Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2: A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.TriglyceridesLipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Glucose Tolerance Test: A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Mice, Inbred C57BLAdipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Waist Circumference: The measurement around the body at the level of the ABDOMEN and just above the hip bone. The measurement is usually taken immediately after exhalation.Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue in the region of the ABDOMEN. It includes the ABDOMINAL SUBCUTANEOUS FAT and the INTRA-ABDOMINAL FAT.Waist-Hip Ratio: The waist circumference measurement divided by the hip circumference measurement. For both men and women, a waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) of 1.0 or higher is considered "at risk" for undesirable health consequences, such as heart disease and ailments associated with OVERWEIGHT. A healthy WHR is 0.90 or less for men, and 0.80 or less for women. (National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 2004)PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)

Role of adipocytokines on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in visceral obesity. (1/2639)

Obesity which is defined as accumulation of excess body fat, is a major cause of atherosclerotic vascular disease in industrial countries. Recent advances in the biology of adipose tissue have revealed that adipose tissue is not simply an energy storage organ but it also secretes a variety of molecules which affect the metabolism of the whole body. Through a systematic search of active genes in adipose tissue, we found that adipose tissue, especially visceral fat expressed numerous genes for secretory proteins (about 30% of total genes analyzed). Among them, plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1), which is a regulator of the fibrinolytic system, was overexpressed in the visceral fat in an animal model of obesity. Plasma levels of PAI-1 were closely correlated with visceral fat adiposity. Thus, PAI-1 secreted from visceral fat may play some role in thrombotic vascular disease in visceral obesity. Adiponectin, a novel adipose-specific gene product, which has a matrix-like structure, is abundantly present in the bloodstream. Dysregulated secretion of adiponectin may be related to vascular disease in obesity. Biologically active molecules secreted from adipose tissue (adipocytokines) may have important roles in the development of atherosclerotic disease in obesity.  (+info)

Two compartments for insulin-stimulated exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes defined by endogenous ACRP30 and GLUT4. (2/2639)

Insulin stimulates adipose cells both to secrete proteins and to translocate the GLUT4 glucose transporter from an intracellular compartment to the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that whereas insulin stimulation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes has no effect on secretion of the alpha3 chain of type VI collagen, secretion of the protein hormone adipocyte complement related protein of 30 kD (ACRP30) is markedly enhanced. Like GLUT4, regulated exocytosis of ACRP30 appears to require phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity, since insulin-stimulated ACRP30 secretion is blocked by pharmacologic inhibitors of this enzyme. Thus, 3T3-L1 adipocytes possess a regulated secretory compartment containing ACRP30. Whether GLUT4 recycles to such a compartment has been controversial. We present deconvolution immunofluorescence microscopy data demonstrating that the subcellular distributions of ACRP30 and GLUT4 are distinct and nonoverlapping; in contrast, those of GLUT4 and the transferrin receptor overlap. Together with supporting evidence that GLUT4 does not recycle to a secretory compartment via the trans-Golgi network, we conclude that there are at least two compartments that undergo insulin-stimulated exocytosis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes: one for ACRP30 secretion and one for GLUT4 translocation.  (+info)

Novel modulator for endothelial adhesion molecules: adipocyte-derived plasma protein adiponectin. (3/2639)

BACKGROUND: Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we recently found an adipocyte-specific secretory protein, adiponectin, which was decreased in obesity. Although obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, the molecular basis for the link between obesity and vascular disease has not been fully clarified. The present study investigated whether adiponectin could modulate endothelial function and relate to coronary disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: For the in vitro study, human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were preincubated for 18 hours with the indicated amount of adiponectin, then exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10 U/mL) or vehicle for the times indicated. The adhesion of human monocytic cell line THP-1 cells to HAECs was determined by adhesion assay. The surface expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1 (E-selectin), and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was measured by cell ELISA. Physiological concentrations of adiponectin dose-dependently inhibited TNF-alpha-induced THP-1 adhesion and expression of VCAM-1, E-selectin, and ICAM-1 on HAECs. For the in vivo study, the concentrations of adiponectin in human plasma were determined by a sandwich ELISA system that we recently developed. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were significantly lower in patients with coronary artery disease than those in age- and body mass index-adjusted control subjects. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that adiponectin modulates endothelial inflammatory response and that the measurement of plasma adiponectin levels may be helpful in assessment of CAD risk.  (+info)

Plasma concentrations of a novel, adipose-specific protein, adiponectin, in type 2 diabetic patients. (4/2639)

Adiponectin is a novel, adipose-specific protein abundantly present in the circulation, and it has antiatherogenic properties. We analyzed the plasma adiponectin concentrations in age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects with and without coronary artery disease (CAD). Plasma levels of adiponectin in the diabetic subjects without CAD were lower than those in nondiabetic subjects (6.6+/-0.4 versus 7.9+/-0.5 microg/mL in men, 7.6+/-0.7 versus 11.7+/-1.0 microg/mL in women; P<0.001). The plasma adiponectin concentrations of diabetic patients with CAD were lower than those of diabetic patients without CAD (4.0+/-0.4 versus 6.6+/-0.4 microg/mL, P<0.001 in men; 6.3+/-0.8 versus 7.6+/-0. 7 microg/mL in women). In contrast, plasma levels of leptin did not differ between diabetic patients with and without CAD. The presence of microangiopathy did not affect the plasma adiponectin levels in diabetic patients. Significant, univariate, inverse correlations were observed between adiponectin levels and fasting plasma insulin (r=-0.18, P<0.01) and glucose (r=-0.26, P<0.001) levels. In multivariate analysis, plasma insulin did not independently affect the plasma adiponectin levels. BMI, serum triglyceride concentration, and the presence of diabetes or CAD remained significantly related to plasma adiponectin concentrations. Weight reduction significantly elevated plasma adiponectin levels in the diabetic subjects as well as the nondiabetic subjects. These results suggest that the decreased plasma adiponectin concentrations in diabetes may be an indicator of macroangiopathy.  (+info)

Adiponectin, a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens, negatively regulates the growth of myelomonocytic progenitors and the functions of macrophages. (5/2639)

We investigated the functions of adiponectin, an adipocyte-specific secretory protein and a new member of the family of soluble defense collagens, in hematopoiesis and immune responses. Adiponectin suppressed colony formation from colony-forming units (CFU)-granulocyte-macrophage, CFU-macrophage, and CFU-granulocyte, whereas it had no effect on that of burst-forming units-erythroid or mixed erythroid-myeloid CFU. In addition, adiponectin inhibited proliferation of 4 of 9 myeloid cell lines but did not suppress proliferation of erythroid or lymphoid cell lines except for one cell line. These results suggest that adiponectin predominantly inhibits proliferation of myelomonocytic lineage cells. At least one mechanism of the growth inhibition is induction of apoptosis because treatment of acute myelomonocytic leukemia lines with adiponectin induced the appearance of subdiploid peaks and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Aside from inhibiting growth of myelomonocytic progenitors, adiponectin suppressed mature macrophage functions. Treatment of cultured macrophages with adiponectin significantly inhibited their phagocytic activity and their lipopolysaccharide-induced production of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Suppression of phagocytosis by adiponectin is mediated by one of the complement C1q receptors, C1qRp, because this function was completely abrogated by the addition of an anti-C1qRp monoclonal antibody. These observations suggest that adiponectin is an important negative regulator in hematopoiesis and immune systems and raise the possibility that it may be involved in ending inflammatory responses through its inhibitory functions. (Blood. 2000;96:1723-1732)  (+info)

Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, inhibits endothelial NF-kappaB signaling through a cAMP-dependent pathway. (6/2639)

BACKGROUND: Among the many adipocyte-derived endocrine factors, we found an adipocyte-derived plasma protein, adiponectin, that was decreased in obesity. We recently demonstrated that adiponectin inhibited tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and that plasma adiponectin level was reduced in patients with coronary artery disease (CIRCULATION: 1999;100:2473-2476). However, the intracellular signal by which adiponectin suppressed adhesion molecule expression was not elucidated. The present study investigated the mechanism of modulation for endothelial function by adiponectin. METHODS AND RESULTS: The interaction between adiponectin and human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) was estimated by cell ELISA using biotinylated adiponectin. HAECs were preincubated for 18 hours with 50 microg/mL of adiponectin, then exposed to TNF-alpha (10 U/mL) or vehicle for the times indicated. NF-kappaB-DNA binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. TNF-alpha-inducible phosphorylation signals were detected by immunoblotting. Adiponectin specifically bound to HAECs in a saturable manner and inhibited TNF-alpha-induced mRNA expression of monocyte adhesion molecules without affecting the interaction between TNF-alpha and its receptors. Adiponectin suppressed TNF-alpha-induced IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation and subsequent NF-kappaB activation without affecting other TNF-alpha-mediated phosphorylation signals, including Jun N-terminal kinase, p38 kinase, and Akt kinase. This inhibitory effect of adiponectin is accompanied by cAMP accumulation and is blocked by either adenylate cyclase inhibitor or protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor. CONCLUSIONS: These observations raise the possibility that adiponectin, which is naturally present in the blood stream, modulates the inflammatory response of endothelial cells through cross talk between cAMP-PKA and NF-kappaB signaling pathways.  (+info)

Proteolytic cleavage product of 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein increases fatty acid oxidation in muscle and causes weight loss in mice. (7/2639)

Adipocyte complement-related protein (30 kDa) (Acrp30), a secreted protein of unknown function, is exclusively expressed in differentiated adipocytes; its mRNA is decreased in obese humans and mice. Here we describe novel pharmacological properties of the protease-generated globular head domain of Acrp30 (gAcrp30). Acute treatment of mice with gAcrp30 significantly decreased the elevated levels of plasma free fatty acids caused either by administration of a high fat test meal or by i.v. injection of Intralipid. This effect of gAcrp30 was caused, at least in part, by an acute increase in fatty acid oxidation by muscle. As a result, daily administration of a very low dose of gAcrp30 to mice consuming a high-fat/sucrose diet caused profound and sustainable weight reduction without affecting food intake. Thus, gAcrp30 is a novel pharmacological compound that controls energy homeostasis and exerts its effect primarily at the peripheral level.  (+info)

Adipocyte-derived plasma protein, adiponectin, suppresses lipid accumulation and class A scavenger receptor expression in human monocyte-derived macrophages. (8/2639)

BACKGROUND: Excessive lipid accumulation in macrophages plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, we discovered an adipocyte-specific plasma protein, adiponectin, that is decreased in patients with coronary artery disease. We previously demonstrated that adiponectin acts as a modulator for proinflammatory stimuli and inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. The present study investigated the effects of adiponectin on lipid accumulation in human monocyte-derived macrophages. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human monocytes were differentiated into macrophages by incubation in human type AB serum for 7 days, and the effects of adiponectin were investigated at different time intervals. Treatment with physiological concentrations of adiponectin reduced intracellular cholesteryl ester content, as determined using the enzymatic, fluorometric method. The adiponectin-treated macrophages contained fewer lipid droplets stained by oil red O. Adiponectin suppressed the expression of the class A macrophage scavenger receptor (MSR) at both mRNA and protein levels by Northern and immunoblot analyses, respectively, without affecting the expression of CD36, which was quantified by flow cytometry. Adiponectin reduced the class A MSR promoter activity, as measured by luciferase reporter assay. Adiponectin treatment dose-dependently decreased class A MSR ligand binding and uptake activities. The mRNA level of lipoprotein lipase as a marker of macrophage differentiation was decreased by adiponectin treatment, but that of apolipoprotein E was not altered. Adiponectin was detected around macrophages in the human injured aorta by immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: The adipocyte-derived plasma protein adiponectin suppressed macrophage-to-foam cell transformation, suggesting that adiponectin may act as a modulator for macrophage-to-foam cell transformation.  (+info)

Adiposity is known to be related to asthma. Although a causal link between adiponectin (a protein produced by adipose tissue) and asthma has been demonstrated in mice,. Low serum adiponectin levels predict an increased future risk for developing asthma in middle-aged women, particularly among smokers, according to a new study.. the evidence in humans has been conflicting," said lead author Akshay Sood, MD, MPH, associate professor in the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center School of Medicine.. "In an earlier cross-sectional study, we found an association between low serum adiponectin levels and prevalent asthma among women, but the direction of this association is not known," Dr. Sood continued. "In the current study, we examined the longitudinal association between asthma and adiponectin and found that low serum adiponectin concentrations, independent of obesity, predicted a higher risk for developing asthma.". The findings ...
Insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic disturbances are characterized by low levels of adiponectin. High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) is considered the active form of adiponectin and a better marker of IR than total adiponectin. The objective of this study is to compare the utility of total adiponectin, HMWA and the HMWA/total adiponectin index (SA index) for the identification of IR and related metabolic conditions. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in a group of ambulatory subjects, aged 20 to 70 years, in Mexico City. Areas under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve for total, HMWA and the SA index were plotted for the identification of metabolic disturbances. Sensitivity and specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy for the identification of IR were calculated. The study included 101 men and 168 women. The areas under the ROC curve for total and HMWA for the identification of IR (0.664 vs. 0.669, P = 0.74), obesity (0.592 vs. 0.610, P = 0.32)
Murine models have also shown that subcutaneous injection of adiponectin in ovalbumin-sensitised mice prevents the subsequent development of increased airway responsiveness on exposure to ovalbumin.10 31 Taken together, the known anti-inflammatory effects of adiponectin in both mice and humans and the prevention of both allergen-induced airway responsiveness and airway smooth muscle proliferation in murine models has led to the hypothesis that the decreased serum concentrations of adiponectin in obese humans may contribute to the propensity towards asthma in this population.30. This study suggests that a higher serum adiponectin concentration may be a protective factor for current asthma in women, particularly those who are premenopausal. The observed association was independent of adiposity. These results are consistent with a previous cross-sectional study from a different population that suggested that high serum concentrations of leptin, another adipokine, are an independent risk factor for ...
Atherosclerosis is the primary cause of coronary artery disease (CAD). There is increasing recognition that lesion composition rather than size determines the acute complications of atherosclerotic disease. Low serum adiponectin levels were reported to be associated with coronary artery disease and future incidence of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The impact of adiponectin on lesion composition still remains to be determined. We measured serum adiponectin levels in 303 patients with stable typical or atypical chest pain, who underwent dual-source multi-slice CT-angiography to exclude coronary artery stenosis. Atherosclerotic plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or non-calcified. In bivariate analysis adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with total coronary plaque burden (r = -0.21, p = 0.0004), mixed (r = -0.20, p = 0.0007) and non-calcified plaques (r = -0.18, p = 0.003). No correlation was seen with calcified plaques (r = -0.05, p = 0.39). In a fully adjusted multivariate model ...
As mentioned above, both antidiabetic treatments inhibited the development of hypoadiponectinemia during the animal experiment (Figure 1).. Generally, the effect of insulin on adiponectin serum levels is contentious. In vitro, insulin inhibits the expression of adiponectin at mRNA level [35], but then it leads to an increased adiponectin secretion from adipocytes [36, 37]. In vivo, there is a good documented association of hypoadiponectinemia with insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus type 2 [38], but the effect of insulin therapy on serum levels of adiponectin is not well studied so far. A study in five healthy male volunteers showed a decrease of adiponectin levels during a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp [39]. Another study with insulin treatment in a murine model of obesity and diabetes mellitus type 2, the db/db mice, suggested no impact on adiponectin levels [40]. A recent study indicates an elevation of adiponectin levels in a hyperinsulinemia rat model [41]. In this respect, our ...
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a role in obesity, insulin resistant, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammation. Hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese people. We therefore investigated the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in general Japanese men. The subjects were 202 Japanese male workers who participated in an annual health check. They provided details about anthropometrical data, blood collection, their use of prescribed medication, and the clinical history of their families. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyles. Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of BMI, SBP,
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Significance of Elevated Adiponectin in the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. AU - Combs, Terry P.. AU - Scherer, Philipp E.. PY - 2003/12/1. Y1 - 2003/12/1. N2 - Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) represent a new family of oral antihyperglycemic agents for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. A recently discovered effect of TZDs is the induction of a circulating protein produced exclusively in adipocytes, called Acrp30 or adiponectin. To date, 5 clinical studies have confirmed the induction of circulating adiponectin during TZD treatment. Subjects with type 2 diabetes have lower levels of adiponectin than those without diabetes, yet it is very unlikely that the induction of adiponectin during TZD treatment is a secondary effect of improved glycemia. Highly purified recombinant adiponectin showed very dramatic blood glucose (BG) -lowering effects. The increase in circulating adiponectin during TZD treatment is associated with elevated adiponectin levels in adipose tissue. There is ...
Two independent studies recently demonstrated that there is a modest level of adiponectin expression in C/EBPα-deficient adipocytes with ectopic expression of PPARγ, whereas expression of both PPARγ and C/EBPα led to production of abundant quantities of adiponectin (23,24). These studies suggest that C/EBPα and PPARγ are required to fully activate adiponectin gene expression. Our study indicates that the regulation of adiponectin gene transcription by C/EBPα and PPARγ is through different sites of the human adiponectin gene. C/EBPα increased adiponectin promoter activity only when the DNA encoding the first intron was present (Fig. 2C). In contrast, overexpression of PPARγ2 and its partner RXRα increased the activity of the adiponectin proximal promoter, and this was not enhanced in the presence of the DNA encoding the first intron (Fig. 2B). These data are consistent with the identification of a PPARγ response element within both the human and mouse adiponectin proximal promoter ...
Buy HMW ADNP elisa kit, Canine High Molecular Weight Adiponectin ELISA Kit (MBS025616) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits
It is well known that circulating adiponectin concentrations are reduced in animal models of obesity and in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome, despite adipocyte hypertrophy or increased body fat (2-6). However, the details of adiponectin production and release have varied among studies, especially in animal models (10,28,29,32,33). This is probably due to the apparently different etiology of the three types of obese animal models: genetic, diet-induced, and hypothalamic obesity (20,34).. VMH lesion-induced hypothalamic obesity in animals is the only obesity model that shows clear derangements of autonomic nervous activities (hyperactivity of the vagus nerve and hypoactivity of sympathetic nerves) compared with genetic (20), diet-induced obesity (34), and other types of hypothalamic obesity (19). Thus, there is a possibility that this animal model has different characteristics of adiponectin production and release, with resultant change of serum adiponectin, compared with those of other ...
Purpose: : A transgenic mouse model with overexpression of the adipokine adiponectin resulted in progressive expansion of the retrobulbar fat pad leading to fulminant exophthalmos. We undertook a pilot study to determine if adiponectin levels in patients with Graves Ophthalmopathy are elevated as found in the transgenic mouse model. Methods: : From a large urban ophthalmic plastics service 46 consecutive patients with Graves Ophthalmolopathy had their mean serum adiponectin levels determined through an adiponectin ELISA. Clinical data was recorded using standardized criteria. Results: : An ANOVA analysis found that mean adiponectin levels differed significantly between inactive and active Graves disease patients (p=0.0458) and presence of diabetes (p=0.0054). Mean adiponectin level in the active disease group was 15.78 mg/L (SD=8.51), and in the inactive group it was 11.36 mg/L (SD=6.29). Conclusions: : The adipokines such as adiponectin warrant further investigation regarding its role in the ...
A number of bioactive molecules secreted from fat tissue, referred to as adipokines, could participate in the development of obesity-related complications through regulation of inflammatory responses.9,10 Most adipokines are proinflammatory. In contrast, adiponectin, also referred to as adipocyte complement-related protein 30 (ACRP30), is an antiinflammatory adipokine that is abundantly present in blood stream. Whereas adiponectin is expressed almost exclusively in adipose tissue,11,12 plasma adiponectin levels are paradoxically decreased in obese individuals.13 This regulation of adiponectin results, at least in part, from the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and other proinflammatory cytokines which inhibits the synthesis of adiponectin in the obese state. Low plasma adiponectin levels, also known as hypoadiponectinemia, are closely associated with the increased prevalence of obesity-linked disorders including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension.9 Studies ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Molecular data suggests that adiponectin may directly regulate urinary albumin excretion. In the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) we measured adiponectin and albuminuria before and after intervention, and we previously reported increases in adiponectin with interventions. Here we have used the DPP dataset to test the hypothesis that treatment-related increases in adiponectin may reduce albuminuria in obesity. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: We evaluated cross-sectional correlations between plasma adiponectin and urinary albumin excretion at baseline, and the relationship of treatment-related changes in adiponectin and albuminuria. Baseline and follow-up urine albumin to creatinine ratios (ACR (albumin to creatinine ratio)) and plasma adiponectin concentration were available in 2553 subjects. RESULTS: Adjusting for age, sex and race/ethnicity, we observed a statistically significant but weak inverse relationship between adiponectin and ACR at baseline (conditional
Background: Adiponectin is an adipokine with beneficial effect on vascular function. Although adiponectin levels are decreased in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), it is unclear whether impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) affects adiponectins release, or whether glucose intake modifies its release from adipocytes. We examined the effect of glucose on serum adiponectin/insulin and endothelial function, in subjects with IGT, patients with DM and healthy individuals.. Methods: The study population consisted of 113 subjects: 19 with IGT, 78 with DM and 16 controls. All subjects underwent glucose loading (75g oral glucose), and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 3 hours. Endothelial function was evaluated by gauge-strain plethysmography at baseline and every 1h, and endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD) was determined. Adiponectin and insulin were measured at baseline and at 3h.. Results: Glucose loading increased adiponectin levels in healthy (70.1±8.5 to 80.8±11.4 ng/ml, p,0.05) ...
Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO) stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis. We recently reported that adiponectin synthesis is regulated by mitochondrial function in adipocytes. This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) plays an important role in adiponectin synthesis by producing NO and enhancing mitochondrial function in adipocytes. We examined the effects of eNOS knockdown on adiponectin synthesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and also examined plasma adiponectin levels and the mitochondria in adipose tissue of eNOS knockout (eNOS-/-) mice with and without chronic administration of a NO donor. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, eNOS siRNA decreased rosiglitazone-induced adiponectin secretion, which was associated with decreases in mitochondrial proteins and biogenesis factors. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were reduced in adult eNOS-/- mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. Mitochondrial contents in adipose tissue were reduced in eNOS-/- mice, and this was ...
In the current study, we showed that in patients with AMI, low plasma adiponectin was associated independently with increased risk of developing T2DM in a linear dose-response relationship. Even in patients with low glucose, adiponectin still added significantly to the prognostic value, as the risk of developing T2DM was higher in patients with low adiponectin/low glucose compared with patients with high adiponectin/low glucose. However, the risk increased by ∼10-fold in patients who were characterized by the combination of low adiponectin and high blood glucose.. Low plasma adiponectin has been suggested to be causally involved in pathways leading to T2DM. The binding of adiponectin to its receptors (adiR1/R2) directly suppresses hepatic gluconeogenesis and stimulates fatty acid oxidation in liver and muscle, glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, and insulin secretion (1,10).. In a study of 335 cases of incident T2DM from the Whitehall II study, adiponectin was measured three times per ...
Adiponectin is an adipose-derived secreted protein containing 226 amino acid residues. It is relatively abundant in humans and rodents, accounting for about 0.01% of total plasma protein. The circulating levels of adiponectin are decreased under conditions of obesity, insulin resistance, and type II diabetes. Disruption of adiponectin in mice causes insulin resistance and neointimal formation. Conversely, administration of recombinant adiponectin suppresses hepatic glucose production, and reverses insulin resistance associated with both lipoatrophy and obesity. The protective role of adiponectin is attributed to its anti-inflammatory properties (e.g. ability to suppress expression of TNF-α and class A scavenger receptor in macrophages). Recombinant adiponectin is a multimeric glycoprotein containing amino acids Glu-19 to Asn-244 of the adiponectin precursor protein fused to an N-terminal histidine tag.. ...
Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Obesity is scientific quarterly journal published by Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences
Current epidemics of diabetes mellitus is largely caused by wide spread obesity. The best-established connection between obesity and insulin resistance is the elevated and/or dysregulated levels of circulating free fatty acids that cause and aggravate insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other hazardous metabolic conditions. Here, we investigated the effect of a major dietary saturated fatty acid, palmitate, on the insulin-sensitizing adipokine adiponectin produced by cultured adipocytes. We have found that palmitate rapidly inhibits transcription of the adiponectin gene and the release of adiponectin from adipocytes. Adiponectin gene expression is controlled primarily by PPARγ and C/EBPα. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts from C/EBPα-null mice, we have determined that the latter transcription factor may not solely mediate the inhibitory effect of palmitate on adiponectin transcription leaving PPARγ as a likely target of palmitate. In agreement with this model, palmitate
Adipose tissue is now accepted by the scientific and medical community to be a genuine endocrine organ, in addition to its classical role as an energy store. Adiponectin is one of the many adipocytokines that are secreted almost exclusively by adipose tissue. Alteration in blood adiponectin concentrations has been linked to many human diseases in numerous cross-sectional and prospective studies. In this review, we describe briefly the biological effects of adiponectin as revealed by basic scientific investigations. We also summarize the principles of blood adiponectin assays. Overall, lower blood adiponectin concentration is found in subjects with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. These medical conditions are components of the metabolic syndrome and major risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis. Plasma adiponectin levels are also expected to be lower in subjects with cardiovascular diseases, such as coronary artery disease, ischemic stroke and peripheral artery
Background: Adiponectin is a circulating adipose-derived cytokine with anti-inflammatory and antiatherosclerotic properties. Low adiponectin concentrations are related with endothelial dysfunction, hypertension, and incidence of type 2 diabetes. However the relationship of adiponectin concentrations and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease is unclear.. Methods: We used data from patients enrolled in the prospective, multicentre French registry of Acute ST elevation or non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction(Fast-MI). Blood samples were drawn immediately at admission. Adiponectin concentrations were measured using a validated immunoassay (n= 932 patients, of whom 279 with diabetes). Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for assessing outcomes, e.g all-cause mortality and recurrent AMI during a 2-year follow-up, according to adiponectin levels as continuous variable and tertiles.. Results: During follow-up, 162(17%) patients died or had a ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inverse association between serum adiponectin level and transaminase activities in Japanese male workers. AU - Yokoyama, Hirokazu. AU - Hirose, Hiroshi. AU - Ohgo, Hideki. AU - Saito, Ikuo. PY - 2004/7. Y1 - 2004/7. N2 - Background/Aims Since a novel polypeptide named adiponectin was shown to prevent the development of steatosis and steatohepatitis in animal models, we studied whether it was also possible in a clinical situation. Methods Associations between serum adiponectin levels and serum transaminase activities were studied in 791 Japanese males who were not heavy drinkers, and had no autoimmune or HBV- or HCV-induced liver diseases. Results Various markers of metabolic diseases including levels of body mass index (BMI), serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, and insulin resistance assessed by the homeostasis model were significantly higher in subjects with increased transaminase activities when compared to those with normal activities. Single regression analyses ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of low serum adiponectin levels with erosive esophagitis in men. T2 - An analysis of 2405 subjects undergoing physical check-ups. AU - Kato, Motohiko. AU - Watabe, Kenji. AU - Hamasaki, Toshimitsu. AU - Umeda, Miyuki. AU - Furubayashi, Aiko. AU - Kinoshita, Kazuo. AU - Kishida, Osamu. AU - Fujimoto, Takashi. AU - Yamada, Akira. AU - Tsukamoto, Yoshifumi. AU - Yamamoto, Shunsuke. AU - Kamada, Yoshihiro. AU - Yoshida, Yuichi. AU - Kiso, Shinichi. AU - Tsutsui, Shusaku. AU - Kihara, Shinji. AU - Hayashi, Norio. AU - Matsuzawa, Yuji. PY - 2011/12/1. Y1 - 2011/12/1. N2 - Obesity is a risk factor for gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). It is generally considered that intra-abdominal pressure in obese subjects is involved in the pathogenesis of GERD through acid exposure to the esophagus. Recently, visceral fat has been recognized as an endocrine organ that secretes various adipocytokines including adiponectin. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relation between ...
The present study demonstrates that PPARγ-activating ARBs induce adiponectin protein expression at a post-transcriptional level, independently of their AT1R-blocking properties. In addition, AT2R activation resulted in adiponectin upregulation. The PPARγ-activating ARB irbesartan improved parameters of insulin sensitivity in obese Zucker rats, which was associated with the prevention of adiponectin serum depletion.. We and others could recently demonstrate that a subset of ARBs including irbesartan has the potential to activate the insulin-sensitizing nuclear hormone receptor PPARγ, completely independent from their AT1R blocking properties.8,10 PPARγ activation has been shown to stimulate adiponectin expression in adipocytes and to upregulate adiponectin plasma levels in animals and humans.6,11 In the present study, pharmacological antagonism of PPARγ completely blocked irbesartan-induced adiponectin expression in vitro. In addition, adiponectin expression in adipocytes and fat tissue was ...
Adiponectin (Ad) is an abundant protein hormone regulatory of numerous metabolic processes, anti-inflammatory, vascular protective, and anti-ischemic properties. Since its 1995 discovery, Ad has garnered considerable attention for its role in diabetic and cardiovascular pathology. Clinical observations have demonstrated the association of hypoadiponectinemia in patients with obesity, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. There is growing evidence supporting Ad can act as a novel risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular injury. This 5 years follow-up study will focus on serum adiponectin concentration, activity and isoforms in Chinese population and its correlation to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases ...
Adiponectin is the most abundant plasma adipokine, and is well known for its role in energy homeostasis and cardiac protection. In humans with dilated cardiomyopathy, myocardial adiponectin protein expression is reduced compared to normal hearts and has been implicated in the pathology of cardiomyopathy. Serum adiponectin levels are often conflicting, with higher levels associated with poor survival in humans with congestive heart failure (CHF). We evaluated adiponectin serum concentrations and myocardial protein expression in dogs with naturally occurring myxomatous mitral valve disease and CHF. We compared the findings to active and hibernating brown bears as bears are adapted to endure an extreme period of low cardiac output during their annual hibernation. Bears exhibited largely the active high-molecular weight (HMW) versus the low-molecular weight isoforms of myocardial adiponectin (HMW:LMW = 6.3) during both the active period and hibernation, while healthy dogs exhibited a more balanced mix of
Adiponectin, also referred to as Acrp30, AdipoQ, and GBP28, is a plasma protein exclusively produced by adipose tissue and a possible insulin-sensitizing agent (1-6). Serum adiponectin levels are negatively correlated to BMI in healthy individuals and decreased in type 2 diabetic patients (1-6). However, serum adiponectin levels in type 1 diabetes have not been elucidated.. We examined the serum adiponectin concentrations in 46 type 1 diabetic patients (21 males and 25 females) and compared them with those of BMI-matched healthy control subjects (17 males and 19 females). Mean age was 33 ± 3 and 33 ± 4 years, BMI was 19.8 ± 0.5 and 19.9 ± 0.6 kg/m2, HbA1c level was 9.7± 0.7 and 10.4 ± 0.6%, duration of diabetes was 3.2 ± 0.9 and 3.4 ± 1.3 years, and urinary C-peptide excretion was 18.4 ± 4.3 and 18.0 ± 2.4 μg/day in male and female patients, respectively. High prevalence of GAD antibody or islet cell antibodies (91.3%) indicated autoimmune-associated β-cell destruction in those ...
Introduction: Adiponectin is anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor cytokine secreted exclusively from adipocytes. Thereis a growing evidence of association between adiponectin gene polymorphism and development of pancreatic cancer.The current study aimed at evaluation of the possible association between selected adiponectin gene polymorphism andthe risk of pancreatic cancer. Methods: Prospective case-control study included 77 patients (29 women and 48 men)with biopsy-proven pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 97 healthy control. Blood samples from all included participantswere genotyped for 3 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) of adiponectin genes (rs1501299C|A, rs266729C|G andrs2241766G|T) by PCR. Clinical, biochemical, and radiological data analyzed. Results: We demonstrated a significantassociation between the three studied SNPs (rs1501299, rs266729, and rs2241766) and increased risk of pancreaticadenocarcinoma (p|0.001). Furthermore, in clinical correlation analysis, Patients with rs2241766 polymorphismhave
TY - JOUR. T1 - Systemic fate of the adipocyte-derived factor adiponectin. AU - Halberg, Nils. AU - Schraw, Todd D.. AU - Wang, Zhao V.. AU - Kim, Ja Young. AU - Yi, James. AU - Hamilton, Mark P.. AU - Luby-Phelps, Kate. AU - Scherer, Philipp E.. PY - 2009/9. Y1 - 2009/9. N2 - OBJECTIVE - The adipocyte-derived secretory protein adiponectin has been widely studied and shown to have potent insulin-sensitizing, antiapoptotic, and anti-inflammatory properties. While its biosynthesis is well understood, its fate, once in circulation, is less well established. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Here, we examine the half-life of adiponectin in circulation by tracking fluorescently labeled recombinant adiponectin in the circulation, following it to its final destination in the hepatocyte. RESULTS - Despite its abundant presence in plasma, adiponectin is cleared rapidly with a half-life of ∼75 min. A more bioactive version carrying a mutation at cysteine 39 is cleared within minutes. Even though ...
Studies have shown that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the ADIPOQ gene have been linked with obesity and with adiponectin levels in various populations. Here, we aimed to investigate the association of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and rs3774261 SNPs with obesity and with adiponectin levels in Malaysian Malays. Obesity parameters and adiponectin levels were measured in 574 subjects. Genotyping was performed using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Sequenom MassARRAY. A significant genotypic association was observed between ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity. The frequencies of AG and AA genotypes were significantly higher in the obese group (11%) than in the non-obese group (5%) (P=0.024). The odds of A alleles occurring among the obese group were twice those among the non-obese group (odds ratio 2.15; 95% confidence interval 1.13-4.09). However, no significant association was found between allelic frequencies of ADIPOQ rs17366568 and obesity after Bonferroni correction (P>0.025) or between ...
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance is the major pathogenesis underlying type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and these patients have doubled risk of Alzheimers disease (AD). Increasing evidence suggests that insulin resistance plays an important role in AD pathogenesis, possibly due to abnormal GSK3β activation, causing intra- and extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) accumulation. Adiponectin (APN) is an adipokine with insulin-sensitizing and anti-inflammatory effects. Reduced circulatory APN level is associated with insulin resistance and T2DM. The role of APN in AD has not been elucidated. In this study, we aim to examine if adiponectin deficiency would lead to cerebral insulin resistance, cognitive decline and Alzheimers-like pathology in mice. METHODS: To study the role of adiponectin in cognitive functions, we employed adiponectin-knockout (APN-KO) mice and demonstrated chronic APN deficiency in their CNS. Behavioral tests were performed to study the cognitions of male APN-KO mice. Brains and tissue ...
Purpose : To validate earlier found physiologic response patterns explaining retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) development in infants born very preterm. Generally adiponectin production is up-regulated by weight loss and down regulated by weight gain, oxidative stress as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines. Disturbed homeostasis, impaired growth and inflammation are factors closely related to ROP development. This study assessed the longitudinal postnatal development of serum adiponectin levels and ROP development in a new cohort of very preterm infants. Methods : A study was performed in 90 infants with gestational age (GA) , 28 weeks with a mean (SD) gestational age at birth of 25.2 (1.4) weeks and mean (SD) birth weight of 882 (220) g. Cord blood samples and thereafter venous blood samples were obtained at postnatal day 1, 7, 14, 28 days and at postmenstrual age 32, 36 and 40 weeks. Serum adiponectin levels were assayed using a human adiponectin ELISA kit (E091M, Mediagnost, Germany). The ...
References for Abcams Recombinant human Adiponectin protein (trimeric) (ab28159). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
There are no specific protocols for Recombinant human Adiponectin protein (trimeric) (ab28159). Please download our general protocols booklet
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Pregnancy, a state of insulin resistance, is associated with elevated levels of cytokines and profound alterations in metabolism. Serum adiponectin, an adipokine with anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitising properties, has been shown to be lower in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus, a state of greater insulin resistance than normal pregnancies. Hypothesising that the human placenta is a source of adiponectin, we investigated its expression and secretion, and the regulation by cytokines of adiponectin and its receptors. METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR, radioimmunoassay, Western blotting, radioligand binding and immunofluorescent analyses were applied to demonstrate the expression, secretion and functionality of placental adiponectin. RESULTS: Adiponectin gene expression and protein were found in the human term placenta, with expression primarily in the syncytiotrophoblast. RIA of conditioned media from explant experiments revealed that the placenta can secrete adiponectin in vitro.
On the basis of the above-reported properties unraveled by basic science studies, it would be conceivable to hypothesize that adiponectin exerts beneficial effects on metabolic and cardiovascular traits in human beings. In fact, in pioneering cross-sectional studies carried out in Pima Indians, circulating adiponectin levels correlated positively with both skeletal muscle (21) and liver (22) insulin sensitivity. In addition, in this same population, adiponectin was negatively correlated with inflammatory markers (23). Along the same line is the observation that insulin-sensitizing agents increase adiponectin concentrations in humans (24). In addition, a prospective study has also shown that low plasma adiponectin concentration predicts the deterioration of insulin sensitivity over time (25).. Unfortunately, the observational design of all such studies could not address whether the reported associations were due to a positive effect of adiponectin on insulin sensitivity. In this regard, it must ...
The hormone adiponectin is secreted from fat cells. Overweight and obese people are known to have less adiponectin secreted and they are definitely at higher risk for suffering from cancers. The mechanism linking hormone existence to overall health is the following: high adiponectin levels in blood are able to suppress blood vessels inflammation, this leads to increased metabolism.. Therefore, higher adiponectin levels decrease the risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, breast cancer and now it is also linked to colorectal cancer. It is clear that hormone adiponectin makes people healthier, but how exactly the hormone is being secreted from fat cells is yet unclear.. According to American Cancer Society statistics, colorectal cancer affects 1.2 million and kills 630000 people worldwide each year. This year is estimated to have 149000 newly diagnosed and 50000 cases in US. About 1/3 of cases are associated with family history, other factors causing the disease are believed to be diet reach in ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Calcium is involved in formation of high molecular weight adiponectin. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Adiponectin is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation.[7] Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue (and also from the placenta in pregnancy[8]) into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma relative to many hormones. Many studies have found adiponectin to be inversely correlated with body mass index in patient populations.[9] However, a meta analysis was not able to confirm this association in healthy adults.[10] Circulating adiponectin concentrations increase during caloric restriction in animals and humans, such as in patients with anorexia nervosa. This observation is surprising, given that adiponectin is produced by adipose tissue. However, a recent study suggests that adipose tissue within bone marrow, which increases during caloric restriction, contributes to elevated circulating adiponectin in this context.[11]. Transgenic mice with increased adiponectin show reduced adipocyte differentiation and ...
ABSTRACT. Background and aims: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are well-recognized complications of obesity. This study was designed to evaluate the role of the UCP1 -3826 A,G polymorphism, adiponectin levels, leptin/adiponectin ratio (L/A), and main biochemical parameters in 102 unrelated severely obese adults [61 females and 41 males, median body mass index (BMI) = 47.8 kg/m2] with NAFLD, with (MS+) or without MS (MS-) from Southern Italy. Subject and methods: The UCP1 polymorphism was tested by the TaqMan method, main biochemical parameters by routinary methods, adiponectin, and leptin serum levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. MS was diagnosed according to the American Heart Association criteria, liver steatosis was detected by ultrasound. Results: MS was present in 53% male and 66% female obese patients. Only total cholesterol (p=0.04 males and p=0.002 females) and L/A ratio (p=0.03 males) differed between MS+ and MS- obese patients. At ...
Adiponectin, also referred to as Acrp30, AdipoQ and GBP-28, is a recently discovered 244 amino acid protein, the product of the apM1 gene, which is physiologically active and specifically and highly expressed in adipose cells (adipokine). The protein belongs to the soluble defence collagen superfamily; it has a collagen-like domain structurally homologous with collagen VIII and X and complement factor C1q-like globular domain. Adiponectin forms homotrimers, which are the building blocks for higher order complexes found circulating in serum. The human Adiponectin is expressed in E. coli as a recombinant 25.1 kDa sinle, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 231 amino acid residues ...
Results MN and CD4+T cells from RA patients showed a higher proliferative effect when exposed to leptin and adiponectin in comparison with healthy donors. Interesting, the level of proliferation correlated with the DAS28 of patients. Similarly, cells from patients were more sensitive to leptin and adiponectin treatment when evaluating CD25+/CD69+ cell expression and IL-2, TNF secretion, in comparison to healthy donor cells. Comparatively, adiponectin treatment was more effective to induce the expression of CD25, CD69 and IL-6, whereas leptin was a better inductor of IL-2 and TNF-a on the RA patient cells. Comparing this with the clinical activity of patients, we only observed a significant correlation between the DAS28 and the IL-2 induction when exposed to leptin. Preliminary assays showed that leptin was also capable to rescue MN cells from an apoptotic environment by a mechanism related to IL-2 secretion. On the other hand, MN cells from RA patients incubated for several days with leptin ...
In the present study, we found that the I164T mutation of adiponectin gene was associated with CAD prevalence and hypoadiponectinemia in the Japanese population. In contrast, the genotypes of SNP94 and SNP276, which were reported to be present in type 2 diabetes, influenced neither the prevalence of CAD nor the plasma adiponectin level. Importantly, all subjects carrying I164T in the present study including CAD and non-CAD subjects had at least one or more metabolic disorders including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Among CAD patients, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in I164T mutation than that in wild type. These findings suggest that the I164T mutation of adiponectin gene is associated with the development of the metabolic syndrome-linked CAD. Importantly, the severe hypoadiponectinemia in subjects with the I164T mutation was independent of BMI. Recently, we have demonstrated that intimal thickening was accelerated in mechanically injured ...
Recently, adipose tissue has been implicated in the regulation of vascular function in humans. This regulatory function is mediated via the release of vasoactive cytokines called adipokines. Adiponectin is an adipokine with powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties being dysregulated in obesity and in insulin resistance states. In both in vitro and in vivo models adiponectin has been shown to increase nitric oxide bioavailability, improve endothelial function, and exert beneficial effects on vascular smooth muscle cell function. Strategies to upregulate adiponectin expression or to potentiate adiponectin signalling may favourably modulate vascular redox state and therefore reduce cardiovascular risk. Various drug classes such as glitazones, newer sulfonylureas, angiotensin receptor blockers, ACE inhibitors and nicotinic acid exert beneficial effects on insulin resistance partly by increasing plasma adiponectin levels. Others such as tetrahydrobiopterin or certain antioxidants are also
Adiponectin is the most abundant peptide secreted by adipocytes, whose reduction plays a central role in obesity-related diseases, including insulin resistance/type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition to adipocytes, other cell types, such as skeletal and cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells, can also produce this adipocytokine. Adiponectin effects are mediated by adiponectin receptors, which occur as two isoforms (AdipoR1 and AdipoR2). Adiponectin has direct actions in liver, skeletal muscle, and the vasculature.Adiponectin exists in the circulation as varying molecular weight forms, produced by multimerization. Several endoplasmic reticulum ER-associated proteins, including ER oxidoreductase 1-α (Ero1-α), ER resident protein 44 (ERp44), disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), and glucose-regulated protein 94 (GPR94), have recently been found to be involved in the assembly and secretion of higher-order adiponectin complexes. Recent data indicate that the high-molecular
Mouse Adiponectin (Acrp30) ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative Kit 100-150-ADM Mouse Adiponectin (Acrp30) ELISA Kit Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Kit); enzyme immunoassay (EIA); animal (mouse;; rat;; human;; monkey etc) crossreactivity; serum plasma and biolgoical fluids; peptide;; proteins;; ELISA Kit;; antibody;; Acrp30 (adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa);; also known as AdipoQ;; APM1;; Adiponectin;; Gelatin binding protein 28 kDa/GBP28 or adipocyte most abundant protein Mouse Adiponectin (Acrp30) ELISA Kit, 96 tests, Quantitative Kit 100-150-ADM Mouse Adiponectin (Acrp30) ELISA Kit Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA Kit); enzyme immunoassay (EIA); animal (mouse;; rat;; human;; monkey etc) crossreactivity; serum plasma and biolgoical fluids; peptide;; proteins;; ELISA Kit;; antibody;; Acrp30 (adipocyte complement-related protein of 30 kDa);; also known as AdipoQ;; APM1;; Adiponectin;; Gelatin binding protein 28 kDa/GBP28 or adipocyte most abundant protein
Adiponectin, an adipokine predominantly secreted from adipocytes, has been shown to play protective roles against chronic alcohol consumption. While excessive ROS production in macrophages is considered one of the critical events for ethanol-induced damage in various target tissues, the effect of adiponectin on ethanol-induced ROS production is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) on ethanol-induced ROS production and the potential mechanisms underlying these effects of gAcrp in macrophages. Here, we demonstrated that gAcrp prevented ethanol-induced ROS production both in RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary murine peritoneal macrophages. Globular adiponectin also inhibited ethanol-induced activation of NADPH oxidase. In addition, gAcrp suppressed ethanol-induced increase in expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, including Nox2 and p22phox, via modulation of NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, pretreatment with Compound C, a selective ...
Objective. To explore the relationship between adiponectin and albuminuria in a large group of overweight and obese nondiabetic individuals after controlling for potential confounders. Material and Methods. Detailed anthropometiy, computed tomography-measured visceral abdominal adipose tissue, 24-h albuminuria, adiponectin and a series of biochemical parameters were assessed. Four hundred forty patients, predominantly of Caucasian origin, were included (80.2% female). A multiple linear regression model was developed, with albuminuria as the dependent variable and potential predictors as independent variables. Results. The mean age was 40 +/- 13 years, the mean body mass index was 35.7 +/- 6.6 kg/m(2), and the median visceral abdominal adipose tissue was 142.4 (92.3-194.0) cm(2). 10.9% of subjects exhibited microalbuminuria. The median adiponectin level was 9.08 (6.23-12.94) mu g/ml, and the median fasting serum glucose level was 83 (77-89) mg/dl. The strongest significant univariate correlations ...
Common genetic variants at the ARL15 locus are associated with plasma adiponectin, insulin and HDL cholesterol concentrations, obesity, and coronary atherosclerosis. The ARL15 gene encodes a small GTP-binding protein whose function is currently unknown. In this study adipocyte-autonomous roles for ARL15 were investigated using conditional knockdown of Arl15 in murine 3T3-L1 (pre)adipocytes. Arl15 knockdown in differentiated adipocytes impaired adiponectin secretion but not adipsin secretion or insulin action, while in preadipocytes it impaired adipogenesis. In differentiated adipocytes GFP-tagged ARL15 localized predominantly to the Golgi with lower levels detected at the plasma membrane and intracellular vesicles, suggesting involvement in intracellular trafficking. Sequencing of ARL15 in 375 severely insulin resistant patients identified four rare heterozygous variants, including an early nonsense mutation in a proband with femorogluteal lipodystrophy and non classical congenital adrenal ...
Introduction: The interleukin 28B (IL28B) genotype is associated with changes of lipid metabolism in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The association of steatosis with serum levels of adiponectin in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients has also been documented. This study aimed for the evaluation of serum levels of IL28B and adiponectin as well as the association of IL28B SNPs with different clinicopathological parameters in HCV-infected patients.. Methodology: All 142 HCV-infected patients received peg-interferon plus ribavirin. Detection of rs8099917 and rs12979860 IL-28B genotypes was done with specific primers. Serum IL28 and adiponectin levels were measured using commercial ELISA kits.. Results: Higher levels of both IL28 and adiponectin were found in patients. In Genotype 3a (G3a) -infected patients, IL28 and adiponectin serum levels were significantly higher than those infected with G1a. A correlation was found between increasing levels of AST and ALT in G3a-infected patients ...
ADSL Adiponectin deficiency; 612556; ADIPOQ Adrenal cortical carcinoma; 202300; TP53 Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 11 ...
... small-molecule agonist of the adiponectin receptors to be identified. Adiponectin receptor agonists such as AdipoRon have ... Dysregulation of adiponectin expression has also been implicated in the pathology of mood disorders, anxiety disorders, eating ... As such, adiponectin receptor agonists are a highly interesting therapeutic target for a variety of different conditions. ... In addition, adiponectin has recently been elucidated to mediate the antidepressant, anxiolytic, and neurogenic effects of ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
ADIPOQ: adiponectin. *AMOTL2: encoding protein Angiomotin-like protein 2. *ARHGAP31: Rho GRPase activating protein 31 ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
It also inhibits lipolysis and stimulates the secretion of adiponectin. These effects are thought to be mostly conferred via ... lipid accumulation and adiponectin secretion from 3T3-L1 adipocytes and isolated primary rat adipocytes". Diabetologia. 54 (7 ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
Adiponectin. AdipoR1. *Agonists: Peptide: Adiponectin. *ADP-355. *ADP-399; Non-peptide: AdipoRon ...
... has been identified as a novel protein involved in the regulation of adiponectin trafficking and release from the ... RAB11FIP1 expression, which is increased with increasing BMI in humans, inhibits the release of adiponectin from the adipocyte ... potentially contributing to lower circulating levels of adiponectin observed in obese populations. RAB11FIP1 has been shown to ... "The Rab11 Effector Protein FIP1 Regulates Adiponectin". PLoS ONE. 8 (9): e74687. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0074687. PMC 3770573 ...
A negative regulator of adiponectin gene expression". J. Biol. Chem. 281 (42): 31245-53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M605132200. PMID ...
October 2010). "Adiponectin lowers glucose production by increasing SOGA". Am. J. Pathol. 177 (4): 1936-45. doi:10.2353/ajpath. ...
... and they have higher circulating adiponectin, suggesting a link between longevity and adiponectin production In addition, high ... Brown adipose tissue activation through cold exposure increases adiponectin levels, just two hours of cold exposure resulted in ... Centenarians (both men and women) and their offspring have been found to have genetics that boost adiponectin, ... Imbeault, Pascal; Dépault, Isabelle; Haman, François (2009-04-01). "Cold exposure increases adiponectin levels in men". ...
Adiponectin: is a type of protein secreted by adipose cells that improves insulin sensitivity and possesses antiatherogenic ... Lower levels of s-adiponectin are associated with ischemic stroke. Aging: the prevalence of silent stroke rises with increasing ... Bang, OY; Saver, JL; Ovbiagele, B; Choi, YJ; Yoon, SR; Lee, KH (2007). "Adiponectin levels in patients with intracranial ...
Stumvoll M, Häring H (November 2002). "Resistin and adiponectin--of mice and men". Obes. Res. 10 (11): 1197-9. doi:10.1038/oby. ... Silha JV, Krsek M, Skrha JV, Sucharda P, Nyomba BL, Murphy LJ (October 2003). "Plasma resistin, adiponectin and leptin levels ... Wulster-Radcliffe MC, Ajuwon KM, Wang J, Christian JA, Spurlock ME (April 2004). "Adiponectin differentially regulates ... "Resistin and adiponectin expression in visceral fat of obese rats: effect of weight loss". Obes. Res. 10 (11): 1095-103. doi: ...
Adiponectin (together with leptin, it regulates adipose tissue metabolism. It is activated by PPAR inhibitors such as ... It also blocks the beneficial actions of adiponectin. Rimonabant inhibits these and so it reduces appetite, balances energy, ... and increases adiponectin, which reduces intra-abdominal fat. It improves lipid profile, glucose tolerance, and waist ...
Adiponectin has also been shown to increase the rate of fatty acid transport and oxidation in mice, which causes an increase in ... The adiponectin genes regulate glucose metabolism as well as fatty acid breakdown; however, the exact mechanisms are not ... Therefore, there was less adiponectin to help cells take up glucose and break down fat, as well as less leptin to cause a ... With a high fat diet during gestation, there was an increase in methylation in the promoter of the adiponectin gene accompanied ...
"An evolutionary perspective on adiponectin and insulin gene promoters". Adipobiology. 4: 111-115. Gagniuc, Paul; et al. "DNA ...
Similar to GPCRs, the adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2) also possess 7 transmembrane domains. However, ... "Cloning of adiponectin receptors that mediate antidiabetic metabolic effects". Nature. 423 (6941): 762-9. doi:10.1038/ ...
... we examined the longitudinal association between asthma and adiponectin and found that low serum adiponectin concentrations, ... Low serum adiponectin concentrations were a more important predictor of risk for incident asthma than body mass index. Having ... Low serum adiponectin levels predict an increased future risk for developing asthma in middle-aged women, particularly among ... Being in the lowest tertile of serum adiponectin concentrations (,7 mg/L) at year 15 was a significant predictor of a higher ...
Although central (visceral) adipocytes are the most important source of adiponectin,11 the serum adiponectin concentration does ... 13 This assay measures total adiponectin and not the various molecular weight forms of adiponectin. Further details about the ... Adiponectin protects LPS-induced liver injury through modulation of TNF-alpha in KK-Ay obese mice. Hepatology 2004;40:177-84. ... Adiponectin induces the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-1RA in human leukocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2004;323: ...
Adiponectin levels predict mixed and non-calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaque burden. Low adiponectin levels may ... The impact of adiponectin on lesion composition still remains to be determined. We measured serum adiponectin levels in 303 ... adiponectin levels account for only 3% of the variability in total plaque number. In contrast, adiponectin accounts for ... Low serum adiponectin levels were reported to be associated with coronary artery disease and future incidence of acute coronary ...
The mRNA expression of adiponectin receptors genes were also analyzed using reverse transcription RT-PCR. The consumption of ... training may be mediated even partially through increased adiponectin receptor expression and up regulation of adiponectin ... the effect of increased physical activities on insulin resistance and if this effect is modulated through adiponectin receptor ... reaches certain level and increasing the duration of exercise adds no more improvement to insulin sensitivity or adiponectin ...
We think that lifestyle habits might independently modulate adiponectin levels and that adiponectin might be the useful ... Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of ... Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations ... In multiple logistic regression after multiple adjustment, a plasma adiponectin level below 4.0 μg/ml was significantly ...
Canine High Molecular Weight Adiponectin ELISA Kit (MBS025616) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... High Molecular Weight Adiponectin (HMW ADNP), ELISA Kit. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As Canine High Molecular Weight Adiponectin ... Kit for analyzing the presence of the High Molecular Weight Adiponectin (HMW ADNP) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological ...
We aimed to generate adiponectin-based short peptide that can mimic adiponectin action and be suitable for preclinical and ... Kadowaki T, Yamauchi T: Adiponectin and adiponectin receptors. Endocr Rev. 2005, 26 (3): 439-451. 10.1210/er.2005-0005.View ... Identification of the active site of adiponectin. A) Effects of adiponectin fragments encompassing the active site on the ... Nakayama S, Miyoshi Y, Ishihara H, Noguchi S: Growth-inhibitory effect of adiponectin via adiponectin receptor 1 on human ...
High molecular weight adiponectin (HMWA) is considered the active form of adiponectin and a better marker of IR than total ... The objective of this study is to compare the utility of total adiponectin, HMWA and the HMWA/total adiponectin index (SA index ... A total adiponectin level of 8.03 μg/ml was associated with a sensitivity of 57.6%, a specificity of 65.9%, a positive ... Total adiponectin, HMWA and the SA index had similar utility for the identification of IR and metabolic disturbances. ...
Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived secretory protein that has been very widely studied over the past 15 years. A multitude of ... Adiponectin receptors. Adiponectins actions are mediated through a number of receptors, such as adiponectin receptors 1 and 2 ... Low adiponectin correlates with albuminuria in both mice and humans [31, 32]. Lack of adiponectin has been linked to increased ... Adiponectin and the liver. Adiponectin has several effects on the liver. One of the most prominent of these is suppression of ...
Adiponectin and breast cancer risk.. Mantzoros C1, Petridou E, Dessypris N, Chavelas C, Dalamaga M, Alexe DM, Papadiamantis Y, ... Adiponectin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone, is closely and inversely associated with insulin resistance and was recently found ... We evaluated the association of adiponectin with the occurrence of breast cancer in a case-control study comprising 174 women ... We found an inverse, fairly strong, and statistically significant association of serum adiponectin with breast cancer (odds ...
0.02 with adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in the formula; R2 = 0.162, P = 0.007 with only adiponectin in the formula). Also ... 1) in this issue of Diabetes Care regarding adiponectin in youth. We are excited to have received the opinion of investigators ... Stefan N, Stumvoll M, Häring H, Fritsche A: Adiponectin in youth (Letter). Diabetes Care 27:1519-1520, 2004. ... We never implied that a direct effect of adiponectin on insulin secretory function exists. However, as recommended by Stefan et ...
Adiponectin is a 244-amino-acid-long polypeptide (protein). There are four distinct regions of adiponectin. The first is a ... Adiponectin is apparently able to cross the blood-brain-barrier. However, conflicting data on this issue exist. Adiponectin has ... Adiponectin in combination with leptin has been shown to completely reverse insulin resistance in mice. Adiponectin is secreted ... Adiponectin automatically self-associates into larger structures. Initially, three adiponectin molecules bind together to form ...
Analysis of serum adiponectin at day 1 or day 6 after respiratory failure showed that low levels of adiponectin at the earlier ... Adiponectin plays a role in the inflammatory components of cardiovascular diseases. To begin with, lack of adiponectin in a ... 1. Adiponectin. Adiponectin is a cytokine, "adipokine", produced almost exclusively in adipose tissue and is expressed at high ... Figure 1: Adiponectin levels and inflammatory state. In healthy individuals, adiponectin maintains anti-inflammatory properties ...
Immunohistochemistry of adiponectin in human kidneys and determination of urinary adiponectin isoforms by Western blot.. A ... Low-molecular adiponectin isoforms (∼30-70 kDa) were detected in urine by Western blot analysis. Urinary adiponectin was ... percentile) of the adiponectin excretion rate in healthy control subjects (→urinary adiponectin ,10.61 μg/g creatinine). FPG ... Serum adiponectin was significantly lower and urinary adiponectin levels significantly higher in patients with type 2 diabetes ...
Adiponectin exerts some of its weight reduction effects via the brain. This is similar to the action of leptin;[19] adiponectin ... Lower levels of adiponectin are associated with ADHD in adults.[38]. Adiponectin levels were found to be increased in ... Regulation of adiponectin *Obesity is associated with decreased adiponectin. *The exact mechanism of regulation is unknown, but ... Adiponectin is a 247-amino-acid-long polypeptide (protein). There are four distinct regions of adiponectin. The first is a ...
... which are bound and activated by adiponectin: Adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1, PAQR1) Adiponectin receptor 2 (AdipoR2, PAQR2) ... The adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs) include the following two receptors, ...
In healthy adults, adiponectin circulates in serum at a high concentration (1.9-17.0 μg/ml). Adiponectin levels are ... The adiponectin paralogs, CTRPs 1-7, were identified by searching GenBank EST and genomic databases with the adiponectin cDNA ... CTRP May Compensate for Loss of Adiponectin. Three separate lines of adiponectin-/- mice have recently been generated (46-48) ... Identification and Analysis of Acrp30/Adiponectin Paralogs. By using the adiponectin cDNA sequence to interrogate the mouse and ...
Adiponectin as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome.. Ryo M1, Nakamura T, Kihara S, Kumada M, Shibazaki S, Takahashi M, Nagai ... 1.51 for women with adiponectin concentrations ,4.0 microg/ml. In all, 52.3% of men and 37.5% of women with adiponectin ... Adiponectin is an adipose-derived plasma protein with anti-atherogenic and insulin-sensitizing activities. ... Plasma adiponectin concentrations correlated negatively with waist circumference, visceral fat area, serum triglyceride ...
Adiponectin also elicited an AdipoR1-dependent increase in Ca2+ influx, which played a critical role in the pathway leading to ... Adiponectin signaling through AdipoR1 appeared to increase the abundance of the mRNA encoding PGC-1α through a CaMKKβ-dependent ... Adiponectin, a hormone released from adipose tissue that has antidiabetic activity, signals through seven-transmembrane ... Noting that adiponectin deficiency promotes insulin resistance and that insulin resistance is associated with mitochondrial ...
Plasma Adiponectin and Pregnancy-Induced Insulin Resistance. Károly Cseh, Éva Baranyi, Zsolt Melczer, Edit Kaszás, Éva Palik, ... Plasma Adiponectin and Pregnancy-Induced Insulin Resistance. Károly Cseh, Éva Baranyi, Zsolt Melczer, Edit Kaszás, Éva Palik, ... such as adiponectin, in pregnancy-induced insulin resistance. The negative correlation between TNF-α, leptin, and adiponectin ... Plasma Adiponectin and Pregnancy-Induced Insulin Resistance Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
One review suggests adiponectin may be to blame ... EndoType: Is Adiponectin Behind Statin, Diabetes Link?. by ... The impact of statins on adiponectin hasnt been consistent, but one statin -- pitavastatin (Livalo) -- increased adiponectin ... The "adiponectin theory" is still controversial, notes David Bell, MD, of the University of Alabama at Birmingham, but a statin ... A new review, published in Diabetes, Obesity, and Metabolism, suggests that the hormone adiponectin may have something to do ...
i,Results,/i,. Adiponectin levels were elevated immediately following an acute bout of exercise at both high and low ... In comparison to baseline, adiponectin levels were also elevated 24-72 hours following the final exercise session (High: ,mml: ... Both acute and short-term aerobic exercise result in a significant increase in plasma adiponectin levels in inactive, ... i,Objective,/i,. To examine the effect of acute and short-term (~1 week) aerobic exercise training on plasma adiponectin levels ...
We therefore investigated the effect of iron on adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipokine that is decreased in diabetic ... In humans, normal-range serum ferritin levels were inversely associated with adiponectin, independent of inf … ... Adipocyte iron regulates adiponectin and insulin sensitivity J Clin Invest. 2012 Oct;122(10):3529-40. doi: 10.1172/JCI44421. ... Mice fed a high-iron diet and cultured adipocytes treated with iron exhibited decreased adiponectin mRNA and protein. We found ...
... , High Blood Pressure ... Adiponectin may also be involved in the progression of hypertension. On a high-salt diet, Ohashi et al showed that adiponectin- ... Reconstitution of adiponectin expression by adenoviral infection restored normal blood pressure. Overexpression of adiponectin ... The only hormone displaying an opposite trend is adiponectin. Adiponectin levels have been positively associated with insulin ...
Rabbit polyclonal Adiponectin antibody. Validated in WB and tested in Human. Cited in 4 publication(s). Immunogen corresponding ... SDS-PAGE 12% separation of human adiponectin 5. µ. g / line.. SDS-PAGE 12% separation of human adiponectin 5µg / line. ... Defects in ADIPOQ are the cause of adiponectin deficiency (ADPND) [MIM:612556]. ADPND results in very low concentrations of ... Hydroxylation and glycosylation of the lysine residues within the collagene-like domain of adiponectin seem to be critically ...
  • Using a panel of 66 overlapping 10 amino acid-long peptides covering the entire adiponectin globular domain (residues 105-254), we identified the 149-166 region as the adiponectin active site. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MBS025616 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Sandwich (Quantitative) ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the High Molecular Weight Adiponectin (HMW ADNP) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • Defects in ADIPOQ are the cause of adiponectin deficiency (ADPND) [MIM: (abcam.com)
  • The gene symbol is ADIPOQ [adiponectin, C1q and collagen domain containing]. (prospecbio.com)
  • AICAR-mediated protection occurred independently of adiponectin, as similar protection was observed in wild-type and Adipoq −/− mice. (springer.com)
  • Objective The adiponectin gene (ADIPOQ) has been suggested to be associated with the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC). (medsci.org)
  • Nous avons génotypé les deux polymorphismes mononucléotidiques du gène ADIPOQ chez 140 patients atteints de DNID sans lien de parenté et 66 témoins non diabétiques en recourant à l'analyse du polymorphisme de longueur des fragments de restriction par réaction en chaîne de polymérase. (who.int)
  • SNPs at the adiponectin-encoding ADIPOQ locus demonstrated the strongest associations with adiponectin levels (P-combined = 9.2×10−19 for lead SNP, rs266717, n = 14,733). (harvard.edu)
  • looked for a link between adiponectin-AdipoR1 signaling and mitochondria. (sciencemag.org)
  • Having explored the phenotypic effects of a loss of adiponectin signaling through AdipoR1, the authors investigated the underlying pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adiponectin signaling through AdipoR1 appeared to increase the abundance of the mRNA encoding PGC-1α through a CaMKKβ-dependent pathway that did not require AMPK and to stimulate PGC-1α deacetylation by SIRT1, and thereby its activation, through an AMPK-dependent pathway. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adiponectin also elicited an AdipoR1-dependent increase in Ca 2+ influx, which played a critical role in the pathway leading to increased PGC-1α expression and also contributed to adiponectin-mediated AMPK phosphorylation. (sciencemag.org)
  • Thus, the authors conclude that adiponectin signaling through AdipoR1 plays a crucial role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and glucose metabolism. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adiponectin signaling through AdipoR1 plays a crucial role in regulating muscle mitochondrial function. (sciencemag.org)
  • Binding of adiponectin to ADIPOR1 results in activation of an AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling pathway that regulates fatty acid oxidation and insulin sensitivity. (clontech.com)
  • The key roles of adiponectin in regulating energy homeostasis and glucose metabolism are mediated by two integral membrane proteins, named ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 9 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recently, the pleiotropic actions of adiponectin were linked to the ceramide signaling pathway as ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 activation was shown to lower ceramide levels via the activation of a ceramidase activity measured in crude cell lysates 1 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Adiponectin is a protein hormone that modulates a number of metabolic processes, including glucose regulation and fatty acid oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, in an effort to determine if adiponectin is related to an index of glucose homeostasis, we evaluated the correlation of adiponectin with the glucose disposition index (product of insulin sensitivity × first-phase insulin secretion), which revealed that r = 0.35 and P = 0.013. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Consistently, it was shown in type 2 diabetic patients that adiponectin is lowest in the presence of impaired glucose regulation and early diabetes, whereas long diabetes duration is associated with a significant increase in circulating adiponectin ( 11 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Injection of a proteolytically generated globular C-terminal form of recombinant adiponectin into mice significantly reduced levels of plasma-free fatty acids and glucose after a high-fat meal ( 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • Full-length, but not the globular C-terminal domain of adiponectin produced in mammalian cells, enhanced the ability of insulin to suppress gluconeogenesis and glucose release by primary rat hepatocytes ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Many recent studies (summarized in ref. 20 ) have confirmed and extended these initial findings and corroborated the current notion that adiponectin acts as an insulin sensitizer in vivo , exerting its effects on the liver to suppress glucose output while acting on muscle to increase glucose uptake and fatty acid oxidation. (pnas.org)
  • Plasma adiponectin concentrations correlated negatively with waist circumference, visceral fat area, serum triglyceride concentration, fasting plasma glucose, fasting plasma insulin, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure in both sexes. (nih.gov)
  • Its inverse relationship with the increasing BMI, fasting C-peptide concentrations, and C-peptide-to-blood glucose ratio of nondiabetic pregnant women and patients with GDM underlines the importance of adipose tissue and its secreted products, such as adiponectin, in pregnancy-induced insulin resistance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Conversely, organismal iron overload and increased adipocyte ferroportin expression because of hemochromatosis are associated with decreased adipocyte iron, increased adiponectin, improved glucose tolerance, and increased insulin sensitivity. (nih.gov)
  • Phlebotomy of humans with impaired glucose tolerance and ferritin values in the highest quartile of normal increased adiponectin and improved glucose tolerance. (nih.gov)
  • Adiponectin levels have been positively associated with insulin sensitization, glucose use, β-oxidation, and cardiovascular protection. (health.am)
  • Wong et al (2004) have described a widely expressed and highly conserved family of seven adiponectin paralogs that can cause increased glycogen accumulation and fatty acid oxidation and/or lower blood glucose levels in ob/ob mice (see: CTRP1, CTRP2, CTRP9). (prospecbio.com)
  • Administration of adiponectin causes glucose-lowering effects and ameliorates insulin resistance in mice. (thermofisher.com)
  • Several endoplasmic reticulum ER-associated proteins, including ER oxidoreductase 1-α (Ero1-α), ER resident protein 44 (ERp44), disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase-like protein (DsbA-L), and glucose-regulated protein 94 (GPR94), have recently been found to be involved in the assembly and secretion of higher-order adiponectin complexes. (mdpi.com)
  • In an obese rhesus monkey model, the reduction of adiponectin plasma level was associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes 7 while replenishment of adiponectin was shown to ameliorate insulin resistance and glucose intolerance in mice 8 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • α-glucosidase inhibitors are another class of anti-diabetic agents that specifically reduce postprandial blood glucose elevations, but its effect on adiponectin is largely unknown. (nii.ac.jp)
  • So far, scientific studies have been focused on the effect of adiponectin on regulation of glucose and fatty acid metabolism and its connection to cardiovascular system diseases and diabetes mellitus as well as the occurrence of metabolic syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. (umassmed.edu)
  • 16 Devaraj et al demonstrated that adiponectin inhibits high glucose-induced CRP production through its ability to suppress nuclear factor-κ B (NF-κB) activation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adiponectin concentrations correlate negatively with glucose, insulin, triglyceride concentrations, liver fat content and body mass index and positively with high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels, hepatic insulin sensitivity and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. (biovendor.com)
  • Adiponectin has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity and decrease plasma glucose by increasing tissue fat oxidation. (biovendor.com)
  • Adiponectin levels were related to glucose tolerance. (ebscohost.com)
  • Recently, several studies have focused on the effects of adiponectin on the endothelium, kidney, and SNS. (health.am)
  • In the absence of a major direct effect of adiponectin on thyroid cancer cell lines, the negative association observed herein may be attributed to the metabolic effects of adiponectin,' the researchers concluded. (endocrineweb.com)
  • The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of adiponectin on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) in human monocyte-derived macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • The effects of adiponectin (APN) on tumor cells are not well understood, but a number of cancer epidemiologic studies have focused on APN as a predictive marker. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the protective effects of adiponectin on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and attempted to examine its mechanism. (ovid.com)
  • Our results suggest that the protective effects of adiponectin on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis may be ascribed to ability to induce the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and to regulate Bcl-2 and Bax expression. (ovid.com)
  • Mutations and polymorphisms in the adiponectin gene are associated with reduced serum levels of adiponectin, in part due to effects on protein secretion, multimerization, and/or stability ( 9 - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Hydroxylation and glycosylation of the lysine residues within the collagene-like domain of adiponectin seem to be critically involved in regulating the formation and/or secretion of HMW complexes and consequently contribute to the insulin-sensitizing activity of adiponectin in hepatocytes. (abcam.com)
  • Recently, adiponectin was found to enhance exosome biogenesis and secretion, leading to a decrease in cellular ceramides, excess of which is known to cause insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease phenotypes. (jci.org)
  • Adiponectin-induced ERK and Akt phosphorylation protects against pancreatic beta cell apoptosis and increases insulin gene expression and secretion. (peprotech.com)
  • Adiponectin also augmented TIMP-1 secretion into the media, whereas MMP-9 secretion and activity were unchanged. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adiponectin significantly increased interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression at the transcriptional level within 6 hours and significantly increased IL-10 protein secretion within 24 hours. (ahajournals.org)
  • 17,18 Adiponectin has also been shown to inhibit agonist-stimulated NF-κB signaling and suppress TNF-α secretion from a number of cell types including macrophages. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adiponectin is a 30-kDa adipocyte-derived vasoactive peptide closely linked to components of the metabolic syndrome (rev. in 12 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adiponectin as a biomarker of the metabolic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Hypoadiponectinemia is closely associated with the clinical phenotype of the metabolic syndrome and measuring the plasma concentration of adiponectin may be useful for management of the metabolic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • Ferritin was increased and adiponectin was decreased in type 2 diabetic and in obese diabetic subjects compared with those in equally obese individuals without metabolic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • A recent genome-wide scan study mapped a susceptibility locus for type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome to chromosome 3q27, where the adiponectin gene is located. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, two groups independently reported that one of the quantitative trait loci affecting insulin resistance/metabolic syndrome ( 21 ) and type 2 diabetes ( 22 ) was mapped on chromosome 3q27, where the adiponectin gene is located. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • TY - JOUR T1 - Adiponectin and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and elderly Chinese. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Accumulating experimental evidence indicates that adiponectin possesses anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties and may also participate importantly in the mechanism of metabolic syndrome and other diseases. (portlandpress.com)
  • To examine and evaluate the association between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome based on Japanese diagnostic criteria, we analyzed adiponectin and anthropometric parameters in 869 male employees aged 40-59 who belonged to a health insurance society in Fukuoka Prefecture and who underwent annual health check-ups from August 2006 to July 2007. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The serum adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the non-metabolic syndrome group. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In a multiple logistic regression analysis, the subjects in the top quartile of serum adiponectin (adjusted odds ratio:0.36;95% confidence interval:0.21-0.63) and the second (adjusted odds ratio:0.51;95% confidence interval:0.31-0.84) quartile had a significantly decreased risk for metabolic syndrome in comparison to the bottom quartile. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The dose-response relationship between serum adiponectin levels and metabolic syndrome was significant (p for trend 0.0001) after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, and drinking status. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Altogether, adiponectin has the potential to become a clinically relevant parameter to be measured routinely in subjects at risk for type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome. (biovendor.com)
  • In obese subjects, adiponectin levels are decreased, and the ability of adiponectin to inhibit the inflammatory processes is limited. (hindawi.com)
  • To examine the effect of acute and short-term (~1 week) aerobic exercise training on plasma adiponectin levels in inactive, abdominally obese men. (hindawi.com)
  • Both acute and short-term aerobic exercise result in a significant increase in plasma adiponectin levels in inactive, abdominally obese men independent of intensity. (hindawi.com)
  • At present the relationship between an acute bout of aerobic exercise and adiponectin levels in inactive, abdominally obese individuals is unclear. (hindawi.com)
  • However, to date no studies have examined adiponectin levels in abdominally obese individuals 30 minutes after the cessation of an acute bout of aerobic exercise, the time point when adiponectin has been reported to be increased in athletic populations [ 5 , 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 11 ] report that 2 to 3 bouts of aerobic exercise spread over one week resulted in a dramatic 11.2 μ g/mL (equivalent to 160% of baseline values) increase in plasma adiponectin levels in inactive, abdominally obese men. (hindawi.com)
  • Obese patients, particularly those with visceral fat accumulation, have reduced plasma levels of adiponectin, the most abundant and adipose-specific adipocytokine. (portlandpress.com)
  • Obese individuals have decreased circulating adiponectin, an adipose-derived hormone with anti-inflammatory properties. (harvard.edu)
  • Whereas adiponectin is expressed almost exclusively in adipose tissue, 11,12 plasma adiponectin levels are paradoxically decreased in obese individuals. (ahajournals.org)
  • 13 This regulation of adiponectin results, at least in part, from the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and other proinflammatory cytokines which inhibits the synthesis of adiponectin in the obese state. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although adiponectin inhibits proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cells, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain obscure. (aacrjournals.org)
  • 14 A series of in vitro experiments have demonstrated that adiponectin inhibits the production and action of TNFα, a key proinflammatory cytokine, in various types of cells including cardiac and vascular cells. (ahajournals.org)
  • Devaraj et al demonstrate that adiponectin inhibits CRP production 16 in endothelial cells through its ability to modulate the AMP-kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways ( Figure ). (ahajournals.org)
  • Adiponectin also inhibits the inflammatory processes of atherosclerosis suppressing the expression of adhesion and cytokine molecules in vascular endothelial cells and macrophages, respectively. (biovendor.com)
  • One of them, adiponectin decreases the expression of adhesion molecules and inhibits the attachment of active macrophages to the endothelial surface, so that it acts antiinflammatory effect. (eurekaselect.com)
  • We describe a widely expressed and highly conserved family of adiponectin paralogs designated as C1q/tumor necrosis factor-α-related proteins (CTRPs) 1-7. (pnas.org)
  • Adiponectin belongs to a growing family of proteins, all of which contain a C-terminal globular C1q-like domain of ≈135 aa. (pnas.org)
  • Including the seven adiponectin paralogs described here, there are currently 25 proteins belonging to the C1q/TNF-α superfamily. (pnas.org)
  • Also, the association between serum levels of S100A1, ZAG, and adiponectin represents that these three proteins are probably related to specific functions. (dovepress.com)
  • Metabolically, one of the more important fat-derived factors ("adipokines") is adiponectin (APN). (aacrjournals.org)
  • High-molecular-weight adiponectin was further found to be associated with a lower risk of diabetes with similar magnitude of association as total adiponectin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pioglitazone, as expected, increased serum levels of total adiponectin by 2.1 fold and its high molecular weight isoform by 3.6 fold. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We found that acarbose also caused a small but significant increase in serum concentrations of total adiponectin. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In conclusion, acarbose increases serum concentrations of total adiponectin without preference of the high molecular weight isoform in type 2 diabetic patients. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We measured 2-h post-prandial serum FGF21, total adiponectin, percent unmodified adiponectin, ceramide, and sphingosine levels from dolphins fed a diet rich in heptadecanoic acid (C17:0) over 24 weeks. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition to promoting adipocyte differentiation, PPAR- γ agonists are known to increase adiponectin expression both in vitro and in vivo [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid supplementation may increase adiponectin and reduce TNF-α levels. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Adiponectin levels were inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk [body mass index-adjusted relative risk for the top vs. bottom quartile = 0.56 (95% confidence interval 0.36-0.86), P(trend) = 0. (nih.gov)
  • In bivariate analysis adiponectin levels were inversely correlated with total coronary plaque burden (r = -0.21, p = 0.0004), mixed (r = -0.20, p = 0.0007) and non-calcified plaques (r = -0.18, p = 0.003). (uni-muenchen.de)
  • We previously reported that adiponectin, an adipose-specific plasma protein, accumulated to the injured artery and attenuated vascular inflammatory response. (ahajournals.org)
  • RESULTS A homogenous staining of adiponectin was found on the endothelial surface of glomerular capillaries and intrarenal arterioles in nondiabetic kidneys, whereas staining was decreased in diabetic nephropathy. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Ouchi et al (1999) have determined that adiponectin suppresses TNF induced adhesion of monocytes to aortic endothelial cells and also suppresses the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), selectin E, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1 (CD54)) in these cells. (prospecbio.com)
  • 16 These findings are consistent with previous studies showing that adiponectin attenuates TNF-α-induced NF-κB activation in endothelial cells, resulting in reduced expression of cell adhesion molecules and interleukin (IL)-8. (ahajournals.org)
  • 21 Adiponectin activates AMPK signaling in hepatocytes, myocytes, and endothelial cells, and this increase in AMPK signaling is believed to contribute to the insulin-sensitizing and cardioprotective actions of adiponectin. (ahajournals.org)
  • Studies have shown that adiponectin administration in humans and rodents has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory effects, and, in certain settings, also decreases body weight. (mdpi.com)
  • There is evidence that adiponectin is an important modulator of inflammatory processes implicated in airway pathophysiology. (mdpi.com)
  • Our results indicate that adiponectin protects against allergen-induced inflammatory cell recruitment to the airspaces, but not development of goblet cell hyperplasia. (harvard.edu)
  • There was no relationship between insulin resistance, adiponectin levels and inflammatory markers. (wiley.com)
  • 8 These data suggest that adiponectin has antiinflammatory properties and that adiponectin might regulate inflammatory responses at atherosclerotic lesions, in which MMPs and TIMPs are abundantly present. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although the general positive effect on weight loss, inflammatory and cardiometabolic markers has been studied, the impact of these interventional studies on adiponectin remains unclear. (intechopen.com)
  • Conclusion: Resistin levels had an inverse correlation with adiponectin levels, indicating an inverse relationship between pro-inflammatory cytokines and adiponectin. (ebscohost.com)
  • Human recombinant globular domain of adiponectin (gAd) or full-length adiponectin (fAd) was administered via intraperitoneal injection once daily for 7 consecutive days after SN, and in vivo MI/R was introduced 3 wk later. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We evaluated the association of adiponectin with the occurrence of breast cancer in a case-control study comprising 174 women with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed breast cancer and 167 controls. (nih.gov)
  • Adiponectin is secreted from adipose tissue (and also from the placenta in pregnancy) into the bloodstream and is very abundant in plasma relative to many hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, we show that adiponectin-activated AMPK reduces the invasiveness of MDA-MB-231 cells by stimulating dephosphorylation of AKT by increasing protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we examine the ability of AMPK, activated by adiponectin to activate PP2A by phosphorylation of its B56 subunit, which in turn suppresses invasiveness by inactivating AKT. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Specifically they show that AMPK inhibition attenuates the ability of adiponectin to suppress NF-κB activity and CRP production. (ahajournals.org)