Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.TriglyceridesAdipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Panniculitis: General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Mice, Inbred C57BLEnergy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Obesity, Morbid: The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of oleoyl-CoA, A, and water from stearoyl-CoA, AH2, and oxygen where AH2 is an unspecified hydrogen donor.Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue: Neoplasms composed of fatty tissue or connective tissue made up of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in adipose tissue.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.Glucose Clamp Technique: Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.Weight Loss: Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Costa RicaHypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Metabolic Diseases: Generic term for diseases caused by an abnormal metabolic process. It can be congenital due to inherited enzyme abnormality (METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS) or acquired due to disease of an endocrine organ or failure of a metabolically important organ such as the liver. (Stedman, 26th ed)Glucose Intolerance: A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.Microdialysis: A technique for measuring extracellular concentrations of substances in tissues, usually in vivo, by means of a small probe equipped with a semipermeable membrane. Substances may also be introduced into the extracellular space through the membrane.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Lipomatosis: A disorder characterized by the accumulation of encapsulated or unencapsulated tumor-like fatty tissue resembling LIPOMA.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseHomeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Hyperinsulinism: A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Linoleic Acids, Conjugated: A collective term for a group of around nine geometric and positional isomers of LINOLEIC ACID in which the trans/cis double bonds are conjugated, where double bonds alternate with single bonds.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase: An enzyme that, in the presence of ATP and COENZYME A, catalyzes the cleavage of citrate to yield acetyl CoA, oxaloacetate, ADP, and ORTHOPHOSPHATE. This reaction represents an important step in fatty acid biosynthesis. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.8.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Malate Dehydrogenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of (S)-malate and NAD+ to oxaloacetate and NADH. EC 1.1.1.37.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Caloric Restriction: Reduction in caloric intake without reduction in adequate nutrition. In experimental animals, caloric restriction has been shown to extend lifespan and enhance other physiological variables.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Thigh: The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.Growth Hormone: A polypeptide that is secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Growth hormone, also known as somatotropin, stimulates mitosis, cell differentiation and cell growth. Species-specific growth hormones have been synthesized.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.DioxolesClenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized: Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic: Surface antigens expressed on myeloid cells of the granulocyte-monocyte-histiocyte series during differentiation. Analysis of their reactivity in normal and malignant myelomonocytic cells is useful in identifying and classifying human leukemias and lymphomas.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Chemokine CCL2: A chemokine that is a chemoattractant for MONOCYTES and may also cause cellular activation of specific functions related to host defense. It is produced by LEUKOCYTES of both monocyte and lymphocyte lineage and by FIBROBLASTS during tissue injury. It has specificity for CCR2 RECEPTORS.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic: A type of diabetes mellitus that is characterized by severe INSULIN RESISTANCE and LIPODYSTROPHY. The latter may be generalized, partial, acquired, or congenital (LIPODYSTROPHY, CONGENITAL GENERALIZED).Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Hormones: Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.PPAR alpha: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR GAMMA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS. It is the target of FIBRATES to control HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma: Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Glucosephosphate DehydrogenaseFatty Acid Synthase, Type I: Animal form of fatty acid synthase which is encoded by a single gene and consists of seven catalytic domains and is functional as a homodimer. It is overexpressed in some NEOPLASMS and is a target in humans of some ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS and some ANTI-OBESITY AGENTS.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Mesentery: A layer of the peritoneum which attaches the abdominal viscera to the ABDOMINAL WALL and conveys their blood vessels and nerves.Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Cachexia: General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.Diet, Reducing: A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
(1/12479) Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis.

Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program.  (+info)

(2/12479) Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine.

In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids.  (+info)

(3/12479) Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles.

Lipase [EC 3.1.1.3] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles.  (+info)

(4/12479) Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor.

The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes...  (+info)

(5/12479) Immunocytochemically detected free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) are a strong prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma.

We prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) in a series of 118 patients with completely resected gastric carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Ber-Ep4 was performed on cytospins from intraoperative peritoneal lavage specimens. Twenty-three patients (20%) had FPTC which was significantly correlated with pT and pN categories, stage, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, Lauren and WHO classifications and perigastric adipose tissue metastases. The median survival time for all FPTC positive compared with negative patients was significantly shorter (11 compared with >72 months), with estimated 5-year survival rates of 8% vs. 60%. None of the patients with FPTC had an early gastric cancer. In advanced tumour subgroups without and with serosal invasion (n = 59 and 35), there were 19% and 34% with FPTC. Multivariate survival analysis showed nodal status, FPTC, mesenteric lymphangiosis, and lymph node metastasis to the compartment III to be independent prognostic factors with relative risks of 6.6, 4.5, 2.9 and 2.2 respectively. Recurrent disease occurred in 91% of FPTC-positive and in 38% of FPTC-negative patients. FPTC had a positive predictive value of 91% and a specificity of 97% for tumour recurrence. FPTC is a strong negative, independent prognostic indicator for survival in gastric carcinoma.  (+info)

(6/12479) Changes in body composition and leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children with various GH secretory capacities.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to follow changes in body composition, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in relation to changes in leptin during the first year of GH therapy in order to test the hypothesis that leptin is a metabolic signal involved in the regulation of GH secretion in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 33 prepubertal children were investigated. Their mean (S.D.) chronological age at the start of GH treatment was 11.5 (1.6) years, and their mean height was -2.33 (0.38) S.D. scores (SDS). GH was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 0.1 (n=26) or 0.2 (n=7) IU/kg body weight. Ten children were in the Swedish National Registry for children with GH deficiency, and twenty-three children were involved in trials of GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Spontaneous 24-h GH secretion was studied in 32 of the children. In the 24-h GH profiles, the maximum level of GH was determined and the secretion rate estimated by deconvolution analysis (GHt). Serum leptin levels were measured at the start of GH treatment and after 10 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Body composition measurements, by DXA, were performed at baseline and 12 months after the onset of GH treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of GH treatment, mean height increased from -2.33 to -1.73 SDS and total body fat decreased significantly by 3.0 (3.3)%. Serum leptin levels were decreased significantly at all time points studied compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation between the change in total body fat and the change in serum leptin levels during the 12 months of GH treatment, whereas the leptin concentration per unit fat mass did not change. In a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with 12 month change in leptin levels as the dependent variable, the percentage change in fat over 12 months, the baseline fat mass (%) of body mass and GHt accounted for 24.0%, 11.5% and 12.2% of the variability respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant correlations between changes in leptin and fat and endogenous GH secretion in short children with various GH secretory capacities. Leptin may be the messenger by which the adipose tissue affects hypothalamic regulation of GH secretion.  (+info)

(7/12479) Extremely low values of serum leptin in children with congenital generalized lipoatrophy.

Congenital generalized lipoatrophy (CGL) is a syndrome with multiple clinical manifestations and complete atrophy of adipose tissue. The exact mechanism of this disease remains unknown. One hypothesis presupposes an abnormal development of adipocytes. Leptin, the adipocyte-specific product of the ob gene, acts as a regulatory factor of body weight. In children, as in adults, leptin levels are correlated with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass. Some authors have demonstrated that adults with congenital or acquired generalized lipoatrophy have decreased leptin concentrations. In order to study serum leptin profile during childhood in this disease, we measured serum leptin concentrations in six children aged 5.5-11 years suffering from CGL, and investigated the relationship between metabolic parameters and the variations in leptin levels. Serum leptin concentrations (1.19+/-0.32 ng/ml (+/- S.D.)) were extremely low compared with those observed in normal children. No significant correlation was found with BMI, which is known to be one of the major determinants of serum leptin. Serum leptin values were significantly correlated with fasting insulin levels (r=0.83, P=0.024). In conclusion, extremely low leptin values measured in children with CGL could be regarded as one among other diagnostic parameters. However, the detectable levels observed in all of these children support the evidence that a small amount of body fat is likely to be present in these patients, despite complete subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Our data suggest that this small amount of adipose tissue could be metabolically active and, at least in part, sensitive to insulin. Further investigations are required to uncover the pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, known to be commonly associated with insulin resistance.  (+info)

(8/12479) Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis.

High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake.  (+info)

*  Perilipin-2
However, later on it was found to be expressed in all types of cells including many non-adipose tissues. The function of ... Obesity is related with increase accumulation of lipid droplets in non-adipose tissues causing lipotoxicity. The expression of ... Perlipin 2 was thought to be expressed only in adipose tissues previously. ... Adipose differentiation-related protein, also known as perilipin 2 , ADRP or adipophilin, is a protein which belongs from PAT ...
*  Diet-induced obesity model
The researchers found that the mice injected with propolis had less adipose tissue, glucose, and cholesterol than the mice who ... and lipolysis in the adipose tissue of the rat. "Glucose-sweetened beverages," however, did not caused as significant influence ... and diabetes-induced changes of ob gene expression in rat adipose tissue". FEBS Letters. 371 (3): 324-328. doi:10.1016/0014- ... as "fructose-sweetened beverages" in promoting visceral adipose, gaining weight, interrupting lipid syntheses, and damaging ...
*  Medium-chain triglyceride
... to long-chain triglyceride is associated with lower initial body weight and greater loss of subcutaneous adipose tissue". ...
*  Fatty acid metabolism
... especially in adipose tissue, but to a lesser extent also in other tissues, partially digests the chylomicrons into free fatty ... Adipose tissue cells store the triglycerides in their fat droplets, ultimately to release them again as free fatty acids and ... Adipose tissue and lactating mammary glands also take up glucose from the blood for conversion into triglycerides. This occurs ... The glycerol released into the blood during the lipolysis of triglycerides in adipose tissue can only be taken up by the liver ...
*  Lipolysis
Predominantly occurring in adipose tissue, lipolysis is used to mobilize stored energy during fasting or exercise. Lipolysis is ... In adipose tissue, intracellular triglycerides are stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. When lipases are phosphorylated, they ... It has been shown to suppress lipolysis due to lower sympathetic nervous outflow to white adipose tissue. The regulation of ... Perilipin 1A is a key protein regulator of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This lipid droplet-associated protein, when deactivated ...
*  Adipose tissue
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0.9 g/ml. Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of the ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ...
*  Adipose tissue macrophages
... (abbr. ATMs) comprise tissue resident macrophages present in adipose tissue. Adipose tissue apart ... Increased number of adipose tissue macrophages correlates with increased adipose tissue production of proinflammatory molecules ... which are embedded in adipose tissue, fuels tumor growth by serving as a depot for adipose tissue macrophages that stumulate ... In adipose tissue, distinction between M1 and M2 macrophage polarization can be monitored by assessing the expression of ...
*  White adipose tissue
The other kind of adipose tissue is brown adipose tissue. In healthy, non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. ... White adipose tissue is used as a store of energy. Upon release of insulin from the pancreas, white adipose cells' insulin ... White adipose tissue also acts as a thermal insulator, helping to maintain body temperature. The hormone leptin is primarily ...
*  Brown adipose tissue
... (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... Brown adipose tissue activation may play an important role in bone health and bone density. Brown adipose tissue activation ... These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are also named 'beige' or 'brite'. Brown adipose tissue is ... several brown adipose tissue depots have been identified. In infants, brown adipose tissue depots include, but are not limited ...
*  Marrow adipose tissue
... (MAT) increases in states of low bone density -osteoporosis, anorexia nervosa/ caloric restriction, ... Methods for Quantification of Marrow Adipose Tissue (MAT) Figure. This figure demonstrates the use of the osmium- μCT method ... Use of Osmium Tetroxide Staining with Microcomputerized Tomography to Visualize and Quantify Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue In Vivo ... Wronska, A.; Kmiec, Z. (June 2012). "Structural and biochemical characteristics of various white adipose tissue depots". Acta ...
*  Mastopexy
Adipose tissue. The fat tissue of the breast is composed of lipidic fluid (60-85% weight) that is 90-99 per cent triglycerides ... tissue types (glandular, adipose, skin) that compose and support the breast; among the properties of the soft tissues of the ... The breast-lift correction of a sagging bust is a surgical operation that cuts and removes excess tissues (glandular, adipose, ... The subcutaneous layer of adipose tissue in the breast is traversed with thin suspensory ligaments (Cooper's ligaments) that ...
*  Glossary of biology
adipose tissue . aerobic Depending on free oxygen or air. aerobiology The study of organic particles, such as bacteria, fungal ... xylem The plant tissue responsible for the conduction of water from roots to aerial parts of the plant. It forms the woody part ... ectoderm The outermost layer of cells or tissue of an embryo in early development, or the parts derived from this, which ... abscission The shedding of flowers, leaves and/or fruit following formation of scar tissue in a plant. absolute zero The lowest ...
*  GLUT4
... it can actually alter nutrient distribution and send excess glucose into adipose tissue, leading to increased adipose tissue ... "Adipose cell hyperplasia and enhanced glucose disposal in transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT4 selectively in adipose tissue". ... Adipose tissue, commonly known as fat, is a depository for energy in order to conserve metabolic homeostasis. As the body takes ... "Adipose tissue". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2017-05-24. Favaretto F, Milan G, Collin GB, Marshall JD, Stasi F, Maffei P, Vettor R ...
*  Adipic acid
adipose tissue). Adipic acid is a dibasic acid (it has two acidic groups). The pKa values for their successive deprotonations ...
*  Adrenergic receptor
Lipolysis in adipose tissue. Anabolism in skeletal muscle. Relax non-pregnant uterus Relax detrusor urinae muscle of bladder ... Enhancement of lipolysis in adipose tissue. β3 activating drugs could theoretically be used as weight-loss agents, but are ... Further effects include glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis from adipose tissue and liver, as well as secretion from sweat ... it was agreed that the stimulation of sympathetic nerves could cause different effects on body tissues, depending on the ...
*  Fiona Watt
Driskell, R; Jahoda, CA; Chuong, CM; Watt, F; Horsley, V (2014). "Defining dermal adipose tissue". Exp Dermatol. 23: 629-631. ... Her major research interest is in the role of stem cells in adult tissue maintenance. For many of her studies, she uses ... Lane, SW; Williams, DA; Watt, FM (2014). "Modulating the stem cell niche for tissue regeneration". Nat Biotechnol. 32: 795-803 ... and tissue aggregation. She is also known for discovering how each of those processes' regulations are removed in diseased ...
*  Beta-1 adrenergic receptor
Lipolysis in adipose tissue. Relaxation of the urinary bladder wall Receptor also present in cerebral cortex. Isoprenaline has ... a G-protein coupled receptor associated with the Gs heterotrimeric G-protein and is expressed predominantly in cardiac tissue. ...
*  Adipocyte
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white ... The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its physiologic function and relevance to bone health. Marrow ... Analysis of their adipose tissue morphology revealed increases in both adipocyte size and number in most depots. Reintroduction ... A study conducted in 2013 found that, while INSIG1 and SREBF1 mRNA expression was decreased in the adipose tissue of obese mice ...
*  Leptin
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the ... Lönnqvist F, Arner P, Nordfors L, Schalling M (1995). "Overexpression of the obese (ob) gene in adipose tissue of human obese ... This metabolic component related with the release of systemic factors, of a pro-inflammatory nature, by the adipose tissues, ...
*  Proinflammatory cytokine
Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as hormones. Studies have shown that TNF-α and IL-6 ... Coppack, Simon W. (2001-08-01). "Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipose tissue". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 60 (03 ... A proinflammatory cytokine may be present in adipose tissues. Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. ... Both CD4 and CD8 IL-17 producing T cells have been shown to cause aTH1, causing tissue inflammation and resulting in severe ...
*  Adipokine
... secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines ... biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". BIOFACTORS. 37 (6): 413-420 ...
*  Immune system
285-300 Pond CM (Jul 2005). "Adipose tissue and the immune system". Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids. 73 ... The immune system also plays a crucial role in embryogenesis (development of the embryo), as well as in tissue repair and ... Dendritic cells serve as a link between the bodily tissues and the innate and adaptive immune systems, as they present antigens ... These cytokines and other chemicals recruit immune cells to the site of infection and promote healing of any damaged tissue ...
*  Endocrine gland
... and adipose tissue (leptin and resistin). Endocrine glands derive from all three germ layers.[citation needed] The natural ... Most T4 is converted to T3 (a more active form) in the target tissues. Calcitonin, produced by the parafollicular cells of the ... Thyroid tissue consists of follicles with stored protein called colloid, containing thyroglobulin, a precursor to other thyroid ... The hormones which they produce help to regulate the functions of cells and tissues throughout the body. Endocrine organs are ...
*  Adiposis dolorosa
The researchers wanted to assess the use of liposuction on the affected adipose tissue to see if pain was reduced in the ... The basic criteria for Dercum's disease are patients with chronic pain in the adipose tissue (body fat) and patients who are ... Surgical removal of the damaged adipose tissue can be effective, but often the disease will recur. Once a person has Dercum's ... There are studies currently proposing several theories of the causes which include inflammation of the adipose tissue, nervous ...
*  Ganapatiella
from the adipose tissue of Odontotermes obesus. Archiv für Protistenkunde 119 (3). ...
*  Dormancy
... proton gradient generated by electron transport in mitochondria is used to produce heat instead of ATP in brown adipose tissue ... Dormancy is a general term applicable to any instance in which a tissue predisposed to elongate or grow in some other manner ... but not within the dormant tissue itself. Rest (winter dormancy) is a kind of physiological dormancy maintained by agents or ... plant species that exhibit dormancy have a biological clock that tells them when to slow activity and to prepare soft tissues ...
*  Thermogenesis
Non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue (brown fat) that is present in all eutherians (swine being the only ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiol. Rev. 84 (1): 277- ... Brown adipose tissue has a unique uncoupling protein (thermogenin, also known as uncoupling protein 1) that allows the ...
Abstract. It is well established that the metabolic risk factors of obesity and its comorbidities are more attributed to adipose tissue distribution rather than total adipose mass. Since emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the aetiology of obesity, we conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis on eight different adipose depots of three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. We aimed to investigate the systematic association between anatomical location-specific DNA methylation status of different adipose depots and obesity-related phenotypes. We show here that compared to subcutaneous adipose tissues which primarily modulate metabolic indicators, visceral adipose tissues and intermuscular adipose tissue, which are the metabolic risk factors of obesity, are primarily associated with impaired inflammatory and immune responses. This study presents epigenetic ...
We investigated sphingolipid metabolism in human adipose tissue to identify pathways underlying increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed adipose tissue [3]. Our data suggest that hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide by sphingomyelinases could explain, at least partly, this increase. Gene expression levels of SMPD3 correlate significantly with concentrations of various ceramides and sphingomyelins in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and are higher in the relatively more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous depot in both obese and non-obese subjects. Sphingomyelinases are expressed by both adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, but their expression is strongest in and around blood vessels. Our findings implicate a role for sphingomyelinase-mediated generation of ceramide in adipose tissue inflammation.. When comparing inflamed ceramide-rich and relatively less inflamed ceramide-poor subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women, we report here for the first time that there ...
Perivascular adipose tissue exhibits characteristics of active local inflammation, which contributes to the development of atherosclerotic disease as a complication of obesity/metabolic syndrome. However, the precise role of perivascular adipose tissue in the progression of abdominal aortic aneurysm remains unclear. To test the hypothesis that genetic deletion of angiotensin II type 1a (AT1a) receptor in perivascular visceral adipose tissue (VAT) can attenuate aortic aneurysm formation in apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE−/−) mice, we performed adipose tissue transplantation experiments by using an angiotensin II-induced aneurysm murine model, in which we transplanted VAT from ApoE−/− or ApoE−/− AT1a−/− donor mice onto the abdominal aorta of ApoE−/− recipient mice. Compared with ApoE−/− VAT transplantation, ApoE−/− AT1a−/− VAT transplantation markedly attenuated aortic aneurysm formation, macrophage infiltration, and gelatinolytic activity in the abdominal aorta. ...
The presence of the so-called low-grade inflammatory state is recognized as a critical event in adipose tissue dysfunction, leading to altered secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin resistance, and development of hepatic complications associated with obesity. This study was designed to investigate the potential contribution of the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway to adipose tissue inflammation and lipid dysfunction in experimental obesity. Constitutive expression of key components of the 5-LO pathway, as well as leukotriene (LT) receptors, was detected in adipose tissue as well as in adipocyte and stromal vascular fractions. Adipose tissue from obese mice, compared with that from lean mice, exhibited increased 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) expression and LTB4 levels. Incubation of adipose tissue with 5-LO products resulted in NF-κB activation and augmented secretion of proinflammatory adipokines such as MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. In addition, LTB4, but not ...
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a powerful tool for in vitro study of adult stem cell biology. So far, they have not been extensively used for gain or loss of function studies since they are resistant to most common transfection methods. Herein, we tested several classic transfection methods on human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells. Our results showed that lipofectants and calcium phosphate were poorly efficient for transgene delivery in hMADS cells. In contrast, nucleofection, an electroporation-based method that is assumed to target plasmid DNA directly to the cell nucleus, led to a significant transient transgene expression in hMADS cells (up to 76% enhanced green fluorescent protein [EGFP]-positive cells were detected). Furthermore, after selection of hMADS cells that were nucleofected with a selectable plasmid coding for EGFP, stable EGFP expressing clones could be propagated in culture and efficiently induced to differentiate into EGFP-positive adipocytes and ...
Adipose tissue secretions play an important role in the development of obesity-related pathologies such as diabetes. Through inflammatory cytokines production, adipose tissue stromavascular fraction cells (SVF), and essentially macrophages, promote adipocyte insulin resistance by a paracrine way. Since xanthine family compounds such as caffeine were shown to decrease inflammatory production by human blood cells, we investigated the possible effect of caffeine on Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression by human adipose tissue primary culture. For that purpose, human subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from healthy non-obese women (BMI: 26.7 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) after abdominal dermolipectomy, was split into explants and cultured for 6 hours with or without caffeine. Three different concentrations of caffeine were tested (0.5 microg/mL, 5 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL). After 6 hours of treatment, explants were subjected to collagenase digestion in order to isolate adipocytes
We hypothesized that slip point of subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue lipids would predict beef carcass quality. To address our hypothesis, 79 M. longissimus dorsi (LD) steaks from cattle of unknown background were used to provide information on slip points, percentage intramuscular lipid, fatty acid composition, and MUFA:SFA ratios. Overlying s.c. adipose tissue was separated from the muscle lean, which contained intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissue. Lipids were extracted from s.c. adipose tissue and muscle lean by a modified chloroform:methanol procedure and subjected to various analyses. The hypothesis was tested by developing regression equations to determine which fatty acid variables were most useful in predicting carcass composition. There was a high correlation between s.c. MUFA:SFA ratio and s.c. slip points (P , 0.001) with an R2 of 0.557. Also, the MUFA:SFA fatty acid ratios of s.c. and i.m. adipose tissue were significantly correlated and an R2 of 0.440 was observed (P , 0.001) when ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Fatty acid entrapment in femoral adipose tissue has been proposed to prevent ectopic fat deposition and visceral fat accumulation, resulting in protection from insulin resistance. Our objective was to test the hypothesis of femoral, compared with abdominal, adipose tissue resistance to adrenergic stimulation in vivo as a possible mechanism. METHODS: Regional fatty acid trafficking, along with the measurement of adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) with (133)Xe washout, was studied with the arteriovenous difference technique and stable isotope tracers in healthy volunteers. Adrenergic agonists (isoprenaline, adrenaline [epinephrine]) were infused either locally by microinfusion or systemically. Local microinfusion of adrenoceptor antagonists (propranolol, phentolamine) was used to characterise specific adrenoceptor subtype effects in vivo. RESULTS: Femoral adipose tissue NEFA release and ATBF were lower during adrenaline stimulation than in abdominal tissue (p | 0.001). Mechanistically,
Glucocorticoids have major effects on adipose tissue metabolism. To study tissue mRNA expression changes induced by chronic elevated endogenous glucocorticoids, we performed RNA sequencing on the subcutaneous adipose tissue from patients with Cushings disease (n=5) compared to patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (n=11). We found a higher expression of transcripts involved in several metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis, proteolysis and glucose oxidation as well as a decreased expression of transcripts involved in inflammation and protein synthesis. To further study this in a model system, we subjected mice to dexamethasone treatment for 12 weeks and analyzed their inguinal (subcutaneous) fat pads, which led to similar findings. Additionally, mice treated with dexamethasone showed drastic decreases in lean body mass as well as increased fat mass, further supporting the human transcriptomic data. These data provide insight to transcriptional changes that may be responsible for ...
Define multilocular adipose tissue. multilocular adipose tissue synonyms, multilocular adipose tissue pronunciation, multilocular adipose tissue translation, English dictionary definition of multilocular adipose tissue. n. One of two types of fatty tissue in mammals, especially in newborn infants and hibernating animals, that is composed of dark-colored cells containing...
We investigated the effect of a novel porous scaffold composed with water-soluble poly(L-glutamic acid) (PLGA) and chitosan (CS) on the attachment, proliferation, and adipogenic differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived adult stem cells (ADSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Scanning electron microscope and fluorescent Dil labeling were used to reveal the attachment and growth of ADSCs on scaffolds; cell proliferation was detected by DNA assay. The adipogenic differentiation potential of ADSCs on the scaffolds was assayed by Oil-red O staining and further confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for adipogenic gene markers (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2, lipoprotein lipase, fatty acid-binding protein, adiponectin). Cell-seeded constructs exposed to adipogenic medium for 2 weeks in vitro were implanted in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice for 6 weeks. It was shown that ADSCs attached and spread well on scaffolds with good proliferation ...
Little is known about the turnover of adipose cells in the fat depots of normal animals and human subjects. However, microarray analysis of adipose cell gene expression in high risk insulin-resistant human subjects suggests that a reduced rate of adipose cell turnover is associated with enhanced adipose cell size and systemic insulin resistance. New technology now permits a detailed analysis of adipose cell size including the detection of smaller cells which may be in the process of active differentiation. We propose to examine the relationship between adipose cell size distribution and systemic insulin resistance in obese human subjects. Adipose tissue biopsies will be obtained at Stanford University under protocols and consent forms approved by the Stanford University IRB. Only procedures already being performed on subjects under these protocols will be used ...
answer2:Adipose tissue is now recognised as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Great strides have been made in uncovering the multiple functions of the adipocyte in cellular and molecular detail, but it is essential to remember that adipose tissue normally operates as a structured whole. Its functions are regulated by multiple external influences such as autonomic nervous system activity, the rate of blood flow and the delivery of a complex mix of substrates and hormones in the plasma. Attempting to understand how all these factors converge and regulate adipose tissue function is a prime example of integrative physiology. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities, including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate ...
answer2:Adipose tissue is now recognised as a highly active metabolic and endocrine organ. Great strides have been made in uncovering the multiple functions of the adipocyte in cellular and molecular detail, but it is essential to remember that adipose tissue normally operates as a structured whole. Its functions are regulated by multiple external influences such as autonomic nervous system activity, the rate of blood flow and the delivery of a complex mix of substrates and hormones in the plasma. Attempting to understand how all these factors converge and regulate adipose tissue function is a prime example of integrative physiology. Adipose tissue metabolism is extremely dynamic, and the supply of and removal of substrates in the blood is acutely regulated according to the nutritional state. Adipose tissue possesses the ability to a very large extent to modulate its own metabolic activities, including differentiation of new adipocytes and production of blood vessels as necessary to accommodate ...
The objective of this project is to investigate whether vitamin D modulates chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation in overweight and obese, vitamin D deficient men and women.. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies, mostly conducted in mouse models of obesity, strongly suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose and other tissues is the major mechanism by which increased adiposity is linked to insulin resistance. Adipose tissue inflammation may therefore be a promising therapeutic target to reduce insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese individuals.. Based on several lines of evidence, we hypothesize that vitamin D is an environmental factor that affects the course of the inflammatory response in most tissues of the body, including adipose tissue. In our previous studies, we found that circulating plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) and the primary ...
Title: Adipose Tissue Macrophages, Low Grade Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Human Obesity. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 12. Author(s):Leonie K. Heilbronn and Lesley V. Campbell. Affiliation:Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria St, Darlinghurst NSW 2010, Australia.. Keywords:Obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, adipose tissue macrophages, type 2 diabetes. Abstract: Obesity was first described as a low-grade inflammatory condition more than a decade ago. However, it is only relatively recently that obese individuals have been described with increased macrophage infiltration of adipose tissue, as well as an increase in the number of "M1" or "classically activated" macrophages. Furthermore, macrophages have been identified as the primary source of many of the circulating inflammatory molecules that are detected in the obese state and are postulated to be causal both in the development of insulin resistance and in the progression to type 2 diabetes. There is also novel evidence to ...
In the second part of this thesis, we investigated the role of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue with particular focus on how adipose mTORC2 affects non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and cold-induced glucose uptake. We found that mTORC2 signaling was induced in brown adipocytes by beta-adrenergic stimulation via cAMP, Epac1 and PI3K. Furthermore, mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue was required for temperature homeostasis, since mice lacking mTORC2 signaling in mature adipocytes (adipose tissue specific rictor knockout (AdRiKO) mice) were hypothermic and sensitive to cold stress. While lipid store mobilization and induction of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial uncoupling were not impaired in AdRiKO mice, inactivation of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue resulted in a significant impairment in cold-induced glucose uptake and glycolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Interestingly, restoration of glucose metabolism in BAT via introduction of a constitutively active form of Akt2 or via ...
Objective. In human adipocytes the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from beta-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e. lipolysis and thermogenesis. Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty-liver development. Aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in R2B expression, PKA activity and lipolysis in adipose tissues from obese and non-obese subjects. Research Design and Methods. The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 non-obese and 67 obese patients. PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, respectively. Results. Expression
The decreasing of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) in adipose tissue of diabetic and obesity patients are associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. The adipose tissue can be used as therapeutic targets in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Visceral adipose tissue has different morphology and functional with subcutaneous adipose tissue and Vitamin D has been known to have contributed in DM. The aim of this study is to know the role of cholecalciferol on the expression of GLUT 4 in subcutaneous and visceral adiposity of diabetic rats by elucidated in those tissues. The subjects of the study consisted of nineteen male diabetic rats of Wistar strain, which were divided into control group (K) and three (3) treatment groups (X1, X2 and X3). In order to induce the condition of DM, the animals were fed with high fat diet for three (3) weeks and administered a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kgBW) at the end of the second week. Cholecalciferol were administered with
ADSCs derived from the visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue have been recently shown to contain progenitor cells able to differentiate into mature endothelial cells and participate in blood vessel formation.13,14,16 Miranville et al have shown the presence of the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) phenotype in the SVF freshly isolated from humans by flow cytometry.14 Cell preparations display the hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34, as well as CD133, a 130-KDa glycoprotein with unknown function that is absent on mature endothelial cells and circulating progenitor endothelial cells.28 Studies by Zuk et al have described the absence or low level of CD34+ cells,4 whereas Planat-Bernard et al reported more than 90% CD34+ cells in the SVF derived from the adipose tissue.13 The most likely reason for these discrepancies is that the latter investigations were performed by the use of limitedly cultured ADSCs (primary culture of 3 days with no subsequent plating). Flow cytometric analysis ...
Background: Infiltration of immune cells, such as T-cell subsets, is a hallmark of adipose tissue inflammation and the metabolic syndrome. T-cell functioning potently depends on co-stimulatory pathways, such as the CD40L-CD40 dyad. CD40 has recently been shown to be associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Here, we tested the hypothesis that genetic deficiency of CD40 directly modulates diet-induced obesity (DIO) in vivo.. Methods and Results: WT or CD40-/- mice consumed either a low fat diet (LFD) or a high fat diet (HFD) for 20 weeks (n,15 per group). Surprisingly, CD40-/- mice consuming HFD exhibited an aggravated metabolic phenotype with increased weight gain and enhanced fat depositions as assessed by MRI. CD40 deficiency increased accumulation of inflammatory cells in adipose tissue particularily of adipose tissue M1 macrophages and CD8+ T-cells. Gene expression analysis revealed upregulation of ,350 genes in visceral fat pads of CD40-/- mice, including pro-inflammatory gene sets, ...
Adipose tissue (AT) is an active endocrine organ with the ability to dynamically secrete a wide range of adipocytokines. Importantly, its secretory profile is altered in various cardiovascular disease states. AT surrounding vessels, or perivascular AT (PVAT), is recognized in particular as an important local regulator of vascular function and dysfunction. Specifically, PVAT has the ability to sense vascular paracrine signals and respond by secreting a variety of vasoactive adipocytokines. Due to the crucial role of PVAT in regulating many aspects of vascular biology, it may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of vascular disease pathogenesis. Signalling pathways in PVAT, such as those using adiponectin, H2 S, glucagon-like peptide 1 or pro-inflammatory cytokines, are among the potential novel pharmacological therapeutic targets of PVAT. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential
This study investigated the ameliorative effect of gallic acid (GA) on hypertriglyceridemia and fat accumulation in perirenal adipose tissues of high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced diabetic rats. The previous results showed that orally administered GA (30 mg/kg body weight) for four weeks significantly reduced the levels of plasma glucose and triglyceride (TG) in HFD rats. GA also markedly decreased the perirenal adipose tissues weight of HFD rats in present study (p , 0.05). Western blot assay indicated that GA restored expression of insulin signaling-related proteins, such as insulin receptor (IR), protein kinase C-zeta (PKC-ζ), and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) in the perirenal adipose tissues of HFD rats ...
BACKGROUND: FTO gene variants are linked to obesity. We tested for site-specific differences in FTO gene expression in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (SAT and VAT, respectively) from individuals with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and the relationships between fasting glucose, in vivo insulin action, and measures of adiposity with FTO gene expression in adipose tissue. METHODS: Paired subcutaneous and visceral fat were excised at elective surgery in n = 16 subjects (six with T2D, age-matched). Metabolic parameters were measured in fasted state; body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; and insulin action by hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Adipose tissue mRNA gene expression was determined by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS: Subjects with T2D had SAT and VAT FTO mRNA expression similar to controls. There was no depot specificity between SAT and VAT FTO mRNA expression. Insulin action did not relate to SAT or VAT FTO mRNA expression. SAT FTO mRNA expression was related to
Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) are being recognized as a source of stem cells potentially useful for cardiovascular repair. We analysed the abundance and angiogenic activity of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells (PCs) in elderly pa
Chronic inflammation in visceral adipose tissue is considered a key element for induction of insulin resistance in obesity. CD40 is required for efficient systemic adaptive immune responses, and is implicated in various inflammatory conditions. However, its role in modulating immunity in the microanatomical niches of adipose tissue remains largely undefined. Here we show that, in contrast to its well-documented co-stimulatory effects, CD40 regulates development of insulin resistance in a diet-induced obesity (DIO) mouse model, by ameliorating local inflammation in adipose tissues. CD40 deficiency (CD40KO) resulted in greater body weight gain, more severe inflammation in epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and aggravated insulin resistance, in response to DIO. Interestingly, we found that CD40KO CD8+ T lymphocytes were major contributors to exacerbated insulin resistance. Specifically, CD8+ T cells in EAT of DIO CD40KO mice produced elevated chemokines and proinflammatory cytokines and were critical ...
Previously, we have shown that excess glucose and saturated fatty acids generate ROS in cultured adipocytes and have confirmed that the source of these ROS is NOX4.13 In this study, we now show that NOX4 activity is initially increased in adipose tissue during the development of obesity when adipocytes are still insulin-sensitive and eventually decreases with prolonged HFHS diet feeding when adipocytes become insulin resistant. Furthermore, in response to an obesogenic diet, adipocyte-specific ablation of NOX4 shows the delayed onset of insulin resistance and improves adipose tissue inflammation, as well as liver inflammation, during the development of obesity.. Global NOX4 deficiency has been reported to worsen adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of DIO.17 Because NOX4 activity is essential for the differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes,16 blunted adipogenesis in the absence of NOX4 would reduce the number of adipocytes, allowing the remaining adipocytes to become more ...
Our data provide the first evidence in humans to support the hypothesis that obesity-related changes in adipose tissue have direct effects on the vasoactive properties of PVAT.14,15 We report abnormalities in adiponectin-mediated anticontractile properties of PVAT, endothelium-mediated dilation of the artery, and changes to the inflammatory and hypoxic profile of subcutaneous adipose tissue in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Additionally, using in vitro animal and human small-artery studies, hypoxia and inflammation were shown to attenuate the local vasoactive properties of PVAT by oxidative stress.. In healthy individuals, PVAT mediated an anticontractile effect. Although observed previously in medium-sized arteries,24 this is the first demonstration of this effect in human small arteries, and we are also the first to demonstrate a complete loss of the anticontractile effect in patients with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Subsequently, in vitro, we were able to replicate the biological changes ...
Primary cultures of stromal-vascular (S-V) cells from adipose tissue were used to investigate the regulation of preadipocyte development. Differentiation of S-V cells was found to be under hormonal control. Insulin and glucocorticoids are essential for S-V cell differentiation in culture. S-V cells from both newborn and mature pig adipose tissue and sera from both ages were used to examine the effect of age on preadipocyte development. S-V cells from newborn pigs replicated faster and appeared more responsive to serum borne factors influencing S-V cell growth and development in culture. Serum source (newborn vs mature) did not affect differentiation of S-V cells from newborn or mature pig adipose tissue. When sera from fed or fasted pigs were used to culture newborn pig S-V cells, fasted pig sera stimulated greater differentiation and decreased cell replication as indicated by DNA content of rat S-V cell culture. Lean pig serum compared to obese pig serum, increased differentiation activity in ...
Background Polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) are reported to protect against high fat diet-induced obesity and inflammation in adipose tissue. Here we aimed to investigate if the amount of sucrose in the background diet influences the ability of n-3 PUFAs to protect against diet-induced obesity, adipose tissue inflammation and glucose intolerance. Methodology/Principal Findings We fed C57BL/6J mice a protein- (casein) or sucrose-based high fat diet supplemented with fish oil or corn oil for 9 weeks. Irrespective of the fatty acid source, mice fed diets rich in sucrose became obese whereas mice fed high protein diets remained lean. Inclusion of sucrose in the diet also counteracted the well-known anti-inflammatory effect of fish oil in adipose tissue, but did not impair the ability of fish oil to prevent accumulation of fat in the liver. Calculation of HOMA-IR indicated that mice fed high levels of proteins remained insulin sensitive, whereas insulin sensitivity was reduced in the obese mice
Studies of regional adipose transplantation reveal a unique and beneficial interaction between subcutaneous adipose tissue and the intra-abdominal compartment ...
Increased adipose tissue expression of lipocalin-2 in obesity is related to inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 activities in humans. Increased adipose tissue expression of lipocalin-2 in obesity is related to inflammation and matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 activities in humans
Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Massive development of the adipose tissue leads to the formation of hypoxic areas. As adipose tissue expands, some adipocytes become too distant from the vasculature to be correctly oxygenated. Indeed, development of hypoxia in the adipose tissue has been described in several genetic models of obesity in rodents. Partial pressure of O2 in the adipose tissue decreases from 47.9 mmHg in lean mice to 15.2 in ob/ob mice (2,3). In humans, the existence of hypoxia in the adipose tissue of obese patients is supported by the observation that although obese patients have more adipose tissue than lean patients, the cardiac output and blood flow directed to adipose tissue are not increased during obesity (24). Moreover, HIF-1 and HIF-1 target genes are overexpressed in the adipose tissue of obese individuals and decrease after weight loss (25). Finally, obesity is associated with hypertrophic adipocytes in which size prohibits a correct ...
The primary inflammatory events occurring in the adipose tissue (AT) during high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity are poorly defined. The present study was undertaken to characterize, in wild-type(+/+) and lymphocyte deficient RAG2(-/-) mice under HFD, the changes in AT immune cells by flow cytometry analyses. In (+/+) mice, early accumulation of AT B-cells was observed, followed by increased AT T-cell numbers and finally by the appearance of insulin resistance and AT macrophage accumulation. Lack of lymphocytes in the RAG2(-/-) mice did not affect the onset of obesity and the state of insulin resistance. However, a striking accumulation of AT NK cells and activated macrophages was detected. The present study demonstrates that AT is the site of an unexpected dynamic in innate and adaptive cells during diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Moreover it appears that early AT lymphocyte infiltration could be considered a protective process to temper adipose tissue inflammation.
Principal Investigator:HIRATA Yasunobu, Project Period (FY):2010 - 2012, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Circulatory organs internal medicine
All information about the latest scientific publications of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Increased circulating and visceral adipose tissue expression levels of YKL-40 in obesity-associated type 2 diabetes are related to inflammation: impact of conventional weight loss and gastric bypass
Adipose tissue weights after 12 weeks of dietary treatment.Data are means ± SE, n = 18-19. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was collected from epididymis and, s
While the role of miR155 in the development of obesity remains unclear, our study was designed to assist in unraveling the role of miR155 in the development of the obese phenotype. We extend this field of research through the examination of miR155 deletion on adipose tissue inflammation in an obese setting in male mice. Utilizing an HFD‐induced obese model, we found that miR155 deletion in male mice resulted in reduced visceral adipose tissue, but did not rescue adipose tissue inflammation or impaired glucose metabolism. Surprisingly, these outcomes were evident in the presence of exacerbated adipose tissue fibrosis induced by miR155 deficiency in HFD‐fed mice.. Since miR155 can serve as a pro‐inflammatory molecule, particularly in inducing M1, pro‐inflammatory, macrophage polarization, we hypothesized that miR155 deficiency would attenuate adipose tissue inflammation ultimately resulting in improved glucose metabolism (Essandoh et al. 2016; Jablonski et al. 2016; Zhang et al. 2016). ...
Hellman, B; Thelander, L; and Taljedal, I, "Postnatal growth of the epididymal adipose tissue in yellow obese mice." (1963). Subject Strain Bibliography 1963. 1156 ...
White adipose tissue is mainly located in the hipodermis of the skin, i.e. it is subcutaneous. In humans, there area differences between men and women regarding the subcutaneous areas where white fat is more abundantly stored. In the inner part of the body, white fat is abundant in the mesenteries and intraperitoneal, and it is present, but less abundant, in the bone marrow and around inner organs. Hipodermis is a major storage location of white fat, but it is also an isolating layer that protect from low temperatures. Furthermore, instead of storage, white fat in the palm of feet and hands is intended for protecion against mechanical stress. White adipose tissue is one of the tissues that can increase and decrease its volumen dramatically during the adult period. This is mainly caused by the increase in size of the adipocytes, as well as the recruitment of new adipocytes by proliferation of precursor cells. In athletes, the white fat may be up to 2 to 3 % of the body weight, whereas an obese ...
There are likely many scenarios and pathways that can lead to metabolic syndrome. This paper reviews mechanisms by which the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) may contribute to the metabolic syndrome, and explores the paradigm of a critical VAT threshold (CVATT). Exceeding the CVATT may result in a number of metabolic disturbances such as insulin resistance to glucose uptake by cells. Metabolic profiles of patients with visceral obesity may substantially improve after only modest weight loss. This could reflect a significant reduction in the amount of VAT relative to peripheral or subcutaneous fat depots, thereby maintaining VAT below the CVATT. The CVATT may be unique for each individual. This may help explain the phenomena of apparently lean individuals with metabolic syndrome, the so-called metabolically normal weight (MONW), as well as the obese with normal metabolic profiles, i.e., metabolically normal obese (MNO), and those who are "fit and fat." The concept of CVATT may have ...
Evidence from both human and animal models suggests that estrogens play an important role in adipose tissue development. Most of the actions of estrogens are mediated by two types of ER (α and β). Different roles have been assigned to ER-α and ER-β in mediating estrogen effects in adipose tissue. This was suggested by the observations that ER-α gene knockout mice develop obesity, whereas ER-β knockout mice have a normal amount of adipose tissue (19, 30). Up to now, few studies aimed to characterize ER subtypes in human adipose tissue, and they have led to discrepant results. In this work, we have studied the expression of both ER-α and ER-β subtypes in cultured preadipocytes and isolated mature adipocytes from subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat deposits from both men and women by using real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Moreover, we have investigated the effects of E2 in vitro on ER expression in these cells.. In mature adipocytes both ER-α and ER-β subtypes are ...
Hochschulschriften. Osteopontin in obesity-associated adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance and its interference with monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 / eingereicht von Florian Kiefer. 2010
Guarda Foto stock di Capillary With Red Blood Cells In Single File In Human Adipose Tissue He Stain Lm X100. Cerca foto premium ad alta risoluzione su Getty Images.
View Stock Photo of Capillary With Red Blood Cells In Single File In Human Adipose Tissue He Stain Lm X100. Find premium, high-resolution photos at Getty Images.
Moher, HE, Tan, G, Fielding, BA and Carey, GB (2001) Arterio-venous (AV) difference of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) serosa human adipose tissue in vivo ...
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated that gene expression levels change with age. These changes are hypothesized to influence the aging rate of an individual. We analyzed gene expression changes with age in abdominal skin, subcutaneous adipose tissue and lymphoblastoid cell lines in 856 female twins in the age range of 39-85 years. Additionally, we investigated genotypic variants involved in genotype-by-age interactions to understand how the genomic regulation of gene expression alters with age.. RESULTS: Using a linear mixed model, differential expression with age was identified in 1,672 genes in skin and 188 genes in adipose tissue. Only two genes expressed in lymphoblastoid cell lines showed significant changes with age. Genes significantly regulated by age were compared with expression profiles in 10 brain regions from 100 postmortem brains aged 16 to 83 years. We identified only one age-related gene common to the three tissues. There were 12 genes that showed differential ...
Insulin prevents fat-burning in part by locking fat in adipose tissue and in part by shutting down transport of fatty acids into the mitochondrion inside cells. By downregulating lipoprotein lipase (LPL) at heart and skeletal muscle and upregulating it at adipose tissue, insulin shifts dietary fat away from heart and muscle and toward adipose tissue. By downregulating hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue, it prevents the release of free fatty acids from adipose tissue into the blood. At the cellular level, insulin leads to the phosphorylation and deactivation of AMPK. Since AMPK inhibits acetyl CoA carboxylase, insulin-mediated deactivation of AMPK leads to activation of acetyl CoA carboxylase and the conversion of acetyl CoA to malonyl CoA. Malonyl CoA inhibits carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 (CPT-1) and thus blocks the transport of fatty acids into the mitochondrion. Nevertheless, all of these steps are also regulated at the most fundamental level by energy status, as covered in lesson 22.
Obesity is marked by a state of chronic low-grade inflammation called metabolic inflammation which plays a role in the development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes (T2D). We and others have shown that the innate immune toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in metabolic inflammation/insulin resistance. The transcription factor called interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-5 is a major regulator of proinflammatory macrophage polarization; however, its role in obesity/T2D remains unclear. Therefore, we determined modulations in the IRF-5 expression and analyzed their relationship with signature metabolic inflammatory markers in the subcutaneous adipose tissues (AT) obtained from adult persons classified as lean, overweight, and obese on the basis of BMI. The data show that IRF-5 expression was upregulated (P,0.05) in obese as compared with lean individuals at both mRNA and protein levels; and these changes correlated with BMI (r=0.3; P= 0.03) and body fat percentage (r=0.48; P=0.0005). The ...
Aging is characterized by reduced skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) and increased visceral adipose tissue deposition. These changes in body composition result i...
Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti (Ay) and obese (Lepob). We found that the expression of 1,304 transcripts correlated significantly with body mass. Of the 100 most significantly correlated genes, 30% encoded proteins that are characteristic of macrophages and are positively correlated with body mass. Immunohistochemical analysis of perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed that the percentage of cells expressing the macrophage marker F4/80 (F4/80+) was significantly and positively correlated with both adipocyte size and body mass. ...
Definition of adipose cell in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is adipose cell? Meaning of adipose cell as a finance term. What does adipose cell mean in finance?
There has been a precipitous decline in the daily physical activity in humans that has been accompanied by an epidemic rise in the incidence of obesity and type II diabetes. This rapid decline in physical activity in humans was simulated using a rate model where male rats that were physically active on voluntary running wheels for 21 days had their running wheels locked for 5-53 hours. During this time frame (between 5 and 53 hours of reduced physical activity), there is decreased insulin sensitivity in the epitrochlearis muscle, an increase in the mass of the epididymal and omental fat depots, and an increase in the size of epididymal adipocytes. In the epitrochlearis muscle, there was a decrease in multiple descriptive indices of insulin receptor activation that was associated with the decreased insulin sensitivity. In epididymal fat, there was an increase in triacylglycerol synthesis above that of animals that did not have access to running wheels; this was paralleled by an increase in the ...
People differ with respect to the tendency to expand their fat mass, both in total body fat mass and body fat distribution. Differences in total or regional preadipocyte characteristics may play a role in this variability. To date, estimating preadipocyte number has been done by cell culture techniques (3, 43). Culturing live SV cells from digested adipose tissue samples can be done in such a manner as to stimulate preadipocytes, which are otherwise not morphologically distinguishable, to become mature adipocytes. This differentiation is proof that the parent cell was capable of becoming a fat cell, the working definition of a preadipocyte. However, to calculate preadipocyte number using cell culture technology, one must know what portion of cells, and specifically preadipocytes, lose viability in the process. Our goal was to identify cells in fresh human adipose tissue that are committed to the preadipocyte pathway in a manner that is not confounded by variations in cell viability. We found ...
Visceral obesity, a feature of the metabolic syndrome, is associated with metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Our aim was to study the influence of increased fat intake, a major determinant of central obesity, on Smooth Muscle Cells (SMC) reactivity and its interaction with Perivascular Adipose Tissue (PVAT), which plays an important role in the local regulation of vascular function, with a special emphasis on oxidative stress.
Metabolic syndrome comprises a constellation of morbidities such as insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia, dysglycemia and obesity (especially abdominal). Metabolic alterations are observed in major insulin target organs, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and therefore mortality. Tissue alterations are characterized by immune cells infiltrates (especially activated macrophages). Released inflammatory mediators such as TNF-α induce chronic inflammation in subjects with metabolic syndrome, since inflammatory pathways are activated in the neighboring cells. The intra-abdominal adipose tissue appears to be of particular importance in the onset of the inflammatory state, and strategies contributing to modulate the inflammatory process within this adipose tissue can mitigate the metabolic syndrome consequences. Considering the low level light therapy (LLLT) recognized benefits in inflammatory conditions, we hypothesized this therapeutic approach ...
In episode 25, Insulin Resistance Isnt All About Carbs and Insulin, I explained why an individual cell would decide to stop taking up energy. Here in episode 26, I explain tissue-level energy overload, focusing on adipose tissue and liver. At adipose tissue, the problem with fatness isnt the amount of fat. Its that weve reached the point where we cant get any fatter. Well, we can, but we can no longer do so while maintaining a healthy organizational structure within adipose tissue that allows blood, oxygen, and nutrients to get to where they need to go. Surprisingly, some of the things that enable proper expansion, and thus protect our metabolic health, are things that we usually think of as bad, such as inflammation. In fact, the pro-inflammatory changes in the gut microbiome in response to an obesogenic diet provide information to adipose tissue that it needs to prepare for healthy expansion.  And adipose expansion is most protective at the site of the bad body fat: visceral fat
PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two groups of women were investigated, those diagnosed with PCOS (n = 8) and age and BMI-matched normal women (n = 12). Their age was between 20-45 years and all subjects were apparently healthy and did not take any medications. Adipose tissue levels of mRNA of inflammatory markers were determined by use of real-time PCR ...
In postmenopausal women, obesity is a risk factor for the development of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer driven by estrogen. After menopause, aromatization of androgen precursors in adipose tissue is a major synthetic source of estrogen. Recently, in mouse models and women, we identified an obesity-inflammation-aromatase axis. This obesity induced inflammation is characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages in breast white adipose tissue. CLS occur in association with NF-κB activation, elevated levels of proinflammatory mediators and increased aromatase expression. Saturated fatty acids released from adipocytes have been linked to obesity-related white adipose tissue inflammation. Here we found that stearic acid, a prototypic saturated fatty acid, stimulated Akt-dependent activation of NF-κB resulting in increased levels of proinflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-1β, COX-2) in macrophages leading, in turn, to the induction of ...
Recognize that Obesity is a disease frequently associated with expansion of the perivascular adipose tissue which is associated with increased production of atherogenic adipokines and other biologically active molecules; Understand the central role of abdominal and perivascular adipose tissue as a root cause of co-morbidities and cardiometabolic risk; Understand that excess amounts of visceral and perivascular adipocytes are associated with an impairment of insulin sensitivity and other co-morbities; Recognize that Obesity itself, even without associated co-morbidities of hyperglycemia, hypertension and hyperlipidemia are responsible for cardiovascular disease risk. ...
Adipose tissues play key roles in the storage, release, and dispersal of highly energetic molecules to maintain energy homeostasis of the organism in response t...
MacroPore announced pre-clinical findings that suggest for the first time that adipose-derived regenerative cells have the potential to engraft injured myocardium and express markers consistent with differentiation into cardiac myocytes. These results provide early indication that adipose-derived regenerative cells, which include adult stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells and other growth factor producing cells, and which were discovered by scientists at MacroPore, have the potential to repair damage associated with injured cardiac muscle following heart attack.
US scientists have discovered a protein switch that decides whether precursor fat cells turn into white fat cells that store calories, or brown fat cells t
Studies of the past decade have increased our understanding of the role of adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity and obesity-related insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Although adipose tissue is the bodys largest pool of free cholesterol, adipo
Dynein mutation increased adipose stores in early symptomatic SOD1(G93A) mice. A- mRNA levels of alpha subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AchRα)
The nervous system plays a critical role in controlling obesity. Activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which serves as the principal initiator of lipid mobilization (lipolysis) in white adipose tissue in mammals including, of course, humans, is being studied for its role in obesity reversal. How the sympathetic and sensory nerves find their adipose tissue targets during development and adipose tissue transplants is also being researched. In addition, the role of the sensory innervation of white adipose tissue for control of lipolysis and/or sensation of the degree of adiposity is being studied to understand its role in obesity reversal. Finally, the effects of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activation or inactivation on obesity-related normal and pathological respiratory function also are being examined ...
Redistribution of white adipose tissue is a long-term symptom of several chronic diseases. Although the roles of adipocytes in acute illness have been thoroughly studied, how or why short-term responses of adipose tissue to disease sometimes produce long-term redistribution, and the causal relationship between the anatomical changes and the associated metabolic syndromes are poorly understood. The present paper reviews explanations for the redistribution of adipose tissue after infection with HIV, and in Crohns disease; both conditions that share the peculiarity of selective expansion of certain adipose depots while others are depleted. HIV adipose tissue redistribution syndrome (HARS) develops gradually after several months of infection with the HIV both in untreated patients and in those taking protease inhibitors and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Some current theories about the causes of HARS are critically assessed, and reasons presented for implicating local interactions ...
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype ...
We have demonstrated for the first time that SOCS-3 is widely expressed in fetal tissues during late gestation and that SOCS-3 expression is differentially regulated in the liver and perirenal adipose tissue of the normally grown fetus during the last month of pregnancy and is suppressed in the liver of the growth-restricted fetus. Furthermore, the levels of SOCS-3 expression in the liver, but not adipose tissue, were related to circulating PRL concentrations during late gestation in the sheep fetus.. In the adult mouse, SOCS-3 is expressed at relatively high levels in the lung, spleen, and thymus and at relatively low levels in the liver and heart (37). In contrast, we found that SOCS-3 expression was higher in the fetal liver than in the fetal spleen, kidney, and pancreas. These different tissue profiles of SOCS-3 expression may relate to the differences in the hemopoietic roles of the liver and spleen before and after birth or to differences in the responsiveness of these tissues to ...
In this study multivariate analysis of Raman spectra has been used to classify adipose tissue from four different species (chicken, beef, lamb and pork). The adipose samples were dissected from the ca
Westernized societies are experiencing an epidemic of obesity. Obesity promotes local inflammation in visceral adipose tissue that leads to systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and the development of type 2 diabetes. However, the function and regulation of normal immune cells in healthy adipose tissue is poorly understood. Allergic, type 2 immune cells are surprisingly abundant in healthy, lean adipose tissue and are co-regulated to maintain metabolic health and limit obesity induced inflammation and insulin resistance. These findings suggest allergic immunity, traditionally associated with pathology (asthma, atopy, allergy) as well as protection from multicellular helminthic worms, also plays a central role in the normal physiologic regulation of metabolism, and may participate more broadly in tissue homeostasis and repair.. Our laboratory studies the allergic immune module in adipose tissue during conditions of metabolic health, obesity, and post infection with helminths, bacteria, or ...
Science: anatomy) connective tissue that has been specialised to store fat. Adipocyte. A kind of body tissue containing stored fat that serves as a source of energy; adipose tissue also cushions and insulates vital organs; fatty tissue protected them from the severe cold. See also: Adipose Adipose Cells ...
In addition to energy storage and insulation, the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of a high number of adipocyte-originated signaling molecules. These...
In the first funding period, we identified new candidate genes and mechanisms in the development of visceral obesity. Immune cell infiltration , adipokine secretion, expression of developmental genes and the dynamics of adipogenesis and fat cell apoptosis seem to be important mechanisms which are differently regulated in the visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue depots. We were able to identify progranulin as a new adipocyte-secreted chemoatractant factor for macrophages predominantly into visceral adipose tissue. Furthermore we were able to show that circulating proteins of the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) family and their receptors BMPR1 and 2 are involved in the development of obesity at an early stage ...
JoVE publishes peer-reviewed scientific video protocols to accelerate biological, medical, chemical and physical research. Watch our scientific video articles.
Barb Mueller pulls 225 lbs for a triple, up from 155 for a single one year ago. [photo courtesy of Phil Meggers, Testify Strength & Conditioning]. Muscle mass comprises between 30 and 50 percent of your bodys total weight - the more the better. Composed of more than 650 muscles, it is the primary user of calories in the active human body, and its the storage facility for most of the bodys protein. Muscles are the motors which move the skeleton - the system of levers we use to interact with our environment - and are therefore responsible for our physical relationship with our surroundings.. Fat, on the other hand, is where calories are stored, not used. Mostly, fat just lays there, using very few calories itself but hoping youll use the calories it stores as fuel for muscle contraction. In great quantities, the hormones produced in adipose tissue - yep, that happens - may become metabolically significant, and in great quantities adipose tissue can become the site of significant amounts of ...
According to research published online in The FASEB Journal, repeated irradiation of breast fat (also known as adipose tissue) produces an inflammatory response that ultimately reduces the efficiency of radiotherapy in breast cancer patients.
Kupiecki, F P. and Adams, L D., "The lipolytic system in adipose tissue of toronto-kk and c57bl/ksj diabetic mice. Adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterase and protein kinase activities." (1974). Subject Strain Bibliography 1974. 2209 ...
antibody-antibodies.com is the marketplace for research antibodies. Find the right antibody for your research needs. White to beige conversion in PDE3B KO adipose tissue through activation of AMPK signaling and mitochondrial function.
Ever tried to extract RNA from adipose tissue with samples of 50 mg or less ? If so could you give me some insights on your protocol or technique ??? Because Im trying and it doesnt yield any RNA at all !! Im using Sacchi (1987) Thanks for your help ! -- Edouard Lauzier, B.Sc. elauzier at fse.ulaval.ca Physical Activity Science Laboratory (418) 656-2131 #2929 (Laval University) G1K 7P4 CANADA ...
Adipose Tissue-Specific Deletion of 12-15-Lipoxygenase Protects Mice from the Consequences of a High-Fat Diet. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
Get an answer for On what part of the body is the adipose tissue located? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Feeding mice a high fat diet for several months causes inflammation in many tissues of the body, particularly fatty tissues (adipose tissues) in the abdomen, skeletal muscles, and liver. White blood cells migrate into these tissues and release proteins that change the normal functions of these tissues, thereby contributing to the development of type II diabetes. There are many different types of white blood cells, and our work has been to define the specific types that migrate into the tissues, and define the role these cells play in causing type II diabetes. In this study we analyzed one type of white blood cell called alpha beta T cells, and analyzed their influence in obesity-induced inflammation of skeletal muscle, a major organ that takes up glucose from the blood. In this study we wanted to evaluate the effect of alpha beta T cells on the bodys response to insulin, and their role in causing inflammation of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle as the mice become obese. We found that both ...
In the early 1980s, we analyzed the metabolic profile of 930 men and women and concluded that an abdominal distribution of fat for a given BMI is associated with increased insulin resistance and risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The correlation between abdominal fat and metabolic dysfunction has since been validated in many studies, and waist circumference is now a criterion for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Several mechanisms for this relationship have been postulated; however, we now know that visceral fat is only one of many ectopic fat depots used when the subcutaneous adipose tissue cannot accommodate excess fat because of its limited expandability.. ...
We utilized in vitro primary culture to investigate whether subcutaneous abdominal preadipocytes from individuals with increased obesity had a greater intrinsic potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Interestingly, our results showed that the percentage of in vitro PDIFF correlated negatively and independently with the degree of obesity and central adiposity as measured by percent body fat and waist circumference. Thus the data indicated that the stromal vascular fraction of subcutaneous abdominal fat tissue from centrally obese individuals might contain more preadipocytes with intrinsically blunted differentiation potential in vitro than tissue from lean people. This finding was consistent with data in a recent human study showing a negative correlation between body mass index and differentiation capacity in mammary preadipocytes as assessed biochemically and morphologically using a serum-free differentiation protocol (21), as well as data indicating that preadipocytes from obese rodents ...
In all metazoans, defense against pathogens is tightly coupled to regulation of peripheral metabolism. For example, in mice and humans, infections with bacteria trigger Toll-like receptor signaling, which interferes with insulin action in liver and adipose tissue, leading to the release of glucose and fatty acids to fuel the activated immune system. However, infection with helminths poses distinct metabolic challenges because these pathogens chronically parasitize host nutrients for their own growth. Results presented here are unique in demonstrating that inflammation associated with helminth infection or allergies, notably the activation of IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathway, promotes glucose disposal by enhancing insulin action, in part, via antagonism of the catabolic program controlled by PPARα in the liver and by attenuation of adipose tissue inflammation (Fig. 5L).. Before our work, the functions of IL-4 and STAT6 have primarily been investigated in the immune system, where it exerts ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Dennis Wolf, Felix Jehle, Nathaly Anto Michel, Eva Nora Bukosza, Jennifer Rivera, Yung Chih Chen, Natalie Hoppe, Bianca Dufner, Alexandra Ortiz Rodriguez, Christian Colberg, Leandro Nieto, Benjamin Rupprecht, Ansgar Wiedemann, Lisa Schulte, Alexander Peikert, Nicole Bassler, Andrey Lozhkin, Sonja Patricia Hergeth, Peter Stachon, Ingo Hilgendorf, Florian Willecke, Constantin von Zur Mühlen, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Christoph J Binder, Peter Aichele, Nerea Varo, Mark A Febbraio, Peter Libby, Christoph Bode, Karlheinz Peter, Andreas Zirlik].
Results Indices commonly used to adjust ATV are significantly correlated with body size. Most regional AT depots are optimally adjusted using the index ATV/(height)3 in the first month (Figure 1) and ATV/(height)2 in early infancy. Internal abdominal (IA) ATV was optimally adjusted for subcutaneous abdominal (SCA) ATV by calculating IA/SCA0.6 (Figure 2).. ...
The fat tissue in those spare tires and lower belly pooches - is not just a dormant storage depot for surplus calories, but is an active organ that sends chemical signals to other parts of the body, perhaps increasing the risk of heart attacks, cancer, and other diseases, according to scientists.. They have discovered 20 new hormones and other substances not previously known to be secreted into the blood by human fat cells and verification that fat secretes dozens of hormones and other chemical messengers. Anja Rosenow and colleagues note that excess body fat can contribute to heart disease, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Many people once thought that fat cells were inert storage depots for surplus calories. But studies have established that fat cells can secrete certain hormones and other substances much like other organs in the body. Among those hormones is leptin, which controls appetite, and adiponectin, which makes the body more sensitive to insulin and controls blood sugar levels. ...
Scientists are reporting new evidence that the fat tissue in those spare tires and lower belly pooches "" far from being a dormant storage depot for surplus calories "" is an active organ that sends chemical signals to other parts of the body, perhaps increasing the risk of heart attacks, cancer, and other diseases. They are reporting discovery of 20 new hormones and other substances not previously known to be secreted into the blood by human fat cells and verification that fat secretes dozens of hormones and other chemical messengers. Their study appears in ACS monthly Journal of Proteome Research.. Anja Rosenow and colleagues note that excess body fat can contribute to heart disease, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Many people once thought that fat cells were inert storage depots for surplus calories. But studies have established that fat cells can secrete certain hormones and other substances much like other organs in the body. Among those hormones is leptin, which controls appetite, ...
Introduction. Physical growth and physiological development of animals are linked and interdependent. Nutrition is the primary exogenous determinant of the rate of growth of gross tissue depots (bone, muscle, adipose tissue and total body lipid reserves) and organs, and the concomitant attainment of sexual maturity. The growth of gross tissue depots and organs occur in allometric relationships that can be defined into phases (Roux, 1976; Roux & Kemm, 1981). The quantity and quality of nutrition within a growth phase can affect the rate of change in the bodys relationships and the development of different tissues and organs (Roux, 1974). The emphasis in modern meat animals is on muscle accretion with a minimum of fat. Fat accretion is a natural phenomenon of growth and development and in humans and rats (Frisch, 1980), and pigs (Den Hartog & Van Kampen, 1980) fat content may affect the onset of puberty. Fat deposition is a function of both nutrition and physiological development and total body ...
The journal Cell and Tissue Biology publishes research on animal and plant cells, in vivo and in cell culture, which offers insight into the structure and functions of the live cell as a whole. Typically, the journal publishes ...
Calculate your body fat percentage with our body fat calculator. Knowing your body fat can help you lose weight by maintaining the right diet & exercise
The increasing rate of obesity worldwide is predicted to be associated with a surge in diseases. Notably, obesity has been linked to approximately 20% of cancer cases in the United States; obesity is associated with both increased risk and worse outcomes after diagnosis. Altered levels of circulating factors are strongly implicated including insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1, leptin, adiponectin and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Additionally, increasing attention has focused on the consequences of local adipose inflammation. Inflammatory foci characterized by crown-like structures consisting of dead adipocytes encircled by macrophages occur in white adipose depots, including the breast tissue, of most overweight and obese women. Saturated fatty acids, released as a consequence of obesity-associated lipolysis, induce macrophage activation via Toll-like receptor 4, thereby stimulating NFκB signaling. This, in turn, activates transcription of proinflammatory genes including cyclooxygenase-2, IL-6, ...
A team of researchers from the Joslin Diabetes Center has discovered a type of cell that is capable of transforming into energy-burning brown fat cells. The findings could help millions of obese individuals cut excess body fat and reduce their risk of developing type 2 diabetes.Common white fat cells take excess energy and turn it into body fat.
The agency s decision to limit competition for the reprocurement to the two firms currently producing anti-gravity suits, and the only firms on the QPL not subject to FAT requirements, was reasonable. With respect to not soliciting Derm-Buro, the firm s last successful delivery of anti-gravity suits was in November 2006. Therefore, as stated by the agency, Derm-Buro would be required to submit FAT samples and pass a FAT before it could begin production. Given that the recent terminations for default on Derm-Buro s contracts were a result of its failure to provide FAT samples in a timely manner and failure to make deliveries within the timeframe established in its contract, the agency had a reasonable concern that soliciting Derm-Buro (or any other firm subject to FAT requirements) could have an adverse effect on the agency s ability to expeditiously reprocure the critically needed suits. In light of the agency s critical need and the broad discretion granted the agency in determining how to ...
Fattening and obesity are caused by an imbalance-a disequilibrium-in the hormonal regulation of adipose tissue and fat metabolism. Fat synthesis and storage exceed the mobilization of fat from the adipose tissue and its subsequent oxidation. We become leaner when the hormonal regulation of fat tissue reverses this balance ...
Obesity is considered as top at risk condition in the world and it is mandatory to identify the physiopathological causes involved in adipose tissue
Nanometer-sized drones that deliver a special type of healing molecule to fat deposits in arteries could become a new way to prevent heart attacks caused by atherosclerosis.
Background: Developing efficient methods to isolate and identify human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) remains to be one of the major challenges in tissue engineering.. Methods: We demonstrate here a method by isolating hADSCs from abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue harvested during caesarian section. The hADSCs were isolated from human adipose tissue by collagenase digestion and adherence to flasks.. Results: The yield reached around 1 x 10(6) hADSCs per gram adipose tissue. The following comprehensive identification and characterization illustrated pronounced features of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The fibroblast-like hADSCs exhibited typical ultrastructure details for vigorous cell activities. Karyotype mapping showed normal human chromosome. With unique immunophenotypes they were positive for CD29, CD44, CD73, CD105 and CD166, but negative for CD31, CD34, CD45 and HLA-DR. The growth curve and cell cycle analysis revealed high capability for self-renewal and ...
Introduction: Myocardial metabolism undergoes change in response to pathological cardiac hypertrophy (PH), characterized by increased reliance on glucose oxidation, decreased free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation and a loss of metabolic flexibility. Cardiac metabolism is influenced by other organs such as adipose tissue. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effect of Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL) in adipose tissue on the development of PH and heart failure (HF) in a pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy model in mice.. Methods: Male adipose tissue specific ATGL-knock out (atATGL-KO) and wild type mice (WT) underwent sham surgery (sham) or transverse aortic constriction (TAC). After 11 weeks, mice were sacrificed and organs were harvested.. We performed echocardiography one week before and 11 weeks after surgery. Left ventricular mass (LVM), left ventricular mass/tibia length (LVM/TL) and ejection fraction (EF) were calculated. Beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MyHC) was measured in RNA of hearts. ...
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are a novel class of insulin-sensitizing agents used in the treatment of NIDDM and are potent agonists for the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma). The thiazolidinedione BRL 49653 has been shown to promote the differentiation of the HIB-1B brown preadipocyte cell line and to increase rat interscapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass. Given the importance of brown fat in the control of energy metabolism in rodents, this may represent an important therapeutic effect of this class of compound. To date, however, no studies examining the effects of TZDs on human brown fat have been reported. In the present study, we have measured uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) mRNA, a specific marker for BAT, in isolated adipocytes and subcultured preadipocytes prepared from different adult human adipose tissue depots. Consistent with previous studies of adult human whole adipose tissue, UCP-1 mRNA was detectable in isolated human adipocytes ...
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) have been shown to decrease body fat content in pigs. It is possible that feeding pigs diets rich in CLA may increase carcass lipid CLA to levels that could provide health benefits when included as a part of a healthy diet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine whether dietary CLA supplementation has any effect on the fatty acid composition of subcutaneous and intramuscular adipose tissue in pigs. Thirty-five female cross bred (Large White X Landrace) pigs (initial weight 57·2 kg and initial P2 back fat 11·5 mm) were used in the present study. Pigs were housed individually and randomly allocated to one of six dietary treatments (0·00, 1·25, 2·50, 5·00, 7·50 and 10·00 g CLA55 (55 g CLA isomers/100 g total fatty acids; Natural Lipids Ltd, Hovdebygda, Norway)/kg ...
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is produced in the rumen by isomerization of linoleic acid and has been shown to be anticarcinogenic. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding dietary CLA to pre-ruminant lambs or linoleic acid-rich safflower oil to weaned ruminating lambs. Fat content, CLA content and fatty acid (FA) composition of diaphragm, leg, rib, subcutaneous (SC) adipose and liver tissues were determined. The triacylglycerol (TAG) fractions of the total lipid (TL) from the diaphragm, rib and SC adipose tissues were analyzed for FA composition and FA positional distribution. The phospholipid (PL) fractions of the TL were analyzed for FA composition. The positional (PL) fractions of the TL were analyzed for FA composition. The positional distribution of FAs of liver PL was determined. Tissue fat content was affected by diet only in SC adipose tissue. Dietary supplementation with safflower oil increased the fat content of the subcutaneous adipose tissue whereas CLA ...
The liver secretes triglyceride-rich VLDLs, and the triglycerides in these particles are taken up by peripheral tissues, mainly heart, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue. Blocking hepatic VLDL secretion interferes with the delivery of liver-derived triglycerides to peripheral tissues and results in an accumulation of triglycerides in the liver. However, it is unclear how interfering with hepatic triglyceride secretion affects adiposity, muscle triglyceride stores, and insulin sensitivity. To explore these issues, we examined mice that cannot secrete VLDL [due to the absence of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (Mttp) in the liver]. These mice exhibit markedly reduced levels of apolipoprotein B-100 in the plasma, along with reduced levels of triglycerides in the plasma. Despite the low plasma triglyceride levels, triglyceride levels in skeletal muscle were unaffected. Adiposity and adipose tissue triglyceride synthesis rates were also normal, and body weight curves were unaffected. Even ...
The abilities of intracavernous injection of autologous stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) to facilitate recovery of erectile function in a rat model of cavernous nerve (CN) injury were compared. in the ADSC and SVF groups than in the control group. Phrase of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase was increased in the SVF group PIK-90 significantly. The boosts in the simple muscles/collagen proportion and von Willebrand aspect phrase had been bigger in the SVF group than in the ADSC group. Intracavernous shot of SVF or ADSCs was similarly effective in recovering penile erection in a rat model of CN damage. for 5 a few minutes. The stromal cell pellet was resuspended in DMEM formulated with 10% FBS and 1% antibiotic-antimycotic option. Civilizations had been preserved at subconfluent amounts (80%) at 37C in 5% Company2. Cells had been passaged using trypsin/EDTA (Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc.) simply because needed. The resuspended cells had been plated at a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Contribution of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins to plasma free fatty acids. AU - Miles, J. M.. AU - Nelson, R. H.. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids are the major lipid fuel of the body. Dysregulation of adipose tissue lipolysis results in increased plasma free fatty acid concentrations, and via that mechanism contributes to insulin resistance in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipose tissue hormone sensitive lipase is thought to be responsible for the production of the majority of free fatty acids. However, a separate contribution comes from the action of endothelial lipases, especially lipoprotein lipase, on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins via a process known as spillover. The primary substrate for spillover appears to be chylomicrons derived from dietary fat. The spillover of fatty acids into the free fatty acid pool varies from one tissue to another. For example, spillover is low (∼14%) in the forearm of healthy volunteers, suggesting that triglyceride ...
The secretome of brown adipose tissue  The secretome of brown adipose tissue
... changes in expression were paralleled in brite/beige adipose tissues (e.g. inguinal), whereas white adipose tissue (epididymal ... A partial secretome of brown adipose tissue. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,A partial secretome of brown adipose ... Brown adipose tissue has long been known for its heat-producing capacity, but less is known about its possible effects as a ... nonrecruited molecular signatures of brown, "brite," and white adipose tissues. Open this publication in new window or tab ,, ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:714076
5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein Signals Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Lipid Dysfunction in Experimental Obesity | The...  5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein Signals Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Lipid Dysfunction in Experimental Obesity | The...
... was detected in adipose tissue as well as in adipocyte and stromal vascular fractions. Adipose tissue from obese mice, compared ... Incubation of adipose tissue with 5-LO products resulted in NF-κB activation and augmented secretion of proinflammatory ... The presence of the so-called low-grade inflammatory state is recognized as a critical event in adipose tissue dysfunction, ... Taken together, these findings indicate that the 5-LO pathway signals the adipose tissue low-grade inflammatory state and ...
more infohttp://www.jimmunol.org/content/early/2010/03/05/jimmunol.0901355
Qualitative aspects of diet affecting visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue: a systematic review of observational...  Qualitative aspects of diet affecting visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue: a systematic review of observational...
Qualitative aspects of diet affecting visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue: a systematic review of observational ... DATA SYNTHESIS Considering study quality, including nutritional and abdominal adipose tissue assessment, about 30 caloric and ... DATA SYNTHESIS Considering study quality, including nutritional and abdominal adipose tissue assessment, about 30 caloric and ... and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) is limited and not conclusive. OBJECTIVE A systematic review was conducted to ...
more infohttp://www.zora.uzh.ch/id/eprint/117211/
Adipose tissue - Wikipedia  Adipose tissue - Wikipedia
Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose tissue important ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0.9 g/ml.[90] Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adipose
Adipose tissue - Food  Adipose tissue - Food
Fat tissues in the upper and lower body may gain weight differently, says a new study which deepens our understanding of fat ...
more infohttps://www.foodnavigator.com/tag/keyword/Food/Adipose%20tissue
Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.  - PubMed - NCBI  Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. - PubMed - NCBI
White adipose tissue is no longer considered an inert tissue mainly devoted to energy storage but is emerging as an active ... Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.. Fantuzzi G1.. Author information. 1. Department of Human Nutrition, University ... Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines ... Proinflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15867843?dopt=Abstract
Brown adipose tissue definition | Drugs.com  Brown adipose tissue definition | Drugs.com
Definition of brown adipose tissue. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/brown-adipose-tissue.html
Adipose Tissue | Smore Newsletters  Adipose Tissue | Smore Newsletters
Adipose Tissue - Human by Chris Giersch , This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful ...
more infohttps://www.smore.com/uhbg
Patent US9370536 - Processed adipose tissue - Google Patents  Patent US9370536 - Processed adipose tissue - Google Patents
The tissue products can include decellularized and partially de-fatted tissues. In addition, the present disclosure provides ... as well as methods for producing such tissue products. ... The present disclosure provides tissue products produced from ... The adipose-containing tissues can be from human or animal sources, and from any tissue that contains adipose (e.g., a tissue ... the chosen adipose-containing tissue is a dermal tissue (e.g., tissue from transitional tissue layers between the dermis and ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US9370536
JCI -
Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue  JCI - Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue
Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue. Yasuo Oguri1,2,3 and Shingo Kajimura1,2,3 1UCSF Diabetes Center, San Francisco ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains mitochondria-enriched thermogenic fat cells (brown adipocytes) that play a crucial role in ... The present study provides novel insight into our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues. ... 3Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA. ...
more infohttps://jci.org/articles/view/133786/pdf
What is an Adipose Tissue? (with pictures)  What is an Adipose Tissue? (with pictures)
Also known as fat, adipose tissue is not... ... Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue that stores ... This article describes what brown adipose tissue does, so I looked into white adipose tissue and its functions. White adipose ... Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue which plays an important role in the functioning of the body. Better known simply ... Brown adipose tissue also generates heat, which keeps the body at a stable temperature. In people with insufficient quantities ...
more infohttps://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-an-adipose-tissue.htm
Analysis Of Adipose Tissue on Microfluidic Chips  Analysis Of Adipose Tissue on Microfluidic Chips
... their offspring are only able to develop at the same site and in certain tissue types. ... Pathway Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Brown Adipose Tissue That Helps in Fighting Diabetes Found. Bringing smiles on the faces ... Swedish Researchers Identify Gene Behind Development of Harmful Adipose Tissue. A gene that is responsible for the development ... Understanding of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Advanced by Joslin Scientists. Significant findings about the location, genetic ...
more infohttps://www.medindia.net/news/analysis-of-adipose-tissue-on-microfluidic-chips-161680-1.htm
Mechanisms of Perivascular Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Obesity  Mechanisms of Perivascular Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Obesity
... Maria S. Fernández-Alfonso,1 Marta Gil-Ortega,2 Concha F. ... L. Fang, J. Zhao, Y. Chen et al., "Hydrogen sulfide derived from periadventitial adipose tissue is a vasodilator," Journal of ... M. S. Fernández-Alfonso, M. Gil-Ortega, and B. Somoza, "Role of perivascular adipose tissue in vascular function," in Advances ... Y. C. Lee, H. H. Chang, C. L. Chiang et al., "Role of perivascular adipose tissue-derived methyl palmitate in vascular tone ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2013/402053/ref/
Adipose Tissue Plasticity… - University of Gothenburg, Sweden 
							
							
						
					
				
			  Adipose Tissue Plasticity… - University of Gothenburg, Sweden
Adipose Tissue Plasticity During Catch-Up Fat Driven by Thrifty Metabolism Relevance for Muscle-Adipose Glucose Redistribution ... Such adipose tissue plasticity could play an active role in the thrifty metabolism that underlies glucose redistribution from ... This model is characterized by glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue during catch-up fat that results ... Our objective was to characterize the determinants of enhanced glucose utilization in adipose tissue during catch-up fat. ...
more infohttps://www.gu.se/english/research/publication?publicationId=241727
Adipose Tissue by L. Robert, A. M. Robert | Waterstones  Adipose Tissue by L. Robert, A. M. Robert | Waterstones
Buy Adipose Tissue by L. Robert, A. M. Robert from Waterstones today! Click and Collect from your local Waterstones or get FREE ... Adipose Tissue: Lipids and the Intercellular Matrix. - Frontiers of Matrix Biology 2 (Hardback). L. Robert (author), A. M. ...
more infohttps://www.waterstones.com/book/adipose-tissue/l-robert/a-m-robert/9783805522236
Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue.  - PubMed - NCBI  Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue. - PubMed - NCBI
It is therefore not surprising that white adipose tissue function can be perturbed by altering mitochondrial components or ... Mitochondrial function/dysfunction in white adipose tissue.. Boudina S1, Graham TE2. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25128326
Adipose Tissue and Endocrine Function in Critical Care | SpringerLink  Adipose Tissue and Endocrine Function in Critical Care | SpringerLink
... the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of a high number of adipocyte-originated ... Changes in adipose tissue gene expression and plasma levels of adipokines and acute-phase proteins in patients with critical ... Marques M., Langouche L. (2014) Adipose Tissue and Endocrine Function in Critical Care. In: Rajendram R., Preedy V., Patel V. ( ... In addition to energy storage and insulation, the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007/978-1-4614-8503-2_28-1
Frontiers | Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue | Endocrinology  Frontiers | Exercise Regulation of Marrow Adipose Tissue | Endocrinology
... marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell pool (MSC ... encourages growth of skeletally-supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption and alters skeletal architecture through direct ... encourages growth of skeletally-supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption and alters skeletal architecture through direct ... marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. The marrow adipocyte originates from the mesenchymal stem cell pool (MSC ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2016.00094/full
Perivascular adipose tissue and coronary atherosclerosis | Heart  Perivascular adipose tissue and coronary atherosclerosis | Heart
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttps://heart.bmj.com/content/104/20/1654.share
PREventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov  PREventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
PREventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution. Official Title ICMJE A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label, 48-Week ... Preventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution) Investigators. Impact of switching from zidovudine to tenofovir ... although there is evidence that drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity at the level of subcutaneous adipose tissue is involved2 3 ... decrease in the mass of peripheral adipose tissue. Switching to emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is expected to ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00389194
  • Going forward, we want to investigate the environmental factors - particularly the nutrient conditions - that cause different adipose cell types to grow," explains biophysicist Dr. Matthias Meier. (medindia.net)
  • Proinflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin resistance and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Factors such as insulin and blood sugar levels influence whether or not adult stem cells in adipose tissue will develop into mature adipose cell. (medindia.net)
  • RESULTS Adipose tissue recovery during the dynamic phase of catch-up fat is accompanied by increased adipocyte number with smaller diameter, increased expression of genes for adipogenesis and de novo lipogenesis, increased fatty acid synthase activity, increased proportion of saturated fatty acids in triglyceride (storage) fraction but not in phospholipid (membrane) fraction, and no impairment in insulin signaling. (gu.se)
  • CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that increased adipose tissue insulin stimulation and consequential increase in intracellular glucose flux play an important role in initiating catch-up fat. (gu.se)
  • These so-called adipokines are involved in the control of metabolism, linking the nutrient status to the tissues involved in energy intake and expenditure and affecting insulin sensitivity. (springer.com)
  • Individuals with large fat cells had markedly lower EBF1 expression in their adipose tissue, displayed altered lipid mobilisation and were insulin resistant. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Insulin resistance - a condition characterised by reduced cellular response to the hormone insulin that is released when the blood glucose levels rise after a meal - is an important causal factor underlying the increased risk of diabetes in individuals with hypertrophic adipose tissue. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Previous experiments have enabled them to decode a signalling pathway involved in adipose cell maturation and to show that calories in the nutrient medium influence this process. (medindia.net)
  • This enabled adipose-derived adult stem cells to be successfully converted into mature fat cells within the experiments, and the corresponding signalling pathway mTORC1 was also decoded. (medindia.net)
  • Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin, as well as cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and others. (nih.gov)
  • Gronthos S, Franklin DM, Leddy HA, Robey PG, Storms RW, Gimble JM (2001) Surface protein characterization of human adipose tissue-derived stromal cells. (springer.com)
  • One promising approach has been the expansion of brown adipose tissues that express uncoupling protein (UCP) 1 and thus can uncouple mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • CD36 and macrophage scavenger receptor 1 (MSR1)) and lipid-handling genes (i.e. adipose differentiation-related protein (Adfp), fatty acid-binding protein 4 (Fabp4), ApoE and ABCA1), and increased accumulation of Oil Red O-positive lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of the long-term effects of dexamethasone treatment in mice revealed that Foxa3 ablation protects mice specifically against fat accretion but not against other pathological side effects elicited by this synthetic GC in tissues such as liver, muscle, and spleen. (pnas.org)
  • Adipose tissue transcripts whose abundance was correlated with body mass in mice. (jci.org)
  • The expression of more than 12,000 transcripts in parametrial and epididymal adipose tissue was monitored in C57BL/6J mice whose body mass varied secondary to sex, diet, or mutations in the agouti ( Ay/ + ) or leptin ( Lepob/ob ) loci. (jci.org)
  • It turned out that these mice developed adipose hypertrophy and displayed increased lipid mobilisation from fat cells . (medicalxpress.com)
  • However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The products can comprise a decellularized adipose extracellular tissue matrix and a reduced lipid content. (google.ca)
  • Gimble J, Guilak F (2003) Adipose-derived adult stem cells: isolation, characterization, and differentiation potential. (springer.com)
  • We further identify regulators of normal and disturbed adipose tissue function and subsequently perform functional characterization by looking at their role for adipocyte differentiation in vitro (cell lines and primary predadipocytes) and in vivo by using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for obesity and associated diseases (Landgraf K, 2017). (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
  • Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin , estrogen , resistin , and the cytokine TNFα . (wikipedia.org)
  • This model is characterized by glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue during catch-up fat that results solely from suppressed thermogenesis (i.e., without hyperphagia). (gu.se)
  • Berberine activates thermogenesis in white and brown adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important source of thermogenesis which is nearly exclusively dependent on its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation. (jneurosci.org)
  • The methods can comprise placing an adipose tissue product into a surgical site to replace, repair, regenerate, augment, and/or enhance a native tissue. (google.ca)
  • Erickson GR, Gimble JM, Franklin DM, Rice HE, Awad H, Guilak F (2002) Chondrogenic potential of adipose tissue-derived stromal cells in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Ruiz JC, Ludlow JW, Sherwood S, Yu G, Wu X, Gimble JM (2010) Differentiated human adipose-derived stem cells exhibit hepatogenic capability in vitro and in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Awad HA, Halvorsen YD, Gimble JM, Guilak F (2003) Effects of transforming growth factor beta1 and dexamethasone on the growth and chondrogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells. (springer.com)
  • Adaptative nitric oxide overproduction in perivascular adipose tissue during early diet-induced obesity," Endocrinology , vol. 151, no. 7, pp. 3299-3306, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue is related to anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome: a new indicator of cardiovascular risk," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 5163-5168, 2003. (hindawi.com)
  • Anticontractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue and leptin are reduced in hypertension," Front Pharmacol , vol. 3, no. 103, pp. 1-8, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • The aim of this chapter is to discuss what mechanisms are available to rapidly modulate fatty acid uptake/mobilization in adipose tissue. (diva-portal.org)
  • To contextualise the effects of exercise and enable an assessment of the extent of 'normalisation' of adipose tissue mobilisation of 25OHD, we will also recruit an age-matched active lean group. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Such adipose tissue plasticity could play an active role in the thrifty metabolism that underlies glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue. (gu.se)
  • The researchers used the new lab-on-a-chip to study how adult stem cells in adipose tissue develop into mature fat cells, conducting their investigations outside the body. (medindia.net)
  • In contrast to embryonic stem cells, when adult stem cells divide, their offspring are only able to develop at the same site and in certain tissue types. (medindia.net)
  • Stem cell researchers led by Dr Adam Reid, present a review of the current literature on the suitability of adipose-derived stem cells in peripheral nerve repair. (medindia.net)
  • Hicok KC, Du Laney TV, Zhou YS, Halvorsen YD, Hitt DC, Cooper LF et al (2004) Human adipose-derived adult stem cells produce osteoid in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Banas A, Teratani T, Yamamoto Y, Tokuhara M, Takeshita F, Quinn G et al (2007) Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as a source of human hepatocytes. (springer.com)
  • Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely prescribed anti-inflammatory agents, but their chronic use leads to undesirable side effects such as excessive expansion of adipose tissue. (pnas.org)
  • Prenatal exposure to nicotine causes postnatal obesity and altered perivascular adipose tissue function," Obesity Research , vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 687-692, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • Perivascular adipose tissue modulates vascular function in the human internal thoracic artery," Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 1130-1136, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • BAT is activated by the cold, a function mediated by the sympathetic nervous system ( 2 ), and is capable of producing up to 300 times more heat per unit mass compared with all other tissues ( 5 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the future, it might be possible to develop drugs that improve EBF1 function in adipose tissue, which could be used to treat type 2-diabetes. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Perivascular adipose tissue potentiates contraction of coronary vascular smooth muscle: influence of obesity," Circulation , vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 9-18, 2013. (hindawi.com)
  • OBJECTIVE Catch-up growth, a risk factor for later type 2 diabetes, is characterized by hyperinsulinemia, accelerated body-fat recovery (catch-up fat), and enhanced glucose utilization in adipose tissue. (gu.se)
  • Such products can include tissue grafts and/or processed tissues (e.g., acellular tissue matrices from skin, intestine, or other tissues, with or without cell seeding). (google.ca)
  • However, it remains unclear whether adjusting the calorie levels in this way leads to an increased rate of adipose cell formation. (medindia.net)
  • Despite their tremendous promise, adipose tissue stem cell-based regenerative strategies may require additional preclinical evidence to support advancement to clinical trials. (springer.com)
  • Innovative and highly practical, Adipose Tissue Protocols offers endocrinologists, physiologists, cell biologists, and pharmacologists a gold-standard collection of proven methods for effective nutritional, physiological, and molecular-level research on adipose tissue. (springer.com)
  • Increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is associated with states of impaired bone formation ( 1 , 2 ) and dysfunctional hematopoiesis ( 3 - 5 ), although its physiological role remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
  • Vitamin D can become 'trapped' in our adipose (fat) tissue and this study will examine whether exercise can help to release it. (bath.ac.uk)
  • We will examine whether exercise improves the ability to mobilise vitamin D from adipose. (bath.ac.uk)