Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.TriglyceridesLipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)
(1/2639) Role of adipocytokines on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in visceral obesity.

Obesity which is defined as accumulation of excess body fat, is a major cause of atherosclerotic vascular disease in industrial countries. Recent advances in the biology of adipose tissue have revealed that adipose tissue is not simply an energy storage organ but it also secretes a variety of molecules which affect the metabolism of the whole body. Through a systematic search of active genes in adipose tissue, we found that adipose tissue, especially visceral fat expressed numerous genes for secretory proteins (about 30% of total genes analyzed). Among them, plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1), which is a regulator of the fibrinolytic system, was overexpressed in the visceral fat in an animal model of obesity. Plasma levels of PAI-1 were closely correlated with visceral fat adiposity. Thus, PAI-1 secreted from visceral fat may play some role in thrombotic vascular disease in visceral obesity. Adiponectin, a novel adipose-specific gene product, which has a matrix-like structure, is abundantly present in the bloodstream. Dysregulated secretion of adiponectin may be related to vascular disease in obesity. Biologically active molecules secreted from adipose tissue (adipocytokines) may have important roles in the development of atherosclerotic disease in obesity.  (+info)

(2/2639) Two compartments for insulin-stimulated exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes defined by endogenous ACRP30 and GLUT4.

Insulin stimulates adipose cells both to secrete proteins and to translocate the GLUT4 glucose transporter from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that whereas insulin stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes has no effect on secretion of the alpha3 chain of type VI collagen, secretion of the protein hormone adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kD (ACRP30) is markedly enhanced. Like GLUT4, regulated exocytosis of ACRP30 appears to require phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity, since insulin-stimulated ACRP30 secretion is blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of this enzyme. Thus, 3T3-L1 adipocytes possess a regulated secretory compartment containing ACRP30. Whether GLUT4 recycles to such a compartment has been controversial. We present deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy data demonstrating that the subcellular distributions of ACRP30 and GLUT4 are distinct and nonoverlapping; in contrast, those of GLUT4 and the transferrin receptor overlap. Together with supporting evidence that GLUT4 does not recycle to a secretory compartment via the trans-Golgi network, we conclude that there are at least two compartments that undergo insulin-stimulated exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: one for ACRP30 secretion and one for GLUT4 translocation.  (+info)

(3/2639) Novel modulator for endothelial adhesion molecules: adipocyte-derived plasma protein adiponectin.

BACKGROUND: Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we recently found an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, adiponectin, which was decreased in obesity. Although obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the molecular basis for the link between obesity and vascular disease has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated whether adiponectin could modulate endothelial function and relate to coronary disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the in vitro study, human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were preincubated for 18 hours with the indicated amount of adiponectin, then exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 U/mL) or vehicle for the times indicated. The adhesion of human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells to HAECs was determined by adhesion assay. The surface expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was measured by cell ELISA. Physiological concentrations of adiponectin dose-dependently inhibited TNF-alpha-induced THP-1 adhesion and expression of VCAM-1, E-selectin, and ICAM-1 on HAECs. For the in vivo study, the concentrations of adiponectin in human plasma were determined by a sandwich ELISA system that we recently developed. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with coronary artery disease than those in age- and body mass index-adjusted control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that adiponectin modulates endothelial inflammatory response and that the measurement of plasma adiponectin levels may be helpful in assessment of CAD risk.  (+info)

(4/2639) Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients.

Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.6+/-0.4 versus 7.9+/-0.5 microg/mL in men, 7.6+/-0.7 versus 11.7+/-1.0 microg/mL in women; P<0.001). The plasma adiponectin concentrations of diabetic patients with CAD were lower than those of diabetic patients without CAD (4.0+/-0.4 versus 6.6+/-0.4 microg/mL, P<0.001 in men; 6.3+/-0.8 versus 7.6+/-0. 7 microg/mL in women). In contrast, plasma levels of leptin did not differ between diabetic patients with and without CAD. The presence of microangiopathy did not affect the plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic patients. Significant, univariate, inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin levels and fasting plasma insulin (r=-0.18, P<0.01) and glucose (r=-0.26, P<0.001) levels. In multivariate analysis, plasma insulin did not independently affect the plasma adiponectin levels. BMI, serum triglyceride concentration, and the presence of diabetes or CAD remained significantly related to plasma adiponectin concentrations. Weight reduction significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels in the diabetic subjects as well as the nondiabetic subjects. These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy.  (+info)

(5/2639) Adiponectin, a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens, negatively regulates the growth of myelomonocytic progenitors and the functions of macrophages.

We investigated the functions of adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein and a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens, in hematopoiesis and immune responses. Adiponectin suppressed colony formation from colony-forming units (CFU)-granulocyte-macrophage, CFU-macrophage, and CFU-granulocyte, whereas it had no effect on that of burst-forming units-erythroid or mixed erythroid-myeloid CFU. In addition, adiponectin inhibited proliferation of 4 of 9 myeloid cell lines but did not suppress proliferation of erythroid or lymphoid cell lines except for one cell line. These results suggest that adiponectin predominantly inhibits proliferation of myelomonocytic lineage cells. At least one mechanism of the growth inhibition is induction of apoptosis because treatment of acute myelomonocytic leukemia lines with adiponectin induced the appearance of subdiploid peaks and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Aside from inhibiting growth of myelomonocytic progenitors, adiponectin suppressed mature macrophage functions. Treatment of cultured macrophages with adiponectin significantly inhibited their phagocytic activity and their lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Suppression of phagocytosis by adiponectin is mediated by one of the complement C1q receptors, C1qRp, because this function was completely abrogated by the addition of an anti-C1qRp monoclonal antibody. These observations suggest that adiponectin is an important negative regulator in hematopoiesis and immune systems and raise the possibility that it may be involved in ending inflammatory responses through its inhibitory functions. (Blood. 2000;96:1723-1732)  (+info)

(6/2639) Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, inhibits endothelial NF-kappaB signaling through a cAMP-dependent pathway.

BACKGROUND: Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we found an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, adiponectin, that was decreased in obesity. We recently demonstrated that adiponectin inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and that plasma adiponectin level was reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CIRCULATION: 1999;100:2473-2476). However, the intracellular signal by which adiponectin suppressed adhesion molecule expression was not elucidated. The present study investigated the mechanism of modulation for endothelial function by adiponectin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The interaction between adiponectin and human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) was estimated by cell ELISA using biotinylated adiponectin. HAECs were preincubated for 18 hours with 50 microg/mL of adiponectin, then exposed to TNF-alpha (10 U/mL) or vehicle for the times indicated. NF-kappaB-DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. TNF-alpha-inducible phosphorylation signals were detected by immunoblotting. Adiponectin specifically bound to HAECs in a saturable manner and inhibited TNF-alpha-induced mRNA expression of monocyte adhesion molecules without affecting the interaction between TNF-alpha and its receptors. Adiponectin suppressed TNF-alpha-induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and subsequent NF-kappaB activation without affecting other TNF-alpha-mediated phosphorylation signals, including Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 kinase, and Akt kinase. This inhibitory effect of adiponectin is accompanied by cAMP accumulation and is blocked by either adenylate cyclase inhibitor or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: These observations raise the possibility that adiponectin, which is naturally present in the blood stream, modulates the inflammatory response of endothelial cells through cross talk between cAMP-PKA and NF-kappaB signaling pathways.  (+info)

(7/2639) Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice.

Adipocyte complement-related protein (30 kDa) (Acrp30), a secreted protein of unknown function, is exclusively expressed in differentiated adipocytes; its mRNA is decreased in obese humans and mice. Here we describe novel pharmacological properties of the protease-generated globular head domain of Acrp30 (gAcrp30). Acute treatment of mice with gAcrp30 significantly decreased the elevated levels of plasma free fatty acids caused either by administration of a high fat test meal or by i.v. injection of Intralipid. This effect of gAcrp30 was caused, at least in part, by an acute increase in fatty acid oxidation by muscle. As a result, daily administration of a very low dose of gAcrp30 to mice consuming a high-fat/sucrose diet caused profound and sustainable weight reduction without affecting food intake. Thus, gAcrp30 is a novel pharmacological compound that controls energy homeostasis and exerts its effect primarily at the peripheral level.  (+info)

(8/2639) Adipocyte-derived plasma protein, adiponectin, suppresses lipid accumulation and class A scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages.

BACKGROUND: Excessive lipid accumulation in macrophages plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we discovered an adipocyte-specific plasma protein, adiponectin, that is decreased in patients with coronary artery disease. We previously demonstrated that adiponectin acts as a modulator for proinflammatory stimuli and inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. The present study investigated the effects of adiponectin on lipid accumulation in human monocyte-derived macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human monocytes were differentiated into macrophages by incubation in human type AB serum for 7 days, and the effects of adiponectin were investigated at different time intervals. Treatment with physiological concentrations of adiponectin reduced intracellular cholesteryl ester content, as determined using the enzymatic, fluorometric method. The adiponectin-treated macrophages contained fewer lipid droplets stained by oil red O. Adiponectin suppressed the expression of the class A macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR) at both mRNA and protein levels by Northern and immunoblot analyses, respectively, without affecting the expression of CD36, which was quantified by flow cytometry. Adiponectin reduced the class A MSR promoter activity, as measured by luciferase reporter assay. Adiponectin treatment dose-dependently decreased class A MSR ligand binding and uptake activities. The mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase as a marker of macrophage differentiation was decreased by adiponectin treatment, but that of apolipoprotein E was not altered. Adiponectin was detected around macrophages in the human injured aorta by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: The adipocyte-derived plasma protein adiponectin suppressed macrophage-to-foam cell transformation, suggesting that adiponectin may act as a modulator for macrophage-to-foam cell transformation.  (+info)

*  Lifestyle causes of diabetes mellitus type 2
The obese therefore may have higher level of RBP4 but lower level of adiponectin, both of which increase the risk of developing ... Fat cells also secrete adiponectin which acts in an opposite way to RBP4 by improving the action of insulin, however, engorged ... adiponectin". Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 86 (8): 3815-3819. doi:10.1210/jcem.86.8.7741. PMID 11502817. ...
*  Adiponectin
... is a 244-amino-acid-long polypeptide (protein). There are four distinct regions of adiponectin. The first is a ... Adiponectin is apparently able to cross the blood-brain-barrier. However, conflicting data on this issue exist. Adiponectin has ... Adiponectin in combination with leptin has been shown to completely reverse insulin resistance in mice. Adiponectin is secreted ... Adiponectin automatically self-associates into larger structures. Initially, three adiponectin molecules bind together to form ...
*  Adiponectin receptor
... which are bound and activated by adiponectin: Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1, PAQR1) Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2, PAQR2) ... The adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) include the following two receptors, ...
*  Adiponectin receptor 1
Adiponectin ADP-355 ADP-399 AdipoRon (-)-Arctigenin Arctiin Gramine Matairesinol ADP-400 Adiponectin receptor Adiponectin ... The adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin and mediate ... "Genetic variation in adiponectin receptor 1 and adiponectin receptor 2 is associated with type 2 diabetes in the Old Order ... "The effects of exercise and adipose tissue lipolysis on plasma adiponectin concentration and adiponectin receptor expression in ...
*  Adiponectin receptor 2
The adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin and mediate ... Adiponectin ADP-355 ADP-399 AdipoRon Deoxyschizandrin Parthenolide Syringing Taxifoliol ADP-400 Adiponectin receptor ... Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOR2 gene. It is a member of the progestin ... Sun Y, Zang Z, Zhong L, Wu M, Su Q, Gao X, Zan W, Lin D, Zhao Y, Zhang Z (2013). "Identification of adiponectin receptor ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
ADSL Adiponectin deficiency; 612556; ADIPOQ Adrenal cortical carcinoma; 202300; TP53 Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11 ...
*  AdipoRon
... small-molecule agonist of the adiponectin receptors to be identified. Adiponectin receptor agonists such as AdipoRon have ... Dysregulation of adiponectin expression has also been implicated in the pathology of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating ... As such, adiponectin receptor agonists are a highly interesting therapeutic target for a variety of different conditions. ... In addition, adiponectin has recently been elucidated to mediate the antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neurogenic effects of ...
*  RAB11FIP1
... has been identified as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release from the ... RAB11FIP1 expression, which is increased with increasing BMI in humans, inhibits the release of adiponectin from the adipocyte ... potentially contributing to lower circulating levels of adiponectin observed in obese populations. RAB11FIP1 has been shown to ... "The Rab11 Effector Protein FIP1 Regulates Adiponectin". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e74687. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074687. PMC 3770573 ...
*  TFAP2B
A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (42): 31245-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M605132200. PMID ...
*  SOGA2
October 2010). "Adiponectin lowers glucose production by increasing SOGA". Am. J. Pathol. 177 (4): 1936-45. doi:10.2353/ajpath. ...
*  Brown adipose tissue
... and they have higher circulating adiponectin, suggesting a link between longevity and adiponectin production In addition, high ... Brown adipose tissue activation through cold exposure increases adiponectin levels, just two hours of cold exposure resulted in ... Centenarians (both men and women) and their offspring have been found to have genetics that boost adiponectin, ... Imbeault, Pascal; Dépault, Isabelle; Haman, François (2009-04-01). "Cold exposure increases adiponectin levels in men". ...
*  Silent stroke
Adiponectin: is a type of protein secreted by adipose cells that improves insulin sensitivity and possesses antiatherogenic ... Lower levels of s-adiponectin are associated with ischemic stroke. Aging: the prevalence of silent stroke rises with increasing ... Bang, OY; Saver, JL; Ovbiagele, B; Choi, YJ; Yoon, SR; Lee, KH (2007). "Adiponectin levels in patients with intracranial ...
*  Resistin
Stumvoll M, Häring H (November 2002). "Resistin and adiponectin--of mice and men". Obes. Res. 10 (11): 1197-9. doi:10.1038/oby. ... Silha JV, Krsek M, Skrha JV, Sucharda P, Nyomba BL, Murphy LJ (October 2003). "Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels ... Wulster-Radcliffe MC, Ajuwon KM, Wang J, Christian JA, Spurlock ME (April 2004). "Adiponectin differentially regulates ... "Resistin and adiponectin expression in visceral fat of obese rats: effect of weight loss". Obes. Res. 10 (11): 1095-103. doi: ...
*  Caloric restriction mimetic
Adiponectin (together with leptin, it regulates adipose tissue metabolism. It is activated by PPAR inhibitors such as ... It also blocks the beneficial actions of adiponectin. Rimonabant inhibits these and so it reduces appetite, balances energy, ... and increases adiponectin, which reduces intra-abdominal fat. It improves lipid profile, glucose tolerance, and waist ...
*  Maternal effect
Adiponectin has also been shown to increase the rate of fatty acid transport and oxidation in mice, which causes an increase in ... The adiponectin genes regulate glucose metabolism as well as fatty acid breakdown; however, the exact mechanisms are not ... Therefore, there was less adiponectin to help cells take up glucose and break down fat, as well as less leptin to cause a ... With a high fat diet during gestation, there was an increase in methylation in the promoter of the adiponectin gene accompanied ...
*  DNA Patterns
"An evolutionary perspective on adiponectin and insulin gene promoters". Adipobiology. 4: 111-115. Gagniuc, Paul; et al. "DNA ...
*  G protein-coupled receptor
Similar to GPCRs, the adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) also possess 7 transmembrane domains. However, ... "Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects". Nature. 423 (6941): 762-9. doi:10.1038/ ...
*  Marrow adipose tissue
WAT is also the source of adipokines and inflammatory markers which have both positive (e.g., adiponectin) and negative effects ... Recently, MAT was noted to "produce a greater proportion of adiponectin - an adipokine associated with improved metabolism - ... Ye, Risheng; Scherer, Philipp E. (2013-04-19). "Adiponectin, driver or passenger on the road to insulin sensitivity?". ... "Bone marrow adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that contributes to increased circulating adiponectin during caloric ...
*  Orexin
It also inhibits lipolysis and stimulates the secretion of adiponectin. These effects are thought to be mostly conferred via ... lipid accumulation and adiponectin secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and isolated primary rat adipocytes". Diabetologia. 54 (7 ...
*  ATF3
"Essential role of mitochondrial function in adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes". Diabetes. 56 (12): 2973-81. doi:10.2337/db07- ...
*  Abdominal obesity
But adiponectin which is found in lower concentration in obese and diabetic individuals has shown to be beneficial and ... Ghoshal, Kakali (2015). "Adiponectin: Probe of the molecular paradigm associating diabetes and obesity". World Journal of ... Vendrell J, Broch M, Vilarrasa N, Molina A, Gomez JM, Gutierrez C, Simon I, Soler J, Richart C (2004). "Resistin, adiponectin, ... Silha JV, Krsek M, Skrha JV, Sucharda P, Nyomba BL, Murphy LJ (2003). "Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels in lean ...
*  Maitree Bhattacharyya
Ghoshal, K; Bhattacharyya, M (2015). "Adiponectin: Probe of the molecular paradigm associating diabetes and obesity". World J ...
*  Peptides (journal)
... and adiponectin". Peptides. 27 (4): 911-6. doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2005.12.014. PMID 16476508. Steckelings, U; Kaschina, E; ...
*  Adipose-derived hormones
Like leptin, observations in both humans and animal models have shown that adiponectin is relevant to insulin sensitivity and ... Research into the adipose-derived hormones adiponectin and resistin is ongoing. Like leptin, these hormones also affect energy ... Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that secretes numerous protein hormones, including leptin, adiponectin, and resistin. ...
*  APPL1
"APPL1 binds to adiponectin receptors and mediates adiponectin signalling and function". Nature Cell Biology. 8 (5): 516-23. doi ... Cheng KK, Lam KS, Wang Y, Huang Y, Carling D, Wu D, Wong C, Xu A (May 2007). "Adiponectin-induced endothelial nitric oxide ...
Adiponectin Receptor 1 Antibody
		        
	  Adiponectin Receptor 1 Antibody
Adiponectin Receptor 1 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot applications. This antibody reacts with Human ... Cite Adiponectin Receptor 1 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Adiponectin Receptor 1 ... Conversely, adiponectin-deficient mice exhibit insulin resistance and diabetes. This insulin-sensitizing effect of adiponectin ... Adiponectin (also known as 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein; Acrp30) is a hormone secreted by adipocytes that acts ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/Adiponectin-Receptor-1-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA1-12757
Adiponectin Receptor 1 Antibody
		        
	  Adiponectin Receptor 1 Antibody
Adiponectin Receptor 1 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot, Immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) and Flow Cytometry ... Cite Adiponectin Receptor 1 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Adiponectin Receptor 1 ... The adiponectin receptors, ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2, serve as receptors for globular and full-length adiponectin and mediate ... Protein Aliases: Adiponectin receptor protein 1; ADIPOR1; PAQR1; Progestin and adipoQ receptor family member I; TESBP1A ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/ADIPOR1-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-35347
Low Serum Adiponectin Levels Predict Future Risk For Asthma In Women - Redorbit  Low Serum Adiponectin Levels Predict Future Risk For Asthma In Women - Redorbit
... we examined the longitudinal association between asthma and adiponectin and found that low serum adiponectin concentrations, ... Low serum adiponectin concentrations were a more important predictor of risk for incident asthma than body mass index. Having ... Low serum adiponectin levels predict an increased future risk for developing asthma in middle-aged women, particularly among ... Being in the lowest tertile of serum adiponectin concentrations (,7 mg/L) at year 15 was a significant predictor of a higher ...
more infohttp://www.redorbit.com/news/health/1112500257/low-serum-adiponectin-levels-predict-future-risk-for-asthma-in-women/
PPARγ-Activating Angiotensin Type-1 Receptor Blockers Induce Adiponectin | Hypertension  PPARγ-Activating Angiotensin Type-1 Receptor Blockers Induce Adiponectin | Hypertension
Ang II Induces Adiponectin Protein Expression Via AT2R Activation. Adiponectin protein expression was significantly induced by ... Figure 1. Ang II and the ARB irbesartan induce adiponectin protein expression. Adiponectin protein expression was measured by ... Figure 2. ARB-induced adiponectin protein expression is mediated via PPARγ activation. Adiponectin protein expression was ... To examine whether irbesartan-mediated adiponectin protein induction in vitro translates into adiponectin regulation and ...
more infohttp://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/46/1/137
Association between asthma and serum adiponectin concentration in women | Thorax  Association between asthma and serum adiponectin concentration in women | Thorax
Although central (visceral) adipocytes are the most important source of adiponectin,11 the serum adiponectin concentration does ... 13 This assay measures total adiponectin and not the various molecular weight forms of adiponectin. Further details about the ... Adiponectin protects LPS-induced liver injury through modulation of TNF-alpha in KK-Ay obese mice. Hepatology 2004;40:177-84. ... Adiponectin induces the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-1RA in human leukocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;323: ...
more infohttp://thorax.bmj.com/content/63/10/877
eNOS plays a major role in adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes  eNOS plays a major role in adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes
We examined the effects of eNOS knockdown on adiponectin synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and also examined plasma adiponectin ... Plasma adiponectin concentrations were reduced in adult eNOS-/- mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Mitochondrial ... This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in adiponectin ... Rosiglitazone-induced increases in adiponectin expression and mitochondrial content were also reduced significantly in eNOS-/- ...
more infohttps://scialert.net/asci/ascidetail.php?doi=ajpendo.2010.846.853&kw=
The Multi-Level Action of Fatty Acids on Adiponectin Production by Fat Cells  The Multi-Level Action of Fatty Acids on Adiponectin Production by Fat Cells
We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from ... plays an important role in targeting of adiponectin to lysosomes. Thus, palmitate not only decreases adiponectin expression at ... Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPARγ and C/EBPα. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts from C/EBPα-null ... The inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin gene expression requires its intracellular metabolism via the acyl-CoA ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0028146
A Novel Role for Adiponectin in the Regulation of Inflammation | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology  A Novel Role for Adiponectin in the Regulation of Inflammation | Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Whereas adiponectin is expressed almost exclusively in adipose tissue,11,12 plasma adiponectin levels are paradoxically ... Anti-inflammatory actions of adiponectin. Adiponectin inhibits NF-κB activation in endothelial cells, at least in part, by its ... These collectin family proteins share homology with adiponectin.12 Like adiponectin, these proteins possess a collagenous tail ... α and other proinflammatory cytokines which inhibits the synthesis of adiponectin in the obese state. Low plasma adiponectin ...
more infohttp://atvb.ahajournals.org/content/28/7/1219
Low adiponectin levels are an independent predictor of mixed and non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques.  Low adiponectin levels are an independent predictor of mixed and non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques.
Adiponectin levels predict mixed and non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden. Low adiponectin levels may ... The impact of adiponectin on lesion composition still remains to be determined. We measured serum adiponectin levels in 303 ... adiponectin levels account for only 3% of the variability in total plaque number. In contrast, adiponectin accounts for ... Low serum adiponectin levels were reported to be associated with coronary artery disease and future incidence of acute coronary ...
more infohttps://epub.ub.uni-muenchen.de/15413/index.html
Anti-ADIPOR1/Adiponectin Receptor 1 Antibody - Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P, IF - Buy Now! |Abgent  Anti-ADIPOR1/Adiponectin Receptor 1 Antibody - Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody WB, IHC-P, IF - Buy Now! |Abgent
Anti-ADIPOR1/Adiponectin Receptor 1 Antibody, Rabbit Anti Human Polyclonal Antibody validated in WB, IHC-P, IF (ALS18581), ... ADIPOR1, Adiponectin receptor 1, Adiponectin Receptor, Adiponectin receptor protein 1, CGI-45, CGI45, ACDCR1, TESBP1A, PAQR1. ... Has high affinity for globular adiponectin and low affinity for full-length adiponectin (By similarity). ... Anti-ADIPOR1/Adiponectin Receptor 1 Antibody is for research use only and not for use in diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. ...
more infohttp://www.abgent.com/products/ALS18581-Anti-ADIPOR1Adiponectin-Receptor-1-Antibody
The Adipokine Adiponectin Can Be Elevated in Graves Ophthalmopathy | IOVS | ARVO Journals  The Adipokine Adiponectin Can Be Elevated in Graves' Ophthalmopathy | IOVS | ARVO Journals
The Adipokine Adiponectin Can Be Elevated in Graves' Ophthalmopathy D. A. Della Rocca; E. A. Maher; J. P. Milite; M. G. ... Ophthalmolopathy had their mean serum adiponectin levels determined through an adiponectin ELISA. Clinical data was recorded ... The Adipokine Adiponectin Can Be Elevated in Graves' Ophthalmopathy You will receive an email whenever this article is ... We undertook a pilot study to determine if adiponectin levels in patients with Graves' Ophthalmopathy are elevated as found in ...
more infohttp://iovs.arvojournals.org/article.aspx?articleid=2367928
HMW ADNP elisa kit | Canine High Molecular Weight Adiponectin ELISA Kit  HMW ADNP elisa kit | Canine High Molecular Weight Adiponectin ELISA Kit
Canine High Molecular Weight Adiponectin ELISA Kit (MBS025616) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... High Molecular Weight Adiponectin (HMW ADNP), ELISA Kit. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As Canine High Molecular Weight Adiponectin ... Kit for analyzing the presence of the High Molecular Weight Adiponectin (HMW ADNP) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological ...
more infohttps://www.mybiosource.com/prods/ELISA-Kit/Canine/High-Molecular-Weight-Adiponectin/HMW-ADNP/datasheet.php?products_id=25616
Product XKine Adiponectin • HumanZyme  Product XKine Adiponectin • HumanZyme
Products , XKine Products , Adiponectin. Adiponectin. Product Description:. Adiponectin is an adipose-derived secreted protein ... Recombinant adiponectin is a multimeric glycoprotein containing amino acids Glu-19 to Asn-244 of the adiponectin precursor ... Disruption of adiponectin in mice causes insulin resistance and neointimal formation. Conversely, administration of recombinant ... The protective role of adiponectin is attributed to its anti-inflammatory properties (e.g. ability to suppress expression of ...
more infohttp://humanzyme.com/product-xkine-adiponectin
Effect of Exercise Training on Adiponectin Receptor Expression and Insulin Resistance in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet | Science...  Effect of Exercise Training on Adiponectin Receptor Expression and Insulin Resistance in Mice Fed a High Fat Diet | Science...
The mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors genes were also analyzed using reverse transcription RT-PCR. The consumption of ... training may be mediated even partially through increased adiponectin receptor expression and up regulation of adiponectin ... the effect of increased physical activities on insulin resistance and if this effect is modulated through adiponectin receptor ... reaches certain level and increasing the duration of exercise adds no more improvement to insulin sensitivity or adiponectin ...
more infohttp://thescipub.com/abstract/10.3844/ajbbsp.2010.77.83
Inhibition of islet immunoreactivity by adiponectin is attenuated in human type 1 diabetes. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine  Inhibition of islet immunoreactivity by adiponectin is attenuated in human type 1 diabetes. - Radcliffe Department of Medicine
RESULTS: Circulating concentrations of adiponectin were not affected by T1D. However, expression of adiponectin receptors on ... DESIGN, PATIENTS, AND INTERVENTIONS: We measured circulating adiponectin and adiponectin receptor expression on blood-immune ... We tested adiponectin effect on T cell proliferation to islet antigens and antigen-presenting function of monocyte-derived ... Reduced adiponectin receptor expression resulted in increased T cell proliferation to islet-antigen presented by autologous ...
more infohttps://www.rdm.ox.ac.uk/publications/394155
Design and development of a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist for cancer treatment | BMC Biotechnology | Full Text  Design and development of a peptide-based adiponectin receptor agonist for cancer treatment | BMC Biotechnology | Full Text
We aimed to generate adiponectin-based short peptide that can mimic adiponectin action and be suitable for preclinical and ... Kadowaki T, Yamauchi T: Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors. Endocr Rev. 2005, 26 (3): 439-451. 10.1210/er.2005-0005.View ... Identification of the active site of adiponectin. A) Effects of adiponectin fragments encompassing the active site on the ... Nakayama S, Miyoshi Y, Ishihara H, Noguchi S: Growth-inhibitory effect of adiponectin via adiponectin receptor 1 on human ...
more infohttps://bmcbiotechnol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6750-11-90
Association of ADIPOQ gene with obesity and adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays  Association of ADIPOQ gene with obesity and adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays
... Academic Article * View record in Web of ... Obesity parameters and adiponectin levels were measured in 574 subjects. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase ... ADIPOQ SNPs were not significantly associated with log-adiponectin levels. GA, GG, and AG haplotypes of the ADIPOQ gene were ... Here, we aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and rs3774261 SNPs with obesity and with adiponectin levels ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication5580
Treatment-Induced Changes in Plasma Adiponectin Do Not Reduce Urinary  by Kieren J. Mather, Qing Pan et al.  "Treatment-Induced Changes in Plasma Adiponectin Do Not Reduce Urinary " by Kieren J. Mather, Qing Pan et al.
Here we have used the DPP dataset to test the hypothesis that treatment-related increases in adiponectin may reduce albuminuria ... The association of change in adiponectin with change in ACR should be assessed in populations with overt albuminuria before ... There was a weak direct (not inverse) association between change in adiponectin and change in albuminuria (adjusted Spearman's ... Contrary to the hypothesized effect, treatment-related increases in plasma adiponectin were not associated with a reduction in ...
more infohttps://hsrc.himmelfarb.gwu.edu/biostatscenter_facpubs/120/
Adiponectin receptor signaling on dendritic cells blunts antitumor immunity. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences  Adiponectin receptor signaling on dendritic cells blunts antitumor immunity. - Nuffield Department of Surgical Sciences
Furthermore, by defining a critical role for adiponectin signaling in this process, our work suggests new and broadly ... show that DCs isolated from patients with metastatic or locally advanced breast cancer express high levels of the adiponectin ... Adiponectin receptor signaling on dendritic cells blunts antitumor immunity. Tan PH., Tyrrell HEJ., Gao L., Xu D., Quan J., ... Furthermore, by defining a critical role for adiponectin signaling in this process, our work suggests new and broadly ...
more infohttps://www.nds.ox.ac.uk/publications/485711
The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Serum Adiponectin Concentration and Insulin Resistance in First Degree Relatives of...  The Effect of Zinc Supplementation on Serum Adiponectin Concentration and Insulin Resistance in First Degree Relatives of...
The level of adiponectin increased significantly from 1.67 ±1.29 to 3.67± 3.08 mIU/ml in subjects who received 50 mg zinc ... Objective: Adiponectin (an insulin sensitizing protein) and zinc have insulin like effect. This study was conducted to assess ... Keywords: Adiponectin, Zinc, Insulin Resistance, First degree relatives of type 2 diabetes. ... Adiponectin, fasting blood glucose, insulin and insulin resistance were calculated by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) ...
more infohttp://ijdo.ssu.ac.ir/browse.php?a_id=79&sid=1&slc_lang=en
  • These two adiponectin receptors are predicted to contain seven transmembrane domains, but are structurally and functionally distinct from G-protein-coupled receptors. (thermofisher.com)
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