Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Retinol binding proteins that circulate in the PLASMA. They are members of the lipocalin family of proteins and play a role in the transport of RETINOL from the LIVER to the peripheral tissues. The proteins are usually found in association with TRANSTHYRETIN.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPOKINES, cytokines secreted by the ADIPOCYTES.
Cell surface receptors for ADIPONECTIN, an antidiabetic hormone secreted by ADIPOCYTES. Adiponectin receptors are membrane proteins with multiple cytoplasmic and extracellular regions. They are about 43 kDa and encoded by at least two genes with different affinities for globular and full-length adiponectin.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The endogenous compounds that mediate inflammation (AUTACOIDS) and related exogenous compounds including the synthetic prostaglandins (PROSTAGLANDINS, SYNTHETIC).
An imbalanced NUTRITIONAL STATUS resulting from excessive intake of nutrients. Generally, overnutrition generates an energy imbalance between food consumption and energy expenditure leading to disorders such as OBESITY.
A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Non-antibody proteins secreted by inflammatory leukocytes and some non-leukocytic cells, that act as intercellular mediators. They differ from classical hormones in that they are produced by a number of tissue or cell types rather than by specialized glands. They generally act locally in a paracrine or autocrine rather than endocrine manner.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
A family of structurally-related angiogenic proteins of approximately 70 kDa in size. They have high specificity for members of the TIE RECEPTOR FAMILY.
A diverse family of extracellular proteins that bind to small hydrophobic molecules. They were originally characterized as transport proteins, however they may have additional roles such as taking part in the formation of macromolecular complexes with other proteins and binding to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Glucose in blood.
A member of the serpin family of proteins. It inhibits both the tissue-type and urokinase-type plasminogen activators.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.

Strong induction of members of the chitinase family of proteins in atherosclerosis: chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 expressed in lesion macrophages. (1/819)

Atherosclerosis is initiated by the infiltration of monocytes into the subendothelial space of the vessel wall and subsequent lipid accumulation of the activated macrophages. The molecular mechanisms involved in the anomalous behavior of macrophages in atherogenesis have only partially been disclosed. Chitotriosidase and human cartilage gp-39 (HC gp-39) are members of the chitinase family of proteins and are expressed in lipid-laden macrophages accumulated in various organs during Gaucher disease. In addition, as shown in this study, chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 can be induced with distinct kinetics in cultured macrophages. We investigated the expression of these chitinase-like genes in the human atherosclerotic vessel wall by in situ hybridizations on atherosclerotic specimens derived from femoral artery (4 specimens), aorta (4 specimens), iliac artery (3 specimens), carotid artery (4 specimens), and coronary artery (1 specimen), as well as 5 specimens derived from apparently normal vascular tissue. We show for the first time that chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 expression was strongly upregulated in distinct subsets of macrophages in the atherosclerotic plaque. The expression patterns of chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 were compared and shown to be different from the patterns observed for the extracellular matrix protein osteopontin and the macrophage marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. Our data emphasize the remarkable phenotypic variation among macrophages present in the atherosclerotic lesion. Furthermore, chitotriosidase enzyme activity was shown to be elevated up to 55-fold in extracts of atherosclerotic tissue. Although a function for chitotriosidase and HC gp-39 has not been identified, we hypothesize a role in cell migration and tissue remodeling during atherogenesis.  (+info)

Serum YKL-40 and colorectal cancer. (2/819)

YKL-40 is a mammalian member of the chitinase protein family. Although the function of YKL-40 is unknown, the pattern of its expression suggests a function in remodelling or degradation of extracellular matrix. High serum YKL-40 has been found in patients with recurrent breast cancer and has been related to short survival. In the present study we analysed YKL-40 in preoperative sera from patients with colorectal cancer and evaluated its relation to survival. Serum YKL-40 was determined by RIA in 603 patients. Survival after operation was registered, and median follow-up time was 61 months. Three hundred and forty patients died. Sixteen per cent of the patients with Dukes' A, 26% with Dukes' B, 19% with Dukes' C and 39% with Dukes' D had high serum YKL-40 levels (adjusted for age). Analysis of serum YKL-40 as a continuous variable showed an association between increased serum YKL-40 and short survival (P < 0.0001). Patients with high preoperative serum YKL-40 concentration had significantly shorter survival than patients with normal YKL-40 (HR = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.3-2.1, P < 0.0001). Multivariate Cox analysis including serum YKL-40, serum CEA, Dukes' stage, age and gender showed that high YKL-40 was an independent prognostic variable for short survival (HR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.1-1.8, P = 0.007). These results suggest that YKL-40 may play an important role in tumour invasion.  (+info)

T cell responses to a human cartilage autoantigen in the context of rheumatoid arthritis-associated and nonassociated HLA-DR4 alleles. (3/819)

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the CD4+ T cell responses to the human cartilage antigen glycoprotein-39 (HCgp-39) in the context of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-associated (DRalphabeta1*0401) and nonassociated (DRalphabeta1*0402) HLA class II molecules. METHODS: Large numbers of HCgp-39-specific T cell hybridomas were generated following immunization of HLA-DR4/human CD4 transgenic, murine major histocompatibility complex class II deficient mice with native HCgp-39. Fine epitope mapping of DRalphabeta1*0401-and DRalphabeta1*0402-restricted T cell hybridomas was performed using overlapping synthetic peptides. Antigen-specific cytokine production by lymph node T cells was evaluated after immunization with native antigen. Proliferative T cell responses of healthy human subjects were compared with the T cell responses of patients with active RA using HCgp-39 epitopes defined in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. RESULTS: CD4+ T cells from DRalphabeta1*0401 and DRalphabeta1*0402 transgenic mice identified completely different immunodominant peptide epitopes of HCgp-39, and this was not explained by known DR4-binding motifs or direct peptide-binding studies. DRalphabeta1*0401-restricted, antigen-specific T cells produced significantly more interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor a in response to HCgp-39 than did T cells from DRalphabeta1*0402 transgenic mice. Finally, HCgp-39 peptides defined in DRalphabeta1*0401 transgenic mice stimulated T cells from HLA-DR4 positive human subjects and RA patients, but not T cells from HLA-DR4 negative individuals. CONCLUSION: T cell epitopes of HCgp-39 that were defined in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice stimulated T cells from human subjects carrying RA-associated HLA-DR4 alleles. HLA-DR4 molecules may influence the disease process in RA both by presentation of selected peptide epitopes and by promoting the production of proinflammatory cytokines in synovial joints.  (+info)

Serum YKL-40 concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: relation to disease activity. (4/819)

OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, also called human cartilage glycoprotein-39, is secreted by chondrocytes, synovial cells, macrophages and neutrophils. Studies have shown that YKL-40 is an autoantigen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated whether serum YKL-40 was related to disease activity in patients with RA. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 156 patients with RA during a 1 yr longitudinal study. RESULTS: Serum YKL-40 was increased in 54% of the patients with clinically active disease. Patients with clinically active disease initially who became inactive after 12 months had a significant decrease in serum YKL-40 (-30%, P < 0.002) and patients who changed from inactive to active disease had an increase in serum YKL-40. Patients who remained active had unchanged serum YKL-40 during the study. Serum YKL-40 decreased rapidly (-24% after 7 days, P < 0.01) during prednisolone therapy, and more slowly in patients treated with methotrexate only (-15% after 60 days, P < 0.01). Patients with early RA (disease duration < 3 yr, n = 50) and a persistently elevated serum YKL-40 were at risk of radiological disease progression as determined by Larsen score. CONCLUSION: Serum YKL-40 varies according to disease activity in RA, but provides in some respect information different from conventional markers. Our previous studies are consistent with a local release of YKL-40 in the arthritic joint followed by a secondary increase in serum YKL-40. YKL-40 may prove to be a new tool for the study of disease activity and pathophysiology of RA.  (+info)

YKL-40, a matrix protein of specific granules in neutrophils, is elevated in serum of patients with community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization. (5/819)

The serum concentration of YKL-40, a matrix protein of specific granules in neutrophils, was determined by RIA in 90 patients hospitalized with pneumonia of suspected bacterial origin. Of these, 64 were followed prospectively during antibiotic treatment with blood samples taken on day 0 (on admission and the start of treatment) and on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 21. Serum YKL-40 at admission was increased in patients with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia (median, 893 microgram/L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 704-1560), compared with healthy subjects (median, 102 microgram/L; 95% CI, 64-247 microgram/L; P<.001) and in patients with pneumonia of unknown etiology (median, 448 microgram/L; 95% CI, 334-700; P<.05). Peak YKL-40 serum values were observed on day 1 and thereafter declined steeply to almost normal by day 3. During the first 10 days, there was a close relation between serum YKL-40 and markers of specific granules of neutrophils (serum lactoferrin and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin), which suggests that serum YKL-40 reflects exocytosis of specific granules of neutrophils in persons with acute bacterial pneumonia.  (+info)

YKL-40 in giant cells and macrophages from patients with giant cell arteritis. (6/819)

OBJECTIVE: YKL-40, a mammalian member of the family 18 glycosyl hydrolases, is secreted by activated macrophages at a late stage of differentiation. Macrophages are present in inflammation of the arterial wall and are thought to participate in the pathogenesis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). The aim of this study was to evaluate whether macrophages and giant cells of patients with GCA produce YKL-40, and whether serum YKL-40 concentrations are elevated in these patients. METHODS: Serum YKL-40 was determined by radioimmunoassay in 19 patients with GCA and 8 patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) who were followed up prospectively during 1 year of treatment with prednisolone. Immunohistochemical staining for YKL-40 was performed in temporal artery biopsy samples that were obtained before treatment. RESULTS: In the arteritic vessels of patients with GCA, positive staining for the YKL-40 antigen was found in CD68+ giant cells and mononuclear cells located in the media. Macrophages located in the adventitia and intima were negative for YKL-40. At the time of diagnosis, patients with GCA had an increased median serum level of YKL-40 (256 microg/liter; P<0.01) compared with healthy age-matched controls (median 118 microg/liter), and the serum level of YKL-40 decreased to normal levels during prednisolone treatment (-38% after 1 month; P<0.001). Most patients with PMR had normal serum YKL-40 levels (median 158 microg/liter) and had no changes in the serum YKL-40 levels during prednisolone treatment. The observed changes in serum YKL-40 did not always parallel the changes in serum C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate during the 1-year study period. CONCLUSION: YKL-40 is found in CD68+ giant cells and mononuclear cells in the media of arteritic vessels of patients with GCA, and the concentration of serum YKL-40 may reflect the local activity of these cells in the inflamed artery.  (+info)

Induction of tolerance with intranasal administration of human cartilage gp-39 in DBA/1 mice: amelioration of clinical, histologic, and radiologic signs of type II collagen-induced arthritis. (7/819)

OBJECTIVE: Human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) was recently identified as a candidate autoantigen in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. In the present studies, we investigated the capacity of HC gp-39 to interfere in clinical disease induced by an unrelated autoantigen, type II collagen (CII), by the induction of cross-tolerance. METHODS: DBA-1j/Bom mice were immunized with bovine CII/complete Freund's adjuvant and were given intraperitoneal booster injections of CII on day 21. Tolerance was induced via the intranasal pathway with either the disease-inducing antigen (CII), a control antigen (ovalbumin), or HC gp-39 either before priming with CII or near the day of the booster injection. Arthritis was monitored visually, and joint pathology was examined histologically and radiologically. In addition, CII antibody levels in serum were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: In contrast to treatment before priming, intranasal application of HC gp-39 after immunization markedly suppressed disease activity and prevented joint destruction, whereas application of ovalbumin or CII was ineffective. Interference of HC gp-39 with the immune response to CII was demonstrated by decreased anti-CII antibody levels. The combined data indicate that intranasal treatment with HC gp-39 may trigger modulatory or regulatory mechanisms that interfere with the expression of disease in murine collagen-induced arthritis. CONCLUSION: HC gp-39 is the first cross-tolerance-inducing protein in arthritis that down-modulates a spectrum of disease features when given in a semitherapeutic protocol.  (+info)

Human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA expression in adult and fetal chondrocytes, osteoblasts and osteocytes by in-situ hybridization. (8/819)

OBJECTIVE: To examine the expression pattern of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA in human cartilage and bone. DESIGN: In-situ hybridization analysis was used to examine the expression pattern of human cartilage glycoprotein 39 (HC gp-39) mRNA in adult human osteoarthritic articular cartilage from various stages of disease, as well as in human osteophytic tissue and in human fetal bone. RESULTS: In cartilage from patients with mild osteoarthritic cartilage degeneration, HC gp-39 was expressed at moderate to high levels only in chondrocytes of the superficial zone. In advanced OA cartilage, cloning chondrocytes of the superficial zone expressed high levels of HC gp-39 and chondrocytes of the mid- and deep zones were also positive. HC gp-39 was undetectable in the chondrocytes of normal articular cartilage. In osteophytic tissue, the expression of HC gp-39 mRNA was intense in flattened, end-stage osteoblasts and in primary osteocytes in both endochondral and intramembranous bone formation. Proliferating osteoblasts expressed low to moderate levels. Notably, mature osteocytes were negative for HC gp-39 expression. Chondrocytes in the secondary ossification center of developing fetal cartilage demonstrated high expression while growth plate and mineralized cartilage chondrocytes had lower expression. Osteoblasts at sites of endochondral and intramembranous bone formation were positive for expression of HC gp-39. CONCLUSIONS: The stage-specific expression of HC gp-39 in fetal development and adult remodelling bone and cartilage provides evidence for a specific functional or structural role for HC gp-39 in bone and cartilage tissue. HC gp-39 is expressed in diseased human osteoarthritic cartilage and osteophyte, but not in non-diseased tissue, and its distribution within the tissue changes as disease progresses. OA is characterized not only by cartilage degeneration, but by increased subchondral bone formation and osteophytosis. The results from this study indicate that the increased HC gp-39 expression in OA serum and synovial fluid may reflect not only cartilage degeneration but increased osteogenesis.  (+info)

Adipokines are hormones and signaling molecules produced by adipose tissue, which is composed of adipocytes (fat cells) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. Adipokines play crucial roles in various biological processes such as energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, and neuroendocrine regulation.

Some well-known adipokines include:

1. Leptin - regulates appetite, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis
2. Adiponectin - improves insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammation, and has anti-atherogenic properties
3. Resistin - impairs insulin sensitivity and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes
4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) - contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction
5. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) - involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, immune response, and inflammation
6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) - associated with cardiovascular risk by impairing fibrinolysis and promoting thrombosis
7. Visfatin - has insulin-mimetic properties and contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance
8. Chemerin - regulates adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and immune response
9. Apelin - involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and fluid balance
10. Omentin - improves insulin sensitivity and has anti-inflammatory properties

The dysregulation of adipokine production and secretion is associated with various pathological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Resistin is a hormone-like substance that is primarily produced by adipose (fat) cells in mammals and has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, which is a condition that can lead to type 2 diabetes. It is also known as "adipose tissue-specific secretory factor" or ADSF.

Resistin is thought to play a role in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by affecting the function of insulin-responsive cells, such as muscle and liver cells. In particular, resistin has been shown to interfere with the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in these cells, leading to reduced insulin sensitivity and increased blood glucose levels.

Resistin is found at higher levels in people who are overweight or obese, and its levels have been linked to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the exact role that resistin plays in these conditions is not fully understood, and more research is needed to determine its precise mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic uses.

Adiponectin is a hormone that is produced and secreted by adipose tissue, which is another name for body fat. This hormone plays an important role in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. It helps to regulate glucose levels, break down fatty acids, and has anti-inflammatory effects.

Adiponectin is unique because it is exclusively produced by adipose tissue, and its levels are inversely related to body fat mass. This means that lean individuals tend to have higher levels of adiponectin than obese individuals. Low levels of adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk of developing various metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Overall, adiponectin is an important hormone that plays a crucial role in maintaining metabolic health, and its levels may serve as a useful biomarker for assessing metabolic risk.

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is a coenzyme found in all living cells and is involved in various cellular processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and gene expression. NAMPT catalyzes the conversion of nicotinamide (a form of vitamin B3) into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which is then converted into NAD+.

NAMPT has been identified as a key regulator of NAD+ levels in the body, and its activity is associated with various health benefits, such as improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and increased lifespan. On the other hand, decreased NAMPT activity has been linked to several age-related diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, NAMPT is an important target for developing therapies aimed at preventing or treating these conditions.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Adipocytes are specialized cells that comprise adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue. They are responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, particularly triglycerides, and releasing energy when needed through a process called lipolysis. There are two main types of adipocytes: white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes primarily store energy, while brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adipocytes also secrete various hormones and signaling molecules that contribute to whole-body homeostasis. These include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of adipocyte function has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Retinol-binding proteins (RBPs) are a group of transport proteins found in plasma that bind and carry retinol (vitamin A alcohol) in the bloodstream. The major form of RBP in humans is known as RBP4, which is synthesized primarily in the liver and secreted into the bloodstream bound to retinol.

RBP4 plays a critical role in delivering retinol from the liver to peripheral tissues, where it is converted to retinal and then to retinoic acid, which are essential for various physiological functions such as vision, immune response, and cell differentiation. RBP4 is also considered a potential biomarker for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.

In summary, Retinol-Binding Proteins, Plasma refer to the proteins in the blood that bind and transport retinol (vitamin A alcohol) to peripheral tissues for further metabolism and physiological functions.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

Metabolic syndrome, also known as Syndrome X, is a cluster of conditions that increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. It is not a single disease but a group of risk factors that often co-occur. According to the American Heart Association and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, a person has metabolic syndrome if they have any three of the following five conditions:

1. Abdominal obesity (waist circumference of 40 inches or more in men, and 35 inches or more in women)
2. Triglyceride level of 150 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or greater
3. HDL cholesterol level of less than 40 mg/dL in men or less than 50 mg/dL in women
4. Systolic blood pressure of 130 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) or greater, or diastolic blood pressure of 85 mmHg or greater
5. Fasting glucose level of 100 mg/dL or greater

Metabolic syndrome is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and lifestyle factors, such as physical inactivity and a diet high in refined carbohydrates and unhealthy fats. Treatment typically involves making lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and losing weight if necessary. In some cases, medication may also be needed to manage individual components of the syndrome, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol.

Subcutaneous fat, also known as hypodermic fat, is the layer of fat found beneath the skin and above the muscle fascia, which is the fibrous connective tissue covering the muscles. It serves as an energy reserve, insulation to maintain body temperature, and a cushion to protect underlying structures. Subcutaneous fat is distinct from visceral fat, which is found surrounding internal organs in the abdominal cavity.

Adipose tissue, white is a type of fatty tissue in the body that functions as the primary form of energy storage. It is composed of adipocytes, which are specialized cells that store energy in the form of lipids, primarily triglycerides. The main function of white adipose tissue is to provide energy to the body during periods of fasting or exercise by releasing free fatty acids into the bloodstream. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. White adipose tissue can be found throughout the body, including beneath the skin (subcutaneous) and surrounding internal organs (visceral).

Adipokine receptors are specialized proteins found on the surface of cells that selectively bind adipokines, which are hormones and signaling molecules secreted by adipose tissue. These receptors play crucial roles in mediating the effects of adipokines on various physiological processes, including energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and cardiovascular function. Some well-known adipokines include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and visfatin, and their respective receptors are LEPR (leptin receptor), AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 (adiponectin receptors), and chemerin receptors (CMKLR1, GPR1, and CCRL2). Dysregulation of adipokine signaling has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and certain types of cancer.

Adiponectin receptors are cell-surface proteins that bind to adiponectin, an adipokine (a hormone produced by fat cells) that plays a crucial role in insulin sensitivity and glucose regulation. There are two main types of adiponectin receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, which belong to the seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor family.

AdipoR1 is widely expressed in various tissues, including skeletal muscle, liver, and cardiovascular system, while AdipoR2 has a more restricted expression pattern, primarily found in the liver. Both receptors activate downstream signaling pathways upon adiponectin binding, leading to increased insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and improved metabolic homeostasis. Dysregulation of adiponectin receptor function has been implicated in several metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

3T3-L1 cells are a widely used cell line in biomedical research, particularly in the study of adipocytes (fat cells) and adipose tissue. These cells are derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts and have the ability to differentiate into adipocytes under specific culture conditions.

When 3T3-L1 cells are exposed to a cocktail of hormones and growth factors, they undergo a process called adipogenesis, during which they differentiate into mature adipocytes. These differentiated cells exhibit many characteristics of fat cells, including the accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of adipocyte-specific genes and proteins, and the ability to respond to hormones such as insulin.

Researchers use 3T3-L1 cells to study various aspects of adipocyte biology, including the regulation of fat metabolism, the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders, and the effects of drugs or other compounds on adipose tissue function. However, it is important to note that because these cells are derived from mice, they may not always behave exactly the same way as human adipocytes, so results obtained using 3T3-L1 cells must be validated in human cell lines or animal models before they can be applied to human health.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of protein that plays a crucial role in communication between cells, especially in the immune system. It is produced by various cells including T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation.

IL-6 has diverse effects on different cell types. In the immune system, it stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies. It also promotes the activation and survival of T-cells. Moreover, IL-6 plays a role in fever induction by acting on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature during an immune response.

In addition to its functions in the immune system, IL-6 has been implicated in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), bone metabolism, and neural development. However, abnormal levels of IL-6 have also been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

Intra-abdominal fat, also known as visceral fat, is the fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines. It's different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat found just under the skin. Intra-abdominal fat is metabolically active and has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. The accumulation of intra-abdominal fat can be influenced by factors such as diet, physical activity, genetics, and age. Waist circumference and imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRIs, are commonly used to measure intra-abdominal fat.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Inflammation mediators are substances that are released by the body in response to injury or infection, which contribute to the inflammatory response. These mediators include various chemical factors such as cytokines, chemokines, prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and histamine, among others. They play a crucial role in regulating the inflammatory process by attracting immune cells to the site of injury or infection, increasing blood flow to the area, and promoting the repair and healing of damaged tissues. However, an overactive or chronic inflammatory response can also contribute to the development of various diseases and conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Overnutrition is a state that occurs when an individual consumes food and drinks in quantities that exceed their energy needs, leading to an excessive accumulation of nutrients, particularly macronutrients (carbohydrates, fats, and proteins) and energy. This condition can result in an imbalance between nutrient intake and energy expenditure, which can contribute to the development of various health issues such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and certain types of cancer. It is important to note that overnutrition does not only refer to excessive calorie intake but also encompasses the consumption of nutrients in disproportionate amounts, such as an excessively high intake of saturated fats or sugars, which can have detrimental effects on health.

C-reactive protein (CRP) is a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation or infection in the body. It is named after its ability to bind to the C-polysaccharide of pneumococcus, a type of bacteria. CRP levels can be measured with a simple blood test and are often used as a marker of inflammation or infection. Elevated CRP levels may indicate a variety of conditions, including infections, tissue damage, and chronic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and cancer. However, it is important to note that CRP is not specific to any particular condition, so additional tests are usually needed to make a definitive diagnosis.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Leptin receptors are cell surface receptors that bind to and respond to the hormone leptin. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the hypothalamus in the brain, which plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose (fat) tissue that signals information about the size of fat stores to the brain. When leptin binds to its receptors, it activates signaling pathways that help regulate energy intake and expenditure, body weight, and glucose metabolism.

There are several subtypes of leptin receptors (LEPR), including LEPRa, LEPRb, LEPC, and LEPD. Among these, the LEPRb isoform is the most widely expressed and functionally important form. Mutations in the gene encoding the leptin receptor can lead to obesity, hyperphagia (excessive hunger), and impaired energy metabolism, highlighting the importance of this receptor in maintaining energy balance and overall health.

Cytokines are a broad and diverse category of small signaling proteins that are secreted by various cells, including immune cells, in response to different stimuli. They play crucial roles in regulating the immune response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, and cellular communication.

Cytokines mediate their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers intracellular signaling pathways that ultimately result in changes in gene expression, cell behavior, and function. Some key functions of cytokines include:

1. Regulating the activation, differentiation, and proliferation of immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, and macrophages.
2. Coordinating the inflammatory response by recruiting immune cells to sites of infection or tissue damage and modulating their effector functions.
3. Regulating hematopoiesis, the process of blood cell formation in the bone marrow, by controlling the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.
4. Modulating the development and function of the nervous system, including neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neuroregeneration.

Cytokines can be classified into several categories based on their structure, function, or cellular origin. Some common types of cytokines include interleukins (ILs), interferons (IFNs), tumor necrosis factors (TNFs), chemokines, colony-stimulating factors (CSFs), and transforming growth factors (TGFs). Dysregulation of cytokine production and signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Ectopic hormone production refers to the situation when a hormone is produced in an unusual location or by a type of cell that does not typically produce it. This can occur due to various reasons such as genetic mutations, cancer, or other medical conditions. The ectopic hormone production can lead to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms, as the regulation of hormones in the body becomes disrupted.

For example, in some cases of lung cancer, the tumor cells may produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is typically produced by the pituitary gland. This ectopic ACTH production can result in Cushing's syndrome, a condition characterized by symptoms such as weight gain, muscle weakness, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that ectopic hormone production is relatively rare and usually occurs in the context of specific medical conditions. If you suspect that you or someone else may have ectopic hormone production, it's important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional who can provide appropriate evaluation and treatment.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

The omentum, in anatomical terms, refers to a large apron-like fold of abdominal fatty tissue that hangs down from the stomach and loops over the intestines. It is divided into two portions: the greater omentum, which is larger and hangs down further, and the lesser omentum, which is smaller and connects the stomach to the liver.

The omentum has several functions in the body, including providing protection and cushioning for the abdominal organs, assisting with the immune response by containing a large number of immune cells, and helping to repair damaged tissues. It can also serve as a source of nutrients and energy for the body during times of starvation or other stressors.

In medical contexts, the omentum may be surgically mobilized and used to wrap around injured or inflamed tissues in order to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. This technique is known as an "omentopexy" or "omentoplasty."

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Ghrelin is a hormone primarily produced and released by the stomach with some production in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite, promotes food intake, and contributes to the regulation of energy balance.

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. In addition to its role in regulating appetite and meal initiation, ghrelin also has other functions, such as modulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, gastric motility, and cardiovascular function. Its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found in various tissues throughout the body, indicating its wide range of physiological roles.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone consisting of short chains of amino acids known as peptides. They are produced and released by various endocrine glands and play crucial roles in regulating many physiological processes in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions.

Peptide hormones exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. Some examples of peptide hormones include insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

Peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursor proteins called prohormones, which are cleaved by enzymes to release the active peptide hormone. They are water-soluble and cannot pass through the cell membrane, so they exert their effects through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms. Autocrine signaling occurs when a cell releases a hormone that binds to receptors on the same cell, while paracrine signaling involves the release of a hormone that acts on nearby cells. Endocrine signaling, on the other hand, involves the release of a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells to exert its effects.

Angiopoietins are a family of growth factors that play crucial roles in the development and maintenance of blood vessels. They bind to the Tie2 receptor tyrosine kinase, which is primarily expressed on vascular endothelial cells. The interaction between angiopoietins and Tie2 regulates various aspects of vascular biology, including vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, and vascular stability.

There are four main members in the angiopoietin family: Ang1, Ang2, Ang3 (also known as Ang4 in humans), and Ang4 (also known as Ang5 in mice). Among these, Ang1 and Ang2 have been studied most extensively.

Ang1 is produced by perivascular cells, such as smooth muscle cells and pericytes, and it acts as a stabilizing factor for blood vessels. It promotes vascular maturation and quiescence by enhancing endothelial cell survival, reducing vascular permeability, and increasing the association between endothelial cells and mural cells (pericytes or smooth muscle cells).

Ang2, on the other hand, is produced mainly by endothelial cells and has context-dependent functions. During embryonic development, Ang2 acts as a pro-angiogenic factor in conjunction with vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to promote the formation of new blood vessels. However, in adult tissues, Ang2 is upregulated during pathological conditions like inflammation and tumor growth, where it destabilizes existing vasculature by antagonizing Ang1's effects on Tie2 signaling. This leads to increased vascular permeability, inflammation, and the initiation of angiogenesis.

In summary, angiopoietins are essential regulators of blood vessel development and homeostasis, with distinct functions for different family members in promoting or inhibiting various aspects of vascular biology.

Lipocalins are a family of small, mostly secreted proteins characterized by their ability to bind and transport small hydrophobic molecules, including lipids, steroids, retinoids, and odorants. They share a conserved tertiary structure consisting of a beta-barrel core with an internal ligand-binding pocket. Lipocalins are involved in various biological processes such as cell signaling, immune response, and metabolic regulation. Some well-known members of this family include tear lipocalin (TLSP), retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), and odorant-binding proteins (OBPs).

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) is a protein involved in the regulation of fibrinolysis, which is the body's natural process of breaking down blood clots. PAI-1 inhibits tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), two enzymes that convert plasminogen to plasmin, which degrades fibrin clots. Therefore, PAI-1 acts as a natural antagonist of the fibrinolytic system, promoting clot formation and stability. Increased levels of PAI-1 have been associated with thrombotic disorders, such as deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

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This adipokine is associated with markers of inflammation in seminal plasma and the concentrations of seminal resistin ... Elfassy Y, Bastard JP, McAvoy C, Fellahi S, Dupont J, Levy R (2018). "Adipokines in Semen: Physiopathology and Effects on ... Malyszko J, Malyszko JS, Pawlak K, Mysliwiec M (December 2006). "Resistin, a new adipokine, is related to inflammation and ... an adipokine-mediated process?". Diabetes. 51 (10): 2951-8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.51.10.2951. PMID 12351432. Levy JR, Davenport ...
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January 2014). "Serum adipokine levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients and their contributions to the resistance to treatment ... Adiponectin (also referred to as GBP-28, apM1, AdipoQ and Acrp30) is a protein hormone and adipokine, which is involved in ... Hara K, Yamauchi T, Kadowaki T (April 2005). "Adiponectin: an adipokine linking adipocytes and type 2 diabetes in humans". ...
The first adipokine to be discovered was leptin in 1994. Since that time, hundreds of adipokines have been discovered. Members ... Adipokines at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) (Articles with short description, Short ... The adipokines, or adipocytokines (Greek adipo-, fat; cytos-, cell; and -kinos, movement) are cytokines (cell signaling ... Conde J, Scotece M, Gómez R, López V, Gómez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O (2011). "Adipokines: BioFactors from white adipose ...
However, adipokines are believed to be involved in an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Classical adipokines include leptin, ... Adipokines are biologically active factors secreted by adipose tissue that act on local and distant tissues through autocrine, ... However, adipokines are believed to be involved in an increased risk of atherosclerosis. Classical adipokines include leptin, ... Representative protective adipokines include adiponectin and neuregulin 4; deteriorating adipokines include leptin, resistin, ...
"Adipokines" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Adipokines" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, ... Relationship between circulating adipokines and cholesterol efflux in subjects with severe carotid atherosclerosis. Metabolism ... Adipokines and coronary artery calcification in incident dialysis participants. Endocrine. 2022 08; 77(2):272-280. ...
CRP and four adipokines: IL-6, TNF,i,α,/i,, PAI-1, and adiponectin) with IR (quantitative insulin resistance check index ... Proinflammatory adipokines (inflammation markers) from visceral adipose tissue may initiate the development of insulin ... Adipokine (Adiponectin, IL-6, PAI-1, and TNFα) and CRP Measurement. The adipokine and CRP assays were performed using ... K. Rabe, M. Lehrke, K. G. Parhofer, and U. C. Broedl, "Adipokines and insulin resistance," Molecular Medicine, vol. 14, no. 11- ...
... adipokines and vascular damage. We only evaluated 2 adipokines and probably the assessment of some others adipokines could have ... Among adipokines, adiponectin and leptin have been widely studied because of their close relation to fat distribution and ... 14. Sabbatini AR, Fontana V, Laurent S, Moreno H. An update on the role of adipokines in arterial stiffness and hypertension. J ... 10. Arai Y, Takayama M, Abe Y, Hirose N. Adipokines and aging. J Ateroscler Thromb. 2011;18:545-550. doi:10.5551/jat.7039 ...
An accumulation model best described the associations between overweight across the life course with adipokines and ... Overweight across the life course has a cumulative influence on adipokines, inflammatory and possibly endothelial markers. ... and measurements of adipokines (leptin and adiponectin), inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6)) ... particularly adipokines, inflammatory and endothelial markers. This paper therefore investigates the influence of overweight ...
... Endocrinology. 2005 Apr;146(4):1764-71. doi: 10.1210/ ...
Changes in Adipokine Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorders Subject Area: Neurology and Neuroscience , Psychiatry and Psychology ... Adipokines are cytokines secreted mainly by adipose tissue and may have systemic effects. The main objective of this study was ... Another aim was to correlate the levels of these adipokines and the severity of autistic symptoms as measured by the Social ... Lago F, Dieguez C, Gómez-Reino J, Gualillo O: Adipokines as emerging mediators of immune response and inflammation. Nat Clin ...
Adipokines that link obesity and diabetes to the hypothalamus. Prog Brain Res. 2006;153:155-174. [PubMed] [DOI] [Cited in This ... Figure 5 Changes of adipokines and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. TGFβ1: ... Role of adipokines and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. World J Hepatol 2014; 6 ... Figure 2 Role of adipokines in inflammation and fibrosis. NAFLD: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease; NASH: Nonalcoholic ...
"Adipokines" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Adipokines" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Nrg4 promotes fuel oxidation and a healthy adipokine profile to ameliorate diet-induced metabolic disorders. Mol Metab. 2017 08 ... Prospective Relation of Circulating Adipokines to Incident Metabolic Syndrome: The Framingham Heart Study. J Am Heart Assoc. ...
Adipokines from local fat cells shape the macrophage compartment of the creeping fat in Crohns disease ... Adipokines from local fat cells shape the macrophage compartment of the creeping fat in Crohns disease ... Adipokines from local fat cells shape the macrophage compartment of the creeping fat in Crohns disease ...
is to be used for the simultaneous quantification of the following 7 mouse adipokines in any combination: Insulin, Leptin, ... These adipocyte-derived proteins (adipocytokines/adipokines) play critical roles in body energy homeostasis and metabolism. ...
The Adipokine Lipocalin 2 Is Regulated by Obesity and Promotes Insulin Resistance Qing-Wu Yan; Qing-Wu Yan ... Several adipokines promote insulin sensitivity, including leptin (2), adiponectin (4), and visfatin (5), while others induce ... CONCLUSIONS-Lcn2 is an adipokine with potential importance in insulin resistance associated with obesity. ... and the term adipokine was coined to reflect that many of these molecules exert positive or negative actions on inflammation. ...
91-OR: CTRP3, a Novel Adipokine with Anti-inflammatory and Cardioprotective Properties, in Patients with Cardiovascular ... is a novel adipokine that reduces inflammation and acts cardioprotectively. The aim of our study was to analyze serum levels ... a Novel Adipokine with Anti-inflammatory and Cardioprotective Properties, in Patients with Cardiovascular Diseases and Type 2 ...
Serum adipokines were measured using a Luminex suspension bead-based multiplexed array. Dietary patterns were derived by using ... Although some foods and nutrients have been linked to circulating adipokine levels, little is known about the role of dietary ... Multiple regression analysis was performed to assess the association between dietary pattern scores and adipokine ... The other adipokines were not significantly associated with any dietary pattern. The Westernized breakfast dietary pattern may ...
GND]: Adipokine , Apolipoproteine , LC-MS , Fettsucht , Blutserum. [MeSH]: Adipokines , Apolipoproteins , Chromatography, ... Adipokines and apolipoproteins are key regulators and potential biomarkers in obesity and associated diseases and their ... Thus, we established an MRM method to quantify 9 adipokines and 10 apolipoproteins in human serum. We optimized sample ... In 50 serum samples from participants with either normal weight or obesity, we quantified 8 adipokines and 10 apolipoproteins. ...
Given the role of adipokines in mediating bone and cartilage homeostasis, we undertook this study to examine the relationship ... Given the role of adipokines in mediating bone and cartilage homeostasis, we undertook this study to examine the relationship ... Given the role of adipokines in mediating bone and cartilage homeostasis, we undertook this study to examine the relationship ... Given the role of adipokines in mediating bone and cartilage homeostasis, we undertook this study to examine the relationship ...
Several adipokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CKD and may have a strong impact as a risk factor for renal ... Several adipokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CKD and may have a strong impact as a risk factor for renal ... Several adipokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CKD and may have a strong impact as a risk factor for renal ... Several adipokines have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CKD and may have a strong impact as a risk factor for renal ...
... Clemente Suárez, Vicente Javier; Redondo Flórez, Laura; Beltrán Velasco, Ana ... Adipokines are cell-signaling proteins secreted by adipose tissue that has been related to a low-grade state of inflammation ... The Role of Adipokines in Health and Disease. ABACUS/Manakin Repository. My ABACUS ... The present review aims to analyze the role of adipokines in health and disease in order to understand the important functions ...
Adipokines. Leptin is an adipokine (cytokine derived from fat cells) that plays an important role in regulating energy balance ...
The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of maternal DM on fetal adipokines and anthropometry in infants of Hispanic ... From: Cord blood adipokines, neonatal anthropometrics and postnatal growth in offspring of Hispanic and Native American women ...
... as well as potential myokine-adipokine cross-talk mechanisms may explain the lower irisin levels in children with obesity and ... Adipokines and the myokine irisin, involved in mechanisms associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS), are understudied ... From: Myokine-adipokine cross-talk: potential mechanisms for the association between plasma irisin and adipokines and ...
Adipocytes secrete hormones known as adipokines which act on multiple cell types to regulate metabolism. Many adipokines have ... Adipocytes secrete hormones known as adipokines which act on multiple cell types to regulate metabolism. Many adipokines have ... Adipocytes secrete hormones known as adipokines which act on multiple cell types to regulate metabolism. Many adipokines have ... Adipocytes secrete hormones known as adipokines which act on multiple cell types to regulate metabolism. Many adipokines have ...
... Yuka Unno, Yoshinori Sato, ... Acinetobacter baumanniiLipopolysaccharide Influences Adipokine Expression in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. , Mediators of Inflammation, ...
Pooled Effects of Curcumin on Adipokines. The effects of curcumin intake on serum adipokines are presented in Figure 4. The ... Figure 4 Meta-analysis adipokines standardized mean differences estimates for (A) leptin and for (B) adiponectin in curcumin ... Figure 2 The methodological quality of included studies on effect of curcumin on body composition and adipokines based on ... favoring release of insulin-sensitizing adipokines including adiponectin, and decreasing inflammatory cytokines (Astapova and ...
... CERVELLATI, Carlo. Primo ... Experimental data suggest that this link might be due to the direct effect of adipokines on bone tissue. Confirmatory evidence ... Experimental data suggest that this link might be due to the direct effect of adipokines on bone tissue. Confirmatory evidence ... Methods: The levels of a panel of selected adipokines including interleukin (IL)-6, -8, -1b, adipsin, lipocalin-2/ neutrophil ...
Kang, Y., Park, H. J., Kang, M. I., Lee, H. S., Lee, S. W., Lee, S. K., & Park, Y. B. (2013). Adipokines, inflammation, insulin ... Among adipokines, resistin and IL-6 were correlated with inflammatory parameters. Leptin and leptin:adiponectin (L:A) ratio ... Among adipokines, resistin and IL-6 were correlated with inflammatory parameters. Leptin and leptin:adiponectin (L:A) ratio ... Kang, Y, Park, HJ, Kang, MI, Lee, HS, Lee, SW, Lee, SK & Park, YB 2013, Adipokines, inflammation, insulin resistance, and ...
INTRODUCTION: Adipose tissue contributes to atherosclerosis with mechanisms related to adipokine secretion. Polyphenols may ... and resveratrol on adipokine secretion from cultured human adipocytes. ...
Plasma adipokine profiling showed significantly higher concentrations of the novel adipokines cathepsin S (5.1 x 10(4) vs 4.3 x ... We assessed adipokine dynamic ranges, lower limits of detection and quantification, cross-reactivity, intra- and interassay ... RESULTS: The limits of quantification and broad dynamic ranges enabled measurement of all 25 adipokines in supernatants and ... CONCLUSIONS: Our findings underscore the relevance of the novel adipokines cathepsin S and chemerin, but foremost the potential ...

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