uncoupling ...
  • In other research, Drs. Kirsi Virtanen and Pirjo Nuutila from the Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland, have used combined PET and CT scans to demonstrate that adult human brown adipose tissue is highly active metabolically. (scienceblogs.com)
  • This study investigates the significance of adenosine and A2A receptors in human brown adipose tissue (BAT) in vivo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Thermogenesis in human brown adipose tissue and skeletal muscle induced by sympathomimetic stimulation. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) can stimulate energy expenditure and may be a potential therapeutic target for obesity and type 2 diabetes. (diva-portal.org)
  • 18 F -fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) is widely used as a standard method for evaluating human brown adipose tissue (BAT), a recognized therapeutic target of obesity. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • BOSTON March 22, 2013 Joslin scientists report significant findings about the location, genetic expression and function of human brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the generation of new BAT cells. (diabetesforum.com)
  • Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Different metabolic responses of human brown adipose tissue to activation by cold and insulin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BAT has been reported to be present also in humans, and there has been focused mainly on the interscapular subcutaneous tissue. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Biopsies taken from the warmest interscapular spots did not contain brown adipocytes. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A histological study on human autopsies confirmed that BAT is rare in the interscapular tissue, but frequently occurring in the perirenal depot. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The weight of interscapular brown fat in the rat and its rate of respiration increased in response to a single meal. (sciencemag.org)
  • Leptin regulates body weight in mice by decreasing appetite and increasing sympathetic nerve activity (SNA), which increases energy expenditure in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). (jneurosci.org)
  • In the mice fed the maize oil and the beef tallow diets fatty acids synthesis was inhibited in all tissue examined--interscapular brown adipose tissue, epididymal white adipose tissue, the liver and the carcass. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1. Measurements were made, relative to tissue DNA, of the activities of enzymes of glycerolipid synthesis in homogenates of interscapular brown adipose tissue. (portlandpress.com)
  • Darglitazone was a potent adipogenic agent in rats, causing hyperplastic/hypertrophic changes and firmness of white and perirenal, dorsal thoracic (TBAT), and interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT). (aspetjournals.org)
  • The pattern of L-alanine uptake in isolated cells of interscapular brown adipose tissue has been determined. (bioscirep.org)
  • BAT transplantation increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo into endogenous BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), and heart muscle but, surprisingly, not skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
  • New evidence indicates that 3,5-diiodo- l -thyronine (3,5-T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, exerts thermogenic effects, by influencing mitochondrial activity in metabolically active tissues, such as liver, skeletal muscle, and BAT. (frontiersin.org)
  • 2009 ) provided the formal proof that brown fat is related to skeletal muscle and further showed that the transcription factor PRDM16 determines the fate of Myf5 + -precursor cells toward brown fat lineage. (frontiersin.org)
  • Although it was initially thought that UCP2 and UCP3 might allow tissues such as skeletal muscle also to contribute to thermogenesis and energy expenditure ( 22 ), subsequent studies have found that this theory is not the case ( 23 , 24 ). (pnas.org)
  • The aim of the present work was to elucidate the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle for ephedrine-induced thermogenesis, and to examine the effect of chronic ephedrine treatment on energy expenditure. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Supplementum JO - Acta Endocrinol Suppl (Copenh) VL - 278 N2 - The aim of the present work was to elucidate the importance of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and skeletal muscle for ephedrine-induced thermogenesis, and to examine the effect of chronic ephedrine treatment on energy expenditure. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • HFD vs. ND rats also showed higher expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial biogenesis and brown fat adipogenesis, as well as augmented mitochondrial mass in WAT but not in the liver or skeletal muscle. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The thermogenic mechanism of brown adipose tissue (BAT) has been well characterized by other researchers and recent data from our laboratory have suggested a role for the vasculature in skeletal muscle thermogenesis. (edu.au)
  • Aims/hypothesis: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sitagliptin on glucose tolerance, plasma lipids, energy expenditure and metabolism of brown adipose tissue (BAT), white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle in overweight individuals with prediabetes (impaired glucose tolerance and/or impaired fasting glucose). (eur.nl)
  • Before and after treatment, fasting venous blood samples and skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained, OGTT was performed and body composition, resting energy expenditure and [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) uptake by metabolic tissues were assessed. (eur.nl)
  • However, the quantitative contribution of BAT to DIT relative to other tissues, such as skeletal muscle, remains to be investigated. (semal.org)
  • In conclusion, Nrf1 emerges as a novel guardian of brown adipocyte function, providing increased proteometabolic quality control for adapting to cold or to obesity. (nature.com)
  • Vascular rarefaction mediates whitening of brown fat in obesity. (nature.com)
  • In the late 1970s it was proposed, primarily on the basis of studies on rats and mice, that reduced expenditure on adaptive heat production (thermogenesis) associated with a specialized fat tissue-brown adipose tissue (BAT)-is central to the development of obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Correspondingly, for a period, stimulation of heat production in BAT was seen as a potential therapeutic route for reversing obesity, and there was a search for agents that would stimulate the activity of the tissue. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Dr. Madden's research is focused on the functional organization of the central neural circuits regulating metabolism of adipose tissue, glucose homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and thermogenesis, and how alterations in this regulation contribute to disease states and pathological conditions such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. (degruyter.com)
  • Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). (nature.com)
  • When energy intake constantly exceeds energy expenditure (EE), the surplus is stored as lipids in white adipose tissue (WAT) leading to the development of obesity. (nature.com)
  • Whether or not brown adipose tissue will be useful in the battle against obesity remains to be seen. (gu.se)
  • Knockout of the X-linked Fgf13 in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus impairs sympathetic output to brown fat and causes obesity. (harvard.edu)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has thermogenic capacity that burns calories to produce heat, and it is a potential target for the treatment and prevention of obesity. (mdpi.com)
  • We recently described an important role played by the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in traditional white fat, and its implications to thermogenesis, mitochondrial energetics, energy expenditure, and protection from diabetes and obesity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown fat state as a potential therapeutic option for obesity and diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In rodents and human infants, a major defense mechanism against obesity is brown adipose tissue (BAT), which serves to increase energy expenditure through dissipation in the form of heat (thermogenesis) ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Brown fat consumes energy, which is the reason that it could be important for preventing obesity and diabetes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Hence, ways to heat up thermogenesis in brown fat are being sought which can be used to prevent obesity and diabetes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action and the target tissues of a pepsin egg white hydrolysate (EWH) which had previously demonstrated to improve some obesity-related disorders on high-fat/high-glucose rat model. (rsc.org)
  • Harnessing Brown Adipose Tissue to Fight Obesity? (drsharma.ca)
  • Although obesity is largely a "calories-in" rather than a "calories-out" problem, emerging evidence points to the possibilities of harnessing thermogenic brown adipose tissue to help balance this equation by helping burn more calories. (drsharma.ca)
  • As for the potential therapeutic utility of brown adipocytes for treating obesity in humans, it is important to distinguish between t BAT mass and BAT activity - thus therapeutic approaches could focus on either increasing the amount of BAT present or increasing the activity of tissue that is already present. (drsharma.ca)
  • Although BAT thermogenesis is an attractive candidate, we are still in the preliminary stages of utilizing this tissue as a therapy for obesity. (drsharma.ca)
  • Brown adipose tissue as an anti-obesity tissue in humans. (drsharma.ca)
  • According to Ajinomoto, the findings may have implications for controlling obesity, which is affected by the activation of brown adipose tissue according to recent studies. (ironmagazine.com)
  • The activation of brown adipose tissue is thought to have an effect on controlling obesity. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) and beige adipose tissue combust fuels for heat production in adult humans, and so constitute an appealing target for the treatment of metabolic disorders such as obesity, diabetes and hyperlipidemia1,2. (harvard.edu)
  • Having the ability to produce brown fat cells outside the body will make it possible to develop drugs and other potential treatments that increase BAT activity to combat obesity. (diabetesforum.com)
  • It is potentially a candidate target tissue for anti-obesity therapies and has recently attracted much attention. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The presence of this BAT, the recruitment of BAT, and the conversion of white into brown adipocytes may contribute to the development of new treatments for the current obesity pandemic [ 5 , 6 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • It is hoped that the plasticity of the adipose organ can be exploited in the next generation of therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of metabolic diseases, including obesity and diabetes. (deepdyve.com)
  • In addition, many miRNAs are dysregulated in the metabolic tissues of obese animals and humans, thus potentially contributing to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated complications (14). (deepdyve.com)
  • β-Lapachone Regulates Obesity through Modulating Thermogenesis in Brown Adipose Tissue and Adipocytes: Role of AMPK Signaling Pathway. (stembook.org)
  • As potential activators of brown adipose tissue (BAT), mild cold exposure and sympathomimetic drugs have been considered as treatments for obesity and diabetes, but whether they activate the same pathways is unknown. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Scientific American even published " Supercharging Brown Fat to Battle Obesity " containing a very nice summary of knowledge up to that point in time (2014). (longecity.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an attractive therapeutic target to combat diabetes and obesity due to its ability to increase glucose expenditure. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • On the other hand, the therapeutic targetting of brown fat for the treatment of human obesity is an active research field reviewed by Samuelson and Vidal-Puig in 2020. (wikipedia.org)
  • Their studies show that this tissue actively takes up the metabolic substrate glucose when adults are exposed to cold. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Adipose tissue browning and metabolic health. (nih.gov)
  • Accumulation of excess white adipose tissue (WAT) has deleterious consequences for metabolic health. (nih.gov)
  • Stimulating the development of beige adipocytes in WAT (so called 'browning') might reduce adverse effects of WAT and could help to improve metabolic health. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, activations of BAT have important implications for energy homeostasis due to the metabolic consumption of energy reserves entailed in the production of heat in this tissue. (degruyter.com)
  • The primary mode of nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals is via the metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT). (hindawi.com)
  • Thyroid hormones significantly influence energy expenditure by affecting the activity of metabolic active tissues, among which, mammalian brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a significant role. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, heat-saving mechanisms (pilo-erection, vasoconstriction, adoption of a curled posture, immobility) are limited, and an additional heat is promptly produced by a large energy consuming process, such as shivering, and then substituted by a long-lasting activation of more efficient heat generating metabolic mechanisms, occurring principally in brown adipose tissue (BAT) ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an essential role in metabolic homeostasis by dissipating energy via thermogenesis through uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (elifesciences.org)
  • Thus, ectopic deposits of brown adipose tissue in intermuscular depots with regulatable expression of UCP1 provide a genetically based mechanism of protection from weight gain and metabolic syndrome between strains of mice. (pnas.org)
  • In this Review, we discuss recent research progress that has identified players and pathways involved in brown adipocyte differentiation and maturation, as well as those involved in metabolic regulation. (biologists.org)
  • The team of researchers demonstrated a relationship between the metabolic activation of the tissue and changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (red blood pigment), measured by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). (phys.org)
  • The study demonstrated a direct relationship between the metabolic activation of the brown adipose tissue measured using hemoglobin gradients as an intrinsic biomarker of tissue metabolism and its calorie consumption after stimulation. (phys.org)
  • Overall we expect MSOT to become a key tool in measuring metabolic parameters in tissue, using portable and safe MSOT technology," says Prof. Ntziachristos. (phys.org)
  • Co-author Professor Martin Klingenspor from the Chair for Molecular Nutritional Medicine says, "The higher metabolic demand of the brown adipose tissue is supplied by increased blood circulation and oxygen utilization, which can be made visible in the tissue and the venous outflow by MSOT. (phys.org)
  • Energy wasting in cachexia is caused by excessive lipid and protein turnover in the body, browning of white adipose tissue (WAT), and futile metabolic cycling such as glucose recycling between the liver and tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Notably, the findings suggested that the browning of white AT (WAT) may be influenced to attain positive therapeutic outcomes in age-dependent IR and other metabolic complications. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Notably, despite their histological similarities, visceral AT (VAT) and subcutaneous tissue have been shown to exert distinct metabolic functions. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The presence and metabolic activity of brown adipose tissue and its role in various aspects of human energy metabolism, including diet-induced thermogenesis is also discussed. (drsharma.ca)
  • Also, a key aspect of BAT/brown fat is that the metabolic effects of increasing/restoring healthy amount of BAT go well beyond "energy expenditure" (thermogenic) effects. (drsharma.ca)
  • Manipulation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) can be promising new approaches to counter metabolic disorder diseases in humans. (harvard.edu)
  • Because BAT is a specialized metabolic tissue that takes up and burns lipids and is linked to systemic metabolic homeostasis, we hypothesized that there might be thermogenic lipokines that activate BAT in response to cold. (harvard.edu)
  • Cooperative action of decreased apoptosis accompanied by increased tissue hyperplasia and UCP1 level, observed in IBAT of cold-acclimated rats, would be a way of meeting the metabolic requirements for increased thermogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT), with its thermogenic potential contributing to energy expenditure, is believed to influence body weight and age-related metabolic diseases [ 1 , 2 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This review will appraise the nature of human BAT and the basis of BAT-centred therapeutics, highlighting how the interaction between hormones and adipose tissue impacts metabolic responses. (garvan.org.au)
  • Non-pharmacological and pharmacological strategies of BAT recruitment and/or fat browning for metabolic benefits will be discussed. (garvan.org.au)
  • In particular, elucidation of the tissue-specific functions of the GC pathway has identified therapeutic strategies for the treatment of severe metabolic disorders (2). (deepdyve.com)
  • Brown and brite/beige adipocytes are attractive therapeutic targets to treat metabolic diseases. (diva-portal.org)
  • Background: Studies in rodents have shown that brown adipose tissue (BAT) is activated on food intake, thereby reducing metabolic efficiency. (semal.org)
  • We have used Heaton's definition of BAT as fat containing multilocular adipocytes stained by hematoxylin-eosin on light microscopy ( 2 ) and have designated BAT as being visceral or subcutaneous, subdividing each category into separate depots according to their contiguous organ or tissue as depicted by Nedergaard, Bengtsson, and Cannon ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, it has been identified that there are both classical brown adipocytes residing in dedicated BAT depots and "beige" adipocytes residing in white adipose tissue depots that can acquire BAT-like characteristics in response to environmental cues. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, BAT is generally thought to be limited to distinct local depots, while white adipose tissue (WAT) is more broadly distributed throughout the body. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition, there is accumulating evidence to support the concept of an alteration in energy balance through acquisition of brown fat features in traditional white fat depots. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adipose tissue comprises various depots including white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT). (ovid.com)
  • Here, we review the distinct roles of the adipose tissue depots in the development of atherosclerosis with the ultimate aim to understand how these can be targeted to reduce atherosclerosis. (ovid.com)
  • In conclusion, different adipose depots differentially affect atherosclerosis development, in which atherosclerosis is promoted by energy-storing adipose depots and attenuated by energy-combusting adipose tissue. (ovid.com)
  • An Adipose Tissue Atlas: An Image-Guided Identification of Human-like BAT and Beige Depots in Rodents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Adipose tissue is made up of multiple depots located in two compartments of the body: some are below the skin (subcutaneous depots), and some are in the trunk (visceral depots). (deepdyve.com)
  • We typically distinguish between thermogenic, energy-expending brown adipocytes and energy-storing white adipocytes that are located in anatomically distinct adipose depots. (diva-portal.org)
  • The activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the primary organ for heat production, confers beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia, at least in mice. (nih.gov)
  • In mice, under thermogenic conditions, brown-adipocyte-specific deletion of Nfe2l1 ( Nrf1 ) resulted in ER stress, tissue inflammation, markedly diminished mitochondrial function and whitening of the BAT. (nature.com)
  • LXRαβ −/− mice exhibited higher energy expenditure (EE) as well as higher UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with WT mice on the HCD. (pnas.org)
  • Shi, H. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Cao J, Zhu Q, Liu L, Glazier BJ, Hinkel BC, Liang C, Shi H. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Branca RT, He T, Zhang L, Floyd CS, Freeman M, White C, Burant A (2014) Detection of brown adipose tissue and thermogenic activity in mice by hyperpolarized xenon MRI. (springer.com)
  • For a long time there has been evidence that energy-expending adipocytes reside within certain white adipose tissues, based on the fact that cold exposure, by switching on the sympathetic nervous system, leads to levels of UCP1 that are not detectable in mice housed at thermoneutrality. (diva-portal.org)
  • An international team of researchers led from Karolinska Institutet have, in experiments on mice, pinpointed a mechanism for the conversion of energy-storing white fat into energy-expending brown fat. (phys.org)
  • Moreover, the expression of brown adipocyte-specific thermogenic genes such as Ebf2, Prdm16, PGC1α, UCP1, SRC1 and IRF4 were strongly induced at the protein level in eWAT of ZAG-cell implanted mice suggesting that ZAG causes WAT browning. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Suppression of fatty acids synthesis in brown adipose tissue of mice fed diets rich in long chain fatty acids. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The influence of dietary lipid on fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue has been investigated by feeding different high-fat diets to cold-acclimated mice for a period of 2 weeks. (biomedsearch.com)
  • were significantly increased in the brown adipose tissue of Cidea(-/-) mice. (thebiogrid.org)
  • Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of EGCG on thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of diet-induced obese mice. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
  • Lee M-S, Shin Y, Jung S, Kim Y. Effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate on thermogenesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissues of diet-induced obese mice. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
  • Recent studies with β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice reported that brite/beige adipocytes, but not classical brown adipocytes, require the β3-adrenergic receptor for cold-induced transcriptional activation of thermogenic genes. (diva-portal.org)
  • However, when comparing wild-type and β3-adrenergic receptor knockout mice, we observed no differences in cold-induced thermogenic gene expression (Ucp1, Pgc1a, Dio2 and Cidea) in brown or white (brite/beige) adipose tissues. (diva-portal.org)
  • Dr. Michael Symonds and colleagues from the The University of Nottingham, United Kingdom, presented "The Use of Thermal Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue in the Supraclavicular Region as a Repeatable Technique to Quantify its Function in Humans. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. (nature.com)
  • High incidence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans: effects of cold exposure and adiposity. (nature.com)
  • A renaissance of interest in BAT was catalyzed in the late 2000s following the putative identification of multiple sites of the tissue in adult humans from investigations using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Insulin stimulates glucose uptake into BAT in humans, and acute cold exposure activates the tissue, as in rodents ( 6 , 10 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results demonstrate a physiologically significant role of BAT in whole-body energy expenditure, glucose homeostasis, and insulin sensitivity in humans, and support the notion that BAT may function as an antidiabetic tissue in humans. (gu.se)
  • However, a recent profusion of studies in functional imaging and molecular biology has demonstrated that BAT is a functionally active tissue in adult humans [ 3 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Radionuclide imaging studies have demonstrated that adult humans have metabolically active BAT composed of mainly beige/brite adipocytes, recently identified brown-like adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Brown adipose tissue-a new role in humans? (gu.se)
  • Several independent studies have now confirmed the presence of functional brown adipose tissue in adult humans, for whom this tissue is probably metabolically beneficial given its association with both low BMI and low total adipose tissue content. (gu.se)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fatty acids for heat production to defend the body against cold and has recently been shown to be present in humans. (nih.gov)
  • Borga M, Virtanen KA, Romu T, Leinhard OD, Persson A, Nuutila P, Enerback S (2014) Brown adipose tissue in humans: detection and functional analysis using PET (positron emission tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and DECT (dual energy computed tomography). (springer.com)
  • Recent identification of active brown fat reserves in adult humans has re-stimulated interest in the role of brown adipocytes in energy homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Copious amount of brown fat exists in rodents and human infants and it was considered to be non-existent in adult humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • In rodents and humans, brown fat tends to be localized to the intrascapular and paraspinal regions, and the amount of BAT appears to decrease as mammals go from the neonatal to adult stage ( 13 ). (pnas.org)
  • The heat output of brown adipose tissue in humans decreases with increasing age. (phys.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue in humans has been the subject of numerous studies, as it has the exact opposite function of white adipose tissue , which stores energy in the form of storage fats called triacylglycerides. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Context: Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) has identified metabolically active supraclavicular fat in adult humans based on uptake of labeled glucose and confirmed to be brown adipose tissue (BAT) histologically. (garvan.org.au)
  • In spite of the decrease in the amount of BAT with age, islets of brown adipocytes still endure in the white adipose tissue of adult humans [ 3 , 4 ]. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Brown adipose tissue oxidative metabolism contributes to energy expenditure during acute cold exposure in humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The presence of brown adipose tissue in adult humans was discovered in 2003 during FDG-PET scans to detect metastatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown fat in humans in the scientific and popular literature refers to two cell populations defined by both anatomical location and cellular morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary cell type within BAT is multilocular brown adipocytes, which exert thermogenic effects through the expression of Ucp1 in the inner mitochondrial membrane [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a unique feature of brown fat cells that allows heat generation on sympathetic nervous system stimulation. (pnas.org)
  • FGF6 and FGF9 regulate UCP1 expression independent of brown adipogenesis. (harvard.edu)
  • Brown adipose tissue expends energy through sympathetic nervous system-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis, where uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is the key player. (diva-portal.org)
  • Brown adipocytes are uniquely characterized by the expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1). (frontiersin.org)
  • Detailed histological examination, however, reveals that this UCP1 is in mitochondria of brown adipocytes interspersed between muscle bundles. (pnas.org)
  • These brown fat cells are subject to further up-regulation of UCP1 after stimulation with a β 3 -adrenergic receptor agonist. (pnas.org)
  • The protein responsible for thermogenesis in brown fat is uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) ( 15 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Two other uncoupling proteins, UCP2 and UCP3, are more widely expressed than UCP1, but they appear to play important roles in mitochondrial function in only a few tissues. (pnas.org)
  • When mammals are chronically exposed to cold, the capacity of BAT non-shivering thermogenesis increases in association with tissue hyperplasia, accompanied by increased blood flow, mitochondriogenesis and pronounced UCP1 synthesis ( Suter, 1969 ). (biologists.org)
  • Unexpectedly, all five P1-TAg founder animals died prematurely from voluminous malignant liposarcomas originating from brown adipose tissue, as evidenced by the expression of the mitochondrial uncoupling protein ucp1, indicating that the proximal P1 promoter was transcriptionally active in brown adipocytes. (ovid.com)
  • among them, the T37i cells can undergo terminal differentiation into brown adipocytes, which remain capable of expressing ucp1 upon adrenergic or retinoic acid stimulation. (ovid.com)
  • Pronounced activation of lipogenic gene expression in the liver and down-regulated expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) and peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor-γco-activator-1α (PGC-1α) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was observed in the olanzapine-only group. (edu.au)
  • Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial ( Cox4i1 , Cox4i2 ) and BAT ( Fgf21 , Prdm16 ) genes were overexpressed in eWAT. (biologists.org)
  • This is mediated through the actions of uncoupling protein-1 (Ucp1), a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-specific protein located within the mitochondria, which are densely packed in these cells (4, 5). (deepdyve.com)
  • Numerous studies have demonstrated that Ucp1-expressing thermogenic adipocytes, so-called "brite" or "beige" adipocytes, can also be activated in white adipose tissue (WAT), thus resulting in WAT "browning," which contributes to increased energy expenditure (6, 7). (deepdyve.com)
  • Energy expenditure for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves either to maintain body temperature in the cold or to waste food energy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • A1 - Himms-Hagen,J, PY - 1990/8/1/pubmed PY - 1990/8/1/medline PY - 1990/8/1/entrez SP - 2890 EP - 8 JF - FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology JO - FASEB J. VL - 4 IS - 11 N2 - Energy expenditure for thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) serves either to maintain body temperature in the cold or to waste food energy. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the site of sympathetically activated adaptive thermognenesis during cold exposure and after hyperphagia, thereby controlling whole-body energy expenditure (EE) and body fat. (nih.gov)
  • In conditions of energy excess, the white adipose tissue accumulates fat in the form of triglycerides, whilst brown adipose tissue has the potential stimulate energy expenditure by dissipation of fat to produce heat and maintain body temperature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adipose tissue (AT) is an active organ regulating ATP expenditure, which serves an essential role in regulating energy homeostasis of the entire body ( 10 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • TOKYO-Consuming capsinoids, even just once, increases energy expenditure, especially in people with a high level of activity in brown adipose tissue, according to new research from Ajinomoto Co. Inc. A group led by professor Masayuki Saito of Tenshi College in Sapporo, Japan found a single ingestion of the a sweet chili pepper extract increased energy expenditure compared to placebo. (ironmagazine.com)
  • The suggestion is that the activation of brown adipose tissue is involved in the effect of increased energy expenditure after capsinoids are ingested. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Previous research with animals has shown brown adipose tissue is involved in the regulation of energy expenditure and changes in body-fat levels. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Our results suggest that SHR may have the capacity to increase energy expenditure in response to a chronic HFD that may be linked to the emergence of brown-like adipocytes in WAT. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Background: When activated by the sympathetic nervous system, brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases energy expenditure to produce heat. (ugent.be)
  • Overexpressed miR-19b in SVF cells derived from brown adipose tissue had the same effects as DEX treatment on the inhibition of brown adipose differentiation and energy expenditure. (deepdyve.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains mitochondria-enriched thermogenic fat cells (brown adipocytes) that play a crucial role in the regulation of energy metabolism and systemic glucose homeostasis. (jci.org)
  • BAT regressed with aging by transforming into white adipose tissue (WAT) ( 2 ), and BAT in adults was not considered important in energy metabolism ( 1 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Newswise - BOSTON - December 10, 2012 - Joslin Diabetes Center scientists have demonstrated that brown adipose tissue (BAT) has beneficial effects on glucose tolerance, body weight and metabolism. (newswise.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is rich in mitochondria and can uncouple oxidative phosphorylation to produce heat as a by-product of fatty acid metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • 12-Lipoxygenase Regulates Cold Adaptation and Glucose Metabolism by Producing the Omega-3 Lipid 12-HEPE from Brown Fat. (harvard.edu)
  • Schilperoort M, Hoeke G, Kooijman S, Rensen PCN (2016) Relevance of lipid metabolism for brown fat visualization and quantification. (springer.com)
  • This approach involves the injection of radioactive substances called "tracers" that participate in the metabolism, making it possible to observe the heat conversion in the tissue. (phys.org)
  • MSOT can enable the investigation of an increased number of functional tissue parameters beyond metabolism, including inflammation or angiogenesis. (phys.org)
  • Josefine Reber et al, Non-invasive Measurement of Brown Fat Metabolism Based on Optoacoustic Imaging of Hemoglobin Gradients, Cell Metabolism (2018). (phys.org)
  • Mueez U Din et al, Postprandial Oxidative Metabolism of Human Brown Fat Indicates Thermogenesis, Cell Metabolism (2018). (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, BAT, a metabolically active tissue, controls the levels of plasma glucose and triglyceride metabolism. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Indeed, brown adipocytes (cells in BAT) secrete factors (some still to be identified) that improve glucose metabolism (anti-diabetic) and improve blood lipid profile. (drsharma.ca)
  • Unlike the more predominant white adipose tissue (WAT) which stores fat, BAT burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and also plays a role in energy metabolism. (diabetesforum.com)
  • Recent re-discovery of thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) has brought the relation between ambient temperature, thermogenesis and systemic energy and substrate metabolism to the forefront. (garvan.org.au)
  • Adipose tissues thus make up a multi-depot organ that is involved in many critical survival functions, facilitating thermogenesis, lactation, and immune responses and serving as a fuel for metabolism. (deepdyve.com)
  • Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors. (nature.com)
  • Recently it was found that adenosine activates murine and human brown adipocytes, and recruits beiging of white fat via adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In this light, we review the findings that BAT in human adults might consist of not only classic brown adipocytes but also inducible brown adipocytes (also called beige, brown-in-white, or brite adipocytes), which are phenotypically distinct from both white and brown adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, when specifically stimulated, BAT-precursor cells placed in white adipose tissue (WAT) can differentiate to beige/brite cells instead of white adipocytes ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Since these energy-expending cells reside within certain white adipose tissues, we chose to name them brite ( br own in wh ite ) adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Moreover, we also identified regulatory factors that were specifically expressed in each adipocyte type, thus, facilitating the possibility to identify the three adipocytes: the brown, the white and the brite. (diva-portal.org)
  • This includes an analysis of our current understanding of the developmental origin, cellular properties and molecular distinctions between classical brown and beige/brite adipocytes as well as the central circuitries and neuropeptides involved in the regulation of brown adipocyte thermogenesis. (drsharma.ca)
  • Recently, another type of cells called brown-in-white (BRITE) or beige cells, in white adipose tissue (WAT) have been found. (bmj.com)
  • 3 BRITE cells possess a multilocular morphology, enriched mitochondria and express the brown adipocyte-specific UCP-1. (bmj.com)
  • We aimed to further characterize this requirement of the β3-adrenergic receptor as a functional distinction between classical brown and brite/beige adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Nonetheless, the present data indicate that the β3-adrenergic receptor is dispensable for cold-induced transcriptional activation in both classical brown and, as opposed to earlier studies, brite/beige cells. (diva-portal.org)
  • It remains to be determined whether these deposits are 'classical' brown adipose tissue or beige/brite fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell proliferation is stimulated, and there are multiple changes within the brown adipocyte, particularly increases in the number of mitochondria and the concentration of UCP-1 in the mitochondria. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We and others have demonstrated that the brown adipocyte has a dermomyotomal origin and derives from the adipomyocyte, the precursor cell that can also become a myocyte, whereas white adipocytes are suggested to derive from pericytes, cells that are embedded within the vascular vessel walls. (diva-portal.org)
  • in brown adipocyte cultures. (biologists.org)
  • However, there was no effect on gene expression of chemerin and collagen type 3 a1 in norepinephrine-treated brown adipocyte cell cultures. (diva-portal.org)
  • This suggests that effects on gene expression of the examined possible brown adipocyte secreted proteins are not solely controlled by norepinephrine. (diva-portal.org)
  • To identify brown adipocyte secreted proteins a signal-sequence trap method was used. (diva-portal.org)
  • Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through white fat tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. (nature.com)
  • Adipose tissue (AT) is an important endocrine organ that serves a crucial role in whole‑body energy homeostasis. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Studies on control of gene expression in BAT are concentrating on thermogenically important components such as the uncoupling protein (which allows BAT mitochondria to operate in a thermogenic uncoupled mode), lipoprotein lipase (which allows BAT to compete with white adipose tissue for dietary lipid), and thyroxine 5'-deiodinase (which allows endogenous triiodothyronine generation, part of the control of differentiation and growth of BAT). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces 'browning' of primary white adipocytes. (nature.com)
  • cGMP-mediated signaling pathways are required for the differentiation and function of brown adipocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • IDH1-dependent a-KG regulates brown fat differentiation and function by modulating histone methylation. (harvard.edu)
  • Previously, we reported that the TATA-binding protein associated factor 7L (TAF7L) is an important regulator of white adipose tissue (WAT) differentiation. (elifesciences.org)
  • In a second study subcutaneous blood flow and temperature were measured in this area during ephedrine stimulation and compared to the response of white adipose tissue in the lumbar area. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In addition, CRANAD-29 could be used for monitoring the browning of subcutaneous WAT (sWAT) induced by β3-adrenoceptor agonist CL-316, 243. (harvard.edu)
  • Our results showed that overexpressed miR-19b in stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells derived from subcutaneous adipose tissue had the same effects as dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on the inhibition of adipose browning and oxygen consumption rate. (deepdyve.com)
  • The inhibition of miR-19b blocked DEX-mediated suppression of the expression of browning marker genes as well as the oxygen consumption rate in differentiated SVF cells derived from subcutaneous and brown adipose tissue. (deepdyve.com)
  • Studies showed that participants who spent hours in the cold chamber daily not only experienced an increase in the heat output of brown fat in the cold as they got used to the lower temperatures, but also an improvement in the control of blood sugar via insulin," reports Professor Martin Klingenspor, head of the Chair for Molecular Nutritional Medicine at the Else Kröner-Fresenius Center at TU Munich. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This effect lowers peripheral insulin resistance and restores glycemic control by enhancing glucose disposal in peripheral tissues. (aspetjournals.org)
  • If we stimulate the growth of brown fat in people, it may burn their white fat and help them lose weight, which lessens insulin resistance and improves diabetes, says Dr. Cypess. (diabetesforum.com)
  • Very recently, it was demonstrated that dietary nitrate, a NO-releasing compound, can induce browning in vitro and in vivo 24 . (nature.com)
  • Branca RT, Warren WS (2011) In vivo brown adipose tissue detection and characterization using water-lipid intermolecular zero-quantum coherences. (springer.com)
  • Branca RT, Zhang L, Warren WS, Auerbach E, Khanna A, Degan S, Ugurbil K, Maronpot R (2013) In vivo noninvasive detection of Brown adipose tissue through intermolecular zero-quantum MRI. (springer.com)
  • Here, we show that TAF7L also serves as a molecular switch between brown fat and muscle lineages in vivo and in vitro. (elifesciences.org)
  • Aldosterone is a major regulator of salt balance and blood pressure, exerting its effects via the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR).To analyze the regulatory mechanisms controlling tissue-specific expression of the human MR (hMR) in vivo, we have developed transgenic mouse models expressing the SV40 large T antigen (TAg) under the control of each of the two promoters of the hMR gene (P1 or P2). (ovid.com)
  • In vivo morphometry and functional morphology of brown adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. (docme.ru)
  • moreover, tissue modifications due to acclimation at different ambient temperatures are revealed in vivo by MRI, which correlates with histology and ultrastructure. (docme.ru)
  • 1991). We now provide evidence that the magnitude of BAT deposits can be determined by a combination of MRI and morphometry, and the dynamics of the tissue investigated as well, thereby allowing investigation of the functional morphology of the tissue in vivo. (docme.ru)
  • In vivo studies were performed to evaluate physiological effects on gene expression in brown adipose tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrast to WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and generates heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. (nature.com)
  • In addition to heat produced by shivering muscle, brown adipose tissue produces heat by non-shivering thermogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the present review aimed to summarize the mechanisms of age‑dependent IR induced by AT and to determine the role of WAT browning in achieving positive therapeutic outcomes in age‑dependent IR. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Until ~10 years ago, brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered to be biologically active in neonates and young children generating heat during cold exposure by adaptive thermogenesis to maintain normal body temperature ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this study the investigators use the PET radiotracer [15O]-H2O to quantify perfusion of BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT) and muscle in three conditions: room temperature, cold exposure and intravenous infusion of adenosine. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • NIR SRS parameters [tissue saturation index and concentrations of total haemoglobin, oxy-haemoglobin, and deoxy-haemoglobin] were continuously measured in the supraclavicular and forearm regions, in both warm and cold (2 h of personalised cold exposure) conditions. (springer.com)
  • The most well studied models whereby brown adipocytes appear in white fat are upon cold exposure or after stimulation of the beta(3)-adrenoceptor pathways. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cold acclimation, amounting to exposure to 14-15°C for up to 6 h per day over 10 days, resulted in increased glucose uptake in BAT in 6 of the 10 subjects studied in which the tissue was evident. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • For the first time, it could be demonstrated that heat generation in brown adipose tissue could be activated by a test meal just as it would be by exposure to cold," said Klingenspor, summarizing the findings. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 4. The findings are relevant to signals that drive early events in mitochondriogenesis and cell proliferation in brown adipose tissue on exposure to cold. (portlandpress.com)
  • We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Bao J, Cui X, Cai S, Zhong J, Cai C, Chen Z (2013) Brown adipose tissue mapping in rats with combined intermolecular double-quantum coherence and Dixon water-fat MRI. (springer.com)
  • High-fat diet induces emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Consistent with the molecular changes, in HFD but not in ND rats, histological and immunohistochemistry-based analyses of WAT demonstrated the presence of small multilocular cells staining positively for uncoupling protein 1, indicating the emergence of brown-like adipocytes in WAT. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This study was undertaken to determine whether receptor and non-receptor components of the adenylate cyclase (AC) cascade were altered in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of 14-day-old pre-obese (fa/fa) rats, before endocrine status is strongly modified by fa gene expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • The weight of BAT tissue and fat deposits were significantly increased in ZDF-CR and ZDF-ND rats as compared to ZL controls, while UCP-1 and mitochondrial concentrations were significantly decreased. (uni-wuerzburg.de)
  • Publications] Nagashima T.: 'Effect of a calcium antagonist and adrenaergic agonists on blood flow in brown adipose tissue in rats. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Nonshivering thermogenesis is the process of biological heat production in mammals and is primarily mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT). (hindawi.com)
  • In small mammals, the presence of active brown adipose tissue is pivotal for the maintenance of body temperature and possibly to protect against the detrimental effects of surplus energy intake. (gu.se)
  • Brown adipose tissue (AKA brown fat) is a type of fat found in the bodies of mammals that acts as a furnace for the body. (bewellbuzz.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique thermogenic tissue in mammals that rapidly produces heat via nonshivering thermogenesis. (biologists.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) represents the main site of non-shivering thermogenesis in mammals ( Himms-Hagen, 1990 ). (biologists.org)
  • Two types of adipose (fat) tissue brown and white -- are found in mammals. (diabetesforum.com)
  • Background: In mammals, white adipose tissue (WAT) stores fat and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates fat to produce heat. (eur.nl)
  • Brown adipose tissue is found in almost all mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue is especially abundant in newborns and in hibernating mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brief Report: Adipogenic Expression of Brown Fat Genes in HIV and HIV-Related Parameters. (harvard.edu)
  • When stimulated, the cells expressed the same genes as naturally occurring brown fat cells. (diabetesforum.com)
  • In this issue of the JCI, however, Song and colleagues report a previously uncharacterized subpopulation of brown adipocytes that display distinct characteristics from the conventional brown adipocytes in their molecular signature, regulation, and fuel utilization. (jci.org)
  • Peirce V, Vidal-Puig A (2013) Regulation of glucose homoeostasis by brown adipose tissue. (springer.com)
  • PPARa is not involved in the regulation of muscle-associated genesin brown adipose tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • Yes, energy balance is tightly regulated, and BAT (brown fat) plays a key role in this regulation. (drsharma.ca)
  • Central nervous system regulation of brown adipose tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Significance of nitric oxide (NO) in the regulation of blood flow and thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) was investigated in rat. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These findings suggest that NO is involved in the regulation of not only blood flow, but also proliferation and thermogenesis of brown adipose tissue. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Brown adipocytes are multilocular lipid storage cells that play a crucial role in nonshivering thermogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • In contrast, white adipose tissue consists of unilocular white adipocytes with a main role to store energy in the form of the lipid droplet. (diva-portal.org)
  • Therefore, identifying and inhibiting factors that promote WAT browning, and glucose and lipid recycling can reduce energy wasting and ameliorate cachexia in cancer patients. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, whether ZAG plays any role beyond lipolysis and participates in other energy wasting mechanisms of cachexia such as glucose and lipid recycling, and WAT browning has not been explored. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Overall, our findings suggest that ZAG functions beyond lipolysis and causes significant energy wasting by causing WAT browning and promoting glucose and lipid catabolism in the beige cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the brown fat cell the lipid deposit is multivacuolar instead of monovacuolar. (docme.ru)
  • In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of (iron-containing) mitochondria, which gives the tissue its color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both share the presence of small lipid droplets and numerous iron-rich mitochondria, giving the brown appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has greater variability in lipid droplet size and a greater proportion of lipid droplets to mitochondria than white fat, giving it a light brown appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell-autonomous light sensitivity via Opsin3 regulates fuel utilization in brown adipocytes. (harvard.edu)
  • Bauwens M, Wierts R, van Royen B, Bucerius J, Backes W, Mottaghy F, Brans B (2014) Molecular imaging of brown adipose tissue in health and disease. (springer.com)
  • We demonstrated that these cells have a molecular signature that is distinct from brown and white adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Unlike the more prevalent white adipose tissue (WAT or white fat) which stores fat, BAT (or brown fat) burns fat to produce heat. (newswise.com)
  • Unlike white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue has the ability to dissipate energy by producing heat rather than storing it as triglycerides. (gu.se)
  • The work summarizes the features and mechanisms that allow MRI to differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT) by making use of their distinct morphological appearance and the functional characteristics of BAT. (springer.com)
  • Even the functionally different brown and white adipose tissues were generalized to share a common origin. (diva-portal.org)
  • At the end of the study, white adipose tissue (WAT), brown adipose tissue (BAT) and muscle samples were collected for RT-qPCR analyses and immunohistochemistry. (rsc.org)
  • In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In addition to well-known pituitary-thyroid-adrenal axis, new endocrine signals, such as FGF21 and irisin, orchestrate crosstalk between white adipose tissue (WAT), BAT and muscle, tuning non-shivering and shivering thermogenesis responses. (garvan.org.au)
  • Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα) in white adipose tissue (WAT). (biologists.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is concluded that fatty acid synthesis in brown adipose tissue, as in other lipogenic tissues, is subject to strong suppression by dietary long chain fatty acids, and particularly by linoleic acid. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important source of thermogenesis which is nearly exclusively dependent on its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolemia and protects from atherosclerosis development. (nature.com)
  • This was despite evidence in the 1980s for the presence of UCP-1 and a capacity for the activation of the tissue in adults ( 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Animal studies have shown that expansion and/or activation of brown adipose tissue counteracts diet-induced weight gain and related disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. (gu.se)
  • Thus, several possible targets that may be useful for the expansion and/or activation of this tissue by pharmacological means have been identified. (gu.se)
  • We now know that the activation of brown adipose tissue could be linked to a feeling of being full," reports Klingenspor. (medicalxpress.com)
  • noradrenaline release at nerve terminals is the trigger for activation of thermogenesis in brown fat cells (Girardier and Seydoux, 1986). (docme.ru)
  • β-adrenergic receptor activation promotes brown adipose tissue (BAT) β-oxidation and thermogenesis by burning fatty acids during uncoupling respiration. (biologists.org)
  • In the four centuries following its identification, different roles have been attributed to BAT, but in the early 1960s the tissue was firmly identified as a thermogenic organ generating heat through nonshivering mechanisms. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue has long been known for its heat-producing capacity, but less is known about its possible effects as a secretory organ. (diva-portal.org)
  • It is becoming increasingly clear that adipose tissue is a very dynamic and heterogenic organ. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using positron emission tomography (PET), perfusion and the density of A2A receptors will be measured in supraclavicular BAT and other tissues in healthy men. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The present study provides novel insight into our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues. (jci.org)
  • Oguri Y, Kajimura S. Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue. (harvard.edu)
  • AT can be subdivided into three subtypes, namely WAT, brown AT (BAT) and beige AT, which all possess distinct characteristic features that are associated with their function, localization and composition ( 15 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Classification of brown fat refers to two distinct cell populations with similar functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The endothelial and neuronal NOS (eNOS and nNOS, respectively) are regulated by second messengers and the third one, inducible NOS (iNOS) is inducible in a wide range of cells and tissues. (biologists.org)
  • Rothwell, N.J. & Stock, M.J. A role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis. (nature.com)
  • These data suggest that brown adipose tissue plays a role in the thermic effect of meals and that diet-induced thermogenesis may reflect the summation of the thermic effects of single meals during prolonged overeating. (sciencemag.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, and also has the capacity to modulate energy balance. (nih.gov)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has attracted scientific interest as an antidiabetic tissue owing to its ability to dissipate energy as heat. (gu.se)
  • In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. (nature.com)
  • In the cold, brown adipose tissue acts like a heat generator, and its activity has a positive effect on energy balance. (phys.org)
  • Specifically, brown fat burns the energy of the triacylglycerides (thermogenesis). (medicalxpress.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has the ability to oxidise glucose and lipids, and dissipate energy in the form of heat. (bmj.com)
  • Thermogenesis, the production of heat energy, in brown adipose tissue is a significant component of the homeostatic repertoire to maintain body temperature during the challenge of low environmental temperature in many species from mouse to man and plays a key role in elevating body temperature during the febrile response to infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Brown adipocytes, in contrast, are highly specialized cells that dissipate stored chemical energy in the form of heat. (deepdyve.com)
  • While brown adipose tissue is crucial for maintaining core body temperature and energy balance, brown fat adaptive thermogenesis can be detrimental to the hypermetabolic response to heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fat is broken down in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue cells to generate body heat. (ironmagazine.com)
  • Working together with an international team, researchers at the Technical University of Munich (TUM) were able to demonstrate that food also increases the thermogenesis of brown fat, and not just cold, as previously assumed. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Peripheral organs such as muscle and adipose tissue take up the fatty acids, whereas the remaining cholesterol-rich remnant particles are cleared by the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Autophagy in the CNS and Periphery Coordinate Lipophagy and Lipolysis in the Brown Adipose Tissue and Liver. (semanticscholar.org)