Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Glucose in blood.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
The consumption of edible substances.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.
Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.
Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Abstaining from all food.
Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
(Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.
Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.
Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.
FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.
Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A disease of cats and mink characterized by a marked inflammation of adipose tissue and the deposition of "ceroid" pigment in the interstices of the adipose cells. It is believed to be caused by feeding diets containing too much unsaturated fatty acid and too little vitamin E. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis. (1/12479)

Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program.  (+info)

Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. (2/12479)

In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids.  (+info)

Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (3/12479)

Lipase [EC] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor. (4/12479)

The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes...  (+info)

Immunocytochemically detected free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) are a strong prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma. (5/12479)

We prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) in a series of 118 patients with completely resected gastric carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Ber-Ep4 was performed on cytospins from intraoperative peritoneal lavage specimens. Twenty-three patients (20%) had FPTC which was significantly correlated with pT and pN categories, stage, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, Lauren and WHO classifications and perigastric adipose tissue metastases. The median survival time for all FPTC positive compared with negative patients was significantly shorter (11 compared with >72 months), with estimated 5-year survival rates of 8% vs. 60%. None of the patients with FPTC had an early gastric cancer. In advanced tumour subgroups without and with serosal invasion (n = 59 and 35), there were 19% and 34% with FPTC. Multivariate survival analysis showed nodal status, FPTC, mesenteric lymphangiosis, and lymph node metastasis to the compartment III to be independent prognostic factors with relative risks of 6.6, 4.5, 2.9 and 2.2 respectively. Recurrent disease occurred in 91% of FPTC-positive and in 38% of FPTC-negative patients. FPTC had a positive predictive value of 91% and a specificity of 97% for tumour recurrence. FPTC is a strong negative, independent prognostic indicator for survival in gastric carcinoma.  (+info)

Changes in body composition and leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children with various GH secretory capacities. (6/12479)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to follow changes in body composition, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in relation to changes in leptin during the first year of GH therapy in order to test the hypothesis that leptin is a metabolic signal involved in the regulation of GH secretion in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 33 prepubertal children were investigated. Their mean (S.D.) chronological age at the start of GH treatment was 11.5 (1.6) years, and their mean height was -2.33 (0.38) S.D. scores (SDS). GH was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 0.1 (n=26) or 0.2 (n=7) IU/kg body weight. Ten children were in the Swedish National Registry for children with GH deficiency, and twenty-three children were involved in trials of GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Spontaneous 24-h GH secretion was studied in 32 of the children. In the 24-h GH profiles, the maximum level of GH was determined and the secretion rate estimated by deconvolution analysis (GHt). Serum leptin levels were measured at the start of GH treatment and after 10 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Body composition measurements, by DXA, were performed at baseline and 12 months after the onset of GH treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of GH treatment, mean height increased from -2.33 to -1.73 SDS and total body fat decreased significantly by 3.0 (3.3)%. Serum leptin levels were decreased significantly at all time points studied compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation between the change in total body fat and the change in serum leptin levels during the 12 months of GH treatment, whereas the leptin concentration per unit fat mass did not change. In a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with 12 month change in leptin levels as the dependent variable, the percentage change in fat over 12 months, the baseline fat mass (%) of body mass and GHt accounted for 24.0%, 11.5% and 12.2% of the variability respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant correlations between changes in leptin and fat and endogenous GH secretion in short children with various GH secretory capacities. Leptin may be the messenger by which the adipose tissue affects hypothalamic regulation of GH secretion.  (+info)

Extremely low values of serum leptin in children with congenital generalized lipoatrophy. (7/12479)

Congenital generalized lipoatrophy (CGL) is a syndrome with multiple clinical manifestations and complete atrophy of adipose tissue. The exact mechanism of this disease remains unknown. One hypothesis presupposes an abnormal development of adipocytes. Leptin, the adipocyte-specific product of the ob gene, acts as a regulatory factor of body weight. In children, as in adults, leptin levels are correlated with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass. Some authors have demonstrated that adults with congenital or acquired generalized lipoatrophy have decreased leptin concentrations. In order to study serum leptin profile during childhood in this disease, we measured serum leptin concentrations in six children aged 5.5-11 years suffering from CGL, and investigated the relationship between metabolic parameters and the variations in leptin levels. Serum leptin concentrations (1.19+/-0.32 ng/ml (+/- S.D.)) were extremely low compared with those observed in normal children. No significant correlation was found with BMI, which is known to be one of the major determinants of serum leptin. Serum leptin values were significantly correlated with fasting insulin levels (r=0.83, P=0.024). In conclusion, extremely low leptin values measured in children with CGL could be regarded as one among other diagnostic parameters. However, the detectable levels observed in all of these children support the evidence that a small amount of body fat is likely to be present in these patients, despite complete subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Our data suggest that this small amount of adipose tissue could be metabolically active and, at least in part, sensitive to insulin. Further investigations are required to uncover the pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, known to be commonly associated with insulin resistance.  (+info)

Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (8/12479)

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue fatty acid composition in humans with lipoprotein lipase deficiency. AU - Ullrich, Nathan F.E.. AU - Purnell, Jonathan Q.. AU - Brunzell, John D.. PY - 2001/5. Y1 - 2001/5. N2 - Background: Lipid stores in human adipose tissue are maintained primarily by incorporating lipid from circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglyceride from these lipoprotein particles to facilitate their entry into adipocytes for storage. Subjects deficient in LPL still have normal adiposity, and this may result from increased adipocyte lipogenesis or from uptake of circulating lipid through alternate mechanisms. The objective of this study was to determine whether fatty acid composition of adipose tissue from LPL-deficient subjects reflects maintenance of lipid stores through increased lipogenesis or through alternate mechanisms of lipoprotein uptake. Methods: Adipose tissue samples from LPL-deficient subjects who ...
Maternal nutrient restriction at specific gestational stages compromises fetal growth and development, in particular, fetal adipose tissue deposition. The extent to which nutritional supplementation can promote growth and development of specific fetal organs is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether protein supplementation of the maternal diet at defined stages of gestation promoted the abundance of the key mitochondrial proteins; uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), cytochrome c and the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) in fetal adipose tissue.. Twenty-nine twin-bearing ewes of similar body weight and parity were randomly allocated to 4 feeding groups from 10d gestation. All ewes received a control diet, which was supplemented with fishmeal in 3 of the groups during early i.e. 10d-40d, mid i.e. 40d-70d or late i.e. 110d-140d gestation. Each ewe was then humanely euthanased with an overdose of barbiturate (100 mg/kg pentobarbital sodium: Euthanal) at 140d gestation to enable sampling of ...
Visceral adipose tissue is harmful to metabolic health. Exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates lipolysis and is released from skeletal muscle during exercise. We hypothesized that exercise-induced reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass are mediated by IL-6. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, we assigned abdominally obese adults to tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor antibody) or placebo during a 12-week intervention with either bicycle exercise or no exercise. While exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue mass, this effect of exercise was abolished in the presence of IL-6 blockade. Changes in body weight and total adipose tissue mass showed similar tendencies, whereas lean body mass did not differ between groups. Also, IL-6 blockade increased cholesterol levels, an effect not reversed by exercise. Thus, IL-6 is required for exercise to reduce visceral adipose tissue mass and emphasizes a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ovine prenatal growth-restriction and sex influence fetal adipose tissue phenotype and impact postnatal lipid metabolism and adiposity in vivo from birth until adulthood. AU - Wallace, Jacqueline M. AU - Milne, John S. AU - Aitken, Beth W. AU - Aitken, Raymond P. AU - Adam, Clare L. N1 - Funding: This work was funded by the Scottish Governments Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) including the Strategic Partnership for Animal Science. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. PY - 2020/2/14. Y1 - 2020/2/14. N2 - Adipose tissue development begins in utero and is a key target of developmental programming. Here the influence of nutritionally-mediated prenatal growth-restriction on perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) gene expression and adipocyte phenotype in late fetal life was investigated in both sexes in an ovine model. Likewise circulating leptin concentrations ...
Abstract. It is well established that the metabolic risk factors of obesity and its comorbidities are more attributed to adipose tissue distribution rather than total adipose mass. Since emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the aetiology of obesity, we conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis on eight different adipose depots of three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. We aimed to investigate the systematic association between anatomical location-specific DNA methylation status of different adipose depots and obesity-related phenotypes. We show here that compared to subcutaneous adipose tissues which primarily modulate metabolic indicators, visceral adipose tissues and intermuscular adipose tissue, which are the metabolic risk factors of obesity, are primarily associated with impaired inflammatory and immune responses. This study presents epigenetic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetuin-a expression profile in mouse and human adipose tissue. AU - Khadir, Abdelkrim. AU - Kavalakatt, Sina. AU - Madhu, Dhanya. AU - Tiss, Ali. PY - 2020/3/12. Y1 - 2020/3/12. N2 - Fetuin-A (Fet-A) was one of the first hepatokines to be reportedly linked to metabolic diseases. Fet-A was also suggested to be an adipokine, but its expression in the adipose tissue remains debatable. Here we compared the expression of Fet-A between human and mice adipose tissue biopsies as well as among human subcutaneous tissue and visceral adipose tissue primary cells, and mouse 3 T3-L1 cells at various stages of differentiation. Fet-A was expressed in mice biopsies and cells but not in human biopsies and cells, except in visceral adipose tissue primary cells following differentiation. Although the marginal expression of Fet-A in human visceral adipose tissue, a major contribution of Fet-A expression in human adipose tissue to systemic Fet-A levels is discounted, but it could indicate specific ...
We investigated sphingolipid metabolism in human adipose tissue to identify pathways underlying increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed adipose tissue [3]. Our data suggest that hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide by sphingomyelinases could explain, at least partly, this increase. Gene expression levels of SMPD3 correlate significantly with concentrations of various ceramides and sphingomyelins in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and are higher in the relatively more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous depot in both obese and non-obese subjects. Sphingomyelinases are expressed by both adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, but their expression is strongest in and around blood vessels. Our findings implicate a role for sphingomyelinase-mediated generation of ceramide in adipose tissue inflammation.. When comparing inflamed ceramide-rich and relatively less inflamed ceramide-poor subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women, we report here for the first time that there ...
Adipose tissue homeostasis is regulated by a combination of extracellular and intracellular signalling pathways. Activation of surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and insulin receptors, influence the rate of lipolysis within adipocytes, the pathway responsible for triacylglycerol (TAG) breakdown into non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol. A GPCR for short chain fatty acids (SCFA) has been identified on the surface of mature adipocytes and activation of this receptor by SCFA including acetate, butyrate and propionate has resulted in a decrease in lipolysis, measured as a reduction in NEFA and glycerol concentration in the media. However, evidence for a mechanism of action of SCFA within adipocytes has remained unclear. Therefore, this thesis has aimed to better understand the mechanism(s) by which the SCFA, acetate, regulates adipose tissue metabolism and function, and in particular the pathway of lipolysis. Through the development of experimental methods in vitro, it was ...
Introduction:It was reported that some variables were revealed remain renal function after live donor nephrectomy. This study was conducted to determine the influence of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on renal function in living kidney donors.. Method:Between July 2013 and February 2015, a total of 75 kidney donors who underwent living donor nephrectomy at our institution were analyzed. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured at the level of the umbilicus using CT scan(figure 1). Renal function was estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula till six months after kidney donation. The relationship between preoperative visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and recovery of renal function was analyzed.. Result:Thirty-three donors (44%) were male, and 13 (17.3%) grafts were secured from the right side. The mean BMI was 23.5±2.6 kg/m2 and the mean preoperative eGFR was 103.0±19.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean VAT was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inducing Heat Shock Proteins Enhances the Stemness of Frozen-Thawed Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells. AU - Shaik, Shahensha. AU - Hayes, Daniel. AU - Gimble, Jeffrey. AU - Devireddy, Ram. N1 - Funding Information: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award R21 DK 91852.. PY - 2017/4/15. Y1 - 2017/4/15. N2 - Extensive research has been performed to determine the effect of freezing protocol and cryopreservation agents on the viability of adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) as well as other cells. Unfortunately, the conclusion one may draw after decades of research utilizing fundamentally similar cryopreservation techniques is that a barrier exists, which precludes full recovery. We hypothesize that agents capable of inducing a subset of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and chaperones will reduce the intrinsic barriers to the post-thaw recovery of ASCs. ...
This review attempts to cover the implication of the adipose tissue in controlling immune functions with emphasis on the structure and properties of adipose tissue, adipokines produced by adipose tissue, immune cells in adipose tissue and molecular mediators of adipose tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue (AT) in mammals is a complex, multi-depot, anatomically dissectible discrete structure with high metabolic activity. Both excess and deficiency of adipose tissue affect the normal homeostasis of the body. The AT comprises of two types of adipocytes, white adipocytes which store lipids whereas brown adipocytes which oxidize these lipids to produce heat. Further, to serving as a fat depot, AT also serves as endocrine adipose organ producing many bioactive molecules, called adipokines.
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer data. AU - ODonovan, Shauna D.. AU - Lenz, Michael. AU - Vink, Roel G.. AU - Roumans, Nadia J.T.. AU - de Kok, Theo M.C.M.. AU - Mariman, Edwin C.M.. AU - Peeters, Ralf L.M.. AU - van Riel, Natal A.W.. AU - van Baak, Marleen A.. AU - Arts, Ilja C.W.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of adipose tissue metabolism and construct a new, refined model of adipose tissue metabolism. Our model ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lean and Obese Coronary Perivascular Adipose Tissue Impairs Vasodilation via Differential Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle K+ Channels. AU - Noblet, Jillian N.. AU - Owen, Meredith K.. AU - Goodwill, Adam G.. AU - Sassoon, Daniel J.. AU - Tune, Johnathan. PY - 2015/6/27. Y1 - 2015/6/27. N2 - Objective - The effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on vasomotor tone are influenced by an obese phenotype and are distinct from other adipose tissue depots. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of lean and obese coronary PVAT on end-effector mechanisms of coronary vasodilation and to identify potential factors involved. Approach and Results - Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed similarities in coronary perivascular adipocyte size between lean and obese Ossabaw swine. Isometric tension studies of isolated coronary arteries from Ossabaw swine revealed that factors derived from lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuated vasodilation to adenosine. ...
The presence of the so-called low-grade inflammatory state is recognized as a critical event in adipose tissue dysfunction, leading to altered secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin resistance, and development of hepatic complications associated with obesity. This study was designed to investigate the potential contribution of the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway to adipose tissue inflammation and lipid dysfunction in experimental obesity. Constitutive expression of key components of the 5-LO pathway, as well as leukotriene (LT) receptors, was detected in adipose tissue as well as in adipocyte and stromal vascular fractions. Adipose tissue from obese mice, compared with that from lean mice, exhibited increased 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) expression and LTB4 levels. Incubation of adipose tissue with 5-LO products resulted in NF-κB activation and augmented secretion of proinflammatory adipokines such as MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. In addition, LTB4, but not ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue metabolism - An aspect we should not neglect?. AU - Jensen, Michael Dennis. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids (FFAs) are the most metabolically important products of adipose tissue lipolysis. Experimentally creating high FFA concentrations can reproduce the metabolic abnormalities of obesity in lean, healthy persons and lowering FFA concentrations can improve the metabolic health of upper body obese individuals. FFA concentrations are determined by both the release of FFAs into the bloodstream and the clearance of FFAs from the bloodstream. Normal FFA release rates are different in men and women and total FFA release is closely linked to resting energy expenditure. Upper body subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and leg fat depots contribute differently to the exposure of various tissues to FFAs. The implications of regional adipose tissue lipolysis to systemic FFA availability and the effect of different approaches to treatment of obesity are ...
Title: Virus-based Gene Transfer Approaches and Adipose Tissue Biology. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Louis Casteilla, Beatrice Cousin, Valerie Planat-Benard, Patrick Laharrague, Mamen Carmona and Luc Penicaud. Affiliation:UMR 5241 CNRS UPS IFR31, IFR109 Institut Louis Bugnard BP 84225, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4,France.. Keywords:Adipose tissue, preadipocytes, adipose derived cells, virus, promoter, shRNA, cell therapy. Abstract: The status of adipose tissue changes rapidly. From a simple filler tissue, it successively acquires the status of metabolic active tissue, endocrine tissue, plastic tissue, and finally that of a large reservoir of cells suitable for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. All throughout this story, our knowledge has been largely dependent on genetic tools and gene transfer. Now, the time has come where gene transfer in adipose derived cells can be envisioned, not only for understanding the role or importance of one gene, but also to engineer adipose derived cells for the ...
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a powerful tool for in vitro study of adult stem cell biology. So far, they have not been extensively used for gain or loss of function studies since they are resistant to most common transfection methods. Herein, we tested several classic transfection methods on human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells. Our results showed that lipofectants and calcium phosphate were poorly efficient for transgene delivery in hMADS cells. In contrast, nucleofection, an electroporation-based method that is assumed to target plasmid DNA directly to the cell nucleus, led to a significant transient transgene expression in hMADS cells (up to 76% enhanced green fluorescent protein [EGFP]-positive cells were detected). Furthermore, after selection of hMADS cells that were nucleofected with a selectable plasmid coding for EGFP, stable EGFP expressing clones could be propagated in culture and efficiently induced to differentiate into EGFP-positive adipocytes and ...
Abstract Background In pigs, adipose tissue is one of the principal organs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. It is particularly involved in the overall fatty acid synthesis with consequences in other lipid-target organs such as muscles and the liver. With this in mind, we have used massive, parallel high-throughput sequencing technologies to characterize the porcine adipose tissue transcriptome architecture in six Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition (three per group). Results High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to generate a whole characterization of adipose tissue (backfat) transcriptome. A total of 4,130 putative unannotated protein-coding sequences were identified in the 20% of reads which mapped in intergenic regions. Furthermore, 36% of the unmapped reads were represented by interspersed repeats, SINEs being the most abundant elements. Differential expression analyses identified 396 candidate genes among ...
Adipose tissue secretions play an important role in the development of obesity-related pathologies such as diabetes. Through inflammatory cytokines production, adipose tissue stromavascular fraction cells (SVF), and essentially macrophages, promote adipocyte insulin resistance by a paracrine way. Since xanthine family compounds such as caffeine were shown to decrease inflammatory production by human blood cells, we investigated the possible effect of caffeine on Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression by human adipose tissue primary culture. For that purpose, human subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from healthy non-obese women (BMI: 26.7 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) after abdominal dermolipectomy, was split into explants and cultured for 6 hours with or without caffeine. Three different concentrations of caffeine were tested (0.5 microg/mL, 5 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL). After 6 hours of treatment, explants were subjected to collagenase digestion in order to isolate adipocytes
The composition and function of the adipose tissue covering the heart are poorly known. In this study, we have investigated the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) covering the cardiac ventricular muscle and the EAT covering the left anterior descending artery (LAD) on the human heart, to identify their resident stem cell functional activity. EAT covering the cardiac ventricular muscle was isolated from the apex (avoiding areas irrigated by major vessels) of the heart (ventricular myocardium adipose tissue (VMAT)) and from the area covering the epicardial arterial sulcus of the LAD (PVAT) in human hearts excised during heart transplant surgery. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) from both adipose tissue depots were immediately isolated and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. The different behavior of these ASCs and their released secretome microvesicles (MVs) were investigated by molecular and cellular analysis. ASCs from both VMAT (mASCs) and the PVAT (pASCs) were characterized by the expression of
The composition and function of the adipose tissue covering the heart are poorly known. In this study, we have investigated the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) covering the cardiac ventricular muscle and the EAT covering the left anterior descending artery (LAD) on the human heart, to identify their resident stem cell functional activity. EAT covering the cardiac ventricular muscle was isolated from the apex (avoiding areas irrigated by major vessels) of the heart (ventricular myocardium adipose tissue (VMAT)) and from the area covering the epicardial arterial sulcus of the LAD (PVAT) in human hearts excised during heart transplant surgery. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) from both adipose tissue depots were immediately isolated and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. The different behavior of these ASCs and their released secretome microvesicles (MVs) were investigated by molecular and cellular analysis. ASCs from both VMAT (mASCs) and the PVAT (pASCs) were characterized by the expression of
eng] Retinoblastoma (Rb1) has been described as an essential player in white adipocyte differentiation in mice. No studies have been reported thus far in human adipose tissue or human adipocytes. We aimed to investigate the possible role and regulation of RB1 in adipose tissue in obesity using human samples and animal and cell models. Adipose RB1 (mRNA, protein, and activity) was negatively associated with BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) while positively associated with the expression of adipogenic genes (PPARγ and IRS1) in both visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue. BMI increase was the main contributor to adipose RB1 downregulation. In rats, adipose Rb1 gene expression and activity decreased in parallel to dietary-induced weight gain and returned to baseline with weight loss. RB1 gene and protein expression and activity increased significantly during human adipocyte differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, transient knockdown of Rb1 led to loss of the adipogenic ...
Adipose tissue fibrosis development blocks adipocyte hypertrophy and favors ectopic lipid accumulation. Here, we show that adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in humans and mice. Kinetic studies in C3H mice fed a high-fat diet show activation of macrophages and progression of fibrosis along with adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and death. Adipose tissue fibrosis is attenuated by macrophage depletion. Impairment of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling protects mice from obesity-induced fibrosis. The presence of a functional Toll-like receptor 4 on adipose tissue hematopoietic cells is necessary for the initiation of adipose tissue fibrosis. Continuous low-dose infusion of the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide, promotes adipose tissue fibrosis. Ex vivo, lipopolysaccharide-mediated induction of fibrosis is prevented by antibodies against the profibrotic factor TGFβ1. Together, these results indicate that obesity and endotoxemia favor the development of adipose
Obesity contributes to Type 2 diabetes by promoting systemic insulin resistance. Obesity causes features of metabolic dysfunction in the adipose tissue that may contribute to later impairments of insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver; these include reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, reduced expression of GLUT4, altered expression of adipokines, and adipocyte hypertrophy. Animal studies have shown that expansion of adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance in the absence of adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction. To determine if this holds true for humans, we studied the relationship between insulin resistance and markers of adipose tissue dysfunction in non-obese individuals. 32 non-obese first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Glucose tolerance was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was measured with the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Blood samples were collected and subcutaneous
Abstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance (IR) and its attendant complications. The pathogenic mechanisms linking them remain poorly understood, partly due to a lack of intermediary monogenic human phenotypes. Here, we report on a monogenic form of IR-prone obesity, Alström syndrome (ALMS). Twenty-three subjects with monogenic or polygenic obesity underwent hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic clamping with concomitant adipose tissue (AT) microdialysis and an in-depth analysis of subcutaneous AT histology. We have shown a relative adipose tissue failure in monogenic obese cohort; a finding supported by observations in a novel conditional mouse model (Almsflin/flin) and ALMS1-silenced human primary adipocytes. Whereas, selective reactivation of ALMS1 gene in adipose tissue of an ALMS conditional knockdown mice model (Almsflin/flin;Adipo-Cre+/-) restores systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Hence, we show for the first time the relative adipose tissue failure in human ...
Excess adipose tissue brings with it a number of adverse consequences, many of which may stem from the development of insulin resistance. An emerging view is that inflammatory changes occurring in expanding adipose tissue are associated with the secretion of peptide and other factors that can adversely affect metabolic processes in other key insulin-target tissues, especially liver and skeletal muscle. However, there is still a commonly-expressed view that the adverse changes in other tissues are ultimately due to an excess of fatty acids, liberated by a metabolically-challenged adipose tissue. Our own studies of adipose tissue metabolism and physiological function (especially blood flow) IN VIVO suggest that these two views of adipose tissue function may be closely linked. Enlarged adipocytes are less dynamic in their responses, just as enlarged adipose tissue is less dynamic in blood flow regulation. Adipocytes seem to be able to sense the appropriate level of fat storage. If the normal mechanisms
Glucocorticoids have major effects on adipose tissue metabolism. To study tissue mRNA expression changes induced by chronic elevated endogenous glucocorticoids, we performed RNA sequencing on the subcutaneous adipose tissue from patients with Cushings disease (n=5) compared to patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (n=11). We found a higher expression of transcripts involved in several metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis, proteolysis and glucose oxidation as well as a decreased expression of transcripts involved in inflammation and protein synthesis. To further study this in a model system, we subjected mice to dexamethasone treatment for 12 weeks and analyzed their inguinal (subcutaneous) fat pads, which led to similar findings. Additionally, mice treated with dexamethasone showed drastic decreases in lean body mass as well as increased fat mass, further supporting the human transcriptomic data. These data provide insight to transcriptional changes that may be responsible for ...
Background: In obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), adipose tissue expansion (because of larger adipocytes) results in reduced microvascular density which is thought to lead to adipocyte hypoxia, inflammation, and reduced nutrient delivery to the adipocyte. Adipose tissue microvascular responses in humans with T2D have not been extensively characterized. Furthermore, it has not been determined whether impaired microvascular responses in human adipose tissue are most closely associated with adiposity, inflammation, or altered metabolism.Methods and Results: Overnight-fasted healthy controls (n=24, 9 females/15 males) and people with T2D (n=21, 8 females/13 males) underwent a body composition scan (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), an oral glucose challenge (50 g glucose) and blood analysis of clinical chemistries and inflammatory markers. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue microvascular responses were measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound at baseline and 1-hour post-oral glucose ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perivascular Adipose Tissue Controls Insulin-Stimulated Perfusion, Mitochondrial Protein Expression and Glucose Uptake in Muscle Through Adipomuscular Arterioles. AU - Turaihi, Alexander H. AU - Serné, Erik H. AU - Molthoff, Carla F.M.. AU - Koning, Jasper J. AU - Knol, Jaco. AU - Niessen, Hans W. AU - Jose Th Goumans, Marie. AU - van Poelgeest, Erik M. AU - Yudkin, John S. AU - Smulders, Yvo M. AU - Jimenez, Connie R. AU - van Hinsbergh, Victor Wm. AU - Eringa, Etto C. N1 - © 2020 by the American Diabetes Association.. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - Insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment (IMVR) regulates delivery of insulin and glucose to insulin-sensitive tissues. We have previously proposed that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) controls vascular function through outside-to-inside communication and through vessel-to-vessel, or vasocrine signaling. However, direct experimental evidence supporting a role of local PVAT in regulating IMVR and insulin sensitivity in ...
Little is known about the turnover of adipose cells in the fat depots of normal animals and human subjects. However, microarray analysis of adipose cell gene expression in high risk insulin-resistant human subjects suggests that a reduced rate of adipose cell turnover is associated with enhanced adipose cell size and systemic insulin resistance. New technology now permits a detailed analysis of adipose cell size including the detection of smaller cells which may be in the process of active differentiation. We propose to examine the relationship between adipose cell size distribution and systemic insulin resistance in obese human subjects. Adipose tissue biopsies will be obtained at Stanford University under protocols and consent forms approved by the Stanford University IRB. Only procedures already being performed on subjects under these protocols will be used ...
The adipose tissue functions as the bodys main energy reservoir and plays a central role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis. The ability to modulate this tissues inherent endocrine and metabolic functions has promising implications in treating disease associated with adipose tissue dysfunction. This work revolves around two diseases where adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction drive the disease, obesity and cachexia. Both diseases impact a significant population of U.S. adults and substantially reduce patient quality of life. In this study, we first demonstrate the use of novel therapeutic platforms engineered to specifically target adipose tissue inflammation and lipid catabolism through localized drug delivery for the treatment of obesity. Specifically, we developed poly(lactide-coglycolide) scaffolds loaded with resveratrol, a small molecule with promising anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties, but one that suffers from poor bioavailability. Implant into the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of interferences in the analysis of human adipose tissue to 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p dioxin (TCDD). AU - Patterson, D. G.. AU - Holler, J. S.. AU - Groce, D. F.. AU - Alexander, L. R.. AU - Lapeza, C. R.. AU - OConnor, R. C.. AU - Liddle, J. A.. PY - 1986/4. Y1 - 1986/4. N2 - While developing a method to analyze human adipose tissue for 2,3,7,8‐tetrachloro‐dibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) at the 1 ppt level, we observed several peaks with all of the analytical characteristics of TCDDs in the analyses of wipe tests and blank, quality control, and human adipose samples at concentrations equal to the low part‐per‐trillion level in a 10 g sample. The source of these contaminants was established to be a cleaning solution used to wash the floors in the laboratory performing the analysis.. AB - While developing a method to analyze human adipose tissue for 2,3,7,8‐tetrachloro‐dibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) at the 1 ppt level, we observed several peaks with all of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cold exposure down-regulates adiponutrin/PNPLA3 mRNA expression and affects its nutritional regulation in adipose tissues of lean and obese Zucker rats.. AU - Oliver, Paula. AU - Caimari, Antoni. AU - Diaz Rua, Ruben. AU - Palou, Andreu. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Adiponutrin/PNPLA3 is a protein highly produced in adipose tissue whose expression is under tight nutritional regulation. It possesses lipogenic/lipolytic capacity and, although adiponutrin polymorphisms are related to obesity, its physiological role is not clear. To help clarify its role, we studied the effect of acute cold exposure on adiponutrin mRNA expression in different adipose tissues of lean/obese Zucker rats subjected to feeding/fasting/refeeding. The effect of cold on the expression of key lipogenic enzymes and on uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) was evaluated in selected adipose depots. Adiponutrin mRNA levels were also determined in the adipose tissue of isoprenaline-treated rats and in cultured ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Greater influence of central distribution of adipose tissue on incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in women than men. AU - Haffner, Steven M.. AU - Mitchell, Braxton D.. AU - Hazuda, Helen P.. AU - Stern, Michael P.. PY - 1991/5. Y1 - 1991/5. N2 - Many studies have shown an increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in individuals with an unfavorable body fat distribution, but there are still relatively few prospective studies on this topic. We present data on the 8-y incidence of NIDDM in Mexican-American men and women according to their degree of central adiposity, measured by the ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold thicknesses. Subjects were initially enrolled in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Sixteen of 254 initially nondiabetic men and 27 of 366 initially nondiabetic women developed diabetes. Central adiposity was more strongly associated with diabetes incidence ...
Obesity, the accumulation of excess body fat, is an epidemic leading to numerous human metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D is mainly characterized by hyperglycemia, accompanied by local (adipose tissue) and systemic insulin resistance. In the adipose tissue, insulin resistance involves alterations in the cross-talk of various signaling cascades, implicating numerous kinases and phosphatases. To identify molecular changes that occur during the development of insulin resistance, we have used here a new activity-based method to study the global kinase activity in human adipose tissue, the PamGene. Our study is based on the observation that some obese subjects do not develop insulin resistance. This population represents our control group, which avoids confounding results, due to obesity by itself rather than to insulin resistance. We found that a specific set of kinase activities are representative of insulin resistance in the obese population, such as PIM family, CHK2,
Retinoic acid (RA) is essential for early developmental processes and stem cell differentiation, but less is known about its contributions to adult tissues and stem cells including adipose tissue. We previously demonstrated that many genes involved in RA synthesis and downstream pathway are differentially expressed in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from visceral fat compared to those from subcutaneous fat, leading to changes in their early adipogenic functions. In order to study potential contributions of RA in adipose tissue, we measured tissue RA levels using a technique based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The data indicate heretofore underappreciated abundance of endogenous RA in mouse adipose tissue compared to other tissues and dynamic changes of RA concentrations after high fat diet feeding. Our results lay the foundation for further investigation on the functional role of RA in adipose tissue development and metabolism ...
Routine measurement of adipose tissue composition by repeated biopsy invokes both ethical and practical difficulties, limiting long-term serial studies of adipose tissue composition. In vivo13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been applied as a non-invasive alternative, although it has not as yet been fully validated. In this study we critically assess in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography for the analysis of adipose tissue composition. The advantages and drawbacks of both methods are discussed, in particular to the study of adipose tissue during dietary manipulation and development. Our results show that the NMR measurements of adipose tissue composition are highly reproducible, but they can significantly differ from those obtained by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) from the same volunteer. We show that the discrepancy between these two techniques arises from inherent limitations of both 13C NMR spectroscopy and GLC. Finally, we show that 13C NMR ...
The objective of this project is to investigate whether vitamin D modulates chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation in overweight and obese, vitamin D deficient men and women.. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies, mostly conducted in mouse models of obesity, strongly suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose and other tissues is the major mechanism by which increased adiposity is linked to insulin resistance. Adipose tissue inflammation may therefore be a promising therapeutic target to reduce insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese individuals.. Based on several lines of evidence, we hypothesize that vitamin D is an environmental factor that affects the course of the inflammatory response in most tissues of the body, including adipose tissue. In our previous studies, we found that circulating plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) and the primary ...
The calculation measures the total volume of water in the body (lean tissue and muscle contain a higher percentage of water than fat), and estimates the percentage of fat based on this information. [83] However, elevated leptin in obesity is known as leptin resistance. Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ,[2] as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and cytokine (especially TNFα). Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity related metabolic diseases. [7], In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. Adipose tissue is found deep to the skin; in the abdomen, breasts, hips, buttocks, and thighs; and surrounding the heart and abdominal organs. Fat cells have an important physiological role in maintaining triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, as well as determining insulin resistance. The most popular of these equations was formed by ...
In the second part of this thesis, we investigated the role of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue with particular focus on how adipose mTORC2 affects non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and cold-induced glucose uptake. We found that mTORC2 signaling was induced in brown adipocytes by beta-adrenergic stimulation via cAMP, Epac1 and PI3K. Furthermore, mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue was required for temperature homeostasis, since mice lacking mTORC2 signaling in mature adipocytes (adipose tissue specific rictor knockout (AdRiKO) mice) were hypothermic and sensitive to cold stress. While lipid store mobilization and induction of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial uncoupling were not impaired in AdRiKO mice, inactivation of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue resulted in a significant impairment in cold-induced glucose uptake and glycolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Interestingly, restoration of glucose metabolism in BAT via introduction of a constitutively active form of Akt2 or via ...
Insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis depend on the capacity of adipose tissue to take up and utilise excess glucose and fatty acids. The key aspects that determine the fuel-buffering capacity of adipose tissue depend on the physiological levels of the small redox molecule, nitric oxide (NO). In addition to impairment of NO synthesis, excessive formation of superoxide (capital O, Cyrillic2 *- ) in adipose tissue may be an important interfering factor diverting the signalling of NO and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in obesity, resulting in metabolic dysfunction of adipose tissue over time. Besides its role in relief from superoxide burst, enhanced NO signalling may be responsible for the therapeutic benefits of different superoxide dismutase mimics in obesity and experimental diabetes models. This review summarises the role of NO in adipose tissue and highlights the impact of NO/capital O, Cyrillic2 *- ratio teetering as a promising pharmacological target in ...
The induction of adequate vascularization, a major challenge in tissue engineering, has been tried with numerous methods but with unsatisfactory results. Adipose tissue, an active endocrine organ with dense vasculature, secretes a wide number of angiogenic and adipogenic factors and seems an attractive source for these bioactive factors. We produced a novel cell-free extract from mature human adipose tissue (adipose tissue extract [ATE]) and analyzed the ability of this extract to induce angiogenesis and adipogenesis in vitro and studied the cytokine and growth factor composition of ATE with ELISA and cytokine array. We demonstrate that ATE, when added as cell culture supplement, effectively induced triglyceride accumulation in human adipose stem cells at concentrations from 200 μg/mL upward in less than a week and caused elevated levels of adipocyte differentiation markers (proliferator-activated receptor gamma and acyl-CoA-binding protein) when treated with at least 350 μg/mL of ATE. ATE ...
Enlarged dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity is closely linked to the development of insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders in other tissues, primarily through excessive release of fatty acids into the bloodstream and the production of mostly pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators from adipose tissue. Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators that regulate food intake, energy balance as well as glucose and lipid homeostasis, and they are also produced in adipose tissue. In obesity, the endocannabinoid system becomes dysregulated at the whole body level, including adipose tissue. The new study shows that in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity long-term supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), i.e. EPA and DHA, is capable of reducing the levels of major endocannabinoids 2-AG and AEA in adipose tissue, in accordance with improved parameters of glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA of the same type and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization and Proteomic Analysis of Decellularized Adipose Tissue Hydrogels Derived from Lean and Overweight/Obese Human Donors. AU - Mohiuddin, Omair A.. AU - Motherwell, Jessica M.. AU - Rogers, Emma. AU - Bratton, Melyssa R.. AU - Zhang, Qiang. AU - Wang, Guangdi. AU - Bunnell, Bruce. AU - Hayes, Daniel J.. AU - Gimble, Jeffrey M.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - While decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has potential as an off-the-shelf biomaterial product for regenerative medicine, it remains to be determined if donor-source body mass index (BMI) impacts the functionality of DAT. This study set out to comparatively characterize lean versus overweight/obese-donor derived DAT hydrogel based on proteome and to analyze their respective effects on adipose stromal/stem cell (ASC) viability, and differentiation in vitro. Decellularized adipose tissue from lean (lDAT) and overweight/obese (oDAT) donors is produced and characterized. Variability in the fibril microstructures is ...
Objective. In human adipocytes the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from beta-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e. lipolysis and thermogenesis. Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty-liver development. Aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in R2B expression, PKA activity and lipolysis in adipose tissues from obese and non-obese subjects. Research Design and Methods. The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 non-obese and 67 obese patients. PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, respectively. Results. Expression
The decreasing of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) in adipose tissue of diabetic and obesity patients are associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. The adipose tissue can be used as therapeutic targets in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Visceral adipose tissue has different morphology and functional with subcutaneous adipose tissue and Vitamin D has been known to have contributed in DM. The aim of this study is to know the role of cholecalciferol on the expression of GLUT 4 in subcutaneous and visceral adiposity of diabetic rats by elucidated in those tissues. The subjects of the study consisted of nineteen male diabetic rats of Wistar strain, which were divided into control group (K) and three (3) treatment groups (X1, X2 and X3). In order to induce the condition of DM, the animals were fed with high fat diet for three (3) weeks and administered a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kgBW) at the end of the second week. Cholecalciferol were administered with
Objective - Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect in response to various vasoconstrictor agonists and this is lost in obesity. A recent study reported that bariatric surgery reverses the damaging effects of obesity on PVAT function. However, PVAT function has not been characterised following weight loss induced by caloric restriction, which is often the first line treatment for obesity. Approach and Results - Contractility studies were performed using wire myography on small mesenteric arteries with and without PVAT from control, diet-induced obese, calorie restricted and sustained weight loss rats. Changes in the PVAT environment were assessed using immunohistochemistry. PVAT from healthy animals elicited an anticontractile effect in response to norepinephrine. This was abolished in diet-induced obesity through a mechanism involving increased local TNFα and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability within PVAT. Sustained weight loss led to improvement in PVAT function ...
Many lines of evidence indicate that MCP-1 recruits monocytes into atherosclerotic lesions and the inflamed peritoneum of mice, where the cells differentiate into macrophages (14-16). The observation that macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans (9,10) coupled with the finding that obese humans have elevated MCP-1 expression in their adipose tissue and increased circulating levels of MCP-1 (24,38,39) led to the proposal that MCP-1 might promote macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and enhance diet-induced obesity (40,41). Studies from two groups using male mice deficient in CCR2 or MCP-1 appeared to support this suggestion (26,27), although the macrophage content of adipose tissue changed only modestly. In contrast, we found no evidence that macrophage accumulation is impaired in adipose tissue of male Mcp1−/− mice fed a high-fat diet for either 10 or 16 weeks. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated higher levels of Mac2, a macrophage-specific protein, in epididymal, ...
ADSCs derived from the visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue have been recently shown to contain progenitor cells able to differentiate into mature endothelial cells and participate in blood vessel formation.13,14,16 Miranville et al have shown the presence of the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) phenotype in the SVF freshly isolated from humans by flow cytometry.14 Cell preparations display the hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34, as well as CD133, a 130-KDa glycoprotein with unknown function that is absent on mature endothelial cells and circulating progenitor endothelial cells.28 Studies by Zuk et al have described the absence or low level of CD34+ cells,4 whereas Planat-Bernard et al reported more than 90% CD34+ cells in the SVF derived from the adipose tissue.13 The most likely reason for these discrepancies is that the latter investigations were performed by the use of limitedly cultured ADSCs (primary culture of 3 days with no subsequent plating). Flow cytometric analysis ...
This network will characterize the single nucleus transcriptomes and intercellular communication networks of human adipose tissue cells (adipocytes and stroma-vascular cells) across fat depots, sex, and ethnicity.
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0.9 g/ml. Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of the ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ...
... subcutaneous adipose tissue and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is directly underneath the skin, ... White adipose tissue or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. The other kind is brown adipose ... White adipose tissue exists mostly as a single adipocytes in the subcutaneous tissue. In humans, white adipose tissue starts to ... The intra-abdominal adipose tissues covers the thoracic and abdominal cavity. The visceral adipose tissue is part of the intra- ...
... (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... Brown adipose tissue activation may play an important role in bone health and bone density. Brown adipose tissue activation ... several brown adipose tissue deposits have been identified. In infants, brown adipose tissue deposits include, but are not ... all have remarkably high levels of brown adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue activity. BMP7 Irisin Orexin PRDM16 Cinti S ( ...
... (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue apart ... Increased number of adipose tissue macrophages correlates with increased adipose tissue production of proinflammatory molecules ... which are embedded in adipose tissue, fuels tumor growth by serving as a depot for adipose tissue macrophages that stimulate ... In adipose tissue, distinction between M1 and M2 macrophage polarization can be monitored by assessing the expression of ...
... (BMAT), sometimes referred to as marrow adipose tissue (MAT), is a type of fat deposit in bone ... June 2020). "Bone marrow adipose tissue is a unique adipose subtype with distinct roles in glucose homeostasis". Nature ... Krings A, Rahman S, Huang S, Lu Y, Czernik PJ, Lecka-Czernik B (February 2012). "Bone marrow fat has brown adipose tissue ... Two recent studies found that, unlike brown adipose tissue, BMAT does not increase glucose uptake in response to cold exposure ...
Adipose tissue. The fat tissue of the breast is composed of lipidic fluid (60-85% weight) that is 90-99 per cent triglycerides ... The breast-lift correction of a sagging bust is a surgical operation that cuts and removes excess tissues (glandular, adipose, ... The subcutaneous layer of adipose tissue in the breast is traversed with thin suspensory ligaments (Cooper's ligaments) that ... adipose, skin) that compose and support the breast; among the properties of the soft tissues of the breast is near- ...
... it can actually alter nutrient distribution and send excess glucose into adipose tissue, leading to increased adipose tissue ... "Adipose cell hyperplasia and enhanced glucose disposal in transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT4 selectively in adipose tissue". ... Adipose tissue, commonly known as fat, is a depository for energy in order to conserve metabolic homeostasis. As the body takes ... "Adipose tissue". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2017-05-24. Favaretto F, Milan G, Collin GB, Marshall JD, Stasi F, Maffei P, Vettor R ...
It had been shown that adipose tissue secreted some unknown factor that influenced appetite. However, the importance of adipose ... Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes numerous protein hormones, including leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. ... Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg (September 2019). "The endocrine function of adipose tissues in health and cardiometabolic ... Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Ruben (2013-04-20). "Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ". Archives ...
"Brown adipose tissue , anatomy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-08. Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, ... "4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion". 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion - Anatomy and Physiology. opentextbc.ca. OpenStax. 6 March 2013. ... The sustained supply of oxygen to body tissues determines the body temperature range of an organism. Eurytherms that live in ... reefs to begin bleaching and dying because the coral have begun to expel the zooxanthellae algae that live in their tissues and ...
adipose tissue). Adipic acid is a dibasic acid (it has two acidic groups). The pKa values for their successive deprotonations ...
Renold AE (1965). "Section 5: Adipose Tissue". Handbook of Physiology: a Critical, Comprehensive Presentation of Physiological ...
Fell, D A; Small, J R (1986). "Fat synthesis in adipose tissue. An examination of stoichiometric constraints". Biochemical ...
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white ... Marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of white adipose tissue. Exercise reduces both adipocyte size as ... A large meta-analysis has shown that white adipose tissue cell size is dependent on measurement methods, adipose tissue depots ... The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its physiologic function and relevance to bone health. Marrow ...
November 2004). "Fat mobilization in adipose tissue is promoted by adipose triglyceride lipase". Science. 306 (5700): 1383-6. ... Because adipose tissue triglyceride is a major form of energy storage, the study of how ATGL regulation and dysregulation can ... Exercise and the Regulation of Adipose Tissue Metabolism". In Bouchard C (ed.). Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational ... June 2020). "Adipose Triglyceride Lipase Is a Key Lipase for the Mobilization of Lipid Droplets in Human β-Cells and Critical ...
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the ... Lönnqvist F, Arner P, Nordfors L, Schalling M (September 1995). "Overexpression of the obese (ob) gene in adipose tissue of ... This metabolic component related with the release of systemic factors, of a pro-inflammatory nature, by the adipose tissues, ...
... occurs in adipose tissue with increased body fat. In obese subjects, this remodeling is often pathological, ... Tissue remodeling is the reorganization or renovation of existing tissues. Tissue remodeling can be either physiological or ... Choe SS, Huh JY, Hwang IJ, Kim JI, Kim JB (2016). "Adipose Tissue Remodeling: Its Role in Energy Metabolism and Metabolic ... Itoh M, Suganami T, Hachiya R, Ogawa Y (2011). "Adipose tissue remodeling as homeostatic inflammation". International Journal ...
Korn ED, Quigley TW (June 1957). "Lipoprotein lipase of chicken adipose tissue". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 226 (2): ... Lynn WS, Perryman NC (July 1960). "Properties and purification of adipose tissue lipase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
Hou, Lianjie; Hu, Ching Yuan; Wang, Chong (April 2017). "Pig Has No Brown Adipose Tissue". The FASEB Journal. 31 (S1). doi: ... Non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue (brown fat) that is present in almost all eutherians (swine being ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiol. Rev. 84 (1): 277- ... Brown adipose tissue has a unique uncoupling protein (thermogenin, also known as uncoupling protein 1) that allows the ...
Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as hormones. Studies have shown that TNF-α and IL-6 ... Coppack SW (August 2001). "Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipose tissue". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 60 (3): ... A proinflammatory cytokine may be present in adipose tissues. Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. ... Both CD4+ and CD8 IL-17 producing T cells have been shown to cause aTH1, causing tissue inflammation and resulting in severe ...
Galic S, Oakhill JS, Steinberg GR (March 2010). "Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. ... leading to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance". Cell Metabolism. 19 (3): 512-26. doi:10.1016/j.cmet. ... In addition to the liver, RBP4 is also secreted by adipocytes of the fat tissue in a smaller portion and acts as a signal to ... It is suspected that an elevated level of RBP4 attracts macrophages to the fat tissue, causes local inflammation, and leads to ...
Coppack SW (August 2001). "Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipose tissue". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 60 (3): ... adipose tissue, fibroblasts, and neurons.[unreliable medical source?] Large amounts of TNF are released in response to ... TNFR1 is expressed in most tissues, and can be fully activated by both the membrane-bound and soluble trimeric forms of TNF, ... mTNF-α is mainly found on monocytes/macrophages where it interacts with tissue receptors by cell-to-cell contact. sTNF-α ...
Zhou, Haiying; Wan, Bo; Grubisic, Ivan; Kaplan, Tommy; Tjian, Robert (2014). "TAF7L modulates brown adipose tissue formation". ... it has now been found in white and brown adipose tissue, as well as in certain types of cancer. Studies conducted on knockout ... It was originally demonstrated to be a testis-specific gene based on RT-PCR experiments on tissue extracts, however, ... found that in Taf7L−/− (Taf7L knockout)animals have decreased fat pads that are infiltrated by skeletal muscle tissue. Using ...
Adipose tissue Hepatokines Myokines Mancuso P (May 2016). "The role of adipokines in chronic inflammation". ImmunoTargets and ... secreted by adipose tissue. Some contribute to an obesity-related low-grade state of inflammation or to the development of ... BioFactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". BioFactors. 37 (6): 413-420 ...
Cited 2993 times, June 2022 Kershaw, Erin E.; Flier, Jeffrey S. (2004-06). "Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ". The Journal ... "FGF21 regulates PGC-1α and browning of white adipose tissues in adaptive thermogenesis". Genes & Development. 26 (3): 271-281. ... "Development of obesity in transgenic mice after genetic ablation of brown adipose tissue". Nature. 366 (6457): 740-2. Bibcode: ...
... and adipose tissue (leptin and resistin). Endocrine glands derive from all three germ layers.[citation needed] The natural ... Thyroid tissue consists of follicles with a stored protein called colloid, containing[thyroglobulin], a precursor to other ... Endocrinology: Tissue Histology. Archived 2010-02-04 at the Wayback Machine the University of Nebraska at Omaha. "Adrenal gland ... Most T4 is converted to T3 (a more active form) in the target tissues. Calcitonin, produced by the parafollicular cells (C ...
"Plasma Acylation Stimulating Protein Concentration and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue C3 mRNA Expression in Nondiabetic and Type 2 ... Proteins, Hormones, Cytokines, Hormones of adipose tissue). ...
from the adipose tissue of Odontotermes obesus. Archiv für Protistenkunde 119 (3) v t e (Articles with short description, Short ...
In animals, adipose tissue, or fatty tissue is the body's means of storing metabolic energy over extended periods of time. ... Adipose tissue also secretes the hormone leptin. The location of the tissue determines its metabolic profile: visceral fat is ... Rendering, the melting of fat in adipose tissue, e.g. to produce tallow, lard, fish oil, and whale oil. Churning of milk to ... Various tissues can capture the chylomicrons, releasing the triglycerides to be used as a source of energy. Liver cells can ...
The basic criteria for Dercum's disease are patients with chronic pain in the adipose tissue (body fat) and patients who are ... Surgical removal of the damaged adipose tissue can be effective, but often the disease will recur. Few convincing large studies ... There are studies currently proposing several theories of the causes which include inflammation of the adipose tissue, nervous ... 2) Chronic pain in the adipose tissue. The associated symptoms in Dercum's disease include obesity, fatty deposits, easy ...
The primary role of insulin is to increase the metabolism of glucose, storage of energy in adipose tissue, and decrease the ... "Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue". Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. 93: S52-S59. doi:10.1016/S0168-8227(11) ...
... proton gradient generated by electron transport in mitochondria is used to produce heat instead of ATP in brown adipose tissue ... Dormancy is a general term applicable to any instance in which a tissue predisposed to elongate or grow in some other manner ... but not within the dormant tissue itself. Rest (winter dormancy) is a kind of physiological dormancy maintained by agents or ... plant species that exhibit dormancy have a biological clock that tells them when to slow activity and to prepare soft tissues ...
The epidural space is filled with adipose tissue, and it contains a network of blood vessels. The arachnoid mater, the middle ... "An investigation and validation of CT scan in detection of spinal epidural adipose tissue". Medicine. Wolters Kluwer. 99 (10): ... The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the ... The spinal cord (and brain) are protected by three layers of tissue or membranes called meninges, that surround the canal. The ...
Its expression in adipose tissues is increased following cold exposure. Genetic elevation of circulating PM20D1 in mice leads ...
These studies suggest that mouse Lect2 suppresses insulin signaling in skeletal muscle but not adipose or liver tissues of ... Several cell types or tissues, e.g. osteoblasts, chondrocytes, cardiac tissue, gastrointestinal smooth muscle cells, and ... which leads to its tissue deposition. However, there appears to be clear genetic variations that lead LECT2 tissue deposition. ... mRNA for LECT2 is highly expressed in liver tissue and expressed at far lower levels in a wide range of other tssues. Human ...
... even been found that norepinephrine may play a role in enhancing the uptake of glucose in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues. ... They are typically found inside the adrenal medulla, but can also be present right outside the adrenal medulla in tissue. ... The different physiological effects of these chemicals depend on the particular tissue that it innervates. As part of the ...
A cross talk between age-associated adipose tissue and skeletal muscle inflammation as a main mechanism of the pathogenesis". ...
... and the deep body musculature there is a transitional subcutaneous zone made up of very loose connective and adipose tissue, ... It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue and areolar connective tissue such as a collagen with elastin arranged in a ... The skin (integument) is a composite organ, made up of at least two major layers of tissue: the epidermis and the dermis. The ... The protein keratin stiffens epidermal tissue to form fingernails. Nails grow from a thin area called the nail matrix at an ...
Estrogen production in postmenopausal women mainly occurs in peripheral adipose tissue. Brain, skin, adipose tissue, normal ... High levels of estrogen in breast tissue increases the risk of developing breast cancer and the enzyme aromatase is considered ... breast tissue and breast cancer cells have aromatase but estrogen that is synthesised in breast tissue and around the cancer ...
The benefit to lymphatics function comes not only from the removal of subcutaneous adipose tissue, but also the all components ... Risk is increased when treated areas cover a greater percentage of the body, incisions are numerous, a large amount of tissue ... Seroma is a pooling of serum, the straw-colored liquid from blood, in areas where tissue has been removed. Paresthesias ( ... Illouz later developed the "wet" technique in which the fat tissue was injected with saline and hyaluronidase, which helped ...
... of biodistribution and engraftment into the liver of genetically modified mesenchymal stromal cells derived from adipose tissue ... These light organs are usually separate from the tissue containing the bioluminescent bacteria. However, in one species, ... it could have eventually resulted in external luminescence in tissues. Rees et al. use evidence gathered from the marine ...
... adipose tissue, and the adrenal glands. G6PD reduces NADP+ to NADPH while oxidizing glucose-6-phosphate. Glucose-6-phosphate ... The usual ratio of NADPH/NADP+ in the cytosol of tissues engaged in biosyntheses is about 100/1. Increased utilization of NADPH ... Of greater quantitative importance is the production of NADPH for tissues involved in biosynthesis of fatty acids or ... enzyme subject to tissue-specific regulation by hormones, nutrients, and oxidant stress". FASEB Journal. 8 (2): 174-81. doi: ...
No other trichomycterid has comparable organization of adipose tissue. Mesa-Salazar, L.; Mojica, J. (2016). "Rhizosomichthys ... totae are described as having 8 rings of connective fat encircling the body and two large sections of fat tissue on the ...
... support the idea of energy trade-offs in evolution as it found a negative correlation between encephalization and adipose ... brain tissue is energetically expensive and requires a great amount of energy compared to several other somatic tissues during ... The expensive tissue hypothesis (ETH) relates brain and gut size in evolution (specifically in human evolution). It suggests ... When considering the expensive tissue hypothesis, we also need to consider how the Energy Trade-off Hypothesis affects the body ...
Rothwell, N.; Stock, M. (1979). "A role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis". Nature. 281 (5726): 31-35. ... MacDonald, I. A.; Rothwell, N. J.; Stock, M. J. (1976). "Lipolytic and lipogenic activities of adipose tissue during ...
Since adipose tissue is a potential site of toxin accumulation, it is important to view the impacts that environmental toxins ... Gonadal heat can rise with an increase in fat or adipose tissue in the scrotum. Spermatogenesis is a temperature-sensitive ... Jackson E, Shoemaker R, Larian N, Cassis L (September 2017). "Adipose Tissue as a Site of Toxin Accumulation". Comprehensive ... the accumulation of environmental toxins in adipose tissue, and increased levels of oxidative stress as well as a higher ...
This results in the mice dying from hypoglycemia, or the reduced lipid accumulation in adipose tissue. The C/EBPs follow a ... regulate the development of a facultative root organ only present in leguminous plants and shown to be expressed in root tissue ...
... and adipose tissues. There is moderate expression in the brain, pancreas, mammary glands, and ovaries. Finally, there is little ... CD44 is an antigen found on the surface of most cell types and functions as a receptor that binds tissue macromolecules. ... Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization". J. Biol. Chem. 266 (25): 16653-8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(18) ...
In humans, ACTH has little lipolytic effect on adipose tissue. ACTH receptor activation also influences immune function. ... The ACTH receptor plays a role in glucose metabolism when expressed in white adipose cells. When bound to ACTH, a short-term ... "Melanocortin crosstalk with adipose functions: ACTH directly induces insulin resistance, promotes a pro-inflammatory adipokine ... and is expressed in greater concentrations when adipose cells differentiate. It is well known that levels of corticosterone ( ...
... the small intestine and adipose tissue. Factors that act upon the ABCA1 transporter's expression or its posttranslational ... It is present in higher quantities in tissues that shuttle or are involved in the turnover of lipids such as the liver, ...
... as the elbows do not develop adipose tissue. They presented weight ranges for height, sex and body frame (again associated with ...
"Increased adipose tissue expression of hepcidin in severe obesity is independent from diabetes and NASH". Gastroenterology. 131 ... The tumor tissue appeared to be overproducing hepcidin, and contained large quantities of hepcidin mRNA. Removing the tumors ... Although it is primarily synthesized in the liver, smaller amounts are synthesised in other tissues such as fat cells. Hepcidin ... condition known as the anemia of inflammation came from the lab of Nancy Andrews in Boston when researchers looked at tissue ...
It contains some adipose tissue, which can accumulate considerably in obese people. It is highly vascularised. The greater ... The functions of the greater omentum are: Fat deposition, having varying amounts of adipose tissue Immune contribution, having ... The omentum helps to restore tissue integrity in the peritoneum by connecting tissue repair with immunological defense. Upon ... This is due to its immunological function, whereby omental tissue seems to "surveil" the abdomen for infection and cover areas ...
... there are indications that the BDTH2-mercury-compound moves into adipose tissue. It is unknown, how BDTH2 works with methyl- ... In animal experiments, the amount of mercury in brain tissue was not increased, but also not decreased(can anyone provide a ...
... are formed in adipose tissue, improve glucose tolerance and also reduce adipose tissue inflammation. Palmitic acid esters of ... It is found at very low levels (nM) in most tissues and is inactivated by the fatty acid amide hydrolase. Subsequently, another ... It is present at approximately 100-times the concentration of anandamide in most tissues. Elevations in either of these lipids ... which then diffuses into the smooth muscle tissue and causes relaxation. DAG remains bound to the membrane by its fatty acid " ...
This particular gene is widely expressed, especially in tissues derived from the mesoderm during fetal development. The ... Wabitsch, Martin (January 2001). "Characterization of a human preadipocyte cell strain with high capacity for adipose ...
"Adipose Tissue: Structure, Function and Metabolism", in Caballero, Benjamin (ed.), Encyclopedia of Human Nutrition (Third ...
... syndromes characterized by abnormalities in adipose tissue distribution, and severe metabolic abnormalities. The FDA approved ... where people have a loss of fatty tissue under the skin and a build-up of fat elsewhere in the body such as in the liver and ...
However, later on it was found to be expressed in all types of cells including many non-adipose tissues. The function of ... Obesity is related with increase accumulation of lipid droplets in non-adipose tissues causing lipotoxicity. The expression of ... Perilipin 2 was thought to be expressed only in adipose tissues previously. ... Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2 , ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT ...
Kahn PC, Gochfeld M, Nyugen M, Hansson M, Rappe C, Velez H. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in blood and adipose tissue of Agent ... Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues. Am J Public Health. 1995;85:516- ...
Adipose tissue, when carried around in excessive amounts, predisposes to a large number of diseases. Epidemiological data show ... adipose tissue also plays a key role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. As such, our views of adipose tissue have ... Adipose tissue is highly vascularized, and the expansion of adipose mass involves the formation of new capillaries. Systemic ... extent on the ability to redistribute triglycerides to adipose tissue and to partition triglycerides within adipose tissue into ...
Is adipose tissue the key to unlocking the mechanism behind this association? ... Emerging data suggest that adipose tissue in obesity contributes to the disorders in several ways. First, adipose tissue ... In obesity, adipose tissue expansion induces multiple structural and functional changes in the body, which contribute to the ... Second, adipose tissue supplies a base for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 entry by overexpression of viral ...
... we explore the evolution and development of skin-associated adipose tissue with the goal of establishing nomenclature for this ... tissue. Underlying the reticular dermis, a thick layer of adipocytes exists that encases mature hair follicles in rodents and ... for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white adipose tissue, ... Defining dermal adipose tissue Exp Dermatol. 2014 Sep;23(9):629-31. doi: 10.1111/exd.12450. ...
Thus, the adipose tissue microvasculature could participate in obesity-associated inflammation and related complications v … ... Expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2 in human adipose tissue is predominantly detectable in endothelial cells and increased ... Severe obesity increases adipose tissue expression of interleukin-33 and its receptor ST2, both predominantly detectable in ... IL-33 and ST2 have been shown to be expressed in human and murine adipose tissue. Our objective was to investigate alterations ...
White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are the two main forms of adipose tissue in humans. WAT functions as ... White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are the two main forms of adipose tissue in humans. WAT functions as ... Following the identification of functional brown adipose tissue (BAT) in human adults, there has been a great deal of interest ... 1-alfa and thus promotes thermogenesis in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. FGF21 integrates several pathways allowing the ...
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) was thought to be a tissue with physiological import ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) was thought to be a tissue with physiological importance early in life (maintenance of body ... Brown adipose tissue and aging. Lecoultre, Virgile; Ravussin, Eric. Author Information Human Physiology, Pennington Biomedical ... Brown adipose tissue and aging : Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. ...
... to optimizing the thermogenic response by remodeling of the neuro-vascular networks in brown and white adipose tissue. ... show that adipocyte-secreted BMP8b contributes to adrenergic-induced remodeling of the neuro-vascular network in adipose tissue ... Activation of brown adipose tissue-mediated thermogenesis is a strategy for tackling obesity and promoting metabolic health. ... Adipose tissues (BAT, ScW, GnW), skeletal muscle and serum were collected from 12-week-old bmp8b WT and TG mice kept at 21 °C ...
Adipose tissue TNF-α and (b) IL-6. TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin-6; C (Control); HSF (High Sugar-Fat) ... a) Adipose tissue TNF-α and (b) IL-6. TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor alpha; IL-6: interleukin-6; C (Control); HSF (High Sugar-Fat ... 30 At the same time, hyperinsulinemia stimulates and increases the leptin secretion by adipose tissue through the PI3K/Akt/ ...
pericoronary epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity. (EAT). epicardial adipose tissue. (3D). three-dimensional. (DSCs). Dice ... A Novel 3-Dimensional technique in measuring pericoronary epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity. Lingyu Xu, Stanislau ... We have produced a novel, semiautomated technique to comprehensively quantify pericoronary epicardial adipose tissue ... A Novel 3-Dimensional technique in measuring pericoronary epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity ...
As a control, samples of adipose tissue obtained by needle fat biopsy from 12 obese persons without abnormal adipose tissue ... of Adv 36 to increase visceral adipose tissue in experimentally infected animals suggests that the abnormal adipose tissue ... Rogers PM, Mashtalir N, Rathod MA, Dubuisson O, Wang Z, Dasuri K, Metabolically favorable remodeling of human adipose tissue by ... A subcutaneous fat biopsy specimen was assayed for Adv 36 DNA by nested PCR (4). Three of 4 adipose tissue samples showed a ...
Subcutaneous adipose tissue - The adipose t. inclosed in subcutaneous t. ... SUBCUTANEOUS ADIPOSE TISSUE \sˌʌbkjuːtˈe͡ɪni͡əs ˈadɪpˌə͡ʊz tˈɪʃuː], \sˌʌbkjuːtˈe‍ɪni‍əs ˈadɪpˌə‍ʊz tˈɪʃuː], \s_ˌʌ_b_k_j_uː_t_ ...
In regards to medications that may affect adipose tissue inflammation, effects of liraglutide on adipose tissue specific ... As white adipose tissue dysfunction plays an essential role in inflammation and metabolic health, it would be beneficial to ... As such subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies and anthropometric and biochemical data were collected from obese-diabetic ... Understanding and evaluating cardio-metabolic benefits imposed by surgery, medication and adipose tissue metabolism ...
Hindsight: Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in Adipose Tissue. Saturday, November 17, 2012 With good access to both adipose tissue ... adipose tissue bariatric physicians bariatric surgery Best Weight body image cancer cardiovascular disease cardiovascular risk ... We also found that RBP4 was positively correlated with GLUT4 expression in adipose tissue, independent of any obesity- ... in which we reported the expression of retinol-binding protein 4 in human adipose tissue and showed that it behaved differently ...
"Moderate‐to‐Vigorous Physical Activity With Accelerometry is Associated With Visceral Adipose Tissue in Adults." Journal of the ... Moderate‐to‐Vigorous Physical Activity With Accelerometry is Associated With Visceral Adipose Tissue in Adults. ... and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community‐based sample. Methods and Results: We evaluated 1249 participants of the ... We examined the relation between objectively measured physical activity with accelerometry and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT ...
Human MSCs have been isolated from several tissue sources, including adipose tissues. Human adult adipose tissues are highly ... and microRNAs and Identification of microRNA Targets among Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Different Adipose Tissues ... and microRNAs and Identification of microRNA Targets among Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Different Adipose Tissues ... and microRNAs and Identification of microRNA Targets among Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Different Adipose Tissues ...
... significantly affects adipose tissue retention by maintaining healthy tissue formation and vascularization. The use of ... Adipose tissue injected in animals was affected by dexamethasone-loaded microspheres showing an improvement in mass and volume ... Histology of the extracted fat shows overall healthy adipose tissue morphology with the great presence of vascularity in the ... CONTROLLED DELIVERY SYSTEM FOR ADIPOSE TISSUE RETENTION. Arta Kelmendi-Doko, MD, PhD. University of Pittsburgh, 2016. v. empty ...
Hu Q, Lu Y, Hu F, He S, Xu X, Niu Y, Zhang H, Li X, Su Q. Resistant dextrin reduces obesity and attenuates adipose tissue ... Hu Q, Lu Y, Hu F, He S, Xu X, Niu Y, Zhang H, Li X, Su Q. Resistant dextrin reduces obesity and attenuates adipose tissue ... Keywords: Resistant dextrin, Obesity, Adipose tissue inflammation, NF-κB signaling pathway Citation styles. APA Copy. Hu, Q., ... Resistant dextrin reduces obesity and attenuates adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat diet-fed mice. Int J Med Sci. 17(17): ...
Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation is crucial to the development of obesity-associated insulin resistance. Our aim was to ... Cyclooxygenase-2 in adipose tissue macrophages limits adipose tissue dysfunction in obese mice ... Remodeling adipose tissue inflammasome for type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment: Current perspective and translational strategies ... inhibition of CD74 attenuates adipose COX-2-MIF-mediated M1 macrophage polarization and retards obesity-related adipose tissue ...
Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling from the adipose tissue plays a pivotal. * Post author By exposed ... Extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling from the adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of obesity. ... Furthermore, in white adipose cells from obese pets, BAPN avoided the downregulation of adiponectin and blood sugar transporter ... BAPN also ameliorated the upsurge in collagen content material that was seen in adipose cells from obese pets and improved many ...
Insulin Inhibition of Spontaneous Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Effects upon Fructose and Glucose Metabolism. E. R. FROESCH, H. ... Insulin Inhibition of Spontaneous Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Effects upon Fructose and Glucose Metabolism. E. R. FROESCH, H. ... Insulin Inhibition of Spontaneous Adipose Tissue Lipolysis and Effects upon Fructose and Glucose Metabolism. E. R. FROESCH, H. ... Glycerol release by adipose tissue of fasted-refed rats exceeded that of normal fed and diabetic rats. ...
Browning adipose tissue (BAT) activity is reduced which strengthens insulin re ... Activation of Browning Adipose Tissues by Placental Growth Factor RUILI YIN; RUILI YIN ... Browning adipose tissue (BAT) activity is reduced which strengthens insulin resistance in GDM. Placenta growth factor (PlGF) is ... RUILI YIN, JING ZHOU, CHUANHAI ZHANG, CEN YAN, WEI MA, NANNAN WU, DONG ZHAO, YINGMEI FENG; Activation of Browning Adipose ...
RNA-Seq of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) from HFD-fed WT and Brd4-CKO mice revealed that expression of antilipolytic factor ... Immunoblotting of p-AKT and total AKT in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of overnight fasting WT or Brd4. -CKO mice fed a HFD ... Brd4 modulates diet-induced obesity via PPARγ-dependent Gdf3 expression in adipose tissue macrophages. ... Brd4 modulates diet-induced obesity via PPARγ-dependent Gdf3 expression in adipose tissue macrophages. ...
Dynamics of adipose tissue turnover in human metabolic health and disease - published online 28/09/2018 All News ...
... and anti-inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue macrophages, the absence of which leads to disturbed adipose homeostasis. ... Then we isolated the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) from these mice and found that both the ... B) qPCR analysis of Tnf and Il10 mRNA in visceral adipose tissue of WT and TKO mice. (C and D) Flow cytometry of ATM population ... B and C) Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) weight (B) and VAT percentage of body weight (C) of WT and TKO mice at the age of 30 ...
White adipose tissue (WAT) functions as an anabolic organ to sequester and release FAs, in contrast brown adipose tissue (BAT) ... Adipose tissue (AT) is a critical regulator of energy balance through its ability to store or oxidize free fatty acids (FFAs). ... White adipose tissue (WAT) functions as an anabolic organ to sequester and release FAs, in contrast brown adipose tissue (BAT) ... Adipose tissue (AT) is a critical regulator of energy balance through its ability to store or oxidize free fatty acids (FFAs). ...
Polar bear adipose tissue-derived stem cells as an in vitro model for effects of environmental contaminants on adipogenesis. ... an in vitro method for studying effects of environmental contaminants on adipogenesis in polar bear by using adipose tissue- ...
Visceral adipose tissue depth and subcutaneous fat depth were measured, and each participant underwent a 75-g oral glucose ... Visceral adipose tissue depth and subcutaneous fat depth were measured, and each participant underwent a 75-g oral glucose ... Visceral adipose tissue depth and subcutaneous fat depth were measured, and each participant underwent a 75-g oral glucose ... Visceral adipose tissue depth and subcutaneous fat depth were measured, and each participant underwent a 75-g oral glucose ...
... in adipose tissues, leading to reduction of body weight gain and improvement in hepatic steatosis and glucose homeostasis. ... Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum was markedly reduced in individuals with increased visceral adipose tissue ( ... MG731 led to a decrease of wet weights of both inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) and gonadal adipose tissue (gWAT) in HFD- ... MG731 promote OXPHOS in the adipose tissue by potentiation of bile acid signaling. Expansion of the adipose tissue by ...
Derivation and Characterization of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue, Blood, and Placenta and Administration in ... 4 MSC can be derived from a variety of tissues-most commonly adipose, bone marrow, or placenta. This report describes the ... generation of mesenchymal stem cells from multiple tissue sources in the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) and ...
Castration differentially alters basal and leucine-stimulated tissue protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. ... Castration differentially alters basal and leucine-stimulated tissue protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. ... Castration differentially alters basal and leucine-stimulated tissue protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. ... Castration differentially alters basal and leucine-stimulated tissue protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. ...
  • IL-33 and ST2 expression levels were markedly elevated in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue of severely obese humans and in diet-induced obese mice, but not in leptin receptor-deficient db/db mice. (nih.gov)
  • Historically, this layer of adipocytes has been termed subcutaneous adipose, hypodermis and subcutis. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, the development of adipocytes in the skin is independent from that of subcutaneous adipose tissue development. (nih.gov)
  • What is the definition of Subcutaneous adipose tissue? (dictionary.net)
  • The adipose t. inclosed in subcutaneous t. (dictionary.net)
  • As such subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) biopsies and anthropometric and biochemical data were collected from obese-diabetic women before and after bariatric surgery. (bl.uk)
  • We did find that RBP4 was highly expressed in isolated mature human adipocytes and secreted by differentiating human adipocytes, however, in contrast to the animal data, RBP4 mRNA was downregulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women, and circulating RBP4 concentrations were similar in 74 normal weight, overweight, and obese women. (drsharma.ca)
  • Background: We examined the relation between objectively measured physical activity with accelerometry and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in a community‐based sample. (harvard.edu)
  • A transcriptomic research revealed a rise in LOX manifestation in subcutaneous white adipose cells from obese topics, but its pathophysiological relevance continues to be unclear (Henegar et al. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • We assessed how rapid weight loss due to a very low calorie diet (VLCD) affects the fecal microbiome and fecal bile acid composition, and their interactions with the plasma metabolome and subcutaneous adipose tissue inflammation in obesity. (altmetric.com)
  • To examine, in a proof-of-concept study, the ability of visceral adipose tissue depth and subcutaneous fat depth measured in early pregnancy to predict subsequent gestational diabetes, and to assess the performance of these measures as screening tests for gestational diabetes compared with use of the current UK criteria. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Visceral adipose tissue depth and subcutaneous fat depth were measured, and each participant underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks' gestation for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes using WHO 2013 criteria. (qub.ac.uk)
  • abstract = "Aim:To examine, in a proof-of-concept study, the ability of visceral adipose tissue depth and subcutaneous fat depth measured in early pregnancy to predict subsequent gestational diabetes, and to assess the performance of these measures as screening tests for gestational diabetes compared with use of the current UK criteria.Methods:A total of 100 women in early pregnancy were recruited from a maternity hospital in Belfast, UK. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Visceral adipose tissue depth and subcutaneous fat depth were measured, and each participant underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 28 weeks{\textquoteright} gestation for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes using WHO 2013 criteria.Results:Eighty women completed the study, of whom 15 (19%) developed gestational diabetes. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Examining the molecular signature of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) following different types of bariatric surgery may help in gaining further insight into their distinct metabolic impact. (ulaval.ca)
  • Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). (rush.edu)
  • Objective: To assess the conversion of E2 into estrone (E1) as well as the expression of 17β-HSD2 and its localization in omental (OM) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissues obtained from women. (medscape.com)
  • Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous Adipose Tissue (SAT) were defined by the Hologic APEX software used in the scan analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • Ultrasonography-measured visceral adipose tissue in early pregnancy is a potential clinical tool for improving sensitivity of selective screening for gestational diabetes, which, compared with universal oral glucose tolerance testing, is likely to reduce by half the numbers requiring this test. (qub.ac.uk)
  • Based on gut microbial analysis from 99 Korean individuals, we observed the abundance of Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium bifidum was markedly reduced in individuals with increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT), body mass index (BMI), blood triglyceride (TG), and fatty liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using 99 Korean human stool samples, 16S rRNA-based analysis showed that the abundance of Bifidobacterium longum and bifidum is negatively associated with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), body mass index (BMI), waist circumstance (WC), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γGTP), blood triglyceride (TG), and fatty liver. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Visceral adipose tissue area, mass and volume of fat inside abdominal cavity were measured at the approximate interspace location of L4 and L5 vertebra. (cdc.gov)
  • Objectives This study aimed to investigate a novel semi-automated three-dimensional (3D) quantification of the pericoronary epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity (PCATrd). (medrxiv.org)
  • The PCATrd was measured in ITK-SNAP imaging software using a Hounsfield unit threshold (−190,-3) to define epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). (medrxiv.org)
  • We have produced a novel, semiautomated technique to comprehensively quantify pericoronary epicardial adipose tissue radiodensity (PCATrd) which is a novel imaging biomarker of coronary inflammation. (medrxiv.org)
  • In addition, following exposure to cold or exercise, FGF21 induces upregulation of local peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1-alfa and thus promotes thermogenesis in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. (frontiersin.org)
  • This study assessed the effect of acute, virilizing testosterone on serum insulin concentrations and insulin signaling in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose tissue (WAT) of female pigs as a translational model for transgender men. (illinois.edu)
  • Somatic reflex arcs stimulate skeletal muscle tissue. (homeworkclinic.com)
  • This photomicrograph revealed histopathologic changes found in a skeletal muscle tissue harvested from the gastrocnemius muscle, of a patient with a fatal case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), also known as pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy. (cdc.gov)
  • In long-term denervated muscle, where reinnvervation is delayed, functional recovery is poor due to the progressive replacement of muscle tissue by fibrous connective tissue and fat [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Delicate connective tissue has been stripped from the esophageal wall. (stanford.edu)
  • The matrix contains long, slender rods and connective tissue fiber in a substance similar to soft-set gelatin. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • This fiber helps connective tissue to do its job, to directly or indirectly connect body parts together. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • They join connective tissue to neighboring tissue. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • It is a loose connective tissue that is specialized to store fat. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • It is the strong and flexible connective tissue found in the skeleton of all vertebrate embryos. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells ( ADIPOCYTES ). (bvsalud.org)
  • As the master regulator of systemic lipid storage and through secretion of a number of these adipokines, adipose tissue has an influence on many processes, including energy metabolism, inflammation, and pathophysiological changes such as cancer and infectious disease ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At the interface of energy metabolism and inflammation, adipose tissue also plays a key role in the development of the metabolic syndrome. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) burns fat to produce heat when the body is exposed to cold and plays a role in energy metabolism. (jci.org)
  • Activated brown adipose tissue (BAT) has beneficial effects on lipid metabolism-for example, after cold exposure BAT "promotes the clearance of excessive triglycerides in the plasma by increasing lipid uptake into BAT," where it is subsequently metabolized to create heat (thermogenesis) (Yuan, 2017). (life-enhancement.com)
  • The in vitro metabolism of fructose and glucose and the glycerol release by adipose tissue of normal fed, fasted-refed, acutely and chronically diabetic rats were studied and the effects of insulin were investigated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This role includes effects of vitamin D on key adipose tissue and adipocyte biology parameters, including adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and inflammation. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • [ 5 , 6 ] Many aspects of oestrogenic action remain to be clarified, but most investigators agree that estradiol (E2) likely plays an important role in the regulation of adipose tissue function and metabolism (reviewed in). (medscape.com)
  • which produces hormones), or changes in the deposition and breakdown of fat (adipose tissue metabolism). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Activation of brown adipose tissue-mediated thermogenesis is a strategy for tackling obesity and promoting metabolic health. (nature.com)
  • The safest way to increase BAT (brown adipose tissue) thermogenesis is by exposure to cold (Yuan, 2017). (life-enhancement.com)
  • Increased thermogenesis in BAT was detected by the induction of "beige" tissue formation (in which WAT, white adipose tissue, is converted to a more BAT-like form, a process called "browning"), activating SIRT1/PPARgamma coactivator (PGC)-1alpha/mitochondrial transcription factor, increasing the number of mitochondria, and increasing UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) activity. (life-enhancement.com)
  • This receptor is located mainly in the adipose tissue and is involved in the regulation of lipolysis and thermogenesis. (discoverx.com)
  • Dex microsphere-containing, dose of 27 mg double-walled microspheres samples demonstrated greater adipose tissue retention (80±12%) compared to the control group (10±7.3%) at 6 months time point. (pitt.edu)
  • It is seen that skinny individuals have greater adipose tissue BAT levels in their body, while obese or overweight individuals have lower brown adipose levels in the body. (youth-knowledge.net)
  • Thus, we propose a refined nomenclature for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white adipose tissue, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • With good access to both adipose tissue biopsies and primary cultured human adipocytes, in the early 2000s, my lab in Berlin continued to conduct a number of exploratory studies on protein expression in human fat tissue. (drsharma.ca)
  • Thus, our findings revealed profound differences between what was previously reported in rodents and what we found in humans in the regulation of adipose or circulating RBP4 - in contrast to rodents, it appears that glucose uptake by human adipocytes is not an important determinant in the regulation of RBP4. (drsharma.ca)
  • This transitional period involves developmental changes in both fat tissue and in the brain in which both can be re-programmed by exposure to stress which can cause long-lasting changes in the size of fat cells (adipocytes) size and composition, as well as social behavior. (eurekalert.org)
  • Adipocytes could act as antigen presenting cells via expression of key molecules for antigen presentation in obese adipose tissue. (molcells.org)
  • The cellular and molecular events of adipose tissue dysfunction leading to severe COVID-19 will be discussed in this review. (medscape.com)
  • The potential mechanistic links between obesity and COVID-19 severity from physiologic changes, comorbidities, immune system impairment, and adipose tissue dysfunction. (medscape.com)
  • As white adipose tissue dysfunction plays an essential role in inflammation and metabolic health, it would be beneficial to therefore investigate the influence of surgery, endocrine hormones, and medication that mitigate adipose tissue inflammation and as a result improve cardio-metabolic disease. (bl.uk)
  • Consequently, our data offer proof that LOX takes on a pathologically relevant part in the metabolic dysfunction induced by weight problems and emphasise the eye of book pharmacological interventions that focus on adipose cells fibrosis and LOX activity for the medical management of the disease. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Lately, fibrosis continues to be recognised as an essential participant in adipose cells dysfunction in weight problems. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Nevertheless, its contribution to adipose cells dysfunction in weight problems is not clearly established. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • This report describes the generation of mesenchymal stem cells from multiple tissue sources in the giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata ) and subsequent characterization and administration to multiple giraffes with severe orthopedic dysfunction. (vin.com)
  • Adipose tissue dysfunction and impaired metabolic health in human obesity: a matter of oxygen? (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • Brown fat is a type fatty tissue with a higher concentration of mitochondria than white fat. (dailyindependentng.com)
  • Tumor Necrosis Receptor Superfamily Interact with Fusion and Fission of Mitochondria of Adipose Tissue in. (tbdb.org)
  • Here, we demonstrate that transgenic targeting of OGG1 to mitochondria confers significant protection from diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and adipose tissue inflammation. (luciolepharma.com)
  • Because of this, whatever fat you take in, the fatty particles will certainly be saved in the white adipose, which doesn't consist of various mitochondria. (youth-knowledge.net)
  • 30 At the same time, hyperinsulinemia stimulates and increases the leptin secretion by adipose tissue through the PI3K/Akt/ mTOR pathway, which can explain the increased leptin levels in the ROb animals that did not present increased body fat. (researchgate.net)
  • SIMPLE CUBOIDAL epithelial tissue is specializes for secretion. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Neutrophils, which are early responders to inflammatory responses, infiltrate the adipose tissue where they secrete elastase and also stimulate M1 type macrophage infiltration and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. (molcells.org)
  • In conclusion, RD reduces obesity and attenuates adipose tissue inflammation in HFD-fed mice, and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling may be a presumed mechanism for its effects. (medsci.org)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are the two main forms of adipose tissue in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) was thought to be a tissue with physiological importance early in life (maintenance of body temperature) and to disappear after birth. (lww.com)
  • The developmental origins of brown adipose depots as well as transcription factors involved in their differentiation have recently been described. (lww.com)
  • Cold-induced activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) enables energy dissipation in the form of heat through uncoupling of fatty acid oxidation from adenosine triphosphate production 1 . (nature.com)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) functions as an anabolic organ to sequester and release FAs, in contrast brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a catabolic organ that oxidizes FAs. (wayne.edu)
  • Brown adipose tissue does not seem to mediate metabolic adaptation to " by Courtney M. Peterson, Mahdi Orooji et al. (lsu.edu)
  • Objective: Brown adipose tissue (BAT) generates heat in response to cold, and low BAT activity has been linked to obesity. (lsu.edu)
  • Do Women'S Bodies Create More Brown Adipose Tissue After Pregnancy? (dailyindependentng.com)
  • It could improve insulin sensitivity by activating brown adipose tissues in the body. (dailyindependentng.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in mouse brown adipose tissue. (who.int)
  • Muralidhara DV, Desautels M. Alcohol dehydrogenase activity in mouse brown adipose tissue. (who.int)
  • The present work provides evidence for the occurrence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) in very minute concentration in mice brown adipose tissue (BAT). (who.int)
  • The Exipure formula helps burn excess weight by increasing brown adipose tissue in the body. (onestopreviewshop.com)
  • What is brown adipose tissue, and also exactly how can it aid you manage excessive weight? (youth-knowledge.net)
  • It works by transforming the regular white fat to brown fat, also called brown adipose fat. (4nutritionalsupplements.com)
  • The results from the typical peroxisome proliferator, Wy-14643, may not always be similar to those of DEHP: Future studies are needed using hPPARalpha(TetOff), which expresses the human receptor only in liver, or hPPARalpha(PAC), which expresses the human receptor not only in liver but also in kidney, heart, intestine and brown adipose tissues, mouse models to elucidate the role of human PPARalpha in DEHP carcinogenesis. (cdc.gov)
  • In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT . (bvsalud.org)
  • First, adipose tissue restricts the pulmonary function by generation of mechanical pressures to promote systemic hypoxia. (medscape.com)
  • In obese subjects, gradual weight loss ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation and related systemic changes. (altmetric.com)
  • Here, we demonstrated that myeloid lineage-specific Brd4 knockout (Brd4-CKO) mice were protected from high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) obesity with less fat accumulation, higher energy expenditure, and increased lipolysis in adipose tissue. (jci.org)
  • AIM: Since GH stimulates lipolysis in vivo after a 2-hr lag phase, we studied whether this involves GH signaling and gene expression in adipose tissue (AT). (au.dk)
  • RNA-Seq of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) from HFD-fed WT and Brd4-CKO mice revealed that expression of antilipolytic factor Gdf3 was significantly decreased in ATMs of Brd4-CKO mice. (jci.org)
  • ATMs, adipose tissue macrophages. (jci.org)
  • Consequently, macrophages residing in the adipose tissues from myeloid-specific miRNA triple knockout mice spontaneously developed inflammatory phenotypes and displayed alterations of overall physiological conditions as evidenced by obesity and compromised glucose tolerance. (elifesciences.org)
  • Macrophages play an essential role in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and in innate immunity. (elifesciences.org)
  • In response to various environmental cues, tissue resident macrophages display a wide spectrum of phenotypes ranging from highly inflammatory ones typically observed upon infections to homeostatic ones during the processes of tissue repair. (elifesciences.org)
  • In lean adipose tissue, IL-4 secreted by eosinophils and Th2 cells activates M2 type macrophages, which express arginase and anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10. (molcells.org)
  • Inflammation markers and macrophage infiltration in epididymal adipose tissue were observed. (medsci.org)
  • In addition, RD supplementation reduced macrophage infiltration, regulated polarization of macrophage and inhibited NF-κB signaling in epididymal adipose tissue. (medsci.org)
  • n=20) matched for age and sex, as well as diet-induced obese and db/db mice, in order to determine the impact of obesity on IL-33 and ST2 gene and protein expression levels in adipose tissue and blood, and their correlation with inflammatory and metabolic parameters. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, we examined whether RD attenuates obesity and adipose tissue inflammation in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. (medsci.org)
  • C ) Immunoblotting of p-AKT and total AKT in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of overnight fasting WT or Brd4 -CKO mice fed a HFD for 20 weeks with saline or insulin (1 unit/kg) injection. (jci.org)
  • Human data were corroborated in adipose-specific GH receptor knockout (FaGHRKO) mice versus wild-type mice. (au.dk)
  • Male mice showed a life-long decrease in sociability as their adipose tissue increased but, interestingly, female mice showed no such effect. (eurekalert.org)
  • Though certain FDA-approved drugs can promote the "browning" of white adipose tissue (WAT), they may be far more likely to have unwanted side effects than rutin-for example, rosiglitazone or beta-adrenergic agonist drugs (such as clenbuterol) have been reported to promote such "browning," but are said not to be used in clinical practice for this purpose due to side effects. (life-enhancement.com)
  • Furthermore, in white adipose cells from obese pets, BAPN avoided the downregulation of adiponectin and blood sugar transporter 4 (GLUT4), aswell as the upsurge in suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) amounts, triggered from the HFD. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Adipose Tissue, White" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Adipose Tissue, White" by people in this website by year, and whether "Adipose Tissue, White" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Adipose Tissue, White" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • The DNA Repair Protein OGG1 Protects Against Obesity by Altering Mitochondrial Energetics in White Adipose Tissue. (luciolepharma.com)
  • These favorable metabolic phenotypes are mediated by an increase in whole body energy expenditure driven by specific metabolic adaptations, including increased mitochondrial respiration in white adipose tissue of OGG1 transgenic (Ogg1Tg) animals. (luciolepharma.com)
  • Active ingredients in Exipure such as White Korean Ginseng, Kudzu, and holy basil service increasing Brownish Adipose Tissue degrees in your body. (youth-knowledge.net)
  • These tissues keep the fats similar to the white adipose. (youth-knowledge.net)
  • Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white. (bvsalud.org)
  • The benefits of SVF use in regenerative medicine were originally attributed to the ability of the adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to differentiate into the cells of the damaged tissues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In people with adiposis dolorosa, abnormal fatty tissue or lipomas can occur anywhere on the body but are most often found on the torso, buttocks, and upper parts of the arms and legs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Consider this as an advanced cycle making the process of fat deposition in adipose tissue possible. (pdxfoodpress.com)
  • Metabolic syndrome (syndrome X, insulin resistance) is a multifactorial disease with multiple risk factors that arises from insulin resistance accompanying abnormal adipose deposition and function. (medscape.com)
  • Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation of the adipose tissue, which contributes to obesity-associated complications such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the adipose tissue microvasculature could participate in obesity-associated inflammation and related complications via IL-33/ST2. (nih.gov)
  • We also found that RBP4 was positively correlated with GLUT4 expression in adipose tissue, independent of any obesity-associated variable. (drsharma.ca)
  • Viral DNA was isolated from brain, lung, liver, muscle, and adipose tissue of monkeys 7 months after initial infection, long after the active virus has disappeared from blood and feces ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
  • IL-33 expression strongly correlated with leptin expression in human adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Current methods for evaluating adipose tissue function are destructive or have low spatial resolution. (tufts.edu)
  • Methods: Rates of 14 C-E1 formation from 14 C-E2 were measured in OM and SC adipose tissue homogenates from 29 women. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers have also suggested that adiposis dolorosa could be an autoimmune disorder, which occurs when the immune system malfunctions and attacks the body's own tissues and organs. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, sometimes the response to infection may damage the body's own tissues and organs, leading to a life-threatening condition called sepsis. (elifesciences.org)
  • Interest has been focused on differentiating anatomical, molecular, and physiological characteristics of the types of mammalian adipose tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • Several studies bring strong evidence for an active role of vitamin D and its metabolites in physiological adipocyte and adipose tissue processes in adulthood. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Also, in these pets, BAPN ameliorates the disruptions in the adipose cells manifestation of adiponectin, blood sugar transporter 4 (GLUT4), buy 76584-70-8 suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) and dipeptidyl peptidase 4, all protein mixed up in control of insulin level of sensitivity. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • To the best of our knowledge, no study investigated 17β-HSD2 activity and localization in abdominal adipose tissues of women. (medscape.com)
  • Biopsy of adipose tissue identified human adenovirus 36 (Adv 36) DNA. (cdc.gov)
  • The main source for IL-33 in adipose tissue were endothelial cells, which, in humans, exclusively expressed ST2 on their surface. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of IL-33 and its receptor ST2 in human adipose tissue is predominantly detectable in endothelial cells and increased by severe obesity indicating an autocrine action. (nih.gov)
  • BAPN also ameliorated the upsurge in collagen content material that was seen in adipose cells from obese pets and improved many metabolic guidelines C it ameliorated blood sugar and insulin amounts, reduced homeostasis model evaluation (HOMA) index and decreased plasma triglyceride amounts. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • 2008). Consequently, the purpose of this research was to explore the part of LOX activity in adipose cells remodelling and in the metabolic disruptions associated with weight problems. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • Outcomes This research analyses the part of LOX in adipose cells remodelling through the use of three experimental systems: adipose cells examples from obese people that had been known for bariatric medical procedures (weight loss operation), an pet style of diet-induced weight problems and cell-based research. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The writers demonstrate that LOX may be the primary lysyl oxidase isoenzyme indicated in Rabbit polyclonal to ZFP161 human being adipose cells and that it's upregulated in examples from both obese people and rats given a high-fat diet plan. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • In obese rats, the inhibition of LOX activity through -aminopropionitrile (BAPN, a particular inhibitor of LOX activity) decreases adipose cells fibrosis, partly corrects the adipocyte-size distribution design (moving it toward smaller sized sizes) and attenuates the upsurge in bodyweight and extra fat mass. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • The aim of this thesis was to develop an in vitro method for studying effects of environmental contaminants on adipogenesis in polar bear by using adipose tissue-derived stem cells derived from polar bear (pbASCs). (uib.no)
  • ZnS-ZAIS-SO3H could be transduced into mouse adipose tissue-derived stem cells (mASCs) using octaarginine peptides (R8), known as cell-penetrating peptides. (elsevier.com)
  • This study provides new insights into how adipose tissue-derived cells might provide therapeutic benefits by preserving muscle tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • showed in an experimental animal model that injections of in vitro-stimulated adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) into denervated muscle reduced the atrophy and enhanced hind limb functionality [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the other cell types found in SVF, such as endothelial cells (and their progenitors) and pericytes, are important modulators of tissue regeneration. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Tissues are groups of cells with a common structure and function. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Epithelial tissue is categorized by the number of LAYERS and the SHAPES of the free surface of the cells. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • The fat is stored in adipose cells distributed throughout its matrix. (scienceoutlined.com)
  • Interactions of adipose tissue immune cells. (molcells.org)
  • However, in obese adipose tissue the number of pro-inflammatory immune cells is increased and that of anti-inflammatory immune cells is decreased. (molcells.org)
  • In addition, levels of IFN-γ-secreting cell types, such as Th1 cells, CD8 T cells, and mast cells, are elevated in obese adipose tissue. (molcells.org)
  • Banking of Adipose- and Cord Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: Technical and Regulatory Issues. (bvsalud.org)
  • This cross section of the muscle, shows extensive replacement of muscle fibers, by adipose, or fat cells. (cdc.gov)
  • The virus DNA apparently continues to alter gene expression chronically in tissues. (cdc.gov)
  • Total protein is ready for immediate use in Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, isoelectric focusing gels and SDS-capillary electrophoresis, enzymatic activity analysis, gel shifting assay, protein-protein interaction, and tissue specific expression. (delos.info)
  • In 2006, we published a paper in Diabetes , in which we reported the expression of retinol-binding protein 4 in human adipose tissue and showed that it behaved differently than in rodents. (drsharma.ca)
  • Five percent weight loss slightly decreased adipose RBP4 expression but did not influence circulating RBP4. (drsharma.ca)
  • Venous glucose concentrations were similar throughout oral glucose tolerance testing, and basal RBP4 expression in adipose tissue and serum RBP4 concentrations were similar in the groups with higher and lower interstitial glucose levels. (drsharma.ca)
  • Outcome measures included mixed model correlations between changes in fecal microbiota and bile acid composition with changes in plasma metabolite and adipose tissue gene expression pathways. (altmetric.com)
  • Furthermore, several fecal bile acids and bacterial species correlated with altered gene expression pathways in adipose tissue. (altmetric.com)
  • Protective role of antioxidant vitamins on insulin receptor and glucose transporter 4 on expression in adipose tissue of PCB - induced experimental rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • After 30 days of treatment, adipose tissue was dissected out and used for the assessment of mRNA expression of insulin signaling molecules such as insulin receptor and GLUT4. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Conclusion: The present findings conclude that the antioxidant vitamins (C and E) attenuate PCB induced insulin resistance in adipose tissues via the activation of the insulin receptor and GLUT4 expression. (alliedacademies.org)
  • 17β-HSD2 mRNA expression was measured in whole OM and SC adipose tissues ( n = 14). (medscape.com)
  • [ 8 ] In another publication, [ 10 ] we have shown that 17β-HSD2 expression and activity were higher in OM than in SC adipose tissue of men. (medscape.com)
  • In obesity, adipose tissue expansion induces multiple structural and functional changes in the body, which contribute to the development of severe COVID-19 [ 8 , 9 ] (Figure 1). (medscape.com)
  • This review describes the mechanisms by which FGF21 induces "browning" of adipose tissue and how it may have a role in the treatment of human metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • GLUT4 is the insulin-regulated glucose transporter found primarily in adipose tissues and striated muscle. (alliedacademies.org)
  • We postulate that these abnormal adipose tissue deposits were caused by Adv 36 infection. (cdc.gov)
  • In a new study, scientists led by Professor Carmen Sandi at EPFL, have found that stress during the peripubertal period leads to increases in adipose tissue in the individual's body. (eurekalert.org)
  • WAT and BAT are the two main subtypes of adipose tissue in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adipose tissue microbiota in humans: an open issue. (cdc.gov)
  • IL-33 and ST2 have been shown to be expressed in human and murine adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Human MSCs have been isolated from several tissue sources, including adipose tissues. (novapublishers.com)
  • Human adult adipose tissues are highly abundant and relatively easy to procure with low risk. (novapublishers.com)
  • The aim of this study was to develop and examine a controlled delivery system of dexamethasone (Dex) to generate stable adipose tissue when mixed with disaggregated human fat in an athymic mouse model for up to six months. (pitt.edu)
  • [ 8 , 9 ] These enzymes are widely distributed in human tissues, not only in steroidogenic tissues such as the testis, ovary and placenta, but also in peripheral sites including adipose tissue. (medscape.com)
  • Concern about potential risks to human health and the environment has centered on the persistence of these chemicals in the environment, thir tendency to bioaccumulate, their detection in several food items and in human adipose tissue and milk, their tendency to leach or escape from finished products during normal operation, and the release of polybrominated dibenzofurans and polybrominated dibenzodioxins as breakdown products under certain conditions. (who.int)
  • Browning adipose tissue (BAT) activity is reduced which strengthens insulin resistance in GDM. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Our objective was to investigate alterations in obesity and a possible role of IL-33 in adipose tissue inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • Here, some molecular aspects of the key constituent of adipose tissue, the adipocyte, are reviewed. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As such, our views of adipose tissue have changed significantly over the past 20 years. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Controlled delivery of adipogenic factors, such as dexamethasone via polymer microspheres, significantly affects adipose tissue retention by maintaining healthy tissue formation and vascularization. (pitt.edu)
  • Adiposis dolorosa is a condition characterized by painful folds of fatty (adipose) tissue or the growth of multiple noncancerous (benign) fatty tumors called lipomas. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Lipomas are benign in tumors originated from adipose tissue. (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we show that adipocyte-secreted BMP8b contributes to adrenergic-induced remodeling of the neuro-vascular network in adipose tissue (AT). (nature.com)
  • Interestingly, recent data also point to a role of maternal vitamin D deficiency in adipocyte and adipose tissue metabolic programming in offspring. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the biological effect of vitamin D on adipocyte/adipose tissue physiology. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Once secreted into circulation, it participates in angiogenesis in peripheral tissues. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • However, oestrogens are also produced locally in peripheral tissues of women and men, especially adipose tissues, through aromatization of androgens. (medscape.com)
  • Emerging data suggest that adipose tissue in obesity contributes to the disorders in several ways. (medscape.com)