Adipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma: Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Metabolic Syndrome X: A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Receptors, Adipokine: Cell surface receptors for ADIPOKINES, cytokines secreted by the ADIPOCYTES.Receptors, Adiponectin: Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Inflammation Mediators: The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).Overnutrition: An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Cytokines: Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Ghrelin: A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.Peptide Hormones: Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.Angiopoietins: A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.Lipocalins: A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1: A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.Lipodystrophy, Congenital Generalized: Congenital disorders, usually autosomal recessive, characterized by severe generalized lack of ADIPOSE TISSUE, extreme INSULIN RESISTANCE, and HYPERTRIGLYCERIDEMIA.Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Adrenal Cortex HormonesHIV-Associated Lipodystrophy Syndrome: Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.

Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages. (1/819)

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis.  (+info)

Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer. (2/819)

YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three hundred and forty patients died. Sixteen per cent of the patients with Dukes' A, 26% with Dukes' B, 19% with Dukes' C and 39% with Dukes' D had high serum YKL-40 levels (adjusted for age). Analysis of serum YKL-40 as a continuous variable showed an association between increased serum YKL-40 and short survival (P < 0.0001). Patients with high preoperative serum YKL-40 concentration had significantly shorter survival than patients with normal YKL-40 (HR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1, P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis including serum YKL-40, serum CEA, Dukes' stage, age and gender showed that high YKL-40 was an independent prognostic variable for short survival (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.8, P = 0.007). These results suggest that YKL-40 may play an important role in tumour invasion.  (+info)

T cell responses to a human cartilage autoantigen in the context of rheumatoid arthritis-associated and nonassociated HLA-DR4 alleles. (3/819)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the CD4+ T cell responses to the human cartilage antigen glycoprotein-39 (HCgp-39) in the context of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated (DRalphabeta1*0401) and nonassociated (DRalphabeta1*0402) HLA class II molecules. METHODS: Large numbers of HCgp-39-specific T cell hybridomas were generated following immunization of HLA-DR4/human CD4 transgenic, murine major histocompatibility complex class II deficient mice with native HCgp-39. Fine epitope mapping of DRalphabeta1*0401-and DRalphabeta1*0402-restricted T cell hybridomas was performed using overlapping synthetic peptides. Antigen-specific cytokine production by lymph node T cells was evaluated after immunization with native antigen. Proliferative T cell responses of healthy human subjects were compared with the T cell responses of patients with active RA using HCgp-39 epitopes defined in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. RESULTS: CD4+ T cells from DRalphabeta1*0401 and DRalphabeta1*0402 transgenic mice identified completely different immunodominant peptide epitopes of HCgp-39, and this was not explained by known DR4-binding motifs or direct peptide-binding studies. DRalphabeta1*0401-restricted, antigen-specific T cells produced significantly more interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor a in response to HCgp-39 than did T cells from DRalphabeta1*0402 transgenic mice. Finally, HCgp-39 peptides defined in DRalphabeta1*0401 transgenic mice stimulated T cells from HLA-DR4 positive human subjects and RA patients, but not T cells from HLA-DR4 negative individuals. CONCLUSION: T cell epitopes of HCgp-39 that were defined in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice stimulated T cells from human subjects carrying RA-associated HLA-DR4 alleles. HLA-DR4 molecules may influence the disease process in RA both by presentation of selected peptide epitopes and by promoting the production of proinflammatory cytokines in synovial joints.  (+info)

Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity. (4/819)

OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is secreted by chondrocytes, synovial cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Studies have shown that YKL-40 is an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated whether serum YKL-40 was related to disease activity in patients with RA. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 156 patients with RA during a 1 yr longitudinal study. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was increased in 54% of the patients with clinically active disease. Patients with clinically active disease initially who became inactive after 12 months had a significant decrease in serum YKL-40 (-30%, P < 0.002) and patients who changed from inactive to active disease had an increase in serum YKL-40. Patients who remained active had unchanged serum YKL-40 during the study. Serum YKL-40 decreased rapidly (-24% after 7 days, P < 0.01) during prednisolone therapy, and more slowly in patients treated with methotrexate only (-15% after 60 days, P < 0.01). Patients with early RA (disease duration < 3 yr, n = 50) and a persistently elevated serum YKL-40 were at risk of radiological disease progression as determined by Larsen score. CONCLUSION: Serum YKL-40 varies according to disease activity in RA, but provides in some respect information different from conventional markers. Our previous studies are consistent with a local release of YKL-40 in the arthritic joint followed by a secondary increase in serum YKL-40. YKL-40 may prove to be a new tool for the study of disease activity and pathophysiology of RA.  (+info)

YKL-40, a matrix protein of specific granules in neutrophils, is elevated in serum of patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. (5/819)

The serum concentration of YKL-40, a matrix protein of specific granules in neutrophils, was determined by RIA in 90 patients hospitalized with pneumonia of suspected bacterial origin. Of these, 64 were followed prospectively during antibiotic treatment with blood samples taken on day 0 (on admission and the start of treatment) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 21. Serum YKL-40 at admission was increased in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia (median, 893 microgram/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 704-1560), compared with healthy subjects (median, 102 microgram/L; 95% CI, 64-247 microgram/L; P<.001) and in patients with pneumonia of unknown etiology (median, 448 microgram/L; 95% CI, 334-700; P<.05). Peak YKL-40 serum values were observed on day 1 and thereafter declined steeply to almost normal by day 3. During the first 10 days, there was a close relation between serum YKL-40 and markers of specific granules of neutrophils (serum lactoferrin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), which suggests that serum YKL-40 reflects exocytosis of specific granules of neutrophils in persons with acute bacterial pneumonia.  (+info)

YKL-40 in giant cells and macrophages from patients with giant cell arteritis. (6/819)

OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, a mammalian member of the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases, is secreted by activated macrophages at a late stage of differentiation. Macrophages are present in inflammation of the arterial wall and are thought to participate in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether macrophages and giant cells of patients with GCA produce YKL-40, and whether serum YKL-40 concentrations are elevated in these patients. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 19 patients with GCA and 8 patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) who were followed up prospectively during 1 year of treatment with prednisolone. Immunohistochemical staining for YKL-40 was performed in temporal artery biopsy samples that were obtained before treatment. RESULTS: In the arteritic vessels of patients with GCA, positive staining for the YKL-40 antigen was found in CD68+ giant cells and mononuclear cells located in the media. Macrophages located in the adventitia and intima were negative for YKL-40. At the time of diagnosis, patients with GCA had an increased median serum level of YKL-40 (256 microg/liter; P<0.01) compared with healthy age-matched controls (median 118 microg/liter), and the serum level of YKL-40 decreased to normal levels during prednisolone treatment (-38% after 1 month; P<0.001). Most patients with PMR had normal serum YKL-40 levels (median 158 microg/liter) and had no changes in the serum YKL-40 levels during prednisolone treatment. The observed changes in serum YKL-40 did not always parallel the changes in serum C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during the 1-year study period. CONCLUSION: YKL-40 is found in CD68+ giant cells and mononuclear cells in the media of arteritic vessels of patients with GCA, and the concentration of serum YKL-40 may reflect the local activity of these cells in the inflamed artery.  (+info)

Induction of tolerance with intranasal administration of human cartilage gp-39 in DBA/1 mice: amelioration of clinical, histologic, and radiologic signs of type II collagen-induced arthritis. (7/819)

OBJECTIVE: Human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) was recently identified as a candidate autoantigen in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present studies, we investigated the capacity of HC gp-39 to interfere in clinical disease induced by an unrelated autoantigen, type II collagen (CII), by the induction of cross-tolerance. METHODS: DBA-1j/Bom mice were immunized with bovine CII/complete Freund's adjuvant and were given intraperitoneal booster injections of CII on day 21. Tolerance was induced via the intranasal pathway with either the disease-inducing antigen (CII), a control antigen (ovalbumin), or HC gp-39 either before priming with CII or near the day of the booster injection. Arthritis was monitored visually, and joint pathology was examined histologically and radiologically. In addition, CII antibody levels in serum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In contrast to treatment before priming, intranasal application of HC gp-39 after immunization markedly suppressed disease activity and prevented joint destruction, whereas application of ovalbumin or CII was ineffective. Interference of HC gp-39 with the immune response to CII was demonstrated by decreased anti-CII antibody levels. The combined data indicate that intranasal treatment with HC gp-39 may trigger modulatory or regulatory mechanisms that interfere with the expression of disease in murine collagen-induced arthritis. CONCLUSION: HC gp-39 is the first cross-tolerance-inducing protein in arthritis that down-modulates a spectrum of disease features when given in a semitherapeutic protocol.  (+info)

Human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA expression in adult and fetal chondrocytes, osteoblasts and osteocytes by in-situ hybridization. (8/819)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression pattern of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA in human cartilage and bone. DESIGN: In-situ hybridization analysis was used to examine the expression pattern of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA in adult human osteoarthritic articular cartilage from various stages of disease, as well as in human osteophytic tissue and in human fetal bone. RESULTS: In cartilage from patients with mild osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration, HC gp-39 was expressed at moderate to high levels only in chondrocytes of the superficial zone. In advanced OA cartilage, cloning chondrocytes of the superficial zone expressed high levels of HC gp-39 and chondrocytes of the mid- and deep zones were also positive. HC gp-39 was undetectable in the chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage. In osteophytic tissue, the expression of HC gp-39 mRNA was intense in flattened, end-stage osteoblasts and in primary osteocytes in both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation. Proliferating osteoblasts expressed low to moderate levels. Notably, mature osteocytes were negative for HC gp-39 expression. Chondrocytes in the secondary ossification center of developing fetal cartilage demonstrated high expression while growth plate and mineralized cartilage chondrocytes had lower expression. Osteoblasts at sites of endochondral and intramembranous bone formation were positive for expression of HC gp-39. CONCLUSIONS: The stage-specific expression of HC gp-39 in fetal development and adult remodelling bone and cartilage provides evidence for a specific functional or structural role for HC gp-39 in bone and cartilage tissue. HC gp-39 is expressed in diseased human osteoarthritic cartilage and osteophyte, but not in non-diseased tissue, and its distribution within the tissue changes as disease progresses. OA is characterized not only by cartilage degeneration, but by increased subchondral bone formation and osteophytosis. The results from this study indicate that the increased HC gp-39 expression in OA serum and synovial fluid may reflect not only cartilage degeneration but increased osteogenesis.  (+info)

In this first report of adipokine concentrations in histologically normal breast tissues from healthy women, it was found that there was wide interindividual variation in breast leptin and adiponectin, inferring the potential for these adipokines to be associated with breast cancer in some women but not others. Importantly, we observed modest positive correlations between plasma and breast adipokine concentrations, which for leptin was the strongest in women with BMI less than 25, whereas for adiponectin, the correlation was strongest in those with BMI ≥30 or more. Therefore, it is uncertain whether or not plasma adipokines are good surrogates for breast adipokines among all women. Through multivariable-adjusted regression analysis, we identified factors that explain 20% to 30% of the variation in breast leptin and adiponectin. Among all of the breast cancer risk factors investigated in this study, we found that BMI and race explained most of the observed variation in breast leptin, whereas OC ...
The growing prevalence of obesity and its related metabolic diseases, mainly Type 2 diabetes (T2D), has increased the interest in adipose tissue (AT) and its role as a principal metabolic orchestrator. Two decades of research have now shown that ATs act as an endocrine organ, secreting soluble factors termed adipocytokines or adipokines. These adipokines play crucial roles in whole-body metabolism with different mechanisms of action largely dependent on the tissue or cell type they are acting on. The pancreatic β cell, a key regulator of glucose metabolism due to its ability to produce and secrete insulin, has been identified as a target for several adipokines. This review will focus on how adipokines affect pancreatic β cell function and their impact on pancreatic β cell survival in disease contexts such as diabetes. Initially, the "classic" adipokines will be discussed, followed by novel secreted adipocyte-specific factors that show therapeutic promise in regulating the adipose-pancreatic ...
The growing prevalence of obesity and its related metabolic diseases, mainly Type 2 diabetes (T2D), has increased the interest in adipose tissue (AT) and its role as a principal metabolic orchestrator. Two decades of research have now shown that ATs act as an endocrine organ, secreting soluble factors termed adipocytokines or adipokines. These adipokines play crucial roles in whole-body metabolism with different mechanisms of action largely dependent on the tissue or cell type they are acting on. The pancreatic β cell, a key regulator of glucose metabolism due to its ability to produce and secrete insulin, has been identified as a target for several adipokines. This review will focus on how adipokines affect pancreatic β cell function and their impact on pancreatic β cell survival in disease contexts such as diabetes. Initially, the "classic" adipokines will be discussed, followed by novel secreted adipocyte-specific factors that show therapeutic promise in regulating the adipose-pancreatic ...
Resistant hypertension (RH) is a multifactorial disease, frequently associated with obesity and characterized by blood pressure above goal (140/90 mm Hg) despite the concurrent use of ≥3 antihypertensive drugs of different classes. The mechanisms of obesity-related hypertension include, among others, aldosterone excess and inflammatory adipokines, which have demonstrated a significant role in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome and RH. This review aims to summarize recent studies on the role of the adipokines leptin, resistin, and adiponectin in the pathophysiology of RH and target-organ damage associated with this condition. The deregulation of adipokine levels has been associated with clinical characteristics frequently recognized in RH such as diabetes, hyperactivity of sympathetic and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems, and vascular and renal damage. Strategies to regulate adipokines may be promising for the management of RH and some clinical implications must be considered when ...
Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT) is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-|i|α|/i| and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR) not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for
TY - JOUR. T1 - - Invited review - Physiological roles of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines in ruminants. AU - Roh, Sang Gun. AU - Suzuki, Yutaka. AU - Gotoh, Takafumi. AU - Tatsumi, Ryuichi. AU - Katoh, Kazuo. PY - 2016/1/1. Y1 - 2016/1/1. N2 - Since the discovery of leptin secreted from adipocytes, specialized tissues and cells have been found that secrete the several peptides (or cytokines) that are characterized to negatively and positively regulate the metabolic process. Different types of adipokines, hepatokines, and myokines, which act as cytokines, are secreted from adipose, liver, and muscle tissue, respectively, and have been identified and examined for their physiological roles in humans and disease in animal models. Recently, various studies of these cytokines have been conducted in ruminants, including dairy cattle, beef cattle, sheep, and goat. Interestingly, a few cytokines from these tissues in ruminants play an important role in the post-parturition, lactation, and fattening ...
Obese states seen as a chronic inflammation are closely linked to the development of metabolic dysfunction. MAPK inhibitor SB203580 blocked the inhibitory effects of TNF on adipolin and KLF15 expression. These data suggest that adipose inflammation under conditions of obesity suppresses adipolin expression via JNK-dependent down-regulation of KLF15 in adipocytes. Introduction Obesity is closely associated with the development of various metabolic disorders including insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes [1]C[3]. Recent evidence indicates that chronic low-grade inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of numerous obesity-related diseases such as atherosclerosis and insulin resistance [4]C[7]. Adipose tissue secretes numerous biologically active proteins, also known as adipokines. Lots of the adipokines, including TNF, IL6 and MCP-1, promote irritation and metabolic dysfunction, whereas a small amount of adipokines possess helpful activities on inflammatory fat burning capacity and procedures ...
Pákáski M, Fehér Á, Juhász A, Drótos G, Fazekas ÖC, Kovács J, Janka Z, Kálmán J: Serum adipokine levels modified by donepezil treatment in Alzheimers disease., JOURNAL OF ALZHEIMERS DISEASE 38: (2) pp. 371-377. Paper DOI: 10.3233/JAD-131139 ...
Changes in protein levels of adipokines in 3T3-L1 cells treated with HCV core protein.(A) The protein level of IL-6 was significantly increased, and the protein
It is widely accepted that, in addition to serving as a repository for energy reserves, adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes a variety of signalling molecules, the adipokines, which play important roles in the regulation of metabolism, energy balance, feeding behaviour, vascular homeostasis and immunity. In particular, leptin, resistin and adiponectin have been implicated in energy and glucose homeostasis. Additional neuroendocrine functions have also been recognized for leptin as it regulates the secretion of pituitary GH and LH. In order to elucidate whether adiponectin, as leptin, may be involved in the regulation of pituitary cell function, we investigated the effect of this adipokine on somatotrophs and gonadotrophs and analyzed its interaction with major stimulatory regulators of these cells (ghrelin, GHRH, GnRH), as well as with their corresponding receptors (GHS-R, GHRH-R, and GnRH-R, respectively). Results show that adiponectin inhibits GH and LH secretion as well ...
In an obese state, Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) upregulates proinflammatory adipokines secretion including monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in adipose tissue. In contrast, G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) mediates antiobesity effects. The aim of this study was to determine the signaling …
OBJECTIVE:. The role of adipokines in the regulation of energy substrate production in non-diabetic pregnant women has not been elucidated. We hypothesize that serum concentrations of adiponectin are related to fetal growth via maternal fat mass, insulin resistance and glucose production, and further, that serum levels of leptin are associated with lipolysis and that this also influences fetal growth. Hence, we investigated the relationship between adipokines, energy substrate production, insulin resistance, body composition and fetal weight in non-diabetic pregnant women in late gestation.. STUDY DESIGN:. Twenty pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance were investigated at 36 weeks of gestation at Uppsala University Hospital. Levels of adipokines were related to rates of glucose production and lipolysis, maternal body composition, insulin resistance, resting energy expenditure and estimated fetal weights. Rates of glucose production and lipolysis were estimated by stable isotope dilution ...
Changes in Adipokine Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorders. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24401207 Abstract Background and Objective: The etiopathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is largely unknown, but it seems to involve dysfunction in several biological systems. Among many possible biological pathways, the immune system has emerged as potentially involved. Recent studies have shown association between cytokines (molecules that…
Supervisors: Andries Kalsbeek & Eric Fliers. Adiposity is the most important risk factor for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In addition, it is also possible to reduce the amount of insulin in the body.. Adipose tissue is an important endocrine organ. It is involved in the regulation of energy metabolism by secreting factors (adipokines) that regulates appetite, food intake, glucose, and energy expenditure. Many of these adipokines display profound day / night rhythms, and accumulating evidence links disruption of these rhythms to metabolic diseases as well as obesity and type 2 diabetes. In the case of a neurological disorder of the brain, there is a difference between the brain and the brain, and the hypothalamus of the brain WAT functions.. The present proposal is based on the assumption that the WAT is circadian, metabolic and endocrine functions.. ...
ISBN: 9781588297211. Author : Fantuzzi Giamila Year: Apr 27 2007. Pages: 400. Size: 7 x 0.9 x 10 inches. Publisher Name: Humana Press. ...
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Supplementary Figure 1. mrna expression of chitinase and chitinase-like protein in splenic immune cells. Each splenic immune cell population was sorted by FACS. Surface markers for sorting were CD11c +
Objective. To study the relationship between the human secreted protein stabilin-1-interacting chitinase-like protein (SI-CLP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA).. Methods. The expression of SI-CLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and synovial fluid from patients with RA and the effects of cytokines on SI-CLP expression were examined by Western blotting. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis was performed to investigate the binding between SI-CLP and cells. Bone marrow-derived macrophages were isolated from wild-type and SI-CLP-/- mice, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the levels of messenger RNA for cytokines or SI-CLP in SI-CLP- or cytokine-treated macrophages. Histologic studies were conducted to evaluate inflamma-tion and the expression of interleukin-12 (IL-12), IL-13, and SI-CLP in lesions. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect the cytokine levels in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Rats or mice with ...
The presence of the so-called low-grade inflammatory state is recognized as a critical event in adipose tissue dysfunction, leading to altered secretion of adipokines and free fatty acids (FFAs), insulin resistance, and development of hepatic complications associated with obesity. This study was designed to investigate the potential contribution of the proinflammatory 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway to adipose tissue inflammation and lipid dysfunction in experimental obesity. Constitutive expression of key components of the 5-LO pathway, as well as leukotriene (LT) receptors, was detected in adipose tissue as well as in adipocyte and stromal vascular fractions. Adipose tissue from obese mice, compared with that from lean mice, exhibited increased 5-LO activating protein (FLAP) expression and LTB4 levels. Incubation of adipose tissue with 5-LO products resulted in NF-κB activation and augmented secretion of proinflammatory adipokines such as MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α. In addition, LTB4, but not ...
OBJECTIVE We have previously demonstrated the effectiveness of renal denervation (RDN) to lower blood pressure (BP) at least partially via the reduction of sympathetic stimulation to the kidney. Obesity also contributes to hypertension. A number of adipocyte-derived factors (collectively termed adipokines) have been implicated in BP control. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of RDN on adipokines. In particular, whether BP reduction, associated with RDN treatment, has a favourable outcome on adipokine profile in patients with resistant hypertension (RH). DESIGN AND METHOD Fifty seven patients with RH undergoing RDN have been recruited for the study (65% males, age 60.8 ± 1.5 years, BMI 32.6 ± 0.7 kg/m, mean ± SEM). At recruitment the patients were on an average of 4.8 ± 2.1 antihypertensive drugs and were asked to refrain from changing their medication regimen for the duration of the study. Automated seated office BP measurements were taken with an Omron HEM-705 monitor at baseline
Adipose tissue (AT) is an active endocrine organ with the ability to dynamically secrete a wide range of adipocytokines. Importantly, its secretory profile is altered in various cardiovascular disease states. AT surrounding vessels, or perivascular AT (PVAT), is recognized in particular as an important local regulator of vascular function and dysfunction. Specifically, PVAT has the ability to sense vascular paracrine signals and respond by secreting a variety of vasoactive adipocytokines. Due to the crucial role of PVAT in regulating many aspects of vascular biology, it may constitute a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of vascular disease pathogenesis. Signalling pathways in PVAT, such as those using adiponectin, H2 S, glucagon-like peptide 1 or pro-inflammatory cytokines, are among the potential novel pharmacological therapeutic targets of PVAT. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Perivascular Adipose Tissue - Potential
TY - JOUR. T1 - Lean and Obese Coronary Perivascular Adipose Tissue Impairs Vasodilation via Differential Inhibition of Vascular Smooth Muscle K+ Channels. AU - Noblet, Jillian N.. AU - Owen, Meredith K.. AU - Goodwill, Adam G.. AU - Sassoon, Daniel J.. AU - Tune, Johnathan. PY - 2015/6/27. Y1 - 2015/6/27. N2 - Objective - The effects of coronary perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) on vasomotor tone are influenced by an obese phenotype and are distinct from other adipose tissue depots. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of lean and obese coronary PVAT on end-effector mechanisms of coronary vasodilation and to identify potential factors involved. Approach and Results - Hematoxylin and eosin staining revealed similarities in coronary perivascular adipocyte size between lean and obese Ossabaw swine. Isometric tension studies of isolated coronary arteries from Ossabaw swine revealed that factors derived from lean and obese coronary PVAT attenuated vasodilation to adenosine. ...
Background: Investigation of immunopathogenetic mechanisms of obesity associated asthma may demonstrate novel therapeutic targets.. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare levels of Th1, Th2, Treg and Th17 cytokines secreted by peripheral mononuclear cell culture (PBMC) in response to nonspecific stimulation in obese and nonobese children with asthma.. Methods: Obese and nonobese children with asthma aged 5 to 16 were enrolled into this case-control study consecutively. Age at asthma diagnosis and clinical severity were recorded. Skin prick test was performed. Serum adipokine levels as well as PBMC supernatant IL-4, IL-10, IL-17, IL-23, IFNγ and TGF-β levels were measured.. Results: Mean (± standard deviation) ages of obese (n=28) and nonobese (n=39) children with asthma were 8.7 ± 2.9 and 10.5 ± 3.2 respectively. Asthma symptom score was higher and age at asthma diagnosis was lower in obese compared to nonobese children with asthma (p=0.03 and p=0.004 respectively). Leptin levels ...
Results Overweight showed consistent positive associations with leptin, CRP, IL-6, E-selectin and t-PA and inverse associations with adiponectin; vWF was not consistently related across age. In age and sex-adjusted models fitted separately for each age, being overweight at 11 years and onwards was associated with adverse levels of adipokines and inflammatory markers and being overweight from 15 and onwards for endothelial markers. For CRP and adiponectin, an earlier association with overweight at 2 years was also apparent. Adjustment for overweight at age 60-64 years reduced all overweight associations at earlier ages, entirely explaining those for E-selectin and t-PA, but only partly explaining those for leptin, adiponectin, CRP and IL-6. An accumulation model best described the associations between overweight across the life course with adiponectin (mean percentage difference [95% CI] for each additional time overweight at age 15, 36 and 60-64: -12.8% [-16.3%, -9.1%], leptin: 60.2% [53.6%, ...
Changes in adipokine levels before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion, at 48 hr after IVIG infusion and in the convalescent phase in Kawasaki disease pa
1) Background: Zinc is an essential micronutrient and zinc deficiency is associated with immune dysfunction. The neonatal immune system is immature, and therefore an optimal neonatal zinc status may be important. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between neonatal whole blood (WB)-Zinc content and several immune markers. (2) Methods: In total, 398 healthy newborns (199 who later developed type 1 diabetes and 199 controls) from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank had neonatal dried blood spots (NDBS) analyzed for WB-Zinc content and (i) cytokines: Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 (p70), interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and transforming growth factor beta; (ii) adipokines: leptin and adiponectin; (iii) other immune response proteins: C-reactive protein (CRP), and mannose-binding lectin (MBL), and soluble triggering receptors expressed on myeloid cells1 (sTREM-1). WB-Zinc content was determined using laser ablation inductively ...
Abstract. Once viewed solely as fat storage cells, adipocytes and their adipokines have now been proven to be central for human health. Understanding that overweight and obesity may increase the risk for various diseases requires detailed characterization of adipokine function. Weight gain, weight regain, and fasting affect adipocyte health and accordingly their secretome. Different adipose tissue deposits exist and they vary in cellular composition and function. The evidence is strong of a role of adipokines in cancer, reproductive function, neurological diseases, cardiovascular diseases ,and rheumatoid arthritis. Adipokines are considered useful biomarkers for adipose tissue and metabolic health, and may be used as diagnostic tools in rheumatoid arthritis, cancer, or sepsis. This book contains 10 original articles and 9 review articles focusing on these bioactive peptides. Several articles deal with chemerin, an adipokine discovered more than 20 years ago. Data so far have resulted in ...
Objective: Lactation has been associated with reduced maternal risk of type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. We examined the relationship between breastfeeding duration and maternal adipokines at 3 years postpartum. Research Design and Methods: We used linear regression to relate the duration of lactation to maternal leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin, and peptide YY (PYY) at 3 years postpartum among 570 participants with 3-year postpartum blood samples (178 fasting), prospectively collected lactation history, and no intervening pregnancy in Project Viva, a cohort study of mothers and children. Results: A total of 88% of mothers had initiated breastfeeding, 26% had breastfed \(\geq 12\) months, and 42% had exclusively breastfed for \(\geq 3\) months. In multivariate analyses, we found that duration of total breastfeeding was directly related to PYY and ghrelin, and exclusive breastfeeding duration was directly related to ghrelin (predicted mean for never exclusively ...
|i|Background/Aims:|/i| Valproic acid (VPA) is the drug of choice for treating epilepsy, but has the unwanted effects of inducing weight gain and increasing the risk of developing insulin
Cytokines are hormones that can modify cell behavior. Adipokines are cytokines produced by fat tissue that also function as hormones regulating many metabolic functions. Gerdes S, Rostami-Yazdi M and Mrowietz U. wrote a review article in Experimental Dermatology that discuses the possibility that adipokines contribute to the metabolic imbalances that make psoriasis patients more susceptible to cardiovascular disease. Read the summary to the paper at: Exp Dermatol. 2011 Feb;20(2):81-7. Adipokines and psoriasis.. ...
The phenomenon of a discrepancy between glycated hemoglobin levels and other indicators of average glycemia may be due to many factors but can be measured as the glycation gap (GGap). This GGap is associated with differences in complications in patients with diabetes and may possibly be explained by dissimilarities in deglycation in turn leading to altered production of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We hypothesized that variations in the level of the deglycating enzyme fructosamine-3-kinase (FN3K) might be associated with the GGap. We measured erythrocyte FN3K concentrations and enzyme activity in a population dichotomized for a large positive or negative GGap. FN3K protein was higher and we found a striking threefold greater activity (323%) at any given FN3K protein level in the erythrocytes of the negative-GGap group compared with the positive-GGap group. This was associated with lower AGE levels in the negative-GGap group (79%), lower proinflammatory adipokines ...
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Dossus, Laure ; Franceschi, Silvia ; Biessy, Carine ; Navionis, Anne-Sophie ; Travis, Ruth C ; Weiderpass, Elisabete ; Scalbert, Augustin ; Romieu, Isabelle ; Tjønneland, Anne ; Olsen, Anja ; Overvad, Kim ; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine ; Bonnet, Fabrice ; Fournier, Agnès ; Fortner, Renée Turzanski ; Kaaks, Rudolf ; Aleksandrova, ...
In contrast to the published studies, which demonstrated associations between average adipocyte size and serum levels or secretion, our study is unique because it investigated the secretory capacity of adipocyte fractions from the same individual separated by cell size. The results obtained by the technique clearly suggest that only the very large adipocytes are dysregulated. Adipocyte hypertrophy appears to cause a differentially impaired secretion between pro- and antiinflammatory adipokines shifting the immunological balance toward the expression of proinflammatory proteins. Thisabnormal function of adipocytes may play an important role in the development of a chronic low-grade proinflammatory state in obesity, which is considered to build the common soil for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis (5, 68 ...
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Immunometabolism in Obesity. By Efrain Chavarria-Avila, Rosa-Elena Navarro-Hernández, Milton- Omar Guzmán-Ornelas, Fernanda-Isadora Corona-Meraz, Sandra- Luz Ruíz-Quezada and Mónica Vázquez-Del Mercado. Immunometabolism is a current issue that has shown relevance in recent years, because the way we understand the adipose tissue has shifted from simply being a site of energy storage to a very active endocrine organ, which dysregulation has a major impact on other systems, especially on the immune one. Understanding the molecular basis of the regulation of adipose tissue is essential to look for alternatives in the treatment and prognosis of obesity in future generations. In this regard, it is described that the immune system has great importance in physiological processes of adipose tissue and vice versa. The main objective of this chapter is to describe the relationship between the immune system and metabolism, emphasizing dysregulation when obesity is present. Upon completion of this ...
behaves as a dynamic endocrine organ4. It also plays an important role in energy expenditure, both as depot for energy- Many chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes and its rich triglycerides and as a source for metabolic hormones as complications may be preventable by avoiding factors that well5,6. Adipocytes produce a large number of so-called trigger the disease process (primary prevention) or by use of adipokines, such as leptin, adiponectin, interleukin (IL)-1b, IL- therapies that modulate the disease process before the onset of 6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a). Some of these clinical symptoms (secondary prevention). Accurate prediction molecules affect energy metabolism and insulin sensitivity in and identification using biomarkers will be useful for disease other tissues such as muscle and liver7. During obesity, lipid prevention and initiation of proactive therapies to those storage in adipocytes is increased, which triggers the release of individuals who are most likely to ...
Obesity is dramatically increasing in countries with so called western Lifestyle, whereby juveniles are affected in particular. Atherosclerosis, a major consequence of obesity, starts early in life and results in cardiovascular disease and stroke, the main causes of mortality in industrialized countries. STYJOBS / EDECTA is a prospective, observational study to improve the understanding of atherosclerosis and metabolic changes in obesity by investigation of the non-biased early phase.. We aim. To identify individual metabolic high risk patterns in obesity by linking lab parameters (adipokines, immune-inflammatory mediators, oxidative stress biomarkers, lipoproteins, molecular genetics, epigenetics), individual adipose tissue topography, early vascular damage, life style habits, and clinical data.. The STYJOBS/EDECTA-Database comprehends currently data from 1325 subjects.For each proband 282 variables are available (Clinical, anthropometric, carotis IMT, 82; Laboratory/Biomarkers, 100; ...
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Background and Objective. The role of adipokines in regulation of immune responses has been recognized, but very little is known about their impact on multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study, we analysed whether the major ...
So far Im thrilled about the fact that the only one I would really like- is the cermaic Tourboullin in 48mm.....and Im not going to sell organs so im good so far ...
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|p|Cardiovascular risk of prediabetes is still subject to controversies. We analyzed the associations between insulin resistance, adipokines and incipient atherosclerosis estimated by intima-media thickness (IMT) in a cross-sectional study on 122 prediabetic subjects without clinical signs of atherosclerotic disease. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, calculated as fasting insulin × fasting plasma glucose / 22.5), adiponectin, leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, carotid and femoral IMT were evaluated. We also assessed other parameters related to insulin resistance and adipokines (HbA1c, anthropometric and lipid parameters), as they may also influence atherosclerosis. Carotid IMT was correlated to adiponectin and leptin-to-adiponectin ratio (all p < 0.05), but not with HOMA-IR or leptin, while femoral IMT showed no relationship with these factors. After adjusting for leptin, leptin-to-adiponectin ratio, triglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, cholesterol-to-HDL ratio, triglycerides
Baranova, A.; Randhawa, M.; Jarrar, M.; Younossi, Z.M., 2007: Adipokines and melanocortins in the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome: nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
A number of bioactive molecules secreted from fat tissue, referred to as adipokines, could participate in the development of obesity-related complications through regulation of inflammatory responses.9,10 Most adipokines are proinflammatory. In contrast, adiponectin, also referred to as adipocyte complement-related protein 30 (ACRP30), is an antiinflammatory adipokine that is abundantly present in blood stream. Whereas adiponectin is expressed almost exclusively in adipose tissue,11,12 plasma adiponectin levels are paradoxically decreased in obese individuals.13 This regulation of adiponectin results, at least in part, from the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and other proinflammatory cytokines which inhibits the synthesis of adiponectin in the obese state. Low plasma adiponectin levels, also known as hypoadiponectinemia, are closely associated with the increased prevalence of obesity-linked disorders including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, and hypertension.9 Studies ...
Introduction: Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) caused by prematurity is associated with more remodeling and fibrosis than asthma, yet symptoms and treatment of these two disorders are similar. The chitinase-like protein YKL-40, is a novel biomarker of asthma although the mechanisms involved are unknown. YKL-40 levels correlate with airway remodeling (Chupp et al. NEJM 2007) and YKL-40 increases smooth muscle proliferation (Bara et al. AJRCCM 2012). We aimed to compare serum YKL-40 in children with asthma and BPD.. Methods: Age- and sex-matched children with diagnosed asthma (n=27) or BPD (n=28) were included in the study at 10 yrs of age. Serum YKL-40 levels were measured by ELISA. ...
Recognize that Obesity is a disease frequently associated with expansion of the perivascular adipose tissue which is associated with increased production of atherogenic adipokines and other biologically active molecules; Understand the central role of abdominal and perivascular adipose tissue as a root cause of co-morbidities and cardiometabolic risk; Understand that excess amounts of visceral and perivascular adipocytes are associated with an impairment of insulin sensitivity and other co-morbities; Recognize that Obesity itself, even without associated co-morbidities of hyperglycemia, hypertension and hyperlipidemia are responsible for cardiovascular disease risk. ...
The purpose of the current study was to examine the impact of macronutrient intake (PRO, 15% vs. 35%) and meal frequency (3 vs. 6 meals/day) on body composition, postprandial thermogenesis and plasma adipokines before and after 28days each of EB (28days) and ED (25%; 28days) in overweight individuals. We hypothesize that HP will elicit more favorable body composition, thermogenic, and cardiometabolic changes than HC intakes and the magnitude of change will be greatest in those consuming HP meals more frequently ...
Fat mass dysregulation is a marked characteristic of overweight and obesity. Obesity is, historically, a classic risk factor for osteoarthritis development and progression and shares with osteoarthritis a huge societal impact but also several common biochemical features that are strongly related to the low-grade inflammatory status. Even though OA has been considered during decades a disabling degenerative disease related to mechanical, age and genetic factors with poor inflammatory component, the current consensus is that OA, in particular OA associated with metabolic alterations, is a global muscle-skeletal diseases in which pro-inflammatory and catabolic mediators, most of them produced by a dysregulated visceral or periarticular white adipose tissue (WAT), are at play. The coexistence of obesity and OA is a clinical reality and is changing the traditional view of this degenerative disorder. Thus, chronic low-grade inflammation is a common characteristic shared by both obesity and OA. It has ...
... adipokines of the alternative complement system; (4) chemotactic/chemoattractant adipokines; and prostaglandins (eicosanoids). ... Wang, B; Wood, IS; Trayhurn, P (2007). "Dysregulation of the expression and secretion of inflammation-related adipokines by ... adipokines with cytokine activity such as leptin, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factor alpha; (2) acute phase proteins / ...
... including the cell signalling proteins known as adipokines. Certain adipokines can be considered as hormones, as they regulate ... Scotece M, Conde J, Vuolteenaho K, Koskinen A, López V, Gómez-Reino J, Lago F, Moilanen E, Gualillo O (2014). "Adipokines as ... Conde J, Scotece M, Gómez R, López V, Gómez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O (2011). "Adipokines: biofactors from white adipose ... Leptin was the first fat cell-derived hormone (adipokine) to be discovered. Subsequent studies in 1995 confirmed that the db ...
The result is reduction of the testis' production of testosterone and a further increase in adipokine levels. This then feeds ... Peterlin BL, Sacco S, Bernecker C, Scher AI (April 2016). "Adipokines and Migraine: A Systematic Review". Headache. 56 (4): 622 ... In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome both increase estrogen and adipokine production. This reduces gonadotropin-releasing ...
In humans, via white adipocytes (fat cells), production of the hormone leptin (an adipokine) acts on the hypothalamus where ... Mitchell, M.; Armstrong, D. T.; Robker, R. L.; Norman, R. J. (2005-11-01). "Adipokines: implications for female fertility and ...
Lau DC, Dhillon B, Yan H, Szmitko PE, Verma S (May 2005). "Adipokines: molecular links between obesity and atheroslcerosis". ...
Adipolin is an adipokine. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184163 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ... a novel adipokine in human and murine ATDC-5 chondrocyte cell line". Ann. Rheum. Dis. 72 (1): 140-2. doi:10.1136/annrheumdis- ... "Adipolin/C1qdc2/CTRP12 protein functions as an adipokine that improves glucose metabolism". J. Biol. Chem. 286 (40): 34552-8. ...
Ohta, H; Itoh, N (2014). "Roles of FGFs as Adipokines in Adipose Tissue Development, Remodeling, and Metabolism". Frontiers in ... Perivascular adipose tissue releases adipokines such as adiponectin that affect the contractile function of the vessels that ... Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease. Neel JV (1989). "The study of natural selection in primitive and civilized ... called adipokines (adipocytokines), which play a role in obesity-associated complications. ...
The adipokines are mediators produced by adipose tissue; their action is thought to modify many obesity-related diseases. ...
CMKLR1 is also activated by chemerin and Adipokines. All of these receptors activate their parent cells through standard GPR- ...
Chaldakov GN, Stankulov IS, Hristova MG, Ghenev PI (2003). "Adipobiology of disease: adipokines and adipokine-targeted ... Conceptualize the protein secretory products of adipose tissue cells as adipokines, also focusing on perivascular adipose ... adipokines, cytokines). In 1991, Chaldekov became founder and chief editor of Biomedical Reviews, An International Journal of ...
The protein is an adipokine that is localized to the bloodstream and has various functions, including the promotion of vascular ... Bełtowski J (2006). "Apelin and visfatin: unique "beneficial" adipokines upregulated in obesity?". Med. Sci. Monit. 12 (6): ...
"Entrez Gene: HP". Trayhurn P, Wood IS (September 2004). "Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose ... "Bovine haptoglobin as an adipokine: Serum concentrations and tissue expression in dairy cows receiving a conjugated linoleic ...
Signalling molecules released by adipose tissue are referred to as adipokines. Cite error: The named reference :1 was invoked ...
Theodore Mazzone; Giamila Fantuzzi (2006). Adipose Tissue And Adipokines in Health And Disease (Nutrition and Health). Totowa, ...
It is possible adipokines and cytokines made in adipose tissue down-regulate insulin pathways. It is also possible that IR ... The cells of adipose (fat) tissue synthesizes hormones known as adipokines. In humans, dysfunction of adipose tissue, even in ... leading to the production of more adipokines and perpetuation of the cycle, and a constant low-level, pro-inflammatory state. ...
Diet patterns, adipokines, and metabolism: where are we and what is next? Metabolism. 2014 Feb;63(2):168-77. doi:10.1016/j. ... leads to improved levels of adipokines like adiponectin, which decreases insulin resistance, and inflammatory factors like c- ... group include the elucidation of the physiological role and potential diagnostic and therapeutic utility of several adipokines ...
... a novel adipokine in the regulation of angiogenesis". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 95 (5): 2476-85. doi:10.1210/jc.2010-0042. ...
... a novel adipokine in the regulation of angiogenesis". The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 95 (5): 2476-85. ...
Kim YH, Choi BH, Cheon HG, Do MS (March 2009). "B cell activation factor (BAFF) is a novel adipokine that links obesity and ... "B cell-activating factor controls the production of adipokines and induces insulin resistance". Obesity. 19 (10): 1915-22. doi: ...
Roh SG, Song SH, Choi KC, Katoh K, Wittamer V, Parmentier M, Sasaki S (Sep 2007). "Chemerin--a new adipokine that modulates ... Because of its role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake, chemerin is classified as an adipokine. Chemerin has been ... a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (38): 28175-88. doi:10.1074/jbc. ... "Chemerin is a novel adipokine associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome". Endocrinology. 148 (10): 4687-94. doi:10.1210/en ...
As an adipokine receptor it has a role in adipogenesis and adipocyte maturation. It seems also to have a role in peripheral ... Chemokine receptor-like 1 is a G protein-coupled receptor for the chemoattractant adipokine chemerin and the omega-3 fatty acid ... Darios ES, Winner BM, Charvat T, Krasinksi A, Punna S, Watts SW (August 2016). "The adipokine chemerin amplifies electrical ... "Adipokine Chemerin Bridges Metabolic Dyslipidemia and Alveolar Bone Loss in Mice". Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. doi: ...
... a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity". Endocrinology. 2005 Apr. 146 (4): 1764-71. doi:10.1210/en. ...
"Effects of bariatric surgery on adipokine-induced inflammation and insulin resistance". Frontiers in Endocrinology. doi:10.3389 ...
Malyszko J, Malyszko JS, Pawlak K, Mysliwiec M (December 2006). "Resistin, a new adipokine, is related to inflammation and ... an adipokine-mediated process?". Diabetes. 51 (10): 2951-8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.51.10.2951. PMID 12351432. Levy JR, Davenport ... further evidence of adipokine-endothelial interaction". Circulation. 108 (6): 736-40. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000084503.91330.49. ...
Kim KS, Choi HM, Ji HI, Song R, Yang HI, Lee SK, Yoo MC, Park YB (January 2014). "Serum adipokine levels in rheumatoid ... Hara K, Yamauchi T, Kadowaki T (April 2005). "Adiponectin: an adipokine linking adipocytes and type 2 diabetes in humans". ...
A recent report revealed RBP4 as an adipokine linking glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) suppression in adipose tissue to insulin. ...
The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines have been discovered. Members ... The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling ... Conde J, Scotece M, Gómez R, López V, Gómez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O (2011). "Adipokines: biofactors from white adipose ... Lehr S, Hartwig S, Sell H (2012). "Adipokines: a treasure trove for the discovery of biomarkers for metabolic disorders". ...
Adipose tissue, adipokines, and inflammation.. Fantuzzi G1.. Author information. 1. Department of Human Nutrition, University ... Altered adipokine levels have been observed in a variety of inflammatory conditions, although their pathogenic role has not ... Adipose tissue produces and releases a variety of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, including the adipokines ...
Adipokines: therapeutic targets for metabolic syndrome.. Kobayashi K1.. Author information. 1. Department of Medicine and ... These adipokines play pivotal roles in energy homeostasis by affecting insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolisms, food ... Recently, many investigators have reported that adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive molecules, termed adipokines ( ...
... termed adipokines. These adipokines function as circulating hormones to communicate with other organs including the brain, ... 2005). Apelin, a newly identified adipokine up-regulated by insulin and obesity. Endocrinology, 146, 1764-1771.PubMedCrossRef ... Itoh, N. (2014). FGF21 as a hepatokine, adipokine, and myokine in metabolism and diseases. Frontiers in Endocrinology, 5, 107. ... The dysregulation of adipokines has been implicated in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recently, ...
Corticosteroid-induced Lipodystrophy and Adipokines. Official Title Study of Histological and Adipokines Expression Variations ... Methods: At treatment initiation and 3 months after: comparison of fat sample mRNA expression of adipokines (adiponectin, ...
Adipokines are hormones that display both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. One such adipokine is leptin, a 16 kD protein ... Adipokines and Cysteinyl Leukotrienes in the Pathogenesis of Asthma. Michael J. Coffey, Barbara Torretti, and Peter Mancuso ... Adiponectin is another adipokine formed in adipose tissue. In contrast to leptin, adiponectin levels are decreased in obesity ... Adipokines, especially in obese female asthmatics, may promote an asthma phenotype that has become more prevalent and results ...
Lipophilic Micronutrients, Adipokines and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (2011-23). The safety and scientific validity of this ... Lipophilic Micronutrients, Adipokines and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Official Title ICMJE Lipophilic Micronutrients, ... The favourable effects of these micronutrients on insulin sensitivity could be partially mediated by adipokines and/or pro- ... Adipokines and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Brief Summary Background Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as a ...
... Heather M. Ochs-Balcom,1 Rikki Cannioto,1 Jing Nie ... Adipokines have been postulated as contributors to the observed association; however, few studies have examined the mediating ... We observed differences in circulating adipokine concentrations by race; African Americans had higher levels of leptin and ... effect of adipokines on the obesity-colon adenoma association with consideration of racial differences. Methods. We determined ...
... adipokines explanation free. What is adipokines? Meaning of adipokines medical term. What does adipokines mean? ... Looking for online definition of adipokines in the Medical Dictionary? ... Adipokines , definition of adipokines by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/adipokines ... adipokines. ad·i·po·kines (adi-pōkēnz) Autocrine and paracrine factors released from human adipose tissue, in particular the ...
Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine ... Adipokine Beige adipocyte Brown adipocyte Brown adipose tissue This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check ... Chen Z, Wang GX, Ma SL, Jung DY, Ha H, Altamimi T et al (2017) Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ... Brown adipokines are regulatory factors secreted by brown and beige adipocytes that exhibit endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine ...
The A/L ratio was used to assess the previously proposed combination effect of adipokines (12). Adipokine combinations were ... Adipokines and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in an Aboriginal Canadian Population. Sylvia H. Ley, Stewart B. Harris, Philip W. ... Adipokines and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in an Aboriginal Canadian Population. Sylvia H. Ley, Stewart B. Harris, Philip W. ... collectively termed adipokines, has prompted current interests in associations of adipokines with insulin resistance and ...
"Adipokines" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Adipokines" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, ... Effect of Ramadan diurnal fasting on visceral adiposity and serum adipokines in overweight and obese individuals. Diabetes Res ... Perinatal Whole Blood Zinc Status and Cytokines, Adipokines, and Other Immune Response Proteins. Nutrients. 2019 08 22; 11(9). ...
Obesity, Adipokines, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Health in Men Study. Jonathan Golledge, Paula Clancy, Konrad Jamrozik, Paul ... Obesity, Adipokines, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Health in Men Study. Jonathan Golledge, Paula Clancy, Konrad Jamrozik and ... Obesity, Adipokines, and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm. Health in Men Study. Jonathan Golledge, Paula Clancy, Konrad Jamrozik and ...
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Results Even- and odd-chain saturated fatty acids were differentially associated with adipokines. Higher levels of even-chain ... Objective We examined the associations of saturated fatty acids in serum phospholipids with circulating levels of adipokines ... Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the association between saturated fatty acids and adipokines, with ... Conclusions The results suggest that even- and odd-chain saturated fatty acids are differentially associated with adipokine ...
Serum Levels of the Adipokine FGF21 Depend on Renal Function. Sebastian Stein, Anette Bachmann, Ulrike Lössner, Jürgen Kratzsch ... Serum Levels of the Adipokine FGF21 Depend on Renal Function. Sebastian Stein, Anette Bachmann, Ulrike Lössner, Jürgen Kratzsch ... Serum Levels of the Adipokine FGF21 Depend on Renal Function Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Seeger J, Ziegelmeier M, Bachmann A, Lossner U, Kratzsch J, Bluher M, Stumvoll M, Fasshauer M: Serum levels of the adipokine ...
Clinical Study for the Analysis of Adipokine Concentration in Serum and Adipokine Expression in Subcutaneous and Visceral ... Identification and Validation of Novel Adipokines Released from Primary Human Adipocytes. Stefan Lehr, Sonja Hartwig, Daniela ... Identification and Validation of Novel Adipokines Released from Primary Human Adipocytes. Stefan Lehr, Sonja Hartwig, Daniela ... Although CFH and CRYAB were recently described as novel adipokines (15⇓-17), these proteins have not been validated so far. ...
Adipokines and viral factors contribute to liver injury independently. ... Interaction of adipokines and hepatitis B virus on histological liver injury in the Chinese Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jan;105(1 ... HOMA-IR, but not adipokine dysregulation, was independently associated with cirrhosis (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.15, P=0.006). ... Our objective was to test whether dysregulation of adipokines contributes to liver injury. We also studied whether viral ...
WISP1 Is a Novel Adipokine Linked to Inflammation in Obesity. Veronica Murahovschi, Olga Pivovarova, Iryna Ilkavets, Renata M. ... WISP1 Is a Novel Adipokine Linked to Inflammation in Obesity. Veronica Murahovschi, Olga Pivovarova, Iryna Ilkavets, Renata M. ... WISP1 Is a Novel Adipokine Linked to Inflammation in Obesity Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... We show that 1) WISP1 is a novel adipokine released from differentiated human adipocytes; 2) WISP1 expression is substantially ...
Visfatin: an adipokine activator of rat hepatic stellate cells.. [Ning-Lin Liang, Ruoting Men, Yongjun Zhu, Cong Yuan, Yan Wei ...
The discovery of adipokines has made a major contribution to our understanding of the complex relationship between diabesity ... The aim of this lecture is to summarize the role of adipokines in bone and cartilage function, as well as in inflammatory and ... Adipokines including leptin adiponectin, visfatin and lipocalin 2 have been demonstrated to exhibit a wide spectrum of ... collectively known as adipokines) promote further inflammation and degradation of cartilage, also influencing the whole joint ...
... and of the endogenous circadian pacemaker on observed day/night patterns of adipokines, in six healthy subjects we measured ...
Buy the Paperback Book Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease by A.P. Goldberg at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest ... Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease. Foreword byA.P. Goldberg, S.K. FriedEditorGiamila Fantuzzi. Paperback , ... Title:Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and DiseaseFormat:PaperbackDimensions:422 pagesPublished:October 17, 2011 ... Adipose Tissue and Adipokines in Health and Disease presents a comprehensive survey of adipose tissue, its physiological ...
We examined the relationship between breastfeeding duration and maternal adipokines at 3 years postpartum. Research Design and ... Duration of lactation and maternal adipokines at 3 years postpartum. Diabetes 60(4): 1277-1285. ...
  • Visfatin: an adipokine activator of rat hepatic stellate cells. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Adipokines including leptin adiponectin, visfatin and lipocalin 2 have been demonstrated to exhibit a wide spectrum of biological activity including the activation of pro-inflammatory and catabolic pathways mediated by elevated levels of NO, ROS, MMPs and PGE2. (bmj.com)
  • Of four adipokines studied, only visfatin was associated with upper extremity pain (adjusted OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0 to 2.1 for 1SD increase in level). (bmj.com)
  • Of four adipokines studied only one (visfatin) was associated with pain intensity. (bmj.com)
  • Subjects with abdominal obesity, low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, high level of triglycerides or high level of the adipokine visfatin reported higher upper extremity pain intensity than those with normal waist circumference, higher level of HDL cholesterol, normal level of triglycerides, or low level of visfatin. (bmj.com)
  • Adipokines: therapeutic targets for metabolic syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • According to study published in the Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, the researchers, including Rashmi Supriya from the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, one year of yoga training decreased pro-inflammatory adipokines -signalling proteins released by fat tissue-and increased an anti-inflammatory adipokine in adults with metabolic syndrome and high-normal blood pressure. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prospective Relation of Circulating Adipokines to Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The Framingham Heart Study. (umassmed.edu)
  • Therefore, the purpose of this study was to characterize the temporal responses of adipokines to repeated exercise bouts in successive days in obese males with metabolic syndrome and their relationship with markers of insulin resistance. (auburn.edu)
  • Usefulness of metabolic syndrome score in the predictionof angiographic coronary artery disease severity according tothe presence of diabetes mellitus: relation with inflammatorymarkers and adipokines, Cardiovasc. (edu.pl)
  • Omentin 1 is a novel adipokine related to lipid metabolism and is a biomarker for metabolic syndrome. (aviscerabioscience.net)
  • However, few studies have investigated circulating adipokines and IR in subjects with combined metabolic syndrome X (MetX) and CSX. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proinflammatory adipokines, released from adipose tissue, may promote an asthma phenotype through enhanced cys-LT production that may result in more prevalent and difficult to control airway disease. (hindawi.com)
  • In addition to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that obesity has a direct mechanical effect joint cartilage, recent research shows that pro-inflammatory factors produced by WAT (collectively known as adipokines) promote further inflammation and degradation of cartilage, also influencing the whole joint environment (i.e. synovium, muscle, bone and immune cells). (bmj.com)
  • Adipose cells produce several types of cytokines, known as adipokines, which influence a variety of endocrine signaling pathways. (sapub.org)
  • Although adipose tissue was thought to serve mainly to store energy in the form of triacylglycerides, numerous studies spanning the last 20 years have provided evidence that adipose also behaves as an endocrine organ by secreting bioactive cytokines known as adipokines. (sapub.org)
  • Changes in Adipokine Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorders. (wordpress.com)
  • Changes in adipokine levels before intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion, at 48 hr after IVIG infusion and in the convalescent phase in Kawasaki disease patients. (nih.gov)
  • These adipokines play pivotal roles in energy homeostasis by affecting insulin sensitivity, glucose and lipid metabolisms, food intake, the coagulation system and inflammation. (nih.gov)
  • The association between brown fat activity and a healthy metabolic profile, in relation to energy balance and glucose and lipid homeostasis, is influenced by the endocrine actions of brown adipokines. (springer.com)
  • Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), an intracellular lipid chaperone and adipokine, is expressed by lung macrophages, but the function of macrophage-FABP4 remains elusive. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • We also assessed other parameters related to insulin resistance and adipokines (HbA1c, anthropometric and lipid parameters), as they may also influence atherosclerosis. (edu.pl)
  • Proinflammatory adipokines (tumor neurosis factor-α, interleukin-6 (IL-6), plasminogen activatable inhibitor-1, thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor, and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein) and cardiovascular, carbohydrate, and lipid profiles were assessed according to standard techniques. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, identification of brown adipokines as circulating biomarkers of brown adipose tissue activity may be particularly useful for noninvasive assessment of brown adipose tissue alterations in human pathologies. (springer.com)
  • Adipokines as potential prognostic biomarkers in patients with acute knee injury. (ox.ac.uk)
  • This review considers adipokines as predictive biomarkers for early onset post-traumatic knee osteoarthritis (KOA). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Although underlying mechanisms have not been completely explained, adipokines have been linked with obesity-induced inflammation and signaling pathways that contribute to type 2 diabetes ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This review will focus on how adipokines affect pancreatic β cell function and their impact on pancreatic β cell survival in disease contexts such as diabetes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Association of Parental Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus With Circulating Adipokines in Nonobese Nondiabetic Offspring. (umassmed.edu)
  • Abnormalities induced by adipokines were compared with abnormalities found in platelets from patients with type 2 diabetes. (haematologica.org)
  • The adipokines such as adiponectin warrant further investigation regarding its role in the development of Graves' ophthalmopathy and its clinical subtypes and concomitant diseases such as diabetes. (arvojournals.org)
  • Recent evidence shows that adipokines, and more generally mediators or indicators of inflammation (2), play roles in the development of insulin resistance (3), diabetes (4) and many other concomittant health problems associated with obesity, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis (5). (being-bioreactive.com)
  • Recent data indicate that these adipokines create a complex, interconnected network mediating the cross talk between these tissues ( 7 , 8 ). (mcponline.org)
  • Adipokines have been implicated in mediating insulin signaling pathways in various tissues within the body . (sapub.org)
  • 1 2 Several reports 3 , - , 6 have already demonstrated association of these adipokines with the severity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (bmj.com)
  • These and other adipokines are supposed to modulate disease severity in patients with liver cirrhosis. (uni-regensburg.de)
  • This study aims to evaluate the prognostic usefulness of adipokines in prediction of the severity and outcome of acute pancreatitis (AP). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Another aim was to correlate the levels of these adipokines and the severity of autistic symptoms as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). (wordpress.com)
  • Although some foods and nutrients have been linked to circulating adipokine levels, little is known about the role of dietary patterns on adipokines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It would thus be interesting to determine whether distinctive dietary patterns for Japanese influence circulating adipokine levels, but to our knowledge only one study has examined the relationship between dietary pattern and blood adiponectin level among Japanese [ 27 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Design and Methods Platelets, the megakaryocytic cell line CHRF-288-11 and primary megakaryocytes were incubated with adipokines and with plasma from individuals with a disturbed adipokine profile. (haematologica.org)
  • The roles of adiponectin, a PPAR-γ regulated pleiotropic adipokine, in regulating the response of fibroblasts and in mediating the effects of PPAR-γ are unknown.Methods: Regulation of fibrotic gene expression and TGF-ß signaling by adiponectin and adenosine monophosphate protein-activated (AMP) kinase agonists were examined in normal fibroblasts in monolayer cultures and in three-dimensional skin equivalents. (northwestern.edu)
  • Chen Z, Wang GX, Ma SL, Jung DY, Ha H, Altamimi T et al (2017) Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders. (springer.com)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/761731/all/adipocytokine__adipokine. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • These results suggest that abnormal regulation of adipokines is a consequence of being born to mothers with T1D. (sdu.dk)
  • Multivariable adjusted logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios for associations of adipokines and BNP. (ovid.com)
  • Multivariable adjusted linear models were used to determine the association between adipokines and BNP. (ovid.com)
  • Further research is needed to further understand the association between adipokines, synovitis and long-term outcomes in this population. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Association between adipokines and coronary artery lesions in children with Kawasaki Disease. (nih.gov)
  • We investigated whether serum adipokine level can be a useful marker for patients with KD who are at higher risk of developing coronary artery lesion (CAL). (nih.gov)