Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Adipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.TriglyceridesRNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Mice, Inbred C57BLLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Panniculitis: General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Rats, Inbred BNOrgan Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Costa RicaMembrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseEpinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)DioxolesLipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Lipomatosis: A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Iodide Peroxidase: A hemeprotein that catalyzes the oxidation of the iodide radical to iodine with the subsequent iodination of many organic compounds, particularly proteins. EC 1.11.1.8.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Clenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Guanosine Diphosphate: A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phodopus: A genus of hamsters characterized by small size, very short tail, and short, broad feet with hairy soles.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I: Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenasePalmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized: Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Brown Recluse Spider: A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
(1/1528) Allyl-containing sulfides in garlic increase uncoupling protein content in brown adipose tissue, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats.

The effects of garlic supplementation on triglyceride metabolism were investigated by measurements of the degree of thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT), and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion in rats fed two types of dietary fat. In Experiment 1, rats were given isoenergetic high-fat diets containing either shortening or lard with or without garlic powder supplementation (8 g/kg of diet). After 28 d feeding, body weight, plasma triglyceride levels and the weights of perirenal adipose tissue and epididymal fat pad were significantly lower in rats fed diets supplemented with garlic powder than in those fed diets without garlic powder. The content of mitochondrial protein and uncoupling protein (UCP) in IBAT, and urinary noradrenaline and adrenaline excretion were significantly greater in rats fed a lard diet with garlic powder than in those fed the same diet without garlic. Other than adrenaline secretion, differences due to garlic were significant in rats fed shortening, also. In Experiment 2, the effects of various allyl-containing sulfides present in garlic on noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion were evaluated. Administration of diallyldisulfide, diallyltrisulfide and alliin, organosulfur compounds present in garlic, significantly increased plasma noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations, whereas the administration of disulfides without allyl residues, diallylmonosulfide and S-allyl-L-cysteine did not increase adrenaline secretion. These results suggest that in rats, allyl-containing sulfides in garlic enhance thermogenesis by increasing UCP content in IBAT, and noradrenaline and adrenaline secretion.  (+info)

(2/1528) Differential regulation of uncoupling protein-1, -2 and -3 gene expression by sympathetic innervation in brown adipose tissue of thermoneutral or cold-exposed rats.

The control of uncoupling protein-1, -2 and -3 (UCP-1, UCP-2, UCP-3) mRNA levels by sympathetic innervation in rats was investigated by specific and sensitive RT-PCR assays. In rats reared at thermoneutrality (25 degrees C), unilateral surgical sympathetic denervation of interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) markedly reduced the UCP-1 mRNA level (-38%) as compared with the contralateral innervated BAT pad, but was without significant effect on UCP-2 and -3 mRNA levels. Cold exposure (7 days, 4 degrees C) markedly increased UCP-1 (+180%), UCP-2 (+115%) and UCP-3 (+195%) mRNA levels in interscapular BAT. Unilateral sympathetic denervation prevented the cold-induced rise in BAT UCP-1 and UCP-2 mRNAs, but not that in BAT UCP-3 mRNA. Results were confirmed by Northern blot analysis. These data indicate a differential endocrine control of UCP-1, UCP-2 and UCP-3 gene expression in rat BAT both at thermoneutrality and during prolonged cold exposure.  (+info)

(3/1528) Nuclear bodies are usual constituents in tissues of hibernating dormice.

In previous studies we demonstrated in several tissues of the hazel dormouse Muscardinus avellanarius that during hibernation cell nuclei contain particular structural constituents absent in euthermia. In the present study we examine the same tissues in euthermic and hibernating individuals of the edible dormouse Glis glis in order to investigate possible modifications of nuclear structural constituents occurring during hibernation in this species. Edible dormice were captured in the wild and maintained in an external animal house. Samples of liver, pancreas, brown adipose tissue and adrenal cortex were taken from three hibernating and three euthermic animals and processed for resin embedding. Ultrastructural and immunocytochemical studies were carried out on cell nuclei of these tissues. The most evident feature of cell nuclei of hibernating dormice was the presence of several nuclear bodies, namely fibro-granular material, amorphous bodies, coiled bodies, perichromatin granule-like granules and nucleoplasmic fibrils, the distribution of which was peculiar to each tissue. No one of these constituents was detectable during euthermia. Immunocytochemical analyses revealed that they contain some splicing factors. Apart from some differences, maybe due to the different characteristics of lethargy, the nuclear bodies found in edible dormice were morphologically and immunocytochemically similar to those previously described in the same tissues of hazel dormice. They therefore seem to be strictly correlated to the hibernating state. If they represent storage and/or assembly sites of splicing factors to be rapidly used upon arousal, they could represent a usual structural feature in cells of hibernating species.  (+info)

(4/1528) ATP can stimulate exocytosis in rat brown adipocytes without apparent increases in cytosolic Ca2+ or G protein activation.

Extracellular ATP activates large increases in cell surface area and membrane turnover in rat brown adipocytes (Pappone, P. A., and Lee, S. C. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:393-404). We used whole-cell patch clamp membrane capacitance measurements of membrane surface area concurrently with fura-2 ratio imaging of intracellular calcium to test whether these purinergic membrane responses are triggered by cytosolic calcium increases or G protein activation. Increasing cytosolic calcium with adrenergic stimulation, calcium ionophore, or calcium-containing pipette solutions did not cause exocytosis. Extracellular ATP increased membrane capacitance in the absence of extracellular calcium with internal calcium strongly buffered to near resting levels. Purinergic stimulation still activated exocytosis and endocytosis in the complete absence of intracellular and extracellular free calcium, but endocytosis predominated. Modulators of G protein function neither triggered nor inhibited the initial ATP-elicited capacitance changes, but GTPgammaS or cytosolic nucleotide depletion did reduce the cells' capacity to mount multiple purinergic responses. These results suggest that calcium modulates purinergically-stimulated membrane trafficking in brown adipocytes, but that ATP responses are initiated by some other signal that remains to be identified.  (+info)

(5/1528) Metabolism and morphology of brown adipose tissue from Brahman and Angus newborn calves.

The objective of this study was to compare adipocyte morphology and lipogenesis between breed types (Angus vs Brahman) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) from newborn calves. The Brahman calves (n = 7) were born during the fall season, whereas the Angus calves were born in fall (n = 6) or the following spring (n = 4). At parturition, Brahman cows were lighter than fall Angus cows, but were heavier than spring Angus cows (P < .05). Birth weights and perirenal BAT weights were greater in spring-born, but not in fall-born Angus calves, than in Brahman calves (P < .05). Fall-born Angus BAT contained 63% more (P < .05) adipocytes/100 mg tissue and contained a greater proportion (P < .05) of adipocytes with mean diameters of 40 to 50 microm, and fewer adipocytes with diameters of 60 microm or greater, than Brahman BAT. Brahman BAT contained two-to-three times as many beta-receptors as Angus BAT (P < .05), although the dissociation constant (Kd) was not different between breed types. Mitochondria in Brahman BAT were primarily spherical, whereas Angus BAT mitochondria were elongated, and mitochondrial cross-sectional area tended (P = .08) to be greater in Brahman BAT than in Angus BAT. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA concentration (per 10(6) cells) was greater in Brahman BAT than in BAT from fall-born Angus calves. Lipogenesis from acetate was greater in Angus BAT than in Brahman BAT (P < .05), and glucose and palmitate contributed a greater proportion of carbon to lipogenesis in Brahman BAT than in Angus BAT. These differences in lipogenesis between breed types were not observed in s.c. WAT. The WAT from both breed types contained adipocytes with distinct brown adipocyte morphology, suggesting an involution of BAT to WAT in utero. We conclude that differences in UCP gene expression cannot cause the greater peak thermogenesis of Angus calves; however, differences between breed types in lipid metabolism and(or) mitochondrial morphology may contribute to this phenomenon.  (+info)

(6/1528) Mechanism of adipose tissue iNOS induction in endotoxemia.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of adipose tissue inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) induction in endotoxemia. Systemic administration of the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rats for +info)

(7/1528) Effect of calorie restriction on in vivo glucose metabolism by individual tissues in rats.

We evaluated the effects of 8 mo of calorie restriction [CR: 60% of ad libitum (AL) food intake] on glucose uptake by 14 tissues in unanesthetized, adult (12 mo) F344xBN rats. Glucose metabolism was assessed by the 2-[3H]deoxyglucose tracer technique at 1500 or 2100. Despite an approximately 60% decline in insulinemia with CR, plasma 2-[3H]deoxyglucose clearance for CR was greater than for AL at both times. A small, CR-related decrease in glucose metabolic index (R'g) occurred only at 1500 in the spleen and heart, and this decrease was reversed at 2100. In some tissues (cerebellum, lung, kidney, soleus, and diaphragm), R'g was unaffected by diet, regardless of time. In the other tissues (brown fat, 3 white fat pads, epitrochlearis, plantaris, and gastrocnemius), R'g was higher or tended to be higher for CR vs. AL at one or both times. These findings indicate that 8 mo of CR did not cause a continuous reduction in in vivo glucose uptake by any tissue studied, and, in several insulin-sensitive tissues, glucose uptake was at times greater for CR vs. AL rats.  (+info)

(8/1528) RVLM and raphe differentially regulate sympathetic outflows to splanchnic and brown adipose tissue.

To determine whether neurons in the rostral raphe pallidus (RPa) specifically control the sympathetic nerve activity to brown adipose tissue (BAT SNA), thereby regulating adipocyte metabolism and BAT thermogenesis, the responses in BAT SNA to disinhibition of RPa neurons and to disinhibition of neurons in the vasomotor region of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) were compared with those in splanchnic (Spl) SNA, which primarily regulates visceral vasoconstriction. In urethan-chloralose-anesthetized ventilated rats, both acute hypothermia and microinjection of bicuculline into RPa produced significantly larger increases in BAT SNA (542 and 1,949% of control) than in Spl SNA (19 and 24% of control). The enhanced burst discharge in BAT SNA was not coherent with that in Spl SNA or with the arterial pressure (AP) at any frequency except the central respiratory frequency. Microinjections of bicuculline into RVLM evoked increases in Spl SNA (86% of control) and AP (32 mmHg), but reduced BAT SNA to low, normothermic levels. Microinjections of muscimol into RVLM reduced Spl SNA (-82% of control) and AP (-59 mmHg), but did not prevent the increase in BAT SNA after disinhibition of RPa neurons. These results indicate that the neural networks generating BAT SNA in response to disinhibition of RPa neurons are independent of those generating basal Spl SNA and support a model in which sympathetic outflow to tissues involved in thermoregulation and metabolism is regulated by central pathways, including neurons in RPa, that are distinct from those involved in the sympathetic control of the cardiovascular system.  (+info)

*  Brown adipose tissue
... (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... Brown adipose tissue activation may play an important role in bone health and bone density. Brown adipose tissue activation ... several brown adipose tissue depots have been identified. In infants, brown adipose tissue depots include, but are not limited ... all have remarkably high levels of brown adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue activity. Furthermore, in animal species that ...
*  White adipose tissue
The other kind of adipose tissue is brown adipose tissue. In healthy, non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. ... White adipose tissue is used as a store of energy. Upon release of insulin from the pancreas, white adipose cells' insulin ... White adipose tissue also acts as a thermal insulator, helping to maintain body temperature. The hormone leptin is primarily ...
*  Marrow adipose tissue
... approximates that of white adipose tissue (WAT). MAT has qualities of both white and brown fat. Subcutaneous white fat contain ... and recently has been tied to decreased bone formation Both types of WAT substantially differ from brown adipose tissue (BAT) ... "Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue characteristics, which are attenuated with aging and diabetes". Bone. 50 (2): 546-552 ... Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, ...
*  Adipose tissue
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... Brown fat or brown adipose tissue is a specialized form of adipose tissue in humans and other mammals. It is located mainly ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... a phenotype distinguishing brown adipocytes from interscapular brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue". The Journal of ...
*  Thermogenesis
Non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue (brown fat) that is present in all eutherians (swine being the only ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiol. Rev. 84 (1): 277- ... Brown adipose tissue has a unique uncoupling protein (thermogenin, also known as uncoupling protein 1) that allows the ... Hayward, John S.; Lisson, Paul A. (1992). "Evolution of brown fat: its absence in marsupials and monotremes". Canadian Journal ...
*  Nocturnal bottleneck
Unique type of brown adipose tissue, allowing mammals to raise heat fast. Mitochondria with five to seven times higher ... Cannon, B. (1 January 2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): ...
*  Specific dynamic action
Heat production by brown adipose tissue which is activated after consumption of a meal is an additional component of dietary ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 ( ...
*  IBAT
Interscapular brown adipose tissue, also known as Hibernating gland; Instruction Block Address Translation registers in PowerPC ...
*  Beta-adrenergic agonist
"Brown adipose tissue, beta 3-adrenergic receptors, and obesity". Annu. Rev. Med. 48. pp. 307-16. "Archived copy". Archived from ... β3 receptors are mainly located in adipose tissue. Activation of the β3 receptors induces the metabolism of lipids. Indications ... and smooth muscle tissue, with epinephrine expressing the highest affinity. The activation of β1, β2 and β3 activates the ... ultimately inducing smooth muscle relaxation and contraction of the cardiac tissue. Activation of β1 receptors induces positive ...
*  Nancy Rothwell
Rothwell, N.; Stock, M. (1979). "A role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis". Nature. 281 (5726): 31-35. doi ... MacDonald, I. A.; Rothwell, N. J.; Stock, M. J. (1976). "Lipolytic and lipogenic activities of adipose tissue during ... Brown, Matthew (September 2004) "A Society Fellow", in: AUTlook. Association of University Teachers; no. 231, pp. 24-25. "The ...
*  Joslin Diabetes Center
Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. N Engl J Med. 2009 Apr 9;360(15):1509-17. [email protected] ... 2009: Researchers in the lab of C. Ronald Kahn, MD discover that brown fat is present in some adults, providing a new target ...
*  USF1
2016). "USF1 deficiency activates brown adipose tissue and improves cardiometabolic health". Science Translational Medicine. 8 ... A study of mice suggested reduced USF1 levels increases metabolism in brown fat. USF1 (human gene) has been shown to interact ...
*  Cold and heat adaptations in humans
The second is non-shivering, which occurs in brown adipose tissue. The only mechanism the human body has to cool itself is by ... Brown, Douglas J.A.; Brugger, Hermann; Boyd, Jeff; Paal, Peter (2012-11-15). "Accidental Hypothermia". New England Journal of ...
*  Mitochondrial carrier
Klingenberg M (March 1990). "Mechanism and evolution of the uncoupling protein of brown adipose tissue". Trends in Biochemical ...
*  Orexin
Obesity in orexin knockout mice is a result of inability of brown preadipocytes to differentiate into brown adipose tissue (BAT ... Obesity in orexin-knockout mice is associated with impaired brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. High levels of orexin-A have ... Sellayah D, Bharaj P, Sikder D (Oct 2011). "Orexin is required for brown adipose tissue development, differentiation, and ...
*  SMIM23
It functions in the differentiation between white and brown adipose tissue. It can also be a repressor of transforming growth ...
*  Taiga vole
Also using brown fat adipose tissue to increase their thermogenic capacity. Linzey, A.V. & Hammerson, G. (NatureServe) (2008 ...
*  VEGFR1
... recently been found to augment the conversion of white adipose tissue to brown adipose tissue as well as increase brown adipose ... "Ablation of endothelial VEGFR1 improves metabolic dysfunction by inducing adipose tissue browning". The Journal of Experimental ...
*  Neural top-down control of physiology
Vagal activation also controls the generation of lipids in brown adipose tissue. Insulin. Vagal innervation of the pancreas ... and brown adipose tissue nonshivering thermogenesis. This regulation occurs through the sympathetic and parasympathetic system ... "Central efferent pathways mediating skin cooling-evoked sympathetic thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue". AJP: Regulatory, ... from the rostral raphe pallidus to the spinal intermediolateral nucleus nonshivering thermogenesis by brown adipose tissue. ...
*  Glyoxylate cycle
"Hibernation activates glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis in black bear brown adipose tissue". Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 1051 (3 ... While the DNA has been expressed in some tissues, including the liver and small intestine in test animals, the level of ... in some animal tissue has raised questions regarding the evolutionary relationship of enzymes in bacteria and animals and ... some studies show evidence of components of the glyoxylate cycle existing in significant amounts in the liver tissue of ...
*  Acyl-CoA hydrolase
Alexson SE, Svensson LT, Nedergaard J (1989). "NADH-sensitive propionyl-CoA hydrolase in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria of ...
*  Norepinephrine
In brown adipose tissue, an increase in calories burned to generate body heat. Multiple effects on the immune system. The ... "Role of the autonomic nervous system in activation of human brown adipose tissue: A review of the literature". Diabetes & ... In adipose tissue (i. e., fat cells), an increase in lipolysis, that is, conversion of fat to substances that can be used ... He demonstrated the presence of norepinephrine in sympathetically innervated tissues and brain, and adduced evidence that it is ...
*  3,5-Diiodothyronine
5-Diiodo-L-thyronine activates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in hypothyroid rats". PLOS ONE. 10 (2): e0116498. doi:10.1371 ... It has agonistic (thyromimetic) effects at myocardial tissue and pituitary, which results in 3,5-T2 to suppress TSH release. 3, ... causes central hypothyroidism and stimulates thyroid-sensitive tissues". The Journal of Endocrinology. 221 (3): 415-27. doi: ...
*  ADP-dependent short-chain-acyl-CoA hydrolase
Alexson SE, Nedergaard J (1988). "A novel type of short- and medium-chain acyl-CoA hydrolases in brown adipose tissue ... Alexson SE, Svensson LT, Nedergaard J (1989). "NADH-sensitive propionyl-CoA hydrolase in brown-adipose-tissue mitochondria of ...
*  Jeffrey Scott Flier
... investigations into the function of brown adipose tissue through creation of a brown fat deficient transgenic mouse; ... "Development of obesity in transgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue". Nature. 366 (6457): 740-2. doi: ... "Development of obesity in transgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue". Nature. 366 (6457): 740-2. doi: ...
*  Dormancy
... proton gradient generated by electron transport in mitochondria is used to produce heat instead of ATP in brown adipose tissue ... Dormancy is a general term applicable to any instance in which a tissue predisposed to elongate or grow in some other manner ... but not within the dormant tissue itself. Rest (winter dormancy) is a kind of physiological dormancy maintained by agents or ... plant species that exhibit dormancy have a biological clock that tells them when to slow activity and to prepare soft tissues ...
The secretome of brown adipose tissue  The secretome of brown adipose tissue
A partial secretome of brown adipose tissue. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,A partial secretome of brown adipose ... Brown adipose tissue has long been known for its heat-producing capacity, but less is known about its possible effects as a ... The secretome of brown adipose tissue. Hansen, Ida R. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Molecular ... nonrecruited molecular signatures of brown, "brite," and white adipose tissues. Open this publication in new window or tab ,, ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:714076
Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. -...  Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. -...
... and mitochondrial biogenesis-regulating proteins in the interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT). [(18)F]-Fluorodeoxyglucose ... Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. ... 3-Hydroxybutyric Acid, Adipose Tissue, Brown, Animals, Diet, Eating, Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins, ... Mitochondrial biogenesis and increased uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipose tissue of mice fed a ketone ester diet. ...
more infohttps://www.dpag.ox.ac.uk/publications/340198
Nucleofection Is a Valuable Transfection Method for Transient and Stable Transgene Expression in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem...  Nucleofection Is a Valuable Transfection Method for Transient and Stable Transgene Expression in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem...
Transient overexpression of Pparγ2 and C/ebpα in mesenchymal stem cells induces brown adipose tissue formation, Regenerative ... Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a powerful tool for in vitro study of adult stem cell biology. So far, they have not been ... Nucleofection Is a Valuable Transfection Method for Transient and Stable Transgene Expression in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem ... Herein, we tested several classic transfection methods on human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells. Our ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1634/stemcells.2006-0235/abstract
Complementary roles of estrogen-related receptors in brown adipocyte thermogenic function<...  Complementary roles of estrogen-related receptors in brown adipocyte thermogenic function<...
N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on a high abundance of mitochondria and the unique expression of the ... AB - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on a high abundance of mitochondria and the unique expression of the ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on a high abundance of mitochondria and the unique expression of the ... abstract = "Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on a high abundance of mitochondria and the unique expression of ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/complementary-roles-of-estrogen-related-receptors-in-brown-adipoc
Science  Science
... is called Brown Fat, or technically Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), which was known in 1964:. "Brown adipose tissue has been shown ... "Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and plays a role in energy metabolism. ... "In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether ... "Have we entered the brown adipose tissue renaissance?" Obesity Reviews. 2009 May;10(3):265-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X. ...
more infohttps://coldshoulderweightloss.com/science
Science  Science
... is called Brown Fat, or technically Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT), which was known in 1964:. "Brown adipose tissue has been shown ... "Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and plays a role in energy metabolism. ... "In recent years, it has been shown that humans have active brown adipose tissue (BAT) depots, raising the question of whether ... "Have we entered the brown adipose tissue renaissance?" Obesity Reviews. 2009 May;10(3):265-8. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X. ...
more infohttp://coldshoulderweightloss.com/science
Brown adipose tissue definition | Drugs.com  Brown adipose tissue definition | Drugs.com
Definition of brown adipose tissue. Provided by Stedman's medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ... Synonym(s): brown fat. Further information. Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this ... brown adipose tissue. ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/brown-adipose-tissue.html
Brown Adipose Tissue in Morbidly Obese Subjects  Brown Adipose Tissue in Morbidly Obese Subjects
Background Cold-stimulated adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) to increase energy expenditure is suggested as ... Brown adipose tissue Is the Subject Area "Brown adipose tissue" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Adipose tissue Is the Subject Area "Adipose tissue" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0017247
JCI -
Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue  JCI - Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains mitochondria-enriched thermogenic fat cells (brown adipocytes) that play a crucial role in ... Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue. Yasuo Oguri1,2,3 and Shingo Kajimura1,2,3 1UCSF Diabetes Center, San Francisco ... The present study provides novel insight into our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues. ... It was presumed that brown adipocytes are composed of a homogeneous cell population. In this issue of the JCI, however, Song ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/133786/pdf
Adipose tissue browning and metabolic health.  - PubMed - NCBI  Adipose tissue browning and metabolic health. - PubMed - NCBI
The activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the primary organ for heat production, confers beneficial effects on adiposity, ... Adipose tissue browning and metabolic health.. Bartelt A1, Heeren J2. ... Accumulation of excess white adipose tissue (WAT) has deleterious consequences for metabolic health. ... brown-in-white, or brite adipocytes), which are phenotypically distinct from both white and brown adipocytes. Stimulating the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24146030?dopt=Abstract
Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance.  - PubMed - NCBI  Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance. - PubMed - NCBI
Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance.. Bartelt A1, Bruns OT, Reimer R, Hohenberg H, Ittrich H, ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fatty acids for heat production to defend the body against cold and has recently been shown to ... Peripheral organs such as muscle and adipose tissue take up the fatty acids, whereas the remaining cholesterol-rich remnant ... New powers of brown fat: fighting the metabolic syndrome. [Cell Metab. 2011] ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21258337?dopt=Abstract
brown adipose tissue | Gut  brown adipose tissue | Gut
Fernando F Anhê, Renato T Nachbar, Thibault V Varin, Jocelyn Trottier, Stéphanie Dudonné, Mélanie Le Barz, Perrine Feutry, Geneviève Pilon, Olivier Barbier, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, André Marette ...
more infohttps://gut.bmj.com/keyword/brown-adipose-tissue
Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis : BioMolecular Concepts  Orexin modulates brown adipose tissue thermogenesis : BioMolecular Concepts
Non-shivering thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays an important role in thermoregulation. In addition, activations ... The brain and brown fat. Cristina Contreras, Francisco Gonzalez, Johan Fernø, Carlos Diéguez, Kamal Rahmouni, Rubén Nogueiras, ... research is focused on the functional organization of the central neural circuits regulating metabolism of adipose tissue, ... Hypothalamus and thermogenesis: Heating the BAT, browning the WAT. Cristina Contreras, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Gema ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bmc.2012.3.issue-4/bmc-2011-0066/bmc-2011-0066.xml
Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans | Diabetes  Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans | Diabetes
... of UCP1 demonstrates that metabolically active adipose tissue in the neck of adult humans truly represents brown adipose tissue ... Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans. Iain T.H. Au-Yong, Natasha Thorn, Rakesh Ganatra, Alan C. Perkins, ... Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans. Iain T.H. Au-Yong, Natasha Thorn, Rakesh Ganatra, Alan C. Perkins, ... Role of prolactin in lactation-induced changes in brown adipose tissue. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 1990;258:R51-R56 ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/58/11/2583
JCI -
Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity  JCI - Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, ... BAT transplantation increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo into endogenous BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), and ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/62308/figure/1
JCI -
Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity  JCI - Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity
However, of the major adipose tissue depots, only brown adipose tissue (BAT) is inversely correlated with BMI in humans (2, 3 ... Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(15):1500-1508.. View this article via: PubMed ... Functional brown adipose tissue in healthy adults. N Engl J Med. 2009;360(15):1518-1525.. View this article via: PubMed ... Brown adipose tissue: contributions of nature and nurture to the obesity of an obese mutant mouse (ob/ob). Int J Obes. 1986;10( ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/62308
Brown Adipose Tissue Has Beneficial Effects on Metabolism and Glucose Tolerance  Brown Adipose Tissue Has Beneficial Effects on Metabolism and Glucose Tolerance
Joslin Diabetes Center scientists have demonstrated that brown adipose tissue (BAT) has beneficial effects on glucose tolerance ... Unlike the more prevalent white adipose tissue (WAT or white fat) which stores fat, BAT (or brown fat) burns fat to produce ... Newswise - BOSTON - December 10, 2012 - Joslin Diabetes Center scientists have demonstrated that brown adipose tissue (BAT) has ...
more infohttps://www.newswise.com/articles/joslin-scientists-find-that-brown-adipose-tissue-has-beneficial-effects-on-metabolism-and-glucose-tolerance
Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits | Journal of Neuroscience  Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits | Journal of Neuroscience
Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits. Vitaly Ryu, John T. Garretson, Yang Liu, Cheryl H. Vaughan, ... Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits. Vitaly Ryu, John T. Garretson, Yang Liu, Cheryl H. Vaughan, ... 2010b) Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue. Int J Obes (Lond) 34:S36-S42, doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.182, ... 2004) Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 84:277-359, doi:10.1152/physrev.00015.2003, ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/35/5/2181
Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue  Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue
... Umesh D. Wankhade,1,2 Michael Shen,3 ... and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue," BioMed Research International, vol. 2016, Article ID 2365609, 15 pages, ... Umesh D. Wankhade, Michael Shen, Hariom Yadav, and Keshari M. Thakali, "Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2365609/cta/
Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue  Novel Browning Agents, Mechanisms, and Therapeutic Potentials of Brown Adipose Tissue
... Umesh D. Wankhade,1,2 Michael Shen,3 ... While browning of adipose tissue implies a state of increased energy expenditure and a high state of energy turnover in tissues ... Thus, adipose trauma as an unexpected driver of selected local and remote adipose tissue browning has important implications ... Mitochondrial Ucp1 and other markers of brown fat are upregulated in both white and brown FLCN-null adipose tissues, explaining ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2016/2365609/
  • The activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT), the primary organ for heat production, confers beneficial effects on adiposity, insulin resistance and hyperlipidaemia, at least in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Pandey R, Riley CL, Mills EM, Tiziani S. Highly sensitive and selective determination of redox states of coenzymes Q9 and Q10 in mice tissues: Application of orbitrap mass spectrometry. (harvard.edu)
  • LXRαβ −/− mice exhibited higher energy expenditure (EE) as well as higher UCP1 expression in brown adipose tissue (BAT) compared with WT mice on the HCD. (pnas.org)
  • An international team of researchers led from Karolinska Institutet have, in experiments on mice, pinpointed a mechanism for the conversion of energy-storing white fat into energy-expending brown fat. (phys.org)
  • Shi, H. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • Cao J, Zhu Q, Liu L, Glazier BJ, Hinkel BC, Liang C, Shi H. Global Transcriptome Analysis of Brown Adipose Tissue of Diet-Induced Obese Mice. (mdpi.com)
  • The work summarizes the features and mechanisms that allow MRI to differentiate BAT from white adipose tissue (WAT) by making use of their distinct morphological appearance and the functional characteristics of BAT. (springer.com)
  • Classification of brown fat refers to two distinct cell populations with similar functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a unique feature of brown fat cells that allows heat generation on sympathetic nervous system stimulation. (pnas.org)
  • SYK kinase mediates brown fat differentiation and activation. (harvard.edu)
  • The team of researchers demonstrated a relationship between the metabolic activation of the tissue and changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (red blood pigment), measured by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). (phys.org)
  • Peripheral organs such as muscle and adipose tissue take up the fatty acids, whereas the remaining cholesterol-rich remnant particles are cleared by the liver. (nih.gov)
  • Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids. (harvard.edu)
  • Both share presence of small lipid droplets and numerous iron-rich mitochondria, giving the brown appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has greater variability in lipid droplet size, and a greater proportion of lipid droplets to mitochondria giving it a lighter brown appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present review reports on the current knowledge and recent findings in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and spectroscopy (MRS) of brown adipose tissue (BAT). (springer.com)
  • Anderson SE, Schwab C, Stauffer E, Banic A, Steinbach LS (2001) Hibernoma: imaging characteristics of a rare benign soft tissue tumor. (springer.com)
  • Chen YI, Cypess AM, Sass CA, Brownell AL, Jokivarsi KT, Kahn CR, Kwong KK (2012) Anatomical and functional assessment of brown adipose tissue by magnetic resonance imaging. (springer.com)
  • Fatty acids are taken up by muscle and cardiac tissue as a fuel source, and glycerol is taken up by the liver for gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The present study provides novel insight into our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues. (jci.org)
  • Brendle C, Werner MK, Schmadl M, la Fougère C, Nikolaou K, Stefan N, Pfannenberg C. Correlation of Brown Adipose Tissue with Other Body Fat Compartments and Patient Characteristics: A Retrospective Analysis in a Large Patient Cohort Using PET/CT. (harvard.edu)
  • Furthermore, with intra-IBAT injection of an anterograde transneuronal viral tract tracer, the H129 strain of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), we identified the central SS circuits from this tissue ( Vaughan and Bartness, 2012 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Until now, it has only been possible to measure the heat output of brown adipose tissue by means of invasive methods. (phys.org)
  • Brown fat also contains more capillaries than white fat, to supply the tissue with oxygen and nutrients and distribute the produced heat throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic population of brown fat cells and muscle cells both seem to be derived from the same population of stem cells in the mesoderm, paraxial mesoderm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitors of traditional white fat cells and adrenergically induced brown fat do not have the capacity to activate the Myf5 promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, muscle cells that were cultured with the transcription factor PRDM16 were converted into brown fat cells, and brown fat cells without PRDM16 were converted into muscle cells. (wikipedia.org)