Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The white of an egg, especially a chicken's egg, used in cooking. It contains albumin. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A species of DNA virus, in the genus WHISPOVIRUS, infecting PENAEID SHRIMP.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Any of various diseases affecting the white matter of the central nervous system.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
Glucose in blood.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.

Lipopolysaccharide activates an innate immune system response in human adipose tissue in obesity and type 2 diabetes. (1/132)

Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation. Adipose tissue (AT) may represent an important site of inflammation. 3T3-L1 studies have demonstrated that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates toll-like receptors (TLRs) to cause inflammation. For this study, we 1) examined activation of TLRs and adipocytokines by LPS in human abdominal subcutaneous (AbdSc) adipocytes, 2) examined blockade of NF-kappaB in human AbdSc adipocytes, 3) examined the innate immune pathway in AbdSc AT from lean, obese, and T2DM subjects, and 4) examined the association of circulating LPS in T2DM subjects. The findings showed that LPS increased TLR-2 protein expression twofold (P<0.05). Treatment of AbdSc adipocytes with LPS caused a significant increase in TNF-alpha and IL-6 secretion (IL-6, CONTROL: 2.7+/-0.5 vs. LPS: 4.8+/-0.3 ng/ml; P<0.001; TNF-alpha, CONTROL: 1.0+/-0.83 vs. LPS: 32.8+/-6.23 pg/ml; P<0.001). NF-kappaB inhibitor reduced IL-6 in AbdSc adipocytes ( CONTROL: 2.7+/-0.5 vs. NF-kappaB inhibitor: 2.1+/-0.4 ng/ml; P<0.001). AbdSc AT protein expression for TLR-2, MyD88, TRAF6, and NF-kappaB was increased in T2DM patients (P<0.05), and TLR-2, TRAF-6, and NF-kappaB were increased in LPS-treated adipocytes (P<0.05). Circulating LPS was 76% higher in T2DM subjects compared with matched controls. LPS correlated with insulin in controls (r=0.678, P<0.0001). Rosiglitazone (RSG) significantly reduced both fasting serum insulin levels (reduced by 51%, P=0.0395) and serum LPS (reduced by 35%, P=0.0139) in a subgroup of previously untreated T2DM patients. In summary, our results suggest that T2DM is associated with increased endotoxemia, with AT able to initiate an innate immune response. Thus, increased adiposity may increase proinflammatory cytokines and therefore contribute to the pathogenic risk of T2DM.  (+info)

Oncogenic steroid receptor coactivator-3 is a key regulator of the white adipogenic program. (2/132)

The white adipocyte is at the center of dysfunctional regulatory pathways in various pathophysiological processes, including obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. Here, we show that the oncogenic steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) is a critical regulator of white adipocyte development. Indeed, in SRC-3(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts, adipocyte differentiation was severely impaired, and reexpression of SRC-3 was able to restore it. The early stages of adipocyte differentiation are accompanied by an increase in nuclear levels of SRC-3, which accumulates to high levels specifically in the nucleus of differentiated fat cells. Moreover, SRC-3(-/-) animals showed reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass with a significant decrease of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma2 (PPARgamma2), a master gene required for adipogenesis. At the molecular level, SRC-3 acts synergistically with the transcription factor CAAT/enhancer-binding protein to control the gene expression of PPARgamma2. Collectively, these data suggest a crucial role for SRC-3 as an integrator of the complex transcriptional network controlling adipogenesis.  (+info)

Acute and chronic regulation of leptin synthesis, storage, and secretion by insulin and dexamethasone in human adipose tissue. (3/132)

Serum leptin levels are upregulated in proportion to body fat and also increase over the short term in response to meals or insulin. To understand the mechanisms involved, we assessed leptin synthesis and secretion in samples of adipose tissue from subjects with a wide range of BMI. Tissue leptin content and relative rates of leptin biosynthesis, as determined by metabolic labeling, were highly correlated with each other and with BMI and fat cell size. To understand mechanisms regulating leptin synthesis in obesity, we used biosynthetic labeling to directly assess the effects of insulin and glucocorticoids (dexamethasone) on leptin synthesis and secretion in human adipose tissue. Chronic treatment (1-2 days in organ culture) with insulin increased relative rates of leptin biosynthesis without affecting leptin mRNA levels. In contrast, dexamethasone increased leptin mRNA and biosynthesis in parallel. Acute treatment with insulin or dexamethasone (added during 1-h preincubation and 45-min pulse labeling) did not affect relative rates of leptin biosynthesis, but pulse-chase studies showed that addition of insulin nearly doubled the release of [35S]leptin after a 1-h chase. We conclude that the higher leptin stores in adipose tissue of obese humans are maintained by chronic effects of insulin and glucocorticoids acting at pre- and posttranslational levels and that the ability of insulin to increase the release of preformed leptin may contribute to short-term variations in circulating leptin levels.  (+info)

Adipocytes and preadipocytes promote the proliferation of colon cancer cells in vitro. (4/132)

Obesity, a risk factor for colon cancer, is associated with elevated serum levels of leptin, a protein produced by adipocytes. The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of adipose tissue on colon cancer proliferation by using cultured cell lines. To achieve this, colon cancer cells (CACO-2, T84, and HT29) were cocultured with adipose tissue, isolated mature adipocytes, and isolated preadipocytes in a three-dimensional collagen gel culture system. The adipocytes and preadipocytes used were isolated from C57BL/6J and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Proliferation of the cancer cells was evaluated by nuclear bromodeoxyuridine uptake. The adipose tissue, mature adipocytes, and preadipocytes isolated from C57BL/6J mice significantly increased the proliferation of the colon cancer cells. This trophic effect of mature adipocytes on the cancer cell lines was observed only for cells from lean littermates and not for those from ob/ob mice. In contrast, the trophic effect of preadipocytes was not abolished in ob/ob mice, and this finding was supported by the result that leptin had a trophic effect on cancer cells. In conclusion, adipocytes were able to enhance the proliferation of colon cancer cells in vitro, partly via leptin, suggesting that adipose tissues, including mature adipocytes and preadipocytes, may promote the growth of colorectal cancer.  (+info)

Effects of forced uncoupling protein 1 expression in 3T3-L1 cells on mitochondrial function and lipid metabolism. (5/132)

Obesity-related increase in body fat mass is a risk factor for many diseases, including type 2 diabetes. Controlling adiposity by targeted modulation of adipocyte enzymes could offer an attractive alternative to current dietary approaches. Brown adipose tissue, which is present in rodents but not in adult humans, expresses the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) that promotes cellular energy dissipation as heat. Here, we report on the direct metabolic effects of forced UCP1 expression in white adipocytes derived from a murine (3T3-L1) preadipocyte cell line. After stable integration, the ucp1 gene product was continuously expressed during differentiation and reduced the total lipid accumulation by approximately 30% without affecting other adipocyte markers, such as cytosolic glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and leptin production. The expression of UCP1 also decreased glycerol output and increased glucose uptake, lactate output, and the sensitivity of cellular ATP content to nutrient removal. However, oxygen consumption and beta-oxidation were minimally affected. Together, our results suggest that the reduction in intracellular lipid by constitutive expression of UCP1 reflects a downregulation of fat synthesis rather than an upregulation of fatty acid oxidation.  (+info)

Suppression by licorice flavonoids of abdominal fat accumulation and body weight gain in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice. (6/132)

We applied licorice flavonoid oil (LFO) to high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice and investigated its effect. LFO contains hydrophobic flavonoids obtained from licorice by extraction with ethanol. The oil is a mixture of medium-chain triglycerides, having glabridin, a major flavonoid of licorice, concentrated to 1.2% (w/w). Obese mice were fed on a high-fat diet containing LFO at 0 (control), 0.5%, 1.0%, or 2.0% for 8 weeks. Compared with mice in the control group, those in the 1% and 2% LFO groups efficiently reduced the weight of abdominal white adipose tissues and body weight gain. A histological examination revealed that the adipocytes became smaller and the fatty degenerative state of the hepatocytes was improved in the 2% LFO group. A DNA microarray analysis of the liver showed up-regulation of those genes for beta-oxidation and down-regulation of those for fatty acid synthesis in the 2% LFO group. These findings suggest that LFO prevented and ameliorated diet-induced obesity via the regulation of lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the liver.  (+info)

Impaired adipogenesis caused by a mutated thyroid hormone alpha1 receptor. (7/132)

Thyroid hormone (T3) is critical for growth, differentiation, and maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. Mice with a knock-in mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor alpha gene (TRalpha1PV) were created previously to explore the roles of mutated TRalpha1 in vivo. TRalpha1PV is a dominant negative mutant with a frameshift mutation in the carboxyl-terminal 14 amino acids that results in the loss of T3 binding and transcription capacity. Homozygous knock-in TRalpha1(PV/PV) mice are embryonic lethal, and heterozygous TRalpha1(PV/+) mice display the striking phenotype of dwarfism. These mutant mice provide a valuable tool for identifying the defects that contribute to dwarfism. Here we show that white adipose tissue (WAT) mass was markedly reduced in TRalpha1(PV/+) mice. The expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), the key regulator of adipogenesis, was repressed at both mRNA and protein levels in WAT of TRalpha1(PV/+) mice. Moreover, TRalpha1PV acted to inhibit the transcription activity of PPARgamma by competition with PPARgamma for binding to PPARgamma response elements and for heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptors. The expression of TRalpha1PV blocked the T3-dependent adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells and repressed the expression of PPARgamma. Thus, mutations of TRalpha1 severely affect adipogenesis via cross talk with PPARgamma signaling. The present study suggests that defects in adipogenesis could contribute to the phenotypic manifestation of reduced body weight in TRalpha1(PV/+) mice.  (+info)

Flux profile and modularity analysis of time-dependent metabolic changes of de novo adipocyte formation. (8/132)

White adipose tissue (WAT) mass is the main determinant of obesity and associated health risks. WAT expansion results from increases in white adipocyte cell number and size, which in turn reflect a series of shifts in the cellular metabolic state. To quantitatively profile the metabolic alterations occurring during de novo adipocyte formation, metabolic flux analysis (MFA) was used in conjunction with a novel modularity analysis algorithm on differentiating 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Use of a type I collagen gel as an effective long-term culture substrate was also assessed. The calculated flux distributions predicted the sequential activation of several intracellular cross-compartmental pathways, including lipogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the malate cycle, in good agreement with earlier isotopic tracer experiments and gene profiling studies. Partition of the adipocyte metabolic network into highly interacting reaction subgroups suggested a functional reorganization of the major pathways consistent with the lipid-loading phenotype of the adipocyte. Flux and modularity analysis results together point to the flux distribution around pyruvate as a key indicator of adipocyte lipid accumulation.  (+info)

The ability to express UCP1 in WAT depots is associated with resistance to obesity, as shown in genetic studies with various mouse strains as well as overexpression studies (1, 12, 18, 27, 49). In the latter case, simply overexpressing UCP1 in WAT appears sufficient to promote mitochondrial biogenesis (49). Recently, several reports have indicated that mitochondrially derived signals such as those that stem from changes in mitochondrial membrane potential or ATP production can promote mitochondrial biogenesis by a process known as retrograde signaling, but the molecular basis of this is not clear (31). Therefore, because of the evidence for decreased mitochondrial function in metabolic disease (34) and the search for mechanisms to combat obesity, understanding the molecular basis of brown versus white adipocyte differentiation continues to be of interest.. What factors and pathways control the differentiation of brown versus white adipocytes has been a long-standing question (22). More ...
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Remove dirt, rust flakes, oil and grease prior to using Unitor™ Metal Brite H.D.. Apply Unitor™ Metal Brite H.D. to surfaces to be cleaned or pickled as follows:. For severely corroded surfaces and pickling of welding repairs, use 50% solution to neat.. For less severely corroded or soiled surfaces and tarnish on copper and brass, use a solution of 20-50%, and rinse off surface after 15-40 minutes with water.. On aluminium, use a solution of 10-30%, but rinse off surface maximum 5 minutes after application.. For removal of rust stains on painted surfaces, a solution of 10-30% should be sufficient. Rinse off with water 15-20 minutes after application.. For removal of rust stains on ceramic tiles, enamels, porcelain, glass etc., use a solution of 20-50%, depending on stains and soiling. Rinse off with water after 20-40 minutes.. For removal of light cement stains and lime, apply a 50% solution, and high pressure wash after 30-40 minutes, and for solidified cement use Unitor™ Descaling ...
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KEGG Orthology (KO) [BR:hsa00001] 09150 Organismal Systems 09151 Immune system 04662 B cell receptor signaling pathway [PATH:hsa04662] 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen 09180 Brite Hierarchies 09183 Protein families: signaling and cellular processes 04090 CD molecules [BR:hsa04090] 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen CD molecules [BR:hsa04090] Proteins 974 CD79B; CD79b molecule K06507 CD79B; CD79B antigen ...
The JAM Paper #12 (4.75 x 11) brite hue recycled envelope is a perfect option to consider for those who are eco-conscious as well as style-savvy. Use this minimalistic envelope to send event invites, personal or official letters, invoices, promotional material and much more. Keep the documents and other things secure within the envelope with the assistance of the gum closure. The conventional v-flap flap makes it apt to be used in offices or institutions. It comes in the charming orange color. Sturdy enough to last considerably long, it is made of recycled paper. 500 units are included in this pack.
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K00816 CCBL; kynurenine---oxoglutarate transaminase / cysteine-S-conjugate beta-lyase / glutamine---phenylpyruvate transaminase [EC:2.6.1.7 4.4.1.13 2.6.1.64 ...
2.4.1.251 GlcA-beta-(1->2)-D-Man-alpha-(1->3)-D-Glc-beta-(1->4)-D-Glc-alpha-1-diphospho-ditrans,octacis-undecaprenol 4-beta-mannosyltransferase ...
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Expression of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) in adipocytes of white adipose tissue (WAT) produces white adipocytes with characteristics of brown fat and leads to a reduction of adiposity and its metabolic complications. Although BMP4 is known to induce commitment of pluripotent stem cells to the adipocyte lineage by producing cells that possess the characteristics of preadipocytes, its effects on the mature white adipocyte phenotype and function were unknown. Forced expression of a BMP4 transgene in white adipocytes of mice gives rise to reduced WAT mass and white adipocyte size along with an increased number of a white adipocyte cell types with brown adipocyte characteristics comparable to those of beige or brite adipocytes. These changes correlate closely with increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and protection against diet-induced obesity and diabetes. Conversely, BMP4-deficient mice exhibit enlarged white adipocyte morphology and impaired insulin sensitivity. We ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages. AU - Timmons, James A.. AU - Wennmalm, Kristian. AU - Larsson, Ola. AU - Walden, Tomas B.. AU - Lassmann, Timo. AU - Petrovic, Natasa. AU - Hamilton, D. Lee. AU - Gimeno, Ruth E.. AU - Wahlestedt, Claes. AU - Baar, Keith. AU - Nedergaard, Jan. AU - Cannon, Barbara. PY - 2007/3/13. Y1 - 2007/3/13. N2 - Attainment of a brown adipocyte cell phenotype in white adipocytes, with their abundant mitochondria and increased energy expenditure potential, is a legitimate strategy for combating obesity. The unique transcriptional regulators of the primary brown adipocyte phenotype are unknown, limiting our ability to promote brown adipogenesis over white. In the present work, we used microarray analysis strategies to study primary preadipocytes, and we made the striking discovery that brown preadipocytes demonstrate a myogenic transcriptional signature, whereas both brown and ...
In our studies, we initially focused on protein kinase G (PKG/cGK), which is expressed both in white and brown adipocytes. Using gain- and loss-of-function models, we found that PKG is the major receptor for cGMP in brown adipocytes. We investigated the downstream targets of PKG and found a novel negative feedback loop that regulates cGMP levels. Importantly, in the presence of increased cGMP levels, we found an enhanced development of brown-like adipocytes, so-called beige or brite (brown in white) cells both in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that cGMP not only enhances development of classical brown adipocytes, but also promotes development of beige cells.. Therefore, we studied the effect of cGMP in white adipocytes in more detail. Lentiviral overexpression of PKG enhanced differentiation of white adipocytes. Moreover, PKG induced the expression of a brown-like adipogenic program in white fat cells. Treatment of mice with the PDE inhibitor sildenafil for only 7 days promoted ...
Abstract / summary in English: Background: The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a hallmark of brown adipocytes and pivotal for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis.. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we report that cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) are crucially involved in induction of UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipocytes, but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed in COX2 knockout (KO) mice and by administration of the COX inhibitor indomethacin in wild-type mice. Indomethacin repressed b-adrenergic induction of UCP1 expression in primary inguinal adipocytes. The use of PGE2 receptor antagonists implicated EP4 as a main PGE2 receptor, and injection of the stable PGE2 analog (EP3/4 agonist) 16,16 dm PGE2 induced UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipose tissue. Inhibition of COX activity attenuated diet-induced UCP1 expression and increased energy efficiency and adipose tissue ...
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Information on Middlesex University's Research Repository: a online collection of Middlesex University's research outputs
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A Cake Wreck is any cake that is unintentionally sad, silly, creepy, inappropriate - you name it. A Wreck is not necessarily a poorly-made cake; its simply one I find funny, for any of a number of reasons. Anyone who has ever smeared frosting on a baked good has made a Wreck at one time or another, so Im not here to vilify decorators: Cake Wrecks is just about finding the funny in unexpected, sugar-filled places.. Now, dont you have a photo you want to send me? ;). ...
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Much of the current excitement in the obesity field stems from recent observations highlighting that, even as adults, we have the ability to generate brown fat cells in response to cold exposure. Unlike white fat cells that mostly just store fat, brown adipocytes keep us warm by burning fat at a high rate, said Dr. Philipp Scherer, Director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study available online at Nature Medicine.. While generation of brown fat cells previously was thought to be mostly relevant for rodents and human infants, Dr. Scherer said, current evidence points to the observation that adults also generate these cells when exposed to cold.. Brown fat cells in adults tend to be randomly interspersed in subcutaneous white fat, with a trend toward increased accumulation in the upper chest and neck areas. In general, brown fat tissue makes up just a small percentage of total body fat mass.. The Touchstone Centers staff devotes its ...
In contrast to β1- and β2-ARs, the β3-AR induces a decrease in cardiac contractility in different species, including human, dog, guinea pig, and rat (Gauthier et al., 1999; Kitamura et al., 2000; Cheng et al., 2001; Morimoto et al., 2004). A coupling of β3-ARs to Gi/o protein and the activation of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase mediate this negative inotropic effect (Gauthier et al., 1998; Kitamura et al., 2000; Varghese et al., 2000; Brixius et al., 2004). Therefore, the modulation of cardiac contractility by the β3-ARs seems to involve the inhibition of the adenylyl cyclase and the decreased in intracellular cAMP content. In contrast, this subtype controls lipolysis in rat white adipocytes (Van Liefde et al., 1992; Germack et al., 1997) and thermogenesis in brown adipocytes (Atgie et al., 1997) through Gs protein activation. However, a dual coupling of the β3-ARs to Gs and Gi has been reported in white adipocytes (Chaudhry et al., 1994) and 3T3-F442A adipocytes (Soeder et al., 1999). ...
Yale scientists uncover how a molecular process in the brain that known to control eating transforms white fat into brown fat, impacting how much energy we burn and how much weight we can lose.. The results are published in the October 9 issue of the journal Cell.. Obesity is a rising global epidemic. Excess fatty tissue is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, neurological disorders, and cancer. People become overweight and obese when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, and excess calories are stored in the adipose tissues. The adipose organ is made up of both white and brown fat. While white fat primarily stores energy as triglycerides, brown fat dissipates chemical energy as heat. The more brown fat you have, the more weight you can lose.. It has previously been shown that energy-storing white fat has the capacity to transform into energy-burning brown-like fat. In this new study, researchers from the Yale Program in Integrative Cell Signaling ...
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Shiny Brite ornaments were created by American businessman Max Eckardt in 1937. Before World War II, almost all of the glass ornaments on American Christmas trees were imported from Germany. It was a German immigrant, Max Eckardt, who realized that the war could interrupt his Christmas ornament import business. So in 1937, Eckardt and Bill…
To overcome the side effects of current anti-obesity drugs, researchers Jee Young Chung and colleagues developed a specific gene silencing therapy against a fatty acid metabolism gene, Fabp4. Researchers used a CRISPR interference system wherein catalytically dead Cas9 protein and single guide RNA was targeted to white adipocytes with a tissue-specific fusion peptide. The complex is internalized with little toxicity to the cells and, upon internalization, decreased the expression of Fabp4 and reduced lipid storage in adipocytes. Demonstrating that this delivery method performed well in cells, Chung and colleagues tested their therapy on obese mice. Mice were fed a diet high in fat leading to obesity and insulin resistance. Fabp4 repression resulted in a 20% reduction of body weight and improved insulin resistance and inflammation after just six weeks of treatment. Additional systemic improvements were observed, including a reduction in fatty lipid deposition in the liver and reduced circulating ...
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We own a pressure washing business out in the Eastern Panhandle of WV and have been using suppliers off the internet and out of Frederick Md until we came across Sun Brite Supply. After speaking with Hank and meeting the girls in the shop we now have a new supplier. The staff was extremely knowledgeable and helpful with questions and concerns when if came to chemicals and equipment. They are definitely worth the drive and even ships, same day in most cases. If your ever in the Gaithersburg MD area, drop by and meet everyone. You wont be disappointed.. ...
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PGC-1α-dependent irisin, a novel myokine, is derived from cleaving Fndc5 protein. Irisin promotes brown fat-like development and thermogenesis in WAT both in vitro and in vivo. The discovery of irisin has created an opportunity to further understand the role of adipocytes in obesity, diabetes, and other associated metabolic disorders (12,13,26,27). However, the molecular mechanisms and cellular signaling pathways responsible for the browning effect of irisin have not been elucidated.. In this study, we successfully constructed the yeast expression plasmid containing a synthesized optimal codon usage, human irisin-coding sequence and generated pure human recombinant irisin protein in P. pastoris with high yield that is fully biologically functional. The P. pastoris system is widely used for heterogenic protein expression, with the capacity to generate posttranslational modified proteins (28). The human recombinant irisin protein expressed in yeast showed a predominant band of ∼22 kDa, which is ...
The presence of two distinct types of adipose tissue, which have opposing functions, has been known for decades. White adipose tissue (WAT) is the main tissue of energy storage, while brown adipose tissue (BAT) dissipates energy as heat and is required for non-shivering thermoregulation. In the last few years, a third type of adipocyte was identified, termed the brite (brown and white) or beige adipocyte. Their physiological control and role, however, are not fully clarified. Brite/beige adipocytes have a positive impact on systemic metabolism that is generally explained by the thermogenesis of brite/beige adipocytes; although thermogenesis has not been directly measured but is mostly inferred by gene expression data of typical thermogenic genes such as uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Here we critically review functional evidence for the thermogenic potential of brite/beige adipocytes, leading to the conclusion that direct measurements of brite/beige adipocyte bioenergetics, beyond gene ...
Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes. This significant induction is due to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and stabilization of PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing protein-16 (PRDM16). Furthermore, the oral administration of ArtC (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly induced brown-like adipocytes accompanied by significant ...
We also shine a spotlight on governance and social responsibility in this edition. Grant Thornton UK explains why good governance is the surprise element in creating a culture that sparks new ideas, and Impact Reporting tells us how its technology is helping organisations to improve their social value reporting.. Also in this edition, we hear from SAS how data analytics can be used for the greater good in the public sector, find out how organisations can create a culture of innovation through learning and development, and take a look at selected video highlights from the UNs third AI for Good Summit in Geneva.. I hope you enjoy this edition of Brite Innovation Review.. Susanne Hauner, Publisher. We always welcome views on innovation from across industry, government and academia. If youd like to contribute an article to Brite, dont hesitate to get in touch.. ...
Dermal adipose tissue (also known as dermal white adipose tissue and herein referred to as dWAT) has been the focus of much discussion in recent years. However, dWAT remains poorly characterized. The fate of the mature dermal adipocytes and the origin of the rapidly reappearing dermal adipocytes at different stages remain unclear. Here, we isolated dermal adipocytes and characterized dermal fat at the cellular and molecular level. Together with dWATs dynamic responses to external stimuli, we established that dermal adipocytes are a distinct class of white adipocytes with high plasticity. By combining pulse-chase lineage tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing, we observed that mature dermal adipocytes undergo dedifferentiation and redifferentiation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Upon various challenges, the dedifferentiated cells proliferate and redifferentiate into adipocytes. In addition, manipulation of dWAT highlighted an important role for mature dermal adipocytes ...
Brite Lite is a versatile serum designed to battle pigmentation, as well as normalize melanocyte function prior to resurfacing treatments. The formulation is also very effective for acne-prone skin, with ingredients like kojic acid, which has anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties, and licorice root.
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Spiritual guidance Pastoral care transcends traditional counseling.. By Rachel Stowe Master 91. Nine months after she lost her 18-year-old daughter in a 2003 boating accident, Denise Brookman knew she needed help. It had been just three years since her other child - a son - had died, also at age 18. Heartbroken and devastated, Denise needed help working through overwhelming grief. She found it when a friend suggested she contact Brite Divinitys Pastoral Care and Training Center.. Its by the grace of God that everything has come about, Brookman said. Brite Divinity School helped me a lot.. She met three times with a young pastor from an area Church of Christ who was working on his graduate education at Brite. He had such an open heart about it. The level that [Brite counselors] are able to talk to you is different than a psychiatrist, a psychologist, your friends, your wonderful family. I think its very good to be able to talk to someone who is not on a level thats just medical. Because ...
abstract = {Over 1 billion people are estimated to be overweight, placing them at risk for diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. We performed a systems-level genetic dissection of adiposity regulation using genome-wide RNAi screening in adult Drosophila. As a follow-up, the resulting approximately 500 candidate obesity genes were functionally classified using muscle-, oenocyte-, fat-body-, and neuronal-specific knockdown in vivo and revealed hedgehog signaling as the top-scoring fat-body-specific pathway. To extrapolate these findings into mammals, we generated fat-specific hedgehog-activation mutant mice. Intriguingly, these mice displayed near total loss of white, but not brown, fat compartments. Mechanistically, activation of hedgehog signaling irreversibly blocked differentiation of white adipocytes through direct, coordinate modulation of early adipogenic factors. These findings identify a role for hedgehog signaling in white/brown adipocyte determination and link in vivo RNAi-based ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Diabetes.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Combines a full 14x17 viewing area and a 4 inch diameter brite spot. Illumination of the viewing area is changed by depressing a footswitch which is included with the basic unit. Each viewing area is controlled independently with an electronic dimming control. The 14x17 section will illuminate to a 3.0 density and the brite spot will illuminate to 4.0 density film. The 14x17 section uses two BAH 300 watt bulbs and is cooled by fan. The brite spot area uses either an 500 watt DXb or 300 watt halogen bulb. This section is cooled by a blower and a sheet of Pyrex reflecting glass. All steel construction protected by attractive textured blue finish and trimmed with polished chrome strips. A hinged top lid makes it easy to change bulbs. Optional items to add versatility include a variable round iris diaphragm, a slotted iris diaphragm,and a detachable magnifier.. Product URL : http://www.ndrproducts.com/65c2.html. Last Updated : 11/09/2012. Categories : View Boxes, X-Ray ...
NATED is a network of professionals and students which provides an excellent way to share information and gain support when working with Deaf People. Events are open to everyone with an interest and are valuable both to those new to this area of work, and to people with years of experience looking to enhance their…
Disclosure: The reviewer has been compensated in the form of a Best Buy Gift Card and/or received the product/service at a reduced price or for free.. The last year has been pretty difficult for me as I am working on being a single mom. Each day seems to be a challenge. Ive been pretty overwhelmed and stressed out with many other things going on in our lives.. This month, my son and I start a new chapter in our lives. I recently closed on my first home as a single mom and we just moved in! We are starting fresh! It was very difficult to pack and organize all on my own. I was lucky enough to have help from my boyfriend with moving everything!. … [read more] ...
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Item Code: NA-ESS Deodorizes bad odors, not an odor mask Removes stains caused by pet urines, wine and some yellow stains Provides anti-resoiling protection Safe on wool Wide variety of applications Home, office, boat, auto, and many other applications ESSENCE is not only an odor eliminator but also a stain remover. It
Quote: Originally Posted by Brite Then Pick a different crop. We grow great corn out here (Ohio) and never water it. You got that right i cant figure
You dont understand what I saying. Most the 1980s toon were made for just the reason of promoting toys. There was no entertainnmnet value at all for alot of 1980s toon. Might Mouse was very rare exeception, it actually had enterainment value. Shows like He-man and Rainbow Brite were only made to push toys, they were produced my mattel. This still goes on today, Batman Beyound was only made push toys for the WB, Paul Dini himself said this. ...
You dont understand what I saying. Most the 1980s toon were made for just the reason of promoting toys. There was no entertainnmnet value at all for alot of 1980s toon. Might Mouse was very rare exeception, it actually had enterainment value. Shows like He-man and Rainbow Brite were only made to push toys, they were produced my mattel. This still goes on today, Batman Beyound was only made push toys for the WB, Paul Dini himself said this. ...
These adipocytes are found interspersed in white adipose tissue and are also named 'beige' or 'brite' (for "brown in white"). ... In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a ... Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through ... The second develops from white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. ...
Lo KA, Sun L (September 2013). "Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes". ... Rosenwald M, Perdikari A, Rülicke T, Wolfrum C (June 2013). "Bi-directional interconversion of brite and white adipocytes". ... Adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, ... "EBF2 promotes the recruitment of beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue". Molecular Metabolism. 5 (1): 57-65. doi:10.1016/j. ...
The activity of PRDM16 in white adipose tissue leads to the production of brown fat-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue ... Brown adipocytes consist of densely packed mitochondria that contain uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). UCP-1 plays a key role in ... White adipose tissue (WAT) primarily stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides. Recent research has shown that PRDM16 ... PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown adipose cells as compared to white adipose cells, and plays a role in these thermogenic ...
In fact, PLIN1 is greatly expressed in white adipocytes. It controls adipocyte lipid metabolism. It handles essential functions ... In humans, Perilipin A is the most abundant protein associated with the adipocyte LDs and lower PLIN1 expression is related ... Perilipin is a protein that coats lipid droplets (LDs) in adipocytes, the fat-storing cells in adipose tissue. ... March 2013). "FSP27 and PLIN1 interaction promotes the formation of large lipid droplets in human adipocytes". Biochemical and ...
PLIN4 is a member of the perilipin family, a group of proteins that coat lipid droplets in adipocytes, the adipose tissue cells ... It is highly expressed in white adipose tissue, with lower expression in heart, skeletal muscle, and brown adipose tissue. ... PLIN4 coats lipid droplets in adipocytes to protect them from lipases. The PLIN4 gene may be associated with insulin resistance ... Wolins NE, Skinner JR, Schoenfish MJ, Tzekov A, Bensch KG, Bickel PE (September 2003). "Adipocyte protein S3-12 coats nascent ...
... is produced primarily in the adipocytes of white adipose tissue. It also is produced by brown adipose tissue, placenta ( ... Adipocytes interact with other cells through producing and secreting a variety of signalling molecules, including the cell ... Hui W, Litherland GJ, Elias MS, Kitson GI, Cawston TE, Rowan AD, Young DA (March 2012). "Leptin produced by joint white adipose ... Conde J, Scotece M, Gómez R, López V, Gómez-Reino JJ, Lago F, Gualillo O (2011). "Adipokines: biofactors from white adipose ...
February 2014). "Pluripotent stem cells derived from mouse and human white mature adipocytes". Stem Cells Translational ... See also overview A specialised type of white blood cell, known as cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), are produced by the immune ... That distinguishes them from most nonpluripotent cells, although not from white blood cells. The glycans on the stem cell ... However, a large amount of mature adipocytes, which in general have lost their proliferative abilities and therefore are ...
... also occurs in the herb Marrubium vulgare (White horehound), where it is conjectured to have an anti-fungal role. ... It was found to stimulate lipid accumulation by adipocytes in vitro. Tariric acid is biosynthesised from petroselinic acid; ...
Rev-erbα also regulates adipogenesis of white and brown adipocytes. Rev-Erbα transcription is induced during the adipogenic ... Researchers have proposed that Rev-erbα's role in adipocyte function may affect the timing of processes such as lipid storage ... gamma target gene and promotes PPARgamma-induced adipocyte differentiation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (39): ... gamma target gene and promotes PPARgamma-induced adipocyte differentiation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (39): ...
Rodeheffer MS, Birsoy K, Friedman JM (October 2008). "Identification of white adipocyte progenitor cells in vivo". Cell. 135 (2 ... Terminal differentiation is that preadipocytes differentiate into mature adipocytes. Adipocytes can arise either from ... Adipocytes play a vital role in energy homeostasis and process the largest energy reserve as triglycerol in the body of animals ... Adipocytes stay in a dynamic state, they start expanding when the energy intake is higher than the expenditure and undergo ...
February 2014). "Irisin stimulates browning of white adipocytes through mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 MAP kinase and ERK ... August 2016). "Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white adipocytes". American Journal of ... Wrann CD, White JP, Salogiannnis J, Laznik-Bogoslavski D, Wu J, Ma D, et al. (November 2013). "Exercise induces hippocampal ... July 2012). "Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human". Cell. 150 (2): 366-76. doi: ...
2014). "White-to-brown metabolic conversion of human adipocytes by JAK inhibition". Nature Cell Biology. 17 (1): 57-67. doi: ... A 2014 study showed that tofacitinib treatment was able to convert white fat tissues into more metabolically active brown fat, ...
... s (white arrow) and lipocytes (black arrow), in a case of lipoblastoma Micrograph showing a lipoblast (left-bottom of ... A lipoblast is a precursor cell for an adipocyte. Alternate terms include adipoblast and preadipocyte. Early stages are almost ...
Mechanism of Storage and Synthesis of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in White Adipocytes , DOI: 10.1007/978-2-8178-0343-2_8 Voet ...
ISBN 978-90-481-8621-1. Mechanism of Storage and Synthesis of Fatty Acids and Triglycerides in White Adipocytes , Physiology ... Lipids are stored in white adipose tissue as triglycerides. In a lean young adult human, the mass of triglycerides stored ...
Adipocyte Metrnl antagonizes obesity-induced insulin resistance by improving adipose function, including adipocyte ... Rao RR, Long JZ, White JP, et al. (2015). "Meteorin-like is a hormone that regulates immune-adipose interactions to increase ... Li, Z. Y., Song, J., Zheng, S. L., Fan, M. B., Guan, Y. F., Qu, Y., ... & Miao, C. Y. (2015). Adipocyte Metrnl antagonizes ...
"Stress-induced alteration in the lipolytic response to β-adrenoceptor agonists in rat white adipocytes". Journal of Lipid ...
"Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages". ... However, its expression is limited to brown and not white adipose precursors, providing part of the developmental separation ...
... mice were crossed with mice to facilitate overexpression of Gpr3 in isolated primary brown and subcutaneous white adipocytes. ... Godlewski G, Jourdan T, Szanda G, Tam J, Cinar R, Harvey-White J, et al. (October 2015). "Mice lacking GPR3 receptors display ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT), in contrast to bona fide white fat, can dissipate significant amounts of chemical energy through ... Gpr3 overexpression in their primary adipocyte model suppressed expression of the β-adrenergic receptors, further supporting a ...
Argetsinger LS, Norstedt G, Billestrup N, White MF, Carter-Su C (1996). "Growth hormone, interferon-gamma, and leukemia ... "Hyperosmotic stress inhibits insulin receptor substrate-1 function by distinct mechanisms in 3T3-L1 adipocytes". J. Biol. Chem ...
"Integrating Extracellular Flux Measurements and Genome-Scale Modeling Reveals Differences between Brown and White Adipocytes". ...
"Mechanisms for LEPR-mediated regulation of leptin expression in brown and white adipocytes in rat pups". Physiol Genomics. 4 (3 ... Chua, SC Jr; White, DW; Wu-Peng, XS; Liu, SM; Okada, N; Kershaw, EE; Chung, WK; Power-Kehoe, L; Chua, M; Tartaglia, LA; Leibel ... White, DW; Wang, DW; Chua, SC Jr; Morgenstern, JP; Leibel, RL; Baumann, H; Tartaglia, LA (1997). "Constitutive and impaired ... Edens, NK; Leibel, RL; Hirsch, J (1990). "Mechanism of free fatty acid re-esterification in human adipocytes in vitro". J Lipid ...
... of erythrocytes and white adipocytes by the accumulation of triphenylmethylphosphonium cation". J. Membr. Biol. 56 (3): 191-201 ...
Knockdown organisms show no change in white adipocytes, but do display reduced expression of the marker genes directly involved ... but not white adipocytes". American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 303 (8): E1053-E1060. doi:10.1152/ ... Gesta S, Bezy O, Mori MA, Macotela Y, Lee KY, Kahn CR (February 2011). "Mesodermal developmental gene Tbx15 impairs adipocyte ... The effects of Tbx15 are also demonstrated in regulation of adipocyte differentiation, positional regulation of the ...
White JK, Gerdin AK, Karp NA, Ryder E, Buljan M, Bussell JN, Salisbury J, Clare S, Ingham NJ, Podrini C, Houghton R, Estabel J ... is required for adipocyte differentiation". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (22): 16845-50. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.22. ... Kim TA, Ota S, Jiang S, Pasztor LM, White RA, Avraham S (Sep 2000). "Genomic organization, chromosomal localization and ...
The skin colour of people with light skin is determined mainly by the bluish-white connective tissue under the dermis and by ... The main cell types are fibroblasts, macrophages and adipocytes (subcutaneous tissue contains 50% of body fat). Fat serves as ... Human skin shows high skin colour variety from the darkest brown to the lightest pinkish-white hues. Human skin shows higher ...
... stavudine and zidovudine involves multiple cellular targets in white and brown adipocytes". Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 12 (6): 919 ... in white fat cells but not brown fat cells. Since stavudine and zidovudine are OAT1 substrates, they may have similar effects ...
BMP4 also plays important roles in adipose tissue: it is essential for white adipogenesis, and promotes adipocyte ...
... induces brown adipogenesis and browning of white adipocytes". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica. 40 (12): 1523-1531. doi:10.1038/ ... TGFB proteins are produced by all white blood cell lineages. Activated TGF-β complexes with other factors to form a serine/ ... Johnston, Chris J. C.; Smyth, Danielle J.; Kodali, Ravindra B.; White, Madeleine P. J.; Harcus, Yvonne; Filbey, Kara J.; ... Smyth, Danielle J.; Harcus, Yvonne; White, Madeleine P.J.; Gregory, William F.; Nahler, Janina; Stephens, Ian; Toke-Bjolgerud, ...
These soaps appear as white chalky deposits. It is usually associated with trauma of the pancreas or acute pancreatitis. It can ... Stored triglycerides in the adipocytes are released and split by pancreatic lipases into fatty acids and glycerol molecules. ... that give fat necrosis its characteristic chalky-white appearance. Fat necrosis is an example of dystrophic calcification ... the necrosis arises because adipocytes in the peritoneum are broken and digested by inappropriately activated pancreatic ...
In the absence of inflammation 10-35% of circulating IL-6 may come from adipose tissue.[9] IL-6 is produced by adipocytes and ... Sadagurski M, Norquay L, Farhang J, D'Aquino K, Copps K, White MF (March 2010). "Human IL6 enhances leptin action in mice". ...
শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil). *ক্ষারাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা ... মেদকোষ (Adipocyte). *মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium) ...
শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil). *ক্ষারাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা ... মেদকোষ (Adipocyte). *মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium) ...
Hui W, Litherland GJ, Elias MS, Kitson GI, Cawston TE, Rowan AD, Young DA (2012). "Leptin produced by joint white adipose ... Dexamethasone stimulates leptin release from human adipocytes: unexpected inhibition by insulin. Journal of Cellular ... Adipokines: biofactors from white adipose tissue. A complex hub among inflammation, metabolism, and immunity. BioFactors ( ...
শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil). *ক্ষারাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা ... মেদকোষ (Adipocyte). *মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium) ...
শ্বেত কণিকা ( White blood cells). *অম্লাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Eosinophil). *নিরাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা (Neutrophil). *ক্ষারাসক্ত শ্বেতকণিকা ... মেদকোষ (Adipocyte). *মেদকলা (Adipose tisue). *অধস্ত্বক কলা (Subcutaneous tissue). *আবরণী কলা (Epithelium) ...
Fatty acids are normally stored in adipocytes as triglycerides. However, as triglycerides accumulate in adipocytes, fatty acids ... Tang T, Glanville J, Hayden CJ, White D, Barth JH, Balen AH (January 2006). "Combined lifestyle modification and metformin in ... Adipocytes (fat cells) secrete proteins and signaling molecules known as adipokines. Certain adipokines have been implicated in ... In obesity, the greater number of adipocytes release greater amounts of leptin. These higher levels of leptin have been ...
... a type of white blood cell. This causes the affected person to be more susceptible to infections and disease. Although this is ... and the development of adipocytes. This protein may also play a role in the development of the function for eyes, the ...
... s are also expressed in the skin, and in both white and brown adipocytes, and is expressed in greater ... The ACTH receptor plays a role in glucose metabolism when expressed in white adipose cells. When bound to ACTH, a short-term ... Boston BA (October 1999). "The role of melanocortins in adipocyte function". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 885 (1 ... promotes a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile and stimulates UCP-1 in adipocytes". The Journal of Endocrinology. 196 (3): 465- ...
Adipocyte numbers increase during development and come to a plateau over time. After the plateau adipocytes become restricted ... Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE (May 2009). "Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental ... Hines EP, White SS, Stanko JP, Gibbs-Flournoy EA, Lau C, Fenton SE (May 2009). "Phenotypic dichotomy following developmental ... Engeli S, Böhnke J, Feldpausch M, Gorzelniak K, Janke J, Bátkai S, Pacher P, Harvey-White J, Luft FC, Sharma AM, Jordan J ( ...
... facilitates the entry of glucose into adipocytes and inhibits breakdown of fat in adipocytes. On the other hand, adipose tissue ... This includes replacing white bread with whole-grain bread, reducing intake of foods composed primarily of starch such as ... Adipocytes will generate triglycerides in the presence of insulin but refers to a liver condition rather than a pancreatic one ...
Memari B, Bouttier M, Dimitrov V, Ouellette M, Behr MA, Fritz JH, White JH (2015). "Engagement of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor ... adipocytes, myoepithelial cells, macrophages, Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and keratinocytes. They may be present in some ...
White piedra White superficial onychomycosis Zygomycosis (phycomycosis) Parasitic infestations, stings, and bites in humans are ... The main cellular component of this tissue is the adipocyte, or fat cell. The structure of this tissue is composed of septal (i ... Torus palatinus Trumpeter's wart Vestibular papillomatosis White sponge nevus (white sponge nevus of Cannon) Conditions of the ... ISBN 978-0-7216-8256-3. Cox, Neil; White, Gary (2000). Diseases of the skin: a color atlas and text. St. Louis: Mosby. ISBN 978 ...
The semen of a Bikaneri dromedary is white and viscous, with a pH of around 7.8. A single calf is born after a gestation period ... new data on adipocyte size and plasma leptin". In Faye, B.; Esenov, P. (eds.). Desertification Combat and Food Safety: the ... The coat is generally brown but can range from black to nearly white. Leese reported piebald dromedaries in Kordofan and Darfur ... while the fat is white. It has the taste and texture of beef. A study of the meat of Iranian dromedaries showed its high ...
... its depletion in adipocytes causes alterations in the structure of both brown and white adipose tissue, along with brown fat ... A model knocking out Noggin specifically in adipocytes has allowed to elucidate that Noggin also plays a role in adipose tissue ... "Noggin depletion in adipocytes promotes obesity in mice". Molecular Metabolism. 25: 50-63. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2019.04.004. ...
... exists mostly as a single adipocytes in the subcutaneous tissue. In humans, white adipose tissue starts to ... White adipose tissue is composed of monolocular adipocytes. In humans, the healthy amount of white adipose tissue varies with ... White adipose tissue consists of white adipocytes, which are the lipid storage cells. They are differentiated from ... White adipose tissue exists in various depots that may have different types of adipocytes. That is, different depots in ...
White WB (February 2007). "Drospirenone with 17beta-estradiol in the postmenopausal woman with hypertension". Climacteric. 10 ... Infante, Marco; Armani, Andrea; Marzolla, Vincenzo; Fabbri, Andrea; Caprio, Massimiliano (2019). "Adipocyte Mineralocorticoid ... Heit JA, Spencer FA, White RH (2016). "The epidemiology of venous thromboembolism". J. Thromb. Thrombolysis. 41 (1): 3-14. doi: ... Mallareddy M, Hanes V, White WB (2007). "Drospirenone, a new progestogen, for postmenopausal women with hypertension". Drugs ...
adipocytes (fat cells) osteoblasts (synthesize bone) osteoclasts (resorb bone) endothelial cells, which form the sinusoids. ... The bone marrow produces the cellular elements of the blood, including platelets, red blood cells and white blood cells. While ... MSCs have been shown to differentiate, in vitro or in vivo, into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, marrow adipocytes and ... white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes), and platelets (thrombocytes). The stroma of the bone marrow ...
Their discovery helped in the understanding how white blood cells live, die and develop into mature cells that actively defend ... This recovery is accompanied by a complete reversal of the accumulation of adipocytes in the bone marrow. Growth hormone has ...
van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse genetics toolkit: revealing function and mechanism". Genome ... "Interaction of the growth hormone receptor with cytokine-induced Src homology domain 2 protein in rat adipocytes". ...
... white adipose tissue, placenta, macrophages, and demonstrated additional roles in diabetes and cancer. The contributions of ... "ERRγ enhances UCP1 expression and fatty acid oxidation in brown adipocytes". Obesity. 21 (3): 516-24. doi:10.1002/oby.20067. ...
... that can differentiate into beige adipocytes rich in mitochondria (brown) or unilocular white adipocytes. SAT adipocytes can ... that can differentiate into beige adipocytes rich in mitochondria (brown) or unilocular white adipocytes. SAT adipocytes can ... Depletion of white adipocyte progenitors induces beige adipocyte differentiation and suppresses obesity development ... The relative abundance of thermogenic beige adipocytes and lipid-storing white adipocytes in adipose tissue underlie its ...
About the Journal. As one of the first Open Access journals in its field, Food & Nutrition Research (FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. Learn more about the journals Aims & Scope. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an Impact Factor of 3.89 (2020).. ...
C/EBPß Reprograms White 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes to a Brown Adipocyte Pattern of Gene Expression. In: The Journal of Biological ... C/EBPß Reprograms White 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes to a Brown Adipocyte Pattern of Gene Expression. The Journal of Biological ... C/EBPß Reprograms White 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes to a Brown Adipocyte Pattern of Gene Expression. / Karamanlidis, Georgios; ... C/EBPß Reprograms White 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes to a Brown Adipocyte Pattern of Gene Expression. ...
We show that mature PPARgamma-null white and brown adipocytes die within a few days and are replaced by newly formed PPARgamma- ... positive adipocytes, demonstrating that PPARgamma is essential for the in vivo survival of mature adipocytes, in addition to ... Therefore we have selectively ablated PPARgamma in adipocytes of adult mice by using the tamoxifen-dependent Cre-ER(T2) ... The analysis of PPARgamma functions in mature adipocytes is precluded by lethality of PPARgamma(-/-) fetuses and tetraploid- ...
Exercise effects on white adipose tissue: beiging and metabolic adaptations. Diabetes. (2015) 64:2361-8. doi: 10.2337/db15-0227 ... White Adipose Tissue (WAT) and Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT). Adipose tissues are crucial in regulating cardiovascular functions, ... Citation: Takada S, Sabe H and Kinugawa S (2020) Abnormalities of Skeletal Muscle, Adipocyte Tissue, and Lipid Metabolism in ... have shown that patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome demonstrate an accumulation of visceral fats and white adipocytes, ...
Human adipocytes constitutively synthesize and secrete insulin, which is biologically functional. Insulin concentrations and ... However, the role of adipocytes in linking energy metabolic disorders with insulin regulation is unknown in humans. ... Insulin expression in 10 human primary cell types including adipocytes and macrophages is an evidence for extrapancreatic ... hypertrophy in adipocytes is the main cause of energy metabolic system dysfunction, obesity and its afflictions such as T2D. ...
Marrow adipocytes, are unilocular like white fat cell. The marrow adipose tissue depot is poorly understood in terms of its ... Marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of white adipose tissue. Exercise reduces both adipocyte size as ... Exercise stimulate transdifferentiation of white fat into brown fat (browning phenomena) Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated ... Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis. In cell culture, ...
"Browning" of White Adipocytes.. Research indicates that fat storing white adipocytes may be altered to take on the ... ADIPOCYTES COMPARISON. * White Adipocytes. Store fat (triglycerides) and is linked to obesity and associated metabolic ... Posted in Anthocyanins, brown adipocytes, brown adipose tissue, Browning of White Adipocytes, C3G, Curcumin, diabetes, Free ... Studies altering white adipocytes, into adipocytes with brown adipose tissue characteristics show dramatic changes. Includes ...
The regulation of sympathetic innervation density by beige adipocytes in subcutaneous fat is important during a critical ... Altogether, Prdm16 appears to be minimally expressed in white adipocytes in iWAT, and thus its deletion in white adipocytes is ... we believe that Prdm16 is minimally expressed in white adipocytes in iWAT, and thus feel that its deletion in white adipocytes ... A fairly convincing case is made that its the beige adipocytes, but can the authors rule out that white adipocyte Prdm16 is ...
... a marker for white adipocytes) or UCP-1 (a marker of brown/beige adipocytes). They then used additional adipocyte-specific ... ASC-1 is a cell-surface marker for white adipocytes, while PAT2 and P2RX5 are specific to brown/beige adipocytes.. Much work ... Ussar, S. et al. (2014) ASC-1, PAT2, and P2RX5 are cell surface markers for white, beige, and brown adipocytes. Sci Transl Med ... Novel Cell Surface Markers Identified that Differentiate White, Beige and Brown Adipocytes. Posted on August 15, 2014. by Kari ...
A systems biology analysis of adrenergically stimulated adiponectin exocytosis in white adipocytes. Journal of Biological ... Circulating levels of the adipocyte hormone adiponectin are typically reduced in obesity, and this deficiency has been linked ...
In contrast to normal white adipose tissue and in vitro-differentiated wild-type adipocytes, RIP140-null cells show elevated ... In contrast to normal white adipose tissue and in vitro-differentiated wild-type adipocytes, RIP140-null cells show elevated ... In contrast to normal white adipose tissue and in vitro-differentiated wild-type adipocytes, RIP140-null cells show elevated ... In contrast to normal white adipose tissue and in vitro-differentiated wild-type adipocytes, RIP140-null cells show elevated ...
Low-grade chronic inflammation is a major characteristic of obesity and results from deregulated white adipose tissue function ... In support of these correlations, RNAi-mediated depletion of GPS2 and SMRT from cultured human adipocytes promoted derepression ... Consequently, there is interest in identifying the underlying regulatory mechanisms and components that drive adipocyte ... Collectively, our findings identify alterations in a regulatory transcriptional network in adipocytes involving the ...
Underlying the reticular dermis, a thick layer of adipocytes exists that encases mature hair follicles in rodents and humans. ... nomenclature for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white ... Underlying the reticular dermis, a thick layer of adipocytes exists that encases mature hair follicles in rodents and humans. ... Finally, the role of adipocytes has been shown to be relevant for epidermal homoeostasis during hair follicle regeneration and ...
Sirt1 promotes fat mobilization in white adipocytes by repressing PPAR-γ p.771 doi: 10.1038/nature02583 ...
Adipocyte. types of lipocytes: white fat cell, brown and beige fat cells. comparisons and differences. structure, and anatomy. ... People in white underwear set, five types of male and female body shapes, hourglass, inverted triangle, round, rectangle, ... Men and women suffering from gluttony and doing sports isometric icons set isolated on white background 3d vector illustration ... Overweight boys and girls set, cute chubby children cartoon characters with fast food vector illustration isolated on a white ...
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator of the differentiation to brown adipocytes. The main mechanisms occur ... White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are the two main forms of adipose tissue in humans. WAT functions as ... Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator of the differentiation to brown adipocytes. The main mechanisms are ... White adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are the two main forms of adipose tissue in humans. WAT functions as ...
The adipocyte is increasingly found to be a complex and metabolically active cell. At present, the adipocyte is perceived as an ... Body-mass index and mortality among 1.46 million white adults. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 2. 363(23):2211-9. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. [ ... The adipocyte, which is the cellular basis for obesity, may be increased in size or number in obese persons. Hypertrophic ... 101] A study in whites found that all-cause mortality is generally lowest with a BMI of 20-24.9 and reinforced that overweight ...
White matter [nTPM] Single Cell Type RNA. Expand. * Adipocytes [nTPM] * Alveolar cells type 1 [nTPM] ...
Blood vessels control thermogenesis in metabolically active browning white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. Vasculatures ... Factors that control conversion of white adipocytes into browning adipocytes remain to be identified. ... Mechanisms of insulin resistance related to white, beige, and brown adipocytes. Mol Metab 2020;34:27-42. doi: 10.1016/j.molmet. ... 5. Morigny P, Boucher J, Arner P, Langin D. Lipid and glucose metabolism in white adipocytes: pathways, dysfunction and ...
... ZenBio Biological Products and Services ... Intrinsic Properties of Brown and White Adipocytes Have Differential Effects on Macrophage Inflammatory Responses Louisa Dowal ... Omental Adipocytes 6-Well Plate, BMI >30.0. Each. $1,342.00. OA-1012-3. Omental Adipocytes 12-Well Plate, BMI >30.0. Each. $ ... Omental Adipocytes 24-Well Plate, BMI >30.0. Each. $1119.00. OA-1048-3. Omental Adipocytes 48-Well Plate, BMI >30.0. Each. $ ...
White adipocytes : more than just fat depots. S Henry, J Bensley, R Wood-Bradley, L Cullen-McEwen, J Bertram, J Armitage ...
The Seale Laboratory studies the pathways controlling the development and function of adipocytes (fat cells) at the University ... UCP1 IHC staining (brown) of beige adipocytes in a white adipose depot. There are three major types of adipose cells (white, ... White adipose tissue is specialized for storing excess energy (as triglyceride) after eating and releasing energy between meals ... Lipid droplets (red) in cultured mouse adipocytes stained with Oil Red O. Our research aims to understand the pathways ...
The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon and its seemingly distinct regulation from peripheral white adipose tissue (WAT) ... This was sufficient to cause beiging of iWAT adipocytes and a decrease in iWAT adipocyte cell size. By contrast, adipocyte size ... This was sufficient to cause beiging of iWAT adipocytes and a decrease in iWAT adipocyte cell size. By contrast, adipocyte size ... This was sufficient to cause beiging of iWAT adipocytes and a decrease in iWAT adipocyte cell size. By contrast, adipocyte size ...
... its a drug that targets a cell receptor of the blood vessels supplying white adipocytes and causes those blood vessels to ... I tried low carb low fat and had to white knuckle it through many, many days before the cravings eased. After I read Good ... Basically, insulin stimulates adipocytes proliferation (an increase in the number of fat cells) and this effect is permanent. ... Do you know of insulin and adipocytes proliferation? Its what we see in diabetics type 1 who inject insulin in the same spot ...
White matter [nTPM] Single Cell Type RNA. Expand. * Adipocytes [nTPM] * Alveolar cells type 1 [nTPM] ...
Role of CD95-mediated adipocyte loss in autoimmune lipodystrophy. Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, 2006, 91(3 ... CD95 expression in white blood cells of malnourished infants during hospitalization and catch-up growth ... Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal , All issues , Volume 15, 2009 , Volume 15, issue 3 , CD95 expression in white blood cells ... CD95 counts in the 3 types of white blood cells were significantly higher in PEM infants and showed improvement after ...
04923 Regulation of lipolysis in adipocytes. 04920 Adipocytokine signaling pathway. 03320 PPAR signaling pathway. 04929 GnRH ...
  • Lipid droplets (LDs) hypertrophy in adipocytes is the main cause of energy metabolic system dysfunction, obesity and its afflictions such as T2D. (nature.com)
  • Since obesity is determined by the excessive mass of adipose tissue (AT) and in particular adipocytes, adipocytes play an important role in the development of obesity 7 , 8 . (nature.com)
  • These results from the excessive storage of energy in the form of triglycerides (TGs) in lipid droplets (a monolayer membrane with a structure similar to very low-density lipoprotein 10 ) within adipocytes, which links to obesity and to IR. (nature.com)
  • In spite of increasing studies on the properties of AT and in particular adipocytes, the mechanisms that lead to obesity-induced pathophysiological states are still poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Hence, we chose to study human primary adipocytes alone to avoid AT complexity and obtain a clear detailed picture of human adipocytes and its link with obesity and insulin regulation. (nature.com)
  • White adipose tissue is associated with excessive fat storage, obesity, insulin resistance and diabetes. (geresdengle.com)
  • Adults have a predominance of white adipose tissue which correlate with America's obesity epidemic. (geresdengle.com)
  • Such changes to white adipocytes may be an effective strategy for reducing obesity and obesity related disorders (such as insulin resistance and diabetes). (geresdengle.com)
  • Low-grade chronic inflammation is a major characteristic of obesity and results from deregulated white adipose tissue function. (jci.org)
  • In support of these correlations, RNAi-mediated depletion of GPS2 and SMRT from cultured human adipocytes promoted derepression of inflammatory transcription and elevation of obesity-associated inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and MCP-1. (jci.org)
  • Collectively, our findings identify alterations in a regulatory transcriptional network in adipocytes involving the dysregulation of a specific corepressor complex as among the initiating events promoting adipose tissue inflammation in human obesity. (jci.org)
  • In this proposal, we investigate the effects of increasing BMP8b production by adipocytes as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve peripheral mechanisms of thermogenesis and fuel portioning particularly in the context of obesity. (europa.eu)
  • This study was designed to explore the anti-adipogenic effects of lyophilised Opuntia cladode powders (OCP) in an in vitro cellular model for adipocyte differentiation and an in vivo high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity rat model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Poher AL, Veyrat-Durebex C, Altirriba J3, Montet X, J Colin D, Caillon A, Lyautey J, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Ectopic UCP1 overexpression in white adipose tissue improves insulin sensitivity in Lou/C rats, a model of obesity resistance.Diabetes. (unige.ch)
  • Veyrat-Durebex C, Poher AL, Caillon A, Montet X, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Alterations in lipid metabolism and thermogenesis with emergence of brown adipocytes in white adipose tissue in diet-induced obesity-resistant Lou/C rats. (unige.ch)
  • The induction of beige adipocytes in s.c. white adipose tissue (WAT) depots of humans is postulated to improve glucose and lipid metabolism in obesity. (jci.org)
  • The role of MAPKs in adipocyte differentiation and obesity. (wikidata.org)
  • Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in early onset obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number in this condition during adulthood. (adipofat.com)
  • While chronic obesity leads to pathology, acute nutrient excess promotes a protective form of adipose tissue expansion through the generation of new adipocytes (adipogenesis). (vumc.org)
  • Obesity is characterized by excessive fat storage in white adipose tissue (WAT), because of a positive energy balance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Obesity causes excessive growth of adipose depots with adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • MicroRNAs expressed in adipocytes are involved in transcriptional regulation of target mRNAs in obesity, but miRNAs critically involved in this process is not well characterized. (elsevier.com)
  • Glutamine Links Obesity to Inflammation in Human White Adipose Tissue. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While obesity and associated metabolic complications are linked to inflammation of white adipose tissue (WAT), the causal factors remain unclear. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, EDCs elicit obesity by acting directly on white adipose tissue, al- though brain, liver, and even the endocrine pancreas may be direct targets as well. (diabeticmediterraneandiet.com)
  • β3-Adrenergic receptor downregulation leads to adipocyte catecholamine resistance in obesity. (wisc.edu)
  • White cells stuff themselves with fat molecules, in which overloading can lead to obesity. (mybalancemeals.com)
  • The functional conversion of white adipose tissue (WAT) into a tissue with brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like activity, often referred to as "browning," represents an intriguing strategy for combating obesity and metabolic disease. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Additional signs and symptoms in some individuals with this disorder include low levels of white blood cells (neutropenia), overly friendly behavior, and obesity that develops in late childhood or adolescence. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Adipocyte size, number and polarization of lymphocytes and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to metabolic and obesity-related diseases. (osu.cz)
  • A phytol-enriched diet ameliorates severe obesity and the related metabolic abnormalities of white adipose tissue. (nara-wu.ac.jp)
  • Conclusion: A phytol-enriched diet may increase phytanic acid levels in the liver and brown adipocytes, thereby activating PPAR-α in these organs and ameliorating obesity-induced metabolic diseases. (nara-wu.ac.jp)
  • The effects of ginseng extract (GE) and/or testosterone on obesity and adipogenesis in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed castrated C57BL/6J mice and 3T3-L1 adipocytes were examined using in vivo and in vitro approaches. (bslonline.org)
  • Further, white adipose tissue has a "remarkable capacity" to expand with excessive caloric intake by either hypertrophy (increasing size) or hyperplasia (increasing number). (psychologytoday.com)
  • Hypercholesterolemia induced adipocytes hypertrophy and T-lymphocytes infiltration in abdominal white adipose tissue (WAT). (unimib.it)
  • Over the last thirty years mechanisms controlling adipocyte hyperplasia, differentiation, and growth (hypertrophy) and effects of somatotropin and beta-adrenergic agonists on body composition were also emphasized. (nimss.org)
  • Prx5-deletion mice fed on a high-fat diet (HFD) exhibited significant increase in body weight, enormous fat pads, and adipocyte hypertrophy in comparison to wild type mice. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white" by Yuan Zhang, Chao Xie et al. (lsu.edu)
  • Human primary adipocytes derived from 28 female donors' fresh scWAT were used to examine the effects of irisin on browning and mitochondrial respiration, and preadipocytes were used to examine the effects of irisin on adipogenesis and osteogenesis. (lsu.edu)
  • We conclude that irisin promotes "browning" of mature white adipocytes by increasing cellular thermogenesis, whereas it inhibits adipogenesis and promotes osteogenesis during lineage-specific differentiation. (lsu.edu)
  • Whilst, Oroxylin A, an isolated compound from O. indicum, induced both anti-adipogenesis and lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prx5 deletion also remarkably induced adipogenesis-related gene expression in white adipose tissue. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Little is known so far about the biology of these preadipocytes, but recent in vivo cell lineage tracing studies using peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor , a master regulator of adipogenesis, have suggested that preadipocytes in white adipose tissue are characterized by the expression of delta-like 1 homolog ((4). (ipi-145.com)
  • Consistent with the in vivo data, lipid accumulation and the mRNA expression of adipogenesis genes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes were decreased by GE, ginsenosides, and testosterone. (bslonline.org)
  • Curcumin - Curucmin induces browning of white adipocytes as well as inhibition of new fat cell generation. (geresdengle.com)
  • We have recently demonstrated that chronic oral melatonin administration to Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats induces browning of inguinal white adipose tissue, i.e., "beige" depots, which have thermogenic properties. (europa.eu)
  • Thus, white adipocyte overexpansion induces a stress state that ultimately leads to death. (elsevier.com)
  • NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation in hypertrophic adipocytes likely induces obese adipocyte death by pyroptosis, a proinflammatory programmed cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • Irisin (Ir), a recently identified adipomyokine, cleaved and secreted to the circulation from the FNDC5 protein in response to physical activity and some environmental conditions has been postulated to induces the differentiation of a subset of white adipocytes into brown fat and mediates the beneficial effects of exercise on metabolic homeostasis. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • The production of these molecules by adipocytes, coupled with the destruction of these cells, induces the inflammation to become chronic, and influences other systems by altering their functions, which leads to different diseases. (elsevier.es)
  • Docosahexaenoic acid inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces apoptosis in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. (jiaoheng.top)
  • TR agonism also induces the browning of white adipocytes in vitro, indicating that TR-mediated browning is cell autonomous. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • To better understand the role of irisin in humans, we examined the effects of irisin in human primary adipocytes and fresh human subcutaneous white adipose tissue (scWAT). (lsu.edu)
  • Overexpression of miR-27b had the same effects as dexamethasone (DEX) treatment on the inhibition of brown adipose differentiation and the energy expenditure of primary adipocytes. (uthscsa.edu)
  • Subculturing is then performed to detach the ADSCs from the primary adipocytes [ 8 , 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Normally, mature adipocytes and epithelial cells are separated by the basement membrane, limiting the possibility of interaction between the two cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Defined and animal-component free cell culture medium for the differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. (promocell.com)
  • Irisin upregulated the expression of browning-associated genes and UCP1 protein in both cultured primary mature adipocytes and fresh adipose tissues. (lsu.edu)
  • Consequently, there is interest in identifying the underlying regulatory mechanisms and components that drive adipocyte inflammation. (jci.org)
  • Atorvastatin abolished WAT inflammation by reducing adipocyte area and the number of infiltrating T-lymphocytes. (unimib.it)
  • However, enlarged adipocytes of obese individuals promote inflammation and increase the risk of insulin resistance, which could lead to type 2 diabetes. (mybalancemeals.com)
  • However, the role of adipocytes in linking energy metabolic disorders with insulin regulation is unknown in humans. (nature.com)
  • This article reviews the recent existing CAAs studies on the functions and mechanisms of adipocytes in the development of BC, including adipokine regulating, metabolic reprogramming, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, microRNAs (miRNAs) and immune cell adjusting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CRISPR-enhanced human adipocyte browning as cell therapy for metabolic disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • Homozygotes for a targeted mutation display hypoglycemia and hypoleptinemia with significantly reduced white fat pads and a notable increase in metabolic rate. (jax.org)
  • state and time-resolved fluorescence from intracellular metabolic co-factors and lipid droplets can distinguish the functional states of excised white, brown, and cold-induced beige fat. (tufts.edu)
  • To achieve this, the metabolic phenotype of the 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line was defined to generate a metabolically phenotyped in vitro model of adipose tissue. (bl.uk)
  • AHSG tag single nucleotide polymorphisms associate with type 2 diabetes and dyslipidemia: studies of metabolic traits in 7,683 white Danish subjects. (cdc.gov)
  • Small adipocytes in lean individuals promote metabolic homeostasis. (mybalancemeals.com)
  • Here, we evaluated whether adipose tissue IR and related metabolic alterations resulted in CNS changes by studying synapse lipid composition and function in the adipocyte-specific ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphate phosphodiesterase over-expressing transgenic (AtENPP1-Tg) mouse, a model characterized by white adipocyte IR, systemic IR, and ectopic fat deposition. (utmb.edu)
  • White adipose tissue actively contributes to metabolic regulation by production of a variety of hormones and cytokines, commonly referred to as adipokines. (osu.cz)
  • Unlike white fat cells, these cells have considerable cytoplasm, with several lipid droplets scattered throughout, and are known as multilocular cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • [5-8] While WATs store excessive energy as lipid droplets within adipocytes, adipocytes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) are engaged in energy dissipation by generating heat. (lww.com)
  • The Cell - The cell is connective tissue (cells, fibers, fluid) with adipocytes containing things like nuclei, receptors, and those lovely lipid droplets of fat. (leighpeele.com)
  • Cp6 reduced the accumulation of lipid droplets in adipocytes upon differentiation and in HepG2 cells exposed to free fatty acids. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Drawing you out to know you better, I layer the lipid droplets in yellow and white. (wordpress.com)
  • Insulin expression in 10 human primary cell types including adipocytes and macrophages is an evidence for extrapancreatic insulin-producing cells. (nature.com)
  • Anatomical location (e.g. visceral, subcutaneous, epicardial etc) and cellular composition of adipose tissue (e.g. white, beige, and brown adipocytes, macrophages. (portlandpress.com)
  • Chemerin is a ligand for the G-protein coupled receptor ChemR23, which is expressed mainly on dendritic cells, macrophages, and some adipocytes. (discoverx.com)
  • Cp6 also inhibited IL-4-driven differentiation of RAW264.7 macrophages towards M2-like macrophages, which serve as adipocyte progenitors in adipose tissue. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Human white adipose tissue consists of 50-70% adipocytes, 20-40% preadipocytes, 1-10% endothelial cells and about 1-30% macrophages. (progen.com)
  • This results in chronic energy overload and leads to increased apoptosis of adipocytes that in turn stimulates the infiltration of visceral adipose tissue by immune cells, in particular macrophages. (osu.cz)
  • UCP1 is considered a hallmark of brown adipocyte, and is involved in the uncoupling of the electron-transport chain in the mitochondria inner membrane 1 . (nature.com)
  • Male white adipose tissue exhibits the multilocular appearance of brown adipocytes, and expresses UCP1, a specific marker of brown fat. (jax.org)
  • As a result, the percentage of the white adipocytes which had Ucp1 and Cd137 in the cold acclimation group was higher than that in the control group significantly. (mammal.cn)
  • The increase of the white adipocytes which had Ucp1 and Cd137 was observed in the tree shrews during cold acclimation. (mammal.cn)
  • The plasticity of WAT was reflected by that the percentage of the white adipocytes which had Ucp1 and Cd137 returned to what they once were after rewarming. (mammal.cn)
  • The importance of fatty acid alpha-oxidation in the differentiation of adipocytes was emphasised The effects of PPAR delta and PPAR gamma activation in white adipose tissue from the ob/ob mouse model of insulin resistance, and in the phenotyped 3T3-L1 adipocyte model, were investigated. (bl.uk)
  • Regarding T2D, animal studies indicate that some EDCs directly target 􏰁beta and alpha cells in the pancreas, adipocytes, and liver cells and provoke insulin resistance together with hyperinsulinemia. (diabeticmediterraneandiet.com)
  • Such effects were more pronounced in a transgenic animal model of adipocyte insulin resistance (AtENPP1-Tg) compared to their wild-type littermates. (utmb.edu)
  • Brown and Beige Adipocytes. (geresdengle.com)
  • types of lipocytes: white fat cell, brown and beige fat cells. (123rf.com)
  • There are three major types of adipose cells (white, brown, beige) that have differing effects on energy balance and metabolism. (upenn.edu)
  • Beige fat cells have similarities to brown fat cells but arise within white fat tissue. (upenn.edu)
  • We previously demonstrated that melatonin improves mitochondrial respiration, and reduces the oxidative status and susceptibility to apoptosis in white and beige adipocytes. (europa.eu)
  • Mitochondria in white, brown, and beige adipocytes. (nutrition168.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that after induction of beige adipocytes in white fat after cold exposure there is a functional reorganisation of supraspinal pathways. (monash.edu)
  • The findings of this thesis significantly build upon our understanding of the neuroanatomical and neurochemical blueprint of pathways directed to brown, white, and transformed beige fat. (monash.edu)
  • Notably, caspase-1 was not detected in FAT-ATTAC transgenic mice, where adipocytes die of apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • However, hitherto, the results have not lived up to their expected promises, prompting us to perform a well-designed and in-depth study on human primary subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes and adipocytes. (nature.com)
  • Human primary preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes and the pure adipocyte fractions were assessed by monitoring morphologically and via lipid droplet labeling ( Figure 1 A-B ). The efficacy of differentiation reached approximately 90-95%, indicating that adipocytes could be considered as a specific homogenous cell type. (nature.com)
  • Although all PromoCell media are optimized for use with primary human cells, we have received feedback from customers that this particular medium can also be used for murine preadipocytes/adipocytes. (promocell.com)
  • Primary Human White Preadipocytes are isolated from adult subcutaneous or visceral adipose tissue. (promocell.com)
  • Silencing Prx5 promoted preadipocytes to differentiate into adipocytes accumulating lipids by activating adipogenic protein expression. (ewha.ac.kr)
  • Adipocyte renewal from preadipocytes offers been shown that occurs throughout life also to contribute to weight problems, yet hardly any is known regarding the molecular circuits that control preadipocyte development. (ipi-145.com)
  • Adipocytes originate from preadipocytes, for example, fat progenitors located in the stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue. (ipi-145.com)
  • Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are two types of adipose tissue, white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), which are also known as white and brown fat, respectively, and comprise two types of fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marrow adipose tissue response to exercise approximates that of white adipose tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as marrow adipose tissue volume, as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes, connective tissue, muscle or bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of their adipose tissue morphology revealed increases in both adipocyte size and number in most depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • White adipose tissue and brown adipose tissue. (geresdengle.com)
  • Further, increasing expression of brown adipose tissue (adipocytes) may also be correlated with increases in longevity. (geresdengle.com)
  • Studies altering white adipocytes, into adipocytes with brown adipose tissue characteristics show dramatic changes. (geresdengle.com)
  • BMP4-mediated brown fat-like changes in white adipose tissue alter glucose and energy homeostasis. (geresdengle.com)
  • Furthermore, the development of adipocytes in the skin is independent from that of subcutaneous adipose tissue development. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, we propose a refined nomenclature for the cells and adipose tissue underlying the reticular dermis as intradermal adipocytes and dermal white adipose tissue, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • White adipose tissue is specialized for storing excess energy (as triglyceride) after eating and releasing energy between meals and in times of nutrient deprivation. (upenn.edu)
  • However, the early adaptive response of white adipose tissue (WAT), the fat storage organ of the body, to a change from thermoneutrality to room temperature is not known. (frontiersin.org)
  • UA treatment increases energy expenditure (EE) by enhancing thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and inducing browning of white adipose tissue (WAT). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Breast cancer (BC) is a malignant breast tumor confronted with high invasion, metastasis and recurrence rate, and adipocytes are the largest components in breast tissue. (biomedcentral.com)
  • As a major cellular component of the breast tissue stroma, adipocytes are involved in all BC processes, consequently promoting cancer progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • White adipose tissue "plays a key homeostatic role" not only because it stores energy but also because it can mobilize this energy quickly (Pellegrinelli et al, Diabetologia , 2016). (psychologytoday.com)
  • These "anatomically distinct" depots of white adipose tissue are "distinct mini-organs" (Hepler and Gupta, 2017). (psychologytoday.com)
  • It still remains unknown how size "mechanistically initiates and drives" alterations in white adipose tissue (Mejhert and Rydén, 2020), and even "why the body can store subcutaneous fat abundantly when overeating but nevertheless fails to store all of it. (psychologytoday.com)
  • GDF12 stimulates adiponectin secretion from white adipose tissue by direct action on adipocytes. (fightaging.org)
  • Glucose and white adipose tissue metabolism. (tesisenred.net)
  • The upper panel shows interscapular white adipocytes (above a layer of muscle and above brown adipose tissue). (phys.org)
  • Brown adipocytes (BAs) are major components of brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is involved in blood pressure regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vivo, iBAT was converted to white adipose tissue (WAT) in Ang II-induced hypertensive mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fabbiano S, Suárez-Zamorano N, Rigo D, Veyrat-Durebex C, Stevanovic Dokic A, Colin DJ, Trajkovski M. Caloric Restriction Leads to Browning of White Adipose Tissue through Type 2 ImmuneSignaling. (unige.ch)
  • Veyrat-Durebex C, Deblon N, Caillon A, Andrew R, Altirriba J, Odermatt A, Rohner-Jeanrenaud F. Central glucocorticoid administration promotes weight gain and increased 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 expression in white adipose tissue. (unige.ch)
  • A and B ) HSL phosphorylation on residue serine 660 was characterized in abdominal s.c. white adipose tissue (WAT)before and after mirabegron treatment by IHC and quantified as described in Methods. (jci.org)
  • Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing lipids. (adipofat.com)
  • However, the impact of influenza infection on white adipose tissue (WAT), a key tissue in the control of systemic energy homeostasis, has not been yet characterized. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, our findings shed light on the role that the white adipose tissue, which lies at the crossroads of nutrition, metabolism and immunity, may play in influenza infection. (nih.gov)
  • Adipose tissue The adipose tissue is a loose connective tissue full of adipocytes. (dietary-supplements-guide.com)
  • In the human body, white adipose tissue is by far the most prevalent. (press-news.org)
  • In the white adipose tissue (WAT), the ECS stimulates lipogenesis and inhibits lipolysis via several mechanisms, and is under the negative control of either leptin or PPARγ [1,3-5]. (420magazine.com)
  • Hematopoietic Stem Cell-Derived Adipocytes Modulate Adipose Tissue Cellularity, Leptin Production and Insulin Responsiveness in Female Mice. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells produce intermediate lineage adipocyte progenitors that simultaneously express both myeloid and mesenchymal lineage markers in adipose tissue. (ucdenver.edu)
  • De novo generation of adipocytes from circulating progenitor cells in mouse and human adipose tissue. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Types of Fat Tissue - White and brown. (leighpeele.com)
  • Hair follicles (HFs) are immersed inside dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT), but human adipocyte-HF communication stays unexplored. (molvisindex.org)
  • The focus of the RF treatments is especially placed on the stimulation of reactive dermal adipocytes( dWAT -dermal white adipose tissue). (wellcomet.de)
  • [4] This helps drive a process called fat browning , in which white adipose tissue (WAT) is literally colored brown by the proliferation of new mitochondria. (priceplow.com)
  • Alkylglycerol monooxygenase (AGMO) is a tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4)-dependent enzyme with major expression in the liver and white adipose tissue that cleaves alkyl ether glycerolipids. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Increased conversion from energy-storing white adipose tissue to energy- burning brown-like adipose tissue. (priceplow.com)
  • Adipocytes form several types of adipose tissue, at least 2 maybe 3. (wordpress.com)
  • White adipose tissue, I especially enjoy setting in your single lipid droplet (again, like dropping yolk to mix my egg tempera paint). (wordpress.com)
  • GCs transcriptionally regulate miR-27b expression through a GC receptor-mediated direct DNA-binding mechanism, and miR-27b suppresses browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) by targeting the three prime untranslated region of Prdm16. (uthscsa.edu)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) is primarily used for fat storage, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) is primarily used for heat production. (capricorn-scientific.com)
  • The white adipose tissue weight of epididymis, subcutaneous inguinal region, and mesentery were decreased by 36%, 20%, and 40%, respectively, in LAB-P (100 mg/kg)-administered mice. (elsevier.com)
  • White adipose tissue (WAT) plays a critical role in whole body energy homeostasis. (fytexia.com)
  • He has also identified mechanisms through which skeletal muscle can influence the function of other tissues in the body, including white adipose tissue, to regulate whole body energy expenditure and utilisation. (edu.au)
  • It was observed that Ile deficiency significantly increasing fat mobilization in white adipose tissue and reducing body fat mass [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Brown and white adipose tissue is a source of mesenchymal stem cells, specifically adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). (hindawi.com)
  • After feeding mice a HFD for 8 weeks, we found that mice also receiving GE and/or testosterone showed decreased body weight, adipose tissue mass, adipocyte size, and hepatic lipid accumulation compared with untreated HFD-fed mice. (bslonline.org)
  • Here we present evidence that subcutaneous and visceral hypertrophic adipocytes of leptin-deficient ( ob/ob and db/db ) obese mice exhibit ultrastructural abnormalities (including calcium accumulation and cholesterol crystals), many of which are more common in hyperglycemic db/db versus normoglycemic ob/ob mice and in visceral versus subcutaneous depots. (elsevier.com)
  • RT-PCR showed NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the fat pads of both leptindeficient and high-fat diet obese mice, in which formation of active caspase-1 was documented by immunohistochemistry in the cytoplasm of several hypertrophic adipocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • It is been shown here that the number of adipocytes stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese individuals, even after marked weight loss, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. (adipofat.com)
  • Individuals who become obese as adults, rather than as adolescents, have no more adipocytes than they had before. (iiab.me)
  • It has been established that being overweight or obese is associated with an increase in both the size and number of adipocytes along with an excessive amount of fat accumulation [ 3 , 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The storage capacity of hypertrophic adipocytes in obese patients is limited. (osu.cz)
  • The current study aims to characterize and compare visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues in terms of macromolecular content and investigate transdifferentiation between white and brown adipocytes. (metu.edu.tr)
  • Ahmadian M, Duncan RE, Sul HS (2009) The skinny on fat: lipolysis and fatty acid utilization in adipocytes. (springer.com)
  • The dietary administration of RK to male mice has been reported to prevent high-fat diet-induced elevation in body weight and to increase lipolysis in white adipocytes. (thieme-connect.de)
  • In cell culture, adipocyte progenitors can also form osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Leptin is a hormone originally discovered in white adipocytes which regulates energy metabolism and appetite. (bmj.com)
  • These findings suggest that RK holds great promise as an herbal medicine since its biological activities alter the lipid metabolism in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (thieme-connect.de)
  • Here, we demonstrate that intrinsic two-photon excited fluorescence enables functional imaging of adipocyte metabolism with subcellular resolution. (tufts.edu)
  • Adipocyte lipid turnover, however, is strongly related to conditions with disturbed lipid metabolism. (adipofat.com)
  • White fats cells are linked to weight gain, while brown cells improve metabolism and are linked to weight loss. (zylxy.com)
  • Abnormal accumulation of adipocytes then affect whole body condition ( 11 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, treatment with 10 µM of RK increased the fatty acid oxidation and suppressed lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (thieme-connect.de)
  • In vivo, antagonizing miR-27b function in DEX-treated mice resulted in the efficient induction of brown adipocytes within WAT and improved GC-induced central fat accumulation. (uthscsa.edu)
  • These novel findings provide evidence that the OIE derived from the fruit pods of the plant is capable of inhibiting lipid and carbohydrate accumulation in adipocytes and also has the potential to inhibit an enzyme associated with fat absorption. (biomedcentral.com)
  • CAAs present a vicious phenotype compared with mature mammary adipocytes and mediate the crosstalk network between adipocytes and BC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • According to a study, CBD can recruit the brown-like phenotype in white adipocytes and activate brown adipocytes. (zylxy.com)
  • Stable stem cell commitment to the adipocyte lineage by inhibition of DNA methylation: role of the BMP-4 gene. (wikidata.org)
  • Insulin-like growth factor-1/insulin bypasses Pref-1/FA1-mediated inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. (wikidata.org)
  • Inhibition of white preadipocyte proliferation by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species. (medecinesciences.org)
  • Adipocyte lipid chaperone AP2 is a secreted adipokine regulating hepatic glucose production. (harvard.edu)
  • White fat cells contain a single large lipid droplet surrounded by a layer of cytoplasm, and are known as unilocular. (wikipedia.org)
  • White fat cells secrete many proteins acting as adipokines such as resistin, adiponectin, leptin and apelin. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD95 counts in the 3 types of white blood cells were significantly higher in PEM infants and showed improvement after nutritional rehabilitation yet not reaching the control values. (who.int)
  • Our research aims to understand the pathways controlling the development and function of adipocytes (fat cells). (upenn.edu)
  • Besides, mounting studies have confirmed that adipocytes adjacent to invasive cancer cells, which are referred to as cancer-associated adipocytes (CAAs), are involved in the progression of BC [ 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, BC cells will directly expose to the tumor microenvironment (TME) containing adipocytes when they break through the basement membrane [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Ultimately, adipocytes (fat cells) become "exhausted" (Hepler and Gupta, 2017). (psychologytoday.com)
  • Adipocytes (fat cells), electron micrograph. (psychologytoday.com)
  • These images show expression of the OPN3 gene (in blue) in white fat cells of mice in two locations. (phys.org)
  • When the light exposure occurs, OPN3 prompts white fat cells to release fatty acids into the bloodstream. (phys.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be expanded and differentiated into a variety of mesenchymal cell types, such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of lineages, including osteocytes, adipocytes and chondrocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new treatment for post traumatic stress disorder tested in mice shows that injecting adiponectin, which is secreted by fat cells called adipocytes - was found to decrease fear. (medindia.net)
  • The researchers took pre-fat cells, called pre-adipocytes, from samples of brown fat taken from human patients. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • The study found that brown fat cells also exist in fat located deeper in the body, sometimes even mixed in among white fat cells-a condition that Cypress calls "marbling at the cellular level. (diabeteshealth.com)
  • Ovarian Hormones Regulate the Production of Adipocytes From Bone Marrow-Derived Cells. (ucdenver.edu)
  • White is most common, therefore these stats will be in reference to white fat cells. (leighpeele.com)
  • The adipocyte reduction takes place by reduction of individual adipocytes, cell death or by differentiation of these cells into other cells (e.g. fibroblasts). (wellcomet.de)
  • Illustration depicting white adipose cells. (iiab.me)
  • White fat cells or monovacuolar cells contain a large lipid droplet surrounded by a layer of cytoplasm. (iiab.me)
  • Marrow adipocytes, like brown and white adipocytes, are derived from mesenchymal stem cells . (iiab.me)
  • However, Cp6 reversibly inhibited the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells towards adipocytes, in which AGMO expression was upregulated upon differentiation. (uni-frankfurt.de)
  • Fat cells, also known as adipocytes, store energy in the body. (mybalancemeals.com)
  • Fat cells are also broken down into two dominant types, including white (WAT) and brown adipocytes tissues (BAT). (mybalancemeals.com)
  • Taken together, the data suggests CBD may be helpful for browning white fat cells, increase fatty acid breakdown, and lessen the formation of new fat cells. (mybalancemeals.com)
  • According to several studies, CBD oil can promote the darkening of white blood cells, which will increase the variety of brown fat cells in the physique. (zylxy.com)
  • A natural cosmetic active that helps change the function of adipocytes from fat storage (white fat) to fat burning cells. (technicalartofscience.com)
  • This protein is thought to be involved in normal growth and development of nerve cells (neurons) and fat cells (adipocytes), and may play a role in the storage and distribution of fats in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We confirm that phytanic acid treatment induced PPAR-α target gene expression in both primary hepatocytes and brown adipocytes from wild-type mice, but not in these cells from PPAR-α-deficient mice. (nara-wu.ac.jp)
  • Finally, the role of adipocytes has been shown to be relevant for epidermal homoeostasis during hair follicle regeneration and wound healing. (nih.gov)
  • Recent data have revealed a common precursor for dermal fibroblasts and intradermal adipocytes during development. (nih.gov)
  • With the modern SKIN AURA ® device the direct focus is on the interaction of the dermal adipocytes located in the boundary layer with the structures of the dermis above. (wellcomet.de)
  • This boundary layer contains the dynamic dermal adipocytes. (wellcomet.de)
  • The lower panel shows white adipocytes from the inguinal adipose depot. (phys.org)
  • FABP4 encodes the fatty acid binding protein found in adipocytes. (genetex.com)
  • Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive peptides (adipokines), which act at both the local (autocrine/paracrine) and systemic (endocrine) level. (adipofat.com)
  • Exercise stimulate transdifferentiation of white fat into brown fat (browning phenomena) Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Browning" of White Adipocytes. (geresdengle.com)
  • Consistent with this mechanism, UA loses its beneficial effects on activation of BAT, browning of white fat, body weight control, and glucose homeostasis when thyroid hormone (TH) production is blocked by its inhibitor, propylthiouracil (PTU). (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Conversely, administration of exogenous tetraiodothyronine (T4) to PTU-treated mice restores UA-induced activation of BAT and browning of white fat and its preventive role on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Mechanistically, the sGC stimulator enhanced expression of thermogenic genes and induced "browning" (i.e. the expression of brown adipocyte-specific markers) of murine and human adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, a 2016 study published in Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry shows cannabidiol promotes browning of white adipocytes. (mybalancemeals.com)
  • Surprisingly, these proteins also retain transacylase activity, a hitherto unknown pathway of triacylglycerol synthesis in the adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Secretion of fatty acid binding protein aP2 from adipocytes through a nonclassical pathway in response to adipocyte lipase activity. (harvard.edu)
  • 3. to identify the specific signalling pathways regulated by BMP8b in adipocytes and skeletal muscle. (europa.eu)
  • This implies that triglycerides, on average, are replaced six times during the lifespan of the adipocyte, enabling a dynamic regulation of lipid storage and mobilization over time. (adipofat.com)
  • Glutamine administration in vitro and in vivo attenuated both pro-inflammatory gene and protein levels in adipocytes and WAT and macrophage infiltration in WAT. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, stem bark extracts generated an inhibitory effect on an α-glucosidase enzyme in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes [ 13 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These data may indicate that Cr source may influence lipid filling in IM adipocytes via inhibitory action of AMPK phosphorylation and upregulating expression of adipogenic genes. (animbiosci.org)
  • Regulation of UCP gene expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in primary culture. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Addition of CrAc did not alter gene expression of glucose transporter 4, GPR41 , or GPR43 in both IM and SC adipocytes. (animbiosci.org)
  • Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. (iiab.me)
  • Similar optical changes are identified when white and brown fat are assessed in vivo. (tufts.edu)
  • These findings identify a role for hedgehog signaling in white/brown adipocyte determination and link in vivo RNAi-based scanning of the Drosophila genome to regulation of adipocyte cell fate in mammals. (cnrs.fr)
  • Human adipocytes constitutively synthesize and secrete insulin, which is biologically functional. (nature.com)
  • Furthermore, we identified a regulatory cascade containing PPARγ and TWIST1 that controlled the expression of GPS2 and SMRT in human adipocytes. (jci.org)
  • On the other hand, brown adipocytes utilize available energy to generate heat but are only found in a few places in the adult human body. (press-news.org)
  • Experiments in human adipocytes confirmed that the gene is upregulated in response to insulin in a glucose-dependent fashion. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Metabolomic and bioenergetic analyses in human adipocytes suggested that glutamine attenuated glycolysis and reduced uridine diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) levels. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Functional studies in human adipocytes established a mechanistic link between reduced glutamine, O-GlcNAcylation of nuclear proteins, and a pro-inflammatory transcriptional response. (ox.ac.uk)
  • De novo generation of white adipocytes from the myeloid lineage via mesenchymal intermediates is age, adipose depot, and gender specific. (ucdenver.edu)
  • OCP treatment impaired the differentiation in adipocytes, as supported by the decreased triglyceride content and a low glucose uptake, which remained comparable to that observed in undifferentiated controls, suggesting that an anti-adipogenic effect was exerted by OCP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of an O. indicum extract (OIE) on the adipogenic and biomolecular change in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanistically, activation of hedgehog signaling irreversibly blocked differentiation of white adipocytes through direct, coordinate modulation of early adipogenic factors. (cnrs.fr)
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine origin upregulate mitochondrial biogenesis and induce beta-oxidation in white fat. (jiaoheng.top)
  • Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species control the transcription factor CHOP-10/GADD153 and adipocyte differentiation: a mechanism for hypoxia-dependent effect. (medecinesciences.org)
  • Unlike most other tissues in the body, adipose tissues, in particular white adipose tissues (WATs), experience expansion and shrinkage throughout the entire adult life. (lww.com)
  • Here, we identified upregulation of miR-221-3p and miR-222-3p in the white adipose tissues in C57BL/6 mice fed with high fat-high sucrose (HFHS) chow by RNA sequencing. (elsevier.com)
  • This gene encodes a protein that is secreted by white adipocytes, and which plays a major role in the regulation of body weight. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from white adipocytes and implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy balance. (prospecbio.com)
  • Chemerin is a chemoattractant expressed in white adipose, liver, and lung tissues. (discoverx.com)
  • These hyphae extended toward the hypodermic fat tissues and were associated with a break in the cell membrane of adipocytes and with crystals inside the adipocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • Culture of tissues samples on Sabouraud-chloramphenicol-gentamicin agar after 4 days at 30°C and 37°C grew a white aerial mold, which covered the entire surface of the agar. (cdc.gov)
  • White adipocyte 's cytoplasm contains a one large lipid droplet. (adipofat.com)
  • Transcriptional repression of pref-1 by glucocorticoids promotes 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. (wikidata.org)