Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Fats: The glyceryl esters of a fatty acid, or of a mixture of fatty acids. They are generally odorless, colorless, and tasteless if pure, but they may be flavored according to origin. Fats are insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents. They occur in animal and vegetable tissue and are generally obtained by boiling or by extraction under pressure. They are important in the diet (DIETARY FATS) as a source of energy. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Ecdysterone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysterone is the 20-hydroxylated ECDYSONE.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Manduca: A genus of sphinx or hawk moths of the family Sphingidae. These insects are used in molecular biology studies during all stages of their life cycle.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Vitellogenesis: The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Fat Body: A nutritional reservoir of fatty tissue found mainly in insects and amphibians.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Juvenile Hormones: Compounds, either natural or synthetic, which block development of the growing insect.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid: A cyclized derivative of L-GLUTAMIC ACID. Elevated blood levels may be associated with problems of GLUTAMINE or GLUTATHIONE metabolism.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.TriglyceridesMice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Ecdysone: A steroid hormone that regulates the processes of MOLTING or ecdysis in insects.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Mice, Inbred C57BLMitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.GATA Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors that contain two ZINC FINGER MOTIFS and bind to the DNA sequence (A/T)GATA(A/G).Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Embolism, Fat: Blocking of a blood vessel by fat deposits in the circulation. It is often seen after fractures of large bones or after administration of CORTICOSTEROIDS.Metamorphosis, Biological: Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Ecdysteroids: Steroids that bring about MOLTING or ecdysis in insects. Ecdysteroids include the endogenous insect hormones (ECDYSONE and ECDYSTERONE) and the insect-molting hormones found in plants, the phytoecdysteroids. Phytoecdysteroids are natural insecticides.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Dietary Fats, Unsaturated: Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Fats, Unsaturated: Fats containing one or more double bonds, as from oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Viscera: Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Starvation: Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Abdomen: That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Adipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Bees: Insect members of the superfamily Apoidea, found almost everywhere, particularly on flowers. About 3500 species occur in North America. They differ from most WASPS in that their young are fed honey and pollen rather than animal food.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.MethylglucosidesRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Polydnaviridae: A family of insect viruses isolated from endoparasitic hymenopteran insects belonging to the families Ichneumonidae and Braconidae. The two genera are Ichnovirus and Bracovirus.Food Deprivation: The withholding of food in a structured experimental situation.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseReceptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Molting: Periodic casting off FEATHERS; HAIR; or cuticle. Molting is a process of sloughing or desquamation, especially the shedding of an outer covering and the development of a new one. This phenomenon permits growth in ARTHROPODS, skin renewal in AMPHIBIANS and REPTILES, and the shedding of winter coats in BIRDS and MAMMALS.Panniculitis: General term for inflammation of adipose tissue, usually of the skin, characterized by reddened subcutaneous nodules.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Methoprene: Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.DiglyceridesInsects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.PhosphoproteinsCorpora Allata: Paired or fused ganglion-like bodies in the head of insects. The bodies secrete hormones important in the regulation of metamorphosis and the development of some adult tissues.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Subcutaneous Tissue: Loose connective tissue lying under the DERMIS, which binds SKIN loosely to subjacent tissues. It may contain a pad of ADIPOCYTES, which vary in number according to the area of the body and vary in size according to the nutritional state.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Fat Necrosis: A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Homeostasis: The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Type 1: A low-affinity 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase found in a variety of tissues, most notably in LIVER; LUNG; ADIPOSE TISSUE; vascular tissue; OVARY; and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. The enzyme acts reversibly and can use either NAD or NADP as cofactors.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.DioxolesCatechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Cystinyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Thinness: A state of insufficient flesh on the body usually defined as having a body weight less than skeletal and physical standards. Depending on age, sex, and genetic background, a BODY MASS INDEX of less than 18.5 is considered as underweight.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Buttocks: Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESSterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (subcutaneous tissue contains 50% of body fat). Fat serves as ... It consists of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue and elastin. ... This protects the body from external particles such as toxins by not allowing them to come into contact with internal tissues. ... The skin is the largest organ in the human body. For the average adult human, the skin has a surface area of between 1.5-2.0 ...
... and other ingredients into subcutaneous fat. Mesotherapy injections allegedly target adipose fat cells, apparently by inducing ... The FDA cannot control the use of practitioners injecting various mixtures into patient's bodies because this practice falls ... lipolysis, rupture and cell death among adipocytes. There are published studies on the clinical treatments and effects of these ... There is no conclusive research proof that these chemical compounds work to target adipose (fat cells) specifically. Cell lysis ...
Perilipin is a protein that coats lipid droplets in adipocytes, the fat-storing cells in adipose tissue. Perilipin acts as a ... in fat bodies. The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae expresses PLN1 (formerly PET10), that stabilizes lipid droplets and aids in ... Phosphorylation of perilipin is essential for the mobilization of fats in adipose tissue. ... "Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight ...
The body attacks fat like it does bacteria and fungi. When expanded fat cells leak or break open, macrophages mobilize to clean ... adipocyte lipolysis and formation of multinucleate giant cells. The fat-derived protein called angiopoietin-like protein 2 ( ... Loss of white adipose tissue reduces levels of inflammation markers. The association of systemic inflammation with insulin ... Higher than normal Angptl2 level in fat tissues develop inflammation as well as insulin and leptin resistance. Stored fat ...
Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as ... Obesity leaves an excess of nutrients for the body, thereby causing adipocytes to release more proinflammatory cytokines. ... Classically activated macrophages in the visceral fat accumulate in the fat tissues and continuously release proinflammatory ... Therapeutic effects of acupuncture may be related to the body's ability to suppress a range of proinflammatory cytokines such ...
... and cholesterol in the blood between all the tissues of the body. The most common being the liver and the adipocytes of adipose ... Chylomicrons carry triglycerides (fat) from the intestines to the liver, to skeletal muscle, and to adipose tissue. Very-low- ... While adipocytes are the main storage cells for triacylglycerols, they do not produce any lipoproteins. Bile emulsifies fats ... collect fat molecules (phospholipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, etc.) from the body's cells/tissues, and take it back to the ...
... the adipose tissue cells that are responsible for storing fat. Perilipin acts as a protective coating from the body's natural ... and brown adipose tissue. PLIN4 coats lipid droplets in adipocytes to protect them from lipases. The PLIN4 gene may be ... "Relationship between perilipin gene polymorphisms and body weight and body composition during weight loss and weight ... Perilipin-null mice eat more food than wild-type mice, but gain 1/3 less fat than wild-type mice on the same diet; perilipin- ...
... facilitates the entry of glucose into adipocytes and inhibits breakdown of fat in adipocytes. On the other hand, adipose tissue ... Adiponectins are cytokines that are inversely related to percent body fat; that is people with a low body fat will have higher ... In this study, mice with reduced insulin levels expended more energy and had fat cells that were reprogrammed to burn some ... concentrations of adiponectins where as people with high body fat will have lower concentrations of adiponectins. Weyer "et al ...
... fatty acids are stored in fat cells (adipocytes). The breakdown of this fat is known as lipolysis. The products of lipolysis, ... It includes three major steps: Lipolysis of and release from adipose tissue Activation and transport into mitochondria β- ... free fatty acids, are released into the bloodstream and circulate throughout the body. During the breakdown of triacylglycerols ...
A high (?adipose) tissue LPL response to a high-carbohydrate diet may predispose toward fat gain. One study reported that ... they responded with an increase in adipose tissue LPL activity per adipocyte, or a decrease in skeletal muscle LPL activity per ... subjects gained more body fat over the next four years if, after following a high-carbohydrate diet and partaking of a high- ... there was a significantly greater rise in adipose tissue LPL in response to the high-carbohydrate diet compared to the high-fat ...
... body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.[1] In addition to adipocytes, adipose ... Brown fat[edit]. Main article: Brown adipose tissue. Brown fat or brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized form of adipose ... Body fat meter[edit]. See also: Bioelectrical impedance analysis. A body fat meter is a widely available tool used to measure ... Marrow fat[edit]. Marrow fat, also known as marrow adipose tissue (MAT), is a poorly understood adipose depot that resides in ...
... or fatty tissue is the body's means of storing metabolic energy over extended periods of time. Adipocytes (fat cells) store fat ... These metabolic activities are regulated by several hormones (e.g., insulin, glucagon and epinephrine). Adipose tissue also ... Other lipids needed by the body can be synthesized from these and other fats. Fats and other lipids are broken down in the body ... Fats serve both as energy sources for the body, and as stores for energy in excess of what the body needs immediately. Each ...
Adipose tissue cells store the triglycerides in their fat droplets, ultimately to release them again as free fatty acids and ... known as ketone bodies (as they are not "bodies" at all, but water-soluble chemical substances). The ketone bodies are released ... in the fat droplet of the adipocyte. The liver absorbs a proportion of the glucose from the blood in the portal vein coming ... Fatty acids are released, between meals, from the fat depots in adipose tissue, where they are stored as triglycerides, as ...
... body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue ... A body fat meter is a widely available tool used to measure the percentage of fat in the human body. Different meters use ... They tend to under-read body fat percentage. In contrast with clinical tools, one relatively inexpensive type of body fat meter ... which generates body heat. The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose tissue ...
Normally, adipose tissues contain adipocytes to store fat for energy during fasting period and release leptin to regulate ... Subcutaneous fat loss in AGL patients are visible in all parts of the body. AGL mostly affects face and the extremities and may ... In AGL patients, adipose tissues are insufficient and leads to fat deposition in non-adipose tissues, such as muscle or liver, ... Thus, as the name suggests, AGL is a near-total deficiency of adipose tissues in the body that is developed later in life. It ...
Adipose tissue, commonly known as fat, is a depository for energy in order to conserve metabolic homeostasis. As the body takes ... In addition, mutations in GLUT4 genes in adipocytes can also lead to increased GLUT4 expression in adipose cells, which allows ... or fat. An imbalance in glucose intake and energy expenditure has been shown to lead to both adipose cell hypertrophy and ... "Adipose cell hyperplasia and enhanced glucose disposal in transgenic mice overexpressing GLUT4 selectively in adipose tissue". ...
Brown fat cells come from the middle embryo layer, mesoderm, also the source of myocytes (muscle cells), adipocytes, and ... In neonates (newborn infants), brown fat makes up about 5% of the body mass and is located on the back, along the upper half of ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are also named 'beige' or 'brite'. Brown adipose tissue is ...
While leptin is associated with body fat mass, however, the size of individual fat cells, and the act of overeating, it is ... Leptin is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... The result is that a person who has lost weight below their natural body fat set-point has a lower basal metabolic rate than an ... Predominantly, the "energy expenditure hormone" leptin is made by adipose cells, thus it is labeled fat cell-specific. In the ...
The main function of hormone-sensitive lipase is to mobilize the stored fats. Mobilization and Cellular Uptake of Stored Fats ( ... Another enzyme found in adipose tissue, Adipose Triglyceride Lipase (ATGL), has a higher affinity for triglycerides than HSL, ... HSL is activated when the body needs to mobilize energy stores, and so responds positively to catecholamines, ACTH. It is ... During fasting-state the increased free fatty acid secretion by adipocyte cells was attributed to the hormone epinephrine, ...
... www.uofmhealth.org/news/archive/201407/bone-marrow-fat-tissue-secretes-hormone-helps-body-stay - Bone marrow fat tissue ... MAT, by its "specific marrow location, and its adipocyte origin from at least LepR+ marrow MSC is separated from non-bone fat ... approximates that of white adipose tissue (WAT). MAT has qualities of both white and brown fat. Subcutaneous white fat contain ... Flow cytometric quantification can be used to purify adipocytes from the stromal vascular fraction of most fat depots. Early ...
In Biology, adipose tissue (/ˈædəˌpoʊs/) or body fat or fat depot or just fat is loose connective tissue composed of adipocytes ... and brown adipose tissue (BAT). The formation of adipose tissue appears to be controlled in part by the adipose gene. Adipose ... While fat cells suctioned via liposuction are permanently gone, after a few months overall body fat generally returned to the ... Obesity or being overweight in humans and most animals does not depend on body weight but on the amount of body fat-to be ...
... s in murine microglia Oil bodies in Nardia scalaris, a leafy liverwort Oil body Adipocyte Lipolysis Seipin Martin ... Initially, these lipid droplets were considered to merely serve as fat depots, but since the discovery in the 1990s of proteins ... lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose ... In adipocytes, lipid bodies tend to be larger and they may compose the majority of the cell, while in other cells they may only ...
CMKLR1 is predominantly expressed in immune cells as well as adipose tissue. Because of its role in adipocyte differentiation ... Studies in mice found that feeding mice a high-fat diet, resulted in increased expression of both chemerin and CMKLR1. In ... Moreover, chemerin levels show a significant correlation with body mass index, plasma triglyceride levels and blood pressure. ... suggesting chemerin plays a role in metabolic function of mature adipocytes. Studies using mature human adipocytes, 3T3-L1 ...
AdPLA deficiency was shown to reduce adipose tissue mass for mice in both standard and high fat diets. Adipocyte hypotrophy was ... AdPLA is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue at higher levels than in the rest of the body, more so in white adipose ... while adipocyte differentiation did not play a role in reduced adipose tissue despite the effects of prostaglandins on ... Body composition also showed a higher percentage of water and lean tissue mass compared to non-AdPLA deficient obese mice. ...
"Overexpression of adiponectin targeted to adipose tissue in transgenic mice: impaired adipocyte differentiation". Endocrinology ... negative regulation of fat cell differentiation. • response to linoleic acid. • detection of oxidative stress. • glucose ... Many studies have found adiponectin to be inversely correlated with body mass index in patient populations.[9] However, a meta ... "cDNA cloning and expression of a novel adipose specific collagen-like factor, apM1 (AdiPose Most abundant Gene transcript 1)". ...
Examples of non-fibrous CT include adipose tissue and blood. Adipose tissue gives "mechanical cushioning" to the body, among ... groups of adipose cells are kept together by collagen fibers and collagen sheets in order to keep fat tissue under compression ... The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ... Special connective tissue consists of reticular connective tissue, adipose tissue, cartilage, bone, and blood.[8] Other kinds ...
... induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We ... In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)- ... Brain and Body Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK ... In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue ( ... 2355798 - Effects of nicotine on body weight, food consumption and body composition in male rats.. 19640228 - Plasticity in the ...
... the role of the HIF pathway in adipose tissue-associated diseases with a focus on the newly identified role of adipocyte HIF-2 ... the role of the HIF pathway in adipose tissue-associated diseases with a focus on the newly identified role of adipocyte HIF-2 ... obesity models to demonstrate an important role of hypoxia-induced signaling in adipose tissue and its impact on adipose ... obesity models to demonstrate an important role of hypoxia-induced signaling in adipose tissue and its impact on adipose ...
Our adipose tissue is made of fat cells adipocytes. ... about 85 % of the total energy available in the body. ... - A free ... The body fat is our major source of stored energy. ... The body fat is our major source of stored energy.*Our adipose ... The body fat is our major source of stored energy. Our adipose tissue is made of fat cells adipocytes. ... about 85 % of the ... adipocytes. *A typical 70 kg (150 lb) person has about 135,000 kcal of energy stored as fat, 24,000 kcal as protein, 720 kcal ...
... tissue that functions as the major storage site for fat in the form of triglycerides.There are two different types of adipose ... Very little synthesis of free fatty acids occurs in the cells of adipose tissue ( adipocytes ). Triglycerides are the most ... Lipogenesis is the deposition of fat or accumulation of body fat. This process occurs in adipose tissue and in the liver . ... The process of body fat accumulation Adipose tissue is specialized connective tissue that functions as the major storage site ...
This protein is found in cells and tissues throughout the body. Learn about this gene and related health conditions. ... which are cells that store fats for energy. Adipocytes make up most of the bodys fatty (adipose) tissue. ... A shortage of adipose tissue leads to multiple health problems, including high levels of fats called triglycerides circulating ... However, it is unknown specifically how the absence of cavin-1 leads to a loss of body fat and the other health problems ...
This protein appears to have diverse functions in cells and tissues throughout the body.Caveolin-1 is the major component of ... which are cells that store fats for energy. Adipocytes make up most of the bodys fatty (adipose) tissue. In these cells, ... which would prevent fats from being stored normally in adipose tissue. A lack of body fat underlies many of the signs and ... The signs and symptoms of this condition include an overall loss of body fat except in the buttocks and on the palms of the ...
... body fat or thigh fat predicted insulin resistance in African-American women. Fasting TG (p = 0.046), HDL-cholesterol (p = ... Net TG synthesis and DNL in adipose cells were significantly lower in IR as compared with IS subjects, whereas adipocyte ... visceral fat and intrahepatic fat, and higher high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol. Visceral fat has not been evaluated ... Adipose Cell Size and Regional Fat Deposition as Predictors of Metabolic Response to Overfeeding in Insulin-Resistant and ...
Adipose tissue. Body fat. Tissue comprising mainly cells containing triglyceride (adipocytes). It acts as an energy reserve, ... can be measured indirectly in a variety of ways including body mass index (see body mass index) and percentage body fat. ... Adipocytes. Cells of adipose tissue, where fats (triglycerides) are stored.. Adipokines. Cytokines (cell signalling proteins) ... Body composition. The composition of the body in terms of the relative proportions of water and adipose and lean tissue. Can ...
A new research report published in the March 2016 issue of The FASEB Journal shows that at least some human fat cells are ... a new weight control method is in the works and it involves manipulating the production of fat cells at their source. ... De novo generation of adipocytes from circulating progenitor cells in mouse and human adipose tissue. FASEB J. March 2016 30: ... "Our study suggests that it may be the type of fat-storing cells produced in our bodies that determines risk for disease, rather ...
D) Variability in the rate of accumulation of body weight is illustrated for a cohort of 6 mice fed a high-fat diet (left side ... Noninvasive MRI has been used to describe adipocyte depots for many years; the MRI technique we describe uses an advanced fat- ... The relative fat signal from interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT) depots (normalized to fat signal from perigonadal WAT) ... Dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) was recently recognized for its potential to modify whole body metabolism. Here, we show ...
Culturing of Primary Adipocytes. Abdominal white adipose tissue was obtained from 4- to 5-week-old, wild-type mice. After blood ... Epididymal fat was significantly decreased as percent body weight in mice that received 200 mg/kg SA supplementation (Table 1 ... calories in fat). High-fat diets contained 18.8% crude protein, 16.2% crude fat, 45.2% nitrogen-free extract, and 3.98% crude ... Squalene has already been demonstrated to be able to elevate the body weight and serum cholesterol in high-fat fed hamsters due ...
Adipocytes are some of the largest cells in the human body. Adipose connective tissue forms a thick layer under the skin in ... Fat not used in metabolic processes is channelled towards adipocytes by way of small capillaries. Each adipocyte is occupied by ... certain body areas and it functions as an insulating layer and as a reserve energy source. Magnification: x800 when shortest ... Adipose connective tissue composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells), coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). ...
While beta1AR and beta2AR are broadly expressed throughout tissues of the body, beta3AR is found predominantly in adipocytes. ... Stimulation of the betaARs leads to lipolysis in white adipocytes and nonshivering thermogenesis in brown fat. However, in ... The beta-adrenergic receptors and the control of adipose tissue metabolism and thermogenesis.. Collins S1, Surwit RS. ... This chapter will review the current understanding of the role of the sympathetic nervous system and the adipocyte betaARs in ...
Speakers described state-of-the-art technology for monitoring human brown adipose tissue (hBAT) mass and function, and ... Brown Adipose Tissue Improves Glucose Metabolism and Whole Body Insulin Sensitivity in Humans. Maria Chondronikola, University ... Targeting Lipolysis to Fuel Adipocyte Thermogenesis. James Granneman, Wayne State University. 2:15 p.m.. Insights From ... Human Epicardial Fat is a Unique Adipose Depot with Limited Brown Fat Signature that is Altered in Coronary Artery Disease. ...
Adipose tissue-specific deletion of 12/15-lipoxygenase protects mice from the consequences of a high-fat diet. Mediators ... Association of serum ferritin and indices of body fat distribution and obesity in Mexican American men - the Third National ... Isolation of primary adipocytes. Fat pads (s.c. and epididymal) were removed from C57BL/6 male mice and incubated in HBSS with ... Adipose tissue is a tissue with high heterogeneity. The pattern of fat distribution, truncal as compared with peripheral, has a ...
Body weight, fat accumulation, and serum biochemical parameters were used to evaluate obesity. The morphology of hepatocytes ... At the same time, EAOTs clearly alleviated fatty liver and reduced the size of adipocytes in the epididymal fat, especially in ... EAOTs decreased HFD-induced body weight, fat accumulation, serum levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, and low-density ... In this study, five groups of mice (n = 9/group) were used including a normal diet with vehicle treatment, and a high-fat diet ...
... adipose tissue mass expands and adipocyte (fat cell) size increases. Collectively, adipocytes constitute the bodys largest ... Message Body. (Your Name) thought you would like to see this page from the Science web site. ... between two factors released by mammalian fat cells controls the degree of inflammation and insulin sensitivity in adipose ... between two factors released by mammalian fat cells controls the degree of inflammation and insulin sensitivity in adipose ...
... the loss of fat, and other abnormalities of adipose tissue. Generalized lipoatrophy, also known as Lawrence-Seip syndrome, is a ... rare group of syndromes, either acquired or congenital, characterized by a near-complete absence of fat. ... Adipocytes communicate body fat levels to the neuroendocrine system to control food intake and energy expenditure. Leptin has ... Transverse sections of the midthigh demonstrate an absence of subcutaneous fat, deep fat, intrafascicular fat, and marrow fat ( ...
The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (subcutaneous tissue contains 50% of body fat). Fat serves as ... It consists of loose connective tissue, adipose tissue and elastin. ... This protects the body from external particles such as toxins by not allowing them to come into contact with internal tissues. ... The skin is the largest organ in the human body. For the average adult human, the skin has a surface area of between 1.5-2.0 ...
ac = adipocyte, fb = fat body; FSC = forward scatter, lp = lamellipodia, Lym = lymphocytes, nc = nucleus, ov, ovary; phag− = ... ACP- and peroxidase (POD)-positive cells in the fat body (top). Scale bar, 50 μm. TEM image of the fat body (bottom left). ... and gpr147-KO fat body (n = 5). (C) ACP+ cells (arrowhead) in fat body of WT and gpr147-KO adult frog. Scale bar, 50 μm. (D) ... ac = adipocyte, fb = fat body, FSC = forward scatter, st = stroma, ov = ovary. ...
... and how it protects the body from injury and regulates temperature. ... fat tissue), which is made up of adipocytes, or fat cells. The amount of adipose tissue varies throughout the body. It is ... Adipocytes can swell or shrink depending on whether the fat is being stored or used. The hormone leptin is secreted by fat ... The epidermis adipose tissue acts as an energy reserve. Once the body uses up energy thats acquired from consuming ...
Leptin is produced primarily from adipocytes according to adipose tissues quantity in the body. Brown fat tissue, stomach, ... Adipose tissue is the largest endocrine organ in the human body; it serves considerable role in the energy homeostasis and ... Injections of leptin into rat ventromedial hypothalamus increase adipocyte apoptosis in peripheral fat and in bone marrow. Cell ... The BMSCs can be discriminated mainly into adipocytes or osteoblast cell family. These adipocytes in bone marrow provide leptin ...
... body fat quintile, adipose cell size increased by only 7%, whereas adipose cell number increased by 74%. Recruitment of adipose ... but lower body fat). In human adipocyte models, knockdown of FAM13A in preadipocytes accelerates adipocyte differentiation. In ... and a greater proportion of small-to-large adipose cells. Diameter of the large adipose cells was associated with % body fat (r ... FAM13A affects body fat distribution and adipocyte function. Nature communications Fathzadeh, M., Li, J., Rao, A., Cook, N., ...
... the percentage of body fat was determined by EchoMRI. Adipocyte area and adipose tissue macrophage content were quantified ... The percentage body fat was calculated as ([body fat mass]/[body fat mass + lean mass]) × 100. ... The insulin-supplemented β-DKO mice had 13.4 ± 2.3% body fat at 16 weeks of age compared with 18.0 ± 2.1% body fat for the PBS- ... The increased percentage of body fat in the β-DKO mice was caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, with an average adipocyte area in ...
... the initial values for body weight and the fat mass, is the initial number of adipocytes, is the initial volume of the tissue, ... defined below, we generate new adipocytes at a rate of one cell/time step per microliter of adipose tissue volume:. ... the volume variation of each single adipocyte is described as follows:. where is a Gaussian noise with zero mean and variance ... body weight BW, and height H as follows:. where the parameters depend on the gender and are, respectively, kg, kg/years, kg/m, ...
  • We have recently identified a new mechanism connecting activation of the hypoxia-sensing pathway manifested by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) 2α to adipose tissue inflammation and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, the effects of the water extract from aged OTs (EAOTs, three different storage years) on fat deposition and inflammation, as well as potential mechanisms of action, were not adequately studied. (mdpi.com)
  • We model the emergence of the inflammation as the result of adipose mass increase which, in turn, is a direct consequence of a prolonged excess of high calorie intake. (hindawi.com)
  • The balance between two factors released by mammalian fat cells controls the degree of inflammation and insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue. (sciencemag.org)
  • This review will summarize the current literature on the possible role of the mesenteric fat tissue in intestinal inflammation with a focus on Crohn's disease (CD). (frontiersin.org)
  • CD is of particular interest in this context since the transmural intestinal inflammation has been associated with a characteristic hypertrophy of the mesenteric fat, a phenomenon called "creeping fat. (frontiersin.org)
  • iii) do the answers generated before allow for an explanation of the role of the mesenteric fat tissue within intestinal inflammation? (frontiersin.org)
  • Other manifestations of the condition include elevated intramuscular fat content ( 3 ), dysregulation of adipokine secretion, and chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although better known for its roles in inflammation and immunity, TNF-α is expressed in normal adipocytes, is overexpressed in adipocytes from obese people, and can cause insulin resistance through effects on insulin-mediated cellular signalling pathways 4 . (nature.com)
  • The cytokines produced by adipocytes include several inflammatory markers such as interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- α , and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In females, pyocyanin caused robust reductions in body weight, adipose-specific AhR activation, and increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in differentiated adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • In line with these findings, in white adipose tissue, male offspring demonstrated hypertrophied adipocytes, enhanced proinflammatory cytokines, overactivation of components of the local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (alpha and gamma). (springer.com)
  • One way adipose tissue supports energy metabolism is through the generation and secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and hormones. (alpco.com)
  • Cytokines and hormones exclusively produced by adipose tissue are referred to as adipokines. (alpco.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS There are major sex differences in insulin sensitivity in adipose tissue, particularly in the intra-abdominal depot, that are regulated by physiological levels of sex steroids. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • By selectively ablating fat tissue during M. tuberculosis infection, we directly tested the role of fat cell loss and adipose tissue physiology in regulating pulmonary pathology, bacterial burden, and immune status. (asm.org)
  • As a result of these and other changes, insufficient oxygenation, i.e., hypoxia occurs in adipose tissue under pathologically obese conditions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adiponectin is produced by adipose tissue in inverse amounts to the fat mass and is one relevant mediator of the action of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists. (diabetesjournals.org)