Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
Adipose Tissue, Brown
Adipose Tissue, White
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 220.127.116.11.
Fatty Acids, Nonesterified
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Gene Expression Regulation
Body Fat Distribution
Body Temperature Regulation
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Fatty Acid Synthases
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3
Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
Glucose Tolerance Test
Glucose Transporter Type 4
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.
Body Mass Index
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
Neoplasms, Adipose Tissue
Glucose Clamp Technique
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A pathological state in which BLOOD GLUCOSE level is less than approximately 140 mg/100 ml of PLASMA at fasting, and above approximately 200 mg/100 ml plasma at 30-, 60-, or 90-minute during a GLUCOSE TOLERANCE TEST. This condition is seen frequently in DIABETES MELLITUS, but also occurs with other diseases and MALNUTRITION.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.
Metabolic Syndrome X
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
HIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome
Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
A syndrome with excessively high INSULIN levels in the BLOOD. It may cause HYPOGLYCEMIA. Etiology of hyperinsulinism varies, including hypersecretion of a beta cell tumor (INSULINOMA); autoantibodies against insulin (INSULIN ANTIBODIES); defective insulin receptor (INSULIN RESISTANCE); or overuse of exogenous insulin or HYPOGLYCEMIC AGENTS.
Linoleic Acids, Conjugated
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Rats, Inbred Strains
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
ATP Citrate (pro-S)-Lyase
Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic
Monosaccharide Transport Proteins
Gene Expression Profiling
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
Receptors, Adrenergic, beta
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized
Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic
Disease Models, Animal
Diabetes Mellitus, Lipoatrophic
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.
A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.
Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma
Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins
Fatty Acid Synthase, Type I
Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
A disease of cats and mink characterized by a marked inflammation of adipose tissue and the deposition of "ceroid" pigment in the interstices of the adipose cells. It is believed to be caused by feeding diets containing too much unsaturated fatty acid and too little vitamin E. (Merck Veterinary Manual, 5th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
Determination of human body burden baseline date of platinum through autopsy tissue analysis. (1/12479)Results of analysis for platinum in 97 autopsy sets are presented. Analysis was performed by a specially developed emission spectrochemical method. Almost half of the individuals studied were found to have detectable platinum in one or more tissue samples. Platinum was found to be deposited in 13 of 21 tissue types investigated. Surprisingly high values were observed in subcutaneous fat, previously not considered to be a target site for platinum deposition. These data will serve as a human tissue platinum burden baseline in EPA's Catalyst Research Program. (+info)
Control of ketogenesis from amino acids. IV. Tissue specificity in oxidation of leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. (2/12479)In vitro and in vivo studies were made on the tissue specificity of oxidation of the ketogenic amino acids, leucine, tyrosine, and lysine. In in vitro studies the abilities of slices of various tissues of rats to form 14CO2 from 14C-amino acids were examined. With liver, but not kidney slices, addition of alpha-ketoglutarate was required for the maximum activities with these amino acids. Among the various tissues tested, kidney had the highest activity for lysine oxidation, followed by liver; other tissues showed very low activity. Kidney also had the highest activity for leucine oxidation, followed by diaphragm; liver and adipose tissue had lower activities. Liver had the highest activity for tyrosine oxidation, but kidney also showed considerable activity; other tissues had negligible activity. In in vivo studies the blood flow through the liver or kidney was stopped by ligation of the blood vessels. Then labeled amino acids were injected and recovery of radioactivity in respiratory 14CO2 was measured. In contrast to results with slices, no difference was found in the respiratory 14CO2 when the renal blood vessels were or were not ligated. On the contrary ligation of the hepatic vessels suppressed the oxidations of lysine and tyrosine completely and that of leucine partially. Thus in vivo, lysine and tyrosine seem to be metabolized mainly in the liver, whereas leucine is metabolized mostly in extrahepatic tissues and partly in liver. Use of tissue slices seems to be of only limited value in elucidating the metabolisms of these amino acids. (+info)
Further studies on the mechanism of adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipid micelles. (3/12479)Lipase [EC 18.104.22.168] depleted lipid micelles, in which lipolysis was not elicited by adrenaline, were prepared from lipid micelles. When these lipase-depleted lipid micelles incubated with adipose tissue extract containing lipase activity, adrenaline-induced lipolysis was restored to almost the same level as that of native lipid micelles. Adrenaline-induced lipolysis was not restored when the lipase-depleted lipid micelles were homogenized or sonicated. Various tissue extracts from kidney, lung, liver, and pancreas, and post-heparin plasma, which contained lipase activity, restored adrenaline-induced lipolysis in lipase-depleted lipid micelles. (+info)
Lipolytic action of cholera toxin on fat cells. Re-examination of the concept implicating GM1 ganglioside as the native membrane receptor. (4/12479)The possible role of galactosyl-N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM1) ganglioside in the lipolytic activity of cholera toxin on isolated fat cells has been examined. Analyses of the ganglioside content and composition of intact fat cells, their membranous ghosts, and the total particulate fraction of these cells indicate that N-acetylneuraminylgalactosylglucosylceramide (GM3) represents the major ganglioside, with substantial amounts of N-acetylgalactosaminyl-[N-acetylneuraminyl]-galactosylglucosylceramide (GM2) and smaller amounts of other higher homologues also present. Native GM1 was not detected in any of these preparations. Examination of the relative capacities of various exogenously added radiolabeled sphingolipids to bind to the cells indicated that GM2 and glucosylsphingosine were accumulated by the cells to extents comparable to GM1. Galactosylsphingosine and sulfatide also exhibited significant, although lesser, binding affinities for the cells. The adipocytes appeared to nonspecifically bind exogenously added GM1; saturation of binding sites for GM1 could not be observed up to the highest concentration tested (2 X 10(-4) M), wherein about 7 X 10(9) molecules were associated with the cells. Essentially all of this exogenously added GM1 was found bound to the plasma membrane "ghost" fraction. Investigation of the biological responses of the cells confirmed their sensitivities to both cholera toxin and epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis, as well as the lag period displayed during the toxin's action. While we could confirm that the toxin's lipolytic activity can be enhanced by prior treatment of the fat cells with GM1, several of the observed characteristics of this phenomenon differ from earlier reported findings. Accordingly, added GM1 was able to enhance only the subsequent rate, but not the extent, of toxin-stimulated glycerol release (lipolysis) from the cells. We also were unable to confirm the ability of GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity at either saturating or at low toxin concentrations. The limited ability of added GM1 to enhance the toxin's activity appeared in a unique bell-shaped dose-response manner. The inability of high levels of GM1 to stimulate a dose of toxin that was ineffective on native cells suggests that the earlier reported ability of crude brain gangliosides to accomplish this was due to some component other than GM1 in the crude extract. While several glycosphingolipids and some other carbohydrate-containing substances that were tested lacked the ability to mimic the enhancing effect of GM1, 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-galactoside exhibited an effect similar to, although less pronounced than, that of GM1. The findings in these studies are unable to lend support to the earlier hypothesis that (a) GM1 is cholera toxin's naturally occurring membrane receptor on native fat cells, and (b) the ability of exogenously added GM1 to enhance the toxin's lipolytic activity represents the specific creation of additional natural receptors on adipocytes... (+info)
Immunocytochemically detected free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) are a strong prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma. (5/12479)We prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) in a series of 118 patients with completely resected gastric carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Ber-Ep4 was performed on cytospins from intraoperative peritoneal lavage specimens. Twenty-three patients (20%) had FPTC which was significantly correlated with pT and pN categories, stage, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, Lauren and WHO classifications and perigastric adipose tissue metastases. The median survival time for all FPTC positive compared with negative patients was significantly shorter (11 compared with >72 months), with estimated 5-year survival rates of 8% vs. 60%. None of the patients with FPTC had an early gastric cancer. In advanced tumour subgroups without and with serosal invasion (n = 59 and 35), there were 19% and 34% with FPTC. Multivariate survival analysis showed nodal status, FPTC, mesenteric lymphangiosis, and lymph node metastasis to the compartment III to be independent prognostic factors with relative risks of 6.6, 4.5, 2.9 and 2.2 respectively. Recurrent disease occurred in 91% of FPTC-positive and in 38% of FPTC-negative patients. FPTC had a positive predictive value of 91% and a specificity of 97% for tumour recurrence. FPTC is a strong negative, independent prognostic indicator for survival in gastric carcinoma. (+info)
Changes in body composition and leptin levels during growth hormone (GH) treatment in short children with various GH secretory capacities. (6/12479)OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to follow changes in body composition, estimated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), in relation to changes in leptin during the first year of GH therapy in order to test the hypothesis that leptin is a metabolic signal involved in the regulation of GH secretion in children. DESIGN AND METHODS: In total, 33 prepubertal children were investigated. Their mean (S.D.) chronological age at the start of GH treatment was 11.5 (1.6) years, and their mean height was -2.33 (0.38) S.D. scores (SDS). GH was administered subcutaneously at a daily dose of 0.1 (n=26) or 0.2 (n=7) IU/kg body weight. Ten children were in the Swedish National Registry for children with GH deficiency, and twenty-three children were involved in trials of GH treatment for idiopathic short stature. Spontaneous 24-h GH secretion was studied in 32 of the children. In the 24-h GH profiles, the maximum level of GH was determined and the secretion rate estimated by deconvolution analysis (GHt). Serum leptin levels were measured at the start of GH treatment and after 10 and 30 days and 3, 6 and 12 months of treatment. Body composition measurements, by DXA, were performed at baseline and 12 months after the onset of GH treatment. RESULTS: After 12 months of GH treatment, mean height increased from -2.33 to -1.73 SDS and total body fat decreased significantly by 3.0 (3.3)%. Serum leptin levels were decreased significantly at all time points studied compared with baseline. There was a significant correlation between the change in total body fat and the change in serum leptin levels during the 12 months of GH treatment, whereas the leptin concentration per unit fat mass did not change. In a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis with 12 month change in leptin levels as the dependent variable, the percentage change in fat over 12 months, the baseline fat mass (%) of body mass and GHt accounted for 24.0%, 11.5% and 12.2% of the variability respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are significant correlations between changes in leptin and fat and endogenous GH secretion in short children with various GH secretory capacities. Leptin may be the messenger by which the adipose tissue affects hypothalamic regulation of GH secretion. (+info)
Extremely low values of serum leptin in children with congenital generalized lipoatrophy. (7/12479)Congenital generalized lipoatrophy (CGL) is a syndrome with multiple clinical manifestations and complete atrophy of adipose tissue. The exact mechanism of this disease remains unknown. One hypothesis presupposes an abnormal development of adipocytes. Leptin, the adipocyte-specific product of the ob gene, acts as a regulatory factor of body weight. In children, as in adults, leptin levels are correlated with body mass index (BMI) and body fat mass. Some authors have demonstrated that adults with congenital or acquired generalized lipoatrophy have decreased leptin concentrations. In order to study serum leptin profile during childhood in this disease, we measured serum leptin concentrations in six children aged 5.5-11 years suffering from CGL, and investigated the relationship between metabolic parameters and the variations in leptin levels. Serum leptin concentrations (1.19+/-0.32 ng/ml (+/- S.D.)) were extremely low compared with those observed in normal children. No significant correlation was found with BMI, which is known to be one of the major determinants of serum leptin. Serum leptin values were significantly correlated with fasting insulin levels (r=0.83, P=0.024). In conclusion, extremely low leptin values measured in children with CGL could be regarded as one among other diagnostic parameters. However, the detectable levels observed in all of these children support the evidence that a small amount of body fat is likely to be present in these patients, despite complete subcutaneous lipoatrophy. Our data suggest that this small amount of adipose tissue could be metabolically active and, at least in part, sensitive to insulin. Further investigations are required to uncover the pathophysiological mechanisms of this syndrome, known to be commonly associated with insulin resistance. (+info)
Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis. (8/12479)High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased the rats' water intake. (+info)
Adipose tissue fatty acid composition in humans with lipoprotein lipase deficiency<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue fatty acid composition in humans with lipoprotein lipase deficiency. AU - Ullrich, Nathan F.E.. AU - Purnell, Jonathan Q.. AU - Brunzell, John D.. PY - 2001/5. Y1 - 2001/5. N2 - Background: Lipid stores in human adipose tissue are maintained primarily by incorporating lipid from circulating chylomicrons and very low density lipoproteins. Adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triglyceride from these lipoprotein particles to facilitate their entry into adipocytes for storage. Subjects deficient in LPL still have normal adiposity, and this may result from increased adipocyte lipogenesis or from uptake of circulating lipid through alternate mechanisms. The objective of this study was to determine whether fatty acid composition of adipose tissue from LPL-deficient subjects reflects maintenance of lipid stores through increased lipogenesis or through alternate mechanisms of lipoprotein uptake. Methods: Adipose tissue samples from LPL-deficient subjects who ...
Effect of protein supplementation to the mother at specific stages of gestation on fetal adipose tissue | SFE2003
Maternal nutrient restriction at specific gestational stages compromises fetal growth and development, in particular, fetal adipose tissue deposition. The extent to which nutritional supplementation can promote growth and development of specific fetal organs is unknown. This study aimed to determine whether protein supplementation of the maternal diet at defined stages of gestation promoted the abundance of the key mitochondrial proteins; uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), cytochrome c and the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) in fetal adipose tissue.. Twenty-nine twin-bearing ewes of similar body weight and parity were randomly allocated to 4 feeding groups from 10d gestation. All ewes received a control diet, which was supplemented with fishmeal in 3 of the groups during early i.e. 10d-40d, mid i.e. 40d-70d or late i.e. 110d-140d gestation. Each ewe was then humanely euthanased with an overdose of barbiturate (100 mg/kg pentobarbital sodium: Euthanal) at 140d gestation to enable sampling of ...
Exercise-Induced Changes in Visceral Adipose Tissue Mass Are Regulated by IL-6 Signaling - Forskning - Bispebjerg Hospital
Visceral adipose tissue is harmful to metabolic health. Exercise training reduces visceral adipose tissue mass, but the underlying mechanisms are not known. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) stimulates lipolysis and is released from skeletal muscle during exercise. We hypothesized that exercise-induced reductions in visceral adipose tissue mass are mediated by IL-6. In this randomized placebo-controlled trial, we assigned abdominally obese adults to tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor antibody) or placebo during a 12-week intervention with either bicycle exercise or no exercise. While exercise reduced visceral adipose tissue mass, this effect of exercise was abolished in the presence of IL-6 blockade. Changes in body weight and total adipose tissue mass showed similar tendencies, whereas lean body mass did not differ between groups. Also, IL-6 blockade increased cholesterol levels, an effect not reversed by exercise. Thus, IL-6 is required for exercise to reduce visceral adipose tissue mass and emphasizes a ...
Ovine prenatal growth-restriction and sex influence fetal adipose tissue phenotype and impact postnatal lipid metabolism and...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ovine prenatal growth-restriction and sex influence fetal adipose tissue phenotype and impact postnatal lipid metabolism and adiposity in vivo from birth until adulthood. AU - Wallace, Jacqueline M. AU - Milne, John S. AU - Aitken, Beth W. AU - Aitken, Raymond P. AU - Adam, Clare L. N1 - Funding: This work was funded by the Scottish Governments Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services Division (RESAS) including the Strategic Partnership for Animal Science. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. PY - 2020/2/14. Y1 - 2020/2/14. N2 - Adipose tissue development begins in utero and is a key target of developmental programming. Here the influence of nutritionally-mediated prenatal growth-restriction on perirenal adipose tissue (PAT) gene expression and adipocyte phenotype in late fetal life was investigated in both sexes in an ovine model. Likewise circulating leptin concentrations ...
Co-methylated Genes in Different Adipose Depots of Pig are Associated with Metabolic, Inflammatory and Immune Processes ...
Abstract. It is well established that the metabolic risk factors of obesity and its comorbidities are more attributed to adipose tissue distribution rather than total adipose mass. Since emerging evidence suggests that epigenetic regulation plays an important role in the aetiology of obesity, we conducted a genome-wide methylation analysis on eight different adipose depots of three pig breeds living within comparable environments but displaying distinct fat level using methylated DNA immunoprecipitation sequencing. We aimed to investigate the systematic association between anatomical location-specific DNA methylation status of different adipose depots and obesity-related phenotypes. We show here that compared to subcutaneous adipose tissues which primarily modulate metabolic indicators, visceral adipose tissues and intermuscular adipose tissue, which are the metabolic risk factors of obesity, are primarily associated with impaired inflammatory and immune responses. This study presents epigenetic ...
Fetuin-a expression profile in mouse and human adipose tissue<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fetuin-a expression profile in mouse and human adipose tissue. AU - Khadir, Abdelkrim. AU - Kavalakatt, Sina. AU - Madhu, Dhanya. AU - Tiss, Ali. PY - 2020/3/12. Y1 - 2020/3/12. N2 - Fetuin-A (Fet-A) was one of the first hepatokines to be reportedly linked to metabolic diseases. Fet-A was also suggested to be an adipokine, but its expression in the adipose tissue remains debatable. Here we compared the expression of Fet-A between human and mice adipose tissue biopsies as well as among human subcutaneous tissue and visceral adipose tissue primary cells, and mouse 3 T3-L1 cells at various stages of differentiation. Fet-A was expressed in mice biopsies and cells but not in human biopsies and cells, except in visceral adipose tissue primary cells following differentiation. Although the marginal expression of Fet-A in human visceral adipose tissue, a major contribution of Fet-A expression in human adipose tissue to systemic Fet-A levels is discounted, but it could indicate specific ...
Expression of ceramide-metabolising enzymes in subcutaneous and intra-abdominal human adipose tissue | Lipids in Health and...
We investigated sphingolipid metabolism in human adipose tissue to identify pathways underlying increased ceramide concentrations in inflamed adipose tissue . Our data suggest that hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide by sphingomyelinases could explain, at least partly, this increase. Gene expression levels of SMPD3 correlate significantly with concentrations of various ceramides and sphingomyelins in subcutaneous adipose tissue, and are higher in the relatively more inflamed intra-abdominal compared to the subcutaneous depot in both obese and non-obese subjects. Sphingomyelinases are expressed by both adipocytes and macrophages in adipose tissue, but their expression is strongest in and around blood vessels. Our findings implicate a role for sphingomyelinase-mediated generation of ceramide in adipose tissue inflammation.. When comparing inflamed ceramide-rich and relatively less inflamed ceramide-poor subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese women, we report here for the first time that there ...
Short chain fatty acids : the effect on adipose tissue metabolism and function
Adipose tissue homeostasis is regulated by a combination of extracellular and intracellular signalling pathways. Activation of surface G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and insulin receptors, influence the rate of lipolysis within adipocytes, the pathway responsible for triacylglycerol (TAG) breakdown into non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol. A GPCR for short chain fatty acids (SCFA) has been identified on the surface of mature adipocytes and activation of this receptor by SCFA including acetate, butyrate and propionate has resulted in a decrease in lipolysis, measured as a reduction in NEFA and glycerol concentration in the media. However, evidence for a mechanism of action of SCFA within adipocytes has remained unclear. Therefore, this thesis has aimed to better understand the mechanism(s) by which the SCFA, acetate, regulates adipose tissue metabolism and function, and in particular the pathway of lipolysis. Through the development of experimental methods in vitro, it was ...
Impact of Visceral and Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue on Post Donation Renal Function in Living Kidney Donors. - ATC Abstracts
Introduction:It was reported that some variables were revealed remain renal function after live donor nephrectomy. This study was conducted to determine the influence of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue on renal function in living kidney donors.. Method:Between July 2013 and February 2015, a total of 75 kidney donors who underwent living donor nephrectomy at our institution were analyzed. Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) were measured at the level of the umbilicus using CT scan(figure 1). Renal function was estimated with the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula till six months after kidney donation. The relationship between preoperative visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue and recovery of renal function was analyzed.. Result:Thirty-three donors (44%) were male, and 13 (17.3%) grafts were secured from the right side. The mean BMI was 23.5±2.6 kg/m2 and the mean preoperative eGFR was 103.0±19.6 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean VAT was ...
Inducing Heat Shock Proteins Enhances the Stemness of Frozen-Thawed Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inducing Heat Shock Proteins Enhances the Stemness of Frozen-Thawed Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells. AU - Shaik, Shahensha. AU - Hayes, Daniel. AU - Gimble, Jeffrey. AU - Devireddy, Ram. N1 - Funding Information: Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute Diabetes, Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health under award R21 DK 91852.. PY - 2017/4/15. Y1 - 2017/4/15. N2 - Extensive research has been performed to determine the effect of freezing protocol and cryopreservation agents on the viability of adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) as well as other cells. Unfortunately, the conclusion one may draw after decades of research utilizing fundamentally similar cryopreservation techniques is that a barrier exists, which precludes full recovery. We hypothesize that agents capable of inducing a subset of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and chaperones will reduce the intrinsic barriers to the post-thaw recovery of ASCs. ...
Adipose tissue significance with special emphasis on its role in regulating immune functions in mammals
This review attempts to cover the implication of the adipose tissue in controlling immune functions with emphasis on the structure and properties of adipose tissue, adipokines produced by adipose tissue, immune cells in adipose tissue and molecular mediators of adipose tissue inflammation. Adipose tissue (AT) in mammals is a complex, multi-depot, anatomically dissectible discrete structure with high metabolic activity. Both excess and deficiency of adipose tissue affect the normal homeostasis of the body. The AT comprises of two types of adipocytes, white adipocytes which store lipids whereas brown adipocytes which oxidize these lipids to produce heat. Further, to serving as a fat depot, AT also serves as endocrine adipose organ producing many bioactive molecules, called adipokines.
A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A computational model of postprandial adipose tissue lipid metabolism derived using human arteriovenous stable isotope tracer data. AU - ODonovan, Shauna D.. AU - Lenz, Michael. AU - Vink, Roel G.. AU - Roumans, Nadia J.T.. AU - de Kok, Theo M.C.M.. AU - Mariman, Edwin C.M.. AU - Peeters, Ralf L.M.. AU - van Riel, Natal A.W.. AU - van Baak, Marleen A.. AU - Arts, Ilja C.W.. PY - 2019/10. Y1 - 2019/10. N2 - Given the association of disturbances in non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) metabolism with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, computational models of glucose-insulin dynamics have been extended to account for the interplay with NEFA. In this study, we use arteriovenous measurement across the subcutaneous adipose tissue during a mixed meal challenge test to evaluate the performance and underlying assumptions of three existing models of adipose tissue metabolism and construct a new, refined model of adipose tissue metabolism. Our model ...
Lean and Obese Coronary Perivascular Adipose Tissue Impairs Vasodilation via Differential Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lean and Obese Coronary Perivascular Adipose Tissue Impairs Vasodilation via Differential Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle K+ Channels. AU - Noblet, Jillian N.. AU - Owen, Meredith K.. AU - Goodwill, Adam G.. AU - Sassoon, Daniel J.. AU - Tune, Johnathan. PY - 2015/6/27. Y1 - 2015/6/27. N2 - Objective - The effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on vasomotor tone are influenced by an obese phenotype and are distinct from other adipose tissue depots. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of lean and obese coronary PVAT on end-effector mechanisms of coronary vasodilation and to identify potential factors involved. Approach and Results - Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed similarities in coronary perivascular adipocyte size between lean and obese Ossabaw swine. Isometric tension studies of isolated coronary arteries from Ossabaw swine revealed that factors derived from lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuated vasodilation to adenosine. ...
5-Lipoxygenase Activating Protein Signals Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Lipid Dysfunction in Experimental Obesity | The...
The presence of the so-called low-grade inflammatory state is recognized as a critical event in adipose tissue dysfunction, leading to altered secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin resistance, and development of hepatic complications associated with obesity. This study was designed to investigate the potential contribution of the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway to adipose tissue inflammation and lipid dysfunction in experimental obesity. Constitutive expression of key components of the 5-LO pathway, as well as leukotriene (LT) receptors, was detected in adipose tissue as well as in adipocyte and stromal vascular fractions. Adipose tissue from obese mice, compared with that from lean mice, exhibited increased 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) expression and LTB4 levels. Incubation of adipose tissue with 5-LO products resulted in NF-κB activation and augmented secretion of proinflammatory adipokines such as MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. In addition, LTB4, but not ...
Adipose tissue metabolism - An aspect we should not neglect?<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adipose tissue metabolism - An aspect we should not neglect?. AU - Jensen, Michael Dennis. PY - 2007/10. Y1 - 2007/10. N2 - Free fatty acids (FFAs) are the most metabolically important products of adipose tissue lipolysis. Experimentally creating high FFA concentrations can reproduce the metabolic abnormalities of obesity in lean, healthy persons and lowering FFA concentrations can improve the metabolic health of upper body obese individuals. FFA concentrations are determined by both the release of FFAs into the bloodstream and the clearance of FFAs from the bloodstream. Normal FFA release rates are different in men and women and total FFA release is closely linked to resting energy expenditure. Upper body subcutaneous fat, visceral fat, and leg fat depots contribute differently to the exposure of various tissues to FFAs. The implications of regional adipose tissue lipolysis to systemic FFA availability and the effect of different approaches to treatment of obesity are ...
Virus-based Gene Transfer Approaches and Adipose Tissue Biology | Bentham Science
Title: Virus-based Gene Transfer Approaches and Adipose Tissue Biology. VOLUME: 8 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Louis Casteilla, Beatrice Cousin, Valerie Planat-Benard, Patrick Laharrague, Mamen Carmona and Luc Penicaud. Affiliation:UMR 5241 CNRS UPS IFR31, IFR109 Institut Louis Bugnard BP 84225, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4,France.. Keywords:Adipose tissue, preadipocytes, adipose derived cells, virus, promoter, shRNA, cell therapy. Abstract: The status of adipose tissue changes rapidly. From a simple filler tissue, it successively acquires the status of metabolic active tissue, endocrine tissue, plastic tissue, and finally that of a large reservoir of cells suitable for cell therapy and regenerative medicine. All throughout this story, our knowledge has been largely dependent on genetic tools and gene transfer. Now, the time has come where gene transfer in adipose derived cells can be envisioned, not only for understanding the role or importance of one gene, but also to engineer adipose derived cells for the ...
Nucleofection Is a Valuable Transfection Method for Transient and Stable Transgene Expression in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem...
Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a powerful tool for in vitro study of adult stem cell biology. So far, they have not been extensively used for gain or loss of function studies since they are resistant to most common transfection methods. Herein, we tested several classic transfection methods on human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells. Our results showed that lipofectants and calcium phosphate were poorly efficient for transgene delivery in hMADS cells. In contrast, nucleofection, an electroporation-based method that is assumed to target plasmid DNA directly to the cell nucleus, led to a significant transient transgene expression in hMADS cells (up to 76% enhanced green fluorescent protein [EGFP]-positive cells were detected). Furthermore, after selection of hMADS cells that were nucleofected with a selectable plasmid coding for EGFP, stable EGFP expressing clones could be propagated in culture and efficiently induced to differentiate into EGFP-positive adipocytes and ...
DIGITAL.CSIC: Analysis of porcine adipose tissue transcriptome reveals differences in de novo fatty acid synthesis in pigs with...
Abstract Background In pigs, adipose tissue is one of the principal organs involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism. It is particularly involved in the overall fatty acid synthesis with consequences in other lipid-target organs such as muscles and the liver. With this in mind, we have used massive, parallel high-throughput sequencing technologies to characterize the porcine adipose tissue transcriptome architecture in six Iberian x Landrace crossbred pigs showing extreme phenotypes for intramuscular fatty acid composition (three per group). Results High-throughput RNA sequencing was used to generate a whole characterization of adipose tissue (backfat) transcriptome. A total of 4,130 putative unannotated protein-coding sequences were identified in the 20% of reads which mapped in intergenic regions. Furthermore, 36% of the unmapped reads were represented by interspersed repeats, SINEs being the most abundant elements. Differential expression analyses identified 396 candidate genes among ...
Caffeine reduces TNFalpha up-regulation in human adipose tissue primary culture.
Adipose tissue secretions play an important role in the development of obesity-related pathologies such as diabetes. Through inflammatory cytokines production, adipose tissue stromavascular fraction cells (SVF), and essentially macrophages, promote adipocyte insulin resistance by a paracrine way. Since xanthine family compounds such as caffeine were shown to decrease inflammatory production by human blood cells, we investigated the possible effect of caffeine on Tumor Necrosis Factor alpha (TNFalpha) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) expression by human adipose tissue primary culture. For that purpose, human subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from healthy non-obese women (BMI: 26.7 +/- 2.2 kg/m2) after abdominal dermolipectomy, was split into explants and cultured for 6 hours with or without caffeine. Three different concentrations of caffeine were tested (0.5 microg/mL, 5 microg/mL and 50 microg/mL). After 6 hours of treatment, explants were subjected to collagenase digestion in order to isolate adipocytes
Stem cells from human cardiac adipose tissue depots show different gene expression and functional capacities | Stem Cell...
The composition and function of the adipose tissue covering the heart are poorly known. In this study, we have investigated the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) covering the cardiac ventricular muscle and the EAT covering the left anterior descending artery (LAD) on the human heart, to identify their resident stem cell functional activity. EAT covering the cardiac ventricular muscle was isolated from the apex (avoiding areas irrigated by major vessels) of the heart (ventricular myocardium adipose tissue (VMAT)) and from the area covering the epicardial arterial sulcus of the LAD (PVAT) in human hearts excised during heart transplant surgery. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) from both adipose tissue depots were immediately isolated and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. The different behavior of these ASCs and their released secretome microvesicles (MVs) were investigated by molecular and cellular analysis. ASCs from both VMAT (mASCs) and the PVAT (pASCs) were characterized by the expression of
Stem cells from human cardiac adipose tissue depots show different gene expression and functional capacities | Stem Cell...
The composition and function of the adipose tissue covering the heart are poorly known. In this study, we have investigated the epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) covering the cardiac ventricular muscle and the EAT covering the left anterior descending artery (LAD) on the human heart, to identify their resident stem cell functional activity. EAT covering the cardiac ventricular muscle was isolated from the apex (avoiding areas irrigated by major vessels) of the heart (ventricular myocardium adipose tissue (VMAT)) and from the area covering the epicardial arterial sulcus of the LAD (PVAT) in human hearts excised during heart transplant surgery. Adipose stem cells (ASCs) from both adipose tissue depots were immediately isolated and phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. The different behavior of these ASCs and their released secretome microvesicles (MVs) were investigated by molecular and cellular analysis. ASCs from both VMAT (mASCs) and the PVAT (pASCs) were characterized by the expression of
Decreased RB1 mRNA, Protein, and Activity Reflect Obesity-Induced Altered Adipogenic Capacity in Human Adipose Tissue
eng] Retinoblastoma (Rb1) has been described as an essential player in white adipocyte differentiation in mice. No studies have been reported thus far in human adipose tissue or human adipocytes. We aimed to investigate the possible role and regulation of RB1 in adipose tissue in obesity using human samples and animal and cell models. Adipose RB1 (mRNA, protein, and activity) was negatively associated with BMI and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) while positively associated with the expression of adipogenic genes (PPARγ and IRS1) in both visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue. BMI increase was the main contributor to adipose RB1 downregulation. In rats, adipose Rb1 gene expression and activity decreased in parallel to dietary-induced weight gain and returned to baseline with weight loss. RB1 gene and protein expression and activity increased significantly during human adipocyte differentiation. In fully differentiated adipocytes, transient knockdown of Rb1 led to loss of the adipogenic ...
Immune cell Toll-like receptor 4 mediates the development of obesity- and endotoxemia-associated adipose tissue fibrosis. |...
Adipose tissue fibrosis development blocks adipocyte hypertrophy and favors ectopic lipid accumulation. Here, we show that adipose tissue fibrosis is associated with obesity and insulin resistance in humans and mice. Kinetic studies in C3H mice fed a high-fat diet show activation of macrophages and progression of fibrosis along with adipocyte metabolic dysfunction and death. Adipose tissue fibrosis is attenuated by macrophage depletion. Impairment of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling protects mice from obesity-induced fibrosis. The presence of a functional Toll-like receptor 4 on adipose tissue hematopoietic cells is necessary for the initiation of adipose tissue fibrosis. Continuous low-dose infusion of the Toll-like receptor 4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide, promotes adipose tissue fibrosis. Ex vivo, lipopolysaccharide-mediated induction of fibrosis is prevented by antibodies against the profibrotic factor TGFβ1. Together, these results indicate that obesity and endotoxemia favor the development of adipose
Adipose tissue dysregulation and reduced insulin sensitivity in non-obese individuals with enlarged abdominal adipose cells |...
Obesity contributes to Type 2 diabetes by promoting systemic insulin resistance. Obesity causes features of metabolic dysfunction in the adipose tissue that may contribute to later impairments of insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver; these include reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, reduced expression of GLUT4, altered expression of adipokines, and adipocyte hypertrophy. Animal studies have shown that expansion of adipose tissue alone is not sufficient to cause systemic insulin resistance in the absence of adipose tissue metabolic dysfunction. To determine if this holds true for humans, we studied the relationship between insulin resistance and markers of adipose tissue dysfunction in non-obese individuals. 32 non-obese first-degree relatives of Type 2 diabetic patients were recruited. Glucose tolerance was determined by an oral glucose tolerance test and insulin sensitivity was measured with the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp. Blood samples were collected and subcutaneous
Relative Adipose Tissue Failure in Alström Syndrome Drives Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance - Nutriomics
Abstract: Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance (IR) and its attendant complications. The pathogenic mechanisms linking them remain poorly understood, partly due to a lack of intermediary monogenic human phenotypes. Here, we report on a monogenic form of IR-prone obesity, Alström syndrome (ALMS). Twenty-three subjects with monogenic or polygenic obesity underwent hyperinsulinaemic-euglycemic clamping with concomitant adipose tissue (AT) microdialysis and an in-depth analysis of subcutaneous AT histology. We have shown a relative adipose tissue failure in monogenic obese cohort; a finding supported by observations in a novel conditional mouse model (Almsflin/flin) and ALMS1-silenced human primary adipocytes. Whereas, selective reactivation of ALMS1 gene in adipose tissue of an ALMS conditional knockdown mice model (Almsflin/flin;Adipo-Cre+/-) restores systemic insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Hence, we show for the first time the relative adipose tissue failure in human ...
Adipose tissue: a key target for diabetes pathophysiology and treatment? - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
Excess adipose tissue brings with it a number of adverse consequences, many of which may stem from the development of insulin resistance. An emerging view is that inflammatory changes occurring in expanding adipose tissue are associated with the secretion of peptide and other factors that can adversely affect metabolic processes in other key insulin-target tissues, especially liver and skeletal muscle. However, there is still a commonly-expressed view that the adverse changes in other tissues are ultimately due to an excess of fatty acids, liberated by a metabolically-challenged adipose tissue. Our own studies of adipose tissue metabolism and physiological function (especially blood flow) IN VIVO suggest that these two views of adipose tissue function may be closely linked. Enlarged adipocytes are less dynamic in their responses, just as enlarged adipose tissue is less dynamic in blood flow regulation. Adipocytes seem to be able to sense the appropriate level of fat storage. If the normal mechanisms
Gene expression changes in subcutaneous adipose tissue due to Cushings disease. | mrc2
Glucocorticoids have major effects on adipose tissue metabolism. To study tissue mRNA expression changes induced by chronic elevated endogenous glucocorticoids, we performed RNA sequencing on the subcutaneous adipose tissue from patients with Cushings disease (n=5) compared to patients with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (n=11). We found a higher expression of transcripts involved in several metabolic pathways, including lipogenesis, proteolysis and glucose oxidation as well as a decreased expression of transcripts involved in inflammation and protein synthesis. To further study this in a model system, we subjected mice to dexamethasone treatment for 12 weeks and analyzed their inguinal (subcutaneous) fat pads, which led to similar findings. Additionally, mice treated with dexamethasone showed drastic decreases in lean body mass as well as increased fat mass, further supporting the human transcriptomic data. These data provide insight to transcriptional changes that may be responsible for ...
Impairments in adipose tissue microcirculation in Type 2 diabetes mellitus assessed by real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound ...
Background: In obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), adipose tissue expansion (because of larger adipocytes) results in reduced microvascular density which is thought to lead to adipocyte hypoxia, inflammation, and reduced nutrient delivery to the adipocyte. Adipose tissue microvascular responses in humans with T2D have not been extensively characterized. Furthermore, it has not been determined whether impaired microvascular responses in human adipose tissue are most closely associated with adiposity, inflammation, or altered metabolism.Methods and Results: Overnight-fasted healthy controls (n=24, 9 females/15 males) and people with T2D (n=21, 8 females/13 males) underwent a body composition scan (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), an oral glucose challenge (50 g glucose) and blood analysis of clinical chemistries and inflammatory markers. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue microvascular responses were measured by contrast-enhanced ultrasound at baseline and 1-hour post-oral glucose ...
Perivascular Adipose Tissue Controls Insulin-Stimulated Perfusion, Mitochondrial Protein Expression and Glucose Uptake in...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Perivascular Adipose Tissue Controls Insulin-Stimulated Perfusion, Mitochondrial Protein Expression and Glucose Uptake in Muscle Through Adipomuscular Arterioles. AU - Turaihi, Alexander H. AU - Serné, Erik H. AU - Molthoff, Carla F.M.. AU - Koning, Jasper J. AU - Knol, Jaco. AU - Niessen, Hans W. AU - Jose Th Goumans, Marie. AU - van Poelgeest, Erik M. AU - Yudkin, John S. AU - Smulders, Yvo M. AU - Jimenez, Connie R. AU - van Hinsbergh, Victor Wm. AU - Eringa, Etto C. N1 - © 2020 by the American Diabetes Association.. PY - 2020/4/1. Y1 - 2020/4/1. N2 - Insulin-mediated microvascular recruitment (IMVR) regulates delivery of insulin and glucose to insulin-sensitive tissues. We have previously proposed that perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) controls vascular function through outside-to-inside communication and through vessel-to-vessel, or vasocrine signaling. However, direct experimental evidence supporting a role of local PVAT in regulating IMVR and insulin sensitivity in ...
Fat Cell Size in Insulin Resistance - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Little is known about the turnover of adipose cells in the fat depots of normal animals and human subjects. However, microarray analysis of adipose cell gene expression in high risk insulin-resistant human subjects suggests that a reduced rate of adipose cell turnover is associated with enhanced adipose cell size and systemic insulin resistance. New technology now permits a detailed analysis of adipose cell size including the detection of smaller cells which may be in the process of active differentiation. We propose to examine the relationship between adipose cell size distribution and systemic insulin resistance in obese human subjects. Adipose tissue biopsies will be obtained at Stanford University under protocols and consent forms approved by the Stanford University IRB. Only procedures already being performed on subjects under these protocols will be used ...
The Development of Polymer Constructs for Adipose Tissue Engineering A by Kendall Murphy
The adipose tissue functions as the bodys main energy reservoir and plays a central role in maintaining whole body energy homeostasis. The ability to modulate this tissues inherent endocrine and metabolic functions has promising implications in treating disease associated with adipose tissue dysfunction. This work revolves around two diseases where adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction drive the disease, obesity and cachexia. Both diseases impact a significant population of U.S. adults and substantially reduce patient quality of life. In this study, we first demonstrate the use of novel therapeutic platforms engineered to specifically target adipose tissue inflammation and lipid catabolism through localized drug delivery for the treatment of obesity. Specifically, we developed poly(lactide-coglycolide) scaffolds loaded with resveratrol, a small molecule with promising anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory properties, but one that suffers from poor bioavailability. Implant into the
Control of interferences in the analysis of human adipose tissue to 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p dioxin (TCDD)<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Control of interferences in the analysis of human adipose tissue to 2,3,7,8‐tetrachlorodibenzo‐p dioxin (TCDD). AU - Patterson, D. G.. AU - Holler, J. S.. AU - Groce, D. F.. AU - Alexander, L. R.. AU - Lapeza, C. R.. AU - OConnor, R. C.. AU - Liddle, J. A.. PY - 1986/4. Y1 - 1986/4. N2 - While developing a method to analyze human adipose tissue for 2,3,7,8‐tetrachloro‐dibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) at the 1 ppt level, we observed several peaks with all of the analytical characteristics of TCDDs in the analyses of wipe tests and blank, quality control, and human adipose samples at concentrations equal to the low part‐per‐trillion level in a 10 g sample. The source of these contaminants was established to be a cleaning solution used to wash the floors in the laboratory performing the analysis.. AB - While developing a method to analyze human adipose tissue for 2,3,7,8‐tetrachloro‐dibenzo‐p‐dioxin (TCDD) at the 1 ppt level, we observed several peaks with all of the ...
Cold exposure down-regulates adiponutrin/PNPLA3 mRNA expression and affects its nutritional regulation in adipose tissues of...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cold exposure down-regulates adiponutrin/PNPLA3 mRNA expression and affects its nutritional regulation in adipose tissues of lean and obese Zucker rats.. AU - Oliver, Paula. AU - Caimari, Antoni. AU - Diaz Rua, Ruben. AU - Palou, Andreu. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Adiponutrin/PNPLA3 is a protein highly produced in adipose tissue whose expression is under tight nutritional regulation. It possesses lipogenic/lipolytic capacity and, although adiponutrin polymorphisms are related to obesity, its physiological role is not clear. To help clarify its role, we studied the effect of acute cold exposure on adiponutrin mRNA expression in different adipose tissues of lean/obese Zucker rats subjected to feeding/fasting/refeeding. The effect of cold on the expression of key lipogenic enzymes and on uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) was evaluated in selected adipose depots. Adiponutrin mRNA levels were also determined in the adipose tissue of isoprenaline-treated rats and in cultured ...
Greater influence of central distribution of adipose tissue on incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in women than men<...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Greater influence of central distribution of adipose tissue on incidence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes in women than men. AU - Haffner, Steven M.. AU - Mitchell, Braxton D.. AU - Hazuda, Helen P.. AU - Stern, Michael P.. PY - 1991/5. Y1 - 1991/5. N2 - Many studies have shown an increased prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in individuals with an unfavorable body fat distribution, but there are still relatively few prospective studies on this topic. We present data on the 8-y incidence of NIDDM in Mexican-American men and women according to their degree of central adiposity, measured by the ratio of subscapular to triceps skinfold thicknesses. Subjects were initially enrolled in the San Antonio Heart Study, a population-based study of diabetes in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites. Sixteen of 254 initially nondiabetic men and 27 of 366 initially nondiabetic women developed diabetes. Central adiposity was more strongly associated with diabetes incidence ...
Serval - The Rôle of Novel Kinases in Adipose Tissue Biology
Obesity, the accumulation of excess body fat, is an epidemic leading to numerous human metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D is mainly characterized by hyperglycemia, accompanied by local (adipose tissue) and systemic insulin resistance. In the adipose tissue, insulin resistance involves alterations in the cross-talk of various signaling cascades, implicating numerous kinases and phosphatases. To identify molecular changes that occur during the development of insulin resistance, we have used here a new activity-based method to study the global kinase activity in human adipose tissue, the PamGene. Our study is based on the observation that some obese subjects do not develop insulin resistance. This population represents our control group, which avoids confounding results, due to obesity by itself rather than to insulin resistance. We found that a specific set of kinase activities are representative of insulin resistance in the obese population, such as PIM family, CHK2,
Retinoic acid is abundantly detected in different depots of adipose tissue by SERS - A*STAR OAR
Retinoic acid (RA) is essential for early developmental processes and stem cell differentiation, but less is known about its contributions to adult tissues and stem cells including adipose tissue. We previously demonstrated that many genes involved in RA synthesis and downstream pathway are differentially expressed in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from visceral fat compared to those from subcutaneous fat, leading to changes in their early adipogenic functions. In order to study potential contributions of RA in adipose tissue, we measured tissue RA levels using a technique based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). The data indicate heretofore underappreciated abundance of endogenous RA in mouse adipose tissue compared to other tissues and dynamic changes of RA concentrations after high fat diet feeding. Our results lay the foundation for further investigation on the functional role of RA in adipose tissue development and metabolism ...
Critical assessment of in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography in the study of adipose tissue composition :...
Routine measurement of adipose tissue composition by repeated biopsy invokes both ethical and practical difficulties, limiting long-term serial studies of adipose tissue composition. In vivo13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been applied as a non-invasive alternative, although it has not as yet been fully validated. In this study we critically assess in vivo13C NMR spectroscopy and gas-liquid chromatography for the analysis of adipose tissue composition. The advantages and drawbacks of both methods are discussed, in particular to the study of adipose tissue during dietary manipulation and development. Our results show that the NMR measurements of adipose tissue composition are highly reproducible, but they can significantly differ from those obtained by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) from the same volunteer. We show that the discrepancy between these two techniques arises from inherent limitations of both 13C NMR spectroscopy and GLC. Finally, we show that 13C NMR ...
Vitamin D and Adipose Tissue Inflammation - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
The objective of this project is to investigate whether vitamin D modulates chronic low-grade adipose tissue inflammation in overweight and obese, vitamin D deficient men and women.. Obesity is associated with insulin resistance and an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Numerous studies, mostly conducted in mouse models of obesity, strongly suggest that chronic low-grade inflammation of adipose and other tissues is the major mechanism by which increased adiposity is linked to insulin resistance. Adipose tissue inflammation may therefore be a promising therapeutic target to reduce insulin resistance and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese individuals.. Based on several lines of evidence, we hypothesize that vitamin D is an environmental factor that affects the course of the inflammatory response in most tissues of the body, including adipose tissue. In our previous studies, we found that circulating plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25-OH-D) and the primary ...
adipose tissue function
The calculation measures the total volume of water in the body (lean tissue and muscle contain a higher percentage of water than fat), and estimates the percentage of fat based on this information.  However, elevated leptin in obesity is known as leptin resistance. Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ, as it produces hormones such as leptin, estrogen, resistin, and cytokine (especially TNFα). Adipose tissue dysfunction contributes to obesity related metabolic diseases. , In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus. Adipose tissue is found deep to the skin; in the abdomen, breasts, hips, buttocks, and thighs; and surrounding the heart and abdominal organs. Fat cells have an important physiological role in maintaining triglyceride and free fatty acid levels, as well as determining insulin resistance. The most popular of these equations was formed by ...
The role of hypothalamic mTORC1 and adipose tissue mTORC2 in organismal energetics - edoc
In the second part of this thesis, we investigated the role of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue with particular focus on how adipose mTORC2 affects non-shivering thermogenesis (NST) and cold-induced glucose uptake. We found that mTORC2 signaling was induced in brown adipocytes by beta-adrenergic stimulation via cAMP, Epac1 and PI3K. Furthermore, mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue was required for temperature homeostasis, since mice lacking mTORC2 signaling in mature adipocytes (adipose tissue specific rictor knockout (AdRiKO) mice) were hypothermic and sensitive to cold stress. While lipid store mobilization and induction of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial uncoupling were not impaired in AdRiKO mice, inactivation of mTORC2 signaling in adipose tissue resulted in a significant impairment in cold-induced glucose uptake and glycolysis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Interestingly, restoration of glucose metabolism in BAT via introduction of a constitutively active form of Akt2 or via ...
Targeting the nitric oxide/superoxide ratio in adipose tissue: relevance in obesity and diabetes management
Insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis depend on the capacity of adipose tissue to take up and utilise excess glucose and fatty acids. The key aspects that determine the fuel-buffering capacity of adipose tissue depend on the physiological levels of the small redox molecule, nitric oxide (NO). In addition to impairment of NO synthesis, excessive formation of superoxide (capital O, Cyrillic2 *- ) in adipose tissue may be an important interfering factor diverting the signalling of NO and other reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in obesity, resulting in metabolic dysfunction of adipose tissue over time. Besides its role in relief from superoxide burst, enhanced NO signalling may be responsible for the therapeutic benefits of different superoxide dismutase mimics in obesity and experimental diabetes models. This review summarises the role of NO in adipose tissue and highlights the impact of NO/capital O, Cyrillic2 *- ratio teetering as a promising pharmacological target in ...
Human adipose tissue extract induces angiogenesis and adipogenesis in vitro - TUTCRIS - Tampereen teknillinen yliopisto
The induction of adequate vascularization, a major challenge in tissue engineering, has been tried with numerous methods but with unsatisfactory results. Adipose tissue, an active endocrine organ with dense vasculature, secretes a wide number of angiogenic and adipogenic factors and seems an attractive source for these bioactive factors. We produced a novel cell-free extract from mature human adipose tissue (adipose tissue extract [ATE]) and analyzed the ability of this extract to induce angiogenesis and adipogenesis in vitro and studied the cytokine and growth factor composition of ATE with ELISA and cytokine array. We demonstrate that ATE, when added as cell culture supplement, effectively induced triglyceride accumulation in human adipose stem cells at concentrations from 200 μg/mL upward in less than a week and caused elevated levels of adipocyte differentiation markers (proliferator-activated receptor gamma and acyl-CoA-binding protein) when treated with at least 350 μg/mL of ATE. ATE ...
INSTITUTE OF PHYSIOLOGY CAS - n-3 PUFA differentially modulate adipose tissue endocannabinoid levels and glucose metabolism in...
Enlarged dysfunctional adipose tissue in obesity is closely linked to the development of insulin resistance, low-grade inflammation and metabolic disorders in other tissues, primarily through excessive release of fatty acids into the bloodstream and the production of mostly pro-inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators from adipose tissue. Endocannabinoids are lipid mediators that regulate food intake, energy balance as well as glucose and lipid homeostasis, and they are also produced in adipose tissue. In obesity, the endocannabinoid system becomes dysregulated at the whole body level, including adipose tissue. The new study shows that in mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity long-term supplementation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), i.e. EPA and DHA, is capable of reducing the levels of major endocannabinoids 2-AG and AEA in adipose tissue, in accordance with improved parameters of glucose homeostasis. In contrast, dietary intervention with n-3 PUFA of the same type and ...
Characterization and Proteomic Analysis of Decellularized Adipose Tissue Hydrogels Derived from Lean and Overweight/Obese Human...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization and Proteomic Analysis of Decellularized Adipose Tissue Hydrogels Derived from Lean and Overweight/Obese Human Donors. AU - Mohiuddin, Omair A.. AU - Motherwell, Jessica M.. AU - Rogers, Emma. AU - Bratton, Melyssa R.. AU - Zhang, Qiang. AU - Wang, Guangdi. AU - Bunnell, Bruce. AU - Hayes, Daniel J.. AU - Gimble, Jeffrey M.. PY - 2020. Y1 - 2020. N2 - While decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) has potential as an off-the-shelf biomaterial product for regenerative medicine, it remains to be determined if donor-source body mass index (BMI) impacts the functionality of DAT. This study set out to comparatively characterize lean versus overweight/obese-donor derived DAT hydrogel based on proteome and to analyze their respective effects on adipose stromal/stem cell (ASC) viability, and differentiation in vitro. Decellularized adipose tissue from lean (lDAT) and overweight/obese (oDAT) donors is produced and characterized. Variability in the fibril microstructures is ...
PKA Regulatory Subunits in Human Adipose Tissue: Decreased R2B Expression and Activity in Adipocytes from Obese Subjects -...
Objective. In human adipocytes the cAMP-dependent pathway mediates signals originating from beta-adrenergic activation, thus playing a key role in the regulation of important metabolic processes, i.e. lipolysis and thermogenesis. Cyclic AMP effects are mainly mediated by protein kinase A (PKA), whose R2B regulatory isoform is the most expressed in mouse adipose tissue, where it protects against diet-induced obesity and fatty-liver development. Aim of the study was to investigate possible differences in R2B expression, PKA activity and lipolysis in adipose tissues from obese and non-obese subjects. Research Design and Methods. The expression of the different PKA regulatory subunits were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot and real-time PCR in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue samples from 20 non-obese and 67 obese patients. PKA activity and glycerol release were evaluated in total protein extract and adipocytes isolated from fresh tissue samples, respectively. Results. Expression
GLUT 4 in Adipose Tissue
The decreasing of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT 4) in adipose tissue of diabetic and obesity patients are associated with hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. The adipose tissue can be used as therapeutic targets in the treatment of Diabetes Mellitus (DM). Visceral adipose tissue has different morphology and functional with subcutaneous adipose tissue and Vitamin D has been known to have contributed in DM. The aim of this study is to know the role of cholecalciferol on the expression of GLUT 4 in subcutaneous and visceral adiposity of diabetic rats by elucidated in those tissues. The subjects of the study consisted of nineteen male diabetic rats of Wistar strain, which were divided into control group (K) and three (3) treatment groups (X1, X2 and X3). In order to induce the condition of DM, the animals were fed with high fat diet for three (3) weeks and administered a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg/kgBW) at the end of the second week. Cholecalciferol were administered with
Obesity-related perivascular adipose tissue damage is reversed by sustained weight loss in the rat - University of Salford...
Objective - Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) exerts an anticontractile effect in response to various vasoconstrictor agonists and this is lost in obesity. A recent study reported that bariatric surgery reverses the damaging effects of obesity on PVAT function. However, PVAT function has not been characterised following weight loss induced by caloric restriction, which is often the first line treatment for obesity. Approach and Results - Contractility studies were performed using wire myography on small mesenteric arteries with and without PVAT from control, diet-induced obese, calorie restricted and sustained weight loss rats. Changes in the PVAT environment were assessed using immunohistochemistry. PVAT from healthy animals elicited an anticontractile effect in response to norepinephrine. This was abolished in diet-induced obesity through a mechanism involving increased local TNFα and reduced nitric oxide bioavailability within PVAT. Sustained weight loss led to improvement in PVAT function ...
Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Deficiency Fails to Restrain Macrophage Infiltration Into Adipose Tissue | Diabetes
Many lines of evidence indicate that MCP-1 recruits monocytes into atherosclerotic lesions and the inflamed peritoneum of mice, where the cells differentiate into macrophages (14-16). The observation that macrophages accumulate in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans (9,10) coupled with the finding that obese humans have elevated MCP-1 expression in their adipose tissue and increased circulating levels of MCP-1 (24,38,39) led to the proposal that MCP-1 might promote macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue and enhance diet-induced obesity (40,41). Studies from two groups using male mice deficient in CCR2 or MCP-1 appeared to support this suggestion (26,27), although the macrophage content of adipose tissue changed only modestly. In contrast, we found no evidence that macrophage accumulation is impaired in adipose tissue of male Mcp1−/− mice fed a high-fat diet for either 10 or 16 weeks. Immunoblot analysis demonstrated higher levels of Mac2, a macrophage-specific protein, in epididymal, ...
Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
ADSCs derived from the visceral and subcutaneous human adipose tissue have been recently shown to contain progenitor cells able to differentiate into mature endothelial cells and participate in blood vessel formation.13,14,16 Miranville et al have shown the presence of the endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) phenotype in the SVF freshly isolated from humans by flow cytometry.14 Cell preparations display the hematopoietic stem cell markers CD34, as well as CD133, a 130-KDa glycoprotein with unknown function that is absent on mature endothelial cells and circulating progenitor endothelial cells.28 Studies by Zuk et al have described the absence or low level of CD34+ cells,4 whereas Planat-Bernard et al reported more than 90% CD34+ cells in the SVF derived from the adipose tissue.13 The most likely reason for these discrepancies is that the latter investigations were performed by the use of limitedly cultured ADSCs (primary culture of 3 days with no subsequent plating). Flow cytometric analysis ...
Mapping the Human Adipose Tissue Cells and Intercellular Communication - Chan Zuckerberg Initiative
This network will characterize the single nucleus transcriptomes and intercellular communication networks of human adipose tissue cells (adipocytes and stroma-vascular cells) across fat depots, sex, and ethnicity.
Adipose tissues 240-250 60-80 Whole blood (deoxygenated) 1350 50 Whole blood (oxygenated) 1350 200 ... Common relaxation time constants in human tissues. Following is a table of the approximate values of the two relaxation ... Tissue type Approximate T1 value in ms Approximate T2 value in ms ... time constants for hydrogen nuclear spins in nonpathological human tissues. At a main field of 1.5 T ...
Adipose tissue. The fat tissue of the breast is composed of lipidic fluid (60-85% weight) that is 90-99 per cent triglycerides ... The breast-lift correction of a sagging bust is a surgical operation that cuts and removes excess tissues (glandular, adipose, ... The subcutaneous layer of adipose tissue in the breast is traversed with thin suspensory ligaments (Cooper's ligaments) that ... adipose, skin) that compose and support the breast; among the properties of the soft tissues of the breast is near- ...
... it can actually alter nutrient distribution and send excess glucose into adipose tissue, leading to increased adipose tissue ... "Adipose cell hyperplasia and enhanced glucose disposal in transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT4 selectively in adipose tissue". ... Adipose tissue, commonly known as fat, is a depository for energy in order to conserve metabolic homeostasis. As the body takes ... "Adipose tissue". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2017-05-24. Favaretto F, Milan G, Collin GB, Marshall JD, Stasi F, Maffei P, Vettor R ...
... increasing lean tissue; decreasing adipose tissue; bolstering cardiac contractility; improving mood and motivation; increasing ...
"Brown adipose tissue , anatomy". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-06-08. Tsujimoto, Megumu; Imura, Satoshi; Kanda, ... "4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion". 4.4 Muscle Tissue and Motion - Anatomy and Physiology. opentextbc.ca. OpenStax. 6 March 2013. ... The sustained supply of oxygen to body tissues determines the body temperature range of an organism. Eurytherms that live in ... reefs to begin bleaching and dying because the coral have begun to expel the zooxanthellae algae that live in their tissues and ...
adipose tissue). Adipic acid is a dibasic acid (it has two acidic groups). The pKa values for their successive deprotonations ...
Renold AE (1965). "Section 5: Adipose Tissue". Handbook of Physiology: a Critical, Comprehensive Presentation of Physiological ...
David Fell (biochemist)
Fell, D A; Small, J R (1986). "Fat synthesis in adipose tissue. An examination of stoichiometric constraints". Biochemical ...
There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white ... Marrow adipose tissue expands in states of low bone density but additionally expands in the setting of obesity. Marrow adipose ... The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its physiologic function and relevance to bone health. ... Analysis of their adipose tissue morphology revealed increases in both adipocyte size and number in most depots. Reintroduction ...
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... both of adipose tissues, as well as of the cartilage and other joint tissues. Alterations in these factors can be the ... Lönnqvist F, Arner P, Nordfors L, Schalling M (1995). "Overexpression of the obese (ob) gene in adipose tissue of human obese ... This metabolic component related with the release of systemic factors, of a pro-inflammatory nature, by the adipose tissues, ...
Korn ED, Quigley TW (June 1957). "Lipoprotein lipase of chicken adipose tissue". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 226 (2): ... Lynn WS, Perryman NC (July 1960). "Properties and purification of adipose tissue lipase". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. ...
Hou, Lianjie; Hu, Ching Yuan; Wang, Chong (April 2017). "Pig Has No Brown Adipose Tissue". The FASEB Journal. 31 (S1). doi: ... Non-shivering thermogenesis occurs in brown adipose tissue (brown fat) that is present in almost all eutherians (swine being ... Cannon, B.; Nedergaard, J. (2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiol. Rev. 84 (1): 277- ... Brown adipose tissue has a unique uncoupling protein (thermogenin, also known as uncoupling protein 1) that allows the ...
Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as hormones. Studies have shown that TNF-α and IL-6 ... Coppack SW (August 2001). "Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipose tissue". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 60 (3): ... A proinflammatory cytokine may be present in adipose tissues. Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. ... Both CD4+ and CD8 IL-17 producing T cells have been shown to cause aTH1, causing tissue inflammation and resulting in severe ...
Retinol binding protein 4
Galic S, Oakhill JS, Steinberg GR (March 2010). "Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ". Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology. ... leading to adipose tissue inflammation and systemic insulin resistance". Cell Metabolism. 19 (3): 512-26. doi:10.1016/j.cmet. ... In addition to the liver, RBP4 is also secreted by adipocytes of the fat tissue in a smaller portion and acts as a signal to ... It is suspected that an elevated level of RBP4 attracts macrophages to the fat tissue, causes local inflammation, and leads to ...
Tumor necrosis factor
Coppack SW (August 2001). "Pro-inflammatory cytokines and adipose tissue". The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 60 (3): ... adipose tissue, fibroblasts, and neurons.[unreliable medical source?] Large amounts of TNF are released in response to ... TNFR1 is expressed in most tissues, and can be fully activated by both the membrane-bound and soluble trimeric forms of TNF, ... mTNF-α is mainly found on monocytes/macrophages where it interacts with tissue receptors by cell-to-cell contact. sTNF-α ...
... secreted by adipose tissue. The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines ... BioFactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity". BioFactors. 37 (6): 413-420 ...
... and adipose tissue (leptin and resistin). Endocrine glands derive from all three germ layers. The natural ... Thyroid tissue consists of follicles with a stored protein called colloid, containing[thyroglobulin], a precursor to other ... Most T4 is converted to T3 (a more active form) in the target tissues. Calcitonin, produced by the parafollicular cells of the ... Endocrinology: Tissue Histology. Archived 2010-02-04 at the Wayback Machine the University of Nebraska at Omaha. "Adrenal gland ...
Fat removal procedures
... are used mostly in cosmetic surgery to remove unwanted adipose tissue. The procedure may be invasive, as ... Nelson, AA; Wasserman, D; Avram, MM (2009). "Cryolipolysis for reduction of excess adipose tissue". Seminars in Cutaneous ... Focused thermal ultrasound techniques work by raising the tissue temperature above 56 °C, resulting in coagulative necrosis of ... The degree of exposure to cooling causes cell death of subcutaneous fat tissue, without apparent damage to the overlying skin.[ ...
from the adipose tissue of Odontotermes obesus. Archiv für Protistenkunde 119 (3) v t e. ...
The basic criteria for Dercum's disease are patients with chronic pain in the adipose tissue (body fat) and patients who are ... Dercum's disease is a rare condition characterized by generalized obesity and fatty tumors in the adipose tissue. In the past, ... Surgical removal of the damaged adipose tissue can be effective, but often the disease will recur. Few convincing large studies ... Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue Diseases: Dercum Disease, Lipedema, Familial Multiple Lipomatosis and Madelung Disease. In: Purnell ...
... also inhibits fatty acid release by hormone sensitive lipase in adipose tissue. Beta cells in the islets of Langerhans ... The breakdown of triglycerides by adipose tissue into free fatty acids and glycerol is also inhibited. After the intracellular ... Dimitriadis G, Mitrou P, Lambadiari V, Maratou E, Raptis SA (August 2011). "Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue". ... Increased esterification of fatty acids - forces adipose tissue to make neutral fats (i.e., triglycerides) from fatty acids; ...
The precursors of ketone bodies include fatty acids from adipose tissue or the diet and ketogenic amino acids. The formation of ... Fatty acids can be released from adipose tissue by adipokine signaling of high glucagon and epinephrine levels and low insulin ... Coelho M, Oliveira T, Fernandes R (2013). "Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ". Archives of Medical Science. 9 ... GSDs which are characterised by the inability of tissues to utilise glycogen stores, such as McArdle disease, may be managed ...
Dimitriadis G, Mitrou P, Lambadiari V, Maratou E, Raptis SA (August 2011). "Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue". ... However, a large calorie deficit will also create the risk of losing muscle tissue. The bulking and cutting strategy is ... as a bigger surplus and longer bulking phase will create more fat tissue. The surplus of calories relative to one's energy ...
Wędrychowicz, Andrzej (2014). "Peptides from adipose tissue in mental disorders". World Journal of Psychiatry. 4 (4): 103-111. ...
Unique type of brown adipose tissue, allowing mammals to generate heat quickly. Mitochondria with five to seven times higher ... Cannon, B. (1 January 2004). "Brown Adipose Tissue: Function and Physiological Significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): ...
... and adipose tissue formation (i.e. DGAT2). The protein is homologous to other membrane-bound O-acyltransferases. There are two ...
David J. Galton
Galton, David J; Wilson, JPD (1970). "Lipogenesis in homogenates of human adipose tissue". Clinical Science. 38 (6): 649-660. ... Galton D J. The human adipose cell: a model for errors in metabolic regulation. Butterworths, London 1971. ISBN 0407557008 ...
September 2015). "Hepatic ANGPTL3 regulates adipose tissue energy homeostasis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences ... Angptl3 plays a major role in promoting uptake of circulating triglycerides into white adipose tissue in the fed state, likely ...
Electron transport chain
The uncoupling protein, thermogenin-present in the inner mitochondrial membrane of brown adipose tissue-provides for an ... "Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance". Physiological Reviews. 84 (1): 277-359. doi:10.1152/physrev. ...
... more so in white adipose tissue (WAT) than brown adipose tissue (BAT). Its primary enzymatic function is to catalyze the ... Unlike other PLA2 enzymes, AdPLA is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue at higher levels than in the rest of the body, ... AdPLA deficiency was shown to reduce adipose tissue mass for mice in both standard and high fat diets. Adipocyte hypotrophy was ... It belongs to a superfamily of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes and is found primarily in adipose tissue. AdPLA regulates ...
Adipose tissue secretes the hormone leptin, and leptin suppresses appetite. Long-term satiety signals from adipose tissue ... The long-term signals of satiety come from adipose tissue. The taste and odor of food can contribute to short-term satiety ... Long-term satiety comes from the fat stored in adipose tissue. ...
... is typically used to treat hypothyroidism, and is the treatment of choice for people with hypothyroidism, who often require lifelong thyroid hormone therapy. It may also be used to treat goiter via its ability to lower thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), a hormone that is considered goiter-inducing. Levothyroxine is also used as interventional therapy in people with nodular thyroid disease or thyroid cancer to suppress thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion. A subset of people with hypothyroidism treated with an appropriate dose of levothyroxine will describe continuing symptoms despite TSH levels in the normal range. In these people, further laboratory and clinical evaluation is warranted as they may have another cause for their symptoms. Furthermore, it is important to review their medications and possible dietary supplements as several medications can affect thyroid hormone levels. Levothyroxine is also used to treat subclinical ...
Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood. Other kinds ... Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and ... Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose tissue and blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical cushioning" to the body, among ... and special connective tissue. Connective tissue proper consists of loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue ( ...
"Fatty acid composition of human adipose tissue from two anatomical sites in a biracial community". American Journal of Clinical ...
In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be ...
肥胖症 - 维基百科，自由的百科全书
Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press. 2006: 222. ISBN 1-58829- ...
多囊卵巢綜合症 - 维基百科，自由的百
Adipose tissue possesses aromatase（英语：aromatase）, an enzyme that converts androstenedione to estrone and testosterone to ... The excess of adipose tissue in obese women creates the paradox of having both excess androgens (which are responsible for ...
Kahn PC, Gochfeld M, Nyugen M, Hansson M, Rappe C, Velez H. Dioxins and dibenzofurans in blood and adipose tissue of Agent ... Agent Orange and the Vietnamese: the persistence of elevated dioxin levels in human tissues. Am J Public Health. 1995;85:516- ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
Although BDNF is needed in the developmental stages, BDNF levels have been shown to decrease in tissues with aging. Studies ... The Val66Met mutation results in a reduction of hippocampal tissue and has since been reported in a high number of individuals ... Post mortem analysis has shown lowered levels of BDNF in the brain tissues of people with Alzheimer's disease, although the ...
নিতম্বাস্থি - উইকিপিডিয়া
মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium). *বহিঃক্ষরা গ্রন্থি (Exocrine gland) * ...
Adipose *Brown. *White. Dense. *Dense irregular connective tissue *Submucosa. *Dermis. *Dense regular connective tissue * ...
... such as adipose tissue (fat).. Due to its partial agonistic activity, THC appears to result in greater downregulation ... THC is highly lipophilic and initially taken up by tissues that are highly perfused, such as the lung, heart, brain, and liver. ... Because they are extremely lipid soluble, cannabinoids accumulate in fatty tissues, reaching peak concentrations in 4-5 days. ...
Glossary of biology
adipose tissue. A type of loose connective tissue made of mostly adipocytes and found in human and animal tissue, where it is ... tissue. trait. transcription. The first step of gene expression, in which a particular segment of DNA is copied into RNA by the ... Rather, semi-solid mesodermal tissues between the gut and body wall hold the animal's organs in place. Contrast coelomate and ... The fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones and is also known as articular ligament, articular larua, ...
Cyclin-dependent kinase 4
adipose tissue development. • cellular response to lipopolysaccharide. • cellular response to interleukin-4. • cellular ...
Tumor necrosis factor alpha
... adipose tissue, fibroblasts, and neurons. Large amounts of TNF are released in response to lipopolysaccharide, other ... On other tissues: increasing insulin resistance. TNF phosphorylates insulin receptor serine residues, blocking signal ... "Shock and tissue injury induced by recombinant human cachectin". Science. 234 (4775): 470-74. Bibcode:1986Sci...234..470T. doi: ... TNFR1 is expressed in most tissues, and can be fully activated by both the membrane-bound and soluble trimeric forms of TNF, ...
Estrogen insensitivity syndrome
... or adipose tissue deposition in the breasts without true glandular tissue, a trait that is not indicative of pubertal ... exclude the possibility that some residual estrogen sensitivity could be present in some tissues", which is in accordance with ...
Insulin-like growth factor 2
Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF). *Ephrins (A1, A2, A3, A4, A5, B1, B2, B3) ...
He is also credited with being the first person to describe brown adipose tissue, in 1551, in 1565 the first to document ...
Patterson BE, Bates CJ (May 1989). "Riboflavin deficiency, metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue function in sucking and ... when tissue saturation occurs. At higher intakes, the rate of excretion increases dramatically. Once intakes of 2.5 mg/d ... It provides a measure of tissue saturation and long-term riboflavin status. In vitro enzyme activity in terms of activity ... riboflavin topically then shining UV light is a method to slow progression of corneal ectasia by strengthening corneal tissue.[ ...
Debelost - Wikipedija, prosta enciklopedija
Mazzone, Theodore; Fantuzzi, Giamila (2006). Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa ...
This can be contrasted with the density of adipose tissue (fat), which is 0.9196 kg/liter. This makes muscle tissue ... Muscle tissue is a soft tissue, and is one of the four fundamental types of tissue present in animals. There are three types of ... This is larger than adipose tissue (fat) at 18.8 kJ/kg (4.5 kcal/kg), and bone at 9.6 kJ/kg (2.3 kcal/kg). ... Farvid, MS; Ng, TW; Chan, DC; Barrett, PH; Watts, GF (2005). "Association of adiponectin and resistin with adipose tissue ...
ACTH stimulates secretion of glucocorticoid steroid hormones from adrenal cortex cells, especially in the zona fasciculata of the adrenal glands. ACTH acts by binding to cell surface ACTH receptors, which are located primarily on adrenocortical cells of the adrenal cortex. The ACTH receptor is a seven-membrane-spanning G protein-coupled receptor. Upon ligand binding, the receptor undergoes conformation changes that stimulate the enzyme adenylyl cyclase, which leads to an increase in intracellular cAMP and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ACTH influences steroid hormone secretion by both rapid short-term mechanisms that take place within minutes and slower long-term actions. The rapid actions of ACTH include stimulation of cholesterol delivery to the mitochondria where the P450scc enzyme is located. P450scc catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis that is cleavage of the side-chain of cholesterol. ACTH also stimulates lipoprotein uptake into cortical cells. This increases the ...
... particles which are taken up by adipose tissue, there to be stored as fats. The fat cells take up glucose through special ... Biosphere , Ecosystem , Community (Biocoenosis) , Population , Organism , Organ system , Organ , Tissue , Cell , Organelle , ... act on effector tissues, chief of which are the liver, fat cells and muscle cells. The liver is inhibited from producing ... The effector tissue is the red bone marrow which produces red blood cells (RBCs)(erythrocytes). The increase in RBCs leads to ...
Hepatocyte growth factor
Ejaz A, Epperly MW, Hou W, Greenberger JS, Rubin PJ (March 2019). "Adipose‐derived stem cell therapy ameliorates ionizing ... and CCR4 which in turn imbues them with the ability to migrate into heart tissue. HGF also promotes angiogenesis in ... HGF also regulates the chemotaxis of T cells into heart tissue. Binding of HGF by c-Met, expressed on T cells, causes the ... associated with the enhanced and scarless wound healing capabilities of fibroblast cells isolated from the oral mucosa tissue.[ ...
By the early teens, the thymus begins to atrophy and thymic stroma is mostly replaced by adipose (fat) tissue. Nevertheless, ... Thymic tissue containing cysts is rarely described in the literature, ectopic glandular tissue included in the wall of cystic ... Thymic tissue sometimes be found scattered on or around the gland. The thyomocytes and the epithelium of the thymus have ... When used as food for humans, animal thymic tissue is known as (one of the kinds of) sweetbread. The thymus was known to the ...
... leading to adipose nodular necrosis of subcutaneous tissues, flushes (prostaglandin secretions), and even dermic melanosis ( ... The most common presentation is a fever (release of endogenous pyrogens often related to lymphokines or tissue pyrogens), but ... In this paradigm, tumor cells express tissue-restricted antigens (e.g., neuronal proteins), triggering an anti-tumor immune ... Paraneoplastic disorders may arise in that antibodies would cross-react with normal tissues and destroy them. Treatment options ...
... estrogen causes stromal tissue to grow and adipose (fat) tissue to accumulate, as well as the nipple-areolar complex to ... Exposure of macromastic breast stromal tissue to non-macromastic breast epithelial tissue was found to cause increased alveolar ... Elevated levels of HGF and, to a lesser extent, IGF-1 (by 5.4-fold and 1.8-fold, respectively), in breast stromal tissue, have ... COX-2 expression has been positively associated with breast volume and inflammation in breast tissue, as well as with breast ...
Adipose tissue is another important means of storing energy and this occurs in the abdomen (in internal structures called fat ... Damage to either of these areas can reduce the fitness of the rival, either because of the need to regenerate tissue or because ... A: Mucus gland, B: Chromatophore, C: Granular poison gland, D: Connective tissue, E: Stratum corneum, F: Transition zone, G: ... Specific events are dependent on threshold values for different tissues. Because most embryonic development is outside the ...
Category:Lipids - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Adipose tissue. F. *Fat. M. *Monounsaturated fat. P. *Phospholipid. *Polyunsaturated fat. S. *Saturated fat ...
Adipose tissue - Wikipedia
Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose tissue important ... The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0.9 g/ml. Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of ...
Adipose tissue | anatomy | Britannica
... connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells (adipose cells, or adipocytes), specialized to synthesize and contain large ... Mammals have two different types of adipose: white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. White adipose, the most common type ... Adipose tissue, or fatty tissue, connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells (adipose cells, or adipocytes), specialized ... to fatty acids in the adipose tissue. There they are transported into adipose cells, where once again they are resynthesized ...
Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. - PubMed - NCBI
White adipose tissue is no longer considered an inert tissue mainly devoted to energy storage but is emerging as an active ... Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.. Fantuzzi G1.. Author information. 1. Department of Human Nutrition, University ... Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines ... Proinflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin ...
Patent US9370536 - Processed adipose tissue - Google Patents
The tissue products can include decellularized and partially de-fatted tissues. In addition, the present disclosure provides ... as well as methods for producing such tissue products. ... The present disclosure provides tissue products produced from ... The adipose-containing tissues can be from human or animal sources, and from any tissue that contains adipose (e.g., a tissue ... the chosen adipose-containing tissue is a dermal tissue (e.g., tissue from transitional tissue layers between the dermis and ...
Hepatic ANGPTL3 regulates adipose tissue energy homeostasis | PNAS
... into white adipose tissue (WAT) rather than oxidative tissues (skeletal muscle, heart brown adipose tissue) in the fed state. ... Adipose Tissue Lipolysis Assay.. Mice were synchronized for 3 d prior to tissue collection (fasting: 5:00 PM to 7:00 AM; ... Adipose tissue mRNA was extracted from ∼100 mg tissue using a commercial kit (RNeasy Plus Universal; Qiagen) according to the ... Studies in adipose tissue-specific knockout mice indicate that most LPL activity is located in oxidative tissues (23). ...
CiNii Articles - Adipose tissue
This study was designed to assess the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in the anti-obesity effect of AVGE. … Tissue samples ... The relationship between XOR, UA, adipose tissue and metabolic syndrome [in Japanese] 川知 祐介 , 藤島 裕也 , 西澤 均 , 前田 法一 , 下村 伊一郎 ... Development of new therapy using allogeneic adipose tissue derived mesenchymal stem cells [in Japanese] 寺井 崇二 , 土屋 淳紀 ... Adipose tissue and the round ligament of the liver were incarcerated in the abdominal wall hernia.They were reduced and we
JCI - Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue
Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue. Yasuo Oguri1,2,3 and Shingo Kajimura1,2,3 1UCSF Diabetes Center, San Francisco ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains mitochondria-enriched thermogenic fat cells (brown adipocytes) that play a crucial role in ... The present study provides novel insight into our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues. ... 3Department of Cell and Tissue Biology, UCSF, San Francisco, California, USA. ...
Experimental Biology 2011- Comparative Physiology of Brown Adipose Tissue | ScienceBlogs
You may recall the previous post on the seminar that I attended on Comparative Physiology of Brown Adipose Tissue at the ... You may recall the previous post on the seminar that I attended on Comparative Physiology of Brown Adipose Tissue at the ... Figure 2 from the research paper ("Functional Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue", Heart Metab. 2010;48:15-17) is shown below:. ... They hope to use this thermal imaging technique to further characterize the role of brown adipose tissue in children. ...
Latent Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue
B kinases may constitute negative feedback leading to insulin resistance at least in the fat tissue. Finally, we discuss ... T. Suganami and Y. Ogawa, "Adipose tissue macrophages: their role in adipose tissue remodeling," Journal of Leukocyte Biology, ... Latent Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue. I. S. Stafeev. ,1. ,. 2 A. V. Vorotnikov. ,1. ,. 3 E. I. Ratner. ... Latent Inflammation and Insulin Resistance in Adipose Tissue,. International Journal of Endocrinology,. vol. 2017. ,. Article ...
Mechanisms of Perivascular Adipose Tissue Dysfunction in Obesity
... Maria S. Fernández-Alfonso,1 Marta Gil-Ortega,2 Concha F. ... L. Fang, J. Zhao, Y. Chen et al., "Hydrogen sulfide derived from periadventitial adipose tissue is a vasodilator," Journal of ... M. S. Fernández-Alfonso, M. Gil-Ortega, and B. Somoza, "Role of perivascular adipose tissue in vascular function," in Advances ... Y. C. Lee, H. H. Chang, C. L. Chiang et al., "Role of perivascular adipose tissue-derived methyl palmitate in vascular tone ...
Brown adipose tissue thermogenic adaptation requires Nrf1-mediated proteasomal activity | Nature Medicine
Here we show that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic function requires an adaptive increase in proteasomal activity to ... In mice, under thermogenic conditions, brown-adipocyte-specific deletion of Nfe2l1 (Nrf1) resulted in ER stress, tissue ... Nrf1-mediated proteosome activity in brown fat is required for the normal thermogenic behavior of this tissue in mice. ... Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. J. Clin. Invest. 123, 215-223 (2013). ...
Regulation of human subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow | International Journal of Obesity
Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) is therefore tightly linked to the tissues metabolic functioning. ATBF is ... However, there is little evidence that this leads to adipose tissue hypoxia in human obesity, and we suggest that, like the ... It stores lipid in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), which is mobilized, as required for use by other tissues, in the form of ... ATBF is downregulated in obesity (when expressed per 100 g tissue), and its responsiveness to meal intake is reduced. ...
Adipose tissue - Wikipedia
The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which ... The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue - more specifically brown ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0.9 g/ml. Thus, a person with more adipose tissue will float more easily than a person of the ... The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue; sometimes these two ...
Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. - PubMed - NCBI
Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity.. Stanford KI1, Middelbeek RJ, Townsend KL, An D, ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, ... BAT transplantation increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo into endogenous BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), and ...
Forkhead box A3 mediates glucocorticoid receptor function in adipose tissue | PNAS
Having demonstrated that ablation of Foxa3 in adipose tissues prevented the GR-induced expansion of fat tissue, we next ... suggesting that GR cooperation with tissue-specific transcription factors and cofactors is required to achieve adipose tissue- ... B) Adipose tissue weight. (C) Representative H&E staining of eWAT, BAT, and iWAT. (D) Quantification of adipocyte size in eWAT ... adipose tissue. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a class of steroid hormones that bind to the GC receptor (GR) and exert broad ...
Cold Temperature Can Increase Brown Adipose Tissue in Offspring
Adipose Tissue and Endocrine Function in Critical Care | SpringerLink
... the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of a high number of adipocyte-originated ... Changes in adipose tissue gene expression and plasma levels of adipokines and acute-phase proteins in patients with critical ... Marques M., Langouche L. (2014) Adipose Tissue and Endocrine Function in Critical Care. In: Rajendram R., Preedy V., Patel V. ( ... In addition to energy storage and insulation, the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the ...
... adipose tissue or fat is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, ... adipose tissue. Two types of adipose tissue exist: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). Adipose tissue ... Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots. Adipose tissue contains several cell ... Adipose tissue has a density of ~0,9g/ml . Thus, a person with much adipose tissue will float easier than a person with lot ...
Brown adipose tissue in h… - Göteborgs universitet
Evolution has provided humans and other placental mammals with brown adipose tissue (BAT), a tissue that converts chemically ... Brown Adipose Tissue. Alexander Pfeifer, Martin Klingenspor, Stephan Herzig (red.). (Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology). ... The aim of this review is to summarize the literature and describe what is actually known about the tissue and its importance ... The thermogenic activity of this tissue is significant for the human infants ability to maintain a sufficiently high core body ...
What is an Adipose Tissue? (with pictures)
Also known as fat, adipose tissue is not... ... Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue that stores ... This article describes what brown adipose tissue does, so I looked into white adipose tissue and its functions. White adipose ... Adipose tissue is a type of connective tissue which plays an important role in the functioning of the body. Better known simply ... Brown adipose tissue also generates heat, which keeps the body at a stable temperature. In people with insufficient quantities ...
Analysis Of Adipose Tissue on Microfluidic Chips
... their offspring are only able to develop at the same site and in certain tissue types. ... Pathway Stimulating Glucose Uptake in Brown Adipose Tissue That Helps in Fighting Diabetes Found. Bringing smiles on the faces ... Swedish Researchers Identify Gene Behind Development of Harmful Adipose Tissue. A gene that is responsible for the development ... Understanding of Human Brown Adipose Tissue Advanced by Joslin Scientists. Significant findings about the location, genetic ...
White adipose tissue - Wikipedia
... subcutaneous adipose tissue and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue is located directly underneath the ... White adipose tissue exists mostly as a single adipocytes in the subcutaneous tissue. In humans, white adipose tissue starts to ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. The other kind is brown ... The intra-abdominal adipose tissues covers the thoracic and abdominal cavity. The visceral adipose tissue is part of the intra- ...
Mobilising vitamin D sequestered in adipose tissue in humans with exercise (VitaDEx)
... tissue and this study will examine whether exercise can help to release it. ... and accumulates in our adipose tissue (fat stores) in large amounts. The entrapment of vitamin D in adipose (fat) tissue ... A key challenge now and in the future, is to find ways to mobilise vitamin D from adipose tissue and help prevent vitamin D ... Vitamin D can become trapped in our adipose (fat) tissue and this study will examine whether exercise can help to release it. ...
PREventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
PREventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution. Official Title ICMJE A Randomized, Controlled, Open-Label, 48-Week ... Preventing Progression of Adipose Tissue Redistribution) Investigators. Impact of switching from zidovudine to tenofovir ... although there is evidence that drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity at the level of subcutaneous adipose tissue is involved2 3 ... decrease in the mass of peripheral adipose tissue. Switching to emtricitabine plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is expected to ...
JCI - Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue
... isolated from adipose tissue demonstrates that adipose tissue macrophages are responsible for almost all adipose tissue TNF-α ... CD68 expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were aspirated from the subcutaneous ... Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose ... Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and ...
The Adipose Tissue Niche: Role in Health and Diseases | NIDDK
... and remodeling of different adipose tissue depots in people with various metabolic stressors. ... Role of the adipose tissue niche in the development, maintenance, ... Adipose Tissue Remodeling and Fibrosis. *Adipose Tissue Support Cells: Role of Pericytes, Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells, Stem ... Hot Topic-Adipose Tissue Macrophages and Preadipocytes as Mediators and Predictors of Adipose Tissue Remodeling with Weight ...
Anatomical Locations of Human Brown Adipose Tissue | Diabetes
... of UCP1 demonstrates that metabolically active adipose tissue in the neck of adult humans truly represents brown adipose tissue ... Influence of perivascular adipose tissue on rat aortic smooth muscle responsiveness. Clin Exp Hypertens A 1991;13:277-296pmid: ... Increase in brown adipose tissue activity after weight loss in morbidly obese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2012;97:E1229- ... Cold-activated brown adipose tissue in healthy men. N Engl J Med 2009;360:1500-1508pmid:19357405. ...
Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits | Journal of Neuroscience
Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits. Vitaly Ryu, John T. Garretson, Yang Liu, Cheryl H. Vaughan, ... Brown Adipose Tissue Has Sympathetic-Sensory Feedback Circuits. Vitaly Ryu, John T. Garretson, Yang Liu, Cheryl H. Vaughan, ... 2010b) Sympathetic and sensory innervation of brown adipose tissue. Int J Obes (Lond) 34:S36-S42, doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.182, ... 2004) Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. Physiol Rev 84:277-359, doi:10.1152/physrev.00015.2003, ...
Keystone Symposia Conference | Obesity and Adipose Tissue Biology - Program
Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans | Diabetes
Sites of high activity are seen within adipose tissue, particularly in adipose located in the supraclavicular regions but also ... of UCP1 demonstrates that metabolically active adipose tissue in the neck of adult humans truly represents brown adipose tissue ... Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans. Iain T.H. Au-Yong, Natasha Thorn, Rakesh Ganatra, Alan C. Perkins, ... Brown Adipose Tissue and Seasonal Variation in Humans. Iain T.H. Au-Yong, Natasha Thorn, Rakesh Ganatra, Alan C. Perkins, ...
AdipocytesInflammationRole of adipose tissueTypes of adipose tissueAmount of adipose tissueVisceralMetabolicBone marrowDepotsMetabolismObeseMiceCharacterizationSkeletalInsulin resistanceLipidPhysiologicalLipolysis in white adiposHeterogeneity in brown adiposAdipocyteHumansEndocrineLeptinStem cellsCharacterizeOrgansEndothelialThermogenesisBrownRegulationAbdominalTriglyceride lipaseTriglycerides in adipose tissueGeneStromalThermogenicAdiponectinLayer of adipose tissueAspects of adipose tissueFunction of adipose tissueFatty tissueEndocrinologyCellsSecretionVivoMarrow adipose tissueOmental adipose tissuePerivascular adipose tissueExtracellularHumanAction in adiposeRegulatesLipidsCellular
- In biology, adipose tissue , body fat , or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes . (wikipedia.org)
-  In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes , fibroblasts , vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages . (wikipedia.org)
- Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, collectively termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells. (wikipedia.org)
- Adipose tissue , or fatty tissue , connective tissue consisting mainly of fat cells ( adipose cells , or adipocytes), specialized to synthesize and contain large globules of fat , within a structural network of fibres. (britannica.com)
- When hormones signal the need for energy, fatty acids and glycerol are released from triglycerides stored in fat cells (adipocytes) and are delivered to organs and tissues in the body. (britannica.com)
- Brown adipose tissue (BAT) contains mitochondria-enriched thermogenic fat cells (brown adipocytes) that play a crucial role in the regulation of energy metabolism and systemic glucose homeostasis. (jci.org)
- Adenosine activates brown adipose tissue and recruits beige adipocytes via A2A receptors. (nature.com)
- Computational prediction analysis combined with molecular studies revealed that Foxa3 is regulated by the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in preadipocytes, adipocytes, and adipose tissues and is required to facilitate the binding of the GR to its target gene promoters in fat depots. (pnas.org)
- Adipose tissue contains several cell types, with the highest percentage of cells being adipocytes, which contain fat droplets. (bionity.com)
- Both types include adipocytes , cells which are designed for the storage of fat, and the cells can store different types of lipids in varying concentrations, with brown adipose tissue varying considerably in color and lipid composition. (wisegeek.com)
- The hormone leptin is primarily manufactured in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue which also produces another hormone, asprosin. (wikipedia.org)
- White adipose tissue exists mostly as a single adipocytes in the subcutaneous tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- White adipose tissue consists of white adipocytes, which are the lipid storage cells. (wikipedia.org)
- White adipose tissue exists in various depots that may have different types of adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
- We have used Heaton's definition of BAT as fat containing multilocular adipocytes stained by hematoxylin-eosin on light microscopy ( 2 ) and have designated BAT as being visceral or subcutaneous, subdividing each category into separate depots according to their contiguous organ or tissue as depicted by Nedergaard, Bengtsson, and Cannon ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). (bioportfolio.com)
- Besides adipocytes, adipose tissue contains endothelial cells, macrophages, and fibroblasts (stromal fraction) that may modulate the overall peptide and protein secretion pattern of the tissue via cross-talk between the different cell types. (mcponline.org)
- These interactions between cells from the stromal fraction and adipocytes are necessary for physiological functions of adipose tissue, and deregulation of this cross-talk is regarded as an important mechanism leading to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes ( 6 - 9 ). (mcponline.org)
- Adipocytes are the adipose tissue cells specialized in storing energy as fat. (pbrc.edu)
- The cytokine that they investigated, oncostatin M (OSM), is produced in adipose tissue, but not by adipocytes. (pbrc.edu)
- To combat the confounding data and to better understand the effects of OSM in adipose tissue homeostasis, researchers inactivated OSM receptor expression in adipocytes in vitro in animal models. (pbrc.edu)
- You can read the research article, 'Loss of Oncostatin M Signaling in Adipocytes Induces Insulin Resistance and Adipose Tissue Inflammation in Vivo,' in the Journal of Biological Chemistry . (pbrc.edu)
- Moreover, when specifically stimulated, BAT-precursor cells placed in white adipose tissue (WAT) can differentiate to beige/brite cells instead of white adipocytes ( 10 , 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Tissue fragments are then incubated with collagenase and the digest is centrifuged, separating the floating population of mature adipocytes from the pelleted stromal vascular fraction (SVF). (ahajournals.org)
- A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. (harvard.edu)
- In biology, adipose tissue / ˈ æ d ɨ ˌ p oʊ s / or body fat or just fat is loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes . (wikia.com)
- Tissue that contains adipocytes, used for cushioning, thermal insulation, lubrication (primarily in the pericardium) and energy storage. (bioontology.org)
- As adipose tissue expands, adipocytes enlarge and the adipose tissue starts to produce chemotactic factors, such as monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) -1, that attract monocytes/macrophages into adipose tissue ( 18 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- Coloured scanning electron micrograph of fat-storing cells (yellow), also known as adipocytes, which build up the adipose connective tissue. (sciencephoto.com)
- The researchers found that altered physiology of adipose tissue has specific effects on various fat depots, the function of individual adipocytes, and the interaction between adipose tissue and other metabolic tissues. (medicalxpress.com)
- Lymph node lymphocytes and tissue dendritic cells acquire their fatty acids from the contiguous adipocytes. (open.ac.uk)
- Lymph node-derived dendritic cells suppress lipolysis in perinodal adipocytes but those that permeate the adipose tissue stimulate lipolysis, especially after minor, local immune stimulation. (open.ac.uk)
- Brown adipose tissue is a highly innervated and vascularised tissue containing multilocular and multimitochondrial brown adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
- In contrast, white adipose tissue consists of unilocular white adipocytes with a main role to store energy in the form of the lipid droplet. (diva-portal.org)
- For a long time there has been evidence that energy-expending adipocytes reside within certain white adipose tissues, based on the fact that cold exposure, by switching on the sympathetic nervous system, leads to levels of UCP1 that are not detectable in mice housed at thermoneutrality. (diva-portal.org)
- Since these energy-expending cells reside within certain white adipose tissues, we chose to name them brite ( br own in wh ite ) adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
- Coloured scanning electron micro- graph (SEM) of the oval adipocytes (fat cells) that make up adipose connective tissue. (sciencephoto.com)
- Adipose tissue is composed mostly of adipocytes and its role is to store energy in the form of lipids. (bruker.com)
- Conclusions: The data suggest that estrogen deficiency and presence of PA in females affect body weight by producing inflammation in adipose tissues and by increasing the size and lipid content of adipocytes, These effects were not evident in males. (umich.edu)
- Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. (nih.gov)
- White adipose tissue is no longer considered an inert tissue mainly devoted to energy storage but is emerging as an active participant in regulating physiologic and pathologic processes, including immunity and inflammation. (nih.gov)
- Since tissue products are often used for surgical applications and/or as tissue replacements or for augmentation, the products should support tissue growth and regeneration and avoid excess inflammation, as desired for the selected implantation site. (google.ca)
- The present disclosure provides adipose tissue products that can provide for improved tissue growth, revascularization, and regeneration in various applications, while improving surgical handling and reducing inflammation. (google.ca)
- In mice, under thermogenic conditions, brown-adipocyte-specific deletion of Nfe2l1 ( Nrf1 ) resulted in ER stress, tissue inflammation, markedly diminished mitochondrial function and whitening of the BAT. (nature.com)
- MCP-1 and TNF-α expression was elevated, while adiponectin expression was reduced, in the transplanted PVAT tissue, suggesting augmented inflammation as a potential mechanism for the remote vascular effects of transplanted PVAT. (springer.com)
- Aghamohammadzadeh R, Unwin RD, Greenstein AS, Heagerty AM. Effects of obesity on perivascular adipose tissue vasorelaxant function: nitric oxide, inflammation and elevated systemic blood pressure. (springer.com)
- Police SB, Thatcher SE, Charnigo R, Daugherty A, Cassis LA. Obesity promotes inflammation in periaortic adipose tissue and angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation. (springer.com)
- The loss of adipocyte OSM signaling in vivo was associated with inflammation and insulin resistance, suggesting that intact adipocyte OSM signaling plays a role in the maintenance of adipose tissue homeostasis. (pbrc.edu)
- Furthermore, we characterize adipose tissue inflammation and the presence of brown adipose tissue (Rockstroh D, 2016). (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
- Tributyrin in Inflammation: Does White Adipose Tissue Affect Colorectal Cancer? (mdpi.com)
- In addition, butyrate worsened adipose tissue inflammation. (mdpi.com)
- Obesity is strongly associated with changes in the physiological function of adipose tissue, leading to insulin resistance, chronic inflammation, and altered secretion of adipokines. (aacrjournals.org)
- As senior investigator Dr. Noyan Gokce told Reuters Health, "Our data demonstrate that obese subjects exhibit varying degrees of inflammation in their fat tissue, and increased inflammatory activity in fat was associated with systemic metabolic abnormalities including insulin resistance. (massagemag.com)
- Because adipose inflammation was linked to impaired arterial endothelial function, Dr. Gokce pointed out, "that may identify obese individuals at increased cardiovascular risk. (massagemag.com)
- Furthermore, there were improvements in sensitivity toward lipolysis controlled by insulin and catecholamines, alterations in adipokine secretion, and decreases in local adipose inflammation and systemic inflammatory markers. (medicalxpress.com)
- Inflammation alters the composition of fatty acids incorporated into dendritic cells, and that of node-containing adipose tissue, counteracting the effects of dietary lipids. (open.ac.uk)
- Background- Adipose tissue inflammation may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance (IR). (ahajournals.org)
- The present study examined the role of lymphocytes in adipose tissue inflammation and IR. (ahajournals.org)
- Conclusions- Proinflammatory T-lymphocytes are present in visceral adipose tissue and may contribute to local inflammatory cell activation before the appearance of macrophages, suggesting that these cells could play an important role in the initiation and perpetuation of adipose tissue inflammation as well as the development of IR. (ahajournals.org)
- Inflammation in adipose tissue contributes to the inflammatory state in obese and insulin-resistant patients and has been considered to represent a common soil for the development of both diabetes mellitus and arteriosclerosis. (ahajournals.org)
- Previous studies have shown that macrophage infiltration is of critical importance in adipose tissue inflammation and the development of insulin resistance (IR). (ahajournals.org)
- 4 However, the role of different subtypes of CD3-positive lymphocytes, namely CD4- and CD8-positive cells, in adipose tissue inflammation is largely unexplored. (ahajournals.org)
- Some of the processes involved in adipose tissue inflammation resemble inflammatory processes in atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
- For example, the review noted, white adipose tissue has been associated with inflammation, and in breast cancer patients, has been associated with worse prognosis. (healthcanal.com)
- Infiltration of immune cells in the subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (AT) deposits leads to a low-grade inflammation contributing to the development of obesity-associated complications such as type 2 diabetes. (jove.com)
Role of adipose tissue5
- The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of the role of adipose tissue in whole body energy metabolism and related diseases. (mcponline.org)
- The global rise of obesity, along with the increased risk for complications such as type 2 diabetes, has intensified research on the role of adipose tissue. (pbrc.edu)
- 2 The important role of adipose tissue macrophages in the pathogenesis of IR has further been supported by recent data in C-C motif chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-deficient mice. (ahajournals.org)
- This novel concept is expanded as the role of adipose tissue in maintaining body homeostasis and the modulation of inflammatory and metabolic responses is discussed. (indigo.ca)
- Additionally, researchers and clinicians examine the association and potential role of adipose tissue in disease mediation and offer epidemiological evidence. (indigo.ca)
Types of adipose tissue6
- The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat. (wikipedia.org)
- Two types of adipose tissue exist: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). (bionity.com)
- There are two types of adipose tissue: white and brown. (wisegeek.com)
- White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
- A better comprehension of the different mechanisms involved in the feedback loop linking the brain and these two types of adipose tissue will lead to a better understanding of the pathophysiology of various disorders including obesity, cachexia, anorexia, and type II diabetes mellitus. (biomedsearch.com)
- Besides covering all types of adipose tissue, it can be used for fatty organs, and can be integrated with further omics approaches used in pre-clinical research. (tu-dresden.de)
Amount of adipose tissue8
- For comparison, a mouse with a normal amount of adipose tissue is shown on the right. (wikipedia.org)
- Other organs have a large amount of adipose tissue that serves as a padding or protection. (enotes.com)
- 2001). The amount of MSCs within the SVF seems to be directly related to the amount of adipose tissue collected. (scielo.br)
- It is becoming increasingly important to assess the amount of adipose tissue (fat) in animals in order to characterize its role in not only obesity, but also various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, or cardiovascular diseases. (bruker.com)
- This makes it possible to determine the amount of adipose tissue without the use of a contrast agent. (bruker.com)
- With microCT it is not only possible to determine the total amount of adipose tissue, but also discriminate between subcutaneaous and visceral adipose tissue. (bruker.com)
- Each method note explains step by step how to quantify the amount of adipose tissue, determine the thickness distribution, and make 3D models of the adipose tissue on top of the skeletal structure. (bruker.com)
- Unexpectedly, the fall of apM1 mRNA was prevented by the addition of actinomycin D, an inhibitor of transcription, or cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis, and by reducing the amount of adipose tissue cultured per dish, thereby suggesting that a newly synthesized factor released by adipose tissue destabilizes apM1 mRNA. (unboundmedicine.com)
- In humans, adipose tissue is located: beneath the skin ( subcutaneous fat ), around internal organs ( visceral fat ), in bone marrow ( yellow bone marrow ), intermuscular ( Muscular system ) and in the breast tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- There are also important adipose depots within the abdominal cavity (so-called visceral fat) and around other organs, for example, perirenal fat and epi- and peri-cardial fat. (nature.com)
- Fat in the lower body, as in thighs and buttocks, is subcutaneous and is not consistently spaced tissue, whereas fat in the abdomen is mostly visceral and semi-fluid. (wikipedia.org)
- Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots, including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and perirenal depots. (wikipedia.org)
- The visceral adipose tissue is part of the intra-abdominal adipose tissue that surrounds the intestine for the most part. (wikipedia.org)
- Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissues were used as controls. (springer.com)
- Especially visceral adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. (mcponline.org)
- Visceral adipose tissue was cultured in five experimental setups, and the quality of resulting samples was evaluated in terms of protein concentration and protein composition. (mcponline.org)
- Especially visceral adipose tissue has been implicated in the development of these diseases ( 2 - 4 ). (mcponline.org)
- Therefore, more insight into the visceral adipose tissue secretome will contribute to a better understanding of its role in energy metabolism and related diseases and may lead to the discovery of unknown peptides/proteins involved in regulation of energy metabolism and new targets for therapy. (mcponline.org)
- In humans, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin ( subcutaneous fat ), around internal organs ( visceral fat ), in bone marrow ( yellow bone marrow ) and in breast tissue. (wikia.com)
- Methods and Results- In a mouse model of obesity-mediated IR, high-fat diet (HFD) induced IR already after 5 weeks, which was associated with a marked T-lymphocyte infiltration in visceral adipose tissue. (ahajournals.org)
- Indeed, Wu et al demonstrated the presence of CD3-positive T-lymphocytes in human adipose tissue and describe the expression of RANTES, a T-cell specific chemokine, and its respective receptor CCR5 in visceral adipose tissue of morbidly obese patients. (ahajournals.org)
- The primary objective of the study is to determine if Serostim® 4 mg administered daily for 12 weeks as treatment for the abnormal fat accumulation and distribution associated with HIV-associated Adipose Redistribution Syndrome (HARS) reduces Visceral Adipose Tissue (VAT, measured by CT scan) more effectively than placebo. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Adipose tissue is generally distributed into two main compartments, immediately under the skin on top of the abdominal muscle (subcutaneous adipose tissue) and in the body cavity between the organs (visceral adipose tissue). (bruker.com)
- Reconstructed cross-section through the abdomen of a mouse with the discrimination between subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue, scanned by Skyscan 1278. (bruker.com)
- Surface rendered model of adipose tissue in the thorax region (top), abdominal region with the visceral adipose tissue in yellow (middle), and whole body (bottom) on top of the skeletal structure. (bruker.com)
- It is not the spare tire (subcutaneous fat) that makes the apple shape insidious, but the visceral fat, a deeper layer of adipose tissue that cushions the abdominal organs. (springboard4health.com)
- Production of ApN and regulation of its related gene (apM1) have not yet been studied in human visceral adipose tissue. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Their studies show that this tissue actively takes up the metabolic substrate glucose when adults are exposed to cold. (scienceblogs.com)
- Echocardiographic epicardial adipose tissue is related to anthropometric and clinical parameters of metabolic syndrome: a new indicator of cardiovascular risk," Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , vol. 88, no. 11, pp. 5163-5168, 2003. (hindawi.com)
- Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) is therefore tightly linked to the tissue's metabolic functioning. (nature.com)
- 3 Other recent reviews of various aspects of adipose tissue or of metabolic diseases provide some further information on ATBF regulation. (nature.com)
- Obesity alters adipose tissue metabolic and endocrine function and leads to an increased release of fatty acids, hormones, and proinflammatory molecules that contribute to obesity associated complications. (jci.org)
- The National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) announces a workshop focusing on the role of the adipose tissue niche in the development, maintenance and remodeling of different adipose tissue depots in healthy individuals, and how the extracellular matrix and cellular components of the niche are modified during the develop of diabetes, in the overfed state, and following other metabolic stressors. (nih.gov)
- Leptin administration to lean and ob/ob mice activates a novel metabolic program that depletes adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
- Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has emerged as a promising target to counteract obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. (bioportfolio.com)
- Adipose tissue (AT) dysfunction is a commonly observed feature of metabolic dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. (bioportfolio.com)
- The aim of this study is to understand the metabolic changes occurring in fat tissue both during controlled weight loss that lead to the improvement of type 2 diabetes and other obesity as. (bioportfolio.com)
- Thyroid hormones significantly influence energy expenditure by affecting the activity of metabolic active tissues, among which, mammalian brown adipose tissue (BAT) plays a significant role. (frontiersin.org)
- Indeed, heat-saving mechanisms (pilo-erection, vasoconstriction, adoption of a curled posture, immobility) are limited, and an additional heat is promptly produced by a large energy consuming process, such as shivering, and then substituted by a long-lasting activation of more efficient heat generating metabolic mechanisms, occurring principally in brown adipose tissue (BAT) ( 1 ). (frontiersin.org)
- There is compelling evidence with regard to the importance of the nervous system in the regulation of adipose tissue mass, either brown or white, by acting on the metabolic pathways and on the plasticity (proliferation, differentiation, transdifferentiation, apoptosis) of these tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
- Normal adipose tissue development is critical for maintaining a healthy metabolic state. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
- Analyzing these samples, we assess alterations in gene expression, adipose tissue composition, metabolic function and the capacity of adipose progenitor cells to differentiate and proliferate. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
- In addition to its lipid-storing capacity, adipose tissue is a highly active endocrine and metabolic organ. (aacrjournals.org)
- It is clear that centrally mediated circadian rhythms play an important role in human health and our results provide initial information about how appropriate sunlight exposure to subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT) might act as a peripheral circadian sensor that contributes to metabolic health. (patreon.com)
- Henriette Frikke-Schmidt, Ph.D., from the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, and colleagues examined how altered physiology of adipose tissue may contribute to the metabolic effects of bariatric surgery. (medicalxpress.com)
- Our findings represent an important step forward in the understanding of how adipose tissue links to the development of metabolic disease", comments Professor Peter Arner, one of the principal investigators at Karolinska Institutet along with Hui Gao, Niklas Mejhert and Mikael Rydén. (medicalxpress.com)
- IMPORTANCE Although the lungs are the port of entry and the predominant site of TB disease manifestation, we and others have demonstrated that M. tuberculosis also persists in adipose tissue of aerosol-infected animals and directly or indirectly alters adipose tissue physiology, which in turn alters whole-body immuno-metabolic homeostasis. (asm.org)
- Collectively, we expect this work highlight the power of biomaterial drug delivery to the adipose tissue as a platform for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes and to aid in the development of new treatments for diabetes, the most common metabolic disorder in the United States. (aiche.org)
- Bone marrow transplant studies and quantitation of macrophage number in adipose tissue from macrophage-deficient (Csf1op/op) mice suggest that these F4/80+ cells are CSF-1 dependent, bone marrow-derived adipose tissue macrophages. (jci.org)
- Compared to other cell sources like umbilical cord blood and bone marrow, adipose tissue offers several advantages, including relative ease of accessibility, a high concentration of cells, and its amenability to real-time processing and autologous use without cell culture. (dotmed.com)
- Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) expansion and associated lipotoxicity are important drivers of age-related bone loss and hematopoietic bone marrow (HBM) atrophy. (bioportfolio.com)
- Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells. (bioportfolio.com)
- myeloid tissue red bone marrow . (thefreedictionary.com)
- However, the relatively low abundance, small tissue volume, difficult accessibility, and disease-related malfunction of bone marrow-derived stem cells hamper their clinical usefulness. (ahajournals.org)
- The similarities between stem cells extracted from the bone marrow and the adipose tissue suggest the potential for the adipose tissue to act as an alternative, and perhaps preferable, cell source for repairing damaged tissues, such as the ischemic or infarcted heart. (ahajournals.org)
- With time, however, they are gradually substituted by adipose cells (yellow bone marrow). (termedia.pl)
- They are found in many other tissues apart from bone marrow, such as muscles, cartilage, and adipose tissue, and they are capable of differentiation in more than two directions, i.e. they can differentiate into another mesenchymal lineage, e.g. myocytes or chondrocytes. (termedia.pl)
- Adipose tissue is found in specific locations, which are referred to as adipose depots. (wikipedia.org)
-  Adipose depots in different parts of the body have different biochemical profiles. (wikipedia.org)
- Mice have eight major adipose depots, four of which are within the abdominal cavity . (wikipedia.org)
- Both the mesenteric and omental depots incorporate much lymphoid tissue as lymph nodes and milky spots , respectively. (wikipedia.org)
- The two superficial depots are the paired inguinal depots, which are found anterior to the upper segment of the hind limbs (underneath the skin) and the subscapular depots, paired medial mixtures of brown adipose tissue adjacent to regions of white adipose tissue, which are found under the skin between the dorsal crests of the scapulae. (wikipedia.org)
- On the whole, however, much less is known about the perfusion of intra-abdominal fat depots and how it is regulated in contrast with the blood flow through subcutaneous tissue, and we will not attempt to review those areas here. (nature.com)
- This led to various theories to find the adipogenic lineage of the white adipose tissue depots. (wikipedia.org)
- The partitioning of adipose tissue in many depots, some specialised for local, paracrine interactions with other tissues, is a fundamental feature of mammals. (open.ac.uk)
- Samples from serum and different adipose depots (periovarian, mesenteric and subcutaneous) were obtained from ageing rats (14- and 20-month-old) to determine fatty acid composition (gasliquid chromatography). (biomedsearch.com)
- In this newsletter, we discuss different approaches to quantify different adipose tissue depots. (bruker.com)
- White adipose tissue also is a source of a number of different hormones, which serve various roles in metabolism and endocrine function. (britannica.com)
- The adipose-produced hormones adiponectin, leptin, and resistin are involved in energy metabolism, for example, whereas plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 prevents the dissolution of blood clots. (britannica.com)
- There have been many studies of adipose tissue, or adipocyte, metabolism, but fewer of the regulation of the blood flow through the tissue. (nature.com)
- These so-called adipokines are involved in the control of metabolism, linking the nutrient status to the tissues involved in energy intake and expenditure and affecting insulin sensitivity. (springer.com)
- Such adipose tissue plasticity could play an active role in the thrifty metabolism that underlies glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue. (gu.se)
- BAT regressed with aging by transforming into white adipose tissue (WAT) ( 2 ), and BAT in adults was not considered important in energy metabolism ( 1 , 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ involved in storage and release of energy but also in regulation of energy metabolism in other organs via secretion of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines). (mcponline.org)
- Adipose tissue is a key organ for the regulation of energy metabolism. (mcponline.org)
- Besides its function as an energy storage depot in the form of triglycerides, adipose tissue secretes a variety of peptide and protein hormones (adipokines) involved in the regulation of energy metabolism such as leptin, adiponectin, visfatin, retinol-binding protein-4, adipsin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) 1 and interleukin 6 ( 1 - 3 ). (mcponline.org)
- Adipose tissue, or body fat, plays an important role in the how the body maintains its metabolism. (pbrc.edu)
- She researches how adipose tissue's extracellular matrix affects the body's function and metabolism. (pbrc.edu)
- Adipose tissue is acknowledged to be a key player in lipid metabolism and plays multiple roles in regulating whole-body physiology, through the secretion of hormones called adipokines. (europa.eu)
- Van and Cryer, 1985), which are devoted almost entirely to detailed reviews of major subtopics in the areas of adipose tissue growth, adipose tissue metabolism and obesity. (springer.com)
- Chapters on well-known properties of adipokines leptin and adiponectin are complemented by an introduction to a novel view of adipose tissue as a dynamic organ that regulates systemic substrate availability and metabolism, along with a variety of other discrete functions. (indigo.ca)
- An emerging risk factor for obesity: does disequilibrium of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism contribute to excessive adipose tissue development? (cambridge.org)
- The obese mouse on the left has large stores of adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- In an obese person, excess adipose tissue hanging downward from the abdomen is referred to as a panniculus . (wikipedia.org)
- To further characterize the changes that occur in adipose tissue with increasing adiposity, we profiled transcript expression in perigonadal adipose tissue from groups of mice in which adiposity varied due to sex, diet, and the obesity-related mutations agouti (Ay) and obese (Lepob). (jci.org)
- Adipose tissue macrophage numbers increase in obesity and participate in inflammatory pathways that are activated in adipose tissues of obese individuals. (jci.org)
- In the adipose tissue of obese mice and humans, OSM expression is significantly induced. (pbrc.edu)
- For this, we apply a translational approach combining in vitro and in vivo studies with the analyses of adipose tissue samples of lean and obese children (Leipzig Adipose Childhood Cohort). (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
- Schwartze JT, Landgraf K, Spielau U, Rockstroh D, Löffler D, Kratzsch J, Kiess W, Körner A: Adipocyte C1QTNF5 expression is BMI-dependently related to early adipose tissue dysfunction and systemic CTRP5 serum levels in obese children. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
- NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Certain obese people demonstrate potentially harmful proinflammatory changes in their adipose tissue, researchers report in the September issue of Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. (massagemag.com)
- In high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice, it has been shown that infiltration of macrophages into adipose tissue coincides with the occurrence of hyperinsulinemia, an indirect measure of IR. (ahajournals.org)
- His research team applied the new protocol to investigate tissue-specific and diet-related differences in lean and obese adipose tissues. (tu-dresden.de)
- In mice lacking ANGPTL3, the uptake of fatty acids from the circulation into adipose tissue was markedly reduced after refeeding. (pnas.org)
- Analysis of the long-term effects of dexamethasone treatment in mice revealed that Foxa3 ablation protects mice specifically against fat accretion but not against other pathological side effects elicited by this synthetic GC in tissues such as liver, muscle, and spleen. (pnas.org)
- In the late 1970s it was proposed, primarily on the basis of studies on rats and mice, that reduced expenditure on adaptive heat production (thermogenesis) associated with a specialized fat tissue-brown adipose tissue (BAT)-is central to the development of obesity. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Expression monitoring of 6500 genes using oligonucleotide microarrays in wild-type, ob/ob, and transgenic mice expressing low levels of leptin revealed that differences in ambient leptin levels have dramatic effects on the phenotype of white adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
- A novel application of k-means clustering identified 8 clusters of adipose tissue genes whose expression was different between leptin treatment and food restriction in ob/ob mice and 10 such clusters in wild-type experiments. (nih.gov)
- Using this novel technique in mice, the researchers were able to study the function of the neurons that innervate the adipose tissue, and saw that their elimination results in mice pounding up very quickly. (news-medical.net)
- Ines Mahu, PhD student in Domingos' laboratory and author of this study, describes their results: 'We were able to eliminate neurons from the adipose tissue of mice, without affecting the brain. (news-medical.net)
- ATGL is highly expressed in adipose tissue of mice and humans. (sciencemag.org)
- However, the nonobese phenotype of HSL knock-out (HSL-KO) mice ( 7 - 9 ) and the accumulation of diglycerides (DGs) in their adipose tissue ( 10 ) suggest that there may be one or more additional lipases in adipose tissue that preferentially hydrolyzes the first ester bond of the TG molecule. (sciencemag.org)
- It turned out that these mice developed adipose hypertrophy and displayed increased lipid mobilisation from fat cells . (medicalxpress.com)
- Our results confirm the presence of M. tuberculosis in fat tissue after aerosol infection of mice and show that loss of fat cells is associated with an increase in pulmonary M. tuberculosis burden and pathology. (asm.org)
- CCR2 −/− mice exhibited a reduction in adipose tissue macrophage content which was associated with an improvement, but not complete restoration of systemic glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity, suggesting that other inflammatory cells may play a role in this context. (ahajournals.org)
- A recent study in mice reported mainly CD8-positive lymphocyte infiltration in hypoxic areas within the adipose tissue. (ahajournals.org)
- The therapeutic efficacy of resveratrol scaffolds was tested by implant into the epididymal adipose tissue of mice receiving a 60% fat diet, which results in significant weight gain and glucose intolerance. (aiche.org)
- The truncated ANGPTL4 was found to be associated with adipocyte differentiation in mice, however, only the native form was detected in adipose tissues in human (Mandard et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
- This month's issue will focus on the quantification of adipose tissue in vivo in mice or rats using the SkyScan 1278 microCT system. (bruker.com)
- Plasma decay and tissue uptake of wild-type 125 I-HDL tracer were similar in both genotypes of recipient mice, suggesting that adipocyte ABCA1 deficiency reduces plasma HDL concentrations solely by reducing nascent HDL particle formation. (ahajournals.org)
- Therefore, we aimed at the characterization of the adipose tissue secretome rather than the adipocyte cell secretome. (mcponline.org)
- We have here reviewed the medical literature describing molecular and functional characterization, differentiation, potential role, and results obtained so far using ADSCs in tissue repair, with a particular focus on the role for ADSCs in cardiovascular repair and regeneration. (ahajournals.org)
- We further identify regulators of normal and disturbed adipose tissue function and subsequently perform functional characterization by looking at their role for adipocyte differentiation in vitro (cell lines and primary predadipocytes) and in vivo by using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) as a model for obesity and associated diseases (Landgraf K, 2017). (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
- Here we show that ANGPTL3 plays a major role in promoting uptake of circulating very low density lipoprotein-triglycerides (VLDL-TGs) into white adipose tissue (WAT) rather than oxidative tissues (skeletal muscle, heart brown adipose tissue) in the fed state. (pnas.org)
- This is achieved in tissue-specific manner via increased translocation of the insulin-dependent glucose carrier GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle and fat cells [ 2 , 3 ] and increased expression of GLUT1 in vascular endothelium cells [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- ATBF is relatively high (in the fasting state, similar to that of resting skeletal muscle, when expressed per 100 g tissue) and changes markedly in different physiological states. (nature.com)
- BAT transplantation increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in vivo into endogenous BAT, white adipose tissue (WAT), and heart muscle but, surprisingly, not skeletal muscle. (nih.gov)
- This model is characterized by glucose redistribution from skeletal muscle to adipose tissue during catch-up fat that results solely from suppressed thermogenesis (i.e., without hyperphagia). (gu.se)
- Despite association with low bone density and skeletal fractures, marrow adipose tissue (MAT) remains poorly understood. (frontiersin.org)
- The beneficial effect of exercise on musculoskeletal strength is known: exercise induces bone formation, encourages growth of skeletally supportive tissues, inhibits bone resorption, and alters skeletal architecture through direct and indirect effects on a multiplicity of cells involved in skeletal adaptation. (frontiersin.org)
- skeletal tissue the bony, ligamentous, fibrous, and cartilaginous tissue forming the skeleton and its attachments. (thefreedictionary.com)
- New evidence indicates that 3,5-diiodo- l -thyronine (3,5-T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, exerts thermogenic effects, by influencing mitochondrial activity in metabolically active tissues, such as liver, skeletal muscle, and BAT. (frontiersin.org)
- Proinflammatory molecules produced by adipose tissue have been implicated as active participants in the development of insulin resistance and the increased risk of cardiovascular disease associated with obesity. (nih.gov)
- We further hypothesize that insulin-activated PI3-kinase pathway and inflammatory signaling mediated by several I κ B kinases may constitute negative feedback leading to insulin resistance at least in the fat tissue. (hindawi.com)
- A gene that is responsible for the development of harmful adipose tissue in humans, thereby raising the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, has been identified. (medindia.net)
- Insulin resistance - a condition characterised by reduced cellular response to the hormone insulin that is released when the blood glucose levels rise after a meal - is an important causal factor underlying the increased risk of diabetes in individuals with hypertrophic adipose tissue. (medicalxpress.com)
- The fact that adiponectin expression was decreased in omental adipose tissue relative to subcutaneous adipose tissue in overweight children suggests that a risk of insulin resistance may be present in childhood, which allows such resistance to develop after a relatively short duration of overweight. (aappublications.org)
- However, its main function is to be a reserve of lipids, which can be oxidised to meet the energy needs of the body and to protect it from excess glucose by storing triglycerides produced by the liver from sugars, although some evidence suggests that most lipid synthesis from carbohydrates occurs in the adipose tissue itself. (wikipedia.org)
- The products can comprise a decellularized adipose extracellular tissue matrix and a reduced lipid content. (google.ca)
- It stores lipid in the form of triacylglycerol (TG), which is mobilized, as required for use by other tissues, in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA). (nature.com)
- PKA phosphorylates two important proteins with established functions in lipolysis: HSL, an enzyme that catabolizes adipose tissue TGs, and perilipin A, an abundant structural protein located on the surface of lipid droplets. (sciencemag.org)
- differences from the lean state that impair muscle function in- Results: Body mass decreased in the RT+CR group but not in the RT cluding greater lipid accumulation around [subcutaneous adipose group. (scribd.com)
- Individuals with large fat cells had markedly lower EBF1 expression in their adipose tissue, displayed altered lipid mobilisation and were insulin resistant. (medicalxpress.com)
- Free from residual lipid, cellular fragments and DNA content, Leneva retains key matrix proteins including Collagen IV and Collagen VI, and is injected where native fat already exists to provide soft tissue augmentation and cell attachment and remodeling. (businesswire.com)
- Adipose tissue consists of more than 99% of storage lipids, mainly triglycerides that are stored within the cell in so-called lipid droplets. (tu-dresden.de)
- Shotgun lipidomics technology enables to identify a vast number of lipid molecules and study their roles in biological systems, and it can be applied to cell cultures, fluids and tissues. (tu-dresden.de)
- It responded to high-fat diet by altering its lipid composition and shifting towards that of white adipose tissue", explains Dr. Michal Grzybek, who is first author of the study. (tu-dresden.de)
- This new and validated protocol wants to facilitate the systematic molecular profiling of adipose tissue by providing high reproducibility and linear dynamic range for all lipid classes. (tu-dresden.de)
- Cannon, B. & Nedergaard, J. Brown adipose tissue: function and physiological significance. (nature.com)
- Increased marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is associated with states of impaired bone formation ( 1 , 2 ) and dysfunctional hematopoiesis ( 3 - 5 ), although its physiological role remains unclear. (frontiersin.org)
- Innovative and highly practical, Adipose Tissue Protocols offers endocrinologists, physiologists, cell biologists, and pharmacologists a gold-standard collection of proven methods for effective nutritional, physiological, and molecular-level research on adipose tissue. (springer.com)
- There are two main physiological subcompartments of adipose tissue. (hstalks.com)
- Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease presents a comprehensive survey of adipose tissue, its physiological functions, and its role in disease. (indigo.ca)
- This volume spans the entire range of adipose tissue studies, from basic anatomical and physiological research to epidemiology and clinical studies. (indigo.ca)
Lipolysis in white adipos1
- There is actually no evidence at present that glucagon has any effect on lipolysis in white adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
Heterogeneity in brown adipos1
- Oguri Y, Kajimura S. Cellular heterogeneity in brown adipose tissue. (harvard.edu)
- In addition to energy storage and insulation, the white adipose tissue is a complex endocrine organ responsible for the secretion of a high number of adipocyte-originated signaling molecules. (springer.com)
- RESULTS Adipose tissue recovery during the dynamic phase of catch-up fat is accompanied by increased adipocyte number with smaller diameter, increased expression of genes for adipogenesis and de novo lipogenesis, increased fatty acid synthase activity, increased proportion of saturated fatty acids in triglyceride (storage) fraction but not in phospholipid (membrane) fraction, and no impairment in insulin signaling. (gu.se)
- Immunohistochemical analysis of perigonadal, perirenal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissue revealed that the percentage of cells expressing the macrophage marker F4/80 (F4/80+) was significantly and positively correlated with both adipocyte size and body mass. (jci.org)
- Therefore, the tissue secretome provides more relevant information for the in vivo situation than the adipocyte cell secretome. (mcponline.org)
- Her current research focuses on how cytokines affect the function and composition of the adipose tissue extracellular matrix, and how alterations in the adipose tissue extracellular matrix affect adipocyte function and insulin sensitivity. (pbrc.edu)
- We refer here to the term adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ADSCs), which identifies a plastic-adherent cell population that includes vascular (pericytes and endothelial progenitor cells)/adipocyte progenitor cells (preadipocytes) and adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), besides circulating blood cells, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes 27 ( Figure 1 ). (ahajournals.org)
- Recent human and animal studies suggest that by altering rates of adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, differences in the composition of dietary fat may also contribute to adipose tissue development. (cambridge.org)
- apM1 gene expression, restricted to the adipocyte fraction of adipose tissue, decreased spontaneously when adipose explants were cultured in basal medium for 24 h while the expression of other adipose genes barely changed (PPARgamma, GAPDH) or increased (PAI-1). (unboundmedicine.com)
- In humans, the percentage of brown adipose found in the body decreases with age. (britannica.com)
- In humans, the distribution of adipose tissue in the body can vary depending on sex. (britannica.com)
- Dr. Michael Symonds and colleagues from the The University of Nottingham, United Kingdom, presented "The Use of Thermal Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue in the Supraclavicular Region as a Repeatable Technique to Quantify its Function in Humans. (scienceblogs.com)
- Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans. (nature.com)
- High incidence of metabolically active brown adipose tissue in healthy adult humans: effects of cold exposure and adiposity. (nature.com)
- We searched PubMed for ('Adipose tissue blood flow' AND subcutaneous /limits 'humans') and retrieved 132 articles. (nature.com)
- Obesity or being overweight in humans and most animals does not depend on body weight but on the amount of body fat-specifically, adipose tissue. (bionity.com)
- In humans and chicken, adipose tissue is located beneath the skin and is also found around internal organs . (bionity.com)
- In healthy, non-overweight humans, white adipose tissue composes as much as 20% of the body weight in men and 25% in women. (wikipedia.org)
- In humans, white adipose tissue starts to develop during early to mid-gestation period. (wikipedia.org)
- A renaissance of interest in BAT was catalyzed in the late 2000s following the putative identification of multiple sites of the tissue in adult humans from investigations using fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Insulin stimulates glucose uptake into BAT in humans, and acute cold exposure activates the tissue, as in rodents ( 6 , 10 - 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Obesity or being overweight in humans and most animals does not depend on body weight, but on the amount of body fat-to be specific, adipose tissue [ citation needed ] . (wikia.com)
- Researchers at Karolinska Institutet in Sweden have for the first time identified a gene driving the development of pernicious adipose tissue in humans. (medicalxpress.com)
- Far from being hormonally inert, adipose tissue has, in recent years, been recognized as a major endocrine organ,  as it produces hormones such as leptin , estrogen , resistin , and the cytokine TNFα . (wikipedia.org)
- Although knowledge is still limited, current available literature suggests that the endocrine functions of adipose tissue might play an adaptive role during critical illness. (springer.com)
- Adipose tissue also serves as an important endocrine organ  by producing recently-discovered hormones such as leptin , resistin and the cytokine TNFα . (bionity.com)
- Adipose tissue is now recognized as a widely dispersed secretory organ that exhibits autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine properties, and plays a significant role in obesity, the most common health problem in industrialized countries. (springer.com)
- We now know that adipose tissue in extremely complex and dynamic endocrine organ. (hstalks.com)
- Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin, as well as cytokines and chemokines, such as TNF-alpha, IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, and others. (nih.gov)
- Anticontractile effect of perivascular adipose tissue and leptin are reduced in hypertension," Front Pharmacol , vol. 3, no. 103, pp. 1-8, 2012. (hindawi.com)
- Further studies confirmed that leptin decreases the levels of SREBP-1/ADD1 RNA and transcriptionally active SREBP-1/ADD1 protein in white adipose tissue. (nih.gov)
- Colon carcinogenesis decreased adipose mass in subcutaneous, epididymal, and retroperitoneal tissues, while also reducing serum glucose and leptin concentrations. (mdpi.com)
- ½ of the tissues were solubilized to assess leptin, IL-6, IL-1-β and TNF-α concentrations by ELISA. (umich.edu)
- Introduction: Cell sheets consisting of adipose -derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been reported to be effective for wound healing. (nii.ac.jp)
- The researchers used the new lab-on-a-chip to study how adult stem cells in adipose tissue develop into mature fat cells, conducting their investigations outside the body. (medindia.net)
- Factors such as insulin and blood sugar levels influence whether or not adult stem cells in adipose tissue will develop into mature adipose cell. (medindia.net)
- In contrast to embryonic stem cells, when adult stem cells divide, their offspring are only able to develop at the same site and in certain tissue types. (medindia.net)
- This enabled adipose-derived adult stem cells to be successfully converted into mature fat cells within the experiments, and the corresponding signalling pathway mTORC1 was also decoded. (medindia.net)
- Stem cell researchers led by Dr Adam Reid, present a review of the current literature on the suitability of adipose-derived stem cells in peripheral nerve repair. (medindia.net)
- Adipose, also known as fatty tissue, is one of the most studied sources of adult stem cells. (dotmed.com)
- In addition to stem cells, there lies within adipose tissue a defined population of cell types that are also major contributors to healing, referred to as 'regenerative cells. (dotmed.com)
- As stem cells can be grown and transformed into specialized cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves, their use in medical therapies has been proposed. (patientslikeme.com)
- Numerous studies have provided evidence that stromal cells derived from the adipose tissue (adipose tissue-derived stromal cells [ADSCs]) contain a population of adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells that can differentiate into several lineages, including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes. (ahajournals.org)
- Adipose tissue may represent an ideal source of autologous stem cells, because it is easy to obtain with minimal patient discomfort, but yet capable of yielding cell numbers substantial enough to obviate extensive expansion in culture. (ahajournals.org)
- 23-26 There is much confusion in the literature when using terms describing multipotent stem cells from the adipose tissue stroma. (ahajournals.org)
- The relative abundance and easy access to adipose tissue has raised great interest among researchers using these cells as a source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in equine medicine. (scielo.br)
- There are positive results related to the use of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AdMSCs) in disorders such as tendinitis (Del Bue et al . (scielo.br)
- Within their niche, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are essential for homeostasis as well as for regeneration. (mdpi.com)
- To investigate related risks, this study analyses the radiation response of adult stem cells isolated from the adipose tissue of the female breast. (mdpi.com)
- The library includes ready to ship mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from dental pulp (DPSC) found in human third molars or human exfoliated deciduous teeth, as well as from follicular tissue, adipose tissue, placental tissue, and umbilical cord tissue. (prweb.com)
- And the title of my presentation is 'Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue. (hstalks.com)
- Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are a powerful tool for in vitro study of adult stem cell biology. (wiley.com)
- Taken together, our data demonstrate that nucleofection allows both transient and stable gene expression in adipose tissue-derived stem cells, without impairing their differentiation potential. (wiley.com)
- They hope to use this thermal imaging technique to further characterize the role of brown adipose tissue in children. (scienceblogs.com)
- Our objective was to characterize the determinants of enhanced glucose utilization in adipose tissue during catch-up fat. (gu.se)
- In this project, we aim to identify and characterize regulators of adipose tissue development and obesity. (uniklinikum-leipzig.de)
- White adipose, the most common type, provides insulation, serves as an energy store for times of starvation or great exertion, and forms pads between organs. (britannica.com)
- Various tissue-derived products are used to regenerate, repair, or otherwise treat diseased or damaged tissues and organs. (google.ca)
- White adipose surrounds the internal organs. (wisegeek.com)
- Subcutaneous adipose tissue is located directly underneath the skin, while the intra-abdominal adipose tissue surrounds the organs inside the abdomen such as intestine and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
- Cell harvesting procedures from these organs are painful and costly, and frequently associated with the risk of donor-site tissue morbidity. (ahajournals.org)
- ANGPTL4 mRNA is expressed in many organs and tissues, highly in WAT, placenta, liver, muscle (Feingold et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Ulrich's study analyzed the effects of fat on breast, colorectal, esophageal, endometrial, prostate, and ear-nose-throat cancer, taking into consideration the proximity of adipose tissue relative to the organs. (healthcanal.com)
- Linnea Pearson (University of Alaska, Fairbanks) presented her work completed with Drs. Mike Hammill (Maurice Lamontagne Institute, Mont-Joli, QC, Canada) and Jennifer Burns (University of Alaska, Anchorage), entitled "Brown Adipose Tissue and Non-shivering Thermogenesis Aid Harp Seals ( Pagophilus groenlandicus ) but not hooded seals ( Cystophora cristata ) or Weddell Seals ( Leptonychotes weddelli ) at birth. (scienceblogs.com)
- Another mechanism is through nonshivering thermogenesis regulated by brown fat (i.e. adipose). (scienceblogs.com)
- Rothwell, N.J. & Stock, M.J. A role for brown adipose tissue in diet-induced thermogenesis. (nature.com)
- Until ~10 years ago, brown adipose tissue (BAT) was considered to be biologically active in neonates and young children generating heat during cold exposure by adaptive thermogenesis to maintain normal body temperature ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an important source of thermogenesis which is nearly exclusively dependent on its sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation. (jneurosci.org)
- Brown adipose tissue expends energy through sympathetic nervous system-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis, where uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is the key player. (diva-portal.org)
- Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a unique thermogenic tissue in mammals that rapidly produces heat via nonshivering thermogenesis. (biologists.org)
- Adipose tissue - more specifically brown adipose tissue - was first identified by the Swiss naturalist Conrad Gessner in 1551. (wikipedia.org)
- white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue . (britannica.com)
- Brown adipose , found mainly in newborn animals, generates heat and actually consumes energy. (britannica.com)
- Brown adipose, by consuming energy, releases heat, which is vital for awakening and emergence from dormancy. (britannica.com)
- Brown adipose tissue typically is tan to red in colour. (britannica.com)
- You may recall the previous post on the seminar that I attended on Comparative Physiology of Brown Adipose Tissue at the Experimental Biology meeting last week. (scienceblogs.com)
- Dr. Symonds presented data showing that the temperature of the brown adipose tissue in children's bodies actually increased in response to placing their hands or feet into cool water. (scienceblogs.com)
- In other research, Drs. Kirsi Virtanen and Pirjo Nuutila from the Turku PET Centre, Turku, Finland, have used combined PET and CT scans to demonstrate that adult human brown adipose tissue is highly active metabolically. (scienceblogs.com)
- Figure 2 from the research paper ("Functional Imaging of Brown Adipose Tissue", Heart Metab. (scienceblogs.com)
- Here we show that brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenic function requires an adaptive increase in proteasomal activity to secure cellular protein quality control, and we identify the ER-localized transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 1 (Nfe2l1, also known as Nrf1) as a critical driver of this process. (nature.com)
- Brown adipose tissue activity controls triglyceride clearance. (nature.com)
- Brown adipose tissue regulates glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. (nature.com)
- Similarly, we will not cover the regulation of blood flow through brown adipose tissue. (nature.com)
- Brown adipose tissue is another specialized tissue with a function quite different from that of white adipose tissue, and the regulation of its blood flow is also entirely distinct. (nature.com)
- Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known to function in the dissipation of chemical energy in response to cold or excess feeding, and also has the capacity to modulate energy balance. (nih.gov)
- The layer of brown adipose tissue in this depot is often covered by a "frosting" of white adipose tissue, sometimes these two types of fat (brown and white) are hard to distinguish. (bionity.com)
- Brown adipose tissue also generates heat, which keeps the body at a stable temperature. (wisegeek.com)
- This article describes what brown adipose tissue does, so I looked into white adipose tissue and its functions. (wisegeek.com)
- Though brown adipose generates heat, white adipose maintains that heat. (wisegeek.com)
- The other kind is brown adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- We will review information about and present hypotheses as to the anatomy of brown adipose tissue (BAT). (diabetesjournals.org)
- A Novel PET Probe for Brown Adipose Tissue Imaging in Rodents. (bioportfolio.com)
- Brown fat-like adipose tissue that develops in WHITE ADIPOSE TISSUE from non-MYOGENIC REGULATORY FACTOR 5 expressing cell lineage. (bioportfolio.com)
- brown adipose tissue ( brown fat tissue ) brown fat . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Drawn from both in vivo and in vitro studies, these readily reproducible methods cover a broad range of techniques, including the choice of adipose tissue depot and of morphological techniques for work on both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT). (springer.com)
- Whereas white adipose tissue can provide lipids as substrates for other tissues according to the needs of the organism, brown adipose tissue will use fatty acids for heat production. (biomedsearch.com)
- An important characteristic of the adipose tissue is its enormous plasticity for volume and cell-number variations and an apparent change in phenotype between the brown and white adipose tissues. (biomedsearch.com)
- Adipose Tissue, Brown" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
- This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Adipose Tissue, Brown" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Adipose Tissue, Brown" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
- Below are the most recent publications written about "Adipose Tissue, Brown" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
- Recent development in targeting brown adipose tissues for th. (lww.com)
- PPARa is not involved in the regulation of muscle-associated genesin brown adipose tissue. (diva-portal.org)
- Even the functionally different brown and white adipose tissues were generalized to share a common origin. (diva-portal.org)
- The Paul Langerhans Institute Dresden, a partner of the DZD, and the University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus joined their forces with Lipotype GmbH and developed a new shotgun lipidomics method for the molecular profiling of brown and white adipose tissue. (tu-dresden.de)
- We were able to observe that brown adipose tissue exhibited a distinct lipidomic profile. (tu-dresden.de)
- Our aim here is to review what is known of the regulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF). (nature.com)
- to develop new knowledge and identify druggable targets by unraveling the molecular basis of adipose tissue regulation and crosstalk in vivo. (europa.eu)
- The present review focuses on the cellular mechanisms participating in the plasticity of adipose tissues and their regulation by the autonomic nervous system. (biomedsearch.com)
- The present chapter focuses on a selection of recent findings pertaining to the growth of adipose tissue, the regulation of adipose mass, and aspects of these processes that bear on the problem of obesity. (springer.com)
- Computed tomography scan showed adipose tissue and the falciform ligament in the upper abdominal midline suggesting a linea alba hernia. (nii.ac.jp)
- Adipose tissue and the round ligament of the liver were incarcerated in the abdominal wall hernia.They were reduced and we found a linea alba hernia defect measuring 2cm, which was repaired with mesh.We used a tip flexion type tacker and fixed the mesh using the double crown technique. (nii.ac.jp)
- White adipose tissue is the most abundant in mammals and its distribution greatly varies among different species.Usually white adipose tissue can be found in two different locations of the body where it is stored: subcutaneous adipose tissue and intra-abdominal adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
- The intra-abdominal adipose tissues covers the thoracic and abdominal cavity. (wikipedia.org)
- Subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were aspirated from the subcutaneous abdominal region of human subjects whose BMIs ranged from 19.4 to 60.1 kg/m 2 . (jci.org)
- Because these lipids have a chain of carbon atoms, there will be a density difference with the surrounding soft tissue such as the abdominal muscle. (bruker.com)
- Intracellular lipolysis is initiated by adipose tissue triglyceride lipase (ATGL) which hydrolyzes triglycerides to diglycerides. (diva-portal.org)
- Here, we report that a second enzyme, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzes the initial step in triglyceride hydrolysis. (sciencemag.org)
- Only one previously undescribed enzyme fulfilled these requirements, and we named it "adipose triglyceride lipase" (ATGL). (sciencemag.org)
Triglycerides in adipose tissue2
- The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene . (wikipedia.org)
- Adipocytokine gene expression was assessed in the transplanted adipose tissues, and the thoracic aorta was harvested to quantify atherosclerotic lesions by Oil-Red O staining and to assess vasorelaxation by wire myography. (springer.com)
- In the current study, researchers identified a gene, EBF1, which according to these new findings drive the development of the unhealthy adipose tissue . (medicalxpress.com)
- This is the first time someone has identified a gene which may cause malfunctioning adipose tissue in man. (medicalxpress.com)
- mRNA expression of ovine angiopoietin-like protein 4 gene in adipose tissues. (thefreelibrary.com)
- What is Adipose tissue-derived stromal cell transplant? (patientslikeme.com)
- There are no evaluations for Adipose tissue-derived stromal cell transplant. (patientslikeme.com)
- For example, several studies showed that adipose stromal cells have the power to infiltrate cancer lesions and promote the growth of tumors. (healthcanal.com)
- In the four centuries following its identification, different roles have been attributed to BAT, but in the early 1960s the tissue was firmly identified as a thermogenic organ generating heat through nonshivering mechanisms. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In the acute phase of illness, the anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing adiponectin is reduced, while pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in adipose tissue is upregulated. (springer.com)
- Li C, Wang Z, Wang C, Ma Q, Zhao Y. Perivascular adipose tissue-derived adiponectin inhibits collar-induced carotid atherosclerosis by promoting macrophage autophagy. (springer.com)
- Adiponectin is associated with serum and adipose tissue fatty acid composition in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- The objective of the present work is to analyse the relationships between changes in adiponectin and fatty acid composition in serum and adipose tissue in rats. (biomedsearch.com)
- There was a positive association between serum adiponectin and adipose tissue oleic acid, while palmitoleic acid was negatively associated with adiponectin expression and positively correlated with insulin concentration. (biomedsearch.com)
- For the first time, positive relationships are reported between the proportion of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in adipose tissue and adiponectin concentration and expression. (biomedsearch.com)
- The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of the genes that encode adiponectin and PPARγ in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in children in relation to age and anthropometric variables. (aappublications.org)
- 001). In overweight children, the median adiponectin mRNA level was lower in omental adipose tissue (odds ratio: 0.51 [95% confidence interval: 0.1-2.17]) compared with subcutaneous adipose tissue (odds ratio: 1.29 [95% confidence interval: 0.16-5.08]) ( P = .032) but not in normal-weight children ( P = .54), and the difference remained significant after adjustment for age ( P = .045). (aappublications.org)
Layer of adipose tissue1
- In the abdominopelvic cavity, a layer of adipose tissue is present that lines the parietal peritoneum. (enotes.com)
Aspects of adipose tissue1
- In conclusion, bariatric surgery is capable of improving aspects of adipose tissue function and do so in some cases in ways that are not entirely explained by the potent effect of surgery," the authors write. (medicalxpress.com)
Function of adipose tissue1
- Many of us were taught that the function of adipose tissue was simply for storing energy and providing padding to important structures. (hstalks.com)
- Adaptative nitric oxide overproduction in perivascular adipose tissue during early diet-induced obesity," Endocrinology , vol. 151, no. 7, pp. 3299-3306, 2010. (hindawi.com)
- It contains a great majority of up to date information about such rapidly growing field as endocrinology of adipose tissue and its relation to obesity. (indigo.ca)
- When muscles and other tissues need energy, certain hormones bind to adipose cells and trigger the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol , resulting in the release of energy-rich fatty acids and glycerol -a process known as lipolysis. (britannica.com)
- Upon release of insulin from the pancreas, white adipose cells' insulin receptors cause a dephosphorylation cascade that lead to the inactivation of hormone-sensitive lipase. (wikipedia.org)
- The number or CD16+ macrophages in adipose tissue, normalized to the total number of CD14+CD206+ macrophages or the total number of CD45+ cells, will be measured using multi-parameter flow cytometry. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Tanaka K, Komuro I, Sata M. Vascular cells originating from perivascular adipose tissue contribute to vasa vasorum neovascularization in atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
- The Celution System, approved in Europe, is a cell-processing device, which extracts and makes a dose of a patient's own adipose tissue-derived adult stem and regenerative cells. (dotmed.com)
- Adipose tissue is emerging as one of the leading sources for adult stem and regenerative cells, and Cytori's Celution System can provide patients' own cells at the bedside. (dotmed.com)
- adipose tissue connective tissue made of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
- mesenchymal tissue embryonic connective tissue composed of stellate cells and a ground substance of coagulable fluid. (thefreedictionary.com)
- reticular tissue ( reticulated tissue ) connective tissue composed predominantly of reticulum cells and reticular fibers. (thefreedictionary.com)
- In Adipose Tissue Protocols, Gérard Ailhaud and a team of laboratory experts and clinicians describe in step-by-step detail the major techniques needed for the study of adipose tissue and cells. (springer.com)
- Adipose tissue is fat cells. (enotes.com)
- Isolation and nomenclature of adipose tissue-derived cells. (ahajournals.org)
- Traditionally, the process of isolating the nucleated cell fraction from the adipose tissue is based on collagenase digestion, followed by a series of centrifugation steps to isolate the specific cells. (scielo.br)
- Based on our current understanding these cells have the potential for use in regenerative medicine - for tissue repair, tissue replacement, and are capable of regulating immune response. (prweb.com)
- Adipose tissue can expand in two ways: by increasing the size and/or the number of the fat cells. (medicalxpress.com)
- The investigators compared adipose tissue from subjects with small or large fat cells and found that EBF1 was closely linked to hypertrophy. (medicalxpress.com)
- As part of full disclosure, I would like to mention that I am a named inventor on issued and or pending patents related to the adipose field, including adipose-derived cells and matrix. (hstalks.com)
- As a brief overview for my presentation, I will be giving a brief background on the adipose-derived cell, as well as some of the past and current science related to these cells. (hstalks.com)
- We'll also discuss briefly some of the regulatory issues surrounding the translation of adipose-derived cells and then the translation and commercialization of these cells specifically. (hstalks.com)
- And from our standpoint, for the purpose of this talk, we'll be talking about the regenerative potential of cells and factors that are derived from this tissue. (hstalks.com)
- Fat is retained in adipose cells and stained. (boreal.com)
- This article describes a method to analyze immune cell content of adipose tissue by isolation of immune cells from adipose tissue and subsequent analysis using flow cytometry. (jove.com)
- Historically, they were treated as a tissue "passively" taking over the niche space not used by hematopoietic cells. (termedia.pl)
- Herein, we tested several classic transfection methods on human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem (hMADS) cells. (wiley.com)
- Provides an extracellular adipose matrix that functions as a scaffold for patient cells to create new fat. (businesswire.com)
- Human adipose tissue or derived cells have been used clinically in several fields. (omicsonline.org)
- Animal serum is used in storing and culturing human adipose tissue or derived cells. (omicsonline.org)
- We observed that adherent cells derived from adipose tissues were isolated effectively by collagenase treatment. (omicsonline.org)
- We did not observe any adherent cells when human adipose tissues were preserved without cryopreservation solution at ?20°C. Adherent adipose-derived cells exhibited different growth rates based on the cryopreservation solution and storage temperature. (omicsonline.org)
- Additionally, resident and recruited macrophages constitute an important part of the adipose tissue, responsible for the secretion of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. (springer.com)
- 108 proteins contained a secretion signal peptide of which 70 incorporated the label and were considered secreted by adipose tissue. (mcponline.org)
- However adipokine secretion and its mediated crosstalk with other tissues are not well defined. (europa.eu)
- Colorectal cancer affects the large intestine, leading to loss of white adipose tissue (WAT) and alterations in adipokine secretion. (mdpi.com)
- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS White adipose tissue morphometry, lipogenic capacity, fatty acid composition, insulin signaling, in vivo glucose homeostasis, and insulinemic response to glucose were assessed in a rat model of semistarvation-refeeding. (gu.se)
- Finally, the suitability of the described measurement system for the continuous oxygen monitoring in subcutaneous adipose tissue has been proved in in vivo investigations performed on test animals. (joanneum.at)
Marrow adipose tissue2
Omental adipose tissue1
- Objectives: Our objective was to determine gender-specific responses to periapical tooth lesions (PA) on the composition of omental adipose tissue in the rat. (umich.edu)
Perivascular adipose tissue5
- Prenatal exposure to nicotine causes postnatal obesity and altered perivascular adipose tissue function," Obesity Research , vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 687-692, 2005. (hindawi.com)
- Perivascular adipose tissue potentiates contraction of coronary vascular smooth muscle: influence of obesity," Circulation , vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 9-18, 2013. (hindawi.com)
- Perivascular adipose tissue modulates vascular function in the human internal thoracic artery," Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 1130-1136, 2005. (hindawi.com)
- Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the arterial adventitia and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. (springer.com)
- Perivascular adipose tissue as a cause of atherosclerosis. (springer.com)
- 2. The tissue product of claim 1 , wherein the tissue product has at least about 3% extracellular matrix components as a percentage of the overall tissue product by mass. (google.ca)
- The present disclosure relates to tissue products, and more particularly, to products containing extracellular tissue matrices made from adipose tissue. (google.ca)
- However, there is little evidence that this leads to adipose tissue hypoxia in human obesity, and we suggest that, like the downregulation of catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis seen in obesity, the reduction in ATBF represents an adaptation to the increased fat mass. (nature.com)
- Human fat tissue contains about 87% lipids. (bionity.com)
- In the human body, adipose tissue acts as a primary energy store. (medindia.net)
- Similar relationships were found in human subcutaneous adipose tissue stained for the macrophage antigen CD68. (jci.org)
- CD68 expression in human subcutaneous adipose tissue. (jci.org)
- To test this idea, Brindley and colleagues exposed rat and human adipose tissue to radiation doses expected during radiotherapy. (news-medical.net)
- This is the first study on the (human) adipose tissue secretome. (mcponline.org)
- Several studies investigated the human ( 10 ), mouse ( 11 - 14 ), and rat ( 15 ) adipose tissue proteome, mostly using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach. (mcponline.org)
- 16 ) analyzed the human mammary adipose tissue proteome. (mcponline.org)
- bursa-equivalent tissue ( bursal equivalent tissue ) a hypothesized lymphoid tissue in nonavian vertebrates including human beings, equivalent to the bursa of Fabricius in birds: the site of B lymphocyte maturation. (thefreedictionary.com)
- 96-Well Rack containing 1.4 mm ceramic beads designed to grind human, animal and plant tissues. (mpbio.com)
- Designed to grind human, animal and plant tissues as well as bacteria, yeast and fungi. (mpbio.com)
- Immunohistochemical staining of human adipose tissue revealed the presence of mainly CD4-positive lymphocytes as well as macrophage infiltration. (ahajournals.org)
- Derived from donated human adipose, Leneva is aseptically processed, allowing the final adipose matrix to maintain sterility and the structural integrity of the tissue. (businesswire.com)
- In this study, we investigated the effects of human plasma as a cryopreservation solution for human adipose tissues. (omicsonline.org)
- In conclusion, these results demonstrated that human plasma is useful as a cryopreservation solution for human adipose tissues. (omicsonline.org)
- A cell-free extract of either rat or human adipose tissue contains a lipase system which can be activated by cAMP. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Despite the enormous importance of adipose tissue in human health and diseases (like diabetes), no standardized method existed so far, to quantitatively and reproducibly analyze its lipidome. (tu-dresden.de)
Action in adipose1
- In conclusion our studies provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that Foxa3 is a direct target of GC action in adipose tissues and point to a role of Foxa3 as a mediator of the side effects induced in fat tissues by chronic treatment with synthetic steroids. (pnas.org)
- 3 CCR2 regulates monocyte and macrophage recruitment into peripheral tissue via interaction with MCP-1. (ahajournals.org)
- Adipose Tissue: Lipids and the Intercellular Matrix. (waterstones.com)
- treating the tissue to remove substantially all cellular material from the tissue, and further processing the tissue to reduce the adipose content of the tissue. (google.ca)
- The present study provides novel insight into our understanding of cellular heterogeneity in adipose tissues. (jci.org)
- interstitial tissue connective tissue between the cellular elements of a structure. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The clinical use of cellular therapy and tissue engineering in veterinary medicine is developing rapidly. (scielo.br)