Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.TriglyceridesAdipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Panniculitis: General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLEnergy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Costa RicaHypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Lipomatosis: A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseHomeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.DioxolesClenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized: Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic: A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma: Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseFatty Acid Synthase, Type I: Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.

Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis. (1/12479)

Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program.  (+info)

Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. (2/12479)

In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids.  (+info)

Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (3/12479)

Lipase [EC 3.1.1.3] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor. (4/12479)

The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes...  (+info)

Immunocytochemically detected free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) are a strong prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma. (5/12479)

We prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) in a series of 118 patients with completely resected gastric carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Ber-Ep4 was performed on cytospins from intraoperative peritoneal lavage specimens. Twenty-three patients (20%) had FPTC which was significantly correlated with pT and pN categories, stage, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, Lauren and WHO classifications and perigastric adipose tissue metastases. The median survival time for all FPTC positive compared with negative patients was significantly shorter (11 compared with >72 months), with estimated 5-year survival rates of 8% vs. 60%. None of the patients with FPTC had an early gastric cancer. In advanced tumour subgroups without and with serosal invasion (n = 59 and 35), there were 19% and 34% with FPTC. Multivariate survival analysis showed nodal status, FPTC, mesenteric lymphangiosis, and lymph node metastasis to the compartment III to be independent prognostic factors with relative risks of 6.6, 4.5, 2.9 and 2.2 respectively. Recurrent disease occurred in 91% of FPTC-positive and in 38% of FPTC-negative patients. FPTC had a positive predictive value of 91% and a specificity of 97% for tumour recurrence. FPTC is a strong negative, independent prognostic indicator for survival in gastric carcinoma.  (+info)

Changes in body composition and leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children with various GH secretory capacities. (6/12479)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to follow changes in body composition, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in relation to changes in leptin during the first year of GH therapy in order to test the hypothesis that leptin is a metabolic signal involved in the regulation of GH secretion in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 33 prepubertal children were investigated. Their mean (S.D.) chronological age at the start of GH treatment was 11.5 (1.6) years, and their mean height was -2.33 (0.38) S.D. scores (SDS). GH was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 0.1 (n=26) or 0.2 (n=7) IU/kg body weight. Ten children were in the Swedish National Registry for children with GH deficiency, and twenty-three children were involved in trials of GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Spontaneous 24-h GH secretion was studied in 32 of the children. In the 24-h GH profiles, the maximum level of GH was determined and the secretion rate estimated by deconvolution analysis (GHt). Serum leptin levels were measured at the start of GH treatment and after 10 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Body composition measurements, by DXA, were performed at baseline and 12 months after the onset of GH treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of GH treatment, mean height increased from -2.33 to -1.73 SDS and total body fat decreased significantly by 3.0 (3.3)%. Serum leptin levels were decreased significantly at all time points studied compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation between the change in total body fat and the change in serum leptin levels during the 12 months of GH treatment, whereas the leptin concentration per unit fat mass did not change. In a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with 12 month change in leptin levels as the dependent variable, the percentage change in fat over 12 months, the baseline fat mass (%) of body mass and GHt accounted for 24.0%, 11.5% and 12.2% of the variability respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant correlations between changes in leptin and fat and endogenous GH secretion in short children with various GH secretory capacities. Leptin may be the messenger by which the adipose tissue affects hypothalamic regulation of GH secretion.  (+info)

Extremely low values of serum leptin in children with congenital generalized lipoatrophy. (7/12479)

Congenital generalized lipoatrophy (CGL) is a syndrome with multiple clinical manifestations and complete atrophy of adipose tissue. The exact mechanism of this disease remains unknown. One hypothesis presupposes an abnormal development of adipocytes. Leptin, the adipocyte-specific product of the ob gene, acts as a regulatory factor of body weight. In children, as in adults, leptin levels are correlated with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass. Some authors have demonstrated that adults with congenital or acquired generalized lipoatrophy have decreased leptin concentrations. In order to study serum leptin profile during childhood in this disease, we measured serum leptin concentrations in six children aged 5.5-11 years suffering from CGL, and investigated the relationship between metabolic parameters and the variations in leptin levels. Serum leptin concentrations (1.19+/-0.32 ng/ml (+/- S.D.)) were extremely low compared with those observed in normal children. No significant correlation was found with BMI, which is known to be one of the major determinants of serum leptin. Serum leptin values were significantly correlated with fasting insulin levels (r=0.83, P=0.024). In conclusion, extremely low leptin values measured in children with CGL could be regarded as one among other diagnostic parameters. However, the detectable levels observed in all of these children support the evidence that a small amount of body fat is likely to be present in these patients, despite complete subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Our data suggest that this small amount of adipose tissue could be metabolically active and, at least in part, sensitive to insulin. Further investigations are required to uncover the pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, known to be commonly associated with insulin resistance.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (8/12479)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue fatty acid composition in humans with lipoprotein lipase deficiency. AU - Ullrich, Nathan F.E.. AU - Purnell, Jonathan Q.. AU - Brunzell, John D.. PY - 2001/5. Y1 - 2001/5. N2 - Background: Lipid stores in human adipose tissue are maintained primarily by incorporating lipid from circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglyceride from these lipoprotein particles to facilitate their entry into adipocytes for storage. Subjects deficient in LPL still have normal adiposity, and this may result from increased adipocyte lipogenesis or from uptake of circulating lipid through alternate mechanisms. The objective of this study was to determine whether fatty acid composition of adipose tissue from LPL-deficient subjects reflects maintenance of lipid stores through increased lipogenesis or through alternate mechanisms of lipoprotein uptake. Methods: Adipose tissue samples from LPL-deficient subjects who ...
Maternal nutrient restriction at specific gestational stages compromises fetal growth and development, in particular, fetal adipose tissue deposition. The extent to which nutritional supplementation can promote growth and development of specific fetal organs is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether protein supplementation of the maternal diet at defined stages of gestation promoted the abundance of the key mitochondrial proteins; uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), cytochrome c and the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) in fetal adipose tissue.. Twenty-nine twin-bearing ewes of similar body weight and parity were randomly allocated to 4 feeding groups from 10d gestation. All ewes received a control diet, which was supplemented with fishmeal in 3 of the groups during early i.e. 10d-40d, mid i.e. 40d-70d or late i.e. 110d-140d gestation. Each ewe was then humanely euthanased with an overdose of barbiturate (100 mg/kg pentobarbital sodium: Euthanal) at 140d gestation to enable sampling of ...
Visceral adipose tissue is harmful to metabolic health. Exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates lipolysis and is released from skeletal muscle during exercise. We hypothesized that exercise-induced reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass are mediated by IL-6. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, we assigned abdominally obese adults to tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor antibody) or placebo during a 12-week intervention with either bicycle exercise or no exercise. While exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue mass, this effect of exercise was abolished in the presence of IL-6 blockade. Changes in body weight and total adipose tissue mass showed similar tendencies, whereas lean body mass did not differ between groups. Also, IL-6 blockade increased cholesterol levels, an effect not reversed by exercise. Thus, IL-6 is required for exercise to reduce visceral adipose tissue mass and emphasizes a ...
Abstract. It is well established that the metabolic risk factors of obesity and its comorbidities are more attributed to adipose tissue distribution rather than total adipose mass. Since emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the aetiology of obesity, we conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis on eight different adipose depots of three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. We aimed to investigate the systematic association between anatomical location-specific DNA methylation status of different adipose depots and obesity-related phenotypes. We show here that compared to subcutaneous adipose tissues which primarily modulate metabolic indicators, visceral adipose tissues and intermuscular adipose tissue, which are the metabolic risk factors of obesity, are primarily associated with impaired inflammatory and immune responses. This study presents epigenetic ...
We investigated sphingolipid metabolism in human adipose tissue to identify pathways underlying increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed adipose tissue [3]. Our data suggest that hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide by sphingomyelinases could explain, at least partly, this increase. Gene expression levels of SMPD3 correlate significantly with concentrations of various ceramides and sphingomyelins in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and are higher in the relatively more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous depot in both obese and non-obese subjects. Sphingomyelinases are expressed by both adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, but their expression is strongest in and around blood vessels. Our findings implicate a role for sphingomyelinase-mediated generation of ceramide in adipose tissue inflammation.. When comparing inflamed ceramide-rich and relatively less inflamed ceramide-poor subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women, we report here for the first time that there ...
Introduction:It was reported that some variables were revealed remain renal function after live donor nephrectomy. This study was conducted to determine the influence of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on renal function in living kidney donors.. Method:Between July 2013 and February 2015, a total of 75 kidney donors who underwent living donor nephrectomy at our institution were analyzed. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured at the level of the umbilicus using CT scan(figure 1). Renal function was estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula till six months after kidney donation. The relationship between preoperative visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and recovery of renal function was analyzed.. Result:Thirty-three donors (44%) were male, and 13 (17.3%) grafts were secured from the right side. The mean BMI was 23.5±2.6 kg/m2 and the mean preoperative eGFR was 103.0±19.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean VAT was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer data. AU - ODonovan, Shauna D.. AU - Lenz, Michael. AU - Vink, Roel G.. AU - Roumans, Nadia J.T.. AU - de Kok, Theo M.C.M.. AU - Mariman, Edwin C.M.. AU - Peeters, Ralf L.M.. AU - van Riel, Natal A.W.. AU - van Baak, Marleen A.. AU - Arts, Ilja C.W.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of adipose tissue metabolism and construct a new, refined model of adipose tissue metabolism. Our model ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lean and Obese Coronary Perivascular Adipose Tissue Impairs Vasodilation via Differential Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle K+ Channels. AU - Noblet, Jillian N.. AU - Owen, Meredith K.. AU - Goodwill, Adam G.. AU - Sassoon, Daniel J.. AU - Tune, Johnathan. PY - 2015/6/27. Y1 - 2015/6/27. N2 - Objective - The effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on vasomotor tone are influenced by an obese phenotype and are distinct from other adipose tissue depots. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of lean and obese coronary PVAT on end-effector mechanisms of coronary vasodilation and to identify potential factors involved. Approach and Results - Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed similarities in coronary perivascular adipocyte size between lean and obese Ossabaw swine. Isometric tension studies of isolated coronary arteries from Ossabaw swine revealed that factors derived from lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuated vasodilation to adenosine. ...
The presence of the so-called low-grade inflammatory state is recognized as a critical event in adipose tissue dysfunction, leading to altered secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin resistance, and development of hepatic complications associated with obesity. This study was designed to investigate the potential contribution of the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway to adipose tissue inflammation and lipid dysfunction in experimental obesity. Constitutive expression of key components of the 5-LO pathway, as well as leukotriene (LT) receptors, was detected in adipose tissue as well as in adipocyte and stromal vascular fractions. Adipose tissue from obese mice, compared with that from lean mice, exhibited increased 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) expression and LTB4 levels. Incubation of adipose tissue with 5-LO products resulted in NF-κB activation and augmented secretion of proinflammatory adipokines such as MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. In addition, LTB4, but not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue metabolism - An aspect we should not neglect?. AU - Jensen, Michael Dennis. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids (FFAs) are the most metabolically important products of adipose tissue lipolysis. Experimentally creating high FFA concentrations can reproduce the metabolic abnormalities of obesity in lean, healthy persons and lowering FFA concentrations can improve the metabolic health of upper body obese individuals. FFA concentrations are determined by both the release of FFAs into the bloodstream and the clearance of FFAs from the bloodstream. Normal FFA release rates are different in men and women and total FFA release is closely linked to resting energy expenditure. Upper body subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and leg fat depots contribute differently to the exposure of various tissues to FFAs. The implications of regional adipose tissue lipolysis to systemic FFA availability and the effect of different approaches to treatment of obesity are ...
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a powerful tool for in vitro study of adult stem cell biology. So far, they have not been extensively used for gain or loss of function studies since they are resistant to most common transfection methods. Herein, we tested several classic transfection methods on human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells. Our results showed that lipofectants and calcium phosphate were poorly efficient for transgene delivery in hMADS cells. In contrast, nucleofection, an electroporation-based method that is assumed to target plasmid DNA directly to the cell nucleus, led to a significant transient transgene expression in hMADS cells (up to 76% enhanced green fluorescent protein [EGFP]-positive cells were detected). Furthermore, after selection of hMADS cells that were nucleofected with a selectable plasmid coding for EGFP, stable EGFP expressing clones could be propagated in culture and efficiently induced to differentiate into EGFP-positive adipocytes and ...
Abstract Background In pigs, adipose tissue is one of the principal organs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. It is particularly involved in the overall fatty acid synthesis with consequences in other lipid-target organs such as muscles and the liver. With this in mind, we have used massive, parallel high-throughput sequencing technologies to characterize the porcine adipose tissue transcriptome architecture in six Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition (three per group). Results High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to generate a whole characterization of adipose tissue (backfat) transcriptome. A total of 4,130 putative unannotated protein-coding sequences were identified in the 20% of reads which mapped in intergenic regions. Furthermore, 36% of the unmapped reads were represented by interspersed repeats, SINEs being the most abundant elements. Differential expression analyses identified 396 candidate genes among ...
Adipose tissue secretions play an important role in the development of obesity-related pathologies such as diabetes. Through inflammatory cytokines production, adipose tissue stromavascular fraction cells (SVF), and essentially macrophages, promote adipocyte insulin resistance by a paracrine way. Since xanthine family compounds such as caffeine were shown to decrease inflammatory production by human blood cells, we investigated the possible effect of caffeine on Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression by human adipose tissue primary culture. For that purpose, human subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from healthy non-obese women (BMI: 26.7 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) after abdominal dermolipectomy, was split into explants and cultured for 6 hours with or without caffeine. Three different concentrations of caffeine were tested (0.5 microg/mL, 5 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL). After 6 hours of treatment, explants were subjected to collagenase digestion in order to isolate adipocytes
The composition and function of the adipose tissue covering the heart are poorly known. In this study, we have investigated the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) covering the cardiac ventricular muscle and the EAT covering the left anterior descending artery (LAD) on the human heart, to identify their resident stem cell functional activity. EAT covering the cardiac ventricular muscle was isolated from the apex (avoiding areas irrigated by major vessels) of the heart (ventricular myocardium adipose tissue (VMAT)) and from the area covering the epicardial arterial sulcus of the LAD (PVAT) in human hearts excised during heart transplant surgery. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) from both adipose tissue depots were immediately isolated and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. The different behavior of these ASCs and their released secretome microvesicles (MVs) were investigated by molecular and cellular analysis. ASCs from both VMAT (mASCs) and the PVAT (pASCs) were characterized by the expression of
The composition and function of the adipose tissue covering the heart are poorly known. In this study, we have investigated the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) covering the cardiac ventricular muscle and the EAT covering the left anterior descending artery (LAD) on the human heart, to identify their resident stem cell functional activity. EAT covering the cardiac ventricular muscle was isolated from the apex (avoiding areas irrigated by major vessels) of the heart (ventricular myocardium adipose tissue (VMAT)) and from the area covering the epicardial arterial sulcus of the LAD (PVAT) in human hearts excised during heart transplant surgery. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) from both adipose tissue depots were immediately isolated and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. The different behavior of these ASCs and their released secretome microvesicles (MVs) were investigated by molecular and cellular analysis. ASCs from both VMAT (mASCs) and the PVAT (pASCs) were characterized by the expression of
Adipose tissue fibrosis development blocks adipocyte hypertrophy and favors ectopic lipid accumulation. Here, we show that adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in humans and mice. Kinetic studies in C3H mice fed a high-fat diet show activation of macrophages and progression of fibrosis along with adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and death. Adipose tissue fibrosis is attenuated by macrophage depletion. Impairment of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling protects mice from obesity-induced fibrosis. The presence of a functional Toll-like receptor 4 on adipose tissue hematopoietic cells is necessary for the initiation of adipose tissue fibrosis. Continuous low-dose infusion of the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide, promotes adipose tissue fibrosis. Ex vivo, lipopolysaccharide-mediated induction of fibrosis is prevented by antibodies against the profibrotic factor TGFβ1. Together, these results indicate that obesity and endotoxemia favor the development of adipose
Glucocorticoids have major effects on adipose tissue metabolism. To study tissue mRNA expression changes induced by chronic elevated endogenous glucocorticoids, we performed RNA sequencing on the subcutaneous adipose tissue from patients with Cushings disease (n=5) compared to patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (n=11). We found a higher expression of transcripts involved in several metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis, proteolysis and glucose oxidation as well as a decreased expression of transcripts involved in inflammation and protein synthesis. To further study this in a model system, we subjected mice to dexamethasone treatment for 12 weeks and analyzed their inguinal (subcutaneous) fat pads, which led to similar findings. Additionally, mice treated with dexamethasone showed drastic decreases in lean body mass as well as increased fat mass, further supporting the human transcriptomic data. These data provide insight to transcriptional changes that may be responsible for ...
Little is known about the turnover of adipose cells in the fat depots of normal animals and human subjects. However, microarray analysis of adipose cell gene expression in high risk insulin-resistant human subjects suggests that a reduced rate of adipose cell turnover is associated with enhanced adipose cell size and systemic insulin resistance. New technology now permits a detailed analysis of adipose cell size including the detection of smaller cells which may be in the process of active differentiation. We propose to examine the relationship between adipose cell size distribution and systemic insulin resistance in obese human subjects. Adipose tissue biopsies will be obtained at Stanford University under protocols and consent forms approved by the Stanford University IRB. Only procedures already being performed on subjects under these protocols will be used ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of interferences in the analysis of human adipose tissue to 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p dioxin (TCDD). AU - Patterson, D. G.. AU - Holler, J. S.. AU - Groce, D. F.. AU - Alexander, L. R.. AU - Lapeza, C. R.. AU - OConnor, R. C.. AU - Liddle, J. A.. PY - 1986/4. Y1 - 1986/4. N2 - While developing a method to analyze human adipose tissue for 2,3,7,8‐tetrachloro‐dibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) at the 1 ppt level, we observed several peaks with all of the analytical characteristics of TCDDs in the analyses of wipe tests and blank, quality control, and human adipose samples at concentrations equal to the low part‐per‐trillion level in a 10 g sample. The source of these contaminants was established to be a cleaning solution used to wash the floors in the laboratory performing the analysis.. AB - While developing a method to analyze human adipose tissue for 2,3,7,8‐tetrachloro‐dibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) at the 1 ppt level, we observed several peaks with all of the ...
Obesity, the accumulation of excess body fat, is an epidemic leading to numerous human metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D is mainly characterized by hyperglycemia, accompanied by local (adipose tissue) and systemic insulin resistance. In the adipose tissue, insulin resistance involves alterations in the cross-talk of various signaling cascades, implicating numerous kinases and phosphatases. To identify molecular changes that occur during the development of insulin resistance, we have used here a new activity-based method to study the global kinase activity in human adipose tissue, the PamGene. Our study is based on the observation that some obese subjects do not develop insulin resistance. This population represents our control group, which avoids confounding results, due to obesity by itself rather than to insulin resistance. We found that a specific set of kinase activities are representative of insulin resistance in the obese population, such as PIM family, CHK2,
Routine measurement of adipose tissue composition by repeated biopsy invokes both ethical and practical difficulties, limiting long-term serial studies of adipose tissue composition. In vivo13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been applied as a non-invasive alternative, although it has not as yet been fully validated. In this study we critically assess in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography for the analysis of adipose tissue composition. The advantages and drawbacks of both methods are discussed, in particular to the study of adipose tissue during dietary manipulation and development. Our results show that the NMR measurements of adipose tissue composition are highly reproducible, but they can significantly differ from those obtained by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) from the same volunteer. We show that the discrepancy between these two techniques arises from inherent limitations of both 13C NMR spectroscopy and GLC. Finally, we show that 13C NMR ...
The objective of this project is to investigate whether vitamin D modulates chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation in overweight and obese, vitamin D deficient men and women.. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies, mostly conducted in mouse models of obesity, strongly suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose and other tissues is the major mechanism by which increased adiposity is linked to insulin resistance. Adipose tissue inflammation may therefore be a promising therapeutic target to reduce insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese individuals.. Based on several lines of evidence, we hypothesize that vitamin D is an environmental factor that affects the course of the inflammatory response in most tissues of the body, including adipose tissue. In our previous studies, we found that circulating plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) and the primary ...
In the second part of this thesis, we investigated the role of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue with particular focus on how adipose mTORC2 affects non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and cold-induced glucose uptake. We found that mTORC2 signaling was induced in brown adipocytes by beta-adrenergic stimulation via cAMP, Epac1 and PI3K. Furthermore, mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue was required for temperature homeostasis, since mice lacking mTORC2 signaling in mature adipocytes (adipose tissue specific rictor knockout (AdRiKO) mice) were hypothermic and sensitive to cold stress. While lipid store mobilization and induction of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial uncoupling were not impaired in AdRiKO mice, inactivation of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue resulted in a significant impairment in cold-induced glucose uptake and glycolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Interestingly, restoration of glucose metabolism in BAT via introduction of a constitutively active form of Akt2 or via ...
Insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis depend on the capacity of adipose tissue to take up and utilise excess glucose and fatty acids. The key aspects that determine the fuel-buffering capacity of adipose tissue depend on the physiological levels of the small redox molecule, nitric oxide (NO). In addition to impairment of NO synthesis, excessive formation of superoxide (capital O, Cyrillic2 *- ) in adipose tissue may be an important interfering factor diverting the signalling of NO and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in obesity, resulting in metabolic dysfunction of adipose tissue over time. Besides its role in relief from superoxide burst, enhanced NO signalling may be responsible for the therapeutic benefits of different superoxide dismutase mimics in obesity and experimental diabetes models. This review summarises the role of NO in adipose tissue and highlights the impact of NO/capital O, Cyrillic2 *- ratio "teetering" as a promising pharmacological target in ...
The induction of adequate vascularization, a major challenge in tissue engineering, has been tried with numerous methods but with unsatisfactory results. Adipose tissue, an active endocrine organ with dense vasculature, secretes a wide number of angiogenic and adipogenic factors and seems an attractive source for these bioactive factors. We produced a novel cell-free extract from mature human adipose tissue (adipose tissue extract [ATE]) and analyzed the ability of this extract to induce angiogenesis and adipogenesis in vitro and studied the cytokine and growth factor composition of ATE with ELISA and cytokine array. We demonstrate that ATE, when added as cell culture supplement, effectively induced triglyceride accumulation in human adipose stem cells at concentrations from 200 μg/mL upward in less than a week and caused elevated levels of adipocyte differentiation markers (proliferator-activated receptor gamma and acyl-CoA-binding protein) when treated with at least 350 μg/mL of ATE. ATE ...
Objective. In human adipocytes the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from beta-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e. lipolysis and thermogenesis. Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty-liver development. Aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in R2B expression, PKA activity and lipolysis in adipose tissues from obese and non-obese subjects. Research Design and Methods. The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 non-obese and 67 obese patients. PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, respectively. Results. Expression
The decreasing of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) in adipose tissue of diabetic and obesity patients are associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. The adipose tissue can be used as therapeutic targets in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Visceral adipose tissue has different morphology and functional with subcutaneous adipose tissue and Vitamin D has been known to have contributed in DM. The aim of this study is to know the role of cholecalciferol on the expression of GLUT 4 in subcutaneous and visceral adiposity of diabetic rats by elucidated in those tissues. The subjects of the study consisted of nineteen male diabetic rats of Wistar strain, which were divided into control group (K) and three (3) treatment groups (X1, X2 and X3). In order to induce the condition of DM, the animals were fed with high fat diet for three (3) weeks and administered a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kgBW) at the end of the second week. Cholecalciferol were administered with
Many lines of evidence indicate that MCP-1 recruits monocytes into atherosclerotic lesions and the inflamed peritoneum of mice, where the cells differentiate into macrophages (14-16). The observation that macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans (9,10) coupled with the finding that obese humans have elevated MCP-1 expression in their adipose tissue and increased circulating levels of MCP-1 (24,38,39) led to the proposal that MCP-1 might promote macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and enhance diet-induced obesity (40,41). Studies from two groups using male mice deficient in CCR2 or MCP-1 appeared to support this suggestion (26,27), although the macrophage content of adipose tissue changed only modestly. In contrast, we found no evidence that macrophage accumulation is impaired in adipose tissue of male Mcp1−/− mice fed a high-fat diet for either 10 or 16 weeks. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated higher levels of Mac2, a macrophage-specific protein, in epididymal, ...
ADSCs derived from the visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue have been recently shown to contain progenitor cells able to differentiate into mature endothelial cells and participate in blood vessel formation.13,14,16 Miranville et al have shown the presence of the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) phenotype in the SVF freshly isolated from humans by flow cytometry.14 Cell preparations display the hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34, as well as CD133, a 130-KDa glycoprotein with unknown function that is absent on mature endothelial cells and circulating progenitor endothelial cells.28 Studies by Zuk et al have described the absence or low level of CD34+ cells,4 whereas Planat-Bernard et al reported more than 90% CD34+ cells in the SVF derived from the adipose tissue.13 The most likely reason for these discrepancies is that the latter investigations were performed by the use of limitedly cultured ADSCs (primary culture of 3 days with no subsequent plating). Flow cytometric analysis ...
Background: Infiltration of immune cells, such as T-cell subsets, is a hallmark of adipose tissue inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. T-cell functioning potently depends on co-stimulatory pathways, such as the CD40L-CD40 dyad. CD40 has recently been shown to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genetic deficiency of CD40 directly modulates diet-induced obesity (DIO) in vivo.. Methods and Results: WT or CD40-/- mice consumed either a low fat diet (LFD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks (n,15 per group). Surprisingly, CD40-/- mice consuming HFD exhibited an aggravated metabolic phenotype with increased weight gain and enhanced fat depositions as assessed by MRI. CD40 deficiency increased accumulation of inflammatory cells in adipose tissue particularily of adipose tissue M1 macrophages and CD8+ T-cells. Gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of ,350 genes in visceral fat pads of CD40-/- mice, including pro-inflammatory gene sets, ...
Over the past decade, great progress has been made in understanding the complexity of adipose tissue biology and its role in metabolism. This includes new insights into the multiple layers of adipose tissue heterogeneity, not only differences between white and brown adipocytes, but also differences in white adipose tissue at the depot level and even heterogeneity of white adipocytes within a single depot. These inter- and intra-depot differences in adipocytes are developmentally programmed and contribute to the wide range of effects observed in disorders with fat excess (overweight/obesity) or fat loss (lipodystrophy). Recent studies also highlight the underappreciated dynamic nature of adipose tissue, including potential to undergo rapid turnover and dedifferentiation and as a source of stem cells. Finally, we explore the rapidly expanding field of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, and how adipose tissue communicates with other tissues to regulate systemic metabolism both centrally and ...
Factors differentiating women at highest risk of progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are incompletely known. Our aim was to characterize adipose tissue and body composition in relation to glucose metabolism in women with a history of GDM and to identify factors associated with development of T2DM. We examined glucose tolerance (OGTT), insulin sensitivity (HOMA-IR), body composition (anthropometry, air displacement plethysmography), and blood chemistry in 39 women 6 years after GDM. An adipose tissue biopsy was obtained to assess the size, number, and lipolytic activity of adipocytes, and adipokine release and density of immune cells and blood vessels in adipose tissue. Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) was identified in 31 women and impaired glucose metabolism (IGM) in 8. Women with IGM had higher BMI/fat mass, and related expected adipose tissue features, than women with NGT. Ethnicity was similar in the groups, but numerically there was a ...
Adipose tissue (AT) is an active endocrine organ with the ability to dynamically secrete a wide range of adipocytokines. Importantly, its secretory profile is altered in various cardiovascular disease states. AT surrounding vessels, or perivascular AT (PVAT), is recognized in particular as an important local regulator of vascular function and dysfunction. Specifically, PVAT has the ability to sense vascular paracrine signals and respond by secreting a variety of vasoactive adipocytokines. Due to the crucial role of PVAT in regulating many aspects of vascular biology, it may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of vascular disease pathogenesis. Signalling pathways in PVAT, such as those using adiponectin, H2 S, glucagon-like peptide 1 or pro-inflammatory cytokines, are among the potential novel pharmacological therapeutic targets of PVAT. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential
This study investigated the ameliorative effect of gallic acid (GA) on hypertriglyceridemia and fat accumulation in perirenal adipose tissues of high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetic rats. The previous results showed that orally administered GA (30 mg/kg body weight) for four weeks significantly reduced the levels of plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) in HFD rats. GA also markedly decreased the perirenal adipose tissues weight of HFD rats in present study (p , 0.05). Western blot assay indicated that GA restored expression of insulin signaling-related proteins, such as insulin receptor (IR), protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ), and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the perirenal adipose tissues of HFD rats ...
Recent integrative approaches showed that adipose tissue play a major endocrine role. Molecules secreted by the expanding adipose tissue modulate systemic inflammation and contribute heavily to the pathology of obesity co-morbidities. Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipokine that has been linked with energy metabolism and lipid metabolism. The ASP receptor, C5L2, is widespread within tissues in the organism, yet ASP effects outside the adipose tissue remain explored. Both ASP and its receptor, C5L2, are also linked to immunity and inflammation. We hypothesized that ASP could play an inflammatory role in addition to its metabolic effects and investigated ASP acute effects in mice.. In the present study, we show that acute ASP injection influences substrate partitioning. ASP increases glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and decreases liver glucose absorption. A more rapid glucose clearance is seen after ASP injection, with lower associated insulin levels. Insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Time to Retire the BMI?. T2 - Evaluating Abdominal Adipose Tissue Imaging as Novel Cardiovascular Risk Biomarker∗. AU - Neeland, Ian J. AU - de Lemos, James A. PY - 2016/10/4. Y1 - 2016/10/4. KW - cardiovascular disease. KW - computed tomography. KW - epidemiology. KW - fat attenuation. KW - subcutaneous adipose tissue. KW - visceral adipose tissue. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84992021882&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84992021882&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.613. DO - 10.1016/j.jacc.2016.03.613. M3 - Editorial. C2 - 27687193. AN - SCOPUS:84992021882. VL - 68. SP - 1522. EP - 1524. JO - Journal of the American College of Cardiology. JF - Journal of the American College of Cardiology. SN - 0735-1097. IS - 14. ER - ...
Females are in general more insulin sensitive than males. To investigate if this is a direct effect of sex-steroids (SS) in white adipose tissue (WAT), we developed a male mouse model over expressing the aromatase enzyme, converting testosterone (T) to estradiol (E2), specifically in WAT (Ap2-arom mice). Adipose tissue E2 levels were increased while circulating SS levels were unaffected in male Ap2-arom mice. Importantly, male Ap2-arom mice were more insulin sensitive compared with WT mice and exhibited increased serum adiponectin levels and upregulated expression of Glut4 and Irs1 in WAT. The expression of markers of macrophages and immune cell infiltration was markedly decreased in WAT of male Ap2-arom mice. The adipogenesis was enhanced in male Ap2-arom mice, supported by elevated Pparg expression in WAT and enhanced differentiation of pre-adipocyte into mature adipocytes. In summary, increased adipose tissue aromatase activity reduces adipose tissue inflammation and improves insulin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decreased insulin sensitivity and increased oxidative damage in wasting adipose tissue depots of wild-type mice. AU - Sackmann-Sala, Lucila. AU - Berryman, Darlene E.. AU - Lubbers, Ellen R.. AU - Vesel, Clare B.. AU - Troike, Katie M.. AU - List, Edward O.. AU - Munn, Rachel D.. AU - Ikeno, Yuji. AU - Kopchick, John J.. PY - 2012/10/1. Y1 - 2012/10/1. N2 - Unintentional weight loss (wasting) in the elderly is a major health concern as it leads to increased mortality. Several studies have focused on muscle loss, but little is known about the mechanisms giving rise to loss of fat mass at old ages. To investigate potential mechanisms, white adipose tissue (WAT) characteristics and proteomic profiles were compared between adult (10-12-month-old) and aged (22-24-month-old) wild-type mice. Four individual WAT depots were analyzed to account for possible depot-specific differences. Proteomic profiles of WAT depots, along with body weights and compositions, plasma levels of insulin, ...
Our data provide the first evidence in humans to support the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in adipose tissue have direct effects on the vasoactive properties of PVAT.14,15 We report abnormalities in adiponectin-mediated anticontractile properties of PVAT, endothelium-mediated dilation of the artery, and changes to the inflammatory and hypoxic profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, using in vitro animal and human small-artery studies, hypoxia and inflammation were shown to attenuate the local vasoactive properties of PVAT by oxidative stress.. In healthy individuals, PVAT mediated an anticontractile effect. Although observed previously in medium-sized arteries,24 this is the first demonstration of this effect in human small arteries, and we are also the first to demonstrate a complete loss of the anticontractile effect in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Subsequently, in vitro, we were able to replicate the biological changes ...
Women have more body fat than men, but in contrast to the deleterious metabolic consequences of the central obesity typical of men, the pear-shaped body fat distribution of many women is associated with lower cardiometabolic risk. To understand the mechanisms regulating adiposity and adipose tissue distribution in men and women, significant research attention has focused on comparing adipocyte morphological and metabolic properties, as well as the capacity of preadipocytes derived from different depots for proliferation and differentiation. Available evidence points to possible intrinsic, cell autonomous differences in preadipocytes and adipocytes, as well as modulatory roles for sex steroids, the microenvironment within each adipose tissue, and developmental factors. Gluteal-femoral adipose tissues of women may simply provide a safe lipid reservoir for excess energy, or they may directly regulate systemic metabolism via release of metabolic products or adipokines. We provide a brief overview of the
Primary cultures of stromal-vascular (S-V) cells from adipose tissue were used to investigate the regulation of preadipocyte development. Differentiation of S-V cells was found to be under hormonal control. Insulin and glucocorticoids are essential for S-V cell differentiation in culture. S-V cells from both newborn and mature pig adipose tissue and sera from both ages were used to examine the effect of age on preadipocyte development. S-V cells from newborn pigs replicated faster and appeared more responsive to serum borne factors influencing S-V cell growth and development in culture. Serum source (newborn vs mature) did not affect differentiation of S-V cells from newborn or mature pig adipose tissue. When sera from fed or fasted pigs were used to culture newborn pig S-V cells, fasted pig sera stimulated greater differentiation and decreased cell replication as indicated by DNA content of rat S-V cell culture. Lean pig serum compared to obese pig serum, increased differentiation activity in ...
Background Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed C57BL/6J mice a protein- (casein) or sucrose-based high fat diet supplemented with fish oil or corn oil for 9 weeks. Irrespective of the fatty acid source, mice fed diets rich in sucrose became obese whereas mice fed high protein diets remained lean. Inclusion of sucrose in the diet also counteracted the well-known anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue, but did not impair the ability of fish oil to prevent accumulation of fat in the liver. Calculation of HOMA-IR indicated that mice fed high levels of proteins remained insulin sensitive, whereas insulin sensitivity was reduced in the obese mice
Cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) are increased after exhaustive exercise in the rat retroperitoneal (RPAT) and mesenteric adipose tissue (MEAT) pads. On the other hand, these cytokines show decreased expression in these depots in response to a chronic exercise protocol. However, the effect of exercise with overload combined with a short recovery period on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression is unknown. In the present study, we investigated the regulation of cytokine production in the adipose tissue of rats after an overtraining-inducing exercise protocol. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (C), Trained (Tr), Overtrained (OT) and recovered overtrained (R). Cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α and IL-10) levels and Toll Like Receptor 4 (TLR4), Nuclear Factor kBp65 (NF-kBp65), Hormone Sensitive Lipase (HSL) and, Perilipin protein expression were assessed in the adipose tissue. Furthermore, we analysed plasma lipid profile, insulin, testosterone, corticosterone and endotoxin levels, and
OBJECTIVE: The inappropriate release of free fatty acids from obese adipose tissue stores has detrimental effects on metabolism, but key molecular mechanisms controlling FFA release from adipocytes remain undefined. Although obesity promotes systemic inflammation, we find activation of the inflammation-associated Mitogen Activated Protein kinase ERK occurs specifically in adipose tissues of obese mice, and provide evidence that adipocyte ERK activation may explain exaggerated adipose tissue lipolysis observed in obesity. METHODS AND RESULTS: We provide genetic and pharmacological evidence that inhibition of the MEK/ERK pathway in human adipose tissue, mice, and flies all effectively limit adipocyte lipolysis. In complementary findings, we show that genetic and obesity-mediated activation of ERK enhances lipolysis, whereas adipose tissue specific knock-out of ERK2, the exclusive ERK1/2 protein in adipocytes, dramatically impairs lipolysis in explanted mouse adipose tissue. In addition, acute ...
To measure interstitial glycerol and lactate production from the sc adipose tissue of two regions in nine black and nine white lean men, sc microdialysis was performed in combination with adipose tissue blood flow rates measured with 133Xe clearance. In the postabsorptive state, the plasma glucose a …
A number of different pathways to obesity with different metabolic outcomes are recognised. Prenatal undernutrition in rats leads to increased fat deposition in adulthood. However, the form of obesity is metabolically distinct from obesity induced through other pathways (e.g. diet-induced obesity). Previous rat studies have shown that maternal undernutrition during pregnancy led to insulin hyper-secretion and obesity in offspring, but not to systemic insulin resistance. Increased muscle and liver glycogen stores indicated that glucose is taken up efficiently, reflecting an active physiological function of these energy storage tissues. It is increasingly recognised that adipose tissue plays a central role in the regulation of metabolism and pathophysiology of obesity development. The present study investigated the cell size and endocrine responsiveness of subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue from prenatally undernourished rats. We aimed to identify whether these adipose tissue depots contribute to
Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is increasingly recognized as an active and dynamic endocrine organ that responds to changes in nutrition and environmental milieu. ...
The relationship between marrow adipose tissue (MAT) and bone health is poorly understood. We used running exercise to ask whether obesity-associated MAT can be attenuated via exercise and whether this correlates with gains in bone quantity and quality. C57BL/6 mice were divided into diet-induced ob …
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evidence supporting antioxidant action of adipose-derived stem cells. T2 - Protection of human dermal fibroblasts from oxidative stress. AU - Kim, Won Serk. AU - Park, Byung Soon. AU - Kim, Hyung Ki. AU - Park, Jeong Soo. AU - Kim, Kea Jeung. AU - Choi, Joon Seok. AU - Chung, Suk Jae. AU - Kim, Dae Duk. AU - Sung, Jong Hyuk. PY - 2008/2/1. Y1 - 2008/2/1. N2 - Background: Mesenchymal stem cells within the stromal-vascular fraction of subcutaneous adipose tissue, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs), produced soluble factors and they exhibit diverse pharmacological effects in skin biology. Objective: The present study examines the protective effect of ADSCs for human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) through anti-oxidation in a tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tbOOH) induced oxidative injury model. Methods and results: The conditioned medium of ADSCs (ADSC-CM) was harvested and tested for antioxidant action. ADSC-CM had an antioxidant effect as potent as 100 μM ascorbic acid and various ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Increased circulation and adipose tissue levels of DNAJC27/RBJ in obesity and type 2-diabetes. AU - Cherian, Preethi. AU - Al khairi, Irina. AU - Sriraman, Devarajan. AU - Al-Enezi, Ahmad. AU - Al-Sultan, Dalal. AU - AlOtaibi, Mohammed. AU - Al-Enezi, Saad. AU - Tuomilehto, Jaakko. AU - Al-Mulla, Fahd. AU - Abubaker, Jehad. AU - Abu-Farha, Mohamed. PY - 2018/8/7. Y1 - 2018/8/7. N2 - Heat shock response is an essential cellular stress response. Dysregulation of various heat shock proteins (HSPs), within the heat shock response (HSR) pathway, play a vital role in this host-defense mechanism contributing to obesity-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Previously, we have reported changes in the expression levels of several HSPs such as HSP40, HSP60, HSP70, and HSP90 in obese compared with lean individuals. DNAJC27 is a member of the HSP40 protein family that was previously identified as a body mass index (BMI) associated locus in genome-wide association (GWAS) ...
Adipose tissue. The fat tissue of the breast is composed of lipidic fluid (60-85% weight) that is 90-99 per cent triglycerides ... tissue types (glandular, adipose, skin) that compose and support the breast; among the properties of the soft tissues of the ... The breast-lift correction of a sagging bust is a surgical operation that cuts and removes excess tissues (glandular, adipose, ... The subcutaneous layer of adipose tissue in the breast is traversed with thin suspensory ligaments (Cooper's ligaments) that ...
adipose tissue . aerobic Depending on free oxygen or air. aerobiology The study of organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal ... xylem The plant tissue responsible for the conduction of water from roots to aerial parts of the plant. It forms the woody part ... ectoderm The outermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which ... abscission The shedding of flowers, leaves and/or fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant. absolute zero The lowest ...
... it can actually alter nutrient distribution and send excess glucose into adipose tissue, leading to increased adipose tissue ... "Adipose cell hyperplasia and enhanced glucose disposal in transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT4 selectively in adipose tissue". ... Adipose tissue, commonly known as fat, is a depository for energy in order to conserve metabolic homeostasis. As the body takes ... "Adipose tissue". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2017-05-24. Favaretto F, Milan G, Collin GB, Marshall JD, Stasi F, Maffei P, Vettor R ...
adipose tissue). Adipic acid is a dibasic acid (it has two acidic groups). The pKa values for their successive deprotonations ...
Lipolysis in adipose tissue. Anabolism in skeletal muscle. Relax non-pregnant uterus Relax detrusor urinae muscle of bladder ... Enhancement of lipolysis in adipose tissue. β3 activating drugs could theoretically be used as weight-loss agents, but are ... Further effects include glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis from adipose tissue and liver, as well as secretion from sweat ... it was agreed that the stimulation of sympathetic nerves could cause different effects on body tissues, depending on the ...
Driskell, R; Jahoda, CA; Chuong, CM; Watt, F; Horsley, V (2014). "Defining dermal adipose tissue". Exp Dermatol. 23: 629-631. ... Her major research interest is in the role of stem cells in adult tissue maintenance. For many of her studies, she uses ... Lane, SW; Williams, DA; Watt, FM (2014). "Modulating the stem cell niche for tissue regeneration". Nat Biotechnol. 32: 795-803 ... and tissue aggregation. She is also known for discovering how each of those processes' regulations are removed in diseased ...
Lipolysis in adipose tissue. Relaxation of the urinary bladder wall Receptor also present in cerebral cortex. Isoprenaline has ... a G-protein coupled receptor associated with the Gs heterotrimeric G-protein and is expressed predominantly in cardiac tissue. ...
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white ... The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its physiologic function and relevance to bone health. Marrow ... Analysis of their adipose tissue morphology revealed increases in both adipocyte size and number in most depots. Reintroduction ... A study conducted in 2013 found that, while INSIG1 and SREBF1 mRNA expression was decreased in the adipose tissue of obese mice ...
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the ... Lönnqvist F, Arner P, Nordfors L, Schalling M (1995). "Overexpression of the obese (ob) gene in adipose tissue of human obese ... This metabolic component related with the release of systemic factors, of a pro-inflammatory nature, by the adipose tissues, ...
Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as hormones. Studies have shown that TNF-α and IL-6 ... Coppack, Simon W. (2001-08-01). "Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipose tissue". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 60 (03 ... A proinflammatory cytokine may be present in adipose tissues. Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. ... Both CD4 and CD8 IL-17 producing T cells have been shown to cause aTH1, causing tissue inflammation and resulting in severe ...
... secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines ... biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". BIOFACTORS. 37 (6): 413-420 ...
285-300 Pond CM (Jul 2005). "Adipose tissue and the immune system". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. 73 ... The immune system also plays a crucial role in embryogenesis (development of the embryo), as well as in tissue repair and ... Dendritic cells serve as a link between the bodily tissues and the innate and adaptive immune systems, as they present antigens ... These cytokines and other chemicals recruit immune cells to the site of infection and promote healing of any damaged tissue ...
... and adipose tissue (leptin and resistin). Endocrine glands derive from all three germ layers.[citation needed] The natural ... Most T4 is converted to T3 (a more active form) in the target tissues. Calcitonin, produced by the parafollicular cells of the ... Thyroid tissue consists of follicles with stored protein called colloid, containing thyroglobulin, a precursor to other thyroid ... The hormones which they produce help to regulate the functions of cells and tissues throughout the body. Endocrine organs are ...
The researchers wanted to assess the use of liposuction on the affected adipose tissue to see if pain was reduced in the ... The basic criteria for Dercum's disease are patients with chronic pain in the adipose tissue (body fat) and patients who are ... Surgical removal of the damaged adipose tissue can be effective, but often the disease will recur. Once a person has Dercum's ... There are studies currently proposing several theories of the causes which include inflammation of the adipose tissue, nervous ...
from the adipose tissue of Odontotermes obesus. Archiv für Protistenkunde 119 (3). ...
Non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue (brown fat) that is present in all eutherians (swine being the only ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiol. Rev. 84 (1): 277- ... Brown adipose tissue has a unique uncoupling protein (thermogenin, also known as uncoupling protein 1) that allows the ...
In animals, adipose tissue, or fatty tissue is the body's means of storing metabolic energy over extended periods of time. ... Adipose tissue also secretes the hormone leptin. The location of the tissue determines its metabolic profile: visceral fat is ... United Kingdom The Food Labelling Regulations 1996 - Schedule 7: Nutrition labelling "The human proteome in adipose - The Human ... the body can effectively dilute-or at least maintain equilibrium of-the offending substances by storing it in new fat tissue. ...
Wędrychowicz, Andrzej (2014). "Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders". World Journal of Psychiatry. 4 (4): 103. doi: ...
Unique type of brown adipose tissue, allowing mammals to raise heat fast. Mitochondria with five to seven times higher ... Cannon, B. (1 January 2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): ...
... and adipose tissue formation (i.e. DGAT2). The protein is homologous to other membrane-bound O-acyltransferases. There are two ...
Galton, David J; Wilson, JPD (1970). "Lipogenesis in homogenates of human adipose tissue". Clinical Science. 38: 649-660. ... Galton D J. The human adipose cell: a model for errors in metabolic regulation. Butterworths, London 1971. ISBN 0407557008 ...
Nelson, AA; Wasserman, D; Avram, MM (2009). "Cryolipolysis for reduction of excess adipose tissue". Seminars in Cutaneous ... The degree of exposure to cooling causes the apoptosis (cell death) of subcutaneous fat tissue, without apparent damage to the ... While the process is not fully understood, it appears that fatty tissue that is cooled below body temperature, but above ... cryolipolysis was developed to apply low temperatures to tissue via thermal conduction. In order to avoid frostbite, a specific ...
... plays a major role in promoting uptake of circulating triglycerides into white adipose tissue in the fed state, likely ... "Hepatic ANGPTL3 regulates adipose tissue energy homeostasis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United ...
... more so in white adipose tissue (WAT) than brown adipose tissue (BAT). Its primary enzymatic function is to catalyze the ... Unlike other PLA2 enzymes, AdPLA is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue at higher levels than in the rest of the body, ... AdPLA deficiency was shown to reduce adipose tissue mass for mice in both standard and high fat diets. Adipocyte hypotrophy was ... It belongs to a superfamily of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes and is found primarily in adipose tissue. AdPLA regulates ...
Heat production by brown adipose tissue which is activated after consumption of a meal is an additional component of dietary ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 ( ...
Adipose tissue secretes the hormone leptin, and leptin suppresses appetite. Long-term satiety signals from adipose tissue ... The long-term signals of satiety come from adipose tissue.[20] The taste and odor of food can contribute to short-term satiety ... Long-term satiety comes from the fat stored in adipose tissue. ...
Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose tissue important ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0.9 g/ml.[90] Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of ...
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0.9 g/ml. Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of the ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ...
The other kind of adipose tissue is brown adipose tissue. In healthy, non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. ... White adipose tissue is used as a store of energy. Upon release of insulin from the pancreas, white adipose cells insulin ... White adipose tissue also acts as a thermal insulator, helping to maintain body temperature. The hormone leptin is primarily ...
White adipose tissue is no longer considered an inert tissue mainly devoted to energy storage but is emerging as an active ... Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.. Fantuzzi G1.. Author information. 1. Department of Human Nutrition, University ... Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines ... Proinflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin ...
The tissue products can include decellularized and partially de-fatted tissues. In addition, the present disclosure provides ... as well as methods for producing such tissue products. ... The present disclosure provides tissue products produced from ... The adipose-containing tissues can be from human or animal sources, and from any tissue that contains adipose (e.g., a tissue ... the chosen adipose-containing tissue is a dermal tissue (e.g., tissue from transitional tissue layers between the dermis and ...
Fat tissues in the upper and lower body may gain weight differently, says a new study which deepens our understanding of fat ...
Definition of brown adipose tissue. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
This study was designed to assess the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the anti-obesity effect of AVGE. … Tissue samples ... The relationship between XOR, UA, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome [in Japanese] 川知 祐介 , 藤島 裕也 , 西澤 均 , 前田 法一 , 下村 伊一郎 ... Development of new therapy using allogeneic adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells [in Japanese] 寺井 崇二 , 土屋 淳紀 ... Adipose tissue and the round ligament of the liver were incarcerated in the abdominal wall hernia.They were reduced and we
Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue. Yasuo Oguri1,2,3 and Shingo Kajimura1,2,3 1UCSF Diabetes Center, San Francisco ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains mitochondria-enriched thermogenic fat cells (brown adipocytes) that play a crucial role in ... The present study provides novel insight into our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues. ... 3Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA. ...
You may recall the previous post on the seminar that I attended on Comparative Physiology of Brown Adipose Tissue at the ... You may recall the previous post on the seminar that I attended on Comparative Physiology of Brown Adipose Tissue at the ... Figure 2 from the research paper ("Functional Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue", Heart Metab. 2010;48:15-17) is shown below:. ... They hope to use this thermal imaging technique to further characterize the role of brown adipose tissue in children. ...
... Maria S. Fernández-Alfonso,1 Marta Gil-Ortega,2 Concha F. ... L. Fang, J. Zhao, Y. Chen et al., "Hydrogen sulfide derived from periadventitial adipose tissue is a vasodilator," Journal of ... M. S. Fernández-Alfonso, M. Gil-Ortega, and B. Somoza, "Role of perivascular adipose tissue in vascular function," in Advances ... Y. C. Lee, H. H. Chang, C. L. Chiang et al., "Role of perivascular adipose tissue-derived methyl palmitate in vascular tone ...
Adipose Tissue - Human by Chris Giersch , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful ...
Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.. Stanford KI1, Middelbeek RJ, Townsend KL, An D, ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, ... BAT transplantation increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo into endogenous BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), and ...
Having demonstrated that ablation of Foxa3 in adipose tissues prevented the GR-induced expansion of fat tissue, we next ... suggesting that GR cooperation with tissue-specific transcription factors and cofactors is required to achieve adipose tissue- ... B) Adipose tissue weight. (C) Representative H&E staining of eWAT, BAT, and iWAT. (D) Quantification of adipocyte size in eWAT ... adipose tissue. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones that bind to the GC receptor (GR) and exert broad ...
Increasing your brown fat, which burns energy and creates heat to help control your body temperature, may also regulate blood sugar and impact your offspring.
Buy Adipose Tissue by L. Robert, A. M. Robert from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE ... Adipose Tissue: Lipids and the Intercellular Matrix. - Frontiers of Matrix Biology 2 (Hardback). L. Robert (author), A. M. ...
... the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of a high number of adipocyte-originated ... Changes in adipose tissue gene expression and plasma levels of adipokines and acute-phase proteins in patients with critical ... Marques M., Langouche L. (2014) Adipose Tissue and Endocrine Function in Critical Care. In: Rajendram R., Preedy V., Patel V. ( ... In addition to energy storage and insulation, the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the ...
... adipose tissue or fat is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, ... adipose tissue. Two types of adipose tissue exist: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Adipose tissue ... Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots. Adipose tissue contains several cell ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0,9g/ml [4]. Thus, a person with much adipose tissue will float easier than a person with lot ...
Evolution has provided humans and other placental mammals with brown adipose tissue (BAT), a tissue that converts chemically ... Brown Adipose Tissue. Alexander Pfeifer, Martin Klingenspor, Stephan Herzig (red.). (Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology). ... The aim of this review is to summarize the literature and describe what is actually known about the tissue and its importance ... The thermogenic activity of this tissue is significant for the human infants ability to maintain a sufficiently high core body ...
Adipose Tissue Plasticity During Catch-Up Fat Driven by Thrifty Metabolism Relevance for Muscle-Adipose Glucose Redistribution ... Such adipose tissue plasticity could play an active role in the thrifty metabolism that underlies glucose redistribution from ... This model is characterized by glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue during catch-up fat that results ... Our objective was to characterize the determinants of enhanced glucose utilization in adipose tissue during catch-up fat. ...
Also known as fat, adipose tissue is not... ... Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue that stores ... This article describes what brown adipose tissue does, so I looked into white adipose tissue and its functions. White adipose ... Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue which plays an important role in the functioning of the body. Better known simply ... Brown adipose tissue also generates heat, which keeps the body at a stable temperature. In people with insufficient quantities ...
... their offspring are only able to develop at the same site and in certain tissue types. ... Pathway Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Brown Adipose Tissue That Helps in Fighting Diabetes Found. Bringing smiles on the faces ... Swedish Researchers Identify Gene Behind Development of Harmful Adipose Tissue. A gene that is responsible for the development ... Understanding of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Advanced by Joslin Scientists. Significant findings about the location, genetic ...
... tissue and this study will examine whether exercise can help to release it. ... and accumulates in our adipose tissue (fat stores) in large amounts. The entrapment of vitamin D in adipose (fat) tissue ... A key challenge now and in the future, is to find ways to mobilise vitamin D from adipose tissue and help prevent vitamin D ... Vitamin D can become trapped in our adipose (fat) tissue and this study will examine whether exercise can help to release it. ...
PREventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution. Official Title ICMJE A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label, 48-Week ... Preventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution) Investigators. Impact of switching from zidovudine to tenofovir ... although there is evidence that drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity at the level of subcutaneous adipose tissue is involved2 3 ... decrease in the mass of peripheral adipose tissue. Switching to emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is expected to ...
... isolated from adipose tissue demonstrates that adipose tissue macrophages are responsible for almost all adipose tissue TNF-α ... CD68 expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were aspirated from the subcutaneous ... Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose ... Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and ...
  • Their studies show that this tissue actively takes up the metabolic substrate glucose when adults are exposed to cold. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue is related to anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome: a new indicator of cardiovascular risk," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 5163-5168, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. (jci.org)
  • The National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) announces a workshop focusing on the role of the adipose tissue niche in the development, maintenance and remodeling of different adipose tissue depots in healthy individuals, and how the extracellular matrix and cellular components of the niche are modified during the develop of diabetes, in the overfed state, and following other metabolic stressors. (nih.gov)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a promising target to counteract obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction is a commonly observed feature of metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this study is to understand the metabolic changes occurring in fat tissue both during controlled weight loss that lead to the improvement of type 2 diabetes and other obesity as. (bioportfolio.com)
  • There is compelling evidence with regard to the importance of the nervous system in the regulation of adipose tissue mass, either brown or white, by acting on the metabolic pathways and on the plasticity (proliferation, differentiation, transdifferentiation, apoptosis) of these tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Normal adipose tissue development is critical for maintaining a healthy metabolic state. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • Analyzing these samples, we assess alterations in gene expression, adipose tissue composition, metabolic function and the capacity of adipose progenitor cells to differentiate and proliferate. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • In addition to its lipid-storing capacity, adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine and metabolic organ. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It is clear that centrally mediated circadian rhythms play an important role in human health and our results provide initial information about how appropriate sunlight exposure to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) might act as a peripheral circadian sensor that contributes to metabolic health. (patreon.com)
  • Henriette Frikke-Schmidt, Ph.D., from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and colleagues examined how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our findings represent an important step forward in the understanding of how adipose tissue links to the development of metabolic disease", comments Professor Peter Arner, one of the principal investigators at Karolinska Institutet along with Hui Gao, Niklas Mejhert and Mikael Rydén. (medicalxpress.com)
  • IMPORTANCE Although the lungs are the port of entry and the predominant site of TB disease manifestation, we and others have demonstrated that M. tuberculosis also persists in adipose tissue of aerosol-infected animals and directly or indirectly alters adipose tissue physiology, which in turn alters whole-body immuno-metabolic homeostasis. (asm.org)
  • Collectively, we expect this work highlight the power of biomaterial drug delivery to the adipose tissue as a platform for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes and to aid in the development of new treatments for diabetes, the most common metabolic disorder in the United States. (aiche.org)
  • The team of researchers demonstrated a relationship between the metabolic activation of the tissue and changes in oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin (red blood pigment), measured by means of multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT). (phys.org)
  • The study demonstrated a direct relationship between the metabolic activation of the brown adipose tissue measured using hemoglobin gradients as an intrinsic biomarker of tissue metabolism and its calorie consumption after stimulation. (phys.org)
  • Overall we expect MSOT to become a key tool in measuring metabolic parameters in tissue, using portable and safe MSOT technology," says Prof. Ntziachristos. (phys.org)
  • Co-author Professor Martin Klingenspor from the Chair for Molecular Nutritional Medicine says, "The higher metabolic demand of the brown adipose tissue is supplied by increased blood circulation and oxygen utilization, which can be made visible in the tissue and the venous outflow by MSOT. (phys.org)
  • Proinflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin resistance and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. (nih.gov)
  • A gene that is responsible for the development of harmful adipose tissue in humans, thereby raising the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, has been identified. (medindia.net)
  • Link Between GIP and Osteopontin in Adipose Tissue and Insulin Resistance. (ebscohost.com)
  • Insulin resistance - a condition characterised by reduced cellular response to the hormone insulin that is released when the blood glucose levels rise after a meal - is an important causal factor underlying the increased risk of diabetes in individuals with hypertrophic adipose tissue. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The fact that adiponectin expression was decreased in omental adipose tissue relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue in overweight children suggests that a risk of insulin resistance may be present in childhood, which allows such resistance to develop after a relatively short duration of overweight. (aappublications.org)
  • Therefore, we aimed at the characterization of the adipose tissue secretome rather than the adipocyte cell secretome. (mcponline.org)
  • We have here reviewed the medical literature describing molecular and functional characterization, differentiation, potential role, and results obtained so far using ADSCs in tissue repair, with a particular focus on the role for ADSCs in cardiovascular repair and regeneration. (ahajournals.org)
  • We further identify regulators of normal and disturbed adipose tissue function and subsequently perform functional characterization by looking at their role for adipocyte differentiation in vitro (cell lines and primary predadipocytes) and in vivo by using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for obesity and associated diseases (Landgraf K, 2017). (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • Various tissue-derived products are used to regenerate, repair, or otherwise treat diseased or damaged tissues and organs. (google.ca)
  • In humans and chicken, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin and is also found around internal organs . (bionity.com)
  • White adipose surrounds the internal organs. (wisegeek.com)
  • Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal function of a multitude of organs including the intestine, urinary tract and the vascular system. (pnas.org)
  • The multilineage capacity of PLA cells and ASC makes them promising candidates for reconstruction of human smooth muscle related tissues and organs. (pnas.org)
  • Cell harvesting procedures from these organs are painful and costly, and frequently associated with the risk of donor-site tissue morbidity. (ahajournals.org)
  • ANGPTL4 mRNA is expressed in many organs and tissues, highly in WAT, placenta, liver, muscle (Feingold et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Ulrich's study analyzed the effects of fat on breast, colorectal, esophageal, endometrial, prostate, and ear-nose-throat cancer, taking into consideration the proximity of adipose tissue relative to the organs. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose Tissue: Lipids and the Intercellular Matrix. (waterstones.com)
  • Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids. (bionity.com)
  • We have found that breast milk-specific lipid species, so-called alkylglycerol-type (AKG-type) ether lipids, which are absent from infant formula and adult-type diets, maintain beige adipose tissue (BeAT) in the infant and impede the transformation of BeAT into lipid-storing white adipose tissue (WAT). (jci.org)
  • Whereas white adipose tissue can provide lipids as substrates for other tissues according to the needs of the organism, brown adipose tissue will use fatty acids for heat production. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 1 , 2 In contrast to the notorious WAT that stores energy as lipids, brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy directly as heat by uncoupling oxidative phosphorylation from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production through the action of brown adipocyte-specific uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). (nature.com)
  • Because these lipids have a chain of carbon atoms, there will be a density difference with the surrounding soft tissue such as the abdominal muscle. (bruker.com)
  • When the tissue is active, high amounts of lipids and glucose are combusted in the tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Adipose tissue consists of more than 99% of storage lipids, mainly triglycerides that are stored within the cell in so-called lipid droplets. (tu-dresden.de)
  • Oguri Y, Kajimura S. Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue. (harvard.edu)
  • Introduction: Cell sheets consisting of adipose -derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been reported to be effective for wound healing. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The researchers used the new lab-on-a-chip to study how adult stem cells in adipose tissue develop into mature fat cells, conducting their investigations outside the body. (medindia.net)
  • Factors such as insulin and blood sugar levels influence whether or not adult stem cells in adipose tissue will develop into mature adipose cell. (medindia.net)
  • In contrast to embryonic stem cells, when adult stem cells divide, their offspring are only able to develop at the same site and in certain tissue types. (medindia.net)
  • This enabled adipose-derived adult stem cells to be successfully converted into mature fat cells within the experiments, and the corresponding signalling pathway mTORC1 was also decoded. (medindia.net)
  • Stem cell researchers led by Dr Adam Reid, present a review of the current literature on the suitability of adipose-derived stem cells in peripheral nerve repair. (medindia.net)
  • The use of stem cells for cell-based tissue engineering and regeneration strategies represents a promising alternative for smooth muscle repair. (pnas.org)
  • In this study, the capacity of processed lipoaspirate (PLA) and adipose-derived stem cells to differentiate into phenotypic and functional smooth muscle cells was evaluated. (pnas.org)
  • Several groups have suggested the use of bone marrow-derived cells ( 3 - 5 ) and embryonic stem cells to repair smooth muscle tissues ( 6 , 7 ) because of their stem cell-like properties. (pnas.org)
  • Adipose stem cells (ASC), a pluripotent clonal population derived from PLA cells, have shown higher differentiation capacity when compared to PLA cells ( 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • As stem cells can be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves, their use in medical therapies has been proposed. (patientslikeme.com)
  • However, the relatively low abundance, small tissue volume, difficult accessibility, and disease-related malfunction of bone marrow-derived stem cells hamper their clinical usefulness. (ahajournals.org)
  • Numerous studies have provided evidence that stromal cells derived from the adipose tissue (adipose tissue-derived stromal cells [ADSCs]) contain a population of adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells that can differentiate into several lineages, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
  • The similarities between stem cells extracted from the bone marrow and the adipose tissue suggest the potential for the adipose tissue to act as an alternative, and perhaps preferable, cell source for repairing damaged tissues, such as the ischemic or infarcted heart. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adipose tissue may represent an ideal source of autologous stem cells, because it is easy to obtain with minimal patient discomfort, but yet capable of yielding cell numbers substantial enough to obviate extensive expansion in culture. (ahajournals.org)
  • 23-26 There is much confusion in the literature when using terms describing multipotent stem cells from the adipose tissue stroma. (ahajournals.org)
  • We refer here to the term adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs), which identifies a plastic-adherent cell population that includes vascular (pericytes and endothelial progenitor cells)/adipocyte progenitor cells (preadipocytes) and adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), besides circulating blood cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes 27 ( Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • The relative abundance and easy access to adipose tissue has raised great interest among researchers using these cells as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in equine medicine. (scielo.br)
  • There are positive results related to the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) in disorders such as tendinitis (Del Bue et al . (scielo.br)
  • Within their niche, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are essential for homeostasis as well as for regeneration. (mdpi.com)
  • To investigate related risks, this study analyses the radiation response of adult stem cells isolated from the adipose tissue of the female breast. (mdpi.com)
  • And the title of my presentation is 'Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue. (hstalks.com)
  • Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a powerful tool for in vitro study of adult stem cell biology. (wiley.com)
  • Taken together, our data demonstrate that nucleofection allows both transient and stable gene expression in adipose tissue-derived stem cells, without impairing their differentiation potential. (wiley.com)
  • Analysis of the long-term effects of dexamethasone treatment in mice revealed that Foxa3 ablation protects mice specifically against fat accretion but not against other pathological side effects elicited by this synthetic GC in tissues such as liver, muscle, and spleen. (pnas.org)
  • Bone marrow transplant studies and quantitation of macrophage number in adipose tissue from macrophage-deficient (Csf1op/op) mice suggest that these F4/80+ cells are CSF-1 dependent, bone marrow-derived adipose tissue macrophages. (jci.org)
  • In the late 1970s it was proposed, primarily on the basis of studies on rats and mice, that reduced expenditure on adaptive heat production (thermogenesis) associated with a specialized fat tissue-brown adipose tissue (BAT)-is central to the development of obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Using this novel technique in mice, the researchers were able to study the function of the neurons that innervate the adipose tissue, and saw that their elimination results in mice pounding up very quickly. (news-medical.net)
  • Ines Mahu, PhD student in Domingos' laboratory and author of this study, describes their results: 'We were able to eliminate neurons from the adipose tissue of mice, without affecting the brain. (news-medical.net)
  • In the adipose tissue of obese mice and humans, OSM expression is significantly induced. (pbrc.edu)
  • ATGL is highly expressed in adipose tissue of mice and humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • However, the nonobese phenotype of HSL knock-out (HSL-KO) mice ( 7 - 9 ) and the accumulation of diglycerides (DGs) in their adipose tissue ( 10 ) suggest that there may be one or more additional lipases in adipose tissue that preferentially hydrolyzes the first ester bond of the TG molecule. (sciencemag.org)
  • It turned out that these mice developed adipose hypertrophy and displayed increased lipid mobilisation from fat cells . (medicalxpress.com)
  • Our results confirm the presence of M. tuberculosis in fat tissue after aerosol infection of mice and show that loss of fat cells is associated with an increase in pulmonary M. tuberculosis burden and pathology. (asm.org)
  • In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice, it has been shown that infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue coincides with the occurrence of hyperinsulinemia, an indirect measure of IR. (ahajournals.org)
  • CCR2 −/− mice exhibited a reduction in adipose tissue macrophage content which was associated with an improvement, but not complete restoration of systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, suggesting that other inflammatory cells may play a role in this context. (ahajournals.org)
  • A recent study in mice reported mainly CD8-positive lymphocyte infiltration in hypoxic areas within the adipose tissue. (ahajournals.org)
  • The therapeutic efficacy of resveratrol scaffolds was tested by implant into the epididymal adipose tissue of mice receiving a 60% fat diet, which results in significant weight gain and glucose intolerance. (aiche.org)
  • The truncated ANGPTL4 was found to be associated with adipocyte differentiation in mice, however, only the native form was detected in adipose tissues in human (Mandard et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This month's issue will focus on the quantification of adipose tissue in vivo in mice or rats using the SkyScan 1278 microCT system. (bruker.com)
  • Plasma decay and tissue uptake of wild-type 125 I-HDL tracer were similar in both genotypes of recipient mice, suggesting that adipocyte ABCA1 deficiency reduces plasma HDL concentrations solely by reducing nascent HDL particle formation. (ahajournals.org)
  • The products can comprise a decellularized adipose extracellular tissue matrix and a reduced lipid content. (google.ca)
  • In summary, AKGs are specific lipid signals of breast milk that are essential for healthy adipose tissue development. (jci.org)
  • PKA phosphorylates two important proteins with established functions in lipolysis: HSL, an enzyme that catabolizes adipose tissue TGs, and perilipin A, an abundant structural protein located on the surface of lipid droplets. (sciencemag.org)
  • differences from the lean state that impair muscle function in- Results: Body mass decreased in the RT+CR group but not in the RT cluding greater lipid accumulation around [subcutaneous adipose group. (scribd.com)
  • Individuals with large fat cells had markedly lower EBF1 expression in their adipose tissue, displayed altered lipid mobilisation and were insulin resistant. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Free from residual lipid, cellular fragments and DNA content, Leneva retains key matrix proteins including Collagen IV and Collagen VI, and is injected where native fat already exists to provide soft tissue augmentation and cell attachment and remodeling. (businesswire.com)
  • Shotgun lipidomics technology enables to identify a vast number of lipid molecules and study their roles in biological systems, and it can be applied to cell cultures, fluids and tissues. (tu-dresden.de)
  • It responded to high-fat diet by altering its lipid composition and shifting towards that of white adipose tissue", explains Dr. Michal Grzybek, who is first author of the study. (tu-dresden.de)
  • This new and validated protocol wants to facilitate the systematic molecular profiling of adipose tissue by providing high reproducibility and linear dynamic range for all lipid classes. (tu-dresden.de)
  • In addition to energy storage and insulation, the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of a high number of adipocyte-originated signaling molecules. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, resident and recruited macrophages constitute an important part of the adipose tissue, responsible for the secretion of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. (springer.com)
  • 108 proteins contained a secretion signal peptide of which 70 incorporated the label and were considered secreted by adipose tissue. (mcponline.org)
  • Colorectal cancer affects the large intestine, leading to loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) and alterations in adipokine secretion. (mdpi.com)
  • Dr Blüher has a specific research focus in the study of adipose tissue function, including regulation of adipose tissue cellularity and adipokine secretion. (scribd.com)
  • Fatty acids are taken up by muscle and cardiac tissue as a fuel source, and glycerol is taken up by the liver for gluconeogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • RESULTS Adipose tissue recovery during the dynamic phase of catch-up fat is accompanied by increased adipocyte number with smaller diameter, increased expression of genes for adipogenesis and de novo lipogenesis, increased fatty acid synthase activity, increased proportion of saturated fatty acids in triglyceride (storage) fraction but not in phospholipid (membrane) fraction, and no impairment in insulin signaling. (gu.se)
  • The effects of dietary fatty acids on bone, hematopoietic marrow and marrow adipose tissue in a murine model of senile osteoporosis. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The overriding control of how Much gets deposited in the tissue as triglyceride and how much spills over into blood as albumin-bound fatty acids (NEFA) is exerted by the rate of glyceride synthesis. (diva-portal.org)
  • Mobilization of fatty acids from triglyceride stores in adipose tissue requires lipolytic enzymes. (sciencemag.org)
  • Mobilization of stored fat is mediated by lipolytic enzymes, which degrade adipose TGs and release nonesterified fatty acids (FAs) into the circulation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Paracrine interactions between adipose and lymphoid tissues are enhanced by diets rich in n-6 fatty acids and attentuated by fish oils. (open.ac.uk)
  • Fatty acids were assessed by gas-liquid chromatography in adipose tissue samples collected from all subjects. (ahajournals.org)
  • For the first time, positive relationships are reported between the proportion of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in adipose tissue and adiponectin concentration and expression. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Electrical stimulation of nerves to isolated rat and rabbit adipose tissue in vitro causes production of free fatty acids. (sciencemag.org)
  • The release of free fatty acids results in the recruitment of macrophages into the adipose tissue . (biology-online.org)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed that the percentage of cells expressing the macrophage marker F4/80 (F4/80+) was significantly and positively correlated with both adipocyte size and body mass. (jci.org)
  • Therefore, the tissue secretome provides more relevant information for the in vivo situation than the adipocyte cell secretome. (mcponline.org)
  • Her current research focuses on how cytokines affect the function and composition of the adipose tissue extracellular matrix, and how alterations in the adipose tissue extracellular matrix affect adipocyte function and insulin sensitivity. (pbrc.edu)
  • Schwartze JT, Landgraf K, Spielau U, Rockstroh D, Löffler D, Kratzsch J, Kiess W, Körner A: Adipocyte C1QTNF5 expression is BMI-dependently related to early adipose tissue dysfunction and systemic CTRP5 serum levels in obese children. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • Recent human and animal studies suggest that by altering rates of adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, differences in the composition of dietary fat may also contribute to adipose tissue development. (cambridge.org)
  • apM1 gene expression, restricted to the adipocyte fraction of adipose tissue, decreased spontaneously when adipose explants were cultured in basal medium for 24 h while the expression of other adipose genes barely changed (PPARgamma, GAPDH) or increased (PAI-1). (unboundmedicine.com)
  • For example, several studies showed that adipose stromal cells have the power to infiltrate cancer lesions and promote the growth of tumors. (healthcanal.com)
  • Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin, as well as cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and others. (nih.gov)
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely prescribed anti-inflammatory agents, but their chronic use leads to undesirable side effects such as excessive expansion of adipose tissue. (pnas.org)
  • In the acute phase of illness, the anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing adiponectin is reduced, while pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue is upregulated. (springer.com)
  • Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose tissues of obese individuals. (jci.org)
  • According to research published online in The FASEB Journal , repeated irradiation of breast fat (also known as adipose tissue) produces an inflammatory response that ultimately reduces the efficiency of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients. (news-medical.net)
  • This research was based on a recent discovery that there is an inflammatory interaction between breast tumors and adipose tissue. (news-medical.net)
  • An increasing number of reports suggest that the adipose tissue itself might be a source of proinflammatory factors and a target of inflammatory processes. (ebscohost.com)
  • Contrary to prior belief that the adipose tissue plays a role only in energy storage, it is in fact a large endocrine and secretory organ that produces a multitude of pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines, resulting in various downstream effects ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • These cells maintain tissue homeostasis through the excretion of type 2 cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which keep adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in an anti-inflammatory, M2-like state. (nih.gov)
  • Diet-induced obesity is associated with the loss of tissue homeostasis and development of type 1 inflammatory responses in VAT, characterized by IFN-γ. (nih.gov)
  • In the abdominopelvic cavity, a layer of adipose tissue is present that lines the parietal peritoneum. (enotes.com)
  • In Adipose Tissue Protocols, Gérard Ailhaud and a team of laboratory experts and clinicians describe in step-by-step detail the major techniques needed for the study of adipose tissue and cells. (springer.com)
  • In the future, it might be possible to develop drugs that improve EBF1 function in adipose tissue, which could be used to treat type 2-diabetes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Although knowledge is still limited, current available literature suggests that the endocrine functions of adipose tissue might play an adaptive role during critical illness. (springer.com)
  • Increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is associated with states of impaired bone formation ( 1 , 2 ) and dysfunctional hematopoiesis ( 3 - 5 ), although its physiological role remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Innovative and highly practical, Adipose Tissue Protocols offers endocrinologists, physiologists, cell biologists, and pharmacologists a gold-standard collection of proven methods for effective nutritional, physiological, and molecular-level research on adipose tissue. (springer.com)
  • There are two main physiological subcompartments of adipose tissue. (hstalks.com)
  • Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease presents a comprehensive survey of adipose tissue, its physiological functions, and its role in disease. (indigo.ca)
  • This volume spans the entire range of adipose tissue studies, from basic anatomical and physiological research to epidemiology and clinical studies. (indigo.ca)
  • Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin , estrogen , resistin , and the cytokine TNFα . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipose tissue also serves as an important endocrine organ by producing recently-discovered hormones such as leptin , resistin and the cytokine TNFα . (bionity.com)
  • Adipose tissue is now recognized as a widely dispersed secretory organ that exhibits autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine properties, and plays a significant role in obesity, the most common health problem in industrialized countries. (springer.com)
  • We now know that adipose tissue in extremely complex and dynamic endocrine organ. (hstalks.com)
  • The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene . (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipocytokine gene expression was assessed in the transplanted adipose tissues, and the thoracic aorta was harvested to quantify atherosclerotic lesions by Oil-Red O staining and to assess vasorelaxation by wire myography. (springer.com)
  • In the current study, researchers identified a gene, EBF1, which according to these new findings drive the development of the unhealthy adipose tissue . (medicalxpress.com)
  • This is the first time someone has identified a gene which may cause malfunctioning adipose tissue in man. (medicalxpress.com)
  • mRNA expression of ovine angiopoietin-like protein 4 gene in adipose tissues. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
  • Marrow Adipose Tissue in Adolescent Girls with Obesity. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of the genes that encode adiponectin and PPARγ in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in children in relation to age and anthropometric variables. (aappublications.org)
  • 001). In overweight children, the median adiponectin mRNA level was lower in omental adipose tissue (odds ratio: 0.51 [95% confidence interval: 0.1-2. compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue (odds ratio: 1.29 [95% confidence interval: 0.16-5. ( P = .032) but not in normal-weight children ( P = .54), and the difference remained significant after adjustment for age ( P = .045). (aappublications.org)
  • Objectives: Our objective was to determine gender-specific responses to periapical tooth lesions (PA) on the composition of omental adipose tissue in the rat. (umich.edu)
  • Anticontractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue and leptin are reduced in hypertension," Front Pharmacol , vol. 3, no. 103, pp. 1-8, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • Adaptative nitric oxide overproduction in perivascular adipose tissue during early diet-induced obesity," Endocrinology , vol. 151, no. 7, pp. 3299-3306, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Prenatal exposure to nicotine causes postnatal obesity and altered perivascular adipose tissue function," Obesity Research , vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 687-692, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Perivascular adipose tissue potentiates contraction of coronary vascular smooth muscle: influence of obesity," Circulation , vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 9-18, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • Perivascular adipose tissue modulates vascular function in the human internal thoracic artery," Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 1130-1136, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the arterial adventitia and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Perivascular adipose tissue as a cause of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
  • Li C, Wang Z, Wang C, Ma Q, Zhao Y. Perivascular adipose tissue-derived adiponectin inhibits collar-induced carotid atherosclerosis by promoting macrophage autophagy. (springer.com)
  • Here, using adipose tissue transplantation, we tested the hypothesis that expansion of PVAT can also remotely exacerbate vascular disease. (springer.com)
  • Periadventitial adipose tissue plays a critical role in vascular remodeling. (springer.com)