Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized: Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Adrenal Cortex HormonesHIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.Lipodystrophy, Familial Partial: Inherited conditions characterized by the partial loss of ADIPOSE TISSUE, either confined to the extremities with normal or increased fat deposits on the face, neck and trunk (type 1), or confined to the loss of SUBCUTANEOUS FAT from the limbs and trunk (type 2). Type 3 is associated with mutation in the gene encoding PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR GAMMA.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Rheumatic Diseases: Disorders of connective tissue, especially the joints and related structures, characterized by inflammation, degeneration, or metabolic derangement.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Osteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Breast: In humans, one of the paired regions in the anterior portion of the THORAX. The breasts consist of the MAMMARY GLANDS, the SKIN, the MUSCLES, the ADIPOSE TISSUE, and the CONNECTIVE TISSUES.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast: An invasive (infiltrating) CARCINOMA of the mammary ductal system (MAMMARY GLANDS) in the human BREAST.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Breast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Anecdotes as Topic: Brief accounts or narratives of an incident or event.Indians, North American: Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Body Fat Distribution: Deposits of ADIPOSE TISSUE throughout the body. The pattern of fat deposits in the body regions is an indicator of health status. Excess ABDOMINAL FAT increases health risks more than excess fat around the hips or thighs, therefore, WAIST-HIP RATIO is often used to determine health risks.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.CyclobutanesPhenolphthalein: An acid-base indicator which is colorless in acid solution, but turns pink to red as the solution becomes alkaline. It is used medicinally as a cathartic.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Appetite Depressants: Agents that are used to suppress appetite.Foods, Specialized: Foods and beverages prepared for use to meet specific needs such as infant foods.Fenfluramine: A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
(1/819) Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages.

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis.  (+info)

(2/819) Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer.

YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three hundred and forty patients died. Sixteen per cent of the patients with Dukes' A, 26% with Dukes' B, 19% with Dukes' C and 39% with Dukes' D had high serum YKL-40 levels (adjusted for age). Analysis of serum YKL-40 as a continuous variable showed an association between increased serum YKL-40 and short survival (P < 0.0001). Patients with high preoperative serum YKL-40 concentration had significantly shorter survival than patients with normal YKL-40 (HR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1, P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis including serum YKL-40, serum CEA, Dukes' stage, age and gender showed that high YKL-40 was an independent prognostic variable for short survival (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.8, P = 0.007). These results suggest that YKL-40 may play an important role in tumour invasion.  (+info)

(3/819) T cell responses to a human cartilage autoantigen in the context of rheumatoid arthritis-associated and nonassociated HLA-DR4 alleles.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the CD4+ T cell responses to the human cartilage antigen glycoprotein-39 (HCgp-39) in the context of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated (DRalphabeta1*0401) and nonassociated (DRalphabeta1*0402) HLA class II molecules. METHODS: Large numbers of HCgp-39-specific T cell hybridomas were generated following immunization of HLA-DR4/human CD4 transgenic, murine major histocompatibility complex class II deficient mice with native HCgp-39. Fine epitope mapping of DRalphabeta1*0401-and DRalphabeta1*0402-restricted T cell hybridomas was performed using overlapping synthetic peptides. Antigen-specific cytokine production by lymph node T cells was evaluated after immunization with native antigen. Proliferative T cell responses of healthy human subjects were compared with the T cell responses of patients with active RA using HCgp-39 epitopes defined in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. RESULTS: CD4+ T cells from DRalphabeta1*0401 and DRalphabeta1*0402 transgenic mice identified completely different immunodominant peptide epitopes of HCgp-39, and this was not explained by known DR4-binding motifs or direct peptide-binding studies. DRalphabeta1*0401-restricted, antigen-specific T cells produced significantly more interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor a in response to HCgp-39 than did T cells from DRalphabeta1*0402 transgenic mice. Finally, HCgp-39 peptides defined in DRalphabeta1*0401 transgenic mice stimulated T cells from HLA-DR4 positive human subjects and RA patients, but not T cells from HLA-DR4 negative individuals. CONCLUSION: T cell epitopes of HCgp-39 that were defined in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice stimulated T cells from human subjects carrying RA-associated HLA-DR4 alleles. HLA-DR4 molecules may influence the disease process in RA both by presentation of selected peptide epitopes and by promoting the production of proinflammatory cytokines in synovial joints.  (+info)

(4/819) Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity.

OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is secreted by chondrocytes, synovial cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Studies have shown that YKL-40 is an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated whether serum YKL-40 was related to disease activity in patients with RA. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 156 patients with RA during a 1 yr longitudinal study. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was increased in 54% of the patients with clinically active disease. Patients with clinically active disease initially who became inactive after 12 months had a significant decrease in serum YKL-40 (-30%, P < 0.002) and patients who changed from inactive to active disease had an increase in serum YKL-40. Patients who remained active had unchanged serum YKL-40 during the study. Serum YKL-40 decreased rapidly (-24% after 7 days, P < 0.01) during prednisolone therapy, and more slowly in patients treated with methotrexate only (-15% after 60 days, P < 0.01). Patients with early RA (disease duration < 3 yr, n = 50) and a persistently elevated serum YKL-40 were at risk of radiological disease progression as determined by Larsen score. CONCLUSION: Serum YKL-40 varies according to disease activity in RA, but provides in some respect information different from conventional markers. Our previous studies are consistent with a local release of YKL-40 in the arthritic joint followed by a secondary increase in serum YKL-40. YKL-40 may prove to be a new tool for the study of disease activity and pathophysiology of RA.  (+info)

(5/819) YKL-40, a matrix protein of specific granules in neutrophils, is elevated in serum of patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization.

The serum concentration of YKL-40, a matrix protein of specific granules in neutrophils, was determined by RIA in 90 patients hospitalized with pneumonia of suspected bacterial origin. Of these, 64 were followed prospectively during antibiotic treatment with blood samples taken on day 0 (on admission and the start of treatment) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 21. Serum YKL-40 at admission was increased in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia (median, 893 microgram/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 704-1560), compared with healthy subjects (median, 102 microgram/L; 95% CI, 64-247 microgram/L; P<.001) and in patients with pneumonia of unknown etiology (median, 448 microgram/L; 95% CI, 334-700; P<.05). Peak YKL-40 serum values were observed on day 1 and thereafter declined steeply to almost normal by day 3. During the first 10 days, there was a close relation between serum YKL-40 and markers of specific granules of neutrophils (serum lactoferrin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), which suggests that serum YKL-40 reflects exocytosis of specific granules of neutrophils in persons with acute bacterial pneumonia.  (+info)

(6/819) YKL-40 in giant cells and macrophages from patients with giant cell arteritis.

OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, a mammalian member of the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases, is secreted by activated macrophages at a late stage of differentiation. Macrophages are present in inflammation of the arterial wall and are thought to participate in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether macrophages and giant cells of patients with GCA produce YKL-40, and whether serum YKL-40 concentrations are elevated in these patients. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 19 patients with GCA and 8 patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) who were followed up prospectively during 1 year of treatment with prednisolone. Immunohistochemical staining for YKL-40 was performed in temporal artery biopsy samples that were obtained before treatment. RESULTS: In the arteritic vessels of patients with GCA, positive staining for the YKL-40 antigen was found in CD68+ giant cells and mononuclear cells located in the media. Macrophages located in the adventitia and intima were negative for YKL-40. At the time of diagnosis, patients with GCA had an increased median serum level of YKL-40 (256 microg/liter; P<0.01) compared with healthy age-matched controls (median 118 microg/liter), and the serum level of YKL-40 decreased to normal levels during prednisolone treatment (-38% after 1 month; P<0.001). Most patients with PMR had normal serum YKL-40 levels (median 158 microg/liter) and had no changes in the serum YKL-40 levels during prednisolone treatment. The observed changes in serum YKL-40 did not always parallel the changes in serum C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during the 1-year study period. CONCLUSION: YKL-40 is found in CD68+ giant cells and mononuclear cells in the media of arteritic vessels of patients with GCA, and the concentration of serum YKL-40 may reflect the local activity of these cells in the inflamed artery.  (+info)

(7/819) Induction of tolerance with intranasal administration of human cartilage gp-39 in DBA/1 mice: amelioration of clinical, histologic, and radiologic signs of type II collagen-induced arthritis.

OBJECTIVE: Human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) was recently identified as a candidate autoantigen in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present studies, we investigated the capacity of HC gp-39 to interfere in clinical disease induced by an unrelated autoantigen, type II collagen (CII), by the induction of cross-tolerance. METHODS: DBA-1j/Bom mice were immunized with bovine CII/complete Freund's adjuvant and were given intraperitoneal booster injections of CII on day 21. Tolerance was induced via the intranasal pathway with either the disease-inducing antigen (CII), a control antigen (ovalbumin), or HC gp-39 either before priming with CII or near the day of the booster injection. Arthritis was monitored visually, and joint pathology was examined histologically and radiologically. In addition, CII antibody levels in serum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In contrast to treatment before priming, intranasal application of HC gp-39 after immunization markedly suppressed disease activity and prevented joint destruction, whereas application of ovalbumin or CII was ineffective. Interference of HC gp-39 with the immune response to CII was demonstrated by decreased anti-CII antibody levels. The combined data indicate that intranasal treatment with HC gp-39 may trigger modulatory or regulatory mechanisms that interfere with the expression of disease in murine collagen-induced arthritis. CONCLUSION: HC gp-39 is the first cross-tolerance-inducing protein in arthritis that down-modulates a spectrum of disease features when given in a semitherapeutic protocol.  (+info)

(8/819) Human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA expression in adult and fetal chondrocytes, osteoblasts and osteocytes by in-situ hybridization.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression pattern of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA in human cartilage and bone. DESIGN: In-situ hybridization analysis was used to examine the expression pattern of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA in adult human osteoarthritic articular cartilage from various stages of disease, as well as in human osteophytic tissue and in human fetal bone. RESULTS: In cartilage from patients with mild osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration, HC gp-39 was expressed at moderate to high levels only in chondrocytes of the superficial zone. In advanced OA cartilage, cloning chondrocytes of the superficial zone expressed high levels of HC gp-39 and chondrocytes of the mid- and deep zones were also positive. HC gp-39 was undetectable in the chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage. In osteophytic tissue, the expression of HC gp-39 mRNA was intense in flattened, end-stage osteoblasts and in primary osteocytes in both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation. Proliferating osteoblasts expressed low to moderate levels. Notably, mature osteocytes were negative for HC gp-39 expression. Chondrocytes in the secondary ossification center of developing fetal cartilage demonstrated high expression while growth plate and mineralized cartilage chondrocytes had lower expression. Osteoblasts at sites of endochondral and intramembranous bone formation were positive for expression of HC gp-39. CONCLUSIONS: The stage-specific expression of HC gp-39 in fetal development and adult remodelling bone and cartilage provides evidence for a specific functional or structural role for HC gp-39 in bone and cartilage tissue. HC gp-39 is expressed in diseased human osteoarthritic cartilage and osteophyte, but not in non-diseased tissue, and its distribution within the tissue changes as disease progresses. OA is characterized not only by cartilage degeneration, but by increased subchondral bone formation and osteophytosis. The results from this study indicate that the increased HC gp-39 expression in OA serum and synovial fluid may reflect not only cartilage degeneration but increased osteogenesis.  (+info)

*  Adipokine
The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines have been discovered. Members ... The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling ... Conde J, Scotece M, Gómez R, López V, Gómez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O (2011). "Adipokines: biofactors from white adipose ... Lehr S, Hartwig S, Sell H (2012). "Adipokines: a treasure trove for the discovery of biomarkers for metabolic disorders". ...
*  Adiposopathy
... adipokines of the alternative complement system; (4) chemotactic/chemoattractant adipokines; and prostaglandins (eicosanoids). ... Wang, B; Wood, IS; Trayhurn, P (2007). "Dysregulation of the expression and secretion of inflammation-related adipokines by ... adipokines with cytokine activity such as leptin, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factor alpha; (2) acute phase proteins / ...
*  Leptin
... including the cell signalling proteins known as adipokines. Certain adipokines can be considered as hormones, as they regulate ... Scotece M, Conde J, Vuolteenaho K, Koskinen A, López V, Gómez-Reino J, Lago F, Moilanen E, Gualillo O (2014). "Adipokines as ... Conde J, Scotece M, Gómez R, López V, Gómez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O (2011). "Adipokines: biofactors from white adipose ... Leptin was the first fat cell-derived hormone (adipokine) to be discovered. Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db ...
*  Obesity-associated morbidity
The result is reduction of the testis' production of testosterone and a further increase in adipokine levels. This then feeds ... Peterlin BL, Sacco S, Bernecker C, Scher AI (April 2016). "Adipokines and Migraine: A Systematic Review". Headache. 56 (4): 622 ... In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome both increase estrogen and adipokine production. This reduces gonadotropin-releasing ...
*  Obesity and fertility
In humans, via white adipocytes (fat cells), production of the hormone leptin (an adipokine) acts on the hypothalamus where ... Mitchell, M.; Armstrong, D. T.; Robker, R. L.; Norman, R. J. (2005-11-01). "Adipokines: implications for female fertility and ...
*  C-reactive protein
Lau DC, Dhillon B, Yan H, Szmitko PE, Verma S (May 2005). "Adipokines: molecular links between obesity and atheroslcerosis". ...
*  FAM132A
Adipolin is an adipokine. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184163 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... a novel adipokine in human and murine ATDC-5 chondrocyte cell line". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 72 (1): 140-2. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis- ... "Adipolin/C1qdc2/CTRP12 protein functions as an adipokine that improves glucose metabolism". J. Biol. Chem. 286 (40): 34552-8. ...
*  Adipose tissue
Ohta, H; Itoh, N (2014). "Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism". Frontiers in ... Perivascular adipose tissue releases adipokines such as adiponectin that affect the contractile function of the vessels that ... Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease. Neel JV (1989). "The study of natural selection in primitive and civilized ... called adipokines (adipocytokines), which play a role in obesity-associated complications. ...
*  Pathophysiology of obesity
The adipokines are mediators produced by adipose tissue; their action is thought to modify many obesity-related diseases. ...
*  Resolvin
CMKLR1 is also activated by chemerin and Adipokines. All of these receptors activate their parent cells through standard GPR- ...
*  George Chaldakov
Chaldakov GN, Stankulov IS, Hristova MG, Ghenev PI (2003). "Adipobiology of disease: adipokines and adipokine-targeted ... Conceptualize the protein secretory products of adipose tissue cells as adipokines, also focusing on perivascular adipose ... adipokines, cytokines). In 1991, Chaldekov became founder and chief editor of Biomedical Reviews, An International Journal of ...
*  Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase
The protein is an adipokine that is localized to the bloodstream and has various functions, including the promotion of vascular ... Bełtowski J (2006). "Apelin and visfatin: unique "beneficial" adipokines upregulated in obesity?". Med. Sci. Monit. 12 (6): ...
*  Haptoglobin
"Entrez Gene: HP". Trayhurn P, Wood IS (September 2004). "Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose ... "Bovine haptoglobin as an adipokine: Serum concentrations and tissue expression in dairy cows receiving a conjugated linoleic ...
*  List of human endocrine organs and actions
Signalling molecules released by adipose tissue are referred to as adipokines. Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked ...
*  Obesity
Theodore Mazzone; Giamila Fantuzzi (2006). Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa, ...
*  Equine metabolic syndrome
It is possible adipokines and cytokines made in adipose tissue down-regulate insulin pathways. It is also possible that IR ... The cells of adipose (fat) tissue synthesizes hormones known as adipokines. In humans, dysfunction of adipose tissue, even in ... leading to the production of more adipokines and perpetuation of the cycle, and a constant low-level, pro-inflammatory state. ...
*  Christos Socrates Mantzoros
Diet patterns, adipokines, and metabolism: where are we and what is next? Metabolism. 2014 Feb;63(2):168-77. doi:10.1016/j. ... leads to improved levels of adipokines like adiponectin, which decreases insulin resistance, and inflammatory factors like c- ... group include the elucidation of the physiological role and potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility of several adipokines ...
*  EDIL3
... a novel adipokine in the regulation of angiogenesis". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 95 (5): 2476-85. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-0042. ...
*  TRHDE
... a novel adipokine in the regulation of angiogenesis". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 95 (5): 2476-85. ...
*  B-cell activating factor
Kim YH, Choi BH, Cheon HG, Do MS (March 2009). "B cell activation factor (BAFF) is a novel adipokine that links obesity and ... "B cell-activating factor controls the production of adipokines and induces insulin resistance". Obesity. 19 (10): 1915-22. doi: ...
*  Chemerin
Roh SG, Song SH, Choi KC, Katoh K, Wittamer V, Parmentier M, Sasaki S (Sep 2007). "Chemerin--a new adipokine that modulates ... Because of its role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake, chemerin is classified as an adipokine. Chemerin has been ... a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (38): 28175-88. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome". Endocrinology. 148 (10): 4687-94. doi:10.1210/en ...
*  CMKLR1
As an adipokine receptor it has a role in adipogenesis and adipocyte maturation. It seems also to have a role in peripheral ... Chemokine receptor-like 1 is a G protein-coupled receptor for the chemoattractant adipokine chemerin and the omega-3 fatty acid ... Darios ES, Winner BM, Charvat T, Krasinksi A, Punna S, Watts SW (August 2016). "The adipokine chemerin amplifies electrical ... "Adipokine Chemerin Bridges Metabolic Dyslipidemia and Alveolar Bone Loss in Mice". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. doi: ...
*  Apelin
... a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity". Endocrinology. 2005 Apr. 146 (4): 1764-71. doi:10.1210/en. ...
*  Undurti Narasimha Das
"Effects of bariatric surgery on adipokine-induced inflammation and insulin resistance". Frontiers in Endocrinology. doi:10.3389 ...
*  Resistin
Malyszko J, Malyszko JS, Pawlak K, Mysliwiec M (December 2006). "Resistin, a new adipokine, is related to inflammation and ... an adipokine-mediated process?". Diabetes. 51 (10): 2951-8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.51.10.2951. PMID 12351432. Levy JR, Davenport ... further evidence of adipokine-endothelial interaction". Circulation. 108 (6): 736-40. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000084503.91330.49. ...
Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.  - PubMed - NCBI  Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation. - PubMed - NCBI
Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.. Fantuzzi G1.. Author information. 1. Department of Human Nutrition, University ... Altered adipokine levels have been observed in a variety of inflammatory conditions, although their pathogenic role has not ... Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15867843?dopt=Abstract
Adipokines: therapeutic targets for metabolic syndrome.  - PubMed - NCBI  Adipokines: therapeutic targets for metabolic syndrome. - PubMed - NCBI
Adipokines: therapeutic targets for metabolic syndrome.. Kobayashi K1.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicine and ... These adipokines play pivotal roles in energy homeostasis by affecting insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolisms, food ... Recently, many investigators have reported that adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive molecules, termed adipokines ( ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16026271?dopt=Abstract
Adipokines, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Obesity | SpringerLink  Adipokines, Inflammation, and Insulin Resistance in Obesity | SpringerLink
... termed adipokines. These adipokines function as circulating hormones to communicate with other organs including the brain, ... 2005). Apelin, a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity. Endocrinology, 146, 1764-1771.PubMedCrossRef ... Itoh, N. (2014). FGF21 as a hepatokine, adipokine, and myokine in metabolism and diseases. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5, 107. ... The dysregulation of adipokines has been implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-319-89506-2_9
Adipokines  Adipokines
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more infohttps://www.biovision.com/products/signaling-pathways/adipokine-signaling/adipokines.html
Brown Adipokines | SpringerLink  Brown Adipokines | SpringerLink
Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine ... Adipokine Beige adipocyte Brown adipocyte Brown adipose tissue This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Chen Z, Wang GX, Ma SL, Jung DY, Ha H, Altamimi T et al (2017) Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ... Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F164_2018_119
Corticosteroid-induced Lipodystrophy and Adipokines - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Corticosteroid-induced Lipodystrophy and Adipokines - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Corticosteroid-induced Lipodystrophy and Adipokines. Official Title Study of Histological and Adipokines Expression Variations ... Methods: At treatment initiation and 3 months after: comparison of fat sample mRNA expression of adipokines (adiponectin, ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00822042
Adipokines and Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in the Pathogenesis of Asthma  Adipokines and Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in the Pathogenesis of Asthma
Adipokines are hormones that display both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. One such adipokine is leptin, a 16 kD protein ... Adipokines and Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in the Pathogenesis of Asthma. Michael J. Coffey, Barbara Torretti, and Peter Mancuso ... Adiponectin is another adipokine formed in adipose tissue. In contrast to leptin, adiponectin levels are decreased in obesity ... Adipokines, especially in obese female asthmatics, may promote an asthma phenotype that has become more prevalent and results ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ja/2015/157919/
Adipokines | definition of adipokines by Medical dictionary  Adipokines | definition of adipokines by Medical dictionary
... adipokines explanation free. What is adipokines? Meaning of adipokines medical term. What does adipokines mean? ... Looking for online definition of adipokines in the Medical Dictionary? ... Adipokines , definition of adipokines by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adipokines ... adipokines. ad·i·po·kines (ad'i-pō'kēnz) Autocrine and paracrine factors released from human adipose tissue, in particular the ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adipokines
Lipophilic Micronutrients, Adipokines and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov  Lipophilic Micronutrients, Adipokines and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Lipophilic Micronutrients, Adipokines and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (2011-23). The safety and scientific validity of this ... Lipophilic Micronutrients, Adipokines and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Official Title ICMJE Lipophilic Micronutrients, ... The favourable effects of these micronutrients on insulin sensitivity could be partially mediated by adipokines and/or pro- ... Adipokines and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Brief Summary Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT01678469
Adipokines Do Not Mediate the Association of Obesity and Colorectal Adenoma  Adipokines Do Not Mediate the Association of Obesity and Colorectal Adenoma
... Heather M. Ochs-Balcom,1 Rikki Cannioto,1 Jing Nie ... Adipokines have been postulated as contributors to the observed association; however, few studies have examined the mediating ... We observed differences in circulating adipokine concentrations by race; African Americans had higher levels of leptin and ... effect of adipokines on the obesity-colon adenoma association with consideration of racial differences. Methods. We determined ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jce/2014/371254/abs/
Adipokines | Profiles RNS  Adipokines | Profiles RNS
"Adipokines" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Adipokines" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Prospective Relation of Circulating Adipokines to Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The Framingham Heart Study. J Am Heart Assoc. ... Association of Parental Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus With Circulating Adipokines in Nonobese Nondiabetic Offspring. J Am Heart ...
more infohttps://profiles.umassmed.edu/display/115168
Obesity, Adipokines, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Health in Men Study | Circulation  Obesity, Adipokines, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Health in Men Study | Circulation
Obesity, Adipokines, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Health in Men Study. Jonathan Golledge, Paula Clancy, Konrad Jamrozik, Paul ... Obesity, Adipokines, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Health in Men Study. Jonathan Golledge, Paula Clancy, Konrad Jamrozik and ... Obesity, Adipokines, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Health in Men Study. Jonathan Golledge, Paula Clancy, Konrad Jamrozik and ...
more infohttp://circ.ahajournals.org/content/early/2007/10/29/CIRCULATIONAHA.107.717926
Independent circadian and sleep/wake regulation of adipokines and glucose in humans.  Independent circadian and sleep/wake regulation of adipokines and glucose in humans.
... and of the endogenous circadian pacemaker on observed day/night patterns of adipokines, in six healthy subjects we measured ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Independent-circadian-regulation-adipokines-glucose/15687326.html
Even- and odd-chain saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids are differentially associated with adipokines  Even- and odd-chain saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids are differentially associated with adipokines
Results Even- and odd-chain saturated fatty acids were differentially associated with adipokines. Higher levels of even-chain ... Objective We examined the associations of saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids with circulating levels of adipokines ... Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between saturated fatty acids and adipokines, with ... Conclusions The results suggest that even- and odd-chain saturated fatty acids are differentially associated with adipokine ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0178192
SP0162 Adipokines in the pathophysiology of cartilage | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases  SP0162 Adipokines in the pathophysiology of cartilage | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
The discovery of adipokines has made a major contribution to our understanding of the complex relationship between diabesity ... The aim of this lecture is to summarize the role of adipokines in bone and cartilage function, as well as in inflammatory and ... Adipokines including leptin adiponectin, visfatin and lipocalin 2 have been demonstrated to exhibit a wide spectrum of ... collectively known as adipokines) promote further inflammation and degradation of cartilage, also influencing the whole joint ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/76/Suppl_2/39.3
Adipokines in Arthritis: New Kids on the Block | Bentham Science  Adipokines in Arthritis: New Kids on the Block | Bentham Science
Adipokines in Arthritis: New Kids on the Block. Author(s): Odile Gabay, Francis Berenbaum. Pierre&Marie Curie University, UR4, ... Although their roles need to be clarified, these adipokines will soon be pivotal to the diagnosis, the prognosis and the ... Although their roles need to be clarified, these adipokines will soon be pivotal to the diagnosis, the prognosis and the ... However, it is noteworthy that the source of these adipokines in physiological and/or pathological conditions is not restricted ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/85518
Plus it  Plus it
Serum Levels of the Adipokine FGF21 Depend on Renal Function. Sebastian Stein, Anette Bachmann, Ulrike Lössner, Jürgen Kratzsch ... Serum Levels of the Adipokine FGF21 Depend on Renal Function. Sebastian Stein, Anette Bachmann, Ulrike Lössner, Jürgen Kratzsch ... Serum Levels of the Adipokine FGF21 Depend on Renal Function Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Seeger J, Ziegelmeier M, Bachmann A, Lossner U, Kratzsch J, Bluher M, Stumvoll M, Fasshauer M: Serum levels of the adipokine ...
more infohttp://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/32/1/126
Visfatin: an adipokine activator of rat hepatic stellate cells. | Sigma-Aldrich  Visfatin: an adipokine activator of rat hepatic stellate cells. | Sigma-Aldrich
Visfatin: an adipokine activator of rat hepatic stellate cells.. [Ning-Lin Liang, Ruoting Men, Yongjun Zhu, Cong Yuan, Yan Wei ...
more infohttps://www.sigmaaldrich.com/catalog/papers/25351242
Plus it  Plus it
WISP1 Is a Novel Adipokine Linked to Inflammation in Obesity. Veronica Murahovschi, Olga Pivovarova, Iryna Ilkavets, Renata M. ... WISP1 Is a Novel Adipokine Linked to Inflammation in Obesity. Veronica Murahovschi, Olga Pivovarova, Iryna Ilkavets, Renata M. ... WISP1 Is a Novel Adipokine Linked to Inflammation in Obesity Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We show that 1) WISP1 is a novel adipokine released from differentiated human adipocytes; 2) WISP1 expression is substantially ...
more infohttps://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/64/3/856
Abstract 4298: Cytokines and adipokines in breastmilk of black and white women | Cancer Research  Abstract 4298: Cytokines and adipokines in breastmilk of black and white women | Cancer Research
Abstract 4298: Cytokines and adipokines in breastmilk of black and white women. Jeanne Murphy, Mark E. Sherman, Ruth M. ... Cytokines and adipokines in breastmilk of black and white women. [abstract]. In: Proceedings of the 107th Annual Meeting of the ... Abstract 4298: Cytokines and adipokines in breastmilk of black and white women ... Abstract 4298: Cytokines and adipokines in breastmilk of black and white women ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/76/14_Supplement/4298
  • Chapters on well-known properties of adipokines leptin and adiponectin are complemented by an introduction to a novel view of adipose tissue as a dynamic organ that regulates systemic substrate availability and metabolism, along with a variety of other discrete functions. (indigo.ca)
  • Moreover, identification of brown adipokines as circulating biomarkers of brown adipose tissue activity may be particularly useful for noninvasive assessment of brown adipose tissue alterations in human pathologies. (springer.com)
  • These adipokines function as circulating hormones to communicate with other organs including the brain, liver, muscle, immune system, and adipose tissue itself, resulting in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. (springer.com)
  • Chen Z, Wang GX, Ma SL, Jung DY, Ha H, Altamimi T et al (2017) Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders. (springer.com)
  • Limited studies of Western populations examined the associations of circulating saturated fatty acids with adipokines, an important role in glucose metabolism. (plos.org)
  • The adipokine Chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), are associated with osteoblastogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoclastogenic differentiation of osteoclast precursors in vitro, suggesting that CMKLR1 would affect the bone mineral density (BMD). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions. (springer.com)
  • Although their roles need to be clarified, these adipokines will soon be pivotal to the diagnosis, the prognosis and the pharmacological approaches of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, it is noteworthy that the source of these adipokines in physiological and/or pathological conditions is not restricted to the adipose tissue. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease presents a comprehensive survey of adipose tissue, its physiological functions, and its role in disease. (indigo.ca)
  • Independent circadian and sleep/wake regulation of adipokines and glucose in humans. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In contrast to extensive experiments in animals, only one study to date has determined regulation and function of FGF21 in humans in vivo ( 5 ), and no data have been published about the relation of this adipokine to renal function. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • As African Americans experience disproportionate prevalence and magnitude of cardiovascular risk factors, the objective of our study was to assess the relationship between these adipokines and BNP among African Americans. (ovid.com)
  • Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), an intracellular lipid chaperone and adipokine, is expressed by lung macrophages, but the function of macrophage-FABP4 remains elusive. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Altered adipokine levels have been observed in a variety of inflammatory conditions, although their pathogenic role has not been completely clarified. (nih.gov)
  • Here, studies having analyzed these proteins in systemic blood in cirrhotic patients are listed to identify adipokines that are comparably changed in the different cohorts of patients with liver cirrhosis. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between saturated fatty acids and adipokines, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. (plos.org)
  • Multivariable adjusted logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios for associations of adipokines and BNP. (ovid.com)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Adipokines" by people in this website by year, and whether "Adipokines" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • The discovery of adipokines has made a major contribution to our understanding of the complex relationship between diabesity and OA, encompassing a variety of factors that include the immune system, metabolism and biomechanics. (bmj.com)
  • To examine the effects of the adipokine leptin, a hormone with pleiotropic cardiovascular effects, on EPC function, human peripheral blood monocytes were isolated from healthy volunteers and expanded ex vivo for 7 days. (ahajournals.org)
  • Blüher M, Mantzoros CS (2015) From leptin to other adipokines in health and disease: facts and expectations at the beginning of the 21st century. (springer.com)
  • From leptin to other adipokines in health and disease: Facts and expectations at the beginning of the 21st century. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease provides a broad and substantial foundation for understanding new developments in adipose tissue biology and successfully integrating them into new research endeavors. (indigo.ca)
  • Multivariable adjusted linear models were used to determine the association between adipokines and BNP. (ovid.com)
  • Research over the past several decades examining adipokines and adipose tissue-liver crosstalk in energy metabolism has revealed that adipose tissue is a very important metabolically active endocrine organ 1 . (alpco.com)