Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.
Glucose in blood.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The consumption of edible substances.
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
Abstaining from all food.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.
Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.

Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats. (1/1528)

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

Differential regulation of uncoupling protein-1, -2 and -3 gene expression by sympathetic innervation in brown adipose tissue of thermoneutral or cold-exposed rats. (2/1528)

The control of uncoupling protein-1, -2 and -3 (UCP-1, UCP-2, UCP-3) mRNA levels by sympathetic innervation in rats was investigated by specific and sensitive RT-PCR assays. In rats reared at thermoneutrality (25 degrees C), unilateral surgical sympathetic denervation of interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) markedly reduced the UCP-1 mRNA level (-38%) as compared with the contralateral innervated BAT pad, but was without significant effect on UCP-2 and -3 mRNA levels. Cold exposure (7 days, 4 degrees C) markedly increased UCP-1 (+180%), UCP-2 (+115%) and UCP-3 (+195%) mRNA levels in interscapular BAT. Unilateral sympathetic denervation prevented the cold-induced rise in BAT UCP-1 and UCP-2 mRNAs, but not that in BAT UCP-3 mRNA. Results were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These data indicate a differential endocrine control of UCP-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression in rat BAT both at thermoneutrality and during prolonged cold exposure.  (+info)

Nuclear bodies are usual constituents in tissues of hibernating dormice. (3/1528)

In previous studies we demonstrated in several tissues of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius that during hibernation cell nuclei contain particular structural constituents absent in euthermia. In the present study we examine the same tissues in euthermic and hibernating individuals of the edible dormouse Glis glis in order to investigate possible modifications of nuclear structural constituents occurring during hibernation in this species. Edible dormice were captured in the wild and maintained in an external animal house. Samples of liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue and adrenal cortex were taken from three hibernating and three euthermic animals and processed for resin embedding. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies were carried out on cell nuclei of these tissues. The most evident feature of cell nuclei of hibernating dormice was the presence of several nuclear bodies, namely fibro-granular material, amorphous bodies, coiled bodies, perichromatin granule-like granules and nucleoplasmic fibrils, the distribution of which was peculiar to each tissue. No one of these constituents was detectable during euthermia. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that they contain some splicing factors. Apart from some differences, maybe due to the different characteristics of lethargy, the nuclear bodies found in edible dormice were morphologically and immunocytochemically similar to those previously described in the same tissues of hazel dormice. They therefore seem to be strictly correlated to the hibernating state. If they represent storage and/or assembly sites of splicing factors to be rapidly used upon arousal, they could represent a usual structural feature in cells of hibernating species.  (+info)

ATP can stimulate exocytosis in rat brown adipocytes without apparent increases in cytosolic Ca2+ or G protein activation. (4/1528)

Extracellular ATP activates large increases in cell surface area and membrane turnover in rat brown adipocytes (Pappone, P. A., and Lee, S. C. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:393-404). We used whole-cell patch clamp membrane capacitance measurements of membrane surface area concurrently with fura-2 ratio imaging of intracellular calcium to test whether these purinergic membrane responses are triggered by cytosolic calcium increases or G protein activation. Increasing cytosolic calcium with adrenergic stimulation, calcium ionophore, or calcium-containing pipette solutions did not cause exocytosis. Extracellular ATP increased membrane capacitance in the absence of extracellular calcium with internal calcium strongly buffered to near resting levels. Purinergic stimulation still activated exocytosis and endocytosis in the complete absence of intracellular and extracellular free calcium, but endocytosis predominated. Modulators of G protein function neither triggered nor inhibited the initial ATP-elicited capacitance changes, but GTPgammaS or cytosolic nucleotide depletion did reduce the cells' capacity to mount multiple purinergic responses. These results suggest that calcium modulates purinergically-stimulated membrane trafficking in brown adipocytes, but that ATP responses are initiated by some other signal that remains to be identified.  (+info)

Metabolism and morphology of brown adipose tissue from Brahman and Angus newborn calves. (5/1528)

The objective of this study was to compare adipocyte morphology and lipogenesis between breed types (Angus vs Brahman) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) from newborn calves. The Brahman calves (n = 7) were born during the fall season, whereas the Angus calves were born in fall (n = 6) or the following spring (n = 4). At parturition, Brahman cows were lighter than fall Angus cows, but were heavier than spring Angus cows (P < .05). Birth weights and perirenal BAT weights were greater in spring-born, but not in fall-born Angus calves, than in Brahman calves (P < .05). Fall-born Angus BAT contained 63% more (P < .05) adipocytes/100 mg tissue and contained a greater proportion (P < .05) of adipocytes with mean diameters of 40 to 50 microm, and fewer adipocytes with diameters of 60 microm or greater, than Brahman BAT. Brahman BAT contained two-to-three times as many beta-receptors as Angus BAT (P < .05), although the dissociation constant (Kd) was not different between breed types. Mitochondria in Brahman BAT were primarily spherical, whereas Angus BAT mitochondria were elongated, and mitochondrial cross-sectional area tended (P = .08) to be greater in Brahman BAT than in Angus BAT. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA concentration (per 10(6) cells) was greater in Brahman BAT than in BAT from fall-born Angus calves. Lipogenesis from acetate was greater in Angus BAT than in Brahman BAT (P < .05), and glucose and palmitate contributed a greater proportion of carbon to lipogenesis in Brahman BAT than in Angus BAT. These differences in lipogenesis between breed types were not observed in s.c. WAT. The WAT from both breed types contained adipocytes with distinct brown adipocyte morphology, suggesting an involution of BAT to WAT in utero. We conclude that differences in UCP gene expression cannot cause the greater peak thermogenesis of Angus calves; however, differences between breed types in lipid metabolism and(or) mitochondrial morphology may contribute to this phenomenon.  (+info)

Mechanism of adipose tissue iNOS induction in endotoxemia. (6/1528)

The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of adipose tissue inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction in endotoxemia. Systemic administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rats for +info)

Effect of calorie restriction on in vivo glucose metabolism by individual tissues in rats. (7/1528)

We evaluated the effects of 8 mo of calorie restriction [CR: 60% of ad libitum (AL) food intake] on glucose uptake by 14 tissues in unanesthetized, adult (12 mo) F344xBN rats. Glucose metabolism was assessed by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose tracer technique at 1500 or 2100. Despite an approximately 60% decline in insulinemia with CR, plasma 2-[3H]deoxyglucose clearance for CR was greater than for AL at both times. A small, CR-related decrease in glucose metabolic index (R'g) occurred only at 1500 in the spleen and heart, and this decrease was reversed at 2100. In some tissues (cerebellum, lung, kidney, soleus, and diaphragm), R'g was unaffected by diet, regardless of time. In the other tissues (brown fat, 3 white fat pads, epitrochlearis, plantaris, and gastrocnemius), R'g was higher or tended to be higher for CR vs. AL at one or both times. These findings indicate that 8 mo of CR did not cause a continuous reduction in in vivo glucose uptake by any tissue studied, and, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, glucose uptake was at times greater for CR vs. AL rats.  (+info)

RVLM and raphe differentially regulate sympathetic outflows to splanchnic and brown adipose tissue. (8/1528)

To determine whether neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (RPa) specifically control the sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BAT SNA), thereby regulating adipocyte metabolism and BAT thermogenesis, the responses in BAT SNA to disinhibition of RPa neurons and to disinhibition of neurons in the vasomotor region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were compared with those in splanchnic (Spl) SNA, which primarily regulates visceral vasoconstriction. In urethan-chloralose-anesthetized ventilated rats, both acute hypothermia and microinjection of bicuculline into RPa produced significantly larger increases in BAT SNA (542 and 1,949% of control) than in Spl SNA (19 and 24% of control). The enhanced burst discharge in BAT SNA was not coherent with that in Spl SNA or with the arterial pressure (AP) at any frequency except the central respiratory frequency. Microinjections of bicuculline into RVLM evoked increases in Spl SNA (86% of control) and AP (32 mmHg), but reduced BAT SNA to low, normothermic levels. Microinjections of muscimol into RVLM reduced Spl SNA (-82% of control) and AP (-59 mmHg), but did not prevent the increase in BAT SNA after disinhibition of RPa neurons. These results indicate that the neural networks generating BAT SNA in response to disinhibition of RPa neurons are independent of those generating basal Spl SNA and support a model in which sympathetic outflow to tissues involved in thermoregulation and metabolism is regulated by central pathways, including neurons in RPa, that are distinct from those involved in the sympathetic control of the cardiovascular system.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in mouse brown adipose tissue. AU - Muralidhara, D. V.. AU - Desautels, M.. PY - 1996/4/1. Y1 - 1996/4/1. N2 - The present work provides evidence for the occurrence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in very minute concentration in mice brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice consuming 10% ethanol for 10 days showed significantly lowered enzyme activity in brown fat while liver ADH activity was increased but not significantly. Measurements of basal and norepinephrine stimulated oxygen consumption of isolated brown adipocytes indicated that the presence of ADH in BAT of mice is unlikely to play any role in ethanol oxidation.. AB - The present work provides evidence for the occurrence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in very minute concentration in mice brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice consuming 10% ethanol for 10 days showed significantly lowered enzyme activity in brown fat while liver ADH activity was increased but not significantly. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cholinergic neurons in the dorsomedial hypothalamus regulate mouse brown adipose tissue metabolism. AU - Jeong, Jae Hoon. AU - Lee, Dong Kun. AU - Blouet, Clemence. AU - Ruiz, Henry H.. AU - Buettner, Christoph. AU - Chua, Jr., Streamson C.. AU - Schwartz, Gary J.. AU - Jo, Young-Hwan. PY - 2015/6/1. Y1 - 2015/6/1. N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis is critical in maintaining body temperature. The dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) integrates cutaneous thermosensory signals and regulates adaptive thermogenesis. Here, we study the function and synaptic connectivity of input from DMH cholinergic neurons to sympathetic premotor neurons in the raphe pallidus (Rpa). Methods: In order to selectively manipulate DMH cholinergic neuron activity, we generated transgenic mice expressing channelrhodopsin fused to yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in cholinergic neurons (choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-Cre::ChR2-YFP) with the Cre-LoxP technique. In addition, we used an adeno-associated ...
Joslin Scientists Advance Understanding of Human Brown Adipose Tissue and Grow New Cells | Joslin Diabetes Center Findings Open New Possibilities for Research and Testing Treatments to Combat Obesity
Brown adipose tissue has long been known for its heat-producing capacity, but less is known about its possible effects as a secretory organ. This thesis summarizes information about presently known factors secreted from brown adipose tissue and about their actions. We were able to add factors to the list by the use of a signal-sequence trap method. Results from the signal-sequence trap generated a list of suggested brown adipocyte secreted proteins; gene expression of these proteins was then further studied with microarray technique.. One of the genes further analyzed was the adipokine chemerin. Gene expression of chemerin in brown adipose tissue was decreased in cold acclimation but increased with a high-caloric diet. This indicates that factors other than norepinephrine influence chemerin gene expression. The effects on chemerin gene expression were not be reflected in serum levels; therefore, chemerin secreted from brown adipose tissue is ascribed an autocrine/paracrine role.. Signal-sequence ...
An increase in energy intake and/or a decrease in energy expenditure lead to fat storage, causing overweight and obesity phenotypes. The objective of this review was to analyse, for the first time using a systematic approach, all published evidence from the past 8 years regarding the molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity in mammals, focusing on mechanisms involved in brown adipose tissue development. Two major databases were scanned from 2006 to 2013 using brown adipose tissue AND uncoupling protein-1 AND mammalian thermoregulation AND obesity as key words. A total of 61 articles were retrieved using the search criteria. The available research used knockout methodologies, various substances, molecules and agonist treatments, or different temperature and diet conditions, to assess the molecular pathways linking non-shivering thermogenesis and obesity. By integrating the results of the evaluated animal and human studies, our analysis identified specific ...
to burning extra calories:. At doses leading to broad activation of the sympathetic nervous system, ephedrine does not stimulate BAT in humans. In contrast, mild cold exposure stimulates BAT energy expenditure with fewer systemic effects. - Aaron Cypess et al., Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences vol 109 no 25 (2012).. By 2013, scientists were starting to seriously consider mild cold as a way to treat obesity, and that its not as uncomfortable as one might first think. Heres a quote from scientists in the Netherlands:. In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. Here, we show that a 10-day cold acclimation protocol in humans increases BAT activity in parallel with an increase in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). No gender ...
Adenosine is a purine nucleoside released locally in BAT when noradrenaline and ATP are released from sympathetic nerves. Recently it was found that adenosine activates murine and human brown adipocytes, and recruits beiging of white fat via adenosine A2A receptors (A2AR). Furthermore, studies with mice have shown improvements in glucose homeostasis after administration of A2AR agonists.. In this study the investigators use the PET radiotracer [15O]-H2O to quantify perfusion of BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT) and muscle in three conditions: room temperature, cold exposure and intravenous infusion of adenosine. Another PET radiotracer [11C]TMSX is used to quantify adenosine A2A receptor density of BAT, WAT and muscle in room temperature and during cold exposure. ...
FIG. 1. Whole-body FDG-PET images under cold or warm condition. A: A 25-year-old male subject fasted for 12 h and was kept in an air-conditioned room at 19°C with light clothing and put his legs on an ice block intermittently (for ∼4 min at every 5 min). After 1 h under this cold condition, he was given an intravenous injection of 18F-FDG and kept under the same cold condition. One hour after the 18F-FDG injection, whole-body PET/CT scans were performed in a room at 24°C. B: Two weeks after the first examination in the cold condition (A), the same subject underwent FDG-PET/CT examination as previously, but he was kept at 27°C with standard clothing and without leg icing (warm condition) for 2 h before the examination.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brown adipose tissue derived VEGF-A modulates cold tolerance and energy expenditure. AU - Sun, Kai. AU - Kusminski, Christine M.. AU - Luby-Phelps, Kate. AU - Spurgin, Stephen B.. AU - An, Yu A.. AU - Wang, Qiong A.. AU - Holland, William L.. AU - Scherer, Philipp E.. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - We recently reported that local overexpression of VEGF-A in white adipose tissue (WAT) protects against diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction. The observation that VEGF-A induces a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype in WAT prompted us to further explore the direct function of VEGF-A in BAT. We utilized a doxycycline (Dox)-inducible, brown adipocyte-specific VEGF-A transgenic overexpression model to assess direct effects of VEGF-A in BAT invivo. We observed that BAT-specific VEGF-A expression increases vascularization and up-regulates expression of both UCP1 and PGC-1α in BAT. As a result, the transgenic mice show increased thermogenesis during chronic cold exposure. In ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complementary roles of estrogen-related receptors in brown adipocyte thermogenic function. AU - Gantner, Marin L.. AU - Hazen, Bethany C.. AU - Eury, Elodie. AU - Brown, Erin L.. AU - Kralli, Anastasia. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on a high abundance of mitochondria and the unique expression of the mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1), which uncouples substrate oxidation from ATP synthesis. Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes activates UCP1-mediated thermogenesis; it also induces the expression of Ucp1 and other genes important for thermogenesis, thereby endowing adipocytes with higher oxidative and uncoupling capacities. Adipocyte mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity are controlled by multiple transcription factors, including the estrogen-related receptor (ERR)β. Whole-body ERRβ knockout mice show decreased BAT mitochondrial content and oxidative function but normal induction of Ucp1 in response to ...
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume has been consistently claimed as inversely associated with whole-body adiposity. However, recent advances in the assessment of human BAT suggest that previously...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Determinants of physiologic 18F-FDG uptake in brown adipose tissue in sequential PET/CT examinations. AU - Pace, Leonardo. AU - Nicolai, Emanuele. AU - DAmico, Domenico. AU - Ibello, Francesco. AU - Morte, Anna Maria Della. AU - Salvatore, Barbara. AU - Pizzuti, Laura Micol. AU - Salvatore, Marco. AU - Soricelli, Andrea. PY - 2011/10. Y1 - 2011/10. N2 - Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess independent predictors of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18F]fluoro-Dglucose ( 18F-FDG) uptake in brown adipose tissue (BAT) in patients undergoing repeated positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) scans. Procedures: Eight hundred forty-eight (mean age 50.9±16 years) patients in whom PET/CT scan was repeated (mean interval 5±1.5 months) constituted the study group. 18F-FDG uptake in characteristic areas of BAT, with CT density of adipose tissue, greater than background softtissue activity was considered as evidence of BAT uptake. Both distribution and maximum standardized uptake ...
Background Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam) and B2 (Tfb2m), whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing
Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové, Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology Student: Mgr. Tereza Vašků Supervisor: Dr. Matthias Bauwens: Maastricht University, Netherlands Consultant: PharmDr. Jana Ramos Mandíková, PhD Title of diploma thesis: Comparison of radiolabelled fatty acid (18 F-FTHA) and 18 F-FDG in imaging of brown adipose tissue Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is highly metabolically active tissue, which consumes glucose and free fatty acids (FFA) during the process called thermogenesis. Due to these characteristic features, it is possible to quantify the activity of the BAT by non-invasive imaging methods (by using radiopharmaceuticals). Nowadays, one of the most frequently used substances is the radiopharmaceutical called 18 F -FDG (radiolabelled glucose by fluoride). The 18 F -FDG is in clinical practice used for metabolically active tissues diagnosis, notably tumours. We focused in this study on synthesis of radiolabelled fatty acid, namely on ...
In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether activation and recruitment of BAT can be a target to counterbalance the current obesity pandemic. Here, we show that a 10-day cold acclimation protocol in humans increases BAT activity in parallel with an increase in nonshivering thermogenesis (NST). No sex differences in BAT presence and activity were found either before or after cold acclimation. Respiration measurements in permeabilized fibers and isolated mitochondria revealed no significant contribution of skeletal muscle mitochondrial uncoupling to the increased NST. Based on cell-specific markers and on uncoupling protein-1 (characteristic of both BAT and beige/brite cells), this study did not show browning of abdominal subcutaneous white adipose tissue upon cold acclimation. The observed physiological acclimation is in line with the subjective changes in temperature sensation; upon cold acclimation, the subjects ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased lipogenesis in brown adipose tissue of lactating rats fed a cafeteria diet. The possible involvement of insulin in brown adipose tissue hypertrophy. AU - Agius, Loranne. AU - Rolls, Barbara J.. AU - Rowe, Edward A.. AU - Williamson, Dermot H.. PY - 1981/1/12. Y1 - 1981/1/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0019463374&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0019463374&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/0014-5793(81)80016-6. DO - 10.1016/0014-5793(81)80016-6. M3 - Article. C2 - 7009214. AN - SCOPUS:0019463374. VL - 123. SP - 45. EP - 48. JO - FEBS Letters. JF - FEBS Letters. SN - 0014-5793. IS - 1. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Whitening and Impaired Glucose Utilization of Brown Adipose Tissue in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. AU - Lapa, Constantin. AU - Arias-Loza, Paula. AU - Hayakawa, Nobuyuki. AU - Wakabayashi, Hiroshi. AU - Werner, Rudolf A.. AU - Chen, Xinyu. AU - Shinaji, Tetsuya. AU - Herrmann, Ken. AU - Pelzer, Theo. AU - Higuchi, Takahiro. PY - 2017/12/1. Y1 - 2017/12/1. N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an attractive therapeutic target to combat diabetes and obesity due to its ability to increase glucose expenditure. In a genetic rat model (ZDF fa/fa) of type-2 diabetes and obesity, we aimed to investigate glucose utilization of BAT by 18F-FDG PET imaging. Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) and Male Zucker lean (ZL) control rats were studied at 13 weeks. Three weeks prior to imaging, ZDF rats were randomized into a no-restriction (ZDF-ND) and a mild calorie restriction (ZDF-CR) group. Dynamic 18F-FDG PET using a dedicated small animal PET system was performed under ...
We provide evidence that ablation or inhibition of, uncoupling protein 1 increases the rate of reactive oxygen containing species production by mitochondria from brown adipose tissue, no matter what electron transport chain substrate is used (succinate, glycerol-3-phosphate or pyruvate/malate). Consistent with these data are our observations that (a) the mitochondrial membrane potential is maximal when uncoupling protein 1 is ablated or inhibited and (b) oxygen consumption rates in mitochondria from uncoupling protein 1 knock-out mice, are significantly lower than those from wild-type mice, but equivalent to those from wild-type mice in the presence of GDP. In summary, we show that uncoupling protein 1 can affect reactive oxygen containing species production by isolated mitochondria from brown adipose tissue.
We measured the effects of a diet in which D-β-hydroxybutyrate-(R)-1,3 butanediol monoester [ketone ester (KE)] replaced equicaloric amounts of carbohydrate on 8-wk-old male C57BL/6J mice. Diets contained equal amounts of fat, protein, and micronutrients. The KE group was fed ad libitum, whereas the control (Ctrl) mice were pair-fed to the KE group. Blood d-β-hydroxybutyrate levels in the KE group were 3-5 times those reported with high-fat ketogenic diets. Voluntary food intake was reduced dose dependently with the KE diet. Feeding the KE diet for up to 1 mo increased the number of mitochondria and doubled the electron transport chain proteins, uncoupling protein 1, and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [(18)F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in IBAT of the KE group was twice that in IBAT of the Ctrl group. Plasma leptin levels of the KE group were more than 2-fold those of the Ctrl group and were associated with increased sympathetic nervous
Using a micro-PET/CT scanner, we have measured (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) in C57Bl/6 mice at intervals across a 24-hour light-dark cycle. Our data reveals a strong 24-hour profile of glucose uptake of iBAT, peaking at approximately 9 hours into the light phase of the 12 hour light, 12 hour dark day. BAT is increasingly gaining attention as being involved in metabolic phenotypes and obesity, where BAT, as observed by PET analysis, negatively correlates with obesity and age. Conversely, animals that show perturbations in circadian clocks, behavior and physiology show metabolic phenotypes. The observation of a 24-hour rhythm in glucose uptake in iBAT makes this tissue a candidate site of interaction between metabolic and circadian systems.. ...
Low-carbohydrate, high-fat (LC-HF) diets are popular for inducing weight loss in overweighed adults. Adaptive thermogenesis increased by specific effects of macronutrients on energy expenditure has been postulated to induce this weight loss. We studied brown adipose tissue (BAT) morphology and function following exposure to different LC-HF diets. Methods: Male Wistar rats were fed a standard control diet ad libitum or pair-fed isoenergetic amounts of three experimental diets for 4 weeks. The diets had the following macronutrient composition (% metabolizable energy: carbohydrates, fat, protein): control (64.3/16.7/19), LC-HF-low protein (LC-HF-LP, 1.7/92.8/5.5), LC-HF-normal-protein (LC-HF-NP, 2.2/78.7/19.1), and a high fat diet with carbohydrates (high fat, 19.4/61.9/18.7). Results: Body weight gain was reduced in all pair-fed experimental groups as compared to rats fed the control diet, with more pronounced effect in rats on LC-HF diets than on the high fat diet with carbohydrates. High fat ...
Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) presence, metabolic activity, and estimated mass are typically measured by imaging [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in response to cold exposure in regions of the body expected to contain BAT, using positron emission tomography combined with X-ray computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT). Efforts to describe the epidemiology and biology of human BAT are hampered by diverse experimental practices, making it difficult to directly compare results among laboratories. An expert panel was assembled by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases on November 4, 2014 to discuss minimal requirements for conducting FDG-PET/CT experiments of human BAT, data analysis, and publication of results. This resulted in Brown Adipose Reporting Criteria in Imaging STudies (BARCIST 1.0). Since there are no fully validated best practices at this time, panel recommendations are meant to enhance comparability across experiments, but not to constrain experimental ...
Given the increasing worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disturbances, novel therapeutic strategies are imperatively required. A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. In this review, we focused on the relationship between gut microbiota composition and adipose tissue thermogenic program (including BAT activity and browning of WAT) in both physiological and stress conditions. Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. Mechanistically speaking, processes related to bile acid metabolism and the endocannabinoid system seem to play an important role. In summary,
Researchers identified two receptors on brown adipose tissue cells, TRPM8 and TRPP3, that could be targeted to increase the amount of brown adipose tissue in people, serving as a possible therapy for obesity and type 2 diabetes, according to a press release from the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology.The receptors are involved in the creation of brown adipose tissue and
2+ Abstract Aim Serotonin (5‐hydroxytryptamine, 5‐HT), an important neurotransmitter and hormone, modulates many physiological functions including body temperature. We investigated neural mechanisms involved in the inhibition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and BAT thermogenesis evoked by 5‐HT. Methods Electrophysiological recordings, intravenous (iv) injections and nanoinjections in the brains of anesthetized rats. Results Cooling‐evoked increases in BAT SNA were inhibited by the intra‐rostral raphé pallidus (rRPa) and the iv administration of the 5‐HT1A receptor agonist, 8‐OH‐DPAT, or 5‐HT. The intra‐rRPa 5‐HT, the intra‐rRPa and the iv 8‐OH‐DPAT, but not the iv 5‐HT‐induced inhibition of BAT SNA were prevented by nanoinjection of a 5‐HT1A receptor antagonist in the rRPa. The increase in BAT SNA evoked by nanoinjection of NMDA in the rRPa was not inhibited by iv 5‐HT, indicating that iv 5‐HT does not inhibit BAT SNA by ...
結核は忘れられたパンデミックと呼ばれている。BCG誕生から100年経った今、BCG以降の進歩と展望を詳細に紹介した長い記事。 https://twitter.com/_atanas_/status/ ...
Lee P, Brychta RJ, Collins MT, Linderman J, Smith S, Herscovitch P, Millo C, Chen KY, Celi FS.. Diabetes, Endocrinology, and Obesity Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bldg 10, CRC, 10 Center Drive, Bethesda, MD, USA, [email protected] In animals, defective brown adipogenesis leads to bone loss. Whether brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass relates to bone mineral density (BMD) in humans is unclear. We determined the relationship between BAT mass and BMD by cold-stimulated positron-emission tomography (PET) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy volunteers. Higher BAT mass was associated with higher BMD in healthy women, but not in men, independent of age and body composition. INTRODUCTION: Contrary to the traditional belief that BAT is present only in infants, recent studies revealed significant depots of BAT present in adult humans. In animals, defective brown adipogenesis leads to bone loss. While white adipose ...
We report the discovery of a low-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulation with unique molecular and metabolic features, coexisting with the classical brown adipocytes in vivo. The results presented here offer critical insight toward our understanding of how brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is regulated at the cellular level. The discovery of the new low-thermogenic subpopulation is of great interest since this population of cells does not have typical brown adipocyte morphology and displays a unique metabolic profile. However, the exact function of this subpopulation is largely unknown. These brown adipocytes have relatively large lipid droplets and low mitochondrial content and an extremely low respiration rate, compared with the high-thermogenic subpopulation. Are these brown adipocytes in a resting status and readily recruitable to convert into high-thermogenic cells? Or do they have critical metabolic functions other than thermogenesis? As the low-thermogenic brown adipocytes have a much ...
We report the discovery of a low-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulation with unique molecular and metabolic features, coexisting with the classical brown adipocytes in vivo. The results presented here offer critical insight toward our understanding of how brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is regulated at the cellular level. The discovery of the new low-thermogenic subpopulation is of great interest since this population of cells does not have typical brown adipocyte morphology and displays a unique metabolic profile. However, the exact function of this subpopulation is largely unknown. These brown adipocytes have relatively large lipid droplets and low mitochondrial content and an extremely low respiration rate, compared with the high-thermogenic subpopulation. Are these brown adipocytes in a resting status and readily recruitable to convert into high-thermogenic cells? Or do they have critical metabolic functions other than thermogenesis? As the low-thermogenic brown adipocytes have a much ...
Brown-adipose-tissue glucose utilization rate and its insulin-sensitivity were measured in vivo in the anaesthetized rat by a 2-deoxy[1-3H]glucose technique. Glucose utilization can be increased 60-fold by insulin, to reach extremely high rates. Glucose utilization and its insulin-sensitivity are modulated in accordance with physiological or pathological conditions. ...
Caffeine may reduce the potential for weight gain or obesity and improve insulin sensitivity because it is of the systems that burns brown fat. Studies have looked at the impact of caffeine on brown adipose tissue both in a test tube and in humans. Past studies have demonstrated the activation of brown adipose tissue through nutrients and exposure to cold. Caffeine causes an upregulation of UCP1 in obese mice, however, the direct impact that it has on humans is unknown. Researchers used several tests to analyze their data and then studied nine healthy human volunteers with a normal BMI. The subjects either drank a caffeinated beverage or water and then stayed seated for 30 minutes. The researchers found that those who drank caffeine had an increase in the expression of UCP1. They also analyzed the thermal imaging completed 30 minutes after the subjects drank their beverage against the images taken before. The images showed an increase in the brown adipose tissue temperature in adults after ...
Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermogenesis and whole body metabolism in mammals. Positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) imaging has identified depots of BAT in adult humans, igniting scientific interest. The purpose of this study is to characterize both active and inactive supraclavicular BAT in adults and compare the values to those of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). We obtained [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 25 healthy adults. Unlike [18F]FDG PET, which can detect only active BAT, MRI is capable of detecting both active and inactive BAT. The MRI-derived fat signal fraction (FSF) of active BAT was significantly lower than that of inactive BAT (means ± SD; 60.2 ± 7.6 vs. 62.4 ± 6.8%, respectively). This change in tissue morphology was also reflected as a significant increase in Hounsfield units (HU; −69.4 ± 11.5 vs. −74.5 ± 9.7 HU, respectively). Additionally, the CT HU, MRI
Objective Previous research have shown energetic dark brown adipose tissue (BAT) exists in adults and could play essential roles in regulating energy homeostasis. topics who underwent checking for either regular medical check-up (MC) or cancers security (CS) in Shanghai. After that we investigated the predictors of active BAT in healthy individuals especially. LEADS TO both combined groupings the prevalence of BAT was higher in females than guys. Using a multivariate logistic Rabbit polyclonal to NF-kappaB p65.NFKB1 (MIM 164011) or NFKB2 (MIM 164012) is bound to REL (MIM 164910), RELA, or RELB (MIM 604758) to form the NFKB complex.The p50 (NFKB1)/p65 (RELA) heterodimer is the most abundant form of NFKB.. analysis we found in the MC group age sex BMI and thyroid tissue metabolism were significant predictors of BAT activity. Similarly in the CS group age sex and BMI were significant predictors of BAT activity but not thyroid metabolism. Conclusions In Chinese adults BAT activity correlates ...
Author(s): Kajimura, Shingo; Ohno, H; Shinoda, K; Ohyama, K; Sharp, LZ | Abstract: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates chemical energy in the form of heat as a defence against hypothermia and obesity. Current evidence indicates that brown adipocytes arise from Myf5 + dermotomal precursors through the action of PR domain containing prot
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Much of the current excitement in the obesity field stems from recent observations highlighting that, even as adults, we have the ability to generate brown fat cells in response to cold exposure. Unlike white fat cells that mostly just store fat, brown adipocytes keep us warm by burning fat at a high rate, said Dr. Philipp Scherer, Director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study available online at Nature Medicine.. While generation of brown fat cells previously was thought to be mostly relevant for rodents and human infants, Dr. Scherer said, current evidence points to the observation that adults also generate these cells when exposed to cold.. Brown fat cells in adults tend to be randomly interspersed in subcutaneous white fat, with a trend toward increased accumulation in the upper chest and neck areas. In general, brown fat tissue makes up just a small percentage of total body fat mass.. The Touchstone Centers staff devotes its ...
Methamphetamine (Meth) abuse has been shown to induce alterations in mitochondrial function in the brain as well as to induce hyperthermia, which contributes to neurotoxicity and Meth-associated mortality. Brown adipose tissue (BAT), a thermogenic site known to be important in neonates, has recently regained importance since being identified in significant amounts and in correlation with metabolic balance in human adults. Given the high mitochondrial content of BAT and its role in thermogenesis, we aimed to investigate whether BAT plays any role in the development of Meth-induced hyperthermia. By ablating or denervating BAT, we identified a partial contribution of this organ to Meth-induced hyperthermia. BAT ablation decreased temperature by 0.5°C and reduced the length of hyperthermia by 1 h, compared to sham-operated controls. BAT denervation also affected the development of hyperthermia in correlation with decreased the expression of electron transport chain molecules, and increase on PCG1a ...
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Although insulin regulates metabolism in both brown and white adipocytes, the role of these tissues in energy storage and utilization is quite different. Recombination technology using the Cre-loxP approach allows inactivation of the insulin receptor in a tissue-specific manner. Mice lacking insulin receptors in brown adipocytes show an age-dependent loss of interscapular brown fat but increased expression of uncoupling protein-1 and -2. In parallel, these mice develop an insulin-secretion defect resulting in a progressive glucose intolerance, without insulin resistance. This model provides direct evidence for not only a role for the insulin receptors in brown fat adipogenesis, the data also suggest a novel role of brown adipose tissue in the regulation of insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. AU - Timmons, James A.. AU - Wennmalm, Kristian. AU - Larsson, Ola. AU - Walden, Tomas B.. AU - Lassmann, Timo. AU - Petrovic, Natasa. AU - Hamilton, D. Lee. AU - Gimeno, Ruth E.. AU - Wahlestedt, Claes. AU - Baar, Keith. AU - Nedergaard, Jan. AU - Cannon, Barbara. PY - 2007/3/13. Y1 - 2007/3/13. N2 - Attainment of a brown adipocyte cell phenotype in white adipocytes, with their abundant mitochondria and increased energy expenditure potential, is a legitimate strategy for combating obesity. The unique transcriptional regulators of the primary brown adipocyte phenotype are unknown, limiting our ability to promote brown adipogenesis over white. In the present work, we used microarray analysis strategies to study primary preadipocytes, and we made the striking discovery that brown preadipocytes demonstrate a myogenic transcriptional signature, whereas both brown and ...
Brown adipose tissue [BAT] metabolism in vivo is vital for the development of novel strategies in combating obesity and diabetes. Currently, BAT is activated at low temperatures and measured using 2-deoxy-2-18F-fluoro-D-glucose [18F-FDG] positron-emission tomography [PET]. We report the use of β3-adrenergic receptor-mediated activation of BAT at ambient temperatures using (R, R)-5-[2-[2,3-(3-chlorphenyl)-2-hydroxyethyl-amino]propyl]-1,3-benzodioxole-2,2-dicarboxylate, disodium salt [CL316,243] (a selective β3-adrenoceptor agonist) and measured by 18F-FDG PET/computed tomography [CT]. Control and CL316,243-treated (2 mg/kg) male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered with 18F-FDG for PET/CT studies and were compared to animals at cold temperatures. Receptor-blocking experiments were carried out using propranolol (5 mg/kg). Dose effects of CL316,243 were studied by injecting 0.1 to 1 mg/kg 30 min prior to 18F-FDG administration. Imaging results were confirmed by autoradiography, and histology was done to
The amount and sources of T3 associated with high affinity, low capacity cellular nuclear receptors in brown adipose tissue (BAT) have been estimated by in vivo pulse-labeling techniques. Maximal binding capacity was measured by in vivo saturation analysis. Nuclear receptor occupancy at endogenous levels of T3 and T4 in euthyroid rats was estimated from the equilibrium nuclear to serum ratio of tracer T3, and the locally generated nuclear T3 to serum T4 ratio after injecting tracer T3 and T4. These ratios were multiplied, respectively, by the endogenous concentrations of T3 and T4 as measured by RIA. The maximal binding capacity was 0.65 ng T3/mg DNA, and saturation was 71%. Fifty-five percent of the nuclear T3 was generated locally, and 45% was derived from circulating T3. BAT is, hence, comparable to the liver in number of receptors (approximately 5000/cell) and to the pituitary with regard to saturation and relative contributions of locally generated T3 and plasma T3 to nuclear T3. These ...
Article: Loss of UCP2 impairs cold-induced non-shivering thermogenesis by promoting a shift toward glucose utilization in brown adipose tissue.. Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) was discovered in 1997 and classified as an uncoupling protein largely based on its homology of sequence with UCP1. Since its discovery, the uncoupling function of UCP2 has been questioned and there is yet no consensus on the true function of this protein. UCP2 was first proposed to be a reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulator and an insulin secretion modulator. More recently, it was demonstrated as a regulator of the mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, which prompted us to investigate its role in the metabolic and thermogenic functions of brown adipose tissue. We first investigated the role of UCP2 in affecting the glycolysis capacity by evaluating the extracellular flux in cells lacking UCP2. We thereafter investigated the role of UCP2 in BAT thermogenesis with positron emission tomography using the metabolic tracers ...
Indomethacin, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, has been shown to induce white adipocyte differentiation; however, its roles in brown adipocyte differentiation, and activation in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and obesity are unknown. To address this issue, we treated mouse pre-brown cells with different doses of indomethacin, and delivered indomethacin to interscapular BAT (iBAT) of obese mice using implanted osmotic pumps. Indomethacin dose-dependently increased brown adipocyte differentiation, and upregulated both mRNA and protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma (γ) coactivator 1-alpha. The mechanistic study showed that indomethacin significantly activated the reporter driven by PPAR response element, indicating that indomethacin may work as a PPARγ agonist in this cell line. Consistently, indomethacin significantly decreased iBAT mass and fasting blood glucose levels in the high-fat diet induced obese (DIO) mice. ...
We had previously demonstrated that mitochondrial fragmentation, induced by cold exposure in BAT, might represent an approach to increase fat oxidation [9]. Therefore, selectively inducing mitochondrial fragmentation in BAT could be a strategy mimicking Ucp1 activation and a potential therapy for obesity, which would bypass the need for adrenergic stimulation. However, the role of Mfn2 in obesity‐induced BAT remodeling and the effect of chronically reducing Mfn2 in BAT in vivo have not been explored.. Here we present a perturbation of brown adipocyte mitochondrial dynamics that enhances BAT capacity to negate the metabolic derangements associated with diet‐induced obesity, while impairing thermogenic capacity in response to cold in vivo. Our study identified for the first time a role for Mfn2 in the response of BAT to obesity and in a gender dependent manner. While in obese females deletion of Mfn2 results in increased coupled respiratory efficiency of BAT mitochondria oxidizing fat, Mfn2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - New members of uncoupling protein family implicated in energy metabolism. AU - Hosoda, Kiminori. AU - Matsuda, Junichi. AU - Itoh, Hiroshi. AU - Cheol, Son. AU - Kentaro, Doi. AU - Tanaka, Tokuji. AU - Fukunaga, Yasutomo. AU - Yamori, Yukio. AU - Nakao, Kazuwa. PY - 1999/7/14. Y1 - 1999/7/14. N2 - 1. The regulation of energy metabolism involves food intake and energy expenditure. Mitochondrial uncoupling proteins (UCP) are implicated in energy expenditure. 2. cDNA of a homologue of UCP highly expressed in rat skeletal muscle, UCP-3, is isolated and sequenced. Rat UCP-2 cDNA is also isolated and sequenced. 3. Rat UCP-3 cDNA probe hybridized two bands, a major band at 2.5 kb and a minor band at 2.8 kb in rat tissues. The mRNA was expressed at the highest level in the skeletal muscle, and moderately in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT). Only weak signals were detected in the epididymal white adipose tissue (WAT) and the heart. Rat UCP-2 cDNA probe hybridized a 1.7 kb band ...
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Biologists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified a signaling pathway that switches on a powerful calorie-burning process in brown fat cells.
Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ, whose sole purpose is to burn calories, which it does with remarkable efficiency (to generate heat).. Not surprisingly, much current research focuses on harnessing this tissue to control or even reduce body weight.. Now a paper by Aaron Cypess and colleagues from the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, published in Cell Metabolism, describes the use of the β3-adrenergic receptor (AR) agonist mirabegron, a drug normally used to treat bladder dysfunction, to stimulate brown adipose tissue in humans.. The studies were carried out in 12 healthy young lean male volunteers, who were each given a single 200 mm dose of mirabegron.. Subsequent imaging studies using PET and CT scanning showed substantial activation of brown adipose tissue depots associated with an rise in resting metabolic rate of over 200 cal per day.. Unfortunately, these changes were accompanied by a significant rise in heart rate and blood pressure, not exactly a desired effect when it comes ...
PubMed journal article: Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis: interdisciplinary studies. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Alterations in nonshivering thermogenesis are presently discussed as being both potentially causative of and able to counteract obesity. However, the necessity for mammals to defend their body temperature means that the ambient temperature profoundly affects the outcome and interpretation of metabolic experiments. An adequate understanding and assessment of nonshivering thermogenesis is therefore paramount for metabolic studies. Classical nonshivering thermogenesis is facultative, i.e. it is only activated when an animal acutely requires extra heat (switched on in minutes), and adaptive, i.e. it takes weeks for an increase in capacity to develop. Nonshivering thermogenesis is fully due to brown adipose tissue activity; adaptation corresponds to the recruitment of this tissue. Diet-induced thermogenesis is probably also facultative and adaptive and due to brown adipose tissue activity. Although all mammals respond to injected/infused norepinephrine (noradrenaline) with an increase in metabolism, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Brown adipose tissue and the regulation of nonshivering thermogenesis.. AU - van Marken Lichtenbelt, W.D.. PY - 2012/11. Y1 - 2012/11. N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The recent rediscovery of functional cold activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) in adult humans fuelled an uprise in studies on this tissue. This review focuses on the contribution of human BAT to nonshivering thermogenesis and on factors other than cold that activate BAT. RECENT FINDINGS: Earlier studies revealed BAT activity using a glucose tracer for positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scanning. Several recent studies, using a mix of tracers and PET/CT dynamic scanning showed that human brown fat is metabolically active and related to the perfusion of the tissue. The actual contribution of BAT to nonshivering thermogenesis still needs to be explored.The last few years, several new factors that activate human BAT have been described. These studies also highlight the plasticity of brown and white ...
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Objectives : This study was designed to examine the effect of Ecklonia cava on expressing of blood lipids and UCP-1 of brown adipose tissue(BAT) in zucker rats. Methods : Experimental groups were divided into 3 groups: normal group, control group and sample group for 7 separate rats as expriment. Control and sample groups were genetrically modified obesity. All groups didnt impose restrictions on food and water. And we gave a ecklonia cava to sample group for 6 weeks. Ecklonia cava was examined in effects of blood glucose, insulin concentration and UCP-1 in brown adipose tissue. Results : 1. Control and sample groups were increased in weight. But, sample group was decreased as compared to control group. 2. Sample group was decreased significantly as compared to control group with insulin concentration, HOMA, TG, FFA. 3. Sample group was increased significantly as compared to control group with UCP-1 mRNA. Conclusions : Based on these results, it was proved that Ecklonia cava on obesity effects in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hemangioendothelial sarcoma in brown adipose tissue of mouse induced by carcinogenic heterocyclic amine, Glu-P-1. AU - Sakamoto, M.. AU - Takayama, S.. AU - Hosoda, Y.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - 2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3,2-d]limidazole, a potent bacterial mutagen from glutamic acid pyrolysate, when give to male CDF1 mice at a concentration of 0.05% in the diet induced blood vessel tumors characterized histopathologically. These hemangioendothelial sarcomas showed positive alkaline phosphatase activity histochemically and Weibel-Palade bodies ultrastructurally. Neoplasms were predilective for brown adipose tissue and foci of atypical cells, not peliosis-like lesions, appear to be an early stage in tumor development.. AB - 2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3,2-d]limidazole, a potent bacterial mutagen from glutamic acid pyrolysate, when give to male CDF1 mice at a concentration of 0.05% in the diet induced blood vessel tumors characterized histopathologically. These ...
Obesity is characterized by a positive energy balance and expansion of white adipose tissue (WAT). In contrast, brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts energy to produce heat. Here we show that a small molecule stimulator (BAY 41-8543) of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC), which produces the second messenger cyclic GMP (cGMP), protects against diet-induced weight gain, induces weight loss in established obesity, and also improves the diabetic phenotype. Mechanistically, the haeme-dependent sGC stimulator BAY 41-8543 enhances lipid uptake into BAT and increases whole-body energy expenditure, whereas ablation of the haeme-containing β1-subunit of sGC severely impairs BAT function. Notably, the sGC stimulator enhances differentiation of human brown adipocytes as well as induces browning of primary white adipocytes. Taken together, our data suggest that sGC is a potential pharmacological target for the treatment of obesity and its comorbidities. The enzyme soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) regulates
TY - JOUR. T1 - α2 adrenergic receptor-mediated inhibition of thermogenesis. AU - Madden, Christopher J.. AU - Tupone, Domenico. AU - Cano, Georgina. AU - Morrison, Shaun F.. PY - 2013/1/30. Y1 - 2013/1/30. N2 - α2 adrenergic receptor (α2-AR) agonists have been used as antihypertensive agents, in the management of drug withdrawal, and as sedative analgesics. Since α2-AR agonists also influence the regulation of body temperature, we explored their potential as antipyretic agents. This study delineates the central neural substrate for the inhibition of rat brown adipose tissue (BAT) and shivering thermogenesis by α2-AR agonists. Nanoinjection of the α2-AR agonist clonidine (1.2 nmol) into the rostral raphe pallidus area (rRPa) inhibited BAT sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and BAT thermogenesis. Subsequent nanoinjection of the α2-AR antagonist idazoxan (6 nmol) into the rRPa reversed the clonidine-evoked inhibition of BAT SNA and BAT thermogenesis. Systemic administration of the α2-AR ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT; brown fat) is the principal site of adaptive thermogenesis in the human newborn and other small mammals. Of paramount importance for thermogenesis is vascular perfusion, which controls the flow of cool blood in, and warmed blood out, of BAT. We have developed an optical method for the quantitative imaging of BAT perfusion in the living, intact animal using the heptamethine indocyanine IR-786 and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light. We present a detailed analysis of the physical, chemical, and cellular properties of IR-786, its biodistribution and pharmacokinetics, and its uptake into BAT. Using transgenic animals with homozygous deletion of Type II iodothyronine deiodinase, or homozygous deletion of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) 1 and 2, we demonstrate that BAT perfusion can be measured non- invasively, accurately, and reproducibly. Using these tech- niques, we show that UCP ¡1/¡2 knockout animals, when compared to wild-type animals, have a higher baseline perfusion ...
This study was undertaken to determine whether receptor and non-receptor components of the adenylate cyclase (AC) cascade were altered in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of 14-day-old pre-obese (fa/fa) rats, before endocrine status is strongly modified by fa gene expression. Activity of the AC catalytic subunit did not differ between the two genotypes. In fa/fa rats compared with control Fa/fa rats, there was a 50% decrease in the activity of alpha Gs (stimulated by NaF or guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) but no change in protein content (Western blotting). alpha Gi function, assessed by the inhibitory action of low concentrations of guanosine 5′-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate upon 10(-4) M forskolin-stimulated AC activity, was equally low in both genotypes. Analysis of dose-response curves for different beta-agonists revealed that (i) both the basal and the maximally stimulated activity of AC were 2-fold lower in fa/fa rats than in Fa/fa rats; (ii) BRL37344 and CGP12177 (beta 3 agonists) ...
Abstract: Prevalence of obesity and co-morbidities is increasing alarmingly in recent years with over 1 billion adults globally being classified as overweight. Importantly, this also applies to the population in Qatar where about 70% of the total population are expected to be overweight and nearly 20% diabetic by 2015. The profound increase in obesity has a severe socio-economic burden for public health systems worldwide. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has high metabolic activity. Increasing BAT mass in itself as well as through trans-differentiation of white adipose tissue (WAT) to BAT can combat obesity, reverse insulin resistance and diabetes. Orexin A (ORA) and orexin B (ORB) neuropeptides mediate multiple physiological functions including sleep and wakefulness, appetite, metabolism, analgesia, stress response and thermogenesis. Orexins mediate physiological responses via activating two GPCRs OXR1 and OXR2. In the current study we demonstrate for the first time the expression of OXR1 and OXR2 in human
Intracellular calcium-permeable channels have been implicated in thermogenic function of murine brown and brite/beige adipocytes, respectively transient receptor potential melastin-8 and transient receptor potential vanilloid-4. Because the endo-lysosomal two-pore channels (TPCs) have also been ascribed with metabolic functionality, we studied the effect of simultaneously knocking out TPC1 and TPC2 on body composition and energy balance in male mice fed a chow diet. Compared with wild-type mice, TPC1 and TPC2 double knockout (Tpcn1/2(-/-)) animals had a higher respiratory quotient and became obese between 6 and 9 months of age. Although food intake was unaltered, interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) maximal temperature and lean-mass adjusted oxygen consumption were lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) than in wild type mice. Phosphorylated hormone-sensitive lipase expression, lipid density and expression of β-adrenergic receptors were also lower in Tpcn1/2(-/-) BAT, whereas mitochondrial respiratory chain
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are a novel class of insulin-sensitizing agents used in the treatment of NIDDM and are potent agonists for the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). The thiazolidinedione BRL 49653 has been shown to promote the differentiation of the HIB-1B brown preadipocyte cell line and to increase rat interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass. Given the importance of brown fat in the control of energy metabolism in rodents, this may represent an important therapeutic effect of this class of compound. To date, however, no studies examining the effects of TZDs on human brown fat have been reported. In the present study, we have measured uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) mRNA, a specific marker for BAT, in isolated adipocytes and subcultured preadipocytes prepared from different adult human adipose tissue depots. Consistent with previous studies of adult human whole adipose tissue, UCP-1 mRNA was detectable in isolated human adipocytes ...
Whittle AJ, Carobbio S, Martins L, Slawik M, Hondares E, Vázquez MJ, Morgan D, Csikasz RI, Gallego R, Rodriguez-Cuenca S, Dale M, Virtue S, Villarroya F, Cannon B, Rahmouni K, López M, Vidal-Puig A. BMP8B increases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis through both central and peripheral actions. Cell. 2012 May 11;149(4):871-85. Virtue S, Masoodi M, Velagapudi V, Tan CY, Dale M, Suorti T, Slawik M, Blount M, Burling K, Campbell M, Eguchi N, Medina-Gomez G, Sethi JK, Orešič M, Urade Y, Griffin JL, Vidal-Puig A. Lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase and PPARγ2 coordinate to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in vivo. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e39512. Virtue S, Even P, Vidal-Puig A. Below thermoneutrality, changes in activity do not drive changes in total daily energy expenditure between groups of mice. Cell Metab. 2012 Nov 7;16(5):665-71.. Whittle AJ, Vidal-Puig A. Physiology: Immune cells fuel the fire. Nature. 2011 Dec 1;480(7375):46-7.. Prieur X, Mok CY, Velagapudi VR, Núñez V, Fuentes L, ...
Measurement of energy balance during voluntary overeating in rats unequivocally establishes the quantitative importance of diet-induced thermogenesis in energy balance. Like cold-induced thermogenesis, this form of heat production involves changes in the activity of the sympathetic nervous system an …
We have recently generated immortalized fetal brown adipocyte cell lines from insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) knockout mice and demonstrated an impairment in insulin-induced lipid synthesis as compared to wild-type cell lines. In this study, we investigated the consequences of IRS-1 deficiency on mitogenesis in response to insulin. The lack of IRS-1 resulted in the inability of insulin-stimulated IRS-1-deficient brown adipocytes to increase DNA synthesis and enter into S/G2/M phases of the cell cycle. These cells showed a severe impairment in activating mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) and p42-p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) upon insulin stimulation. IRS-1-deficient cells also lacked tyrosine phosphorylation of SHC and showed no SHC-Grb-2 association in response to insulin. The mitogenic response to insulin could be partially restored by enhancing IRS-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and its association with Grb-2 by inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity through
We studied the effects of a 3-day fast and 20 days of refeeding on lipoprotein lipase activity (LPL) in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) of sexually mature male rats. Rats were refed either ad libitum or restricted quantities (75 or 50% of normal ad libitum food intake). BAT-LPL, expressed on a per depot basis, decreased with fasting and returned to control values by day 3 of refeeding ad libitum. In contrast, refeeding restricted quantities for 5 to 20 days limited regain of body weight and increased BAT-LPL significantly above the values observed in rats refed ad libitum ...
In the second part of this thesis, we investigated the role of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue with particular focus on how adipose mTORC2 affects non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and cold-induced glucose uptake. We found that mTORC2 signaling was induced in brown adipocytes by beta-adrenergic stimulation via cAMP, Epac1 and PI3K. Furthermore, mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue was required for temperature homeostasis, since mice lacking mTORC2 signaling in mature adipocytes (adipose tissue specific rictor knockout (AdRiKO) mice) were hypothermic and sensitive to cold stress. While lipid store mobilization and induction of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial uncoupling were not impaired in AdRiKO mice, inactivation of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue resulted in a significant impairment in cold-induced glucose uptake and glycolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Interestingly, restoration of glucose metabolism in BAT via introduction of a constitutively active form of Akt2 or via ...
Neuropepetide Y (NPY) is best known for its powerful stimulation of food intake and its effects on reducing energy expenditure. However, the pathways involved and the regulatory mechanisms behind this are not well understood. Here we demonstrate that NPY derived from the arcuate nucleus (Arc) is critical for the control of sympathetic outflow and brown adipose tissue (BAT) function. Mechanistically, a key change induced by Arc NPY signaling is a marked Y1 receptor-mediated reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is also associated with a reduction in TH expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and other regions in the brainstem. Consistent with this, Arc NPY signaling decreased sympathetically innervated BAT thermogenesis, involving the downregulation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression in BAT. Taken together, these data reveal a powerful Arc-NPY-regulated neuronal circuit that controls BAT thermogenesis and sympathetic output via TH
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), the specific marker of brown adipose tissue, is transcriptionally activated in response to adrenergic stimuli and thyroid hormones are necessary for its full expression. We describe differences in the regulation of UCP-1 mRNA expression between rat and mouse brown adipocytes in culture, using norepinephrine (NE), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin and retinoic acid (RA). Results: NE and cAMP-elevating agents strongly increase UCP-1 mRNA levels in cultures of mouse adipocytes, but increases are low in those from rat. In rat adipocytes NE poorly increases UCP-1 mRNA expression and T3 markedly increases the adrenergic response of UCP-1, an effect not observed in mouse adipocytes. In the absence of insulin, T3 itself increases UCP-1 mRNA in rat adipocytes and enhances the response to NE, while in mouse adipocytes no effect of T3 is observed. RA by itself stimulates UCP-1 mRNA in mouse adipocytes, but not in those from rat. In rat cultures, RA requires the presence of NE ...
The NEJM showed that abdominal fat was reduced significantly, but we already know that cold-induced thermogenesis can enhance conversion of white fat into brown fat. Of course, cold is not a practical approach and it may not be pleasant, but if you have a high tolerance for cold- keep the air conditioning at high levels in the summer, wear as little clothing as possible and take cold showers!! You may also want to try swimming in a cold pool, the ocean or live a brown fat-activating lifestyle and become a fat-burning machine!. For more authoritative information on brown fat, see ThermoHeat Weight Loss Revolution, by Michael J. Rudolph, Ph.D, including the foreword by Daniel L. Friedman, MD and Eugene B Friedman, MD. You can click the link to order or order on Amazon here. The Thermo Heat Weight Loss Revolution is a groundbreaking scientific plan based on research involving brown fat (BAT.) The ThermoHeat Weight Loss Revolution offers its readers a brown fat, thermogenic and brown fat-activating ...
Provides an aqueous formulation of the lipophilic squaraine rotaxane dye, SRfluor® 680 phenyl, in micelles composed of DPPE-PEG2000 which is known to accumulate in interscapular brown adipose tissue in mice. Spectral properties: abs max = 646 nm and emission max = 670 nm in PBS ...
Studies are being conducted concerning the activation of the SNS innervation of brown adipose tissue (energy dissipating fat) and its role as the primary stimulator of thermogenesis in this tissue, which increases energy expenditure and potentially decreases body fat if food intake is stable or decreased. SNS activation of white adipose tissue also can induce changes in white adipocytes such that they become browner adipocyte-like, making them thermogenic similar to that of true brown adipocytes. This is being researched for its ability to increase energy expenditure with the potential to contribute to obesity reversal ...
avUCP belongs to the UCP class of the mitochondrial transporter family, in which UCP1, the prime UCP discovered some 30 years ago, is clearly involved in mammalian brown adipose tissue NST. As its homologous mammalian UCP (Echtay et al., 2002), avUCP increases mitochondrial inner membrane conductance when activated in native mitochondria (Talbot et al., 2003) or when ectopically expressed in yeast (Vianna et al., 2001; Criscuolo et al., 2005). This uncoupling activity suggests that avUCP may have a physiological thermogenic activity through the regulation of the efficiency of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. The oxidative phosphorylation represents the biochemical process that couples the transfer of electrons from substrates to oxygen with the production of ATP, i.e. the main form of useable energy that organisms can allocate to fitness-related entities including maintenance, growth, reproduction, foraging and ultimately survival. The energy released when electrons are passed down the ...
This review attempts to cover the implication of the adipose tissue in controlling immune functions with emphasis on the structure and properties of adipose tissue, adipokines produced by adipose tissue, immune cells in adipose tissue and molecular mediators of adipose tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue (AT) in mammals is a complex, multi-depot, anatomically dissectible discrete structure with high metabolic activity. Both excess and deficiency of adipose tissue affect the normal homeostasis of the body. The AT comprises of two types of adipocytes, white adipocytes which store lipids whereas brown adipocytes which oxidize these lipids to produce heat. Further, to serving as a fat depot, AT also serves as endocrine adipose organ producing many bioactive molecules, called adipokines.
Thermogenin (called uncoupling protein by its discoverers and now known as uncoupling protein 1, or UCP1) is an uncoupling protein found in the mitochondria of brown adipose tissue (BAT). It is used to generate heat by non-shivering thermogenesis, and makes a quantitatively important contribution to countering heat loss in neonates which would otherwise occur due to their high surface area-volume ratio. UCPs are transmembrane proteins that decrease the proton gradient generated in oxidative phosphorylation. They do this by increasing the permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane, allowing protons that have been pumped into the intermembrane space to return to the mitochondrial matrix. UCP1-mediated heat generation in brown fat uncouples the respiratory chain, allowing for fast substrate oxidation with a low rate of ATP production. UCP1 is related to other mitochondrial metabolite transporters such as the adenine nucleotide translocator, a proton channel in the mitochondrial inner membrane ...
Adipose tissue is a complex metabolic organ that regulates whole body energy balance. Two major types of adipose tissue are found in mammals, white fat and brown fat. Both types store energy as triglyceride in intracellular lipid droplets and secrete a host of hormones, called adipokines, which influence metabolic homeostasis. White adipose tissue primarily stores fat, which can be mobilized in times of need. In contrast, brown adipose tissue is highly specialized for transforming the chemical energy in food into heat through uncoupled respiration. The current studies are aimed at understanding the role of peroxisomal dynamics in adipose tissue development and function. In addition, we are interested in understanding the interaction of peroxisomes with other organelles and the role of these interactions in adipose tissue remodeling and thermogenesis ...
Male Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats were used to study effects of oral administration of interferon tau (IFNT) in reducing obesity. Eighteen ZDF rats (28 days of age) were assigned randomly to receive 0, 4, or 8 μg IFNT/kg body weight (BW) per day (n = 6/group) for 8 weeks. Water consumption was measured every two days. Food intake and BW were recorded weekly. Energy expenditure in 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old rats was determined using indirect calorimetry. Starting at 7 weeks of age, urinary glucose, and ketone bodies were tested daily. Rates of glucose and oleate oxidation in liver, brown adipose tissue, and abdominal adipose tissue, as well as leucine catabolism in skeletal muscle, and lipolysis in white and brown adipose tissues were greater for rats treated with 8 μg IFNT/kg BW/day in comparison with control rats. Treatment with 8 μg IFNT/kg BW/day increased heat production, reduced BW gain and adiposity, ameliorated fatty liver syndrome, delayed the onset of diabetes, and decreased ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is vital for proper thermogenesis during cold exposure in rodents, but until recently its presence in adult humans and its contribution to human metabolism were thought to be minimal or insignificant. Recent studies using PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) have shown the presence of BAT in adult humans. However, whether BAT contributes to cold-induced nonshivering thermogenesis in humans has not been proven. Using PET with 11C-acetate, 18FDG, and 18F-fluoro-thiaheptadecanoic acid (18FTHA), a fatty acid tracer, we have quantified BAT oxidative metabolism and glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) turnover in 6 healthy men under controlled cold exposure conditions. All subjects displayed substantial NEFA and glucose uptake upon cold exposure. Furthermore, we demonstrated cold-induced activation of oxidative metabolism in BAT, but not in adjoining skeletal muscles and subcutaneous adipose tissue. This activation was associated with an increase in total energy ...
Principal Investigator:KUROSHIMA Akihiro, Project Period (FY):1995 - 1996, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Environmental physiology (including Physical medicine and Nutritional physiology)
What would we do if we couldnt shiver? . . . . Wed probably get really cold!. And this is why babies have a special kind of fat - because they cant shiver. Not all fat is created the same, we have two different types of it - white fat and brown fat.. The fat we call white, even though its actually yellow, is what we all think of when we talk about fat in the body. Its the stuff we consider bad and which collects around midriffs, thighs and bums. It stores calories and can be stubborn to reduce or remove.. The other type of fat - the brown stuff, is medically known as brown adipose tissue and scientists have known about it for decades. Unlike its white counterpart, brown fat actually burns excess energy to produce heat. But sadly, its something that is in short supply in adults.. Newborns, on the other hand, have an amazing source of brown fat. At birth, brown fat makes up about 5% of a babys total weight. Babies store brown fat in little pockets, mostly along and between their shoulder ...
This Microphotography Of Orange And Blue House Miniature On Brown Snail S Back Color Palette picture has 20 main colors. The main color names are; Gunmetal Green, Silver, Fife, Sunny Pavement, Epidote Olvene Ore, Iris Eyes, Orchilla, Presumption, Chinaberry, Hokey Pokey, Spring Roll, Blue Regal, Pioneer Village, Snowflake, Bleached Bone, Cool Black, Sambucus, Foundation White, Blue Ranger, Lovely Euphoric Delight. You can use this color scheme to create a beautiful color combination for your project design ...
Search for abbreviations and long forms in lifescience, results along with the related PubMed / MEDLINE information and co-occurring abbreviations.
aKeenan Research Center, Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute, St Michaels Hospital. bDepartment of Medicine. cDepartment of Physiology. dDepartment of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Correspondence to Dominic S. Ng, PhD, MD, Keenan Research Center, St. Michaels Hospital, Shuter Wing Room 3-041, 30 Bond St., Toronto, ON M5B1W8, Canada. Tel: +1 416 864 5197; fax: +1 416 864 5584; e-mail: [email protected] ...
While some individuals believe that one way to utilize brown fat is to develop a cold sauna that individuals can simply sit in, wouldnt it be better to combine brown fat activation with white fat activation? There still is limited information on what type of exposure regiment is optimal for brown fat activation. For example is it better to be exposed to high intensity cold at low volume (-50 degrees F for 30 seconds) or low intensity cold at high volume (20 degrees F for 5 minutes)? Note that brown fat activates as long as the temperature is cold enough whether it is acute cold or eventual chronic cold; however, prolonged exposure to certain cold conditions can produce negative results for exposed skin, so determining a differentiated methodology would be advisable. Also gyms or cold saunas would have to set up a stepwise exposure protocol allowing users to move gradually from initial temperatures to final temperatures because a near instant temperature change from say 70 degrees F to 0 ...
Excess adipose tissue brings with it a number of adverse consequences, many of which may stem from the development of insulin resistance. An emerging view is that inflammatory changes occurring in expanding adipose tissue are associated with the secretion of peptide and other factors that can adversely affect metabolic processes in other key insulin-target tissues, especially liver and skeletal muscle. However, there is still a commonly-expressed view that the adverse changes in other tissues are ultimately due to an excess of fatty acids, liberated by a metabolically-challenged adipose tissue. Our own studies of adipose tissue metabolism and physiological function (especially blood flow) IN VIVO suggest that these two views of adipose tissue function may be closely linked. Enlarged adipocytes are less dynamic in their responses, just as enlarged adipose tissue is less dynamic in blood flow regulation. Adipocytes seem to be able to sense the appropriate level of fat storage. If the normal mechanisms
Objective: Obesity and type-2 diabetes (T2D) are metabolic diseases that represent a critical health problem worldwide. Metabolic disease is differentially associated with fat distribution, while visceral white adipose tissue (VAT) is particularly prone to obesity-associated inflammation. Next to their canonical function of immune suppression, regulatory T cells (Tregs) are key in controlling adipose tissue homeostasis. Towards understanding the molecular underpinnings of metabolic disease, we focus on how environmental-metabolic stimuli impinge on the functional interplay between Tregs and adipose tissue. Here, cold exposure or beta3-adrenergic signaling are a promising tool to increase energy expenditure by activating brown adipose tissue, as well as by reducing local inflammation within fat depots by supporting immunosuppressive Tregs. However, in humans, the underlying mechanisms that enable the environmental-immune crosstalk in the periphery and in the respective tissue remain currently ...
Distinct developmental origins contribute to white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) in mice. In the trunk, white adipocytes arise from adipocyte progenitor cells (APs) present in the mural wall of WAT blood vessels (truncal WAT). These APs could stem from lateral mesoderm-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), which originate from a common endothelial and mesenchymal cell precursor which also gives rise to the subcutaneous progenitor population. In contrast,,white adipose depots in the head originate from the cranial neural crest, and not the mesoderm progenitors. BAT and skeletal muscles share a common developmental origin, which is distinct from WAT. They originate from paraxial mesoderm-derived progenitor cells residing in the dermomyotome, a somite sub-domain. It is assumed that some WAT progenitor cells can transdifferntiate to give rise to brown-like progenitor cells.. ...
Researchers at UCSF have identified the lynchpin that activates brown fat cells, which burn fat molecules instead of storing them, making them the focus of pharmaceutical research aimed at fighting obesity.
Researchers at UCSF have identified the lynchpin that activates brown fat cells, which burn fat molecules instead of storing them, making them the focus of pharmaceutical research aimed at fighting obesity.
Comprehensive studies led by S. Cintis group identified several BAT depots in adult mice and provided a physiological blueprint for studying the function and metabolic contribution of mouse BAT (8). Here, we describe the existence of an additional BAT depot, scBAT, in mouse embryos and adult mice. Specifically, the mouse scBAT depot is situated above the clavicle bones in a region analogous to the region where human supraclavicular BAT resides. Like iBAT, mouse scBAT is densely packed with mitochondria, responds to β3-adrenergic stimulation, and expresses Ucp1 at levels comparable to iBAT, suggesting that scBAT also possesses the potential for thermoregulation. Adipose tissue transplantation studies further demonstrated that the effects of scBAT on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and maintenance of body temperature under cold exposure are similar to those of iBAT. Interestingly, we also observed increased endogenous BAT mass in mice transplanted with either iBAT or scBAT. However, ...
Thermogenesis and obesity: Thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue as an energy buffer; Natural Alternatives to Over-the-Counter and Prescription Drugs
Transmembrane 4 L six family member 5 (TM4SF5) functions as a sensor for lysosomal arginine levels and activates the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). While the mTORC1 signaling pathway plays a key role in adipose tissue metabolism, the regulatory function of TM4SF5 in adipocytes remains unclear. This study aimed to establish a TM4SF5 knockout (KO) mouse model and investigated the effects of TM4SF5 KO on mTORC1 signaling-mediated autophagy and mitochondrial metabolism in adipose tissue. TM4SF5 expression was higher in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) than in brown adipose tissue and significantly upregulated by a high-fat diet (HFD). TM4SF5 KO reduced mTORC1 activation and enhanced autophagy and lipolysis in adipocytes. RNAseq analysis of TM4SF5 KO mouse iWAT showed that the expression of genes involved in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha signaling pathways and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism were upregulated. Consequently, TM4SF5 KO reduced adiposity and ...
Der molekulare Mechanismus der durch Thermogenin vermittelten Entkopplung ist recht gut verstanden - die Funktion dieses Ionenkanals stellt innerhalb der Oxidativen Phosphorylierung einen zusätzlichen Pfad für den Wiedereintritt von Protonen in die mitochondriale Matrix zur Verfügung. Wird Thermogenin aktiviert, schließt es - ähnlich wie 2,4-Dinitrophenol - den Protonen-Kreislauf kurz, der die Atmungskette an den ATP-Synthase-Komplex koppelt, welcher das Adenosintriphosphat (ATP) für den Energiehaushalt der Zelle liefert: Durch Thermogenin wird diese Kopplung aufgehoben und die durch Zellatmung gewonnene Energie ohne Bildung des Energiespeichers ATP unmittelbar in Wärme umgesetzt (Dissipation). Thermogenin steht in Beziehung zu anderen mitochondrialen Stoffwechseltransportern wie dem Adenin-Nukleotid-Transporter, einem Protonenkanal in der inneren Mitochondrienmembran, der den Transport von Protonen aus dem Membranzwischenraum in die mitochondriale Matrix vermittelt. UCP1 kommt ...
Ephedrine Powder promotes modest short-term weight loss, specifically fat loss, but its long-term effects are unknown. In mice, ephedrine is known to stimulate thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue, but because adult humans have only small amounts of brown fat, thermogenesis is assumed to take place mostly
"Brown adipose tissue , anatomy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-08. Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, ... "4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion". 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion - Anatomy and Physiology. opentextbc.ca. OpenStax. 6 March 2013. ... In addition, shivering also signals the body to produce irisin, a hormone that has been shown to convert white fat to brown fat ... The sustained supply of oxygen to body tissues determines the body temperature range of an organism. Eurytherms that live in ...
Non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue (brown fat) that is present in almost all eutherians (swine being ... Hou, Lianjie; Hu, Ching Yuan; Wang, Chong (April 2017). "Pig Has No Brown Adipose Tissue". The FASEB Journal. 31 (S1). doi: ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiol. Rev. 84 (1): 277- ... Brown adipose tissue has a unique uncoupling protein (thermogenin, also known as uncoupling protein 1) that allows the ...
Zhou, Haiying; Wan, Bo; Grubisic, Ivan; Kaplan, Tommy; Tjian, Robert (2014). "TAF7L modulates brown adipose tissue formation". ... it has now been found in white and brown adipose tissue, as well as in certain types of cancer. Studies conducted on knockout ... Combined with in vitro evidence, it appears that Taf7l is capable of initiating brown fat (the so-called healthy fat) ... It was originally demonstrated to be a testis-specific gene based on RT-PCR experiments on tissue extracts, however, ...
Unique type of brown adipose tissue, allowing mammals to generate heat quickly. Mitochondria with five to seven times higher ... Cannon, B. (1 January 2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): ...
The uncoupling protein, thermogenin-present in the inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipose tissue-provides for an ... "Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): 277-359. doi:10.1152/physrev. ...
Heat production by brown adipose tissue which is activated after consumption of a meal is an additional component of dietary ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 ( ...
... adipose tissue and thermogenic mechanisms. He is an expert on brown adipose tissue. His work has contributed towards ... Miroux, B.; Frossard, V.; Raimbault, S.; Ricquier, D.; Bouillaud, F. (1993). "The topology of the brown adipose tissue ... Ricquier, D.; Nechad, M.; Mory, G. (1982). "Ultrastructural and biochemical characterization of human brown adipose tissue in ... Bouillaud, F.; Ricquier, D.; Thibault, J.; Weissenbach, J. (1985). "Molecular approach to thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue ...
Interscapular brown adipose tissue, also known as Hibernating gland; Instruction Block Address Translation registers in PowerPC ...
Beige and brown adipose tissue are specialized in thermogenesis. The process of beiging leads to increased energy expenditure ... ILC2s are essential in the maintenance of homeostasis in lean and healthy adipose tissue. ILC2s resident in visceral adipose ... Research identified dysregulated responses of ILC2s in adipose tissue as a factor in the development of obesity in mice since ... January 2010). "Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells". Nature. 463 ...
Lowell, B.B.; Flier, J.S. (1997). "Brown adipose tissue, beta 3-adrenergic receptors, and obesity". Annu. Rev. Med. Vol. 48. pp ... β3 receptors are mainly located in adipose tissue. Activation of the β3 receptors induces the metabolism of lipids. Indications ... and in smooth muscle tissue; epinephrine expresses the higher affinity. The activation of β1, β2 and β3 activates the enzyme, ... ultimately inducing smooth muscle relaxation and contraction of the cardiac tissue. Activation of β1 receptors induces positive ...
In mice, PM20D1 is highly expressed and secreted into the blood by brown fat. Its expression in adipose tissues is increased ...
Rothwell, N.; Stock, M. (1979). "A role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis". Nature. 281 (5726): 31-35. ... MacDonald, I. A.; Rothwell, N. J.; Stock, M. J. (1976). "Lipolytic and lipogenic activities of adipose tissue during ... Brown, Matthew (September 2004) "A Society Fellow", in: AUTlook. Association of University Teachers; no. 231, pp. 24-25. " ...
It consists of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue and elastin. The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and ... Melanin: It is brown in colour and present in the basal layer of the epidermis. Melanoid: It resembles melanin but is present ... The subcutaneous tissue (also hypodermis and subcutis) is not part of the skin, but lies below the dermis of the cutis. Its ... The dermis is the layer of skin beneath the epidermis that consists of connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and ...
Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 9;360(15):1509-17. "Latino ... 2009: Researchers in the lab of C. Ronald Kahn discover that brown fat is present in some adults, providing a new target for ...
... it was found that TRPV2 is expressed in brown adipocytes and in brown adipose tissue (BAT). It can be concluded that TRPV2 ... March 2016). "Lack of TRPV2 impairs thermogenesis in mouse brown adipose tissue". EMBO Reports. 17 (3): 383-99. doi:10.15252/ ... The same channel can have different functions depending on the type of tissue. Other roles of TRPV2 continue to be explored in ... These channels are expressed in medium to large diameter neurons, motor neurons, and other non-neuronal tissues like the heart ...
2016). "USF1 deficiency activates brown adipose tissue and improves cardiometabolic health". Science Translational Medicine. 8 ... A study of mice suggested reduced USF1 levels increases metabolism in brown fat. USF1 (human gene) has been shown to interact ...
Crucially, Tbx15 is selectively expressed in brown and "brite" adipose tissue. Knockdown organisms show no change in white ... "An essential role for Tbx15 in the differentiation of brown and "brite" but not white adipocytes". American Journal of ... adipocytes, but do display reduced expression of the marker genes directly involved in brown adipocyte expression. Tbx15 is ...
... brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue, placenta, macrophages, and demonstrated additional roles in diabetes and cancer. ... "Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge". Nature. 546 (7659): 544-548. Bibcode: ... The contributions of individual ERRs to physiology continue to be elucidated through the generation of sophisticated tissue- ... "ERRγ enhances UCP1 expression and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipocytes". Obesity. 21 (3): 516-24. doi:10.1002/oby.20067. ...
The second is non-shivering, which occurs in brown adipose tissue. Population studies have shown that the San tribe of Southern ... Brown, Douglas J. A.; Brugger, Hermann; Boyd, Jeff; Paal, Peter (2012-11-15). "Accidental Hypothermia". The New England Journal ...
Klingenberg M (March 1990). "Mechanism and evolution of the uncoupling protein of brown adipose tissue". Trends in Biochemical ...
Many studies support that the orexin neurons regulate brown adipose tissue (BAT) activity via the sympathetic nervous system to ... Although orexin knockout mice were reported to show maldevelopment of brown adipose tissue (BAT), subsequent report has shown ... Sellayah D, Bharaj P, Sikder D (October 2011). "Orexin is required for brown adipose tissue development, differentiation, and ... "An orexinergic projection from perifornical hypothalamus to raphe pallidus increases rat brown adipose tissue thermogenesis". ...
It functions in the differentiation between white and brown adipose tissue. It can also be a repressor of transforming growth ...
Notable papers: Mrosovsky, N. (1962). "Changes in multilocular brown adipose tissue in the rat following hypothermia." Nature ...
... and brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. It was recently identified as an important regulator of the mammalian circadian clock, ... brown adipose tissue, cerebellum, intestine, and skeletal muscle. Recently, ERRα has been detected in normal adrenal cortex ... "Histone deacetylase 3 prepares brown adipose tissue for acute thermogenic challenge". Nature. 546 (7659): 544-548. Bibcode: ... ERRα has wide tissue distribution but it is most highly expressed in tissues that preferentially use fatty acids as energy ...
"BMP8B increases brown adipose tissue thermogenesis through both central and peripheral actions". Cell. 149 (4): 871-85. doi: ... activation of thermogenesis in adipose tissue, molecular mechanisms controlling energy expenditure and brown fat activation, ... Novel concepts worked on by Vidal-Puig include: Adipose tissue expandability hypothesis. The concept was advanced by him in ... According to the hypothesis, the expansion of adipose tissue (AT) is a normal phenomenon when an individual undergoes sustained ...
... recently been found to augment the conversion of white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue as well as increase brown adipose ... "Ablation of endothelial VEGFR1 improves metabolic dysfunction by inducing adipose tissue browning". The Journal of Experimental ...
BMPs are also involved in adipogenesis and functional regulation of adipose tissue. BMP4 favors white adipogenesis, whereas ... BMP7 activates brown fat functionality; BMP inhibitors are also involved in this regulation Originally, seven such proteins ... Bone morphogenetic protein signaling in adipose tissue". Obesity Reviews. 20 (5): 648-658. doi:10.1111/obr.12822. ISSN 1467- ... There are reports of this therapy causing swelling of soft tissue which in turn can cause life-threatening complications due to ...
Vagal activation also controls the generation of lipids in brown adipose tissue. Insulin. Vagal innervation of the pancreas ... and brown adipose tissue nonshivering thermogenesis. This regulation occurs through the sympathetic and parasympathetic system ... "Central efferent pathways mediating skin cooling-evoked sympathetic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue". AJP: Regulatory, ... from the rostral raphe pallidus to the spinal intermediolateral nucleus nonshivering thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue. ...
... until high GPD1 and GPD2 activity were demonstrated in mammalian brown adipose tissue and pancreatic ß-islets. In this shuttle ... "Glycerol-3-phosphate shuttle and its function in intermediate metabolism of hamster brown-adipose tissue". European Journal of ... "Unusually high mitochondrial alpha glycerophosphate dehydrogenase activity in rat brown adipose tissue". The Journal of Cell ... Koza RA, Kozak UC, Brown LJ, Leiter EH, MacDonald MJ, Kozak LP (December 1996). "Sequence and tissue-dependent RNA expression ...
... and in brown adipose tissue. Their role in gallbladder physiology is unknown, but they are thought to play a role in lipolysis ... Thermogenesis in skeletal muscle It is located mainly in adipose tissue and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and ... Actions of the β3 receptor include Enhancement of lipolysis in adipose tissue. ... adiponectin receptors and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expressions in adipose tissues of obese diabetic KKAy mice". European ...
"Individual carotenoid concentrations in adipose tissue and plasma as biomarkers of dietary intake". Am J Clin Nutr. 76 (1): 172 ... Reaume A; Elliott J; Hoffman E; Kowall N; Ferrante R; Siwek D; Wilcox H; Flood D; Beal M; Brown R; Scott R; Snider W (1996). " ... Akiba S; Matsugo S; Packer L; Konishi T (1998). "Assay of protein-bound lipoic acid in tissues by a new enzymatic method". Anal ... Stahl W; Schwarz W; Sundquist A; Sies H (1992). "cis-trans isomers of lycopene and beta-carotene in human serum and tissues". ...
... adiponectin receptors and tumor necrosis factor-alpha expressions in adipose tissues of obese diabetic KKAy mice.". European ... Functional studies of the first selective β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist SR 59230A in rat brown adipocytes". Mol. Pharmacol. ... Krief S, Lönnqvist F, Raimbault S, et al. (1993). „Tissue distribution of beta 3-adrenergic receptor mRNA in man.". J. Clin. ...
"Insulin Action in Hyperthyroidism: A Focus on Muscle and Adipose Tissue". Hellenic National Center for Research, Prevention, ... "Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University; Larry Siu, Julie Foont, dan Jack R. Wands. Dibukak ing 2010-10-09.. ... "Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Brown University,; Fausto N, Laird AD, Webber EM. Dibukak ing 2010-07-30.. ... "Section of Biochemistry, Brown University; Cascio S, Zaret KS. Dibukak ing 2010-10-11.. ...
... adipose tissue (body fat), synovial fluid, and the mucus lining the lungs, throat, mouth, and nose, which require humidity and ... On the other hand, dark colors such as black, grey, and brown symbolize cold and dry Mizaj, and bright colors such as white and ... All organs and body tissues have a specific Mizaj.[26]. *Heart: The heart has a warm and dry temperament.[27] The constant ... They are normally bulky and quickly gain weight with a body composition of larger proportions of fat rather than muscle tissue ...
... proton gradient generated by electron transport in mitochondria is used to produce heat instead of ATP in brown adipose tissue ... Dormancy is a general term applicable to any instance in which a tissue predisposed to elongate or grow in some other manner ... but not within the dormant tissue itself. Rest (winter dormancy) is a kind of physiological dormancy maintained by agents or ... plant species that exhibit dormancy have a biological clock that tells them when to slow activity and to prepare soft tissues ...
The epidural space is filled with adipose tissue, and it contains a network of blood vessels. The arachnoid mater, the middle ... Brown-Séquard syndrome Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP, or familial spastic paraplegia - FSP, Strümpell-Lorrain syndrome) ... "An investigation and validation of CT scan in detection of spinal epidural adipose tissue". Medicine. Wolters Kluwer. 99 (10): ... The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the ...
In humans, ACTH has little lipolytic effect on adipose tissue. ACTH receptor activation also influences immune function. ... ACTH receptors are also expressed in the skin, and in both white and brown adipocytes, and is expressed in greater ... The ACTH receptor plays a role in glucose metabolism when expressed in white adipose cells. When bound to ACTH, a short-term ... "Melanocortin crosstalk with adipose functions: ACTH directly induces insulin resistance, promotes a pro-inflammatory adipokine ...
... the small intestine and adipose tissue. Factors that act upon the ABCA1 transporter's expression or its posttranslational ... Luu W, Sharpe LJ, Gelissen IC, Brown AJ (August 2013). "The role of signalling in cellular cholesterol homeostasis". IUBMB Life ... It is present in higher quantities in tissues that shuttle or are involved in the turnover of lipids such as the liver, ...
... as the elbows do not develop adipose tissue. They presented weight ranges for height, sex and body frame (again associated with ... Brown, Abram (October 30, 2013). "You're An Old Brand, Charlie Brown: The $80M Business Of Peanuts Needs A Turnaround". Forbes ...
... syndromes characterized by abnormalities in adipose tissue distribution, and severe metabolic abnormalities. The FDA approved ... Brown, Rebecca J (2021-10-22). "Endogenous Leptin Concentrations Poorly Predict Metreleptin Response in Patients with Partial ... where people have a loss of fatty tissue under the skin and a build-up of fat elsewhere in the body such as in the liver and ...
There are many ways in which obesogenic drugs and chemicals can disrupt the body's adipose tissue biology. The three main ... Chen JQ, Brown TR, Russo J (Jul 2009). "Regulation of energy metabolism pathways by estrogens and estrogenic chemicals and ... There are many different proposed mechanisms through which obesogens can interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology. ... adipose tissues, and from within the brain. It is these types of signals that provide a likely target for obesogens that have ...
Color pattern is generally dark brown with either darker spots or lighter spots or vermiculations. The adult size of a member ... Other characteristics of members of this genus include an underslung suckermouth, evertable cheek plates, adipose fin present, ... and an enlarged stomach connected to the dorsal abdominal wall by a connective tissue sheet. P. anisitsi, P. disjunctivus, P. ...
Valdez AC, Cabaniols JP, Brown MJ, Roche PA (Mar 1999). "Syntaxin 11 is associated with SNAP-23 on late endosomes and the trans ... "Insulin-responsive tissues contain the core complex protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25) A and B isoforms in ... "Identification of SNAP receptors in rat adipose cell membrane fractions and in SNARE complexes co-immunoprecipitated with ... "Insulin-responsive tissues contain the core complex protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein 25) A and B isoforms in ...
Brown fat is responsible for causing heat in times of stress or cold. For general callus tissue is stimulated by the ... Familial multiple lipomatosis is a hereditary adipose tissue disorder that is characterized by the formation of multiple ... Therapeutic treatments that are recommended for adipose tissue disorders include improving lymphatic flow through exercise and ... while an MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create images of lipomas and surrounding tissues. Both tests are useful ...
Several species also possess either a ventral or dorsal adipose fin, and the caudal fin is forked to emarginated. The anal fin ... The living body of most species is a dark brown, covered in large, silvery imbricate scales, but these are absent in ... but are enclosed within a large transparent dome of soft tissue. These eyes generally gaze upwards, but can also be directed ...
X-linked hypertrichosis Conditions of the subcutaneous fat are those affecting the layer of adipose tissue that lies between ... Springer K, Brown M, Stulberg DL (2003). "Common hair loss disorders". Am Fam Physician. 68 (1): 93-102. PMID 12887115. ... The subcutaneous tissue is a layer of fat between the dermis and underlying fascia. This tissue may be further divided into two ... The main cellular component of this tissue is the adipocyte, or fat cell. The structure of this tissue is composed of septal (i ...
Before dry season, they will accumulate fat in white adipose tissue located at the base of the tail and hind legs, doubling ... Tool use has not been witnessed by lemurs in the wild, although in captivity the common brown lemur and the ring-tailed lemur ... Most lemurs have retained the tapetum lucidum, a reflective layer of tissue in the eye, which is found in many vertebrates. ... In the case of mouse lemurs, the gray mouse lemur (M. murinus), golden-brown mouse lemur (M. ravelobensis), and Goodman's mouse ...
1) "Surface Anatomy and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Features in the Analysis of the Patterson-Gimlin Film Hominid," Relict ... "was using brown Dynel in 1967". But Morris wouldn't have wanted a "real dark" brown color, as he chose brown to contrast ... "Surface anatomy and subcutaneous adipose tissue features in the Patterson-Gimlin film hominid" Relict Hominoid Inquiry 2:125-30 ... "silvery brown" or "dark reddish-brown" or "black" hair covering most of its body, including its prominent breasts. The figure ...
The fins are generally small, with a single high dorsal fin, a forked caudal fin, and an adipose fin. The anal fin is supported ... 2014). "Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish tissue may be an indicator of plastic contamination in marine habitats ... while deeper-living species are dark brown to black. Lanternfish are well known for their diel vertical migrations: during ...
... may refer to: Brown adipose tissue, a heat-generating type of tissue present in infants The fat roll on babies during ...
It is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. ... PLIN4 is a member of the perilipin family, a group of proteins that coat lipid droplets in adipocytes, the adipose tissue cells ... Soenen S, Mariman EC, Vogels N, Bouwman FG, den Hoed M, Brown L, Westerterp-Plantenga MS (March 2009). "Relationship between ... Calcified Tissue International. 90 (2): 96-107. doi:10.1007/s00223-011-9552-7. PMC 3628693. PMID 22210160. Peters SJ, Samjoo IA ...
In rodents, highest mRNA expression levels of PPAR-alpha are found in liver and brown adipose tissue, followed by heart and ... Human PPAR-alpha seems to be expressed more equally among various tissues, with high expression in liver, intestine, heart, and ... Expression of PPAR-α is highest in tissues that oxidize fatty acids at a rapid rate. ... tissue distribution of PPAR-alpha, -beta, and -gamma in the adult rat". Endocrinology. 137 (1): 354-66. doi:10.1210/endo.137.1. ...
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the ... Lönnqvist F, Arner P, Nordfors L, Schalling M (September 1995). "Overexpression of the obese (ob) gene in adipose tissue of ... This metabolic component related with the release of systemic factors, of a pro-inflammatory nature, by the adipose tissues, ...
Fructose in muscles and adipose tissue is phosphorylated by hexokinase. Although the metabolism of fructose and glucose share ... It is also present in the form of refined sugars including granulated sugars (white crystalline table sugar, brown sugar, ... present on adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. Fructose-1-phosphate then undergoes hydrolysis by fructose-1-phosphate aldolase ... In addition to the liver, fructose is metabolized in the intestines, testis, kidney, skeletal muscle, fat tissue and brain, but ...
In a 2005 study, the mean volume of adipose tissues (in the external part of the hump that have cells to store lipids) is ... A seven-to-eight-year-old camel can produce a carcass of 125-400 kg (276-882 lb). The meat is bright red to a dark brown or ... The coat is generally a shade of brown. The hump, 20 cm (7+7⁄8 in) tall or more, is made of fat bound together by fibrous ... The hump is composed of fat bound together by fibrous tissue. There are no glands on the face; males have glands that appear to ...
When they build up in adipose tissue, they can be transferred across the placenta. In addition to all, air pollution has been ... Stanek, L. W.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, J.; Gift, J.; Costa, D. L. (2011). "Air Pollution Toxicology-A Brief Review of the Role of ... They can be seen as a brown haze dome above or a plume downwind of cities. Nitrogen dioxide is a chemical compound with the ... One of the most prominent air pollutants, this reddish-brown toxic gas has a characteristic sharp, biting odor. Carbon monoxide ...
"The expression of UCP3 directly correlates to UCP1 abundance in brown adipose tissue". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - ... an uncoupling protein homologue expressed preferentially and abundantly in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue". ... UCP1 is highly expressed in brown adipocytes, UCP2 is variably expressed in many different tissues, and UCP3 is expressed ... Argyropoulos G, Brown AM, Willi SM, Zhu J, He Y, Reitman M, Gevao SM, Spruill I, Garvey WT (October 1998). "Effects of ...
Will functional brown adipose tissue provide a solution to obesity? ... In the context of the increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has re-emerged as a ... The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing rapidly and functional brown adipose tissue (BAT), with its role in ... Brown adipocytes are present within white adipose depots (BRITE cells) and the transcriptional control of these and classical ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... Brown adipose tissue activation may play an important role in bone health and bone density. Brown adipose tissue activation ... several brown adipose tissue deposits have been identified. In infants, brown adipose tissue deposits include, but are not ... all have remarkably high levels of brown adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue activity. BMP7 Irisin Orexin PRDM16 Cinti S ( ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and plays a role in energy metabolism. ...
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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising therapeutic target against obesity. Therefore, research on the genetic architecture ... Gab2 deficiency suppresses high-fat diet-induced obesity by reducing adipose tissue inflammation and increasing brown adipose ... Svensson, P. A. et al. Gene expression in human brown adipose tissue. Int. J. Mol. Med. 27, 227-232 (2011). ... Novel brown adipose tissue candidate genes predicted by the human gene connectome. *Diego F. Salazar-Tortosa. 1,2, ...
... brown adipose tissue) thermogenesis is by exposure to cold (Yuan, 2017). Rutin is a dietary flavonoid shown, in a very recent ... ACTIVATES BROWN ADIPOSE TISSUE TO INCREASE ENERGY EXPENDITURE FOR WEIGHT LOSS. The safest way to increase BAT (brown adipose ... tissue formation (in which WAT, white adipose tissue, is converted to a more BAT-like form, a process called "browning"), ... Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism-for example, after cold exposure BAT "promotes ...
However, the impact of influenza infection on white adipose tissue (WAT), a key tissue in the control of systemic energy ... Influenza infection rewires energy metabolism and induces browning features in adipose cells and tissues Commun Biol. 2020 May ... However, the impact of influenza infection on white adipose tissue (WAT), a key tissue in the control of systemic energy ... Overall, our findings shed light on the role that the white adipose tissue, which lies at the crossroads of nutrition, ...
Will functional brown adipose tissue provide a solution to obesity? ... In the context of the increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has re-emerged as a ... The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing rapidly and functional brown adipose tissue (BAT), with its role in ... Brown adipocytes are present within white adipose depots (BRITE cells) and the transcriptional control of these and classical ...
Brown Adipose Tissue Beliv Blood Sugar Drops. Easy To Swallow. In the beginning look, its hard to understand why people would ... It has been shown to be efficient in reducing blood sugar degrees in brown adipose tissue beliv blood sugar drops kind 2 ... Yet, the most effective outcomes come when you take BeLiv consistently for 3 months (or longer) to brown adipose tissue beliv ... Some individuals have found success with Beliv, a product that uses an alternative to brown adipose tissue beliv blood sugar ...
Muralidhara DV, Desautels M. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in mouse brown adipose tissue. Indian Journal of Physiology and ... in very minute concentration in mice brown adipose tissue (BAT). Mice consuming 10% ethanol for 10 days showed significantly ... Measurements of basal and norepinephrine stimulated oxygen consumption of isolated brown adipocytes indicated that the presence ... lowered enzyme activity in brown fat while liver ADH activity was increased but not significantly. ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in human adults and the current gold standard to visualize and quantify BAT is [F-18] FDG ... N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in human adults and the current gold standard to visualize and quantify BAT is [F-18 ... AB - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in human adults and the current gold standard to visualize and quantify BAT is [F-18 ... abstract = "Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in human adults and the current gold standard to visualize and quantify BAT ...
... brown adipose tissue: …heat through a process called nonshivering thermogenesis. ... brown adipose tissue. * In brown adipose tissue. …heat through a process called nonshivering thermogenesis. ...
... Author: Brendle, Cornelia; Stefan, Norbert; Grams, Eva; ... Determinants of activity of brown adipose tissue in lymphoma patients. DSpace Repository. Login ...
How To Increase Brown Adipose Tissue. Jessica Simpson Weightloss. Best Ways To Add Onions To Your Diet For Weight Loss. How To ...
Remember that most restaurants serve portions much larger than an accepted serving size. Fat-free versions of popular snacks often contain simple carbohydrates that are rapidly absorbed and converted to body fat if consumed in excess. Drastic changes in eating habits, such as not eating at all , are
Hypothermia: The Best Way to Activate Brown Adipose Tissue. Skyler Tanner Folly July 13, 2011. August 6, 2013. ... 17 thoughts on "Hypothermia: The Best Way to Activate Brown Adipose Tissue" * Cromulent says: ... but it is great for brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation.. I have also come to understand that a cold bath before bed is like ...
... tissue characteristics due to autophagy inhibition early in life has beneficial effects that promote adipose tissue browning ... adipose tissue-specific Pik3c3 mutants display reduced expression of adiposity-associated genes with the signature of adipose ... To address the mechanistic link between autophagy and ER stress response in aging adipose tissue, we generated a line of ... tissue browning phenotypes in old age. Overall, the results suggest that altered adipose ...
Interest in human physiological responses to cold stress have seen a resurgence in recent years with a focus on brown adipose ... tissue (BAT), a mitochondria dense fat specialized for heat production. However, a majority of the work examining BAT has been ... From: Brown adipose tissue thermogenesis among a small sample of reindeer herders from sub-Arctic Finland ...
keywords = "browning of white adipose tissue, dietary protein restriction, energy metabolism, FGF21 signalling, thermogenesis, ... and transcriptomics of brown and white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, we report that a low-protein diet had beneficial effects in ... and transcriptomics of brown and white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, we report that a low-protein diet had beneficial effects in ... and transcriptomics of brown and white adipose tissue (WAT). Here, we report that a low-protein diet had beneficial effects in ...
... which induces a thermogenic program in brown adipose tissue (BAT). However, the early adaptive response of white adipose tissue ... the early adaptive response of white adipose tissue (WAT), the fat storage organ of the body, to a change from thermoneutrality ... Our data show that tissue remodelling, inflammation and neuroendocrine signalling are early responses in WAT to a moderate ... Transcriptome analysis of eWAT identified tissue remodeling and inflammation as the most affected processes. Expression of pro- ...
... ... Microbiota_Depletion_Impairs_Thermogenesis_of_Brown_Adipose_Tissue_and_Browning_of_White_Adipose_Tissue.pdf (7.587Mb) ... Microbiota Depletion Impairs Thermogenesis of Brown Adipose Tissue and Browning of White Adipose Tissue , Cell Reports , vol ...
In Vivo Noninvasive Detection of Brown Adipose Tissue through Intermolecular Zero-Quantum MRI. In: PloS one. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No ... In Vivo Noninvasive Detection of Brown Adipose Tissue through Intermolecular Zero-Quantum MRI. PloS one. 2013 Sep 10;8(9): ... N2 - The recent discovery of active Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) in adult humans has opened new avenues for obesity research and ... AB - The recent discovery of active Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) in adult humans has opened new avenues for obesity research and ...
Brown Adipose Tissue Beliv Blood Sugar Drops. Easy To Swallow. In the beginning look, its hard to understand why people would ... It has been shown to be efficient in reducing blood sugar degrees in brown adipose tissue beliv blood sugar drops kind 2 ... Yet, the most effective outcomes come when you take BeLiv consistently for 3 months (or longer) to brown adipose tissue beliv ... Some individuals have found success with Beliv, a product that uses an alternative to brown adipose tissue beliv blood sugar ...
Brown adipose tissue(1708KB). 期刊论文. 作者接受稿. 开放获取. CC BY-NC-SA. View Download ... 袁晓雪.,胡涛.,赵涵.,黄园园.,叶荣财.,...&陈子江.(2016).Brown Adipose Tissue Transplantation Ameliorates Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.PNAS,113(10), ... Brown Adipose Tissue Transplantation Ameliorates Polycystic Ovary Syndrome[J]. PNAS,2016,113(10):2708-2713. ... 袁晓雪,et al."Brown Adipose Tissue Transplantation Ameliorates Polycystic Ovary Syndrome".PNAS 113.10
... low levels of brown adipose tissue (BAT) are responsible for stubborn weight gain. The brown adipose tissue, also called brown ... Brown Adipose Tissue or BAT is said to be the fundamental cause of stubborn weight gain. A common misconception of brown fat is ... The brown color is due to the presence of mitochondria which plays a key role in weight management due to their ability to ... The brown color is due to the mitochondria that play a key role in calorie burn and energy production. ...
Active Brown Adipose Tissue Protects Against Pre-Prediabetes. May 14, 2022. By Namita Nayyar (WF Team) ... Brown fat is a type of fat that is activated when a person gets cold, producing heat to warm the body. The presence of brown ... Scientists have long sought to find out how some diseases can have symptoms restricted to just one tissue when they are caused ... Studies using PET with FDG and/or other fatty-acid tracers have demonstrated that brown fat consumes glucose … [Read more...] ...
The authors posit that adipose tissue (AT) i ... Brown. WA. , et al. Pro-inflammatory CD11c+ CD206+ adipose ... Adipose Tissue Inflammation Is Not Related to Adipose Insulin Resistance in Humans. Diabetes 2022;71:381-393 Ana Elena Espinosa ... Adipose Tissue Inflammation Is Not Related to Adipose Insulin Resistance in Humans. Diabetes 2022;71:381-393. Diabetes 1 April ... Adipose tissue inflammation is not related to adipose insulin resistance in humans. Diabetes 2022;71:381-393 (Letter) ...
  • Brown adipocytes are present within white adipose depots (BRITE cells) and the transcriptional control of these and classical brown adipocytes, remains an area of immense research interest. (medscape.com)
  • In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of (iron-containing) mitochondria, which gives the tissue its color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown fat cells come from the middle embryo layer, mesoderm, also the source of myocytes (muscle cells), adipocytes, and chondrocytes (cartilage cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through white fat tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, its relevance and exclusivity on brown adipocytes is beyond doubt. (nature.com)
  • We report depot-specific changes in the WAT of IAV-infected mice, notably characterized by the appearance of thermogenic brown-like adipocytes within the subcutaneous fat depot. (nih.gov)
  • Measurements of basal and norepinephrine stimulated oxygen consumption of isolated brown adipocytes indicated that the presence of ADH in BAT of mice is unlikely to play any role in ethanol oxidation. (who.int)
  • Abstract In response to cold, norepinephrine (NE)- induced triacylglycerol hydrolysis (lipolysis) in adipocytes of brown adipose tissue (BAT) provides fatty acid substrates to mitochondria for heat generation (adaptive thermogen- esis). (deiodinase.org)
  • Mechanistically, the sGC stimulator enhanced expression of thermogenic genes and induced "browning" (i.e. the expression of brown adipocyte-specific markers) of murine and human adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [5-8] While WATs store excessive energy as lipid droplets within adipocytes, adipocytes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) are engaged in energy dissipation by generating heat. (lww.com)
  • All these effects were blunted at 28°C. Additionally, BMP7 resulted in extensive 'browning' of WAT, as evidenced by increased expression of BAT markers and the appearance of whole clusters of brown adipocytes via immunohistochemistry, independent of environmental temperature. (vumc.nl)
  • Overexpression of miR-27b had the same effects as dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on the inhibition of brown adipose differentiation and the energy expenditure of primary adipocytes. (uthscsa.edu)
  • In vivo, antagonizing miR-27b function in DEX-treated mice resulted in the efficient induction of brown adipocytes within WAT and improved GC-induced central fat accumulation. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Veyrat-Durebex C, Poher AL, Caillon A, Montet X, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Alterations in lipid metabolism and thermogenesis with emergence of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue in diet-induced obesity-resistant Lou/C rats. (unige.ch)
  • Adipose tissues contain lipid-filled adipocytes but are also composed of several other cell types including adipogenic progenitors, endothelial cells, immune cells and neuronal cells. (multibriefs.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains thermogenic adipocytes which produce heat in response to cold, an energy-consuming process. (multibriefs.com)
  • Using the same approaches, we are also interested to prioritise and study candidate genes involved in human brown/beige adipocytes differentiation and activation as a strategy to counteract obesity and metabolic complications. (cipf.es)
  • Over the past several years, we have identified genes critical for specifying thermogenic adipose fate and have purified the precursor populations from which these adipocytes descend. (upenn.edu)
  • Anatomical location (e.g. visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial etc) and cellular composition of adipose tissue (e.g. white, beige, and brown adipocytes, macrophages. (portlandpress.com)
  • Male white adipose tissue exhibits the multilocular appearance of brown adipocytes, and expresses UCP1, a specific marker of brown fat. (jax.org)
  • BMP8b is secreted by brown/beige adipocytes and enhances energy dissipation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The upper panel shows interscapular white adipocytes (above a layer of muscle and above brown adipose tissue). (phys.org)
  • The lower panel shows white adipocytes from the inguinal adipose depot. (phys.org)
  • Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipomyokine, cleaved and secreted to the circulation from the FNDC5 protein in response to physical activity and some environmental conditions has been postulated to induces the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolic homeostasis. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Adipocytes form several types of adipose tissue, at least 2 maybe 3. (wordpress.com)
  • adipocytes #fatcells #adiposetissue #brownfat #whitefat #beigefat? (wordpress.com)
  • On the other hand, brown adipocytes utilize available energy to generate heat but are only found in a few places in the adult human body. (press-news.org)
  • While chronic obesity leads to pathology, acute nutrient excess promotes a protective form of adipose tissue expansion through the generation of new adipocytes (adipogenesis). (vumc.org)
  • The prevalence of obesity and overweight is increasing rapidly and functional brown adipose tissue (BAT), with its role in energy expenditure, may provide one solution. (medscape.com)
  • In the context of the increasing prevalence of obesity and overweight, brown adipose tissue (BAT) has re-emerged as a potentially vital human organ. (medscape.com)
  • The therapeutic targeting of brown fat for the treatment of human obesity is an active research field. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a promising therapeutic target against obesity. (nature.com)
  • The recent discovery of active Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) in adult humans has opened new avenues for obesity research and treatment, as reduced BAT activity seem to be implicated in human energy imbalance, diabetes, and hypertension. (umn.edu)
  • Some clinical studies suggest that when brown adipose tissue is activated, it can manage some health conditions such as obesity and diabetes . (naturwarriors.com)
  • This can be relevant to obesity in that the activity and abundance of brown adipose tissue have been dramatically reduced. (naturwarriors.com)
  • With the discovery of brown fat and in that its mass as well as activity is lowered in both obese and diabetic patients, researchers found a promising treatment of obesity and its related disorders. (naturwarriors.com)
  • An increase in brown adipose mass could emerge as the best strategy against obesity and related metabolic diseases. (naturwarriors.com)
  • Obesity is characterized by excessive fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT), because of a positive energy balance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue-deficient [uncoupling protein (UCP)-promoter- driven diphtheria toxin A (DTA)] mice develop obesity as a result of both decreased energy expenditure and hyperphagia. (elsevier.com)
  • Consequently, stimulation or inhibition of angiogenesis alters metabolic functions of adipose tissues and provides a promising opportunity for treatment of obesity and metabolic disease. (lww.com)
  • Background/Aims:Brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy stored in triglycerides as heat via the uncoupling protein UCP-1 and is a promising target to combat hyperlipidemia and obesity. (vumc.nl)
  • Collectively, these results indicate that miR-27b functions as a central target of GC and as an upstream regulator of Prdm16 to control browning of WAT and, consequently, may represent a potential target in preventing obesity. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Ectopic fat, therefore, "may result from the failure of subcutaneous adipose tissue to act as a metabolic sink" (Britton and Fox, 2011), creating a "mismatch" between "storage demands" from excess calories and "storage space" that is determined by how much adipose tissue can expand (Carobbio et al, in Engin and Engin, eds, Obesity and Lipotoxicity, Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology , 2017). (psychologytoday.com)
  • Poher AL, Veyrat-Durebex C, Altirriba J3, Montet X, J Colin D, Caillon A, Lyautey J, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Ectopic UCP1 overexpression in white adipose tissue improves insulin sensitivity in Lou/C rats, a model of obesity resistance.Diabetes. (unige.ch)
  • Scientifically, our research focuses on a specific area of obesity: the role of adipose tissues (white, brown or beige) with distinct roles in adipose tissue expansion, energy balance and obesity. (ttu.edu)
  • Specifically, white adipose tissue (WAT) - the "bad fat" tissue - is the type that expands the most during obesity and reacts the most to obesity by triggering an immune response. (ttu.edu)
  • Adaptive changes of the Insig1/SREBP1/SCD1 set point help adipose tissue to cope with increased storage demands of obesity. (cipf.es)
  • We are interested adipose biology because of the important roles that fat cells play in human health, in healthy individuals and at the onset of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancers associated with obesity. (upenn.edu)
  • Adipose tissue inflammation: a cause or consequence of obesity-related insulin resistance? (portlandpress.com)
  • Biomechanical properties of adipose tissue (AT) are closely involved in the development of obesity associated comorbidities. (unav.edu)
  • Activation of brown adipose tissue-mediated thermogenesis is a strategy for tackling obesity and promoting metabolic health. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Low amounts of brown fats are generally referred to because the leading motive of obesity in obese people. (prep4usmle.com)
  • n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the regulation of adipose tissue browning and thermogenesis in obesity: Potential relationship with gut microbiota. (inta.cl)
  • Foz/foz mice are hyperphagic but wild-type (WT)-matched calorie intake failed to protect against obesity, adipose inflammation and glucose intolerance. (portlandpress.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue metabolism is of remarkable pathophysiological interest, because it could be a target for future therapies for obesity and metabolic syndrome. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • Since brown fat cells are able to burn calories, they could potentially play a role in strategies to reduce obesity and its associated disorders. (nih.gov)
  • Preventing diet-induced obesity in mice by adipose tissue transformation and angiogenesis using targeted nanoparticles. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: REE, PA levels and diet are not associated with browning formation indices of subcutaneous adipose tissue in healthy adult men. (famelab.gr)
  • Blood and subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were collected before and after CE to investigate changes in metabolic parameters and gene expression. (tum.de)
  • Anatomy and physiology of subcutaneous adipose tissue by in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy: relationships with sex and presence of cellulite. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Adipose tissue dysfunction is associated with inflammation, metabolic syndrome and other diseases in aging. (scite.ai)
  • Recent work has demonstrated that compromised autophagy activity in aging adipose tissue promotes ER stress responses, contributing to adipose tissue and systemic inflammation in aging. (scite.ai)
  • Transcriptome analysis of eWAT identified tissue remodeling and inflammation as the most affected processes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Our data show that tissue remodeling, inflammation and neuroendocrine signaling are early responses in WAT to a moderate decrease in environmental temperature. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adipose Tissue Inflammation Is Not Related to Adipose Insulin Resistance in Humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The authors posit that adipose tissue (AT) inflammation could mediate the association between fat cell size (FCS) and AT insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • B cells have emerged as important immune cells in the regulation of visceral adipose tissue inflammation and atherosclerosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • These compounds lessen WAT inflammation while also activating brown and beige fat. (ttu.edu)
  • Themes covered by the studies that were eligible for review included inflammation, adipose tissue, blood circulation, immune system, and oxidative stress. (news-medical.net)
  • Regulation of adipose tissue inflammation by pollutants. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • We further demonstrate that transgenic expression of IL-6 in the prostate activates oncogenic pathways, induces autocrine IL-6 secretion and steadily-state of STAT3 activation in the prostate tissue, upregulates paracrine insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling axis, reprograms prostate oncogenic gene expression, and more intriguingly, amplifies inflammation in the prostate and peri-prostatic adipose tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Since peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α (PPARα) exhibit anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, and are required for the control of the adipose inflammation process their role in the GD and GO pathogenesis has been proposed. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • For example, DDTs have experimentally produced at least two key characteristics of carcinogens in adipose: inflammation (e.g. macrophage infiltration) and altered nutrient supply (e.g. perturbed nutrient processing and increased adipose mass). (cdc.gov)
  • Outcome parameters included fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) levels, muscle strength, glucose tolerance, energy expenditure (EE) and transcriptomics of brown and white adipose tissue (WAT). (rug.nl)
  • Sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase (SERCA) uncoupling in skeletal muscle and mitochondrial uncoupling via uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in brown/beige adipose tissue are two mechanisms implicated in energy expenditure. (jbc.org)
  • [10-12] In addition to deposition and expenditure of energy, adipose tissues are probably the largest endocrine organ in the body, which produce a myriad of endocrine hormones and adipokines. (lww.com)
  • A plausible manner to increase energy expenditure is the enhancement of thermogenic pathways in white (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). (bioseek.eu)
  • Here we show that systemic ablation of Treg cells compromised the adaptation of whole-body energy expenditure to cold exposure, correlating with impairment in thermogenic marker gene expression and massive invasion of pro-inflammatory macrophages in brown adipose tissue (BAT). (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Background: Regular exercise and diet may contribute to white adipose tissue (WAT) conversion into a brown adipose-like phenotype that may increase resting energy expenditure (REE), leading to weight loss. (famelab.gr)
  • Chili decreases energy expenditure by activating brown adipose tissue. (brudirect.com)
  • Caloriburn-GP ™ is a standardized Grains of Paradise extract, which has been shown to upregulate the Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) activity which significantly increases energy expenditure, regulates metabolism and optimizes body composition. (naturalscience.com)
  • Menthol: Recent evidence supports the role of menthol, a TRPM8 agonist, in enhanced energy expenditure, thermogenesis and BAT-like activity in classical WAT (White Adipose Tissue) depots in a TRPM8 dependent and independent manner. (naturalscience.com)
  • Menthol administration at bioavailable doses significantly increased "browning/brite" and energy expenditure phenotype, and enhanced mitochondrial activity related gene expression. (naturalscience.com)
  • The initial research in imaging will help identify 'brown fat' in humans, a type of fat that drives energy expenditure and may potentially benefit metabolic endpoints. (iberkshires.com)
  • Diagnostics and imaging techniques can make a significant impact on the detection and management of diabetes and its complications, and Joslin's interest in brown fat stimulation and energy expenditure is an exciting area to apply this to,' said Cypess. (iberkshires.com)
  • Adipocyte-specific FGF21, which is endocrine FGF subfamily, knockout mice exhibit the inhibition of white adipose tissue browning in adaptive thermogenesis, and central infusion of FGF21 in obese rats increases insulin-induced suppression of hepatic glucose production and gluconeogenic expression, which in turn increases energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • He has also identified mechanisms through which skeletal muscle can influence the function of other tissues in the body, including white adipose tissue, to regulate whole body energy expenditure and utilisation. (edu.au)
  • Here we report that the deletion of Th in hematopoietic cells of adult mice neither alters energy expenditure upon cold exposure nor reduces browning in inguinal adipose tissue. (ttu.edu)
  • Brown adipose tissue, or brown fat, is a distinct type of body fat that plays multiple roles in the body, including maintaining body temperature, improving insulin sensitivity and metabolic function, and more. (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • Specifically, when it comes to metabolic health the function and responsibility of brown fat is often overlooked, but the science is fascinating. (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • You're also going to learn specific action steps you can take to influence your body's brown fat ratios and functionality for better metabolic health. (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • The link between brown fat levels and metabolic function . (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • [16-18] In metabolically active adipose tissues such as thermogenically active BAT, angiogenesis concomitantly occurs to cope with metabolic alterations. (lww.com)
  • In the last 15 years, the identification of novel endogenous mechanisms to promote BAT activity or browning of WAT has pointed at gut microbiota as an important modulator of host metabolic homeostasis and energy balance. (bioseek.eu)
  • Specifically, we reviewed the effects of fasting, caloric restriction, cold stress and metabolic endotoxemia on both browning and gut microbiota shifts. (bioseek.eu)
  • Then they underwent PET scans and CT scans to measure the location and metabolic activity of brown fat deposits. (kpbs.org)
  • The Scandinavian researchers found that exposure to chilly temperatures caused a 15-fold increase in the metabolic rate of brown fat in their healthy adult volunteers. (kpbs.org)
  • Researchers speculate that brown fat could be activated by a drug targeted at particular parts of brown fat's metabolic pathways. (kpbs.org)
  • Reduced brown adipose tissue activity during cold exposure is a metabolic feature of the human thrifty phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • state and time-resolved fluorescence from intracellular metabolic co-factors and lipid droplets can distinguish the functional states of excised white, brown, and cold-induced beige fat. (tufts.edu)
  • This lipid, released by so-called brown fat, may account for some of the beneficial metabolic changes linked to physical activity, and boosting it may help reduce triglyceride levels, improve cardiovascular health, and regulate weight. (labmanager.com)
  • Since humans have limited amounts of active BAT, we also are determining mechanisms by which the above bioactive compounds can improve metabolic health independent of brown fat by engineering models that lack a specialized BAT protein, called uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (ttu.edu)
  • For example, ectopic fat depots, such as visceral adipose tissue (VAT), intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT), and intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) are risk factors for insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. (stanford.edu)
  • Cold weather and thermogenic demand is a very powerful way to make brown fat, which correlates to metabolic health," says Shingo Kajimura, a professor in the Department of Cell Tissue and Biology at UCSF and a leading researcher in their Diabetes Center . (askmen.com)
  • Kajimura was part of a team that pioneered research connecting brown fat's role in the metabolic process that specifically takes off when the body is under exertion in colder conditions. (askmen.com)
  • Instead, it offers a complete metabolic transformation, allowing the body to switch to a different fat management strategy, that is, by activating brown fat. (marylandreporter.com)
  • Results showed not only a decrease in body fat and an increase in skeletal muscle mass, but also changes in metabolic flexibility, insulin resistance, and browning adiposity. (rougecare.ca)
  • Can Exipure Activate Bat (Brown Adipose Tissue) & Burn Fat? (massagetherapyschools.net)
  • Exipure, a natural and herbal-infused dietary supplement, claims to help you lose weight by increasing your brown fat. (outlookindia.com)
  • Exipure is an all-natural product that improves the body's brown adipose tissue (BAT) to aid in weight loss. (outlookindia.com)
  • This is why Exipure came up with the innovative idea to increase Brown Adipose Tissues (BAT), which can help melt more calories than you intake daily. (dvdhype.com)
  • Active ingredients in Exipure such as White Korean Ginseng, Kudzu, and also holy basil service raising Brownish Adipose Tissue degrees in your body. (dvdhype.com)
  • We will certainly require to understand what Brown Fat (BAT) is, its functionality, as well as how it contributes to weight shredding through Exipure. (dvdhype.com)
  • Exipure has the best blend of components that will assist boost the development of brown adipose tissues or improve the power of the existing tissues. (dvdhype.com)
  • Exipure is a supplement made from natural ingredients targeting your Brown Adipose Tissue or BAT, and this Exipure review will tell you that it does so with no side effects. (instapaper.com)
  • Since making its original debut in late October 2021, Exipure has become one of the most sought weight loss supplements for burning fat and losing weight due to its exotic hack, tropical loophole, and fat-dissolving formula that is made to target the one common denominator all overweight people share in common, low brown adipose tissue levels. (islandssounder.com)
  • The Exipure supplement is manufactured to support weight loss in people with all types of body compositions because it is going after a new type of body fat distinction, brown, as opposed to white, as the primary culprit for unexplained weight gain. (islandssounder.com)
  • What are Exipure ingredients, and how do they help in activating brown fat? (marylandreporter.com)
  • This is why Exipure developed the revolutionary idea to boost Brownish Adipose Tissues (BAT), which can assist shed more calories than you consumption daily. (dvdhype.com)
  • Ingredients in Exipure such as White Korean Ginseng, Kudzu, and also divine basil deal with enhancing Brown Adipose Tissue degrees in your body. (dvdhype.com)
  • We will certainly need to comprehend what Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) is, its functionality, and also how it contributes to weight shredding with Exipure. (dvdhype.com)
  • Exipure has the perfect blend of ingredients that will aid enhance the development of brown adipose tissues or enhance the power of the existing cells. (dvdhype.com)
  • Exipure is a brand-new, all-natural weight-loss formula that works by changing brown fat tissue levels in our bodies to help us eat more calories. (nutrahealthgrow.com)
  • According to the Exipure weight loss product developers, BAT can consume multiple times more calories in your body than normal tissues and cells. (nutrahealthgrow.com)
  • Exipure is a new weight loss formula designed to help you lose weight by activating brown adipose tissue. (home.blog)
  • Exipure is a healthy weight loss support supplement formulated by doctors with 8 exotic ingredients and plant-based herbal extracts that boost brown fat conversion by targeting low brown adipose tissue ( BAT ) levels, the newly discovered weight gain culprit. (home.blog)
  • Exipure is an all-natural nutritional blend that sustains healthy weight management by converting white fat right into brown fat. (lifeslittlecelebrations.net)
  • Exipure is a natural nutritional blend that supports healthy weight management by transforming white fat into brown fat. (cosmosatellite.com)
  • 99m Tc-GLU or its peptides were detected in the blood, liver and visceral adipose tissue, suggesting that gluten can even reach extraintestinal organs. (nature.com)
  • Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies were collected from healthy ( n =13) and PE ( n =13) mothers. (portlandpress.com)
  • Cinnamaldehyde, the active compound in cinnamon, which also gives it its flavor, is an aromatic compound that stimulates the metabolism of the fatty visceral tissue, the fat that accumulates in our abdomen. (naturalscience.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and plays a role in energy metabolism. (jci.org)
  • Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism-for example, after cold exposure BAT "promotes the clearance of excessive triglycerides in the plasma by increasing lipid uptake into BAT," where it is subsequently metabolized to create heat (thermogenesis) (Yuan, 2017). (life-enhancement.com)
  • Overall, our findings shed light on the role that the white adipose tissue, which lies at the crossroads of nutrition, metabolism and immunity, may play in influenza infection. (nih.gov)
  • Scientists are beginning to work on ways to increase people's stores of brown fat and to turn up its metabolism to make it burn calories faster. (kpbs.org)
  • Brun J, Berthou F, Trajkovski M, Maechler P, Foti M, Bonnet N. Bone Regulates Browning and Energy Metabolism Through Mature Osteoblast/Osteocyte PPARγ Expression. (unige.ch)
  • But several years of research have begun confirming brown fat's advantages, principally a role in speeding up the body's metabolism. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Dr Paul Lee and Associate Professor Jerry Greenfield, of Garvan's Diabetes and Metabolism Division, have long been interested in whether brown fat might have a role beyond keeping us cosy. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • There are three major types of adipose cells (white, brown, beige) that have differing effects on energy balance and metabolism. (upenn.edu)
  • 2021-04-12] Anthony Angueira and Alex Saker 's manuscript on the developmental origins of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) has been published at Nature Metabolism . (upenn.edu)
  • These adipokines play crucial roles in whole-body metabolism with different mechanisms of action largely dependent on the tissue or cell type they are acting on. (portlandpress.com)
  • The endocrine system is a collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, sleep, and mood. (nifs.org)
  • HudsonAlpha Inst Biotech) also discussed how brown fat cycles between a more dormant state (torpor) to an active state (arousal) to match the metabolism of the whole animal during those phases. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Scientists have found a unique connection between brown adipose tissue , or brown fat, levels in the body and boosting metabolism for fast weight loss . (powerleadsystem.org)
  • There are two types of fat cells in the body, white fat cells (energy storing) and brown fat cells (energy burning) , and each plays a different role in our metabolism. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • Compounds such as rosiglitazone (Rosi) and prostaglandin E2 analog (PGE2) have been shown to have "browning" effects on white fat tissue-increasing metabolism and the growth of new blood vessels. (nih.gov)
  • 12-Lipoxygenase Regulates Cold Adaptation and Glucose Metabolism by Producing the Omega-3 Lipid 12-HEPE from Brown Fat. (harvard.edu)
  • Alterations in thyroid function test findings may reflect changes in production of thyroid hormone by effects on the thyroid itself, on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, on peripheral tissue metabolism of the hormones, or by a combination of these effects. (medscape.com)
  • The surprising role that brown fat plays in an obese body. (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • The one with no detectable brown fat was the most obese. (kpbs.org)
  • Researchers don't know yet whether people become obese in part because they lack brown fat, or whether their brown fat stores go away after they become obese. (kpbs.org)
  • Brown fat is scarcer in obese people, and for years researchers have wondered about the mechanism behind the reduction. (medicaldaily.com)
  • Our question is not why obese patients develop comorbidities but how to make them resilient, and we hypothesise that this depends on the mechanisms that keep their adipose tissue healthy irrespectively of its size. (cipf.es)
  • Mapping of human brown adipose tissue in lean and obese young men. (nih.gov)
  • It is seen that slim individuals have higher fat BAT levels in their body, while overweight or obese individuals have reduced brown adipose levels in the body. (dvdhype.com)
  • Nanoparticles designed to target white fat and convert it to calorie-burning brown fat slowed weight gain in obese mice without affecting food intake. (nih.gov)
  • The present work provides evidence for the occurrence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in very minute concentration in mice brown adipose tissue (BAT). (who.int)
  • Mice consuming 10% ethanol for 10 days showed significantly lowered enzyme activity in brown fat while liver ADH activity was increased but not significantly. (who.int)
  • Housing of laboratory mice at room temperature (22°C) might be considered a constant cold stress, which induces a thermogenic program in brown adipose tissue (BAT). (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we show that despite a normal mitochondrial respiratory capacity, NE-induced lipolysis is abrogated in the inter- scapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) of these mice. (deiodinase.org)
  • Scientists have now created human brown fat cells in the lab and tranferred it into mice. (dictionary.com)
  • We recently demonstrated that Ames dwarf mice have hyperactive brown adipose tissue (BAT), and hypothesized that this may in part be due to their increased surface to mass ratio leading to increased heat loss and an increased demand for thermogenesis. (aging-us.com)
  • Loss of Adipocyte STAT5 Confers Increased Depot-Specific Adiposity in Male and Female Mice That Is Not Associated With Altered Adipose Tissue Lipolysis. (duke-nus.edu.sg)
  • But brown fat literally burns the fatty acids (in a process called oxidation) to generate heat that warms up the chilly mice. (phys.org)
  • Thioesterase superfamily member (Them) 1 (synonym: Acot11) is enriched in brown adipose tissue and is markedly upregulated when mice are exposed to cold ambient temperatures. (harvard.edu)
  • Thermogenic adaptation to high-fat diet (HFD) or to cold exposure was severely impaired in foz/foz mice compared with HFD-fed WT littermates due to lower sympathetic tone in their brown adipose tissue (BAT). (portlandpress.com)
  • Mice treated with targeted nanoparticles had smaller fat cells, more blood vessels, and higher levels of brown fat markers. (nih.gov)
  • abstract = "Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is present in human adults and the current gold standard to visualize and quantify BAT is [F-18] FDG PET-CT. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Both share the presence of small lipid droplets and numerous iron-rich mitochondria, giving the brown appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has greater variability in lipid droplet size and a greater proportion of lipid droplets to mitochondria than white fat, giving it a light brown appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • UCP1 is considered a hallmark of brown adipocyte, and is involved in the uncoupling of the electron-transport chain in the mitochondria inner membrane 1 . (nature.com)
  • Increased thermogenesis in BAT was detected by the induction of "beige" tissue formation (in which WAT, white adipose tissue, is converted to a more BAT-like form, a process called "browning"), activating SIRT1/PPARgamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha/mitochondrial transcription factor, increasing the number of mitochondria, and increasing UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) activity. (life-enhancement.com)
  • The brown color is due to the presence of mitochondria which plays a key role in weight management due to their ability to perform calorie burn and energy production. (alphanewscall.com)
  • This brown fat contains more mitochondria compared to white fat. (naturwarriors.com)
  • Mitochondria are the source of brown fat that burns calories to generate heat. (naturwarriors.com)
  • White adipose tissue has a single lipid droplet, but brown adipose tissue contains small lipid droplets combined with a high number of irons containing mitochondria. (naturwarriors.com)
  • Unlike the more familiar white fat, brown fat contains a lot of heat-generating mitochondria, the power plants of cells. (hawaiipublicradio.org)
  • Brownish Adipose Tissue, or BAT, is packed with numerous mitochondria or the powerhouse of cells. (dvdhype.com)
  • As a result, whatever fat you take in, the fatty molecules will be kept in the white adipose, which doesn't contain numerous mitochondria. (dvdhype.com)
  • The major difference between white fat and brown fat is the number of mitochondria . (powerleadsystem.org)
  • White fat has much fewer mitochondria, and more fat droplets, than brown fat. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • Because brown fat is densely-packed with mitochondria, it is able to produce heat on its own. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • You have fewer mitochondria than brown fat. (wordpress.com)
  • This editorial provides updated knowledge and understanding of vascular roles in regulating adipose tissue functions. (lww.com)
  • White adipose tissues are found under the skin and around the organs, while brown adipose fats are found in shoulder blades and under the skin. (naturwarriors.com)
  • Unlike most other tissues in the body, adipose tissues, in particular white adipose tissues (WATs), experience expansion and shrinkage throughout the entire adult life. (lww.com)
  • It services brownish adipose tissues and also makes the body store fat in the form of brown fat layers. (dvdhype.com)
  • Mammals have two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). (edu.au)
  • Here, we investigated the effects of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) inhibition via lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment on SERCA uncoupling in skeletal muscle and UCP1 expression in adipose. (jbc.org)
  • In adipose, LiCl treatment inhibited GSK3 in inguinal WAT (iWAT) but not in brown adipose tissue under chow-fed conditions, which in turn led to an increase in UCP1 in iWAT and a beiging-like effect with a multilocular phenotype. (scintica.com)
  • The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene is thought to be extremely expressed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) that capabilities in thermogenesis. (aabioetica.org)
  • Expression of UCP1, a marker of brown fat cells, was significantly raised by the targeted nanoparticles as well. (nih.gov)
  • There is plenty of information about the unhealthy inflamed human adipose tissue. (cipf.es)
  • are lipophillic and are persistently stored in human adipose tissue, including in the breast. (cdc.gov)
  • It is formulated to be a safe and effective weight loss formula that has scientifically proven benefits in supporting fat loss by way of boosting brown fat levels naturally due to this newly discovered tropical loophole of an exotic hack that works to activate brown adipose tissue (BAT) levels quickly. (islandssounder.com)
  • NE enhances thermogenesis through β3-adrenergic receptors to activate brown adipose tissue and by 'browning' white adipose tissue. (ttu.edu)
  • The presence of brown adipose tissue in adult humans was discovered in 2003 during FDG-PET scans to detect metastatic cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, researchers showed adult humans also have brown fat that responds to cold temperatures. (dictionary.com)
  • Recently it was discovered that adult humans possess a substantial mass of brown adipose tissue (BAT), a tissue that consumes stored lipid to produce heat. (upenn.edu)
  • However, recent studies have shown that adult humans possess brown adipose tissue. (bestbreakfastforweightloss.com)
  • White adipose tissue, I especially enjoy setting in your single lipid droplet (again, like dropping yolk to mix my egg tempera paint). (wordpress.com)
  • Which foods are helpful in influencing the activity of brown adipose tissue. (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • The gut microbiota modulates both browning of white adipose tissue and the activity of brown adipose tissue. (bioseek.eu)
  • These "anatomically distinct" depots of white adipose tissue are "distinct mini-organs" (Hepler and Gupta, 2017). (psychologytoday.com)
  • However, the impact of influenza infection on white adipose tissue (WAT), a key tissue in the control of systemic energy homeostasis, has not been yet characterized. (nih.gov)
  • In an acute cold exposure, this is achieved by the combination of shivering thermogenesis-heat production resulting from muscle contractions-and non-shivering thermogenesis where energy is dissipated mainly in brown adipose tissue (BAT), and to a lesser extent via increased futile cycling. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to WAT, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy and produces heat - a process known as non-shivering thermogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue and its role in energy balance. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • The primary task or duty of the brown fat is to burn saved fat and transform it into energy that can be made use of for numerous activities. (massagetherapyschools.net)
  • White adipose tissue "plays a key homeostatic role" not only because it stores energy but also because it can mobilize this energy quickly (Pellegrinelli et al, Diabetologia , 2016). (psychologytoday.com)
  • One mechanism hypothesized is that since the storage capacity of subcutaneous adipose cells is not infinite, it reaches its limit in this state of positive energy balance. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Stored around your collarbone are deposits of brown adipose tissue (fat) that help burn energy. (medicaldaily.com)
  • But heat generation is an energy-sucking process, so brown adipose tissue springs into action only when it's needed. (brainfacts.org)
  • Australian scientists have shown that brown fat - a special type of fat that burns energy to produce heat - may also help to keep blood sugar steady in adults. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • Unlike white fat, which primarily stores energy, brown fat burns energy - often in remarkably large amounts. (neurosciencenews.com)
  • White adipose tissue is specialized for storing excess energy (as triglyceride) after eating and releasing energy between meals and in times of nutrient deprivation. (upenn.edu)
  • The increase in Beige Adipose tissue (which burns lipids for energy to make heat) leads to a higher caloric output and a decrease in fat mass overall. (naturalscience.com)
  • Without going too deep into the science, in colder conditions, your body will expend more energy and create more brown fat to regulate temperature. (askmen.com)
  • Adipose tissue has an essential role in the regulation of systemic energy balance. (edu.au)
  • Brown fat, in contrast, burns energy to create heat and help maintain body temperature. (nih.gov)
  • Brown Adipose Tissue Transplantation Ameliorates Polycystic Ovary Syndrome[J]. PNAS,2016,113(10):2708-2713. (ioz.ac.cn)
  • 2016).Brown Adipose Tissue Transplantation Ameliorates Polycystic Ovary Syndrome. (ioz.ac.cn)
  • Adipose tissue surrounding major arteries (Perivascular adipose tissue or PVAT) has long been thought to exist to provide vessel support and insulation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The lipid 12,13-diHOME is produced by brown adipose tissue (BAT), or brown fat. (labmanager.com)
  • The study shows that white adipose tissue breaks down stored fat to become circulating fatty acids while brown fat releases a lipid that promotes the uptake of these fatty acids into working muscles during exercise. (labmanager.com)
  • Surgically removing the animals' brown fat eliminated the effect, suggesting that brown fat itself generates the lipid. (labmanager.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue, each of your cells includes several lipid droplets. (wordpress.com)
  • Brown fat in humans in the scientific and popular literature refers to two cell populations defined by both anatomical location and cellular morphology. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, clinical applications are currently limited by the lack of non-invasive tools for measuring mass and function of this tissue in humans. (umn.edu)
  • With this method we can exploit the characteristic cellular structure of BAT to selectively image it, even when (as in humans) it is intimately mixed with other tissues. (umn.edu)
  • Humans and other mammals with high levels of brown fat take longer to shiver compared to those with low levels. (naturwarriors.com)
  • Brown Adipose Reporting Criteria in Imaging STudies (BARCIST 1.0): Recommendations for Standardized FDG-PET/CT Experiments in Humans. (nih.gov)
  • The Dutch team studied brown fat activity in 24 healthy young men - 10 of them lean and the others overweight. (kpbs.org)
  • A lot of overweight individuals are seen to have low levels of brown adipose tissue. (massagetherapyschools.net)
  • Thus, raising the adipose tissue BAT degrees in the body makes it simpler for overweight people to get fat and get rid of the unusual gain of weight. (dvdhype.com)
  • It is seen that slim people have higher adipose tissue BAT levels in their body, while overweight or overweight people have reduced brownish adipose degrees in the body. (dvdhype.com)
  • Using in vitro approaches, we find that IAV infection enhances the expression of brown-adipogenesis-related genes in preadipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Despite that, BMP7 diminished white adipose tissue (WAT) mass, accompanied by increased expression of genes related to intracellular lipolysis in WAT. (vumc.nl)
  • Conversely, antagonizing miR-27b function prevented DEX suppression of the expression of brown adipose tissue-specific genes. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Moreover, L. reuteri 263 might induce browning of WAT due to the higher mRNA levels of browning-related genes peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, PR domain containing-16, Pparγ coactivator-1α, bone morphogenetic protein-7 and fibroblast growth factor-21 in the 1X and 5X groups compared to the HE group. (elsevier.com)
  • RNA sequence analysis showed that differential genes were mainly concentrated in striated muscle cells, vascular smooth muscle, and other tissues. (researchsquare.com)
  • In agreement with these findings, adipose-tissue-resident macrophages did not express TH. (ttu.edu)
  • The shivering effect achieved is the body reminding you how tremendously stupid you are…but it is great for brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation. (skylertanner.com)
  • The effects cold exposure has on brown adipose tissue activation. (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • Genotype-Dependent Brown Adipose Tissue Activation in Patients With Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma. (cdc.gov)
  • Elevation of serum levels of IL-6 or activation of IL-6 signaling pathways in the tumor tissue correlates with the shortened overall survival and time to progression in prostate cancer [ 8 - 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How long-term mild cold exposure can stimulate brown fat growth . (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • Cold exposure in water - or air - appears also to increase the production of adiponectin by adipose tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • Sooo…I hear white fat can brown with chronic cold exposure. (wordpress.com)
  • These supply the tissue with oxygen and nutrients and distribute the produced heat throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researches have revealed that BeLiv enhances the level of anti-inflammatory omega 3 and 6 fatty acids in the body, which brown adipose tissue beliv blood sugar drops reduces swelling as well as can enhance cognitive function. (cozynookcurlys.com)
  • These effects were characterized by increased plasma levels of FGF21, browning of subcutaneous WAT, increased body temperature and EE, while no changes were observed in glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. (rug.nl)
  • However, the early adaptive response of white adipose tissue (WAT), the fat storage organ of the body, to a change from thermoneutrality to room temperature is not known. (frontiersin.org)
  • Brown fat and white fat are two types of cells found in the body and are both made up of loose connective tissues. (naturwarriors.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue is a less common type of fat in the body that is thermogenic, while white fat is less abundant and non- thermogenic. (naturwarriors.com)
  • An increased mass of brown adipose tissue at birth is related to decreased accumulation of body fat during the first six months of newborns' life. (naturwarriors.com)
  • In adults, a reduced mass of brown adipose tissue and activities has been observed in them as age goes by and may impact the accumulation of body fat . (naturwarriors.com)
  • Exposing your body to cool and cold temperatures might help build up more brown fat cells. (naturwarriors.com)
  • During exercise, the body produces a protein called irisin, which might help browning of white fat. (naturwarriors.com)
  • So, activities like walking, jogging, swimming or attending the gym can increase brown fat in your body. (naturwarriors.com)
  • Where brown fat is located in the body. (themodelhealthshow.com)
  • It still remains unknown how size "mechanistically initiates and drives" alterations in white adipose tissue (Mejhert and Rydén, 2020), and even "why the body can store subcutaneous fat abundantly when overeating but nevertheless fails to store all of it. (psychologytoday.com)
  • The other 95 percent, a new study finds, is busy regulating how well your body burns calories through brown fat. (medicaldaily.com)
  • The "good" type of fat, brown adipose tissue, burns lipids and carbs to generate heat and raise body temperature. (brainfacts.org)
  • When opsin 5 neurons detect violet light, they inhibit brown adipose tissue activity and keep the body temperature stable. (brainfacts.org)
  • In the absence of violet light, opsin 5 neurons allow brown adipose tissue to generate heat and raise the body temperature. (brainfacts.org)
  • This response kicks in to maintain body temperature in the cold, notably in our brown adipose tissue - brown fat. (newscientist.com)
  • Currently, my laboratory focuses on the cold-induced thermogenesis, brown adipose tissue, muscle and autonomic nervous system activities, and body and skin temperature in response to subtle changes in environmental temperature in different populations. (nih.gov)
  • When the body needs to raise the temperature, brown fat burns up calories to get the job done. (hawaiipublicradio.org)
  • Before you shiver, your body is already turning on the heat from the brown fat," he tells Shots. (hawaiipublicradio.org)
  • Yet in typical conditions, your body does not have the normal focus of brown adipose tissues. (dvdhype.com)
  • Further, testosterone has a known effect on the nervous system: it increases neurotransmitters, and it acts on every tissue in the body. (nifs.org)
  • As you can see from this information, these are just a few areas you can target to start producing testosterone and therefore, affect the tissues within your body. (nifs.org)
  • This countercurrent heat exchange allows the core of the body to remain warm while limiting heat loss when the extremities are cold, but not so cold that tissue damage occurs. (psmag.com)
  • Brown fat, or brown adipose tissue, is a type of body fat that's activated when the body gets colder. (askmen.com)
  • The review provided insights into positive links between cold water swimming and brown adipose tissue (BAT), a type of 'good' body fat that is activated by cold. (news-medical.net)
  • Once inside the body, these ingredients start working on breaking fat layers and storing the new fat in the form of brown adipose tissue. (marylandreporter.com)
  • Brown fat is a normal part of the human body, and shifting the body to store brown fat instead of white fat is an absolutely natural procedure. (marylandreporter.com)
  • With time, the brown fat levels decrease, and if the body experiences poor dietary choices and a sedentary lifestyle, it eventually goes to zero. (marylandreporter.com)
  • also, the presence of brown fat indicates a healthy body and weight. (marylandreporter.com)
  • It works with brown adipose tissues and makes the body shop fat in the form of brown fat layers. (dvdhype.com)
  • Yet in typical problems, your body doesn't have the usual focus of brown fats. (dvdhype.com)
  • The use of hydrogel-based biomaterials for the delivery and recruitment of cells to promote tissue regeneration in the body is of growing interest. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • It's well accepted that exposing your body to cold temperatures can increase the conversion of beige to brown fat, and increase the activity of brown fat. (drcolbert.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue is suitable for weight loss as it uses up blood glucose and fat molecules to create heat and help maintain body temperature. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • Having an increased level of brown adipose tissue pushes your body to burn sugar and reduce dangerous white fat through a process known as thermogenesis. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • This formula helps your body create more brown adipose tissue so your body can naturally burn more fat. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • In the human body, white adipose tissue is by far the most prevalent. (press-news.org)
  • Scientists at the University of Nottingham have discovered that caffeine can activate the brown adipose tissue in your body, which is responsible for burning calories and maintaining body temperature in cold conditions. (bestbreakfastforweightloss.com)
  • Besides, ASCs provide several advantages, such as ease of availability, abundance in the human body, and good tissue regeneration and repair effects. (researchsquare.com)
  • This binding inhibitor can be present both in the serum and in body tissues and might inhibit uptake of thyroid hormones by cells or prevent binding to nuclear T3 receptors, thus inhibiting the action of the hormone. (medscape.com)
  • The cumulative loss of fat leads to a decrease in adipose-derived adiponectin and leptin. (medscape.com)
  • Classification of brown fat refers to two distinct cell populations with similar functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Publication Server of Helmholtz Zentrum München: Brown adipose tissue harbors a distinct sub-population of regulatory T cells. (helmholtz-muenchen.de)
  • Therefore, these studies establish the potential of non-invasive, high resolution, endogenous contrast, two-photon imaging to identify distinct adipose tissue types, monitor their functional state, and characterize heterogeneity of induced responses. (tufts.edu)
  • This study identifies a tissue, which can be easily accessed for analytical measurement of trans fatty acid. (hindawi.com)
  • In this cross-sectional study, fatty acid in adipose tissue, cheek epithelium, and blood samples were assessed by gas chromatography. (hindawi.com)
  • Spearman correlation coefficient was computed to study the correlation of fatty acid distribution among the three tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • This study is the first to report trans fatty acid profile in cheek epithelium giving scope for utilizing the cheek epithelium as a tissue for objective assessment of trans fatty acid intake. (hindawi.com)
  • Blood fractions, serum, plasma, and erythrocytes are widely used in epidemiological studies to assess trans fatty acid intake but indicate short-term intake as compared to adipose tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • We studied the cheek trans fatty acid level and correlated the same with that in adipose and serum. (hindawi.com)
  • Corrigendum: The cold-induced lipokine 12,13-diHOME promotes fatty acid transport into brown adipose tissue. (harvard.edu)
  • By definition, ectopic fat is excess adipose tissue invading and encasing areas that are "not classically" associated with fat storage (Britton and Fox, 2011), i.e., triglycerides deposited "within cells of nonadipose tissue" (Ferrara et al, Cellular Physiology , 2019). (psychologytoday.com)
  • Brown and beige fat: From molecules to physiology and pathophysiology. (cipf.es)
  • The classic population of brown fat cells and muscle cells both seem to be derived from the same population of stem cells in the mesoderm, paraxial mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitors of traditional white fat cells and adrenergically induced brown fat do not have the capacity to activate the Myf5 promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, muscle cells that were cultured with the transcription factor PRDM16 were converted into brown fat cells, and brown fat cells without PRDM16 were converted into muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some of these cytokines affect nearby cells within the adipose tissue while others are secreted into the circulation for communication at the organ level. (multibriefs.com)
  • Beige fat cells have similarities to brown fat cells but arise within white fat tissue. (upenn.edu)
  • These cells store the fats just like the white adipose. (dvdhype.com)
  • Lactoferrin inhibited the growth of new fat cells and promoted the breakdown of existing fat tissue. (naturalscience.com)
  • These base materials have been crosslinked in the presence of cells, biologics, and tissues using chemical reactions or physical interactions. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Such injectable hydrogels formed in situ have been used to deliver various therapeutic cells or biologics (e.g., growth factors, chemokines for modulating the function endogenous cells) to promote the regeneration of tissues, including bone, cartilage, and skin (depicted here). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Induced nephron progenitors are derived from adult human cells in tissue culture through transcription factor reprogramming with inducible piggyBac transposons. (vumc.org)
  • Even under a sterile condition, various cells and tissues can utilize the immune system to meet a specific demand for proper physiological functions. (bmbreports.org)
  • Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) function in multi-directional differentiation, proliferation, and tissue regeneration. (researchsquare.com)
  • HE staining indicated scattered striated muscle cells and epithelial tissues in fistula tissues of the ASC-microcarrier 6 complex group and the ASC treatment group, while a small number of lymphocytes were clustered around the microcarrier 6, and fat cell aggregation was seen in the ASC treatment group. (researchsquare.com)
  • Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are mesenchymal stem cells that are found in adipose tissues. (researchsquare.com)
  • ASCs are ideal seed cells for tissue regeneration. (researchsquare.com)
  • It is notable that adipose tissue also surrounds breast epithelial cells, the primary cell type in which breast cancer develops, and has been implicated in extensive paracrine effects on breast carcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • It remains to be determined whether these deposits are 'classical' brown adipose tissue or beige/brite fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown Adipose Tissue or BAT is said to be the fundamental cause of stubborn weight gain. (alphanewscall.com)
  • Wheat gluten promotes weight gain in animals on both HFD and CD, partly by reducing the thermogenic capacity of adipose tissues. (nature.com)
  • Veyrat-Durebex C, Deblon N, Caillon A, Andrew R, Altirriba J, Odermatt A, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Central glucocorticoid administration promotes weight gain and increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in white adipose tissue. (unige.ch)
  • It is the first weight loss product of its kind to directly address the root cause of weight gain - low levels of brown adipose tissue, or BAT. (thefreeadforum.com)
  • It is the only product in the world with a proprietary blend of 8 exotic nutrients and plants designed to target low brown adipose tissue (BAT) levels, the new found root-cause of your unexplained weight gain. (thefreeadforum.com)
  • Exipure's producers accept soft brown fat tissue (BAT) levels as the fundamental cause of severe weight gain. (nutrahealthgrow.com)
  • These findings show that the targeted Rosi nanoparticles reduced weight gain by browning fat tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Lentiviral injection of Fgf11 shRNA into the arcuate nucleus of the mouse hypothalamus decreased weight gain and fat mass, increased brown adipose tissue thermogenesis, and improved glucose and insulin intolerances under high-fat diet conditions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipose tissue is "profoundly impacted by chronic overfeeding" (Bray and Bouchard, 2020). (psychologytoday.com)
  • Overexpression of bmp8b in AT enhances browning of the subcutaneous depot and maximal thermogenic capacity. (cam.ac.uk)
  • On the other hand, brown fat generates heat by burning calories . (naturwarriors.com)
  • We calculate that if you had three ounces' worth [of brown fat], that would be enough, if maximally stimulated, to burn up 400 to 500 calories per day," Cypess says. (kpbs.org)
  • Brown fat, which burns more calories than the white fat linked to type 2 diabetes and heart disease, has been called the "good" fat. (labmanager.com)
  • Colder temperatures also accelerate the conversion of white fat into brown fat, which helps to burn more calories. (baulsaudio.com)
  • Do you know that brown fat burns calories at least 300 times faster than white fat? (marylandreporter.com)
  • The cold environment also enhances the conversion of white fat into brown fat, which can burn more calories. (baulsaudio.com)
  • Brown fat, on the other hand, actually burns calories. (drcolbert.com)
  • Brown fat helps regulate the body's core temperature by continually burning stored calories as fuel. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • White fat helps regulate core temperature by insulating organs, but it does not burn calories and generate heat like brown fat. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • A 2015 review titled "Brown and Beige Fat: Molecular Parts of a Thermogenic Machine" by the American Diabetes Association on various studies has shown that brown fat burns calories and may help control blood sugar and improve insulin levels, decreasing the risk for type 2 diabetes . (powerleadsystem.org)
  • This brown fat burns 300 times the calories than regular fat - for every tiny increase in brown adipose tissue means a JUMP in calorie and fat burning. (powerleadsystem.org)
  • Recent evidence has revealed a novel signaling mechanism through which brown adipose tissue (BAT)-derived exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) influence hepatic gene expression. (usda.gov)
  • A tissue-specific Knockout mouse defines an animal model in which a gene of interest is ' floxed ' and thus inactivatable in specific cell types in a certain tissue. (genoway.com)
  • Other cell types and tissues exhibit an unmodified, functional gene expression. (genoway.com)
  • This gene inactivation is achieved by an additional breeding step with a tissue- or cell type-specific Cre-deleter mouse line. (genoway.com)
  • Conversely, brown ("thermogenic") adipose tissue burns carbohydrates and fats to produce heat. (upenn.edu)
  • The safest way to increase BAT (brown adipose tissue) thermogenesis is by exposure to cold (Yuan, 2017). (life-enhancement.com)
  • Finally, the nasal lesions associated with exposure to high concentrations of MeI in rats are best supported by a mode of action that involves glutathione (GSH) depletion in the nasal epithelial tissue. (cdc.gov)
  • Fabbiano S, Suárez-Zamorano N, Rigo D, Veyrat-Durebex C, Stevanovic Dokic A, Colin DJ, Trajkovski M. Caloric Restriction Leads to Browning of White Adipose Tissue through Type 2 ImmuneSignaling. (unige.ch)
  • Ectopic fat in tissues such as liver and muscle may be increased. (medscape.com)
  • Get supplemental information, a quote, and estimated timeframe to generate your tissue-specific KO mouse line. (genoway.com)
  • Large magnetic susceptibility differences between metallic implants and tissue generate severe B 0 inhomogeneities that present several challenges for MR: excitation of the entire off-resonance spectrum, distortion in the frequency encoding direction, and severe intra-voxel dephasing. (ismrm.org)