Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.Azo CompoundsAdipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-delta: A member of the C-EBP protein family of transcription factors. It plays a key role in G0 PHASE mammary EPITHELIAL CELL growth arrest, and it is involved in transcriptional regulation of INTERLEUKIN 1; INTERLEUKIN 6; and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Mice, Inbred C57BLSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Endrin: An organochlorine compound that was formerly used as an insecticide. Its manufacture and use has been discontinued in the United States. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Lipodystrophy: A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESWnt Proteins: Wnt proteins are a large family of secreted glycoproteins that play essential roles in EMBRYONIC AND FETAL DEVELOPMENT, and tissue maintenance. They bind to FRIZZLED RECEPTORS and act as PARACRINE PROTEIN FACTORS to initiate a variety of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway stabilizes the transcriptional coactivator BETA CATENIN.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Osteoblasts: Bone-forming cells which secrete an EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX. HYDROXYAPATITE crystals are then deposited into the matrix to form bone.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Graves Ophthalmopathy: An autoimmune disorder of the EYE, occurring in patients with Graves disease. Subtypes include congestive (inflammation of the orbital connective tissue), myopathic (swelling and dysfunction of the extraocular muscles), and mixed congestive-myopathic ophthalmopathy.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Stromal Cells: Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.Orbit: Bony cavity that holds the eyeball and its associated tissues and appendages.Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 1, Group D, Member 1: A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that negatively regulates expression of ARNTL TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and plays a role as a regulatory component of the circadian clock system. The Nr1d1 nuclear receptor expression is cyclically-regulated by a feedback loop involving its positive regulation by CLOCK PROTEIN; BMAL1 PROTEIN heterodimers and its negative regulation by CRYPTOCHROME and PERIOD PROTEINS.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.NIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Trialkyltin Compounds: Organometallic compounds which contain tin and three alkyl groups.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.

Induction of chondro-, osteo- and adipogenesis in embryonic stem cells by bone morphogenetic protein-2: effect of cofactors on differentiating lineages. (1/1177)

BACKGROUND: Recently, tissue engineering has merged with stem cell technology with interest to develop new sources of transplantable material for injury or disease treatment. Eminently interesting, are bone and joint injuries/disorders because of the low self-regenerating capacity of the matrix secreting cells, particularly chondrocytes. ES cells have the unlimited capacity to self-renew and maintain their pluripotency in culture. Upon induction of various signals they will then differentiate into distinctive cell types such as neurons, cardiomyocytes and osteoblasts. RESULTS: We present here that BMP-2 can drive ES cells to the cartilage, osteoblast or adipogenic fate depending on supplementary co-factors. TGFbeta1, insulin and ascorbic acid were identified as signals that together with BMP-2 induce a chondrocytic phenotype that is characterized by increased expression of cartilage marker genes in a timely co-ordinated fashion. Expression of collagen type IIB and aggrecan, indicative of a fully mature state, continuously ascend until reaching a peak at day 32 of culture to approximately 80-fold over control values. Sox9 and scleraxis, cartilage specific transcription factors, are highly expressed at very early stages and show decreased expression over the time course of EB differentiation. Some smaller proteoglycans, such as decorin and biglycan, are expressed at earlier stages. Overall, proteoglycan biosynthesis is up-regulated 7-fold in response to the supplements added. BMP-2 induced chondrocytes undergo hypertrophy and begin to alter their expression profile towards osteoblasts. Supplying mineralization factors such as beta-glycerophosphate and vitamin D3 with the culture medium can facilitate this process. Moreover, gene expression studies show that adipocytes can also differentiate from BMP-2 treated ES cells. CONCLUSIONS: Ultimately, we have found that ES cells can be successfully triggered to differentiate into chondrocyte-like cells, which can further alter their fate to become hypertrophic, and adipocytes. Compared with previous reports using a brief BMP-2 supplementation early in differentiation, prolonged exposure increased chondrogenic output, while supplementation with insulin and ascorbic acid prevented dedifferentiation. These results provide a foundation for the use of ES cells as a potential therapy in joint injury and disease.  (+info)

Role of Gas-6 in adipogenesis and nutritionally induced adipose tissue development in mice. (2/1177)

OBJECTIVE: A potential role of growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas-6) in energy storage in adipose tissue was investigated in murine models of obesity. Gas-6 is a ligand for the Axl, C-Mer, and Sky family of tyrosine kinase receptors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Whereas Gas-6, C-Mer, and Sky were expressed in mature murine adipocytes, the expression of Axl was restricted to the stromal-vascular fraction, which includes pre-adipocytes. During the in vitro conversion of adipogenic 3T3-F442A cells into mature adipocytes, the expression of Gas-6 increased in undifferentiated confluent pre-adipocytes during a transient phase of growth arrest. On treatment of these cells with an adipogenic medium, Gas-6 expression decreased sharply, coinciding with expression of early adipocytes markers. This modulation was not observed in the nonadipogenic 3T3-C2 cells. The Gas-6 mRNA level was transiently downregulated during nutritionally induced expansion of adipose tissues in vivo. When kept on a standard diet, no significant difference in either total body weight or weight of gonadal or subcutaneous fat pads was observed between Gas-6 deficient and wild-type mice. On exposure to a high-fat diet, however, Gas-6-deficient mice had significantly less fat mass than their wild-type counterparts. CONCLUSIONS: Gas-6 enhances the accumulation of adipose tissue in diet-induced obese mice.  (+info)

Mesenchymal stem cells from the outer ear: a novel adult stem cell model system for the study of adipogenesis. (3/1177)

Adipocytes arise from multipotent stem cells of mesodermal origin, which also give rise to the muscle, bone, and cartilage lineages. However, signals and early molecular events that commit multipotent stem cells into the adipocyte lineage are not well established mainly due to lack of an adequate model system. We have identified a novel source of adult stem cells from the external murine ears referred to here as an ear mesenchymal stem cells (EMSC). EMSC have been isolated from several standard and mutant strains of mice. They are self-renewing, clonogenic, and multipotent, since they give rise to osteocytes, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. The in vitro characterization of EMSC indicates very facile adipogenic differentiation. Morphological, histochemical, and molecular analysis after the induction of differentiation showed that EMSC maintain adipogenic potentials up to fifth passage. A comparison of EMSC to the stromal-vascular (S-V) fraction of fat depots, under identical culture conditions (isobutyl-methylxanthine, dexamethasone, and insulin), revealed much more robust and consistent adipogenesis in EMSC than in the S-V fraction. In summary, we show that EMSC can provide a novel, easily obtainable, primary culture model for the study of adipogenesis.  (+info)

Generation of a vascularized organoid using skeletal muscle as the inductive source. (4/1177)

The technology required for creating an in vivo microenvironment and a neovasculature that can grow with and service new tissue is lacking, precluding the possibility of engineering complex three-dimensional organs. We have shown that when an arterio-venous (AV) loop is constructed in vivo in the rat groin, and placed inside a semisealed chamber, an extensive functional vasculature is generated. To test whether this unusually angiogenic environment supports the survival and growth of implanted tissue or cells, we inserted various preparations of rat and human skeletal muscle. We show that after 6 weeks incubation of muscle tissue, the chamber filled with predominantly well-vascularized recipient-derived adipose tissue, but some new donor-derived skeletal muscle and connective tissue were also evident. When primary cultured myoblasts were inserted into the chamber with the AV loop, they converted to mature striated muscle fibers. Furthermore, we identify novel adipogenesis-inducing properties of skeletal muscle. This represents the first report of a specific three-dimensional tissue grown on its own vascular supply.  (+info)

The transcription factor GATA2 regulates differentiation of brown adipocytes. (5/1177)

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized mammalian tissue and a site of adaptive thermogenesis. Although the metabolic functions of brown and white adipocytes are distinct, terminal differentiation of both adipocyte lineages is regulated by well-characterized common transcription factors. However, the early stages of adipocyte differentiation and regulation of precursor cells are not well understood. We report here that GATA2 is expressed in brown adipocyte precursors, and its expression is downregulated in a differentiation-dependent manner. Constitutive expression of GATA2 suppressed expression of BAT-specific genes in brown adipocytes, whereas disruption of a GATA2 allele in brown preadipocytes resulted in significantly elevated differentiation and expression of several markers of brown adipogenesis. Collectively, these results show that GATA2 functions to suppress brown adipocyte differentiation, whereas reduction of GATA2 promotes brown adipogenesis.  (+info)

The G0/G1 switch gene 2 is a novel PPAR target gene. (6/1177)

PPARs (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors) alpha, beta/delta and gamma are a group of transcription factors that are involved in numerous processes, including lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. By comparing liver mRNAs of wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice using microarrays, a novel putative target gene of PPARalpha, G0S2 (G0/G1 switch gene 2), was identified. Hepatic expression of G0S2 was up-regulated by fasting and by the PPARalpha agonist Wy14643 in a PPARalpha-dependent manner. Surprisingly, the G0S2 mRNA level was highest in brown and white adipose tissue and was greatly up-regulated during mouse 3T3-L1 and human SGBS (Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome) adipogenesis. Transactivation, gel shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that G0S2 is a direct PPARgamma and probable PPARalpha target gene with a functional PPRE (PPAR-responsive element) in its promoter. Up-regulation of G0S2 mRNA seemed to be specific for adipogenesis, and was not observed during osteogenesis or myogenesis. In 3T3-L1 fibroblasts, expression of G0S2 was associated with growth arrest, which is required for 3T3-L1 adipogenesis. Together, these data indicate that G0S2 is a novel target gene of PPARs that may be involved in adipocyte differentiation.  (+info)

Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1), a component of the molecular clock, regulates adipogenesis. (7/1177)

Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 (BMAL1; also known as MOP3 or Arnt3) is a transcription factor known to regulate circadian rhythm. Here, we established its involvement in the control of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism activity in mature adipocytes. During adipose differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, the level of BMAL1 mRNA began to increase 4 days after induction and was highly expressed in differentiated cells. In white adipose tissues isolated from C57BL/6J mice, BMAL1 was predominantly expressed in a fraction containing adipocytes, as compared with the stromal-vascular fraction. BMAL1 knockout mice embryonic fibroblast cells failed to be differentiated into adipocytes. Importantly, adding BMAL1 back by adenovirus gene transfer restored the ability of BMAL1 knockout mice embryonic fibroblast cells to differentiate. Knock-down of BMAL1 expression in 3T3-L1 cells by an RNA interference technique allowed the cells to accumulate only minimum amounts of lipid droplets in the cells. Adenovirus-mediated expression of BMAL1 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes resulted in induction of several factors involved in lipogenesis. The promoter activity of these genes was stimulated in a BMAL1-dependent manner. Interestingly, expression of these factors showed clear circadian rhythm in mice adipose tissue. Furthermore, overexpression of BMAL1 in adipocytes increased lipid synthesis activity. These results indicate that BMAL1, a master regulator of circadian rhythm, also plays important roles in the regulation of adipose differentiation and lipogenesis in mature adipocytes.  (+info)

Gene expression analysis suggests that EBF-1 and PPARgamma2 induce adipogenesis of NIH-3T3 cells with similar efficiency and kinetics. (8/1177)

Differentiation of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells into lipid-accumulating adipocytes is a physiological process induced by transcription factors in combination with hormonal stimulation. We have used Affymetrix microarrays to compare the adipogenic differentiation pathways of NIH-3T3 fibroblasts induced to undergo in vitro differentiation by ectopic expression of early B cell factor (EBF)-1 or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma2. These experiments revealed that commitment to the adipogenic pathway in the NIH-3T3 cells was not reflected in gene expression until 4 days after induction of differentiation. Furthermore, gene expression patterns at the earlier time points after stimulation indicated that EBF-1 and PPARgamma2 induced different sets of genes, while the similarities increased upon differentiation, and that several genes linked to adipocyte differentiation were also transiently induced in the vector-transduced cells. These data suggest that the initial activation of genes associated with adipocyte development is independent of commitment to the adipogenic pathway and that EBF-1 and PPARgamma2 induce adipocyte differentiation with comparable kinetics and efficiency.  (+info)

*Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma

The genes activated by PPARG stimulate lipid uptake and adipogenesis by fat cells. PPARG knockout mice fail to generate adipose ... and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in Adipogenesis". Mol Cell Biol. 37 (2): 18779-89. doi:10.1128/MCB.00554-16. ... triglyceride decanoic acid has been shown to be a partially-activating PPAR-gamma ligand that does not increase adipogenesis. A ...

*Adipogenesis

... is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes. Adipogenesis has been one of the ... Adipogenesis is a tightly regulated cellular differentiation process, in which the preadipocytes are transformed into ... Wang, Qiong A; Tao, Caroline; Gupta, Rana K; Scherer, Philipp E (2013). "Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue ... and triiodothyronine effectively induce adipogenesis in preadipocytes. Cornelius, P; MacDougald, OA; Lane, MD (1994). " ...

*FOXO1

The failure to commit to adipogenesis is primarily due to active FOXO1 arresting the cell in G0/G1 through activation of yet ... FOXO1 negatively regulates adipogenesis. Presently, the exact mechanism by which this is accomplished is not entirely ... Rising levels of PPARG are required to initiate adipogenesis; by preventing its transcription, FOXO1 is preventing the onset of ... In the currently accepted model, FOXO1 negatively regulates adipogenesis by binding to the promoter sites of PPARG and ...

*MicroRNA

Studies to determine what role pluripotent stem cells play in adipogenesis, were examined in the immortalized human bone marrow ... Romao JM, Jin W, Dodson MV, Hausman GJ, Moore SS, Guan LL (September 2011). "MicroRNA regulation in mammalian adipogenesis". ... Conversely, ectopic expression of the miRNAs 155,221, and 222 significantly inhibited adipogenesis and repressed induction of ... alpha expression by C/EBP beta during adipogenesis requires a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma-associated ...

*Yihai Cao

Cao, Yihai (2007-09-01). "Angiogenesis modulates adipogenesis and obesity". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 117 (9): ...

*Lipoblast

Adipogenesis Adipose differentiation-related protein Lipoblastoma Barbara Young; Paul R. Wheater (2006). Wheater's functional ... Dani C (1999). "Embryonic stem cell-derived adipogenesis". Cells Tissues Organs (Print). 165 (3-4): 173-80. doi:10.1159/ ...

*Firre (gene)

It plays a role in pluripotency and adipogenesis. Long noncoding RNA GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000213468 - Ensembl, May ... "Long noncoding RNAs regulate adipogenesis". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...

*DEPTOR

... cell-autonomously regulates adipogenesis. In the muscle, Baf60c promotes a switch from oxidative to glycolytic myofiber ... "DEPTOR cell-autonomously promotes adipogenesis, and its expression is associated with obesity". Cell Metabolism. 16 (2): 202-12 ...

*WNT10B

2000). "Inhibition of adipogenesis by Wnt signaling". Science. 289 (5481): 950-3. doi:10.1126/science.289.5481.950. PMID ... a molecular switch that governs adipogenesis. Gain-of-function of Wnt10b in mouse hearts has shown to improve cardiac tissue ...

*GPR 120

... is also a key regulator of adipogenesis, including adipocyte development and differentiation. Oh, Da Young; Talukdar, ... 2007). "The regulation of adipogenesis through GPR120". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 354 (2): 591-7. ...

*STC1

Serlachius M, Andersson LC (Jun 2004). "Upregulated expression of stanniocalcin-1 during adipogenesis". Experimental Cell ...

*Adiposopathy

... fat cell recruitment and development adipogenesis; (3) dissolving and reforming the structures around fat tissue (extracellular ...

*Let-7 microRNA precursor

Sun T, Fu M, Bookout AL, Kliewer SA, Mangelsdorf DJ (2009). "MicroRNA let-7 Regulates 3T3-L1 Adipogenesis". Mol Endocrinol. 23 ...

*NEDD8

PPARγ has a crucial role in adipogenesis and lipid accumulation within adipocytes (fat cells). Activated NEDD8 stabilizes PPARγ ... allowing increased adipogenesis. In experiments with mice, Pevonedistat, a drug inhibiting activation of NEDD8, prevented high- ... "PPARγ neddylation essential for adipogenesis is a potential target for treating obesity". Cell Death and Differentiation. 23 (8 ...

*ADAM12

"ADAM 12 protease induces adipogenesis in transgenic mice". Am. J. Pathol. 160 (5): 1895-903. doi:10.1016/S0002-9440(10)61136-4 ...

*N6-Methyladenosine

"FTO influences adipogenesis by regulating mitotic clonal expansion". Nature Communications. 6: 6792. doi:10.1038/ncomms7792. ... "FTO-dependent demethylation of N6-methyladenosine regulates mRNA splicing and is required for adipogenesis". Cell Research. 24 ...

*Oxylipin

Barquissau V, Ghandour RA, Ailhaud G, Klingenspor M, Langin D, Amri EZ, Pisani DF (2017). "Control of adipogenesis by oxylipins ...

*Cathepsin

Mouse cathepsin L is homologous to human cathepsin V. Mouse cathepsin L has been shown to play a role in adipogenesis and ... "Cathepsin L activity controls adipogenesis and glucose tolerance". Nat. Cell Biol. 9 (8): 970-7. doi:10.1038/ncb1623. PMID ...

*KMT2D

KMT2C and KMT2D are essential for adipogenesis and myogenesis. Similar functions are seen in neuronal and osteoblast ... "MLL3/MLL4 are required for CBP/p300 binding on enhancers and super-enhancer formation in brown adipogenesis". Nucleic Acids ... recruits and requires KMT2D to establish a subset of adipogenic enhancers during adipogenesis. Depletion of KMT2D prior to ...

*Oprelvekin

Synonyms are: AGIF Adipogenesis inhibitory factor Interleukin-11 precursor. Oprelvekin is produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli ... the inhibition of adipogenesis, the induction of acute phase protein synthesis (e.g., fibrinogen), and inhibition of ...

*Follistatin

2009). "Role of follistatin in promoting adipogenesis in women". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 94 (8): 3003-9. doi:10.1210/jc. ...

*Super-enhancer

"Molecular architecture of transcription factor hotspots in early adipogenesis". Cell Reports. 7 (5): 1434-42. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Acetyl-CoA carboxylase

"A biotin analog inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and adipogenesis". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (19): 16347-50. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...

*MiR-27

Lin Q, Gao Z, Alarcon RM, Ye J, Yun Z (2009). "A role of miR-27 in the regulation of adipogenesis". FEBS J. 276 (8): 2348-58. ... acting by blocking the expression of two main regulators of adipogenesis. MicroRNAs miR-27a and -27b have been found to ...

*Chemerin

... a new adipokine that modulates adipogenesis via its own receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 362 (4): 1013-8. doi:10.1016/ ... a novel adipokine that regulates adipogenesis and adipocyte metabolism". J. Biol. Chem. 282 (38): 28175-88. doi:10.1074/jbc. ...
Retinoids may regulate cell differentiation as ligands of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and/or retinoid X receptors (RXRs). We showed that RAR agonists promoted adipogenesis by upregulating the expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ) in the early stages, but blocked adipogenesis at a later stage in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs). RXR agonists promoted adipogenesis at all time points in hBMSCs. The effect of RAR agonists was mediated mainly by the RARβ subtype. RAR agonists, in contrast to RXR agonists, significantly promoted the expression of RARβ. Knockdown of the RARβ gene via small hairpin RNA (shRNA) attenuated the inhibition of RAR agonists toward adipogenesis. Furthermore, we found that RAR agonists upregulated the transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)/SMAD pathway and Wnt/β-catenin pathway on adipogenesis in hBMSCs, and the stimulating effects were noticeably decreased with the RARβ gene knockdown. Both RAR agonists and RXR agonists inhibited
Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P|0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth
Insulin signaling is one of the main initiators of adipogenesis, the conversion from pre-adipocyte to adipocyte or lipid droplet. Rab proteins are the master regulator of intracellular trafficking and endosome fusion in endocytosis, making them potential regulators of insulin signaling in adipogenesis. Pre-adipocytes 3T3-Ll cells expressing several Rab5 constructs were used to examine the effect of dehydroleucodine (DhL ), a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from aerial parts of Artemisia douglasiana Besser. The results obtained identify Rab5 deactivation as a key step for adipogenesis by forming signaling endosomes. The addition of DhL significantly inhibited the lipid droplet accumulation in a dose-dependent manner and dramatically attenuated the synthesis of adipogenic transcriptional factors, C/EBPa and PPARy. Activation of AMPKa, Erk and Akt during adipocytic differentiation was not inhibited by treatment with DhL. This data suggest that DhL has an important role in Rab5 dependent adipogenesis by
Adipogenesis is a complex process, in which immature pre-adipocytes change morphology, micro-anatomy and physiology to become mature adipocytes. These store and accumulate fat and release diverse hormones. Massive changes in protein content and protein composition of the transforming cell take place within a short time-frame. In a previous study we analyzed changes in the abundance of free and polysomal, i.e. ribosome bound, RNAs in the first hours of adipogenesis in the murine cell line 3T3-L1. Here we analyze changes of mRNA levels and their potential contribution to the changing protein pool by determination of mRNA levels and ribosome binding to mRNAs in 3T3-L1 cells stimulated for adipogenesis. We grouped mRNA species into categories with respect to up- or down-regulated transcription and translation and analyzed the groups regarding specific functionalities based on Gene Ontology (GO). A shift towards up-regulation of gene expression in early adipogenesis was detected. Genes up-regulated at the
Background Ursolic acid (UA) is a triterpenoid compound with multiple biological functions. This compound has recently been reported to possess an anti-obesity effect; however, the mechanisms are less understood. Objective As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to differentiate in the presence or absence of UA for 6 days. The cells were determined for proliferation, differentiation, fat accumulation as well as the protein expressions of molecular targets that regulate or are involved in fatty acid synthesis and oxidation. The results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis, accompanied by reduced protein expression of CCAAT element binding protein β (C/EBPβ), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), CCAAT
Human Platelets were purchased from HEMOCARE for the production of PRP. Human adipose-derived stem cells were isolated as per laboratory protocol. The ASCs were cultured under four conditions: 1. Regular DMEM medium, 2. Regular DMEM medium with PRP 3. Adipogenic medium 4. Adipogenic medium with PRP. The cell proliferation was assessed by CYQUANT and the adipogenesis were evaluated by AdipoRed stain and the qPCR of PPAR-gamma and FABP4 gene expression. The mRNA of stemness gene expression of ASCs was compared by qPCR of SOX-2, Nanog and Oct-4 .The angiogenesis of ASCs was evaluated by qPCR of VEGF gene expression and endothelium tube formation assay. The nude mice were implant with fat graft with PRP as experiment and fat graft only as control group. The survival rate was analyzed by volume retention, the histomophometry of mature adipocyte area and vessel density assay by CD31 immunohistochemical stain ...
We have previously identified a WD‐repeat propeller‐FYVE protein, ProF, as an interaction partner for the kinases PKCζ and Akt in 3T3‐L1 cells (Fritzius et al, 2006). Furthermore, we have shown that ProF forms a trimeric complex with PKCζ and its substrate VAMP2. In this complex, ProF was found to act as an adaptor‐like protein for facilitated substrate phosphorylation of VAMP2 by the active kinase PKCζ (Fritzius et al, 2007).. In this study, we identified a role for ProF during adipogenesis and showed complex formation of ProF with the kinase Akt and the kinase substrate Foxo1. The protein kinase Akt was found to affect adipogenesis after the expression of C/EBPβ and C/EBPδ, but before the expression of PPARγ and C/EBPα (Peng et al, 2003; Baudry et al, 2006), which resembled the effects of ProF on adipogenesis. Akt phosphorylation of Foxo1 at Ser253, in the Foxo1 DNA binding domain, has been demonstrated to decrease its transcriptional activity (Zhang et al, 2002). We have shown ...
University of Pittsburgh Introduction: Human adipose derived stem cells (ASC) may have broad applications to plastic and reconstructive surgery. For soft tissue reconstruction, the ability to induce adipogenesis and angiogenesis is vital for long term graft survival. However the gene expression and cellular fate of these cells is governed by molecular signaling. Wnt signaling is well evidenced in inhibiting adipogenesis and influence cell differentiation. We hypothesized that regulation of this signaling cascade in adipose stem cells could enhance adipogenesis.. Purpose: This study aims to antagonize Wnt signaling by lentiviral overexpression of secreted frizzled-related protein1 (sFRP1) in ASCs to assess adipogenesis and angiogenic growth factor secretion.. Methods: Wnt antagonistic studies were carried out in lentiviral sFRP1 transfected and flow cytometry selected GFP reporter positive ASCs. mRNA gene expression of signaling cascade were analyzed for adipogenic marker genes (PPARy, FABP4, ...
Compared to standard 2D culture systems, new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. By resuspending living cells in a bioink of nanocellulose and hyaluronic acid, we were able to print 3D scaffolds with uniform cell distribution. After one week in culture, cell viability was 95%, and after two weeks the cells displayed a more mature phenotype with larger lipid droplets than standard 2D cultured cells. Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR. and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, respectively, for cells in 3D bioprinted constructs compared with 2D cultured cells. Our 3D bioprinted culture system produces better adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and a more mature cell phenotype than conventional
To our knowledge, these are the first results that demonstrate the effects of maternal isocaloric pair-fed high-carbohydrate (LF-HCD) versus high-fat diet (HF-LCD) during gestation and lactation on gene expression and serum levels of formation and resorption markers in bone, as well as adipogenic and lipogenic markers in retroperitoneal fat mass of mice offspring at adolescence. The results of the present study showed that maternal LF-HCD during gestation and lactation lead to up-regulation of Runx2 and Ctnnb1, as well as Runx2, OPG, OPG/RANK-L ratio and Ctnnb1 mRNA expression in bone of female and male offspring, respectively. Also, serum levels of OPG/RNK-L ratio which is the marker of osteogenesis [22] were increased in the LF-HCD-fed group, compared with the HF-LCD. PPARγ2 mRNA expression, as well as other adipogenic genes measured in the current study and serum levels of proteins were increased in the offspring of HF-LCD-fed mothers. Our results showed that mRNA expression of OPG and ...
CUL4B participates in the regulation of a broad spectrum of biological processes. In the current study, we provided several lines of evidence that CUL4B functions as a negative regulator of adipogenesis. First, CUL4B expression was downregulated during adipocyte differentiation in obese mice and was inversely correlated with BMI. Second, knockdown of CUL4B in 3T1-L1 cells led to increased adipocyte differentiation, whereas the overexpression of CUL4B had the opposite effect. Third, most importantly, the deletion of CUL4B in adipose tissues greatly facilitated adipogenesis. When challenged with HFD, AKO mice exhibited increased body weight gain and fat mass. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that the negative regulation of adipogenesis by CUL4B is mediated by the polyubiquitination of PPARγ, a master regulator of adipogenesis and insulin sensitivity. In particular, the treatment with PPARγ inhibitor GW9662 in HFD-fed AKO mice could efficiently block the increased adipogenesis and decreased ...
Title:. A Novel pro-adipogenesis factor abundant in adipose tissues and over-expressed in obesity acts upstream of PPARg and C/EBPa. Authors:. Yuhui Ni, Chenbo Ji, Bin Wang, Jie Qiu, Jiwu Wang, Xirong Guo Abstract:. An important question about adipogenesis is how master adipogenesis factors (defined as being able to initiate adipogenesis when expressed alone) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) initiate adipogenesis only in differentiating preadipocytes. The objective of our research was to find previously unidentified factors that are unique or highly enriched in cells of the adipocyte lineage during adipogenesis that may provide functional tissue specificity to preadipocytes. We reasoned that such factors may alter expression profile specifically in obese individuals. Omental adipose tissues were obtained from obese and non-obese male patients undergoing emergency abdominal surgery. mRNAs extracted from either group were used for suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH). Genes ...
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Adipocytes arise from mesodermal stem cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into a variety of other cell types, including myocytes (1). Once committed to the adipocyte lineage, preadipocytes can remain quiescent, multiply, or undergo differentiation and become adipocytes. 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A cells are established mouse preadipocyte models. Both cell lines can be induced to differentiate in cell culture, but 3T3-F442A cells are thought to be arrested at a later point in development (2). Studies of these cellular models have revealed some of the molecular events that orchestrate adipogenesis, including the role of C/EBPs and PPARγ in mediating the expression of adipocyte-specific genes (3, 4).. Wnts are a family of paracrine and autocrine factors that regulate cell growth and cell fate (5). Signaling is initiated when Wnt ligands bind to transmembrane receptors of the Frizzled family. In the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, Frizzleds signal through Dishevelled to inhibit the kinase ...
The present results provide direct evidence for a regulatory role of mechanical stress in adipocyte differentiation, mediated through the activation of the ERK/MAPK system. Controversial observations concerning the role of ERK/MAPK in adipocyte differentiation have been reported by several laboratories - the activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both the inhibition (Font de Mora et al., 1997; Hu et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2001; Shimba et al., 2001) and the promotion (Bost et al., 2002; Klemm et al., 2001; Machinal-Quelin et al., 2002; Prusty et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 1996) of adipocyte differentiation. Along these lines, Prusty et al. recently suggested that stimulation of the ERK/MAPK pathway might have opposing effects in the process of adipogenesis, depending on the time of activation during the differentiation process (Prusty et al., 2002). In the present study, the activated state of ERK1/2 was more prolonged during the induction period in response to the ...
The fatty acid chaperone FABP4 is induced by PPARγ, the master regulator of adipogenesis, yet these two regulators exert opposite effects on various metabolic parameters such as insulin resistance and inflammation (14). Here we demonstrate a previously unrecognized negative feedback loop, whereby FABP4 specifically triggers proteasomal degradation of PPARγ and consequently inhibits PPARγ-related functions, thereby providing a possible mechanism that explains their opposite effects. Our observations are consistent with an earlier finding that PPARγ activity is elevated in FABP4-null macrophages (20). FABP4 was reported to physically interact with PPARγ (38); hence, it is likely that such a physical interaction triggers the ubiquitination and the subsequent proteasomal degradation of PPARγ. This interaction took place through a site distinct from the fatty acid binding pocket of FABP4 (38), and therefore the ability of the fatty acid binding inhibitor BMS309403 to block the effect of FABP4 ...
Talukder , M M U , Sim , M F M , ORahilly , S , Edwardson , J M & Rochford , J J 2015 , Seipin oligomers can interact directly with AGPAT2 and lipin 1, physically scaffolding critical regulators of adipogenesis Molecular Metabolism , vol 4 , no. 3 , pp. 199-209 . DOI: 10.1016/j.molmet.2014.12. ...
Cripps, R. L. and Ozanne, S. E. (2010) Early-Life Programming of Adipogenesis and Adiposity, in Adipose Tissue in Health and Disease (eds T. Leff and J. G. Granneman), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany. doi: 10.1002/9783527629527.ch24 ...
LXR α 0h 4h 8h 18h 1D 2D 3D 4D 5D 6D 7D 8D h 2d d Induction MediumDifferentiation Medium NR Expression during Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Cells (2) Fu et al., Mol. Endo. 19: 2437 (2005) Nur77 PPAR γ NUR77 LXR  PPAR 
Citation: Chen, M., Tong, Q. 2013. An update on the regulation of adipogenesis. Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms. 10(1-2):e15-e19. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: Obesity, a major risk factor for the development of type II diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer, is rising at an alarming rate worldwide. Obesity is caused by a chronic imbalance between energy expenditure and energy storage by adipose tissue. Adipogenesis is the process governing the formation and function of adipose tissue. This review article will discuss the most recent advances in understanding the regulation of adipogenesis, including adipose tissue lineage determination, the identity of the adipocyte progenitor cells, novel regulators controlling energy storage and expenditure, and lastly the newly identified beige/brite cells. ...
Adipose tissue progenitors (or precursors), often located in the vicinity of the vascular network, constitute a heterogeneous population. They can be discriminated through their capacity to differentiate into mature adipocytes and also by their level of commitment into the adipocyte differentiation program. The application of flow cytometry using various markers as well as single-cell RNA sequencing has enabled the identification of multiple cell populations. The CD9hi progenitors exhibited very limited adipogenic capacity with a high propensity for the production of extracellular matrix components. CD9hi progenitors include mesothelial cells, whose contribution in adipose tissue remodeling is currently unresolved. Further investigations are still needed to establish the relationship between these various populations of progenitors. In addition, a better understanding of the critical functional determinants and whether acquired phenotypes are reversible is needed ...
Wnt10b, an endogenous inhibitor of adipogenesis, maintains preadipocytes within an undifferentiated condition by suppressing adipogenic transcription elements. chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Furthermore, a microRNA-148a mimic restored adipogenic potential in XBP1-deficient 3T3-L1 cells significantly. These findings supply the initial proof that XBP1s … Continue reading →. ...
Dr. Rayalam has worked in the areas of obesity, body weight regulation, phytochemicals and adipocyte biochemistry for over 8 years. Her research interests include: 1) to study the adipocyte life cycle and to understand the interaction of adipocytes with other cell types as an approach to address several problems associated with obesity; 2) to develop novel treatment strategies for obesity by inducing transdifferentiation of white to beige adipocytes and to inhibit lipid accumulation in white adipocytes; and 3) to identify combinations of phytochemicals and vitamins that have synergistic anti-adipogenic effects with an ultimate goal of developing pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of obesity and associated disorders. Aging is accompanied by an accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow and Dr. Rayalams other interest is to understand the fat-bone interaction and to identify molecular targets for the prevention of weight gain and bone loss associated with aging. Dr. ...
I think this is part of the puzzle as to why refined carbs in particular can be so fattening. It is well documented that the digestibility of carbohydrates determines the corresponding postprandial blood sugar spike ( glycemic index ). In addition, I suppose you could say that, being insulin resistant in muscle leads to exaggerated and prolonged elevated postprandial glucose levels, and these high glucose concentrations ( could potentially ) activate adipogenic pathways, in both muscle and fat tissue ...
Dr. Marlatt is interested in the role of dietary and exercise interventions to facilitate healthy aging and metabolic health as it relates to women, particularly in the transition through menopause. She currently is focusing her research efforts on the impact of a drug intervention in post-menopausal women; the impact of hormones and race on adipogenesis and adipocyte morphology; as well as intermittent hypoxia in individuals with diabetes ...
Pharmacological dosing of all-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) controls adiposity in rodents by inhibiting adipogenesis and inducing fatty acid oxidation. Retinol dehydrogenases (Rdh) catalyze the first reaction that activate retinol into atRA. This study examined post-natal contributions of Rdh10 to atRA biosynthesis and physiological functions of endogenous atRA. Embryonic fibroblasts from Rdh10 heterozygote hypomorphs or with a total Rdh10 knockout exhibit decreased atRA biosynthesis and escalated adipogenesis. atRA or a RAR pan-agonist reversed the phenotype. Eliminating one Rdh10 copy in vivo (Rdh10+/-) yielded a modest decrease (≤25%) in the atRA concentration of liver and adipose, but increased adiposity in male and female mice fed a high-fat diet, increased liver steatosis, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in males fed a high-fat diet, and activated bone marrow adipocyte formation in females, regardless of dietary fat. Chronic dosing with low dose atRA corrected the metabolic ...
carbon skeleton use as energy source or converted to glycogen or fat Formation of Urea urea Growth and repair O H synthesis NH3 (ammonia) HO C C NH2 R excess O H HO C C NH2 amino acid R carbon skeleton use as energy source or converted to glycogen or fat
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Background Exhibits a cytosolic function in lipogenesis, adipogenic differentiation, and lipid homeostasis by increasing the activity of ACLY, possibly preventing its dephosphorylation. May act as a transcriptional repressor....
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of germinated brown rice extracts on pancreatic lipase, adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. AU - See Meng, Lim. AU - Goh, Yong Meng. AU - Kuan, Wen Bin. AU - Loh, Su Peng. PY - 2014/11/3. Y1 - 2014/11/3. N2 - Background: This study investigated anti-obesity effects of seven different solvent (n-hexane, toluene, dicholoromethane, ethyl acetate, absolute methanol, 80% methanol and deionized water) extracts of germinated brown rice (GBR) on pancreatic lipase activity, adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Methods: GBR were extracted separately by employing different solvents with ultrasound-assisted. Pancreatic lipase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl butyrate (p-NPB) to p-nitrophenol at 405 nm. Adipogenesis and lipolysis were assayed in fully differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes by using Oil Red O staining and glycerol release measurement. Results: GBR extract using hexane showed the highest ...
The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has previously been shown to facilitate adipocyte differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and enhancing the transactivation by the adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP). We show here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor pivotal for adipogenesis, promotes adipocyte differentiation more efficiently in the absence of RB. PPARgamma and RB were shown to coimmunoprecipitate, and this PPARgamma-RB complex also contains the histone deacetylase HDAC3, thereby attenuating PPARgammas capacity to drive gene expression and adipocyte differentiation. Dissociation of the PPARgamma-RB-HDAC3 complex by RB phosphorylation or by inhibition of HDAC activity stimulates adipocyte differentiation. These observations underscore an important function of both RB and HDAC3 in fine-tuning PPARgamma activity and adipocyte differentiation.. Keywords: Thiazolidinediones. ...
Adipocytes play a central role in whole-body energy homoeostasis. Complex regulatory transcriptional networks control adipogensis, with ligand-dependent activation of PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ) being a decisive factor. Yet the identity of endogenous ligands promoting adipocyte differentiation has not been established. Here we present a critical evaluation of the role of LOXs (lipoxygenases) during adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells. We show that adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes is inhibited by the general LOX inhibitor NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid) and the 12/15-LOX selective inhibitor baicalein. Baicalein-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation was rescued by administration of rosiglitazone. Treatment with baicalein during the first 4 days of the differentiation process prevented adipocyte differentiation; supplementation with rosiglitazone during the same period was sufficient to rescue adipogenesis. Accordingly, we demonstrate ...
Proteins containing the zinc finger domain(s) are named zinc finger proteins (ZFPs), one of the largest classes of transcription factors in eukaryotic genomes. A large number of ZFPs have been studied and many of them were found to be involved in regulating normal growth and development of cells and tissues through diverse signal transduction pathways. Recent studies revealed that a small but increasing number of ZFPs could function as key transcriptional regulators involved in adipogenesis. Due to the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders, the investigation of molecular regulatory mechanisms of adipocyte development must be more completely understood in order to develop novel and long-term impact strategies for ameliorating obesity. In this review, we discuss recent work that has documented that ZFPs are important functional contributors to the regulation of adipogenesis. Taken together, these data lead to the conclusion that ZFPs may become promising targets to combat human obesity. ...
Due to the paracrine effects of skeletal muscle, the lipid metabolism of porcine intramuscular (i.m.) preadipocytes was different from that of subcutaneous (s.c.) preadipocytes. To investigate the development of i.m. preadipocytes in vivo, the s.c. preadipocytes were cultured with muscle conditional cultured medium (MCM) for approximating extracellular micro-environment of the i.m. preadipocytes. Insulin signaling plays a fundamental role in porcine adipocyte differentiation. The expression levels of insulin receptor (INSR) and insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) in i.m. Preadipocytes were higher than that in s.c. preadipocytes. The effects of MCM on adipocyte differentiation, lipid metabolism and insulin signaling transdution were verified. MCM induced the apoptosis of s.c. preadipocytes but not of s.c. adipocytes. Moreover, MCM inhibited adipocyte differentiation at pre-differentiation and early stages of differentiation, while the expression levels of INSR and IGF-1R were increased.
In todays study we investigated the consequences of genistein on adipogenic differentiation of mouse bone tissue marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) cultures and its own potential signaling pathway. differentiation. Genistein decreased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in mouse BMSC ethnicities dose-dependently. Genistein incubation for the whole tradition period in adition to that applied through the early stage of the tradition period considerably inhibited Rabbit Polyclonal to Cox1. Vorinostat the adipogenic Vorinostat differentiation of mouse BMSC ethnicities. While genistein was incubated in the past due stage (after day time 9) no inhibitory influence on adipogenic differentiation was noticed. BMSC ethnicities treated with genistein in the current presence of fibroblast growth element-2 (FGF-2) an activator from the ERK1/2 signaling pathway indicated normal degrees of ERK1/2 activity and by doing this can handle going through adipogenesis. Our outcomes claim Vorinostat that activation ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Adipocytes play an important role in energy storage and metabolism. Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. It is controlled by complex actions involving gene expression and signal transduction. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life in adipose tissues and can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes according to the energy balance. The proliferation and differentiation of these preadipocytes contribute to increases in adipose tissue mass. In vitro study indicates that different tissue-derived preadipocytes exhibit differently in lipid accumulation, adipogenic transcription factor expression, and TNF?-induced apoptosis. It has also been demonstrated that there is a close relationship between adipocyte differentiation and many physiological and pathological processes including fat metabolism, energy balance, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and breast cancer. HPA-s from Bioarray Research ...
Adipocytes and fat cells play critical roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Adipogenesis (adipocyte differentiation) is regulated via a complex process including coordinated changes in hormone sensitivity and gene expression. According to the study by the Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prostaglandins (PGs), which are lipid mediators, are associated with the regulation of PPARγ function in adipocytes. Prostacyclin promotes the differentiation of adipocyte-precursor cells to adipose cells via activation of the expression of C/EBPβ and δ. These proteins are important transcription factors in the activation of the early phase of adipogenesis, and they activate the expression of PPARγ, which event precedes the maturation of adipocytes. PGE(2) and PGF(2α) strongly suppress the early phase of adipocyte differentiation by enhancing their own production via receptor-mediated elevation of the expression of cycloxygenase-2, and they also suppress the function of PPARγ(24). ...
Coordinating terminal differentiation and cell cycle arrest involves coupling the activity of the transcriptional regulators that activate lineage‐specific gene expression programs to the cell cycle machinery. The importance of such coordination is illustrated by the observation that ectopic expression of cell cycle promoting factors is able to interfere with differentiation of numerous cell types. Well‐characterized examples include the ability of the c‐Myc oncoprotein to block the differentiation of adipocytes by repressing the transcription of C/EBPα, a key inducer of adipogenesis (Freytag and Geddes, 1992), and the ability of Cyclin D1/Cdk4 to inhibit myogenesis through binding to MyoD (Zhang et al, 1999). However, in other cases, the molecular mechanisms are not clear. E2F‐1 can block granulopoiesis (Strom et al, 1998), adipogenesis (Porse et al, 2001) and myogenesis (Wang et al, 1995), but the relevant molecular targets are not defined. Cdk6 inhibits osteogenic differentiation by ...
The number of overweight and obese individuals continues to increase in both the U.S. and worldwide. This increase has led to a significant increase in obesity-related medical problems including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In obesity, the differentiation of adipocytes is suppressed. Although adipocyte differentiation is associated with changes in glucose metabolism, little is known about the potential of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism to modulate this process. Pyruvate kinase (PK) mediates the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The M2 isoform of PK (PKM2) is expressed in adipocytes but its role in adipogenesis is unknown. Here we demonstrate that PKM2 regulates the differentiation of both human and mouse adipocytes. Silencing of PKM2 in preadipocytes led to increased lipid accumulation, enhanced expression of markers (FABP4, PPARgamma, C/EBPBeta) of adipocyte differentiation and caused a shift in the pattern of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism favoring the ...
A research team has managed to decode the process of adipogenesis by identifying the precise proteins that play the leading roles in fat absorption. There are many actors involved in the process of adipogenesis, used by the body to store the fat that it absorbs from food. Up to now there had been some uncertainty as to how it was regulated. Yet, understanding this mechanism is of crucial importance to prevent the diseases related to fat accumulation in adipose tissue ...
Regional differences in characteristics of preadipocytes are reflected in the fat cells that develop from them (12, 80, 86). For example, preadipocytes from rat perirenal depots are capable of more extensive replication than preadipocytes from epididymal depots (20, 21, 48, 63, 86). This interdepot variation in rat preadipocyte replicative capacity is reflected in the extent of subsequent increases in fat cell number during depot growth in vivo (86). Similarly, interdepot variation in cultured rat preadipocyte differentiation-dependent gene expression is reflected in patterns of fat cell expression of the same genes among depots (49).. Human preadipocyte capacity for adipogenesis varies among fat depots, as demonstrated in several studies (1, 19, 36, 39, 42, 65, 79). In other studies, these differences were not found (75, 82, 83), perhaps because of variability among subjects, protocols for inducing differentiation, or the time point at which extent of differentiation was assessed. We found ...
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Oil Red O Lipid Stain kit is used to demonstrate adipocites and neutral triglicerides. This is also useful to demonstrate adipogenesis. Fat cells and neutral fat will be coloured in red and the nuclei in blue.
Creb3l4-KO mice showed adipocyte hyperplasia, lead to improved metabolic parameters. (a) Adipogenic potential of mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from
Characteristics of human MSCs. (A) Cells in culture on day 3 (left) and day 8 (right) from subculture from passage 4. (B) Adipogenic differentiation of human MS
Cryptic fragment α4 LG4-5 derived from laminin α4 chain inhibits de novo adipogenesis by modulating the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 ...
Escalating trends of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes (T2D) has prompted an increase in the use of alternative and complementary functional foods. Momordica charantia or bitter melon (BM) that is traditionally used to treat diabetes and complications has been demonstrated to alleviate hyperglycemia as well as reduce adiposity in rodents. However, its effects on human adipocytes remain unknown. The objective of our study was to investigate the effects of BM juice (BMJ) on lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation transcription factors in primary human differentiating preadipocytes and adipocytes. Commercially available cryopreserved primary human preadipocytes were treated with and without BMJ during and after differentiation. Cytotoxicity, lipid accumulation, and adipogenic genes mRNA expression was measured by commercial enzymatic assay kits and semi-quantitative RT-PCR (RT-PCR). Preadipocytes treated with varying concentrations of BMJ during differentiation demonstrated significant
Betanin, a natural pigment that presents ubiquitously in plants, has been reported to show biological effects. However, not much is known on the effectiveness of betanin in regulating fat accumulation. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory effect of betanin on adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and its mechanism action. The results show betanin significantly inhibited oil red O-stained material (OROSM) and triglyceride levels in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, indicating betanin inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In addition, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) expression was significantly inhibited in the betanin-treated adipocytes, implying that betanin suppressed the cellular PPARγexpression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Moreover, the suppression of lipid accumulation by betanin occurred by decreasing the gene expression of PPARγ, CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein α (C/EBPα) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c). Taken together, these
Adipocyte differentiation is an important research area since adipose tissue plays an essential role in energy homeostasis. Adipocyte differentiation regulation by transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms is also a popular field of investigation. Mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3-L1 cells (ATCC No. CL-173) are one of the most commonly used cell models in the study of adipocyte differentiation because they easily differentiate into adipocytes when induced by insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and dexamethasone.. The enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) catalyzes a reversible reaction between dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glycerol 3-phosphate. NAD is utilized as a coenzyme. GPDH activity increases significantly during adipocyte differentiation; as a result, GPDH activity measurement is used to monitor fat synthesis. ...
Adipocyte differentiation is an important research area since adipose tissue plays an essential role in energy homeostasis. Adipocyte differentiation regulation by transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms is also a popular field of investigation. Mouse embryonic fibroblast 3T3-L1 cells (ATCC No. CL-173) are one of the most commonly used cell models in the study of adipocyte differentiation because they easily differentiate into adipocytes when induced by insulin, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and dexamethasone.. The enzyme glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) catalyzes a reversible reaction between dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) and glycerol 3-phosphate. NAD is utilized as a coenzyme. GPDH activity increases significantly during adipocyte differentiation; as a result, GPDH activity measurement is used to monitor fat synthesis. ...
Animal studies suggest that irisin is an attractive therapeutic target for obesity and metabolic disorders (7, 11, 21, 22, 33, 49). However, its effects in humans are controversial. The present study addressed this gap in our understanding of irisins action on human fat by using human primary adipocytes and fresh scWAT. We found that 1) in white adipocytes, irisin upregulated expression of browning-associated genes and UCP1 protein and increased thermogenesis of mature adipocytes significantly; 2) this action was mediated by the p38/ERK MAPK pathways since the UCP1 expression was abolished by pathway-specific inhibitors; 3) the abundance of beige adipocytes in scWATs correlated positively with responsiveness to irisin treatment; 4) irisin positively autoregulates FDNC5 expression in adipose tissue; and 5) irisin inhibits adipogenesis, reducing the formation of new adipocytes, and promotes osteoblastic differentiation. These results suggest that irisin may have promising aspects for ...
This study demonstrates that the effects of HO-1 induction in a cell-based model of adipogenesis are dependent upon activation of the Wnt canonical signaling pathway. HO-1 induction has reduced body weight and adiposity [25, 48] and improved the metabolic profile in animal models of obesity [24, 49]. It has also been shown that upregulation of HO-1 reduces adipogenesis in cell cultures [34]. We show here in a cell-based model of adipogenesis (MSCs) that HO-1 induction mediates the recruitment of the Wnt canonical cascade, and entails reduced lipid accumulation comprised of smaller healthier adipocytes, reduced inflammation and improved adipokine secretion.. Differentiation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes is regulated by a balance of transcriptional factors that can both positively and negatively influence differentiation. This is reflected by the appearance of various early, intermediate and late mRNA/protein markers and triglyceride accumulation. Several reports describe an association ...
A List with 0 English Anagrams of ADIPOGENESIS -- FindTheWord.info is a search engine for English words. FindTheWord.info searches for partial words (both crossword solver and part of word), help with cheating in Scrabble and Wordfeud, finds anagrams, palindromes, and words in word, and much more.The dictionary used contains more than 589,000 English words.
Using a subtraction method, we have isolated genes that are induced early in the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells into adipocytes. These include the genes encoding transcription factors and signalling proteins, as well as unknown genes. Bach1, a transcription factor, and ARA70, a cofactor, were rapidly induced during differentiation. The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 cells, no induction was observed under either set of conditions. These results strongly indicate that Bach1 and ARA70 have valuable roles at the onset of adipocyte differentiation.. ...
Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is the most common subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and it has an unfavourable prognosis compared to other RCCs. Plant homeodomain finger 2 (PHF2) and CCATT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα) play a role in the epigenetic regulation of adipogenesis, and their tumour suppressive functions have been elucidated. This study aimed to assess the nuclear expression of PHF2 and C/EBPα in ccRCC and to evaluate their role in pathogenesis and prognosis. The nuclear expression of PHF2 and C/EBPα was evaluated in 344 cases of ccRCC by immunohistochemistry, and adipogenesis was assessed based on cytoplasmic features ...
Regional differences in free fatty acid (FFA) handling contribute to diseases associated with particular fat distributions. As cultured rat preadipocytes became differentiated, FFA transfer into preadipocytes increased and was more rapid in single pe
So which hormones are a concern? I am only going to list the ones that have the most influence on creating fat, and leave the more esoteric ones for a future discussion. The hormone that I feel might be the number one culprit for creating fat I will leave for last. And surprisingly, I have never read anything in the medical literature that mentions this hormone with regard to the causation of fat.. The initial hormones that I shall mention are as follows: thyroid, estrogen, insulin, and cortisol. Afterwards, I will discuss the hormone that I feel is the main contributor to fat formation.. The thyroid controls metabolism in every cell of the body. It is easy to appreciate that a low-functioning thyroid can have a major influence on weight. Unfortunately, we are dealing with a medical system that has little interest in people being healthy. Most doctors have never been trained as to the causation of illness, and especially have almost no knowledge of hormones that control all systems. Instead of ...
Garcinia Cambogia Select is the well-known weight loss supplement dominating the diet market for a long time period. The product is considered the best weight loss supplement till date in the weight loss industry; because it plays the vital role in blocking the excess fat as much as 70%. According to the medical studies, the product doesnt only blocks the fat formation process, but it also suppresses the appetite in order to control the calorie intake to prevent the unwanted weight gain. Moreover, it enhances the good mood by increasing the secretion of serotonin. The best thing is that the product doesnt cause any adverse side effects ...
Adipocyte, Adipocytes, Adipogenesis, B-cell, B-cell Leukemia, Cell Cycle, Embryogenesis, Embryonic Stem Cells, Glucocorticoids, Human, Leukemia, Mouse, Neural Crest, Neuroectoderm, Ppar, Pre-b-cell, Pre-b-cell Leukemia, Regulation, S Phase, Stem Cells
We have created a synergistic complex of active substances to effectively tone the whole body. Collagen, sweet almond oil and shea butter make your skin more supple. The algae extract activates fat tissue burning, while ginkgo biloba stimulates blood circulation inducing the lipolysis process. The serums ingredients help to slow down adipogenesis - the process of creation of fat cells, and lipogenesis, i.e. the process of fat accumulation in the cells. Using Colway Slimming Serum together with healthy diet is a simple step to achieve the figure you have always dreamt of ...
In the study, they put mice on chow and HFDs and looked at when recruitment of pre-adipocytes occurs with respect to obesity development. Surprisingly, pre-adipocytes start to get activated within 1 day of HFD exposure, peak at 3 days, and returns to baseline at 5 days. ( although it takes 7-8 weeks for them to fully differentiate into adipocytes and store fat, it seems you can get the "ball rolling" extremely quickly, i guess I need to think carefully next time before I indulge in a cheat meal ...
what is the measurement of Oil red O staining - posted in Tissue and Cell Culture: Hi, Im doing oil red O staining of macrophages,but what is the measurement of ORO staining? The number of cells stained by ORO? The fluorescense intensity of ORO? Or comparing the red area in cells? Thanks!
eEOCs have been shown to protect mice reliably from AKI and from chronic hypertensive and ischemic nephropathy (7, 19-21, 23, 26). In addition, different strategies have been established in the past to increase renoprotective cell competence in AKI (19, 23). With this study, BMP-5 has been identified as a novel and very potent eEOC agonist in AKI. In 5/6-nephrectomized mice, the protein partly failed to stimulate renoprotective effects of the cells. Increased cell activity in AKI was accompanied by increased cell migration and survival in vitro; cellular production/release of proangiogenic/proinflammatory mediators was not modulated by BMP-5.. The BMP family is represented by at least 15 members (13) that belong to the TGF-β superfamily. They have been shown to play essential roles in diverse physiological and pathological processes, including angiogenesis (13), bone-fracture healing (15), regulation of pulmonary vascular resistance (18), vascular calcification (25), and adipogenesis (27), ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Oscar Donoso, Ana María Pino, Germán Seitz, Nelson Osses, J Pablo Rodríguez].
Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome ...
The Adipocyte Differentiation Toolkit for Adipose-derived MSCs and Preadipocytes (ATCC PCS-500-050) contains medium and reagents designed both to induce adipogenesis in actively proliferating Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (ATCC PCS-500-011) and Preadipocytes (ATCC PCS-210-010) with high efficiency and to support maturation of derived adipocytes during lipid accumulation.
Gerin I, Bommer GT, McCoin CS, Sousa KM, Krishnan V, MacDougald OA. Roles for miRNA-378/378* in adipocyte gene expression and lipogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E198-E206, 2010. First published May 18, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00179.2010.-In this study, we explored the roles of microRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. We first knocked down Argonaute2 (Ago2), a key enzyme in the processing of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), to investigate a potential role for miRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and/or metabolism. Although we did not observe dramatic differences in adipogenesis between Ago2 knock-down and control 3T3-L1 cells, incorporation of [C-14] glucose or acetate into triacylglycerol, and steady-state levels of triacyglycerol were all reduced, suggesting a role for miRNAs in adipocyte metabolism. To study roles of specific miRNAs in adipocyte biology, we screened for miRNAs that are differentially expressed between preadipocytes and adipocytes for the 3T3-L1 and ST2 cell ...
The molecular mechanisms that transduce the osteoblast response to physical forces in the bone microenvironment are poorly understood. Here, we used genetic and pharmacological experiments to determine whether the polycystins PC1 and PC2 (encoded by Pkd1 and Pkd2) and the transcriptional coactivator TAZ form a mechanosensing complex in osteoblasts. Compound-heterozygous mice lacking 1 copy of Pkd1 and Taz exhibited additive decrements in bone mass, impaired osteoblast-mediated bone formation, and enhanced bone marrow fat accumulation. Bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts derived from these mice showed impaired osteoblastogenesis and enhanced adipogenesis. Increased extracellular matrix stiffness and application of mechanical stretch to multipotent mesenchymal cells stimulated the nuclear translocation of the PC1 C-terminal tail/TAZ (PC1-CTT/TAZ) complex, leading to increased runt-related transcription factor 2-mediated (Runx2-mediated) osteogenic and decreased PPARγ-dependent adipogenic ...
Morgan, S. A. and Sherlock, M. and Gathercole, L.L and Lavery, Gareth G. and Lenaghan, C. and Bujalska, I.J and Laber, D. and Yu, A. and Convey, G. and Mayers, R. and Hegyi, K. and Sethi, J. K. and Stewart, P M and Smith, D. M. and Tomlinson, J W (2009) 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Diabetes, 58 (11). pp. 2506-2515. ISSN 0012-1797. Bujalska, I.J and Gathercole, L.L and Tomlinson, J W and Darimont, C and Ermolieff, J and Fanjul, A.N and Rejto, P.A and Stewart, P M (2008) A novel selective 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor prevents human adipogenesis. Journal of Endocrinology, 197. pp. 297-307. ISSN 0022-0795. ...
A highly orchestrated gene expression program establishes the properties that define mature adipocytes, but the contribution of posttranscriptional factors to the adipocyte phenotype is poorly understood. Here we have shown that the RNA-binding protein PSPC1, a component of the paraspeckle complex, promotes adipogenesis in vitro and is important for mature adipocyte function in vivo. Cross-linking and immunoprecipitation followed by RNA sequencing revealed that PSPC1 binds to intronic and 3′-untranslated regions of a number of adipocyte RNAs, including the RNA encoding the transcriptional regulator EBF1. Purification of the paraspeckle complex from adipocytes further showed that PSPC1 associates with the RNA export factor DDX3X in a differentiation-dependent manner. Remarkably, PSPC1 relocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm during differentiation, coinciding with enhanced export of adipogenic RNAs. Mice lacking PSPC1 in fat displayed reduced lipid storage and adipose tissue mass and were ...
Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), catalyzing the initial step of hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (TAG) in adipocytes, has been known to be inhibited by G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2). In this study, we report the porcine G0S2 cDNA and amino acid sequence
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Q Li, H Peng, H Fan, X Zou, Q Liu, Y Zhang, H Xu, Y Chu, C Wang, K Ayyanathan, F J Rauscher, K Zhang, Z Hou].
Rationale: Mutations in the intercalated disc (ID) proteins, such as plakophilin 2 (PKP2) cause arrhythmogenic cardiomyopathy (AC). AC is characterized by the replacement of cardiac myocytes by fibro-adipocytes, cardiac dysfunction, arrhythmias and sudden death. Objective: To delineate the molecular pathogenesis of AC. Methods and Results: Localization and levels of selected ID proteins including signaling molecules were markedly reduced in the human hearts with AC. Altered protein constituents of IDs was associated with activation of the upstream Hippo molecules in the human hearts, Nkx2.5-Cre:DspW/F and Myh6:Jup mouse models of AC, and in the plakophilin 2 (PKP2) knock down HL-1 myocytes (HL-1PKP2:shRNA). Level of active PKC-α, which requires PKP2 for activity, was reduced. In contrast, neurofibromin (NF2 or Merlin), a molecule upstream to the Hippo pathway, which is inactivated by PKC-α, was activated. Consequently, the downstream Hippo molecules MST1/2, LATS1/2 and YAP; the latter is the ...
J47] J. H. Kim, K. S. Choi, Y. Kim, K.-T. Lim, H. Seonwoo, Y. Park, D.H. Kim, P.H. Choung, C.-S. Cho, S.Y. Kim, Y.H. Choung, and J. H. Chung, "Bioactive effects of graphene oxide cell culture substratum on structure and function of human adipose-derived stem cells," Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A, 2013. Article ...
J47] J. H. Kim, K. S. Choi, Y. Kim, K.-T. Lim, H. Seonwoo, Y. Park, D.H. Kim, P.H. Choung, C.-S. Cho, S.Y. Kim, Y.H. Choung, and J. H. Chung, Bioactive effects of graphene oxide cell culture substratum on structure and function of human adipose-derived stem cells, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research: Part A, vol. 101, pp. 3520-3530, 2013. (Featured as a Cover Article) [http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jbm.a.34659/abstract Article ...
Vacuum massage in the SPA-Studio Mei (Krivoy Rog) is carried out with the help of special devices, thanks to their influence, lymph flow is established, slags are removed, puffiness is eliminated, subcutaneous fat formations are destroyed. / SPA salon in Krivoy Rog
Obesity affects a significant number of Americans and greatly increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, type-II diabetes, fatty liver disease, and certain cancers. Understanding how obesity is regulated opens up new avenues of pharmacological interventions to treat obesity, concurrently reducing the risk of co-morbidities. Nocturnin (NOCT) is broadly expressed enzyme with exoribonuclease activity in in vitro assays and a repressive function against reporter RNAs in vivo. These observations are consistent with a function in RNA decay. Mice lacking NOCT are resistant to diet-induced obesity and other studies have observed a role for NOCT in regulating intestinal trafficking of dietary fats and promoting adipogenesis. These observations suggest that NOCT may have a novel role in the regulation of lipid metabolism by targeting mRNAs for degradation. Though the broader physiological effects of NOC gene deletion have been described, discovering the molecular function of NOC remains an ...
Serrano, M., Hannon, G. J., Beach, D. (1993) A new regulatory motif in cell-cycle control causing specific inhibition of cyclin D/CDK4. Nature, 366 (6456). pp. 704-707. ISSN 00280836 (ISSN) Sordella, R., Classon, M., Hu, K. Q., Matheson, S. F., Brouns, M. R., Fine, B., Zhang, L., Takami, H., Yamada, Y., Settleman, J. (2002) Modulation of CREB activity by the Rho GTPase regulates cell and organism size during mouse embryonic development. Developmental Cell, 2 (5). pp. 553-65. ISSN 1534-5807 Sordella, R., Jiang, W., Chen, G. C., Curto, M., Settleman, J. (2003) Modulation of Rho GTPase signaling regulates a switch between adipogenesis and myogenesis. Cell, 113 (2). pp. 147-58. ISSN 0092-8674 (Print) Spector, M. S., Desnoyers, S., Hoeppner, D. J., Hengartner, M. O. (1997) Interaction between the C. elegans cell-death regulators CED-9 and CED-4. Nature, 385 (6617). pp. 653-6. ISSN 0028-0836 (Print) Stasiv, Y., Regulski, M., Kuzin, B., Tully, T., Enikolopov, G. (2001) The Drosophila nitric-oxide ...
A benign tumour usually composed of mature adipocytes with ubiquitous localization. Classically lipomas are well circumscribed and develop slowly.. ...
Heat Shock Protein Augmentation of Angelica gigas Nakai Root Hot Water Extract on Adipogenic Differentiation in Murine 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes - Angelica gigas Nakai;Heat Shock;Heat Shock Protein;3T3-L1;Adipogenesis;
Comments, concepts and statistics about Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Gallotannins from Galla Rhois with Inhibitory Effects on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.
article{1888441, author = {Dewulf, Evelyne M and Cani, Patrice D and Neyrinck, Audrey M and Possemiers, Sam and Van Holle, Ann and Muccioli, Giulio G and Deldicque, Louise and Bindels, Laure B and Pachikian, Barbara D and Sohet, Florence M and Mignolet, Eric and Francaux, Marc and Larondelle, Yvan and Delzenne, Nathalie M}, issn = {0955-2863}, journal = {JOURNAL OF NUTRITIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY}, keyword = {INDUCED OBESITY,GENE-EXPRESSION,IN-VITRO,OLIGOFRUCTOSE,METABOLIC DISEASE,PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS,GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE-1,REAL-TIME PCR,GUT MICROBIOTA,INSULIN-RESISTANCE,high-fat feeding,adipose tissue,prebiotics,Gut microbiota,GPR43,PPAR gamma}, language = {eng}, number = {8}, pages = {712--722}, title = {Inulin-type fructans with prebiotic properties counteract GPR43 overexpression and PPAR gamma-related adipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of high-fat diet-fed mice}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnutbio.2010.05.009}, volume = {22}, year = {2011 ...
G. Zhang, L. Qin, H. Sheng, K.W. Yeung, H.Y. Yeung, W.H. Cheung, J. Griffith, C.W. Chan, K.M. Lee, K.S. Leung, Epimedium-derived phytoestrogen exert beneficial effect on preventing steroid-associated osteonecrosis in rabbits with inhibition of both thrombosis and lipid-deposition, Bone, 2007, 40, 3, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Enhanced tissue production through redox control in stem cell-laden hydrogels. AU - Reid, Branden. AU - Afzal, Junaid M.. AU - Mccartney, Annemarie M.. AU - Abraham, M. Roselle. AU - ORourke, Brian. AU - Elisseeff, Jennifer Hartt. PY - 2013/9/1. Y1 - 2013/9/1. N2 - Cellular bioenergetics and redox (reduction-oxidation) play an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation, key aspects of building new tissues. In the present study, we examined the metabolic characteristics of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) during proliferation and differentiation in both monolayer and three-dimensional biomaterial scaffolds. In monolayer, hASCs exhibited higher glycolysis and lower ox-phos as compared to both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiated cells, and hASCs demonstrated the Warburg effect (aerobic glycolysis). However, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased during adipogenic differentiation, but decreased during osteogenic differentiation. Similarly, a ...
Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mediates nutrient signaling to regulate cell growth, proliferation, and diverse cellular differentiation. It has been reported that rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR and an immunosuppressant, blocks adipocyte differentiation, but the mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unknown. Here we show that mTOR plays a critical role in 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and that mTOR kinase activity is required for this process. Rapamycin specifically disrupted the positive transcriptional feedback loop between CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-alpha and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), two key transcription factors in adipogenesis, by directly targeting the transactivation activity of PPAR-gamma. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time that PPAR-gamma activity is dependent on amino acid sufficiency, ...
Morgan, S. A. and Sherlock, M. and Gathercole, L.L and Lavery, Gareth G. and Lenaghan, C. and Bujalska, I.J and Laber, D. and Yu, A. and Convey, G. and Mayers, R. and Hegyi, K. and Sethi, J. K. and Stewart, P M and Smith, D. M. and Tomlinson, J W (2009) 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 regulates glucocorticoid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Diabetes, 58 (11). pp. 2506-2515. ISSN 0012-1797. Bujalska, I.J and Gathercole, L.L and Tomlinson, J W and Darimont, C and Ermolieff, J and Fanjul, A.N and Rejto, P.A and Stewart, P M (2008) A novel selective 11b-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor prevents human adipogenesis. Journal of Endocrinology, 197. pp. 297-307. ISSN 0022-0795. Krone, Nils and Hughes, Beverly and Lavery, Gareth G. and Stewart, P M and Shackleton, Cedric H.L. and Arlt, Wiebke (2010) Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) remains a pre-eminent discovery tool in clinical steroid investigations even in the era of fast liquid chromatography tandem ...
Restricted Item. Print thesis available in the University of Auckland Library or available through Inter-Library Loan. Adipose tissue has recently been shown to play an important role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Malfunction of adipose tissue is one of the major causes-of insulin resistance and its associated complications, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Studies of adipocytes are therefore important. In this study, a differential proteome mapping strategy was used to identify intracellular proteins whose expression was substantially altered during conversion of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes to adipocytes. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis identified ten proteins, which were induced following hormone-insulin evoked differentiation. Nine of the ten proteins were found to have up-regulated expression or were predominantly expressed in adipocytes, and one of these was a novel protein. One of the ten proteins was diminished and identified as an ?2 ...
Despite the growing burden of obesity in Africa and the important contribution of genetic factors to the disease [1, 4, 5], data on the genetic variants in African populations are very scarce. Our study provides first-time insight into the role of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 (C/T) gene polymorphism in obesity among Cameroonians. This genetic variant may not be associated with obesity in our study population.. TCF7L2 is a transcription factor involved in the Wnt signaling pathway which is a pathway involved in adipogenesis [10]. In vitro inhibition of the transcription factor has been associated with stimulation of adipogenesis [10]. TCF7L2 is one of the genes that have been identified as possible determinants of obesity. Indeed, it was shown in a Caucasian population that the effect of TCF7L2 on T2DM is modulated by obesity. Precisely, data suggested that the rs7903146 T allele may be possibly functional and associated with a nominal decrease in TCF7L2 expression in adipose tissue of individuals under ...
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicron vesicles released from many cell types, including adipocytes. EVs are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity
Phospholipidosis and steatosis are toxic side effects of lipid metabolism that can be triggered by drugs or other compounds. Phospholipidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with cationic amphiphilic drugs and characterized by the accumulation of excess phospholipid complexes within the internal lysosomal membranes. Steatosis is the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell due to impairment of the normal processes of synthesis and elimination of triglyceride fats.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Occurrence of hyperplasia (negative morphology value) or hypertrophy (positive morphology value) was independent of sex and body weight but correlated with fasting plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, independent of adipocyte volume (β-coefficient = 0.3, P , 0.0001). Total adipocyte number and morphology were negatively related (r = −0.66); i.e., the total adipocyte number was greatest in pronounced hyperplasia and smallest in pronounced hypertrophy. The absolute number of new adipocytes generated each year was 70% lower (P , 0.001) in hypertrophy than in hyperplasia, and individual values for adipocyte generation and morphology were strongly related (r = 0.7, P , 0.001). The relative death rate (∼10% per year) or mean age of adipocytes (∼10 years) was not correlated with morphology. ...
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Image credits: Top image: Chondrocyte cultured from mesenchymal stem cell, © Copyright Mitenyi Biotech GmbH. Left image: Mesenchymal stem cells after adipogenic differentiation, © Copyright Karen English, University of Oxford. Right image: Astrocyte-like cells cultivated in the lab, © Copyright Miltenyi Biotec GmbH and Dr Selim Kuçi, Tübingen.. terms and conditions , privacy policy , sitemap , contact , sign in , © Copyright OptiStem 2009-2014. ...
Principal Investigator:FUKAI Fumio, Project Period (FY):1994 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:Cell biology
Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are increasing used in clinical trials for a diverse array of applications. Whether allogenic or autologous cells are used, unqualified efficacy has not been shown, suggesting the innate immune system may be impairing MSC activity. For example, MSCs inherently traffic to osteosarcoma (OS) rendering them potentially effective delivery vehicles of therapeutics; however, such strategies have not emerged, possibly due to inadequate tumor localization. We sought to enhance MSC trafficking to OS studying xenograft models of human osteosarcoma in nude and NOD-scid-IL2rγnull (NSG) mice. After IV infusion, firefly luciferase-expressing MSCs trafficked to the tumor in both models. Interestingly, we observed 3.5-fold greater bioluminescent signal per unit volume from the OS in NSG compared to nude mice, suggesting macrophages in nude mice may be clearing the MSCs. To test our hypothesis, we infused MSCs into tumor-bearing nude mice after clodronate-mediated ...
Indole Derivatives Isolated from Brown Alga Sargassum thunbergii Inhibit Adipogenesis through AMPK Activation in 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASC) are multipotent stem cells that show great potential as a cell source for osteogenic tissue replacements and it is critical to understand the underlying mechanisms of lineage specification. Here we explore the role of primary cilia in human ASC (hASC) differentiation. This study focuses on the chemosensitivity of the primary cilium and the action of its associated proteins: polycystin-1 (PC1), polycystin-2 (PC2) and intraflagellar transport protein-88 (IFT88), in hASC osteogenesis. To elucidate cilia-mediated mechanisms of hASC differentiation, siRNA knockdown of PC1, PC2 and IFT88 was performed to disrupt cilia-associated protein function. Immunostaining of the primary cilium structure indicated phenotypic-dependent changes in cilia morphology. hASC cultured in osteogenic differentiation media yielded cilia of a more elongated conformation than those cultured in expansion media, indicating cilia-sensitivity to the chemical environment and a relationship between the
Previously, we have shown that excess glucose and saturated fatty acids generate ROS in cultured adipocytes and have confirmed that the source of these ROS is NOX4.13 In this study, we now show that NOX4 activity is initially increased in adipose tissue during the development of obesity when adipocytes are still insulin-sensitive and eventually decreases with prolonged HFHS diet feeding when adipocytes become insulin resistant. Furthermore, in response to an obesogenic diet, adipocyte-specific ablation of NOX4 shows the delayed onset of insulin resistance and improves adipose tissue inflammation, as well as liver inflammation, during the development of obesity.. Global NOX4 deficiency has been reported to worsen adipose tissue inflammation in a mouse model of DIO.17 Because NOX4 activity is essential for the differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes,16 blunted adipogenesis in the absence of NOX4 would reduce the number of adipocytes, allowing the remaining adipocytes to become more ...
The global Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) market is exhaustively researched and analyzed in the report to help market players to improve their business tactics and ensure long-term success. The authors of the report have used easy-to-understand language and uncomplicated statistical images but provided thorough information and detailed data on the global Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) market. The report equips players with useful information and suggests result-oriented ideas to gain a competitive edge in the global Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) market. It shows how different players are competing in the global Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSC) market and discusses about strategies they are using to distinguish themselves from other participants.. Get the Sample of this [email protected]://www.qyresearch.com/sample-form/form/904648/global-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-hmsc-market. The researchers have provided quantitative and qualitative analysis along with absolute dollar ...

The Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown AdipogenesisThe Engrailed-1 Gene Stimulates Brown Adipogenesis

... Chuanhai Zhang,1,2 Yibing Weng,3 Fangxiong Shi,1 and Wanzhu Jin2 ... P. Tontonoz, E. Hu, and B. M. Spiegelman, "Stimulation of adipogenesis in fibroblasts by PPARγ2, a lipid-activated ... E. D. Rosen, "C/EBPalpha induces adipogenesis through PPARgamma: a unified pathway," Genes & Development, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. ... S. Carobbio, B. Rosen, and A. Vidal-Puig, "Adipogenesis: new insights into brown adipose tissue differentiation," Journal of ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/sci/2016/7369491/ref/

Restricted Adipogenesis in Hypertrophic Obesity | DiabetesRestricted Adipogenesis in Hypertrophic Obesity | Diabetes

... and brown adipogenesis (BMP7) (34,47,48). We here focus on white adipogenesis and the effect of BMP4, although BMP2 can have ... New role of bone morphogenetic protein 7 in brown adipogenesis and energy expenditure. Nature 2008;454:1000-1004pmid:18719589. ... Adipogenesis: tightly regulated by cell commitment and differentiation. Figure 2 shows a schematic figure of the overarching ... Reduced adipogenesis in hypertrophic obesity. It is well established that subcutaneous adipose cell size can differ markedly ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/62/9/2997

Transcriptional Basis of Adipogenesis | BIDMC of BostonTranscriptional Basis of Adipogenesis | BIDMC of Boston

c. Functional studies of the role of O/E proteins in adipogenesis.. The bHLH protein O/E-1 has been shown to promote ... function experiments designed to place O/E-1 and other O/E isoforms in the transcriptional cascade leading to adipogenesis. In ... adipogenesis in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts. We are performing both gain-of-function and loss-of- ...
more infohttps://www.bidmc.org/research/research-by-department/medicine/endocrinology/laboratories/rosen-lab/transcriptional-basis-of-adipogenesis

Quantification of Human Adipogenesis - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials.govQuantification of Human Adipogenesis - No Study Results Posted - ClinicalTrials.gov

Quantification of Human Adipogenesis. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT01257997

Inducible brown adipogenesis of supraclavicular fat in adult humans.  - PubMed - NCBIInducible brown adipogenesis of supraclavicular fat in adult humans. - PubMed - NCBI

Inducible brown adipogenesis of supraclavicular fat in adult humans.. Lee P1, Swarbrick MM, Zhao JT, Ho KK. ... This study provides the first evidence of inducible brown adipogenesis in the supraclavicular region in adult humans. ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21791556?dopt=Abstract

Inhibition of Adipogenesis by Wnt Signaling | ScienceInhibition of Adipogenesis by Wnt Signaling | Science

When it is on, adipogenesis is repressed; when it is off, adipogenesis is initiated. The crucial role of Wnt signaling in the ... Inhibition of Adipogenesis by Wnt Signaling. By Sarah E. Ross, Nahid Hemati, Kenneth A. Longo, Christina N. Bennett, Peter C. ... Inhibition of Adipogenesis by Wnt Signaling. By Sarah E. Ross, Nahid Hemati, Kenneth A. Longo, Christina N. Bennett, Peter C. ... 4E), which is consistent with the idea that a decrease in Wnt-10b is required for adipogenesis to occur. Wnt-10b may act ...
more infohttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/289/5481/950?ijkey=1b84671ddd53ae05b86b4456f0c39ddd563ec201&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, potentiates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.  - PubMed - NCBIImidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, potentiates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. - PubMed - NCBI

Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, potentiates adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.. Park Y1, Kim Y, Kim J, Yoon KS, ... These results imply the involvement of imidacloprid in altered adipogenesis, resulting in increased fat accumulation. This ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23215241

Adipogenesis - WikipediaAdipogenesis - Wikipedia

Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes. Adipogenesis has been one of the ... Adipogenesis is a tightly regulated cellular differentiation process, in which the preadipocytes are transformed into ... Wang, Qiong A; Tao, Caroline; Gupta, Rana K; Scherer, Philipp E (2013). "Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue ... and triiodothyronine effectively induce adipogenesis in preadipocytes. Cornelius, P; MacDougald, OA; Lane, MD (1994). " ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adipogenesis

Endostatin Prevents Dietary-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Angiogenesis | DiabetesEndostatin Prevents Dietary-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Angiogenesis | Diabetes

Endostatin Inhibits Adipogenesis. To determine whether endostatin affects adipogenesis in vitro, we investigated its effect on ... the inhibitory effect of endostatin on adipogenesis and dietary-induced obesity has never been demonstrated. Adipogenesis plays ... During adipogenesis as shown in Fig. 2A, confluent 3T3-L1s were treated with or without endostatin (0-50 μg/mL) until the end ... Endostatin Prevents Dietary-Induced Obesity by Inhibiting Adipogenesis and Angiogenesis. Hui Wang, Yang Chen, Xin-an Lu, ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/64/7/2442

Effects of Securigera securidaca Extract on Lipolysis and Adipogenesis in Diabetic RatsEffects of Securigera securidaca Extract on Lipolysis and Adipogenesis in Diabetic Rats

Preadipocyte Preparation and Adipogenesis Assay. On day seven of diabetes inception, the rats were anesthetized with ether and ... To examine the effect of S. securidaca on adipogenesis, Oil Red O was used to stain accumulated intracellular triglycerides in ... Effects of Securigera securidaca Extract on Lipolysis and Adipogenesis in Diabetic Rats. Ahmad Ghorbani,1 Reyhaneh Moradi ... Effects of S. securidaca on Adipogenesis. Incubation of differentiating cells with S. securidaca extract decreased ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cholesterol/2014/582106/

Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK PathwayUrsolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway

Objective As adipogenesis plays a critical role in obesity, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of UA on ... Conclusions Ursolic acid inhibited 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and adipogenesis through the LKB1/AMPK pathway. There is ... adipogenesis and mechanisms of action in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Methods and Results The 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were induced to ... results demonstrated that ursolic acid at concentrations ranging from 2.5 µM to 10 µM dose-dependently attenuated adipogenesis ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0070135

adipogenesis - oiadipogenesis - oi

Vitamin D and adipogenesis: new molecular insights Shifting in Balance Between Osteogenesis and Adipogenesis Substantially ... Effects of Inorganic HgCl2 on Adipogenesis Seipin is necessary for normal brain development and spermatogenesis in addition to ... Adipogenesis in ducks interfered by small interfering ribonucleic acids of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ gene ... Syndecan-1 regulates adipogenesis: new insights in dedifferentiated liposarcoma tumorigenesis BSCL2/seipin regulates ...
more infohttp://oxfordindex.oup.com/view/10.1093/oi/authority.20110803095351362

JCI -
Polycystin-1 interacts with TAZ to stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit adipogenesisJCI - Polycystin-1 interacts with TAZ to stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit adipogenesis

... they exhibit opposite effects on bone marrow adipogenesis (30-32). Indeed, loss of Pkd1 increases PPARγ-dependent adipogenesis ... Polycystin-1 interacts with TAZ to stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit adipogenesis. Zhousheng Xiao,1 Jerome Baudry,2,3 Li ... Adipogenesis is inhibited by brief, daily exposure to high-frequency, extremely low-magnitude mechanical signals. Proc Natl ... Takada I, Kouzmenko AP, Kato S. Wnt and PPARγ signaling in osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2009;5(8): ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/93725

JCI -
Polycystin-1 interacts with TAZ to stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit adipogenesisJCI - Polycystin-1 interacts with TAZ to stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit adipogenesis

Bone marrow stromal cells and osteoblasts derived from these mice showed impaired osteoblastogenesis and enhanced adipogenesis ... This molecule stimulated polycystin- and TAZ-dependent osteoblastogenesis and inhibited adipogenesis. Thus, we show that ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/93725/figure/1

A role for aquaglyceroporins in adipogenesisA role for aquaglyceroporins in adipogenesis

... James Brown1, Matthew Conner1, Roslyn Bill1, Manjunath Ramanjaneya2, Clifford ...
more infohttp://www.endocrine-abstracts.org/ea/0021/ea0021p153.htm

Lipotoxicity-Steatosis, Adipogenesis, and Phospholipidosis | Thermo Fisher ScientificLipotoxicity-Steatosis, Adipogenesis, and Phospholipidosis | Thermo Fisher Scientific

Phospholipidosis and steatosis are toxic side effects of lipid metabolism that can be triggered by drugs or other compounds. Phospholipidosis is a lysosomal storage disorder associated with cationic amphiphilic drugs and characterized by the accumulation of excess phospholipid complexes within the internal lysosomal membranes. Steatosis is the abnormal retention of lipids within a cell due to impairment of the normal processes of synthesis and elimination of triglyceride fats.
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/au/en/home/life-science/cell-analysis/cell-viability-and-regulation/cytotoxicity/lipotoxicity-steatosis-adipogenesis-phospholipidosis.html

Transcription factor regulation in adipogenesis (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathwaysTranscription factor regulation in adipogenesis (Homo sapiens) - WikiPathways

Lowe CE, ORahilly S, Rochford JJ; Adipogenesis at a glance.; J Cell Sci, 2011 PubMed Europe PMC*Dobrian AD; A tale with ... The transcription factors involved in adipogenesis are shown in the current pathway. Adipogensis is the biological proces of ... Siersbæk R, Nielsen R, Mandrup S; Transcriptional networks and chromatin remodeling controlling adipogenesis.; Trends ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/index.php/Pathway:WP3599

Shikonin inhibits adipogenesis by modulation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway.Shikonin inhibits adipogenesis by modulation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway.

Et Zucc, inhibits adipogenesis and fat accumulation. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism of ... Et Zucc, inhibits adipogenesis and fat accumulation. This study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism of the ... SIGNIFICANCE: This study clearly shows that shikonin inhibits adipogenesis by the modulation of WNT/β-catenin pathway in vitro ... Shikonin-induced reductions of the major transcription factors of adipogenesis including peroxisome proliferator-activated ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Shikonin-inhibits-adipogenesis-by-modulation/21146546.html

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Isobavachalcone from Angelica keiskei Inhibits Adipogenesis and Prevents Lipid AccumulationIJMS | Free Full-Text | Isobavachalcone from Angelica keiskei Inhibits Adipogenesis and Prevents Lipid Accumulation

Lee H, Li H, Kweon M, Choi Y, Kim MJ, Ryu J-H. Isobavachalcone from Angelica keiskei Inhibits Adipogenesis and Prevents Lipid ... Lee, H.; Li, H.; Kweon, M.; Choi, Y.; Kim, M.J.; Ryu, J.-H. Isobavachalcone from Angelica keiskei Inhibits Adipogenesis and ... Keywords: Angelica keiskei; isobavachalcone; 3T3-L1 adipocyte; adipogenesis; clonal expansion; autophagy Angelica keiskei; ... "Isobavachalcone from Angelica keiskei Inhibits Adipogenesis and Prevents Lipid Accumulation." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 19, no. 6: 1693 ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/19/6/1693

Adipogenesis Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit | K610 | BioVision, Inc.Adipogenesis Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit | K610 | BioVision, Inc.

Adipogenesis Assay Kit: Colorimetric & Fluorometric Assay for Quantifying Triglyceride Accumulation in Cells and Tissues within ... Adipogenesis Colorimetric/Fluorometric Assay Kit. based on 7 citations in multiple journalsAdipogenesis Colorimetric/ ... Adipogenesis Assay Buffer. • Lipid Extraction Solution. • Adipogenesis Probe (in DMSO solution). • Lipase (lyophilized). • ... The adipogenesis kit is usually used with adipocytes or adipose tissue, hardly with body fluids since there is not much ...
more infohttps://www.biovision.com/adipogenesis-colorimetric-fluorometric-assay-kit.html

Simple and Accurate Monitoring of Adipogenesis | Thermo Fisher Scientific - USSimple and Accurate Monitoring of Adipogenesis | Thermo Fisher Scientific - US

Here we demonstrate the measurement of adipogenesis over the course of differentiation from mouse fibroblasts, using the HCS ... Figure 4. Qualitative time-course monitoring of adipogenesis in live cells by visualization of the adiposomes. Images of 3T3-L1 ... Figure 1. Analysis of adipogenesis in fixed cells. Analysis of cells on the Countess II FL system on days 0, 7, 9, and 17 shows ... Figure 2. Quantitative comparison of adipocyte numbers during different stages of adipogenesis. Analysis of mouse fibroblasts ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/us/en/home/life-science/cell-analysis/cell-analysis-learning-center/cell-analysis-resource-library/cell-analysis-application-notes/simple-accurate-monitoring-adipogenesis-countess-ii-fl-system.html

JCI Insight -
CD8+ T cells in beige adipogenesis and energy homeostasisJCI Insight - CD8+ T cells in beige adipogenesis and energy homeostasis

The inhibitory effect of CD8+ T cells on beige adipogenesis was reversed by blockade of IFN-γ. All together, our findings ... Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that CD8+ T cell deficiency accounts for the enhanced beige adipogenesis in Rag1-/- ... Consistently, we identified that CD8-/- mice also presented with enhanced beige adipogenesis. ...
more infohttps://insight.jci.org/articles/view/95456/figure/3

Chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and adipogenesis of canine mesenchymal stem cells: a biochemical, morphological and...Chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and adipogenesis of canine mesenchymal stem cells: a biochemical, morphological and...

Mesenchymal stem cells Chondrogenesis Adipogenesis Osteogenesis Ultrastructure The research was conducted in part for the ... Chondrogenesis, osteogenesis and adipogenesis of canine mesenchymal stem cells: a biochemical, morphological and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00418-007-0337-z

Jak-TGFβ cross-talk links transient adipose tissue inflammation to beige adipogenesis | Science SignalingJak-TGFβ cross-talk links transient adipose tissue inflammation to beige adipogenesis | Science Signaling

Adipogenesis inhibitory factor. A novel inhibitory regulator of adipose conversion in bone marrow. FEBS Lett. 288, 13-16 (1991 ... Tracking adipogenesis during white adipose tissue development, expansion and regeneration. Nat. Med. 19, 1338-1344 (2013).. ... Committing progenitors to adipogenesis. Promoting the "browning" of white fat has been proposed as a strategy to combat obesity ... JAK2/STAT3 pathway is involved in the early stage of adipogenesis through regulating C/EBPβ transcription. J. Cell. Biochem. ...
more infohttps://stke.sciencemag.org/content/11/527/eaai7838
  • However, there is substantial evidence to suggest that there are other factors that mediate the interaction between FOXO1 and the PPARG promoter, and that inhibition of adipogenesis is not entirely dependent on FOXO1 preventing transcription of PPARG. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results imply the involvement of imidacloprid in altered adipogenesis, resulting in increased fat accumulation. (nih.gov)
  • Shikonin-induced reductions of the major transcription factors of adipogenesis including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α, and lipid metabolizing enzymes including fatty acid binding protein 4 and lipoprotein lipase, as well as intracellular fat accumulation, were all significantly recovered by siRNA-mediated knockdown of β-catenin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We are performing both gain-of-function and loss-of-function experiments designed to place O/E-1 and other O/E isoforms in the transcriptional cascade leading to adipogenesis. (bidmc.org)
  • Transcriptional networks and chromatin remodeling controlling adipogenesis. (wikipathways.org)
  • Studies of these cellular models have revealed some of the molecular events that orchestrate adipogenesis, including the role of C/EBPs and PPARγ in mediating the expression of adipocyte-specific genes ( 3 , 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Adipogenesis plays a critical role in controlling adipocyte cell number, body weight, and metabolic profile in a homeostatic state. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • PPAR-γ is considered to be the master and proximal regulator of adipogenesis, which coordinately activates and maintains the expression of adipocyte-specific genes ( 8 , 9 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • MAFB expression was upregulated during adipogenesis, and knocking down MAFB mRNA led to reduced TNFα-mediated inflammation. (dissertations.se)
  • The present study was carried out to further investigate the effects of this plant on lipid metabolism, lipolysis, and adipogenesis, in diabetic rats. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, S. securidaca decreases lipolysis and adipogenesis without cytotoxicity, which makes it a good candidate for management of dyslipidemia and reduction of cardiovascular risks in diabetes. (hindawi.com)
  • Functional studies of the role of O/E proteins in adipogenesis. (bidmc.org)
  • The availability of multiple stain colors allows for flexibility when multiplexing with other probes, enabling acquisition of additional details about proteins of interest and cell health in adipogenesis. (thermofisher.com)
  • This study provides the first evidence of inducible brown adipogenesis in the supraclavicular region in adult humans. (nih.gov)
  • Evidence suggests that adipogenesis is one of the biological events involved in the regulation of cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. (springer.com)
  • The high detection sensitivity and the convenient microplate assay format make the kit a convenient tool for studying the effect of adipogenesis inducers or inhibitors, or to screen drugs. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Recent studies on how inhibited adipogenesis leads to metabolic disorders were summarized. (springer.com)