Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
Glucose in blood.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.

Lipopolysaccharide activates an innate immune system response in human adipose tissue in obesity and type 2 diabetes. (1/132)

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Adipose tissue (AT) may represent an important site of inflammation. 3T3-L1 studies have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates toll-like receptors (TLRs) to cause inflammation. For this study, we 1) examined activation of TLRs and adipocytokines by LPS in human abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) adipocytes, 2) examined blockade of NF-kappaB in human AbdSc adipocytes, 3) examined the innate immune pathway in AbdSc AT from lean, obese, and T2DM subjects, and 4) examined the association of circulating LPS in T2DM subjects. The findings showed that LPS increased TLR-2 protein expression twofold (P<0.05). Treatment of AbdSc adipocytes with LPS caused a significant increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion (IL-6, CONTROL: 2.7+/-0.5 vs. LPS: 4.8+/-0.3 ng/ml; P<0.001; TNF-alpha, CONTROL: 1.0+/-0.83 vs. LPS: 32.8+/-6.23 pg/ml; P<0.001). NF-kappaB inhibitor reduced IL-6 in AbdSc adipocytes ( CONTROL: 2.7+/-0.5 vs. NF-kappaB inhibitor: 2.1+/-0.4 ng/ml; P<0.001). AbdSc AT protein expression for TLR-2, MyD88, TRAF6, and NF-kappaB was increased in T2DM patients (P<0.05), and TLR-2, TRAF-6, and NF-kappaB were increased in LPS-treated adipocytes (P<0.05). Circulating LPS was 76% higher in T2DM subjects compared with matched controls. LPS correlated with insulin in controls (r=0.678, P<0.0001). Rosiglitazone (RSG) significantly reduced both fasting serum insulin levels (reduced by 51%, P=0.0395) and serum LPS (reduced by 35%, P=0.0139) in a subgroup of previously untreated T2DM patients. In summary, our results suggest that T2DM is associated with increased endotoxemia, with AT able to initiate an innate immune response. Thus, increased adiposity may increase proinflammatory cytokines and therefore contribute to the pathogenic risk of T2DM.  (+info)

Oncogenic steroid receptor coactivator-3 is a key regulator of the white adipogenic program. (2/132)

The white adipocyte is at the center of dysfunctional regulatory pathways in various pathophysiological processes, including obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. Here, we show that the oncogenic steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) is a critical regulator of white adipocyte development. Indeed, in SRC-3(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, adipocyte differentiation was severely impaired, and reexpression of SRC-3 was able to restore it. The early stages of adipocyte differentiation are accompanied by an increase in nuclear levels of SRC-3, which accumulates to high levels specifically in the nucleus of differentiated fat cells. Moreover, SRC-3(-/-) animals showed reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass with a significant decrease of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), a master gene required for adipogenesis. At the molecular level, SRC-3 acts synergistically with the transcription factor CAAT/enhancer-binding protein to control the gene expression of PPARgamma2. Collectively, these data suggest a crucial role for SRC-3 as an integrator of the complex transcriptional network controlling adipogenesis.  (+info)

Acute and chronic regulation of leptin synthesis, storage, and secretion by insulin and dexamethasone in human adipose tissue. (3/132)

Serum leptin levels are upregulated in proportion to body fat and also increase over the short term in response to meals or insulin. To understand the mechanisms involved, we assessed leptin synthesis and secretion in samples of adipose tissue from subjects with a wide range of BMI. Tissue leptin content and relative rates of leptin biosynthesis, as determined by metabolic labeling, were highly correlated with each other and with BMI and fat cell size. To understand mechanisms regulating leptin synthesis in obesity, we used biosynthetic labeling to directly assess the effects of insulin and glucocorticoids (dexamethasone) on leptin synthesis and secretion in human adipose tissue. Chronic treatment (1-2 days in organ culture) with insulin increased relative rates of leptin biosynthesis without affecting leptin mRNA levels. In contrast, dexamethasone increased leptin mRNA and biosynthesis in parallel. Acute treatment with insulin or dexamethasone (added during 1-h preincubation and 45-min pulse labeling) did not affect relative rates of leptin biosynthesis, but pulse-chase studies showed that addition of insulin nearly doubled the release of [35S]leptin after a 1-h chase. We conclude that the higher leptin stores in adipose tissue of obese humans are maintained by chronic effects of insulin and glucocorticoids acting at pre- and posttranslational levels and that the ability of insulin to increase the release of preformed leptin may contribute to short-term variations in circulating leptin levels.  (+info)

Adipocytes and preadipocytes promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells in vitro. (4/132)

Obesity, a risk factor for colon cancer, is associated with elevated serum levels of leptin, a protein produced by adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of adipose tissue on colon cancer proliferation by using cultured cell lines. To achieve this, colon cancer cells (CACO-2, T84, and HT29) were cocultured with adipose tissue, isolated mature adipocytes, and isolated preadipocytes in a three-dimensional collagen gel culture system. The adipocytes and preadipocytes used were isolated from C57BL/6J and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Proliferation of the cancer cells was evaluated by nuclear bromodeoxyuridine uptake. The adipose tissue, mature adipocytes, and preadipocytes isolated from C57BL/6J mice significantly increased the proliferation of the colon cancer cells. This trophic effect of mature adipocytes on the cancer cell lines was observed only for cells from lean littermates and not for those from ob/ob mice. In contrast, the trophic effect of preadipocytes was not abolished in ob/ob mice, and this finding was supported by the result that leptin had a trophic effect on cancer cells. In conclusion, adipocytes were able to enhance the proliferation of colon cancer cells in vitro, partly via leptin, suggesting that adipose tissues, including mature adipocytes and preadipocytes, may promote the growth of colorectal cancer.  (+info)

Effects of forced uncoupling protein 1 expression in 3T3-L1 cells on mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism. (5/132)

Obesity-related increase in body fat mass is a risk factor for many diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Controlling adiposity by targeted modulation of adipocyte enzymes could offer an attractive alternative to current dietary approaches. Brown adipose tissue, which is present in rodents but not in adult humans, expresses the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) that promotes cellular energy dissipation as heat. Here, we report on the direct metabolic effects of forced UCP1 expression in white adipocytes derived from a murine (3T3-L1) preadipocyte cell line. After stable integration, the ucp1 gene product was continuously expressed during differentiation and reduced the total lipid accumulation by approximately 30% without affecting other adipocyte markers, such as cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and leptin production. The expression of UCP1 also decreased glycerol output and increased glucose uptake, lactate output, and the sensitivity of cellular ATP content to nutrient removal. However, oxygen consumption and beta-oxidation were minimally affected. Together, our results suggest that the reduction in intracellular lipid by constitutive expression of UCP1 reflects a downregulation of fat synthesis rather than an upregulation of fatty acid oxidation.  (+info)

Suppression by licorice flavonoids of abdominal fat accumulation and body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. (6/132)

We applied licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) to high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice and investigated its effect. LFO contains hydrophobic flavonoids obtained from licorice by extraction with ethanol. The oil is a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides, having glabridin, a major flavonoid of licorice, concentrated to 1.2% (w/w). Obese mice were fed on a high-fat diet containing LFO at 0 (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0% for 8 weeks. Compared with mice in the control group, those in the 1% and 2% LFO groups efficiently reduced the weight of abdominal white adipose tissues and body weight gain. A histological examination revealed that the adipocytes became smaller and the fatty degenerative state of the hepatocytes was improved in the 2% LFO group. A DNA microarray analysis of the liver showed up-regulation of those genes for beta-oxidation and down-regulation of those for fatty acid synthesis in the 2% LFO group. These findings suggest that LFO prevented and ameliorated diet-induced obesity via the regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the liver.  (+info)

Impaired adipogenesis caused by a mutated thyroid hormone alpha1 receptor. (7/132)

Thyroid hormone (T3) is critical for growth, differentiation, and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. Mice with a knock-in mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene (TRalpha1PV) were created previously to explore the roles of mutated TRalpha1 in vivo. TRalpha1PV is a dominant negative mutant with a frameshift mutation in the carboxyl-terminal 14 amino acids that results in the loss of T3 binding and transcription capacity. Homozygous knock-in TRalpha1(PV/PV) mice are embryonic lethal, and heterozygous TRalpha1(PV/+) mice display the striking phenotype of dwarfism. These mutant mice provide a valuable tool for identifying the defects that contribute to dwarfism. Here we show that white adipose tissue (WAT) mass was markedly reduced in TRalpha1(PV/+) mice. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), the key regulator of adipogenesis, was repressed at both mRNA and protein levels in WAT of TRalpha1(PV/+) mice. Moreover, TRalpha1PV acted to inhibit the transcription activity of PPARgamma by competition with PPARgamma for binding to PPARgamma response elements and for heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptors. The expression of TRalpha1PV blocked the T3-dependent adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells and repressed the expression of PPARgamma. Thus, mutations of TRalpha1 severely affect adipogenesis via cross talk with PPARgamma signaling. The present study suggests that defects in adipogenesis could contribute to the phenotypic manifestation of reduced body weight in TRalpha1(PV/+) mice.  (+info)

Flux profile and modularity analysis of time-dependent metabolic changes of de novo adipocyte formation. (8/132)

White adipose tissue (WAT) mass is the main determinant of obesity and associated health risks. WAT expansion results from increases in white adipocyte cell number and size, which in turn reflect a series of shifts in the cellular metabolic state. To quantitatively profile the metabolic alterations occurring during de novo adipocyte formation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used in conjunction with a novel modularity analysis algorithm on differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Use of a type I collagen gel as an effective long-term culture substrate was also assessed. The calculated flux distributions predicted the sequential activation of several intracellular cross-compartmental pathways, including lipogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the malate cycle, in good agreement with earlier isotopic tracer experiments and gene profiling studies. Partition of the adipocyte metabolic network into highly interacting reaction subgroups suggested a functional reorganization of the major pathways consistent with the lipid-loading phenotype of the adipocyte. Flux and modularity analysis results together point to the flux distribution around pyruvate as a key indicator of adipocyte lipid accumulation.  (+info)

The ability to express UCP1 in WAT depots is associated with resistance to obesity, as shown in genetic studies with various mouse strains as well as overexpression studies (1, 12, 18, 27, 49). In the latter case, simply overexpressing UCP1 in WAT appears sufficient to promote mitochondrial biogenesis (49). Recently, several reports have indicated that mitochondrially derived signals such as those that stem from changes in mitochondrial membrane potential or ATP production can promote mitochondrial biogenesis by a process known as retrograde signaling, but the molecular basis of this is not clear (31). Therefore, because of the evidence for decreased mitochondrial function in metabolic disease (34) and the search for mechanisms to combat obesity, understanding the molecular basis of brown versus white adipocyte differentiation continues to be of interest.. What factors and pathways control the differentiation of brown versus white adipocytes has been a long-standing question (22). More ...
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KEGG Orthology (KO) [BR:hsa00001] 09150 Organismal Systems 09151 Immune system 04662 B cell receptor signaling pathway [PATH:hsa04662] 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen 09180 Brite Hierarchies 09183 Protein families: signaling and cellular processes 04090 CD molecules [BR:hsa04090] 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen CD molecules [BR:hsa04090] Proteins 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen ...
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2.4.1.251 GlcA-beta-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-alpha-1-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 4-beta-mannosyltransferase ...
Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces white adipocytes with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. AU - Timmons, James A.. AU - Wennmalm, Kristian. AU - Larsson, Ola. AU - Walden, Tomas B.. AU - Lassmann, Timo. AU - Petrovic, Natasa. AU - Hamilton, D. Lee. AU - Gimeno, Ruth E.. AU - Wahlestedt, Claes. AU - Baar, Keith. AU - Nedergaard, Jan. AU - Cannon, Barbara. PY - 2007/3/13. Y1 - 2007/3/13. N2 - Attainment of a brown adipocyte cell phenotype in white adipocytes, with their abundant mitochondria and increased energy expenditure potential, is a legitimate strategy for combating obesity. The unique transcriptional regulators of the primary brown adipocyte phenotype are unknown, limiting our ability to promote brown adipogenesis over white. In the present work, we used microarray analysis strategies to study primary preadipocytes, and we made the striking discovery that brown preadipocytes demonstrate a myogenic transcriptional signature, whereas both brown and ...
In our studies, we initially focused on protein kinase G (PKG/cGK), which is expressed both in white and brown adipocytes. Using gain- and loss-of-function models, we found that PKG is the major receptor for cGMP in brown adipocytes. We investigated the downstream targets of PKG and found a novel negative feedback loop that regulates cGMP levels. Importantly, in the presence of increased cGMP levels, we found an enhanced development of brown-like adipocytes, so-called beige or brite (brown in white) cells both in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that cGMP not only enhances development of classical brown adipocytes, but also promotes development of beige cells.. Therefore, we studied the effect of cGMP in white adipocytes in more detail. Lentiviral overexpression of PKG enhanced differentiation of white adipocytes. Moreover, PKG induced the expression of a brown-like adipogenic program in white fat cells. Treatment of mice with the PDE inhibitor sildenafil for only 7 days promoted ...
Abstract / summary in English: Background: The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a hallmark of brown adipocytes and pivotal for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis.. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we report that cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are crucially involved in induction of UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipocytes, but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed in COX2 knockout (KO) mice and by administration of the COX inhibitor indomethacin in wild-type mice. Indomethacin repressed b-adrenergic induction of UCP1 expression in primary inguinal adipocytes. The use of PGE2 receptor antagonists implicated EP4 as a main PGE2 receptor, and injection of the stable PGE2 analog (EP3/4 agonist) 16,16 dm PGE2 induced UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipose tissue. Inhibition of COX activity attenuated diet-induced UCP1 expression and increased energy efficiency and adipose tissue ...
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Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
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Much of the current excitement in the obesity field stems from recent observations highlighting that, even as adults, we have the ability to generate brown fat cells in response to cold exposure. Unlike white fat cells that mostly just store fat, brown adipocytes keep us warm by burning fat at a high rate, said Dr. Philipp Scherer, Director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study available online at Nature Medicine.. While generation of brown fat cells previously was thought to be mostly relevant for rodents and human infants, Dr. Scherer said, current evidence points to the observation that adults also generate these cells when exposed to cold.. Brown fat cells in adults tend to be randomly interspersed in subcutaneous white fat, with a trend toward increased accumulation in the upper chest and neck areas. In general, brown fat tissue makes up just a small percentage of total body fat mass.. The Touchstone Centers staff devotes its ...
In contrast to β1- and β2-ARs, the β3-AR induces a decrease in cardiac contractility in different species, including human, dog, guinea pig, and rat (Gauthier et al., 1999; Kitamura et al., 2000; Cheng et al., 2001; Morimoto et al., 2004). A coupling of β3-ARs to Gi/o protein and the activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase mediate this negative inotropic effect (Gauthier et al., 1998; Kitamura et al., 2000; Varghese et al., 2000; Brixius et al., 2004). Therefore, the modulation of cardiac contractility by the β3-ARs seems to involve the inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase and the decreased in intracellular cAMP content. In contrast, this subtype controls lipolysis in rat white adipocytes (Van Liefde et al., 1992; Germack et al., 1997) and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes (Atgie et al., 1997) through Gs protein activation. However, a dual coupling of the β3-ARs to Gs and Gi has been reported in white adipocytes (Chaudhry et al., 1994) and 3T3-F442A adipocytes (Soeder et al., 1999). ...
Yale scientists uncover how a molecular process in the brain that known to control eating transforms white fat into brown fat, impacting how much energy we burn and how much weight we can lose.. The results are published in the October 9 issue of the journal Cell.. Obesity is a rising global epidemic. Excess fatty tissue is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, neurological disorders, and cancer. People become overweight and obese when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, and excess calories are stored in the adipose tissues. The adipose organ is made up of both white and brown fat. While white fat primarily stores energy as triglycerides, brown fat dissipates chemical energy as heat. The more brown fat you have, the more weight you can lose.. It has previously been shown that energy-storing white fat has the capacity to transform into energy-burning brown-like fat. In this new study, researchers from the Yale Program in Integrative Cell Signaling ...
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To overcome the side effects of current anti-obesity drugs, researchers Jee Young Chung and colleagues developed a specific gene silencing therapy against a fatty acid metabolism gene, Fabp4. Researchers used a CRISPR interference system wherein catalytically dead Cas9 protein and single guide RNA was targeted to white adipocytes with a tissue-specific fusion peptide. The complex is internalized with little toxicity to the cells and, upon internalization, decreased the expression of Fabp4 and reduced lipid storage in adipocytes. Demonstrating that this delivery method performed well in cells, Chung and colleagues tested their therapy on obese mice. Mice were fed a diet high in fat leading to obesity and insulin resistance. Fabp4 repression resulted in a 20% reduction of body weight and improved insulin resistance and inflammation after just six weeks of treatment. Additional systemic improvements were observed, including a reduction in fatty lipid deposition in the liver and reduced circulating ...
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We own a pressure washing business out in the Eastern Panhandle of WV and have been using suppliers off the internet and out of Frederick Md until we came across Sun Brite Supply. After speaking with Hank and meeting the girls in the shop we now have a new supplier. The staff was extremely knowledgeable and helpful with questions and concerns when if came to chemicals and equipment. They are definitely worth the drive and even ships, same day in most cases. If your ever in the Gaithersburg MD area, drop by and meet everyone. You wont be disappointed.. ...
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PGC-1α-dependent irisin, a novel myokine, is derived from cleaving Fndc5 protein. Irisin promotes brown fat-like development and thermogenesis in WAT both in vitro and in vivo. The discovery of irisin has created an opportunity to further understand the role of adipocytes in obesity, diabetes, and other associated metabolic disorders (12,13,26,27). However, the molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways responsible for the browning effect of irisin have not been elucidated.. In this study, we successfully constructed the yeast expression plasmid containing a synthesized optimal codon usage, human irisin-coding sequence and generated pure human recombinant irisin protein in P. pastoris with high yield that is fully biologically functional. The P. pastoris system is widely used for heterogenic protein expression, with the capacity to generate posttranslational modified proteins (28). The human recombinant irisin protein expressed in yeast showed a predominant band of ∼22 kDa, which is ...
The presence of two distinct types of adipose tissue, which have opposing functions, has been known for decades. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the main tissue of energy storage, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and is required for non-shivering thermoregulation. In the last few years, a third type of adipocyte was identified, termed the brite (brown and white) or beige adipocyte. Their physiological control and role, however, are not fully clarified. Brite/beige adipocytes have a positive impact on systemic metabolism that is generally explained by the thermogenesis of brite/beige adipocytes; although thermogenesis has not been directly measured but is mostly inferred by gene expression data of typical thermogenic genes such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Here we critically review functional evidence for the thermogenic potential of brite/beige adipocytes, leading to the conclusion that direct measurements of brite/beige adipocyte bioenergetics, beyond gene ...
Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes. This significant induction is due to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and stabilization of PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing protein-16 (PRDM16). Furthermore, the oral administration of ArtC (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly induced brown-like adipocytes accompanied by significant ...
We also shine a spotlight on governance and social responsibility in this edition. Grant Thornton UK explains why good governance is the surprise element in creating a culture that sparks new ideas, and Impact Reporting tells us how its technology is helping organisations to improve their social value reporting.. Also in this edition, we hear from SAS how data analytics can be used for the greater good in the public sector, find out how organisations can create a culture of innovation through learning and development, and take a look at selected video highlights from the UNs third AI for Good Summit in Geneva.. I hope you enjoy this edition of Brite Innovation Review.. Susanne Hauner, Publisher. We always welcome views on innovation from across industry, government and academia. If youd like to contribute an article to Brite, dont hesitate to get in touch.. ...
Dermal adipose tissue (also known as dermal white adipose tissue and herein referred to as dWAT) has been the focus of much discussion in recent years. However, dWAT remains poorly characterized. The fate of the mature dermal adipocytes and the origin of the rapidly reappearing dermal adipocytes at different stages remain unclear. Here, we isolated dermal adipocytes and characterized dermal fat at the cellular and molecular level. Together with dWATs dynamic responses to external stimuli, we established that dermal adipocytes are a distinct class of white adipocytes with high plasticity. By combining pulse-chase lineage tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing, we observed that mature dermal adipocytes undergo dedifferentiation and redifferentiation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Upon various challenges, the dedifferentiated cells proliferate and redifferentiate into adipocytes. In addition, manipulation of dWAT highlighted an important role for mature dermal adipocytes ...
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Spiritual guidance Pastoral care transcends traditional counseling.. By Rachel Stowe Master 91. Nine months after she lost her 18-year-old daughter in a 2003 boating accident, Denise Brookman knew she needed help. It had been just three years since her other child - a son - had died, also at age 18. Heartbroken and devastated, Denise needed help working through overwhelming grief. She found it when a friend suggested she contact Brite Divinitys Pastoral Care and Training Center.. Its by the grace of God that everything has come about, Brookman said. Brite Divinity School helped me a lot.. She met three times with a young pastor from an area Church of Christ who was working on his graduate education at Brite. He had such an open heart about it. The level that [Brite counselors] are able to talk to you is different than a psychiatrist, a psychologist, your friends, your wonderful family. I think its very good to be able to talk to someone who is not on a level thats just medical. Because ...
abstract = {Over 1 billion people are estimated to be overweight, placing them at risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We performed a systems-level genetic dissection of adiposity regulation using genome-wide RNAi screening in adult Drosophila. As a follow-up, the resulting approximately 500 candidate obesity genes were functionally classified using muscle-, oenocyte-, fat-body-, and neuronal-specific knockdown in vivo and revealed hedgehog signaling as the top-scoring fat-body-specific pathway. To extrapolate these findings into mammals, we generated fat-specific hedgehog-activation mutant mice. Intriguingly, these mice displayed near total loss of white, but not brown, fat compartments. Mechanistically, activation of hedgehog signaling irreversibly blocked differentiation of white adipocytes through direct, coordinate modulation of early adipogenic factors. These findings identify a role for hedgehog signaling in white/brown adipocyte determination and link in vivo RNAi-based ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Combines a full 14x17 viewing area and a 4 inch diameter brite spot. Illumination of the viewing area is changed by depressing a footswitch which is included with the basic unit. Each viewing area is controlled independently with an electronic dimming control. The 14x17 section will illuminate to a 3.0 density and the brite spot will illuminate to 4.0 density film. The 14x17 section uses two BAH 300 watt bulbs and is cooled by fan. The brite spot area uses either an 500 watt DXb or 300 watt halogen bulb. This section is cooled by a blower and a sheet of Pyrex reflecting glass. All steel construction protected by attractive textured blue finish and trimmed with polished chrome strips. A hinged top lid makes it easy to change bulbs. Optional items to add versatility include a variable round iris diaphragm, a slotted iris diaphragm,and a detachable magnifier.. Product URL : http://www.ndrproducts.com/65c2.html. Last Updated : 11/09/2012. Categories : View Boxes, X-Ray ...
Disclosure: The reviewer has been compensated in the form of a Best Buy Gift Card and/or received the product/service at a reduced price or for free.. The last year has been pretty difficult for me as I am working on being a single mom. Each day seems to be a challenge. Ive been pretty overwhelmed and stressed out with many other things going on in our lives.. This month, my son and I start a new chapter in our lives. I recently closed on my first home as a single mom and we just moved in! We are starting fresh! It was very difficult to pack and organize all on my own. I was lucky enough to have help from my boyfriend with moving everything!. … [read more] ...
Item Code: NA-ESS Deodorizes bad odors, not an odor mask Removes stains caused by pet urines, wine and some yellow stains Provides anti-resoiling protection Safe on wool Wide variety of applications Home, office, boat, auto, and many other applications ESSENCE is not only an odor eliminator but also a stain remover. It
Quote: Originally Posted by Brite Then Pick a different crop. We grow great corn out here (Ohio) and never water it. You got that right i cant figure
You dont understand what I saying. Most the 1980s toon were made for just the reason of promoting toys. There was no entertainnmnet value at all for alot of 1980s toon. Might Mouse was very rare exeception, it actually had enterainment value. Shows like He-man and Rainbow Brite were only made to push toys, they were produced my mattel. This still goes on today, Batman Beyound was only made push toys for the WB, Paul Dini himself said this. ...
You dont understand what I saying. Most the 1980s toon were made for just the reason of promoting toys. There was no entertainnmnet value at all for alot of 1980s toon. Might Mouse was very rare exeception, it actually had enterainment value. Shows like He-man and Rainbow Brite were only made to push toys, they were produced my mattel. This still goes on today, Batman Beyound was only made push toys for the WB, Paul Dini himself said this. ...
These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are also named 'beige' or 'brite' (for "brown in white"). ... In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a ... Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through ... The second develops from white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. ...
Lo KA, Sun L (September 2013). "Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes". ... Rosenwald M, Perdikari A, Rülicke T, Wolfrum C (June 2013). "Bi-directional interconversion of brite and white adipocytes". ... Adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, ... "EBF2 promotes the recruitment of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue". Molecular Metabolism. 5 (1): 57-65. doi:10.1016/j. ...
In fact, PLIN1 is greatly expressed in white adipocytes. It controls adipocyte lipid metabolism. It handles essential functions ... In humans, Perilipin A is the most abundant protein associated with the adipocyte LDs and lower PLIN1 expression is related ... Perilipin is a protein that coats lipid droplets (LDs) in adipocytes, the fat-storing cells in adipose tissue. ... March 2013). "FSP27 and PLIN1 interaction promotes the formation of large lipid droplets in human adipocytes". Biochemical and ...
Rosenwald M, Perdikari A, Rülicke T, Wolfrum C (June 2013). "Bi-directional interconversion of brite and white adipocytes". ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Recent studies shed light into ... "EBF2 promotes the recruitment of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue". Molecular Metabolism. 5 (1): 57-65. doi:10.1016/j. ... a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes". Bioscience Reports. 33 (5): 711-19. doi:10.1042/ ...
PLIN4 is a member of the perilipin family, a group of proteins that coat lipid droplets in adipocytes, the adipose tissue cells ... It is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. ... PLIN4 coats lipid droplets in adipocytes to protect them from lipases. The PLIN4 gene may be associated with insulin resistance ... Wolins NE, Skinner JR, Schoenfish MJ, Tzekov A, Bensch KG, Bickel PE (September 2003). "Adipocyte protein S3-12 coats nascent ...
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... Adipocytes interact with other cells through producing and secreting a variety of signalling molecules, including the cell ... Hui W, Litherland GJ, Elias MS, Kitson GI, Cawston TE, Rowan AD, Young DA (2012). "Leptin produced by joint white adipose ... Conde J, Scotece M, Gómez R, López V, Gómez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O (2011). "Adipokines: Biofactors from white adipose ...
"Pluripotent Stem Cells Derived from Mouse and Human White Mature Adipocytes". Stem Cells Translational Medicine. 3 (2): 161-171 ... Ghaedi, M.; Calle, E. A.; Mendez, J. J.; Gard, A. L.; Balestrini, J.; Booth, A.; Bove, P. F.; Gui, L.; White, E. S.; Niklason, ... See also overview A specialised type of white blood cell, known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), are produced by the immune ... That distinguishes them from most nonpluripotent cells, although not from white blood cells. The glycans on the stem cell ...
... also occurs in the herb Marrubium vulgare (White horehound), where it is conjectured to have an anti-fungal role. ... It was found to stimulate lipid accumulation by adipocytes in vitro. Tariric acid is biosynthesised from petroselinic acid; ...
Rodeheffer MS, Birsoy K, Friedman JM (October 2008). "Identification of white adipocyte progenitor cells in vivo". Cell. 135 (2 ... Terminal differentiation is that preadipocytes differentiate into mature adipocytes. Adipocytes can arise either from ... Adipocytes play a vital role in energy homeostasis and process the largest energy reserve as triglycerol in the body of animals ... Adipocytes stay in a dynamic state, they start expanding when the energy intake is higher than the expenditure and undergo ...
2014). "White-to-brown metabolic conversion of human adipocytes by JAK inhibition". Nature Cell Biology. 17 (1): 57-67. doi: ... A 2014 study showed that tofacitinib treatment was able to convert white fat tissues into more metabolically active brown fat, ...
Adipocyte Metrnl antagonizes obesity-induced insulin resistance by improving adipose function, including adipocyte ... Rao RR, Long JZ, White JP, et al. (2015). "Meteorin-like is a hormone that regulates immune-adipose interactions to increase ... Li, Z. Y., Song, J., Zheng, S. L., Fan, M. B., Guan, Y. F., Qu, Y., ... & Miao, C. Y. (2015). Adipocyte Metrnl antagonizes ...
"Stress-induced alteration in the lipolytic response to β-adrenoceptor agonists in rat white adipocytes". JLR.org. Retrieved ...
"Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages". ... However, its expression is limited to brown and not white adipose precursors, providing part of the developmental separation ...
Argetsinger LS, Norstedt G, Billestrup N, White MF, Carter-Su C (1996). "Growth hormone, interferon-gamma, and leukemia ... "Hyperosmotic stress inhibits insulin receptor substrate-1 function by distinct mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". J. Biol. Chem ...
"Mechanisms for LEPR-mediated regulation of leptin expression in brown and white adipocytes in rat pups". Physiol Genomics. 4: ... Chua, SC Jr; White, DW; Wu-Peng, XS; Liu, SM; Okada, N; Kershaw, EE; Chung, WK; Power-Kehoe, L; Chua, M; Tartaglia, LA; Leibel ... White, DW; Wang, DW; Chua, SC Jr; Morgenstern, JP; Leibel, RL; Baumann, H; Tartaglia, LA (1997). "Constitutive and impaired ... Edens, NK; Leibel, RL; Hirsch, J (1990). "Mechanism of free fatty acid re-esterification in human adipocytes in vitro". J Lipid ...
... of erythrocytes and white adipocytes by the accumulation of triphenylmethylphosphonium cation". J. Membr. Biol. 56 (3): 191-201 ...
White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, Salisbury J, Clare S, Ingham NJ, Podrini C, Houghton R, Estabel J ... is required for adipocyte differentiation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (22): 16845-50. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.22. ... Kim TA, Ota S, Jiang S, Pasztor LM, White RA, Avraham S (Sep 2000). "Genomic organization, chromosomal localization and ...
The skin colour of people with light skin is determined mainly by the bluish-white connective tissue under the dermis and by ... The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (subcutaneous tissue contains 50% of body fat). Fat serves as ... Human skin shows high skin colour variety from the darkest brown to the lightest pinkish-white hues. Human skin shows higher ...
... stavudine and zidovudine involves multiple cellular targets in white and brown adipocytes". Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 12 (6): 919 ... in white fat cells but not brown fat cells. Since stavudine and zidovudine are OAT1 substrates, they may have similar effects ...
BMP4 also plays important roles in adipose tissue: it is essential for white adipogenesis, and promotes adipocyte ...
... induces brown adipogenesis and browning of white adipocytes. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 40(12), 1523-1531. PMID 31235818 PMC ... TGFB proteins are produced by all white blood cell lineages. Activated TGF-β complexes with other factors to form a serine/ ...
"Secretion of fatty acid binding protein aP2 from adipocytes through a nonclassical pathway in response to adipocyte lipase ... Burak, M. Furkan; Inouye, Karen E.; White, Ariel; Lee, Alexandra; Tuncman, Gurol; Calay, Ediz S.; Sekiya, Motohiro; Tirosh, ...
... suggesting chemerin plays a role in metabolic function of mature adipocytes. Studies using mature human adipocytes, 3T3-L1 ... In humans, chemerin mRNA is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, liver and lung while its receptor, CMKLR1 is ... Because of its role in adipocyte differentiation and glucose uptake, chemerin is classified as an adipokine. Chemerin has been ... Studies with 3T3-L1 cells have shown chemerin expression is low in pre-differentiated adipocytes but its expression and ...
Brown NF, Hill JK, Esser V, Kirkland JL, Corkey BE, Foster DW, McGarry JD (Oct 1997). "Mouse white adipocytes and 3T3-L1 cells ...
... exists mostly as a single adipocytes in the subcutaneous tissue. In humans, white adipose tissue starts to ... White adipose tissue consists of white adipocytes, which are the lipid storage cells. They are differentiated from ... White adipose tissue exists in various depots that may have different types of adipocytes. That is, different depots in ... White adipose tissue (WAT) or white fat is one of the two types of adipose tissue found in mammals. The other kind is brown ...
Hydrophobic structures also tend to remain clear; these are usually rich in fats, e.g. adipocytes, myelin around neuron axons, ... white). Muscle tissue, cell nuclei (blue-purple), extracellular material (pink). Basal cell carcinoma of the skin, cell nuclei ...
White R, Leonardsson G, Rosewell I, Ann Jacobs M, Milligan S, Parker M (Dec 2000). "The nuclear receptor co-repressor nrip1 ( ... "Suppression of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial biogenesis by the transcriptional corepressor RIP140 in mouse adipocytes ... Fritah A, Steel JH, Nichol D, Parker N, Williams S, Price A, Strauss L, Ryder TA, Mobberley MA, Poutanen M, Parker M, White R ( ... Seth A, Steel JH, Nichol D, Pocock V, Kumaran MK, Fritah A, Mobberley M, Ryder TA, Rowlerson A, Scott J, Poutanen M, White R, ...
C/EBPα is required both for adipogenesis and for normal adipocyte function. For example, mice lacking C/EBPα in all tissues ... "C/EBPalpha is required for differentiation of white, but not brown, adipose tissue". Proceedings of the National Academy of ... C/EBPβ and δ are transiently induced during the early stages of adipocyte differentiation (adipogenesis), while C/EBPα is ... Tanaka T, Yoshida N, Kishimoto T, Akira S (Dec 1997). "Defective adipocyte differentiation in mice lacking the C/EBPbeta and/or ...
... treatment of adipocytes is associated with phosphorylation of FRS2, a protein linking FGF receptors to the Ras/MAP kinase ... FGF21 expression is also induced in white adipose tissue by PPAR-gamma, which may indicate it also regulates metabolism in the ... FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes but not in other cell types. This effect is additive to the activity of insulin. ... While FGF21 is expressed in numerous tissues, including liver, brown adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and pancreas, ...
The cells of connective tissue include fibroblasts, adipocytes, macrophages, mast cells and leucocytes. ... and are as diverse as brown and white adipose tissue, blood, cartilage and bone.[15]:158 Cells of the immune system, such as ...
শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil). *ক্ষারাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা ... মেদকোষ (Adipocyte). *মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium) ...
Doliana R, Bot S, Mungiguerra G, et al. (2001). "Isolation and characterization of EMILIN-2, a new component of the growing EMILINs family and a member of the EMI domain-containing superfamily". J. Biol. Chem. 276 (15): 12003-11. doi:10.1074/jbc.M011591200. PMID 11278945 ...
white blood cell. See leukocyte.. whole genome sequencing. The process of determining the complete DNA sequence of a particular ... A type of loose connective tissue made of mostly adipocytes and found in human and animal tissue, where it is colloquially ... Also called a white blood cell.. A colourless cell of the immune system which circulates in the blood and body fluids and is ... Any of a class of glycoprotein molecules produced by plasma cells (white blood cells) which act as a critical part of the ...
Black-and-white photograph of a histologic specimen of bird lung infested by Toxoplasma gondii, stained with hematoxylin and ... Hydrophobic structures also tend to remain clear; these are usually rich in fats, e.g. adipocytes, myelin around neuron axons, ...
White SW, Zheng J, Zhang YM (2005). "The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis". 》Annual Review of Biochemistry ... Brasaemle DL (December 2007). "Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet ... Grochowski LL, Xu H, White RH (May 2006). "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii uses a modified mevalonate pathway for biosynthesis of ... "Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis". 》Nature》 444 (7121): 847-53. doi:10.1038/nature05483. PMC ...
Chuang SS, Helvig C, Taimi M, Ramshaw HA, Collop AH, Amad M, White JA, Petkovich M, Jones G, Korczak B., CYP2U1, a novel human ... Origin of Thymic Adipocytes in Aging: Incidental to Thymopoiesis or Instigator of Immunosenescence?, The Journal of Immunology ... Chuang SS, Helvig C, Taimi M, Ramshaw HA, Collop AH, Amad M, White JA, Petkovich M, Jones G, Korczak B., CYP2U1, a novel human ... Rachmiel Levine, Rolf Luft, Advances in Metabolic Disorders, 5. köide, Allan L. Goldstein and Abraham White, The Thymus Gland: ...
Marrow adipocytes, are unilocular like white fat cells, however both brown and white fat cells are derived from mesenchymal ... There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Studies have shed light into ... Histology image: 08201loa - Histology Learning System at Boston University - "Connective Tissue: unilocular (white) adipocytes ...
Maceration: softening and turning white of the skin due to being consistently wet. ... The main cellular component of this tissue is the adipocyte, or fat cell.[5] The structure of this tissue is composed of septal ... white, yellow).[10] The diagnosis of many conditions often also requires a skin biopsy which yields histologic information[11][ ... These can be either white or red. ...
... " is a term introduced by Oscar Hertwig in 1881.[3] In order to differentiate the use of the word mesenchyme in invertebrate zoology (an ecto- or entomesodermal middle layer of some invertebrates) and the use in vertebrate embryology (that is, undifferentiated tissue found in embryonic true mesoderm - entomesoderm - from which all connective tissues like blood vessels, blood cells, the lymphatic system, and the heart are derived.), some authors prefer to use the term mesoglea (in wider sense) in lieu of mesenchyme when referring to the middle layers of sponges and diploblasts, reserving the term mesenchyme for the embryological sense. However, Brusca & Brusca discourage this usage, using mesoglea in its strict sense (noncellular mesenchyme), and preferring to maintain both the embryological and zoological senses for the term mesenchyme.[4] Finally, some similar terms used in botany generally are differentiated by the suffix "a": mesenchyma (a tissue between xylem and phloem in roots), ...
... and stimulates adiponectin secretion from white adipose tissue by direct action on adipocytes, while repairing neurogenesis in ...
... s (or yellow fibers) are bundles of proteins (elastin) found in extracellular matrix[1] of connective tissue and produced by fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells in arteries. These fibers can stretch up to 1.5 times their length, and snap back to their original length when relaxed. Elastic fibers include elastin, elaunin and oxytalan. Elastic tissue is classified as "connective tissue proper".[2] The elastic fiber is formed from the elastic microfibril (consisting of numerous proteins such as microfibrillar-associated glycoproteins, fibrillin, fibullin, and the elastin receptor) and amorphous elastin. The microfibril scaffolds and organizes the deposition of amorphous elastin. Amorphous elastin forms from monomers of soluble tropoelastin which is insolubilized and crosslinked into amorphous elastin by lysyl oxidase. Lysyl oxidase reacts with specific lysine residues and by oxidative deamination generates reactive aldehydes and allysine. These reactive aldehydes and allysines can ...
Johnston IM, Allison SJ, Morton JP, Schramm L, Scott PH, White RJ (June 2002). "CK2 Forms a Stable Complex with TFIIIB and ... "The retinoblastoma-histone deacetylase 3 complex inhibits PPARgamma and adipocyte differentiation". Dev. Cell. 3 (6): 903-10. ... Sutcliffe JE, Cairns CA, McLees A, Allison SJ, Tosh K, White RJ (June 1999). "RNA Polymerase III Transcription Factor IIIB Is a ...
White JG (June 2013). "Getting into the mind of a worm--a personal view". WormBook: 1-10. doi:10.1895/wormbook.1.158.1. PMC ... The epidermis corresponds to the mammalian adipocytes by being the main triglyceride depot. [18] ... White JG, Southgate E, Thomson JN, Brenner S (November 1986). "The structure of the nervous system of the nematode ...
White SW, Zheng J, Zhang YM (2005). "The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis". Annual Review of Biochemistry ... Brasaemle DL (December 2007). "Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet ... Grochowski LL, Xu H, White RH (May 2006). "Methanocaldococcus jannaschii uses a modified mevalonate pathway for biosynthesis of ... The adipocyte, or fat cell, is designed for continuous synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides in animals, with breakdown ...
The white calyx cup-shaped flowers are bisexual and have various yellowish-white stamens. The fruit (legume) of the tree is a ... "Selected Herbal Extracts Improve Diabetes Associated Factors in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes." Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 91 ...
With the excision and the removal, or the repositioning (or both) of excess tissues, such as skin and adipocyte fat, and the ... is particularly useful for patients with darker skin tones where standard external incision often leaves a visible white scar. ...
... has been found to cause regrowth and healing of tissue. Although the mechanism of action by which extracellular matrix promotes constructive remodeling of tissue is still unknown, researchers now believe that Matrix-bound nanovesicles (MBVs) are a key player in the healing process.[18][31] In human fetuses, for example, the extracellular matrix works with stem cells to grow and regrow all parts of the human body, and fetuses can regrow anything that gets damaged in the womb. Scientists have long believed that the matrix stops functioning after full development. It has been used in the past to help horses heal torn ligaments, but it is being researched further as a device for tissue regeneration in humans.[32] In terms of injury repair and tissue engineering, the extracellular matrix serves two main purposes. First, it prevents the immune system from triggering from the injury and responding with inflammation and scar tissue. Next, it facilitates the surrounding cells to ...
White S, Zheng J, Zhang Y. The structural biology of type II fatty acid biosynthesis. Annual Review of Biochemistry. 2005, 74: ... Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet proteins: stabilization of lipid ... Grochowski L, Xu H, White R. Methanocaldococcus jannaschii uses a modified mevalonate pathway for biosynthesis of isopentenyl ...
... s (Greek: big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós) = large, φαγείν (phageín) = to eat[1]) are a type of white blood ... adipocytes). In an obese individual some adipocytes burst and undergo necrotic death, which causes the residential M2 ... "Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans". Journal of Lipid ... indicating to other white blood cells that the macrophage is not a pathogen, despite having antigens on its surface. ...
return fluids (lymph) to blood stream, aid immune responses, form white blood cells. lymph, lymph nodes, lymph vessels, tonsils ... মেদকোষ (Adipocyte). *মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium) ...
It has been shown to suppress lipolysis due to lower sympathetic nervous outflow to white adipose tissue.[9] The regulation of ... Lipolysis is directly induced in adipocytes by glucagon,[1] epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic ... Illustration of the activation of lipolysis in an adipocyte. induced by high epinephrine and low insulin levels in the blood. ... Epinephrine binds to beta-adrenergic receptors on the cell membrane of the adipocyte, which causes cAMP to be generated inside ...
Griesemer, Rebecca Lynn (July 25, 2008). Index of Central Obesity as a Parameter to Evaluate Metabolic Syndrome for White, ... and rosiglitazone and the effects of recombinant resistin on lipid and glucose metabolism in human differentiated adipocytes". ... Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and perirenal ...
Fatty acids are normally stored in adipocytes as triglycerides. However, as triglycerides accumulate in adipocytes, fatty acids ... Tang T, Glanville J, Hayden CJ, White D, Barth JH, Balen AH (January 2006). "Combined lifestyle modification and metformin in ... Adipocytes (fat cells) secrete proteins and signaling molecules known as adipokines. Certain adipokines have been implicated in ... In obesity, the greater number of adipocytes release greater amounts of leptin. These higher levels of leptin have been ...
Neutrophils is a type of white blood cell. Which it causes the person to be able to catch other infections and disease easier. ... and the development of adipocytes. This protein may also play a role in the development of the function for eyes, the ...
The ACTH receptor plays a role in glucose metabolism when expressed in white adipose cells. When bound to ACTH, a short-term ... Boston BA (October 1999). "The role of melanocortins in adipocyte function". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 885 (1 ... and in both white and brown adipoctyes, and is expressed in greater concentrations when adipose cells differentiate. It is well ... promotes a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile and stimulates UCP-1 in adipocytes". The Journal of Endocrinology. 196 (3): 465- ...
Adipocyte numbers increase during development and come to a plateau over time. After the plateau adipocytes become restricted ... Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE (May 2009). "Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental ... Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE (May 2009). "Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental ... Engeli S, Böhnke J, Feldpausch M, Gorzelniak K, Janke J, Bátkai S, Pacher P, Harvey-White J, Luft FC, Sharma AM, Jordan J ( ...
Thus, Tbx15 differentially regulates metabolism in white adipocytes and leads to a functional heterogeneity in white fat cells ... Tbx15 Defines a Glycolytic Subpopulation and White Adipocyte Heterogeneity. Kevin Y. Lee, Rita Sharma, Grant Gase, Siegfried ... Tbx15 Defines a Glycolytic Subpopulation and White Adipocyte Heterogeneity. Kevin Y. Lee, Rita Sharma, Grant Gase, Siegfried ... Intrinsic differences in adipocyte precursor cells from different white fat depots. Diabetes 2012;61:1691-1699pmid:22596050. ...
From: Asc-1 regulates white versus beige adipocyte fate in a subcutaneous stromal cell population ...
Comparative Secretome Analyses of Primary Murine White and Brown Adipocytes Reveal Novel Adipokines. Asrar Ali Khan, Jenny ... Comparative Secretome Analyses of Primary Murine White and Brown Adipocytes Reveal Novel Adipokines ... Comparative Secretome Analyses of Primary Murine White and Brown Adipocytes Reveal Novel Adipokines ... Comparative Secretome Analyses of Primary Murine White and Brown Adipocytes Reveal Novel Adipokines ...
Limited mitochondrial capacity of visceral versus subcutaneous white adipocytes in male C57BL/6N mice.. [Theresa Schöttl, Lisa ... Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 1 week reduced white adipocyte mitochondrial capacity, with stronger effects in epididymal ... At the same time, altered white adipocyte mitochondrial bioenergetics has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin ... We assessed bioenergetic parameters of subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal white adipocytes from male C57BL/6N mice ...
... ... Differentiated HIB1B brown adipocytes treated with serotonin had reduced levels of the thermogenic markers uncoupling protein 1 ... It has recently been shown that serotonin leads to fat accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT). However, the direct effect ... In parallel, serotonin led to 3-6-fold reduction in the gene expression of brown adipocyte differentiation markers, that is, ...
Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT via AMPKα1 activation and suggest that its beneficial antiobesity ... Resveratrol also induced beige adipogenesis in vivo along with the appearance of multiocular adipocytes, increased UCP1 ... Resveratrol significantly increased mRNA and/or protein expression of brown adipocyte markers, including uncoupling protein 1 ( ... on brown-like adipocyte formation in inguinal WAT (iWAT). CD1 female mice (5-month old) were fed a high-fat diet with/without ...
D) Markers of brown and white adipocytes were assessed in the interscapular BAT by qPCR. (E and F) Five-month-old mice were ... Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy.. Mori MA, Thomou T, ... Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte-like phenotype and reduced expression of ... Altered miRNA processing disrupts brown/white adipocyte determination and associates with lipodystrophy ...
Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown ... Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown ... role played by the TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in traditional white fat, ... role played by the TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in traditional white fat, ...
... induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). We ... In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue ( ... indicating the emergence of brown-like adipocytes in WAT. Our results suggest that SHR may have the capacity to increase energy ... expenditure in response to a chronic HFD that may be linked to the emergence of brown-like adipocytes in WAT. Thus, the SHR may ...
We suggest that obesity-linked hypoxia may lead to similar alterations in brown adipocytes as in white fat cells - particularly ... We suggest that obesity-linked hypoxia may lead to similar alterations in brown adipocytes as in white fat cells - particularly ... and this leads to substantial changes in white adipocyte function. These changes include increased production of inflammation- ... and this leads to substantial changes in white adipocyte function. These changes include increased production of inflammation- ...
White adipocytes store energy (e.g., triglycerides), whereas brown adipocytes consume energy (5,6). Many studies have shown ... A: Expression of brown/beige adipocyte marker, betatrophin, and white adipocyte marker (aP2 and adipoq) genes were measured by ... Irisin stimulates adipocyte browning via p38/ERK pathways. Primary rat adipocytes and 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes were treated ... To investigate the browning effect of r-irisin on adipocytes, we used both 3T3-L1-derived adipocytes and primary rat adipocytes ...
In white fat, enrichment induced the upregulation of the brown fat cell fate determining gene Prdm16, brown fat-specific ... White to brown fat phenotypic switch induced by genetic and environmental activation of a hypothalamic-adipocyte axis Cell ... In white fat, enrichment induced the upregulation of the brown fat cell fate determining gene Prdm16, brown fat-specific ... Moreover, pockets of cells with prototypical brown fat morphology and high UCP1 levels were observed in the white fat of ...
... Mol Metab. 2015 Nov 14;5(1):57-65. doi: 10.1016/j. ... white adipose tissue; WT, wild type; epiWAT, epididymal white adipose tissue; ingWAT, inguinal white adipose tissue. ... Objective: The induction of beige/brite adipose cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) is associated with protection against high ... Results: We found that EBF2 is required for beige adipocyte development in mice. Subcutaneous WAT or primary adipose cell ...
... visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in terms of macromolecular content and investigate transdifferentiation between white ... FTIR imaging of structural changes in visceral and subcutaneous adiposity and brown to white adipocyte transdifferentiation ... FTIR imaging of structural changes in visceral and subcutaneous adiposity and brown to white adipocyte transdifferentiation F. ... with a decrease of UCP1 protein content which might be due to the transdifferentiation of brown adipocytes to white adipocytes ...
Capsaicin Activates the Trpv1-camkii-ampk-sirt-1-dependent Mechanism to Trigger Brown Remodeling of White Adipocytes to ... Capsaicin Activates the Trpv1-camkii-ampk-sirt-1-dependent Mechanism to Trigger Brown Remodeling of White Adipocytes to ... Capsaicin Activates the Trpv1-camkii-ampk-sirt-1-dependent Mechanism to Trigger Brown Remodeling of White Adipocytes to ... Capsaicin Activates the Trpv1-camkii-ampk-sirt-1-dependent Mechanism to Trigger Brown Remodeling of White Adipocytes to ...
white adipocyte. Introduction. White adipose tissue (WAT) is an organ distributed at several locations in the body and with an ... The white adipocyte is now known to be an endocrine cell [1] and adipocyte secretory hormone-containing vesicles can be ... including white adipocytes [15,16,41]. The ATP-induced elevation of adipocyte [Ca2+]i has been shown to involve activation of ... 2014) Etiology of the membrane potential of rat white fat adipocytes. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 307, E161-E175 doi: ...
Cell cultures of primary human adipocytes. Primary human pre-adipocytes for in vitro differentiation from 22 female subjects ... No effects of bioactives on adipocyte differentiation. To measure possible effect of bioactives on adipocyte differentiation ... Adipocyte. 2014;4:1-8.Google Scholar. *. Hong YH, Nishimura Y, Hishikawa D, Tsuzuki H, Miyahara H, Gotoh C, et al. Acetate and ... we investigated their role on human white adipocyte function. ... Role of the adipocyte, free fatty acids, and ectopic fat in ...
In the absence of β3-adrenergic stimulation, differentiation of adipocyte progenitors into white adipocytes in the WAT was ... Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white ... Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white ... Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white ...
... on white adipocyte browning. We report that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide repressed white adipocyte browning in ... Mitochondria in white, brown, and beige adipocytes. Stem cells International 2016: 6067349.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle ... Intrinsic properties of brown and white adipocytes have differential effects on macrophage inflammatory responses. Mediators of ... Inhibitory Effects of Toll-Like Receptor 4, NLRP3 Inflammasome, and Interleukin-1β on White Adipocyte Browning. ...
In this review, we have highlighted the role of adrenoceptor subtypes in white, brown, and brite adipocytes in both rodents and ... We discuss important considerations when investigating adrenoceptor function in adipose tissue or adipocytes. ... and the secretion of adipocyte-derived hormones that can control whole-body energy homeostasis. These processes are regulated ... humans and have included detailed analysis of adrenoceptor expression in human adipose tissue and clonally derived adipocytes. ...
Reduction of extracellular Cl- elevated the intracellular Ca2+ of adipocytes.. In conclusion, the Vm of white fat adipocyte is ... The plasma membrane potential (Vm) is key to many physiological processes, however its ionic aetiology in white fat adipocytes ... Etiology of the membrane potential of rat white fat adipocytes. AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 307 (2). E161-E175. ISSN ... The resting Vm of primary and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were -32.1±1.2mV (n=95) and -28.8±1.2mV (n=87), respectively. Vm was ...
Brown adipocytes appeared more affected than white adipocytes (lower respiration rate and decreased ATP production). The ... With all the treatments, white adipocytes showed a decrease in the expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-DNA-encoded ... Adipocyte fat content was measured with Oil Red 0 staining. Quantification of mRNA levels and of mitochondrial DNA content used ... gamma2 and aP2 but also uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipocytes) as well as altered mitochondrial function (decreased ...
Adipocytes, White. Known as: White Fat Cell, White adipose cell, Adipocyte, White (More). ... Attainment of a brown adipocyte cell phenotype in white adipocytes, with their abundant mitochondria and increased energy… ( ... Sirt1 promotes fat mobilization in white adipocytes by repressing PPAR-γ. *Frédéric Picard, Martin V. Kurtev, +6 authors ... Acquirement of brown fat cell features by human white adipocytes.. *Claire Tiraby, Geneviève Tavernier, +4 authors Dominique ...
Rajakumari S, Wu J, Ishibashi J, Lim HW, Giang AH, Won KJ, Reed RR & Seale P 2013 EBF2 determines and maintains brown adipocyte ... 2P). These results demonstrated that FGF9 inhibited the browning process of white adipocytes.. Figure 2. *Download Figure ... FGF9 inhibits the browning of white adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner. We next used different experiments to examine the ... This study shows that adipose-derived FGF9 play as an inhibitory role in the browning of white adipocytes. Activation of ...
Proteomics-Based Comparative Mapping of the Secretomes of Human Brown and White Adipocytes Reveals EPDR1 as a Novel Batokine. ... In conclusion, we report substantial differences between the secretomes of brown and white human adipocytes and identify novel ... which were differentially regulated between brown and white adipocytes. A total of 101 proteins were exclusively quantified in ... Human Brown Adipocyte Thermogenesis Is Driven by β2-AR Stimulation. Research output: Contribution to journal › Journal article ...
White adipocytes : more than just fat depots Author(s) Henry, Sarah L.. Bensley, Jonathan G.. Wood-Bradley, Ryan J.. Cullen- ... White adipocytes : more than just fat depots. Henry, Sarah L., Bensley, Jonathan G., Wood-Bradley, Ryan J., Cullen-McEwen, ... White adipocytes : more than just fat depots, International journal of biochemistry and cell biology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 435- ... adipocyte. obesity. adipose tissue metabolism. obesity related hypertension. developmental programming of health and disease ...
Here we show by analysis of Ucp1, a gene which is typically expressed in brown but not white adipocytes, that RIP140 is ... RIP140 directs histone and DNA methylation to silence Ucp1 expression in white adipocytes ... RIP140 directs histone and DNA methylation to silence Ucp1 expression in white adipocytes. The EMBO Journal, 26 (23) . pp. 4831 ... Kiskinis, Evangelos, Hallberg, Magnus, Christian, Mark, Olofsson, Martina, Dilworth, Stephen M., White, Roger and Parker, ...
White M F, *Spiegelman B M. (1996) Science 271:665-668, pmid:8571133. ... Adipocyte complement-related protein (30 kDa) (Acrp30) is a secreted protein expressed exclusively in differentiated adipocytes ... 30-kDa adipocyte complement-related protein;. gAcrp30,. globular head domain of Acrp30;. TNFα,. tumor necrosis factor-α;. FFA, ... Adipocyte complement-related protein (30 kDa) (Acrp30), a secreted protein of unknown function, is exclusively expressed in ...
Rosenwald M, Wolfrum C (2014) The origin and definition of brite versus white and classical brown adipocytes. Adipocyte 3:4-9 ... However, controversy still surrounds the cellular identity in BMP7-mediated transition of white to brown adipocytes. The aim of ... Rosenwald M, Perdikari A, Rulicke T, Wolfrum C (2013) Bi-directional interconversion of brite and white adipocytes. Nat Cell ... Programming human pluripotent stem cells into white and brown adipocytes. Nat Cell Biol 14:209-219PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRef ...
... within white adipose (WAT) adipocytes. There are two major types of adipose, white that stores TGs and brown (BAT) that ... Enhancing Energy Expending Adipocytes in White Adipose Tissue Farmer, Stephen Robert Boston University, Boston, MA, United ... Enhancing Energy Expending Adipocytes in White Adipose Tissue. Farmer, Stephen Robert / Boston University. $497,778. ... Enhancing Energy Expending Adipocytes in White Adipose Tissue. Farmer, Stephen Robert / Boston University. $434,920. ...
  • Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of serotonin on brown adipocyte metabolism and differentiation. (ovid.com)
  • Non-differentiated HIB1B cells and differentiated HIB1B brown adipocytes were treated with serotonin and their metabolism and differentiation examined. (ovid.com)
  • In parallel, serotonin led to 3-6-fold reduction in the gene expression of brown adipocyte differentiation markers, that is, Prdm16 (positive regulatory domain 16), Bmp7 (bone morphogenic protein 7) and Pparγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ). (ovid.com)
  • In addition, serotonin interferes with the differentiation process into brown adipocytes. (ovid.com)
  • miRNAs are important regulators of biological processes in many tissues, including the differentiation and function of brown and white adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, over-expression of EBF2 in adipocyte cultures induced UCP1 expression and a brown-like/beige fat-selective differentiation program. (nih.gov)
  • The influence of the omega-3-fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) , the anthocyanin (AC) cyanidin-3-glucoside and its metabolite protocatechuic acid, and the beta-glucan metabolite propionic acid (PI) on adipokine secretion, fatty acid metabolism (lipolysis/lipogenesis) and adipocyte differentiation (lipid accumulation) was studied in human fat cells differentiated in vitro. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No effect was found on adipocyte differentiation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Furthermore, FGF9 treatment inhibited thermogenic genes in the process of beige adipocytes differentiation from stromal vascular fraction (SVF) in a dose-dependent manner. (bioscientifica.com)
  • RNA sequencing analysis revealed a significant increment of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway in the early stage of beige adipocytes differentiation under FGF9 treatment, which was validated by real-time PCR. (bioscientifica.com)
  • For example, we now know that in obesity, adipocyte differentiation is often impaired, and that the inability of adipose tissue to expand is associated with poor metabolic outcomes [ 4 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Result: we found a remarkable feature of adipocyte differentiation that inflammation signaling was significantly strengthened during WAT maturation, but not during BAT maturation. (qscience.com)
  • Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) is an epigenetic eraser enzyme positively regulating differentiation and function of adipocytes. (pnas.org)
  • We found a plausible SIRT1-related transcriptional signature during brown adipocyte differentiation that may contribute to silencing the myogenic signature. (elsevier.com)
  • We showed that the expression of key adipocyte regulators and markers during differentiation is similar to that in other human and murine adipocyte models, including induction of PPARgamma2 and FABP4. (qxmd.com)
  • Notably, we found that the preadipocyte marker, Pref-1, is induced early in differentiation and then declines markedly as the process continues, suggesting that fMSCs first acquire preadipocyte characteristics as they commit to the adipogenic lineage, prior to their differentiation into mature adipocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • Role of bone morphogenetic protein 4 in the differentiation of brown fat-like adipocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • A role for estrogen-related receptor alpha in the control of mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation during brown adipocyte differentiation. (qxmd.com)
  • Depletion of TAF7L reduced adipocyte-specific gene expression, compromised adipocyte differentiation, and WAT development as well. (elifesciences.org)
  • The formation of adipocytes, a process known as adipogenesis, has been extensively studied, but there remain major gaps in our knowledge: for example, the identities of many of the transcriptional regulators that are responsible for the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes remain a mystery. (elifesciences.org)
  • now report that TAF7L-a gene that was previously thought to be involved only in the production of sperm cells-has two roles in the differentiation of stem cells to form adipocytes. (elifesciences.org)
  • In the present study, we examine whether mevalonate metabolites activate PPARγ (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ), a ligand-dependent transcription factor playing a central role in adipocyte differentiation. (biochemj.org)
  • Moreover, the addition of FPP up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of PPARγ target genes during adipocyte differentiation induction. (biochemj.org)
  • The addition of FPP and zaragozic acid promotes lipid accumulation during adipocyte differentiation. (biochemj.org)
  • Ortiz-Lopez, Rocio 2018-05-29 00:00:00 Background: Excessive subcutaneous adiposity in obesity is associated to positive white adipocyte tissue (WAT) differentiation (adipogenesis) and WAT expandability. (deepdyve.com)
  • Methods: We used a 3T3-L1 proadipocyte cell line to identify the potential effect of T-AG17 on adipocyte differentiation and fat accumulation in vitro. (deepdyve.com)
  • Conclusion: T-AG17 promotes adipocyte apoptosis in vivo and is an effective modulator of adipocyte differentiation and WAT hypertrophy in vitro and in vivo. (deepdyve.com)
  • Adipocyte differentiation from mes- these incurable metabolic disorders. (deepdyve.com)
  • Lipids in Health and Disease (2018) 17:128 Page 2 of 11 an inability to induce differentiation of adipocyte pre- T-AG17 is also a potent inhibitor of mitochondrial oxphos cursor cells [3, 5] or induce adipocyte de-differentiation and is capable of increasing energy expenditure. (deepdyve.com)
  • On the other hand, once obesity is reached, the ever, the effects of T-AG17 on adipocyte differentiation, number of new adipocytes decreases, and adipocytes adipose tissue hypertrophy and body organ toxicity become hypertrophic, reaching their expandability limit have not been evaluated. (deepdyve.com)
  • Furthermore, knockdown of Uqcrc1 and Letm1 expression shows that they are required not only for beige adipocyte differentiation but also for preadipocyte maturation. (sciencemag.org)
  • PPARgamma and members of the c/EBP family of transcription factors orchestrate adipocyte differentiation in both white and brown cell types. (upenn.edu)
  • Insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) play important roles in adipocyte differentiation, glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. (harvard.edu)
  • Development of brown-like/beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) helps to reduce obesity. (nature.com)
  • Thus we investigated the effects of resveratrol, a dietary polyphenol capable of preventing obesity and related complications in humans and animal models, on brown-like adipocyte formation in inguinal WAT (iWAT). (nature.com)
  • We recently described an important role played by the TGF-β/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in traditional white fat, and its implications to thermogenesis, mitochondrial energetics, energy expenditure, and protection from diabetes and obesity. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown fat state as a potential therapeutic option for obesity and diabetes. (frontiersin.org)
  • We suggest that obesity-linked hypoxia may lead to similar alterations in brown adipocytes as in white fat cells - particularly changes in adipokine production, increased glucose uptake and lactate release, and insulin resistance. (frontiersin.org)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) is one site where hypoxia has been demonstrated and this occurs with the expansion of adipocyte size and total adipose mass in obesity ( 5 - 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • We speculate on the effects that reduced O 2 tension might have on the function of brown adipocytes and the possible implications for obesity and the metabolic syndrome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, pockets of cells with prototypical brown fat morphology and high UCP1 levels were observed in the white fat of enriched mice associated with resistance to diet-induced obesity. (nih.gov)
  • The induction of beige/brite adipose cells in white adipose tissue (WAT) is associated with protection against high fat diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance in animals. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we evaluated the hypothesis that capsaicin (CAP), a TRPV1 agonist, inhibited high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity by inducing browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). (ahajournals.org)
  • Collectively, we demonstrated that inflammatory response to obesity, such as TLR4 and NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as IL-1β secretion, attenuates β3-adrenoreceptor-induced beige adipocyte formation via oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. (springer.com)
  • FTO Obesity Variant Circuitry and Adipocyte Browning in Humans. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Browning of white adipose tissue has been proven to be a potential target to fight against obesity and its metabolic commodities, making the exploration of molecules involved in browning process important. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Among those browning agents reported recently, FGF21 play as a quite promising candidate for treating obesity for its obvious enhancement of thermogenic capacity in adipocyte and significant improvement of metabolic disorders in both mice and human. (bioscientifica.com)
  • The proposed studies are designed to identify the processes controlling the recruitment of brown adipocytes in WAT depots and the knowledge gained has the potential of leading to the development of anti-obesity therapeutics. (grantome.com)
  • Obesity-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammation lead to adipocytes dysfunction. (hindawi.com)
  • Excess accumulation of a type of fat called white fat is associated with obesity and metabolic problems. (elifesciences.org)
  • People with obesity tend to have less beige fat and more white fat. (elifesciences.org)
  • Since biochemical changes in adipocytes constitute an important component in obesity investigations, this study shows the potential use of FTIR imaging to compare relative biochemical changes associated with dietary interventions. (syr.edu)
  • Mice experiments showed that autophagy deficiency could prevent diet-induced obesity, characterized by less fat and a browning phenotype of white adipocyte (WAT). (qscience.com)
  • Attainment of a brown adipocyte cell phenotype in white adipocytes, with their abundant mitochondria and increased energy expenditure potential, is a legitimate strategy for combating obesity. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, we identified a number of developmental genes that are differentially expressed between brown and white preadipocytes and that have recently been implicated in human obesity. (elsevier.com)
  • Reduced UCP-1 content in in vitro differentiated beige/brite adipocytes derived from preadipocytes of human subcutaneous white adipose tissues in obesity. (qxmd.com)
  • Objectives of the present study were to find out whether CL 316,243 could reverse established diet-induced obesity in rats and to identify the multilocular adipocytes that appeared in WAT. (qxmd.com)
  • In addition to being of fundamental interest, improving our knowledge of the properties and behavior of adipocytes is essential for tackling the increasing prevalence of obesity in the developed world. (elifesciences.org)
  • The pathophysiology of obesity and obesity-associated metabolic disorders including Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and cardiovascular disease is associated with abnormalities in endocrine signalling in WAT (white adipose tissue) [ 1 , 2 ]. (biochemj.org)
  • Although challenges still remain regarding the origin of the beige adipocytes, the crosstalk with activation of BAT and induction of the beiging of white fat may provide attractive potential strategies for management of obesity. (elsevier.com)
  • We evaluated the safety of T-AG17 and its effects on physiological and molecular metabolic parameters including hormonal profile, glucose levels, adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy in a diet-induced obesity model using C57BL/6 mice. (deepdyve.com)
  • Therefore, identifying During early development, mesenchymal stem cells therapeutic targets to treat the metabolic failures associated differentiate into chondrocytes, osteoblasts, myoblasts with obesity could reduce or prevent the development of and adipocytes [3]. (deepdyve.com)
  • This study presents a new model for research into the induction of beige adipocytes from aWAT in vivo, which, when combined with models where beige adipocytes are induced from sWAT, provides insight into therapeutic approaches for combating obesity-related diseases in humans. (sciencemag.org)
  • A 2014 study showed that tofacitinib treatment was able to convert white fat tissues into more metabolically active brown fat, suggesting it may have potential applications in the treatment of obesity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visceral adiposity confers significant risk for developing metabolic disease in obesity whereas preferential expansion of subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT) appears protective. (elsevier.com)
  • These data indicate that beneficial visceral WAT browning can be engineered by directing visceral white adipocyte precursors to a thermogenic adipocyte fate, and suggest a novel strategy to combat insulin resistance in obesity. (elsevier.com)
  • We hypothesize that adipocyte-derived angiotensin II mediates obesity-induced increases in systolic blood pressure in male high fat-fed C57BL/6 mice. (ahajournals.org)
  • Adipocyte angiotensinogen deficiency had no effect on diet-induced obesity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Excess energy is mainly stored in white adipose tissue and leads to obesity. (dife.de)
  • The sub-project examines the influence of adipocyte accumulation in the bone marrow: yellow bone marrow, rich in adipocytes, develops with age, but also with obesity and other metabolic diseases. (dife.de)
  • We aim to induce this transformation in the subcutaneous white adipose tissue for the treatment of obesity and obesity-related metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. (thenextweb.com)
  • Importantly, the CNS GLP-1 system loses the capacity to modulate adipocyte metabolism in obese states, suggesting an obesity-induced adipocyte resistance to CNS GLP-1. (jneurosci.org)
  • In obesity, adipocyte hypertrophy and proinflammatory responses are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance in adipose tissue. (asm.org)
  • Together, our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that adipocyte hypertrophy alone may be crucial in causing insulin resistance in obesity. (asm.org)
  • In obesity, adipose tissue expands as a result of increases in adipocyte size (hypertrophy) and adipocyte number (hyperplasia) and actively modulates the population of immune cells ( 3 , 4 ). (asm.org)
  • Although, adenosine activating its receptors (A 1 , A 2A , A 2B and A 3 ) is able to differentially modulate the function of adipocytes and macrophages, in order to avoid the reduction of insulin sensitivity and generate an anti-inflammatory state in subject with obesity. (elsevier.es)
  • When they knocked out the PRDM16 gene in mice, beige adipocytes no longer functioned properly, and the animals developed obesity, insulin resistance, and fatty liver. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Gene expression and metabolic profiling demonstrate that the Tbx15 Hi preadipocyte and adipocyte subpopulations of cells are highly glycolytic, whereas Tbx15 Low preadipocytes and adipocytes in the same depot are more oxidative and less glycolytic. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Accumulation of visceral white adipose tissue (WAT) is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of metabolic disease, whereas subcutaneous WAT may be protective against the development of metabolic disorders ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Metabolic profiling demonstrates that these Tbx15 Hi preadipocytes and adipocytes are highly glycolytic, whereas Tbx15 Low preadipocytes and adipocytes are more oxidative. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We therefore investigated whether the metabolic risk of visceral vs peripheral fat coincides with a difference in mitochondrial capacity of white adipocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Therefore, the limited bioenergetic performance combined with the proportionally higher generation of reactive oxygen species of visceral adipocytes could be seen as a candidate mechanism mediating the elevated metabolic risk associated with this fat depot. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Thus stimulating the development of beige adipocytes in WAT, so called 'browning', might reduce adverse effects of WAT and could help to improve metabolic health. (nature.com)
  • Taken together, our results may link the reported health benefits of the selected bioactives on metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, hypertension and dyslipidemia to effects on white adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipokines secreted from white adipose tissue play a role in metabolic crosstalk and homeostasis, whereas the brown adipose secretome is less explored. (regionh.dk)
  • The aim of this study was to confirm BMP7-derived human adipocytes as a relevant in vitro model of human beige adipocyte by verifying the cellular lineage and metabolic activity. (springer.com)
  • By confirming the cellular identity and metabolic activity, this BMP7-induced human beige adipocytes from h ASC should aid in the discovery and assessment of bioactive molecules to promote adaptive thermogenesis. (springer.com)
  • GB produces metabolically favorable changes in differentiating adipocytes, mature adipocytes, and macrophages in vitro, suggesting its potential use as a dietary supplement or nutraceutical to support metabolic health and resiliency. (mdpi.com)
  • Browning is the phenomenon referred as the white-to-brown metabolic conversion in human adipocytes, in which white adipocytes are conferred brown-like metabolic activity: elevated UCP1 expression and increased mitochondrial activity, therefore being a huge therapeutic target to treat metabolic disorders. (gatech.edu)
  • What is the role of the adipocyte mineralocorticoid receptor in the metabolic syndrome? (springer.com)
  • We suggest that the substantial increase in the resting metabolic rate induced by CL 316,243 occurs in brown adipocytes in both BAT and WAT. (qxmd.com)
  • Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • article{Bordicchia2016InsulinglucoseIN, title={Insulin/glucose induces natriuretic peptide clearance receptor in human adipocytes: a metabolic link with the cardiac natriuretic pathway. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Cre drivers that selectively target only brown adipocyte, subcutaneous white adipocyte, or visceral white adipocyte precursors would have significant value because they could be used to selectively study individual depots without impacting the adipocyte precursors or intrinsic metabolic properties of the other depots. (umassmed.edu)
  • Brown and white adipose tissue (BAT and WAT, respectively) have different physiological roles in mammals and can be distinguished by their appearance and metabolic features ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Different from white adipocytes that store fat, the brown or beige adipocytes are considered a 'metabolic sink' for fat, glucose and other metabolites," Wang said. (thenextweb.com)
  • Notably, the findings suggested that the browning of white AT (WAT) may be influenced to attain positive therapeutic outcomes in age-dependent IR and other metabolic complications. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • In this review we propose that adenosine could be a key element in the development of new strategies for limit lipoinflammation and regulate metabolic homeostasis through modulation of adipocyte-macrophage dialog. (elsevier.es)
  • Hypoxia-induced augmentation of lactate production may also stimulate the "browning" of white fat depots through recruitment of UCP1 and the development of brite adipocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this review, we have highlighted the role of adrenoceptor subtypes in white, brown, and brite adipocytes in both rodents and humans and have included detailed analysis of adrenoceptor expression in human adipose tissue and clonally derived adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Beige/brite adipocytes are induced within white adipose tissues (WAT) and, when activated, consume glucose and fatty acids to produce heat. (elifesciences.org)
  • Furthermore in a white adipocyte cell line, the markers of BRITE adipocytes, Tbx1, CD137, Tmem26, Cited1, and Epsti1 were repressed in the presence of RIP140 as was Prdm16. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Scientists are investigating how beige/brite adipocytes develop and how they interact with other fat cells. (promocell.com)
  • Differentiated HIB1B brown adipocytes treated with serotonin had reduced levels of the thermogenic markers uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) and increased levels of UCP2. (ovid.com)
  • Resveratrol significantly increased mRNA and/or protein expression of brown adipocyte markers, including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), PR domain-containing 16, cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector A, elongation of very long-chain fatty acids protein 3, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α, cytochrome c and pyruvate dehydrogenase, in differentiated iWAT stromal vascular cells (SVCs), suggesting that resveratrol induced brown-like adipocyte formation in vitro . (nature.com)
  • Resveratrol also induced beige adipogenesis in vivo along with the appearance of multiocular adipocytes, increased UCP1 expression and enhanced fatty acid oxidation. (nature.com)
  • Brown adipocytes are uniquely characterized by the expression of uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1). (frontiersin.org)
  • The results indicated a remarkable increase in the lipid/protein ratio, accompanied with a decrease of UCP1 protein content which might be due to the transdifferentiation of brown adipocytes to white adipocytes in obese groups. (rsc.org)
  • Regarding eWAT, CL316243 and OEA treatment elevated levels of the thermogenic factors PPARα and UCP1, reduced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, and promoted brown-like features in the white adipocytes: the mitochondrial ( Cox4i1 , Cox4i2 ) and BAT ( Fgf21 , Prdm16 ) genes were overexpressed in eWAT. (biologists.org)
  • In addition, activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages attenuated UCP1 induction and mitochondrial respiration in cultures of primary adipocytes, while the absence of NLRP3 protected UCP1 in adipocytes. (springer.com)
  • Our results showed that exposure of h ASC to human BMP7 was associated with significant escalation of (1) UCP1 gene expression, a signature gene of brown adipocytes, (2) beige specific marker gene expression (i.e. (springer.com)
  • Here we show by analysis of Ucp1, a gene which is typically expressed in brown but not white adipocytes, that RIP140 is essential for both DNA and histone methylation to maintain gene repression. (mdx.ac.uk)
  • A screening platform for adipocyte browning was set to identify the induction of UCP1 activation, using a human pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived adipocyte model. (gatech.edu)
  • As a browning index, UCP1 expression was monitored by UCP1 mRNA capture plates followed by branched DNA ( bDNA ) amplification, and expression of fatty acid binding protein 4 ( FABP4 ), an adipocyte-specific gene served as an internal control to eliminate anti- and pro-adipogenic compounds not specific to UCP1 . (gatech.edu)
  • x axis: ​UCP1 mRNA level as an indicator of adipocyte browning, y axis: ​FABP4 mRNA as an indicator of general adipogenesis. (gatech.edu)
  • and ​R406 increase ​UCP1 expression in human primary adipocytes. (gatech.edu)
  • Activation of beige adipocyte thermogenesis requires the induction of numerous thermogenic and mitochondrial genes such as uncoupling protein 1 ( Ucp1 ) ( Cannon and Nedergaard, 2004 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • ERRγ enhances UCP1 expression and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • Gene and protein expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), a thermogenic protein, was up-regulated in Prip -KO brown adipocytes in thermoneutral or cold environments. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These phenotypes were caused by the promotion of lipolysis in Prip -KO brown adipocytes, which is triggered by up-regulation of phosphorylation of the lipolysis-related proteins hormone-sensitive lipase and perilipin, followed by activation of UCP1 and/or up-regulation of thermogenesis-related genes ( e.g. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results indicate that PRIP negatively regulates UCP1-mediated thermogenesis in brown adipocytes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Moreover, CD1377 knock-out mice showed elevated levels of thermogenic markers, including UCP1, increased numbers of beige adipocyte precursors, and expanded UCP1-expressing cell clusters in inguinal WAT after chronic cold exposure. (carlosibanezlab.se)
  • We performed high-sensitivity mass-spectrometry-based proteomics on the cell media of human adipocytes derived from the supraclavicular brown adipose and from the subcutaneous white adipose depots of adult humans. (regionh.dk)
  • In conclusion, we report substantial differences between the secretomes of brown and white human adipocytes and identify novel candidate batokines that can be important regulators of human metabolism. (regionh.dk)
  • A cell line of mature human adipocytes was incubated with 50 μ g/mL lutein for 24 and 48 h, whereafter FD mRNA and protein expression were measured. (hindawi.com)
  • Additionally, KO of dicer in cultured brown preadipocytes promoted a white adipocyte-like phenotype and reduced expression of several miRNAs. (nih.gov)
  • Conclusion: ZFP36 links autophagy to the determination of mature adipocyte phenotype. (qscience.com)
  • The unique transcriptional regulators of the primary brown adipocyte phenotype are unknown, limiting our ability to promote brown adipogenesis over white. (elsevier.com)
  • We previously reported that Prip knock-out (KO) mice exhibit a lean phenotype with a small amount of white adipose tissue. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the resting phase, they resemble white adipocytes, but upon cold stimulation, they acquire a phenotype similar to that of brown adipocytes along with the thermogenic capacities of such cells ( Sidossis and Kajimura, 2015 ). (promocell.com)
  • Immortalized interscapular brown preadipocytes of dicer fl/fl mice were transduced with adenoviruses harboring GFP (Lox) or Cre recombinase (dicer KO, denoted in the figure as KO), and 4 days later (day 0, D0), cells were differentiated in vitro into adipocytes (D8). (nih.gov)
  • An in vitro model was used in which 3T3-L1 adipocytes were preloaded with palmitate (PA) to generate artificial hypertrophy mature adipocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • Using in vitro and in vivo models, we find that adipocytes increase proliferation and invasion of adjacent melanoma cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Thus fMSCs represent a useful in vitro model for human adipogenesis, and provide opportunities to study the stages prior to commitment to the adipocyte lineage. (qxmd.com)
  • Researchers have developed a number of in vitro cell culture models to elucidate the details of differential gene regulation, and this approach has been used to characterize adipocytes-cells that store energy in the form of fat-for close to two decades. (elifesciences.org)
  • Here, we hypothesized that supplementation with the insulin inhibitor and mitochondrial uncoupler, Tyrphostin (T-AG17), in vitro and in vivo inhibits adipogenesis and adipocyte hypertrophy. (deepdyve.com)
  • In this new paper, we report that CD137, a cell surface protein used in several studies as a marker for beige adipocytes, is detectable at the protein in beige adipocytes in vivo or in vitro, and its expression is not upregulated by adrenergic stimulation or cold exposure, as expected for a beige cell marker. (carlosibanezlab.se)
  • Ectopic expression of TAF7L in myoblasts reprograms these muscle precursors into adipocytes upon induction. (elifesciences.org)
  • Beige adipocytes can be induced from white adipocytes and precursors upon stimulation by cold temperatures and act like brown adipocytes to increase energy expenditure. (sciencemag.org)
  • While the cold effect in part may be mediated by IL-4 and its receptor IL-4Ra in the adipocyte precursors, in mature adipose cells a reduction in the IL4Ra is observed and probably this effect may include diverse mediators, including IL-33 and Met-enkephalin [47, 48]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Primary mouse brown adipocyte precursors were infected with adenovirus expressing a shRNA directed against PRDM16 to knock-down its expression. (upenn.edu)
  • Furthermore, overexpression of Tbx15 is sufficient to reduce oxidative and increase glycolytic metabolism in cultured adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, Tbx15 differentially regulates oxidative and glycolytic metabolism within subpopulations of white adipocytes and preadipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Finally, we demonstrate that overexpression of Tbx15 is sufficient to drive an increase in glycolytic metabolism in cultured adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, Tbx15 differentially regulates metabolism in white adipocytes and leads to a functional heterogeneity in white fat cells similar to that found among muscle fibers. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Serotonin leads to whitening of brown adipocytes, shifting their metabolism to fat accumulation rather than oxidation. (ovid.com)
  • WAT mainly stores energy in the form of lipids (triglycerides) in unilocular white adipocytes and secretes a number of adipokines and other factors, such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6, to regulate energy metabolism and immune function. (nature.com)
  • WAT is primarily composed of white adipocytes involved in the modulation of lipid metabolism as well as in the storage of fatty acids. (biochemj.org)
  • With the overall aim to contribute to better understanding of the mechanisms of selected bioactive nutrients on fat metabolism, we investigated their role on human white adipocyte function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adrenoceptors play an important role in adipose tissue biology and physiology that includes regulating the synthesis and storage of triglycerides (lipogenesis), the breakdown of stored triglycerides (lipolysis), thermogenesis (heat production), glucose metabolism, and the secretion of adipocyte-derived hormones that can control whole-body energy homeostasis. (diva-portal.org)
  • White adipose (fat) tissues regulate metabolism, reproduction, and life span. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Consumption of dietary fat in obese individuals leads to storage in white adipose tissue (WAT) as opposed to its metabolism in brown adipose (BAT);consequently, enhancement of BAT mass has the potential to diminish WAT mass and reduce the incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. (grantome.com)
  • Additionally, adipocytes directly transfer lipids to melanoma cells, which alters tumor cell metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Such CNS control of adipocyte metabolism was found to depend partially on a functional sympathetic nervous system. (jneurosci.org)
  • Furthermore, the effects of CNS GLP-1 on adipocyte metabolism were blunted in diet-induced obese mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • The CNS GLP-1 system decreases fat storage via direct modulation of adipocyte metabolism. (jneurosci.org)
  • This CNS GLP-1 control of adipocyte lipid metabolism appears to be mediated at least in part by the sympathetic nervous system and is independent of parallel changes in food intake and body weight. (jneurosci.org)
  • Specific circuits in the CNS have recently been found to be directly connected to WAT via the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), thereby providing an avenue for a direct CNS influence on adipocyte metabolism. (jneurosci.org)
  • Brown adipocytes can defend body temperature by converting the chemical energy in glucose and triglycerides into heat and may also make significant contributions to adult metabolism. (rockefeller.edu)
  • In white fat, enrichment induced the upregulation of the brown fat cell fate determining gene Prdm16, brown fat-specific markers, and genes involved in thermogenesis and β-adrenergic signaling. (nih.gov)
  • We report that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide repressed white adipocyte browning in response to β3-adrenergic receptor activation and caused ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction, while genetic deletion of TLR4 protected mitochondrial function and thermogenesis. (springer.com)
  • The effect of NLRP3 inflammasome activation on browning was mediated by IL-1β signaling, as blocking IL-1 receptor in adipocytes protected thermogenesis. (springer.com)
  • We also report that IL-1β interferes with thermogenesis via oxidative stress stimulation and mitochondrial dysfunction as we observed a statistically significant increase in ROS production, decrease in SOD enzyme activity, and increase in mitochondrial depolarization in adipocytes treated with IL-1β. (springer.com)
  • The ability to defend core body temperature in response to cold environments is, in part, mediated by non-shivering thermogenesis, through the recruitment and activation of brown and beige/brite (brown-in-white) adipose tissues ( Cannon and Nedergaard, 2004 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Tbx15 is also differentially expressed among white adipose tissue (WAT) in different body depots. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In addition, there is accumulating evidence to support the concept of an alteration in energy balance through acquisition of brown fat features in traditional white fat depots. (frontiersin.org)
  • Relative hypoxia has been shown to develop in white adipose tissue depots of different types of obese mouse (genetic, dietary), and this leads to substantial changes in white adipocyte function. (frontiersin.org)
  • In some conditions, certain white adipose tissue (WAT) depots are readily convertible to a ''brown-like'' state, which is associated with weight loss. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Analysis of their adipose tissue morphology revealed increases in both adipocyte size and number in most depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two superficial depots are the paired inguinal depots, which are found anterior to the upper segment of the hind limbs (underneath the skin) and the subscapular depots, paired medial mixtures of brown adipose tissue adjacent to regions of white adipose tissue, which are found under the skin between the dorsal crests of the scapulae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Coppari said the idea of a drug that selectively could target neurons controlling specific fat depots - and that could trigger the remodeling of white fat into brown fat - has high potential. (medindia.net)
  • We investigated the role of RIP140 in conditionally immortal preadipocyte cell lines prepared from white or brown fat depots. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Zfp423 loxP/loxP) , results in the accumulation of beige-like thermogenic adipocytes within multiple visceral adipose depots. (elsevier.com)
  • Published in 1981: The main topic of the book is the growth of white adipose tissue as a whole as well as the level of the local fat depots. (routledge.com)
  • White adipose tissue is found in the subcutaneous layer and in distinct intra-abdominal depots. (upenn.edu)
  • In humans, three types of adipose depots exist, mainly found under the skin and inside the abdomen: white, brown, and beige or brite adipose tissue. (promocell.com)
  • Visceral fat is composed of several adipose depots, including mesenteric, epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT), and perirenal depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD137 and TMEM26), (3) glucose and fatty acid uptake, and (4) basal and cAMP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate compared to white adipocyte control. (springer.com)
  • Deletion of Rab GAP AS160 modifies glucose uptake and GLUT4 translocation in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and impairs glucose homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • Tight control of glucose uptake in skeletal muscles and adipocytes is crucial to glucose homeostasis and is mediated by regulating glucose transporter GLUT4 subcellular distribution. (nih.gov)
  • To determine AS160 function in GLUT4 trafficking in primary skeletal muscles and adipocytes and investigate its role in glucose homeostasis, we characterized AS160 knockout (AS160(-/-)) mice. (nih.gov)
  • We observed increased and normal basal glucose uptake in isolated AS160(-/-) adipocytes and soleus, respectively, while insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was impaired and GLUT4 expression decreased in both. (nih.gov)
  • Concomitantly, relative levels of cell surface-exposed GLUT4, determined with a glucose transporter photoaffinity label, were increased in AS160(-/-) adipocytes and normal in AS160(-/-) soleus under basal conditions. (nih.gov)
  • These observations suggest that AS160 is essential for GLUT4 intracellular retention and regulation of glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscles in which it is normally expressed. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to their well-established function as safe storage for lipids, adipocytes are now understood to be indispensable endocrine regulators of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis [ 5 , 6 ], in large part through their capacity to synthesize and secrete adiponectin, which promotes insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle and liver, thereby mediating whole-body glucose homeostasis [ 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • To perform thermogenic function, beige adipocytes, like classical brown adipocytes, take up substantial amounts of glucose and free fatty acids and convert these molecules into heat rather than ATP. (elifesciences.org)
  • These results support a role for PKBβ in insulin-stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes. (asm.org)
  • Insulin-dependent glucose influx in skeletal muscle and adipocytes is believed to rely largely on GLUT4, but this has not been confirmed directly. (springer.com)
  • Indinavir (up to 100 µmol/l) was added to the glucose transport solution after insulin stimulation of wild-type L6 muscle cells, L6 cells over-expressing either GLUT4myc or GLUT1myc, 3T3-L1 adipocytes, isolated mouse brown or white adipocytes, and isolated mouse muscle preparations. (springer.com)
  • In isolated soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles, primary white and brown adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was inhibited 70 to 80% by indinavir. (springer.com)
  • The effect of indinavir on glucose uptake was variable in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, averaging 45% and 67% inhibition of basal and maximally insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Indinavir is a useful tool to assess different functional contributions of GLUT4 to glucose uptake in common models of skeletal muscle and adipocytes. (springer.com)
  • The glucose transporter GLUT4 is generally thought to be the major contributor to insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes and skeletal muscle, based on its restricted tissue distribution and its capacity to translocate from intracellular pools to the cell surface in response to insulin. (springer.com)
  • In primary adipocytes, the inhibitory effect of indinavir on glucose uptake was further shown to be reversible and non-competitive [ 13 ]. (springer.com)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) is key in the regulation of both glucose and lipid homeostasis, and adipocytes contain specific molecules and pathways that can rapidly switch between favoring lipid storage or lipid mobilization. (jneurosci.org)
  • Regardless of adipocyte inflammation, hypertrophic adipocytes with large and unilocular lipid droplets exhibited impaired insulin-dependent glucose uptake, associated with defects in GLUT4 trafficking to the plasma membrane. (asm.org)
  • Consistently, knockdown of FGF9 in SVF cells by using lentiviral shRNA increased thermogenic genes in differentiated beige adipocytes. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Over time, beige adipocytes gain a white adipocyte morphology and lose their thermogenic activity. (pnas.org)
  • In particular, with time, thermogenic-competent beige adipocytes progressively gain a white adipocyte morphology. (pnas.org)
  • Recent studies reported that brown-like (beige) adipocytes could be a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell and are induced from WAT by exposure to cold and other stimuli ( 2 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we investigated the physiological consequences of browning murine visceral WAT by selective genetic ablation of Zfp423, a transcriptional suppressor of the adipocyte thermogenic program. (elsevier.com)
  • Limited mitochondrial capacity of visceral versus subcutaneous white adipocytes in male C57BL/6N mice. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We assessed bioenergetic parameters of subcutaneous inguinal and visceral epididymal white adipocytes from male C57BL/6N mice employing a comprehensive respirometry setup of intact and permeabilized adipocytes as well as isolated mitochondria. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Here, we demonstrated that mice with a fat-specific KO of dicer develop a form of lipodystrophy that is characterized by loss of intra-abdominal and subcutaneous white fat, severe insulin resistance, and enlargement and "whitening" of interscapular brown fat. (nih.gov)
  • We found that EBF2 is required for beige adipocyte development in mice. (nih.gov)
  • Transgenic expression of Ebf2 in adipose tissues robustly stimulated beige adipocyte development in the WAT of mice, even while housed at thermoneutrality. (nih.gov)
  • We have recently shown that lack of MRTF-A (the transcriptional coactivator of serum response factor, SRF), in mice leads to recruitment of brown-like (beige) adipocytes to WAT. (grantome.com)
  • In Aim 3, we will determine the effect of MRTF-A deficiency on browning of white adipose tissue and energy balance in mice. (grantome.com)
  • ligand class of insulin- sensitizers induces BAT functions in white adipocytes in mice and in culture. (grantome.com)
  • on browning of white adipose tissue and energy expenditure in mice. (grantome.com)
  • show that drugs that target β3 adrenergic receptors cause white fat cells in mice to change into beige fat cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • This study shows relative changes in brown and white adipose tissues of mice due to consumption of high-fat diet. (syr.edu)
  • Maintaining adipocyte-specific expression of Lsd1 in transgenic mice preserves the pool of beige adipocytes in old mice. (pnas.org)
  • Vice versa, using GFP reporter mice, we traced the fate of beige adipocytes and showed that adipocyte-specific loss of Lsd1 results in a premature beige-to-white adipocyte transition in vivo. (pnas.org)
  • Maintenance of beige adipocytes is mediated by the Lsd1 target gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara) and pharmacological activation of Ppara rescues the loss of beige adipocytes in Lsd1-KO mice. (pnas.org)
  • Here, we show that the majority of the precursor and mature subcutaneous white adipocytes in adult C57Bl/6 mice are labeled by Prx1-Cre. (umassmed.edu)
  • 24 or 48 h) on gene expression using real-time RT-PCR in 3 distinct models: N-1 hypothalamic neurons, 3T3-L1 adipocytes and male CD-1 mice. (karger.com)
  • Systolic blood pressure was measured by radiotelemetry during week 16 of low-fat or high-fat feeding in Agt fl/fl and adipocyte angiotensinogen-deficient mice ( Agt aP2 ). (ahajournals.org)
  • To test the hypothesis that the sympathetic nervous system may be responsible for informing adipocytes about changes in CNS GLP-1 tone, we have performed direct recording of sympathetic nerve activity combined with experiments in genetically manipulated mice lacking β-adrenergic receptors. (jneurosci.org)
  • Intracerebroventricular infusion of GLP-1 in mice directly and potently decreases lipid storage in white adipose tissue. (jneurosci.org)
  • In conditions of energy excess, the white adipose tissue accumulates fat in the form of triglycerides, whilst brown adipose tissue has the potential stimulate energy expenditure by dissipation of fat to produce heat and maintain body temperature. (frontiersin.org)
  • White adipocytes store energy (e.g., triglycerides), whereas brown adipocytes consume energy ( 5 , 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The expansion of adipose tissue in obese individuals is a direct cause of these diseases due to an excessive accumulation of triglycerides (TGs) within white adipose (WAT) adipocytes. (grantome.com)
  • In visceral fat, white adipocytes warehouse triglycerides in large droplets. (rockefeller.edu)
  • In the current study, using three independent methods, we show that even within a single WAT depot, high Tbx15 expression is restricted to a subset of preadipocytes and mature white adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the current study, we show that even within a single WAT depot, the adipocytes and preadipocytes are heterogeneous with high Tbx15 expression in only a subset of cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Strikingly, non-differentiated HIB1B preadipocytes incubated with serotonin failed to differentiate into brown adipocytes. (ovid.com)
  • [1] In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells including preadipocytes , fibroblasts , vascular endothelial cells and a variety of immune cells such as adipose tissue macrophages . (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present work, we used microarray analysis strategies to study primary preadipocytes, and we made the striking discovery that brown preadipocytes demonstrate a myogenic transcriptional signature, whereas both brown and white primary preadipocytes demonstrate signatures distinct from those found in immortalized adipogenic models. (elsevier.com)
  • In contrast to brown preadipocytes or skeletal muscle cells, white preadipocytes express Tcf21, a transcription factor that has been shown to suppress myogenesis and nuclear receptor activity. (elsevier.com)
  • Preadipocytes are specialized fibroblast-like cells contained in white and brown fat tissues that differentiate into mature fat storing adipocytes in response to hormonal cues. (upenn.edu)
  • Functionally, WAT is subdivided into a stromal vascular fraction, which is composed of lymphocytes, progenitor and endothelial cells, preadipocytes and fibroblasts, and the adipocyte fraction, which primarily contains mature adipocytes ( 17 , 18 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Adipocytes are not the only components of adipose tissue, which is also made of connective tissue and other cells such as preadipocytes, macrophages, fibroblasts, endothelial cells and stem cells. (promocell.com)
  • RNA sequencing followed by whole genome-wide expression analysis shows that beige adipocytes induced from bat aWAT, rather than sWAT, have molecular signatures resembling those of mouse sWAT-induced beige adipocytes and exhibit dynamic profiles similar to those of classical brown adipocytes. (sciencemag.org)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that pre-exposure of the stromal vascular (SV) fraction of primary human adipogenic precursor cells ( h ASC) to BMP7 would convert metabolically active brown adipocytes. (springer.com)
  • With increasing age, the body's ability to form metabolically active brown adipocytes decreases, which causes white adipocytes to accumulate. (dife.de)
  • However, PET scans have identified biologically active brown adipocytes in various locations under the skin in the supraclavicular region and around blood vessels and solid organs in adults ( Sacks and Symonds, 2013 ). (promocell.com)
  • Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note 1: Adipose tissue defies most criteria for ct, but frequently arises from fibroblasts or adventital cells resembling CT fibroblasts, and adipocytes are invested in capillaries, hence, in ct. (pitt.edu)
  • A switch in growth factor response was also observed when 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were differentiated into adipocytes. (asm.org)
  • While PDGF was more efficacious than insulin in stimulating PKB phosphorylation in fibroblasts, PDGF did not stimulate PKBβ phosphorylation to any significant extent in adipocytes, as assessed by several methods. (asm.org)
  • Adipocytes develop from adipoblasts, which derive from fibroblasts. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It has recently been shown that serotonin leads to fat accumulation in white adipose tissue (WAT). (ovid.com)
  • The number and activity of brown adipocytes are linked to the ability of mammals to resist body fat accumulation. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • on insulin signaling, we hypothesized that T-AG17 might Drugs that act on mitochondria have been used to promote inhibition of adipogenesis and/or adipocyte hyper- combat fat accumulation by forcing cells to use stored trophy. (deepdyve.com)
  • Mitochondrial oxphos uncouplers create a futile decreases lipid accumulation in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell cycle of glyceride and fatty acid oxidation without gener- line induced by insulin and 2) promotes adipocyte apop- ating adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (deepdyve.com)
  • Our hypothesis is that different physiological factors such as nutrition and specific immune cell populations cause the accumulation of advantageous or disadvantageous bone marrow adipocytes. (dife.de)
  • At the same time, altered white adipocyte mitochondrial bioenergetics has been implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inguinal adipocytes clearly featured a higher respiratory capacity attributable to increased mitochondrial respiratory chain content compared with epididymal adipocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 1 week reduced white adipocyte mitochondrial capacity, with stronger effects in epididymal when compared with inguinal adipocytes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Mitochondrial toxicity of indinavir, stavudine and zidovudine involves multiple cellular targets in white and brown adipocytes. (inserm.fr)
  • RESULTS: In both cell types, all the treatments induced a severe defect of adipogenesis (low lipid content and decreased markers of adipogenic maturation: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [PPAR]gamma2 and aP2 but also uncoupling protein 1 in brown adipocytes) as well as altered mitochondrial function (decreased respiration rate and increased mitochondrial mass). (inserm.fr)
  • With all the treatments, white adipocytes showed a decrease in the expression of mitochondrial and nuclear-DNA-encoded respiratory chain subunits (cytochrome c oxidase [CytOx]2 and CytOx4), whereas brown adipocytes maintained normal expression in accordance with their increase of the transcriptional factors of mitochondrial biogenesis nuclear respiratory factor 1 and PPARgamma coactivator (PGC)1-related cofactor PRC, but not PGC1alpha. (inserm.fr)
  • Brown adipocytes express thermogenin (UCP-1), which catalyzes the re-entry of protons into the matrix, uncoupling the mitochondrial respiratory chain, and consequently reducing the ATP synthesis and generating heat. (gatech.edu)
  • Here, we investigated the effect of pattern recognition receptors (PRR) activation in macrophages, especially the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and Nod-like receptor 3 (NLRP3), on white adipocyte browning. (springer.com)
  • Breast milk AKGs are metabolized by adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) to platelet-activating factor (PAF), which ultimately activates IL-6/STAT3 signaling in adipocytes and triggers BeAT development in the infant. (jci.org)
  • Circulating APOE is associated with chylomicron and Intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDLs) and is mostly produced by the liver, although other tissues and cells, including adrenal gland, macrophages, vascular smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes, are also known to synthesize and secrete APOE. (jax.org)
  • The lipoinflammation-associated mechanisms are related to the function of adipocytes and macrophages present in the adipose tissue. (elsevier.es)
  • Resveratrol induces brown-like adipocyte formation in iWAT via AMPKα1 activation and suggest that its beneficial antiobesity effects may be partly due to the browning of WAT and, as a consequence, increased oxygen consumption. (nature.com)
  • Our genetic and pharmacologic data suggest a mechanism whereby induction of hypothalamic BDNF expression in response to environmental stimuli leads to selective sympathoneural modulation of white fat to induce "browning" and increased energy dissipation. (nih.gov)
  • This study shows that adipose-derived FGF9 play as an inhibitory role in the browning of white adipocytes. (bioscientifica.com)
  • These results indicate that CD137 functions as a negative regulator of "browning" in white adipose tissue, and call into question the use of this protein as a functional marker for beige adipocytes. (carlosibanezlab.se)
  • In a recent animal study, using intravenous injection, the nanoparticles showed significant browning of white fat. (thenextweb.com)
  • There are many transcriptional regulators, including PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) coactivator 1α (PGC1α), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α and PPARγ, as well as various secreted mediators, such as bone morphogenetic protein 7, Irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, atrial and brain natriuretic peptides, that can induce the formation of brown-like adipocytes. (nature.com)
  • Necessity tests, using mature adipocyte-specific Prdm16 deletion strategies, demonstrated that adipocytes are required and are predominant source to generate Adrb3 -induced, but not cold-induced, beige adipocytes. (elifesciences.org)
  • Therefore, PRDM16 is required in brown adipocytes to suppress skeletal muscle development. (upenn.edu)
  • These data suggest that PRDM16 controls brown adipocyte versus skeletal muscle cell fate. (upenn.edu)
  • White fat comprises of large unilocular lipid-containing adipocytes with few mitochondria. (frontiersin.org)
  • White fat cells contain a single large lipid droplet surrounded by a layer of cytoplasm , and are known as unilocular. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marrow adipocytes, are unilocular like white fat cells, however both brown and white fat cells are derived from mesenchymal stem cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments in our laboratory are currently devoted to developing CRISPR- and siRNA-based delivery particles that can beneficially alter gene expression in adipocytes, hepatocytes and other cell types. (umassmed.edu)
  • These findings indicated that FPP might function as an endogenous PPARγ agonist and regulate gene expression in adipocytes. (biochemj.org)
  • Consistent with the molecular changes, in HFD but not in ND rats, histological and immunohistochemistry-based analyses of WAT demonstrated the presence of small multilocular cells staining positively for uncoupling protein 1, indicating the emergence of brown-like adipocytes in WAT. (biomedsearch.com)
  • White adipocytes, the signature cell of WAT, are major secretory cells, releasing a multiplicity of lipid and protein moieties additional to the fatty acids mobilized by lipolysis ( 8 , 10 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Each compound, alone or together with DHA, suppressed basal adipocyte lipolysis compared to control treated cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White fat progenitor cells reside in the adipose vasculature. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Multilocular fat cells in WAT of CL-316243-treated rats derive directly from white adipocytes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Can we identify and modulate molecular mechanisms that switch adipocytes from storing triglyceride to cells that oxidize fat, expend energy and secrete beneficial factors? (umassmed.edu)
  • Adrb 1 activation stimulates WAT resident perivascular ( Acta2 +) cells to form cold-induced beige adipocytes. (elifesciences.org)
  • White fat cells store energy. (elifesciences.org)
  • White fat tissue also contains some beige fat cells, which burn fats and sugars to produce heat. (elifesciences.org)
  • Adipocytes , also known as lipocytes and fat cells , are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue , specialized in storing energy as fat . (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis . (wikipedia.org)
  • Illustration depicting white fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white and brown fat, respectively, and comprise two types of fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • White fat cells secrete many proteins acting as adipokines such as resistin , adiponectin , leptin and apelin . (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike white fat cells, these cells have considerable cytoplasm, with several lipid droplets scattered throughout, and are known as multilocular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes, connective tissue , muscle or bone . (wikipedia.org)
  • But blood's extracellular material is not secreted for the most part by blood cells, and blood's white cells are predominantly sequestered and not circulating. (pitt.edu)
  • We further examined the activation of PKB isoforms following treatment of cells with insulin or platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and found that PKBβ is preferentially expressed in both rat and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, whereas PKBα expression is down-regulated in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (asm.org)
  • Adipocyte-derived lipids are transferred to melanoma cells through the FATP/SLC27A family of lipid transporters expressed on the tumor cell surface. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, collectively termed stromal vascular fraction (SVF) of cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigated the ability of fetal mesenchymal stem cells (fMSCs) to differentiate into brown and white adipocytes and compared the expression of a number of marker genes and key regulatory factors. (qxmd.com)
  • After adipogenic induction, some stem cell isolates differentiated into cells resembling brown adipocytes and others into white adipocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • BMP4 and BMP7 induce the white-to-brown transition of primary human adipose stem cells. (qxmd.com)
  • Programming human pluripotent stem cells into white and brown adipocytes. (qxmd.com)
  • p107 is a crucial regulator for determining the adipocyte lineage fate choices of stem cells. (qxmd.com)
  • This suggests that Prx1-Cre-mediated recombination may be useful for making depot-restricted genetic manipulations in subcutaneous white adipocyte precursor cells, particularly when targeting genes with fat-specific functions. (umassmed.edu)
  • However, the idea of having a drug that could selectively affect specific hypothalamic neurons that then control specific branches of the sympathetic nervous system suggests that one could avoid acting on unwanted cells but selectively on those able to burn calories such as brown adipocytes. (medindia.net)
  • 1) White (yellow, or adult) fat cells, which are far more common. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • White fat cells-all 30 billion of them-secrete adiponectin, leptin and resistin, and weigh 13 kg/2 stone/30 lbs. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In contrast to white fat cells, brown fat cells are rich in mitochondria and generate heat. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The Department of Adipocyte Development and Nutrition, supported by the German Research Foundation and the European Research Council , investigates the developmental mechanisms that direct the formation of brown and white adipocytes (fat cells). (dife.de)
  • Both are composed of adipocytes, which are special cells designed to store fat. (thenextweb.com)
  • The system can deliver reservatol directly into the adipose cells, transforming white cells to brown. (thenextweb.com)
  • Brown fat cells come from the middle embryo layer, mesoderm, also the source of myocytes (muscle cells), adipocytes, and chondrocytes (cartilage cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Progenitors of traditional white fat cells and adrenergically induced brown fat do not have the capacity to activate the Myf5 promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through white fat tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • These cells work together to maintain adipocyte integrity and hormonal balance. (promocell.com)
  • White adipocytes are quite large spherical cells with few mitochondria and a single lipid droplet. (promocell.com)
  • white adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue are made of adipocytes, connective tissue, immune cells and stem cells. (promocell.com)
  • Mammals have two morphologically and functionally distinct types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), both of which are involved in energy homeostasis. (nature.com)
  • Recent identification of active brown fat reserves in adult humans has re-stimulated interest in the role of brown adipocytes in energy homeostasis. (frontiersin.org)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) is an organ distributed at several locations in the body and with an essential role in the regulation of energy homeostasis. (biochemj.org)
  • Adipocyte-enriched bone marrow is a determining factor for impaired bone homeostasis and delayed bone healing. (dife.de)
  • white adipocytes not only store fat, but they also produce hormones that regulate energy homeostasis, food intake, and tissue regeneration. (promocell.com)
  • White adipocyte tissue also has endocrine functions and releases hormones such as leptin, adiponectin, fatty acids, and TNF-α that regulate nutrient homeostasis, food intake, inflammation, cardiovascular activity, and tissue regeneration ( Medina-Gómez, 2016 ). (promocell.com)
  • In contrast, RIP140 knockout sc white adipose tissue (WAT) shows increased numbers of multilocular adipocytes with elevated staining for uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • and ​R406 induce brown-like lipid morphology (arrows) in human primary adipocytes more prominently than ​BMP7. (gatech.edu)
  • He Y, Li Y, Zhao T, Wang Y, Sun C (2013) Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway. (plos.org)
  • Using a combination of cellular, biochemical, genetic and genomic techniques, they show that TAF7L interacts with PPARγ, an important adipocyte transcriptional regulator at enhancer sites on the genome to increase the transcription of genes that are involved in adipogenesis. (elifesciences.org)
  • The current study aims to characterize and compare visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in terms of macromolecular content and investigate transdifferentiation between white and brown adipocytes. (rsc.org)
  • In particular, we report cryo-sectioning of adipose tissues, image acquisition, and different image analysis methods to evaluate dietary induced changes in lipids stored in brown and white adipocytes. (syr.edu)
  • Though subcutaneous tissues are largely composed of adipocytes, the mechanisms by which adipocytes influence melanoma are poorly understood. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Evidence suggests the type of adipocytes within these two tissues is responsible for the dichotomy. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Accordingly, adipocyte-specific increase of Lsd1 expression is sufficient to rescue the age-related transition of beige adipocytes to white adipocytes in vivo, whereas loss of Lsd1 precipitates it. (pnas.org)
  • Highly selective in vivo labeling of subcutaneous white adipocyte prec" by Joan Sanchez-Gurmaches, Wen-Yu Hsiao et al. (umassmed.edu)
  • In biology, adipose tissue , body fat , or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes . (wikipedia.org)
  • These data demonstrate that stromal adipocytes can drive melanoma progression through FATP lipid transporters and represent a new target aimed at interrupting adipocyte-melanoma cross-talk. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We demonstrate that stromal adipocytes are donors of lipids that mediate melanoma progression. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We provide a mechanism for how stromal adipocytes drive tumor progression and demonstrate a novel microenvironmental therapeutic target. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Here we show that levels of the epigenetic eraser lysine-specific demethylase 1 (Lsd1) decrease in aging inguinal white adipose tissue concomitantly with beige fat cell decline. (pnas.org)
  • Lutein significantly inhibited adipocyte FD mRNA expression and FD protein release into adipocyte culture supernatants. (hindawi.com)
  • Method: The mRNA sequencing data of undifferentiated and differentiated human adipocyte cell lines, including two white adipocyte (WAT) and one brown adipocyte (BAT) were included in our analysis. (qscience.com)
  • Genome-wide mRNA-seq expression profiling and ChIP-seq binding studies confirmed that TAF7L is required for activating adipocyte-specific genes via a dual mechanism wherein it interacts with PPARγ at enhancers and TBP/Pol II at core promoters. (elifesciences.org)
  • Cultured WAT explants from humans and rats and 3T3-F442A adipocytes were rosiglitazone-treated before analyses of PDK2 and PDK4 mRNA and protein. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The lower capacity of mitochondria from epididymal adipocytes was accompanied by an increased generation of reactive oxygen species per oxygen consumed. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a much higher number of (iron-containing) mitochondria, which gives the tissue its color. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has greater variability in lipid droplet size and a greater proportion of lipid droplets to mitochondria than white fat, giving it a light brown appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brown adipocytes are smaller than white ones, contain many mitochondria and several small lipid droplets. (promocell.com)
  • In addition to classic brown adipose tissue (BAT), the formation of brown-like adipocytes called beige adipocytes, within white adipose tissue (WAT), has attracted much attention as a therapeutic target due to its inducible features when stimulated, resulting in the dissipation of extra energy as heat. (elsevier.com)
  • A total of 101 proteins were exclusively quantified in brown adipocytes, and among these was ependymin-related protein 1 (EPDR1). (regionh.dk)
  • To better understand the development of beige adipocytes from mammalian WATs, especially aWAT, we induced beige adipocytes from bat aWAT and mouse sWAT by exposure to cold temperatures and analyzed their molecular signatures. (sciencemag.org)
  • Furthermore, introduction of a dominant negative p85 regulatory subunit into adipocytes significantly impairs insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation either when microinjected ( 31 ) or when overexpressed ( 47 ). (asm.org)
  • malignant fat) develops into beige adipocytes remains obscure, largely because there is a lack of a good animal model for the induction of beige adipocytes from aWAT. (sciencemag.org)
  • on the other hand activates SRF activity by promoting MRTF-A movement into the nucleus, which leads to suppression of adipocyte genes and activation of vascular genes including smooth muscle (SM) actin, SM heavy chain myosin (SM- MHC) and SM22. (grantome.com)
  • In addition, we identified molecular markers that were highly enriched in beige adipocytes and conserved between bat aWAT and mouse sWAT, a set that included the genes Uqcrc1 and Letm1 . (sciencemag.org)
  • In white adipocytes, a large set of brown fat-associated genes was up-regulated in the absence of RIP140. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Microarray analysis of wild-type and RIP140-knockout white fat revealed elevated expression of genes associated with cold-induced expression or high expression in BAT. (warwick.ac.uk)
  • VPA also induced the expression of CEBP αin 3T3-L1 adipocytes , but had no effect on other target genes, and TSA suppressed fiaf and socs-3 .Subsequently, CEBPα was overexpressed (24 h) or silenced using RNAi (24 and 48 h) in N-1 neurons. (karger.com)
  • We have found that breast milk-specific lipid species, so-called alkylglycerol-type (AKG-type) ether lipids, which are absent from infant formula and adult-type diets, maintain beige adipose tissue (BeAT) in the infant and impede the transformation of BeAT into lipid-storing white adipose tissue (WAT). (jci.org)
  • Adipocyte-derived lipids are taken up by FATP proteins that are aberrantly expressed in melanoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Inhibition of SRF activity with a small molecule inhibitor, CCG1423 promotes commitment of MSCs to the adipocyte lineage independent of BMP7. (grantome.com)
  • Studies have shed light into potential molecular mechanisms in the fate determination of pre-adipocytes although the exact lineage of adipocyte is still unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • High-fat diet induces emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue of spontaneously hypertensive rats. (biomedsearch.com)
  • White adipose tissue, which is a major component of total body composition comprising at least 40% of body weight in obese adults, is the principal site of fuel storage and has major additional functions including in particular that of being a key endocrine organ. (frontiersin.org)
  • Hypertrophy of adipocytes is considered a key event associated with a loss of insulin sensitivity in both lean and obese conditions [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Individuals who become obese as adults, rather than as adolescents, have no more adipocytes than they had before. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is largely unknown whether adipocyte hypertrophy per se might be sufficient to provoke insulin resistance in obese adipose tissue. (asm.org)
  • Here, we found that cold-induced beige adipocyte formation requires Adrb 1, not Adrb3 , activation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Adipokines: inflammation and the pleiotropic role of white adipose tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In present study, we examined the activity of rapamycin, a mTOR kinase inhibitor, against endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation in adipocytes. (hindawi.com)
  • In conclusion, rapamycin attenuated PA-induced ER stress/NF κ B pathways to counterbalance adipocytes stress and inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • At the level of adipose tissue, systemic inflammation may be initiated by adipocytes dysfunction [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • At the same time, with increasing age and overweight, there is a mild systemic inflammation, which is also caused by the cytokine release from adipocytes. (dife.de)
  • Here, we demonstrate that lipid-overloaded hypertrophic adipocytes are insulin resistant independent of adipocyte inflammation. (asm.org)
  • Together, these findings indicate the importance of miRNA processing in white and brown adipose tissue determination and provide a potential link between this process and HIV-related lipodystrophy. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, we present evidence for high-fat diet (HFD)-induced emergence of brown-like adipocytes in white adipose tissue (WAT) of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). (biomedsearch.com)
  • In this article, we provide a perspective on the effects of hypoxia on the function of white adipocytes and consider, in particular, whether hypoxia also occurs in brown adipose tissue (BAT). (frontiersin.org)
  • Two different types of adipose tissue including white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) have been widely studied. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) can inhibit feeding and stimulate lipolysis by activating peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα) in white adipose tissue (WAT). (biologists.org)
  • We discuss important considerations when investigating adrenoceptor function in adipose tissue or adipocytes. (diva-portal.org)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) , which stores excess energy and also has a role in regulating satiety through leptin secretion. (gatech.edu)
  • Brown adipose tissue contains lots of tiny lipid (fat) droplets, compared to white adipose tissue, which contains a single drop of lipid. (gatech.edu)
  • We studied the molecular mechanisms responsible for differential expression of PGC-1alpha in HIB1B (BAT) and 3T3-L1 white adipose tissue (WAT) precursor cell lines. (elsevier.com)
  • They are called white fat or white adipose tissue. (sixpackabsguide.com)
  • The two types of adipose tissue are white adipose tissue (WAT), which stores energy, and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which generates body heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The interlinkage between the myocyte and the brown preadipocyte confirms the distinct origin for brown versus white adipose tissue and also represents a plausible explanation as to why brown adipocytes ultimately specialize in lipid catabolism rather than storage, much like oxidative skeletal muscle tissue. (elsevier.com)
  • In mammals, adipose tissue exists as mainly as two different types: white adipose tissue (WAT) 3 and brown adipose tissue (BAT). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Lipolysis and lipases in white adipose tissue - An update. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we report that TAF7L, a paralogue of TFIID subunit TAF7, is enriched in adipocytes and white fat tissue (WAT) in mouse. (elifesciences.org)
  • In addition, the researchers found that SIRT1 must be present in POMC neurons for leptin to stimulate the remodeling of white adipose tissue into brown fat tissue, which "burns" fat to generate heat. (medindia.net)
  • The minor role of RIP140 in brown adipocytes correlates with the similar histology and uncoupling protein 1 and CIDEA staining in knockout compared with wild-type brown adipose tissue (BAT). (warwick.ac.uk)
  • Excess energy is mainly stored in white adipose tissue, resulting in overweight. (dife.de)
  • Brown adipose tissue (in contrast to white adipose tissue) has a remarkable capacity to dissipate energy in the form of heat. (dife.de)
  • White tissue, or white fat, is where energy is stored. (thenextweb.com)
  • Mammals have two main subtypes of adipose tissue, white and brown. (upenn.edu)
  • White adipose tissue is specialized for energy storage, whereas brown adipose expends chemical energy in the form of heat. (upenn.edu)
  • PDC shares the same substrate, i.e., pyruvate, as glyceroneogenesis, a pathway controlling fatty acid release from white adipose tissue (WAT). (biomedsearch.com)
  • Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). (wikipedia.org)
  • white, beige and brown adipocytes look different and mirror their different tasks in the highly plastic adipose tissue. (promocell.com)
  • Until the past decade, researchers thought brown adipose tissue was only active in infants and young children, and that it later transformed into white adipocyte tissue with aging. (promocell.com)
  • Also, excess white adipose tissue increases the risk factor of heart diseases and heart failure. (promocell.com)
  • In rodents, beige adipocytes occur in clusters surrounded by white adipocytes in subcutaneous fat, suggesting the reason for the neutral to beneficial effects of that tissue. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Several pleiotropic protein hormones are synthesized and secreted by white adipocytes, the most prominent being leptin and adiponectin ( 11 , 12 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Furthermore, CAP increased the expression of sirtuin-1 (SiRT-1 deacetylase) and PR domain protein 16 (PRDM-16-gene responsible for the molecular switch of white to brown fat) in WAT. (ahajournals.org)
  • In mature adipocytes, GB reduced the gene expression of resistin, a pro-inflammatory endocrine factor, increased the adiponectin protein levels in a time-dependent manner, and substantially attenuated the TNF-alpha-induced reduction in adiponectin. (mdpi.com)
  • Individuals with larger adipocytes typically have elevated proinflammatory factors including leptin, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and reduced levels of the insulin-sensitivity-related adiponectin and IL-10 [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Abundant densely stained multilocular brown adipocytes expressing uncoupling protein (UCP) appeared in retroperitoneal WAT, in which a marked increase in protein content occurred. (qxmd.com)
  • In contrast, Adrb3 activation stimulates mature white adipocytes to convert into beige adipocytes. (elifesciences.org)
  • We assessed the relative functional contribution of GLUT4 in experimental models of skeletal muscle and adipocytes using the HIV-1 protease inhibitor indinavir. (springer.com)
  • Our results suggest that SHR may have the capacity to increase energy expenditure in response to a chronic HFD that may be linked to the emergence of brown-like adipocytes in WAT. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although regulators of the energy expenditure are not entirely clear, adipocytes appear to play a central role in modulating energy balance and nutrient flux in vertebrates. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 3 Center of Animal Biotechnology and Gene Therapy and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Diabetes y Enfermedades Metabólicas Asociadas, Barcelona, Spain. (jci.org)