Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Inbreed BN (Brown Norway) rats are a strain of laboratory rats that are specifically bred for research purposes, characterized by their uniform genetic makeup and susceptibility to various diseases, which makes them ideal models for studying human physiology and pathophysiology.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
Dioxoles are organic compounds containing a five-membered ring consisting of two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms, often found as substructures in various natural and synthetic molecules, including certain pharmaceuticals and toxic dioxin pollutants.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.
Methylglucosides are a type of sugar alcohols, specifically methylated glucose derivatives, which are used as sweetening agents, excipients, and solvents in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products due to their low toxicity and good solubility in water.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase is an enzyme (EC 1.1.1.8) that catalyzes the reversible conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol 3-phosphate, using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as an electron acceptor in the process.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Fucaceae. It is found in temperate, marine intertidal areas along rocky coasts and is a source of ALGINATES. Some species of Fucus are referred to as KELP.
The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Thiazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a sulfur atom and a nitrogen atom, which are bound by two carbon atoms to form a five-membered ring, and are widely found in various natural and synthetic substances, including some pharmaceuticals and vitamins.
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.
Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups, -N=N-, linking two aromatic rings, which can impart various colors and are used in dyes, pharmaceuticals, and chemical research.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Hexoses are simple monosaccharides, specifically six-carbon sugars, which include glucose, fructose, and galactose, and play crucial roles in biological processes such as energy production and storage, and structural components of cells.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.
Glucose in blood.
'Deoxy sugars' are monosaccharides or oligosaccharides that contain fewer hydroxyl groups than the corresponding hexose or pentose, with deoxyribose being a well-known example of a deoxy sugar.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
The consumption of edible substances.
A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.
A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Color of the iris.
Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.

Expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-signaling factors in brown adipocytes is influenced specifically by 17beta-estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone. (1/125)

Control of mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), as part of the thermogenesis program, is a complex process that requires the integration of multiple transcription factors to orchestrate mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. Despite the knowledge of the role of sex hormones on BAT physiology, little is known about the effect of these hormones on the mitochondrial biogenic program. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol, and progesterone on the expression of nuclear factors involved in the control of mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenic function such as ppargamma, pgc1alpha, nrf1, gabpa, and tfam, and also an inhibitor of PI3K-Akt pathway, recently found to be involved in the control of mitochondrial recruitment (pten). For this purpose, an in vitro assay using cell-cultured brown adipocytes was used to address the role of steroid hormones, progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol on the mRNA expression of these factors by real-time PCR. Thus 17beta-estradiol seemed to exert a dual effect, activating the PI3K-Akt pathway by inhibiting pten mRNA expression and also inhibiting nrf1 and tfam mRNA expression. Progesterone seemed to positively stimulate mitochondriogenesis and BAT differentiation by increasing the mRNA expression of the gabpa-tfam axis and ppargamma, respectively, but also exerted a negative output by increasing pten mRNA levels. Finally, testosterone inhibited the transcription of pgc1alpha, the master factor involved in UCP1 expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, our results support the idea that sex hormones have direct effects on different mediators of the mitochondriogenesis program.  (+info)

Bidirectional Ca2+ coupling of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum and regulation of multimodal Ca2+ entries in rat brown adipocytes. (2/125)

How the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria communicate with each other and how they regulate plasmalemmal Ca(2+) entry were studied in cultured rat brown adipocytes. Cytoplasmic Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by fluorometry. The sustained component of rises in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) produced by thapsigargin was abolished by removing extracellular Ca(2+), depressed by depleting extracellular Na(+), and enhanced by raising extracellular pH. FCCP, dinitrophenol, and rotenone caused bi- or triphasic rises in [Ca(2+)](i), in which the first phase was accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization. The FCCP-induced first phase was partially inhibited by oligomycin but not by ruthenium red, cyclosporine A, U-73122, a Ca(2+)-free EGTA solution, and an Na(+)-free solution. The FCCP-induced second phase paralleling mitochondrial repolarization was partially blocked by removing extracellular Ca(2+) and fully blocked by oligomycin but not by thapsigargin or an Na(+)-deficient solution, was accompanied by a rise in cytoplasmic Mg(2+) concentration, and was summated with a high pH-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i), whereas the extracellular Ca(2+)-independent component was blocked by U-73122 and cyclopiazonic acid. The FCCP-induced third phase was blocked by removing Ca(2+) but not by thapsigargin, depressed by decreasing Na(+), and enhanced by raising pH. Cyclopiazonic acid-evoked rises in [Ca(2+)](i) in a Ca(2+)-free solution were depressed after FCCP actions. Thus mitochondrial uncoupling causes Ca(2+) release, activating Ca(2+) release from the ER and store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and directly elicits a novel plasmalemmal Ca(2+) entry, whereas Ca(2+) release from the ER activates Ca(2+) accumulation in, or release from, mitochondria, indicating bidirectional mitochondria-ER couplings in rat brown adipocytes.  (+info)

Hypoxic adipocytes pattern early heterotopic bone formation. (3/125)

The factors contributing to heterotopic ossification, the formation of bone in abnormal soft-tissue locations, are beginning to emerge, but little is known about microenvironmental conditions promoting this often devastating disease. Using a murine model in which endochondral bone formation is triggered in muscle by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), we studied changes near the site of injection of BMP2-expressing cells. As early as 24 hours later, brown adipocytes began accumulating in the lesional area. These cells stained positively for pimonidazole and therefore generated hypoxic stress within the target tissue, a prerequisite for the differentiation of stem cells to chondrocytes and subsequent heterotopic bone formation. We propose that aberrant expression of BMPs in soft tissue stimulates production of brown adipocytes, which drive the early steps of heterotopic endochondral ossification by lowering oxygen tension in adjacent tissue, creating the correct environment for chondrogenesis. Results in misty gray lean mutant mice not producing brown fat suggest that white adipocytes convert into fat-oxidizing cells when brown adipocytes are unavailable, providing a compensatory mechanism for generation of a hypoxic microenvironment. Manipulation of the transcriptional control of adipocyte fate in local soft-tissue environments may offer a means to prevent or treat development of bone in extraskeletal sites.  (+info)

Transcriptional control of brown fat determination by PRDM16. (4/125)

Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1alpha, UCP1, and type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) expression and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgenic expression of PRDM16 at physiological levels in white fat depots stimulates the formation of brown fat cells. Depletion of PRDM16 through shRNA expression in brown fat cells causes a near total loss of the brown characteristics. PRDM16 activates brown fat cell identity at least in part by simultaneously activating PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta through direct protein binding. These data indicate that PRDM16 can control the determination of brown fat fate.  (+info)

Ca(2+) -independent effects of BAPTA and EGTA on single-channel Cl(-) currents in brown adipocytes. (5/125)

The Cl(-) channels of brown adipocytes electrophysiologically resemble outwardly rectifying Cl(-) channels (ORCC). To study tentative Ca(2+) regulation of these channels, we attempted to control Ca(2+) levels at the cytoplasmic side of the inside-out membrane patches with Ca(2+)-chelating agents. However, we found that the commonly used Ca(2+)-chelators EGTA and BAPTA by themselves influenced the Cl(-) channel currents, unrelated to their calcium chelating effects. Consequently, in this report we delineate effects of Ca(2+)-chelators (acting from the cytoplasmic side) on the single Cl(-) channel currents in patch-clamp experiments. Using fixed (1-2 mM) concentrations of chelators, two types of Cl(-) channels were identified, as discriminated by their reaction to the Ca(2+)-chelators and by their conductance: true-blockage channels (31 pS) and quasi-blockage channels (52 pS). In true-blockage channels, EGTA and BAPTA inhibited channel activity in a classical flickery type manner. In quasi-blockage channels, chelators significantly shortened the duration of individual openings, as in a flickering block, but the overall channel activity tended to increase. This dual effect of mean open time decrease accompanied by a tendency of open probability to increase we termed a quasi-blockage. Despite the complications due to the chelators as such, we could detect a moderate inhibitory effect of Ca(2+). The anionic classical Cl(-) channel blockers DIDS and SITS could mimic the true/quasi blockage of EGTA and BAPTA. It was concluded that at least in this experimental system, standard techniques for Ca(2+) level control in themselves could fundamentally affect the behaviour of Cl(-) channels.  (+info)

Insulin resistance induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in myocytes and brown adipocytes. (6/125)

Insulin resistance is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, and obesity is a risk factor for its development, in part because adipose tissue secretes proteins, called adipokines, that may influence insulin sensitivity. Among these molecules, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha has been proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance because TNF-alpha is overexpressed in adipose tissues of obese animals and humans, and obese mice lacking either TNF-alpha or its receptor show protection against developing insulin resistance. Direct exposure to TNF-alpha induces a state of insulin resistance in terms of glucose uptake in myocytes and brown adipocytes because of the activation of proinflammatory pathways that impair insulin signaling at the level of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. In this regard, the Ser(307) residue in IRS-1 has been identified as a site for the inhibitory effects of TNF-alpha in myotubes, with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and inhibitor kB kinase being involved in the phosphorylation of this residue. Conversely, Ser phosphorylation of IRS-2 mediated by TNF-alpha activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase was the mechanism found in brown adipocytes. Protein-Tyr phosphatase (PTP)1B acts as a physiological, negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotyrosine residues of the insulin receptor and IRS-1, and PTP1B expression is increased in muscle and white adipose tissue of obese and diabetic humans and rodents. Moreover, up-regulation of PTP1B expression was recently found in cells treated with TNF-alpha Accordingly, myocytes and primary brown adipocytes deficient in PTP1B are protected against insulin resistance induced by this cytokine. Furthermore, down-regulation of PTP1B activity is possible by the use of pharmacological agonists of nuclear receptors that restore insulin sensitivity in the presence of TNF-alpha. In conclusion, the lack of PTP1B in muscle and brown adipocytes increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake and could confer protection against insulin resistance induced by adipokines.  (+info)

Nutritional and hormonal regulation of uncoupling protein gene expression in rat adipocytes. (7/125)

Nutritional and hormonal regulation of the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, -2, and -3 mRNA and protein was investigated in primary cultured adipocytes of rats. The UCP-1, -2, -3 mRNA and protein induction in the adipocytes reached maximal levels at 4 h in the presence of glucose with or without insulin. Moreover, the UCP induction was accelerated by triiodothyronine (T3) or epinephrine, and reached a maximum at 2 h. It appeared that the induction of UCP mRNA and protein was rapid. UCP-1 mRNA expression was stimulated by the presence of T3 or epinephrine in the culture medium. UCP-2 mRNA expression was more markedly increased by glucose, unsaturated fatty acids, insulin and T3 than UCP-1 or -3 mRNA expression. UCP-3 expression was more markedly increased by epinephrine than by T3. The protein expression of the UCPs was induced by glucose and the hormones nearly parallel to the UCP mRNA expression. Thus, UCP-2 expression appears to be stimulated by energy sources such as glucose and fat, and by regulators of thermogenesis and basal metabolic rate such as T3 and insulin, in contrast to UCP-1 and -3 expression.  (+info)

Forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 in adipose tissue regulates energy storage and expenditure. (8/125)

OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue serves as an integrator of various physiological pathways, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily (FoxO) 1 mediates insulin action at the transcriptional level. However, physiological roles of FoxO1 in adipose tissue remain unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study, we generated adipose tissue-specific FoxO1 transgenic mice (adipocyte protein 2 [aP(2)]-FLAG-Delta 256) using an aP(2) promoter/enhancer and a mutant FoxO1 (FLAG Delta 256) in which the carboxyl terminal transactivation domain was deleted. Using these mice, we analyzed the effects of the overexpression of FLAG Delta 256 on glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. RESULTS: The aP(2)-FLAG-Delta 256 mice showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity accompanied with smaller-sized adipocytes and increased adiponectin (adipoq) and Glut 4 (Slc2a4) and decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (Ccr2) gene expression levels in white adipose tissue (WAT) under a high-fat diet. Furthermore, the aP(2)-FLAG-Delta 256 mice had increased oxygen consumption accompanied with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1 alpha protein and uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 (Ucp1), UCP-2 (Ucp2), and beta 3-AR (Adrb3) in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Overexpression of FLAG Delta 256 in T37i cells, which are derived from the hibernoma of SV40 large T antigen transgenic mice, increased expression of PGC-1 alpha protein and Ucp1. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous FoxO1 in T37i cells increased Pgc1 alpha (Ppargc1a), Pgc1 beta (Ppargc1b), Ucp1, and Adrb3 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that FoxO1 modulates energy homeostasis in WAT and BAT through regulation of adipocyte size and adipose tissue-specific gene expression in response to excessive calorie intake.  (+info)

Adipocytes are specialized cells that comprise adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue. They are responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, particularly triglycerides, and releasing energy when needed through a process called lipolysis. There are two main types of adipocytes: white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes primarily store energy, while brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adipocytes also secrete various hormones and signaling molecules that contribute to whole-body homeostasis. These include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of adipocyte function has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Adipose tissue, brown, also known as brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a type of fat in mammals that plays a crucial role in non-shivering thermogenesis, which is the process of generating heat and maintaining body temperature through the burning of calories. Unlike white adipose tissue, which primarily stores energy in the form of lipids, brown adipose tissue contains numerous mitochondria rich in iron, giving it a brown appearance. These mitochondria contain a protein called uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which allows for the efficient conversion of stored energy into heat rather than ATP production.

Brown adipose tissue is typically found in newborns and hibernating animals, but recent studies have shown that adults also possess functional brown adipose tissue, particularly around the neck, shoulders, and spine. The activation of brown adipose tissue has been suggested as a potential strategy for combating obesity and related metabolic disorders due to its ability to burn calories and increase energy expenditure. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying brown adipose tissue function and its therapeutic potential in treating these conditions.

Adipocytes, white are specialized cells that comprise the majority of adipose tissue, also known as white fat. These cells are primarily responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, or fatty acids, which can be released and used by the body during periods of increased metabolic demand or caloric deficit.

White adipocytes have a large, central lipid droplet that occupies most of the cell volume, giving it a characteristic appearance under the microscope. They also contain a small amount of cytoplasm and a nucleus that is often pushed to the periphery of the cell.

In addition to their energy storage function, white adipocytes also play important roles in regulating metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. Dysfunction of white adipose tissue and adipocytes has been implicated in various diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers.

3T3-L1 cells are a widely used cell line in biomedical research, particularly in the study of adipocytes (fat cells) and adipose tissue. These cells are derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts and have the ability to differentiate into adipocytes under specific culture conditions.

When 3T3-L1 cells are exposed to a cocktail of hormones and growth factors, they undergo a process called adipogenesis, during which they differentiate into mature adipocytes. These differentiated cells exhibit many characteristics of fat cells, including the accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of adipocyte-specific genes and proteins, and the ability to respond to hormones such as insulin.

Researchers use 3T3-L1 cells to study various aspects of adipocyte biology, including the regulation of fat metabolism, the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders, and the effects of drugs or other compounds on adipose tissue function. However, it is important to note that because these cells are derived from mice, they may not always behave exactly the same way as human adipocytes, so results obtained using 3T3-L1 cells must be validated in human cell lines or animal models before they can be applied to human health.

Adipocytes, brown, also known as brown adipose cells or brown fat cells, are specialized types of cells found in mammals that play a crucial role in thermoregulation and energy expenditure. Unlike white adipocytes, which primarily store energy in the form of lipids, brown adipocytes contain numerous small lipid droplets and a high concentration of mitochondria, giving them a characteristic brown color.

The primary function of brown adipocytes is to generate heat through non-shivering thermogenesis, a process that involves the uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria. This process generates heat instead of producing ATP, helping to maintain body temperature during cold exposure or other physiological stressors.

Brown adipocytes are found in specific depots throughout the body, such as the interscapular region in rodents and along the spinal cord in humans. They can also be present within white adipose tissue, where they are referred to as beige or brite (brown-in-white) adipocytes. The development and activity of brown and beige adipocytes can be influenced by various factors, including cold exposure, exercise, and certain pharmacological agents, making them potential targets for the treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Lipolysis is the process by which fat cells (adipocytes) break down stored triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. This process occurs when the body needs to use stored fat as a source of energy, such as during fasting, exercise, or in response to certain hormonal signals. The breakdown products of lipolysis can be used directly by cells for energy production or can be released into the bloodstream and transported to other tissues for use. Lipolysis is regulated by several hormones, including adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone, which act on lipases, enzymes that mediate the breakdown of triglycerides.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Glucose Transporter Type 4 (GLUT4) is a type of glucose transporter protein that plays a crucial role in regulating insulin-mediated glucose uptake into cells, particularly in muscle and fat tissues. GLUT4 is primarily located in intracellular vesicles within these cell types and moves to the plasma membrane upon stimulation by insulin or muscle contraction, facilitating the influx of glucose into the cell. Dysfunction in GLUT4 regulation has been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

Adipogenesis is the process by which precursor cells differentiate into mature adipocytes, or fat cells. This complex biological process involves a series of molecular and cellular events that are regulated by various genetic and epigenetic factors.

During adipogenesis, preadipocytes undergo a series of changes that include cell cycle arrest, morphological alterations, and the expression of specific genes that are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. These changes ultimately result in the formation of mature adipocytes that are capable of storing energy in the form of lipids.

Abnormalities in adipogenesis have been linked to various health conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate adipogenesis is an active area of research, as it may lead to the development of new therapies for these and other related diseases.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the passive or active transport of monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body.

There are two main types of monosaccharide transport proteins: facilitated diffusion transporters and active transporters. Facilitated diffusion transporters, also known as glucose transporters (GLUTs), passively transport monosaccharides down their concentration gradient without the need for energy. In contrast, active transporters, such as the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), use energy in the form of ATP to actively transport monosaccharides against their concentration gradient.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the intestines, kidneys, liver, and brain. They play a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by regulating the uptake and release of glucose into and out of cells. Dysfunction of these transporters has been implicated in several diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders.

Adipose tissue, white is a type of fatty tissue in the body that functions as the primary form of energy storage. It is composed of adipocytes, which are specialized cells that store energy in the form of lipids, primarily triglycerides. The main function of white adipose tissue is to provide energy to the body during periods of fasting or exercise by releasing free fatty acids into the bloodstream. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. White adipose tissue can be found throughout the body, including beneath the skin (subcutaneous) and surrounding internal organs (visceral).

Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms. In a medical context, it often refers to the generation of body heat by metabolic processes, especially those that increase the rate of metabolism to produce energy and release it as heat. This can be induced by various factors such as cold exposure, certain medications, or by consuming food, particularly foods high in thermogenic nutrients like protein and certain spices. It's also a key component of weight loss strategies, as increasing thermogenesis can help burn more calories.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Phaeophyta is a taxonomic division that refers to a group of complex, multicellular brown algae found in marine environments. These algae are characterized by their pigmentation, which includes fucoxanthin, chlorophyll-a, and chlorophyll-c, giving them a brown color. They have diverse morphology, ranging from simple thread-like forms to large seaweeds.

Phaeophyta species are primarily found in cold, nutrient-rich waters and play an essential role in marine ecosystems as primary producers and habitats for various marine organisms. Some examples of Phaeophyta include kelps, rockweed, and bladderwrack. It's worth noting that the classification and nomenclature of algae are continually evolving, so different sources might use slightly different terminology or categorization.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Mitochondrial proteins are any proteins that are encoded by the nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome and are located within the mitochondria, an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes including energy production, metabolism of lipids, amino acids, and steroids, regulation of calcium homeostasis, and programmed cell death or apoptosis.

Mitochondrial proteins can be classified into two main categories based on their origin:

1. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (NEMPs): These are proteins that are encoded by genes located in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytoplasm, and then imported into the mitochondria through specific import pathways. NEMPs make up about 99% of all mitochondrial proteins and are involved in various functions such as oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial dynamics.

2. Mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins (MEPs): These are proteins that are encoded by the mitochondrial genome, synthesized within the mitochondria, and play essential roles in the electron transport chain (ETC), a key component of oxidative phosphorylation. The human mitochondrial genome encodes only 13 proteins, all of which are subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V of the ETC.

Defects in mitochondrial proteins can lead to various mitochondrial disorders, which often manifest as neurological, muscular, or metabolic symptoms due to impaired energy production. These disorders are usually caused by mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial genes that encode mitochondrial proteins.

PPAR gamma, or Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma, is a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of genes involved in adipogenesis (the process of forming mature fat cells), lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. PPAR gamma is primarily expressed in adipose tissue but can also be found in other tissues such as the immune system, large intestine, and brain.

PPAR gamma forms a heterodimer with another nuclear receptor protein, RXR (Retinoid X Receptor), and binds to specific DNA sequences called PPREs (Peroxisome Proliferator Response Elements) in the promoter regions of target genes. Upon binding, PPAR gamma modulates the transcription of these genes, either activating or repressing their expression.

Agonists of PPAR gamma, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes due to their insulin-sensitizing effects. These drugs work by binding to and activating PPAR gamma, which in turn leads to the upregulation of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

In summary, PPAR gamma is a nuclear receptor protein that regulates gene expression related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation has therapeutic implications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Beta-3 adrenergic receptors (β3-AR) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are primarily located in the adipose tissue, where they play a role in regulating lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

Activation of β3-AR stimulates the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase, which leads to the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of free fatty acids. This process is important for maintaining energy homeostasis and can be activated through exercise, cold exposure, or pharmacological means.

In addition to their role in metabolism, β3-AR have also been implicated in the regulation of cardiovascular function, bladder function, and inflammation. Selective β3-AR agonists are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Deoxyglucose is a glucose molecule that has had one oxygen atom removed, resulting in the absence of a hydroxyl group (-OH) at the 2' position of the carbon chain. It is used in research and medical settings as a metabolic tracer to study glucose uptake and metabolism in cells and organisms.

Deoxyglucose can be taken up by cells through glucose transporters, but it cannot be further metabolized by glycolysis or other glucose-utilizing pathways. This leads to the accumulation of deoxyglucose within the cell, which can interfere with normal cellular processes and cause toxicity in high concentrations.

In medical research, deoxyglucose is sometimes labeled with radioactive isotopes such as carbon-14 or fluorine-18 to create radiolabeled deoxyglucose (FDG), which can be used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to visualize and measure glucose uptake in tissues. This technique is commonly used in cancer imaging, as tumors often have increased glucose metabolism compared to normal tissue.

"Rats, Inbred BN" are a strain of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been inbred for many generations to maintain a high level of genetic consistency and uniformity within the strain. The "BN" designation refers to the place where they were first developed, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia).

These rats are often used in biomedical research because their genetic homogeneity makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on health and disease. They have been widely used as a model organism to study various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including hypertension, kidney function, immunology, and neuroscience.

Inbred BN rats are known for their low renin-angiotensin system activity, which makes them a useful model for studying hypertension and related disorders. They also have a unique sensitivity to dietary protein, making them a valuable tool for studying the relationship between diet and kidney function.

Overall, Inbred BN rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing researchers with a consistent and well-characterized model organism for studying various aspects of human health and disease.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

An insulin receptor is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells, primarily in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. It plays a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism in the body. When insulin binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that promote the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells, as well as the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or fat.

Insulin receptors are composed of two extracellular alpha subunits and two transmembrane beta subunits, which are linked together by disulfide bonds. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunits activates the tyrosine kinase activity of the beta subunits, leading to the phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and the initiation of downstream signaling pathways.

Abnormalities in insulin receptor function or number can contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Adiponectin is a hormone that is produced and secreted by adipose tissue, which is another name for body fat. This hormone plays an important role in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. It helps to regulate glucose levels, break down fatty acids, and has anti-inflammatory effects.

Adiponectin is unique because it is exclusively produced by adipose tissue, and its levels are inversely related to body fat mass. This means that lean individuals tend to have higher levels of adiponectin than obese individuals. Low levels of adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk of developing various metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Overall, adiponectin is an important hormone that plays a crucial role in maintaining metabolic health, and its levels may serve as a useful biomarker for assessing metabolic risk.

Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They regulate the movement of ions (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride) across the cell membrane by allowing these charged particles to pass through selectively in response to various stimuli, including voltage changes, ligand binding, mechanical stress, or temperature changes. This ion movement is essential for many physiological processes, including electrical signaling, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential. Ion channels can be categorized based on their activation mechanisms, ion selectivity, and structural features. Dysfunction of ion channels can lead to various diseases, making them important targets for drug development.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

"Cold temperature" is a relative term and its definition can vary depending on the context. In general, it refers to temperatures that are lower than those normally experienced or preferred by humans and other warm-blooded animals. In a medical context, cold temperature is often defined as an environmental temperature that is below 16°C (60.8°F).

Exposure to cold temperatures can have various physiological effects on the human body, such as vasoconstriction of blood vessels near the skin surface, increased heart rate and metabolic rate, and shivering, which helps to generate heat and maintain body temperature. Prolonged exposure to extreme cold temperatures can lead to hypothermia, a potentially life-threatening condition characterized by a drop in core body temperature below 35°C (95°F).

It's worth noting that some people may have different sensitivities to cold temperatures due to factors such as age, health status, and certain medical conditions. For example, older adults, young children, and individuals with circulatory or neurological disorders may be more susceptible to the effects of cold temperatures.

I cannot precisely define "obese mice" from a medical perspective because "obesity" is typically defined for humans and companion animals based on body weight relative to body size. However, I can provide you with relevant information regarding obese mice in a research or laboratory context.

Obesity in mice is often induced by providing them with a high-fat diet (HFD) to promote excessive weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. This allows researchers to study the effects of obesity on various health parameters, such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and cardiovascular function.

In laboratory settings, mice are often considered obese if their body weight is 10-20% higher than the average for their strain, age, and sex. Researchers also use body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage to determine obesity in mice. For example:

* Body Mass Index (BMI): Mice with a BMI greater than 0.69 g/cm² are considered obese. To calculate BMI, divide the body weight in grams by the square of the nose-to-anus length in centimeters.
* Body Fat Percentage: Obesity can also be determined based on body fat percentage using non-invasive methods like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. Mice with more than 45% body fat are generally considered obese.

It is important to note that these thresholds may vary depending on the mouse strain, age, and sex. Researchers should consult relevant literature for their specific experimental setup when defining obesity in mice.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

A sterol esterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sterol esters, which are fatty acid esters of sterols (such as cholesterol) that are commonly found in lipoproteins and cell membranes. Sterol esterases play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by breaking down sterol esters into free sterols and free fatty acids, which can then be used in various biochemical processes.

There are several types of sterol esterases that have been identified, including:

1. Cholesteryl esterase (CE): This enzyme is responsible for hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters in the intestine and liver. It plays a critical role in the absorption and metabolism of dietary cholesterol.
2. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL): This enzyme is involved in the hydrolysis of sterol esters in adipose tissue, as well as other lipids such as triacylglycerols. It is regulated by hormones such as insulin and catecholamines.
3. Carboxylesterase (CES): This enzyme is a broad-specificity esterase that can hydrolyze various types of esters, including sterol esters. It is found in many tissues throughout the body.

Sterol esterases are important targets for drug development, as inhibiting these enzymes can have therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) proteins are a family of cytoplasmic signaling proteins that play a crucial role in the insulin signaling pathway. There are four main isoforms in humans, namely IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, and IRS-4, which contain several conserved domains for interacting with various signaling molecules.

When insulin binds to its receptor, the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the receptor becomes activated and phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues on IRS proteins. This leads to the recruitment and activation of downstream effectors, such as PI3K and Grb2/SOS, which ultimately result in metabolic responses (e.g., glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis) and mitogenic responses (e.g., cell proliferation, differentiation).

Dysregulation of the IRS-mediated insulin signaling pathway has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

The epididymis is a tightly coiled tube located on the upper and posterior portion of the testicle that serves as the site for sperm maturation and storage. It is an essential component of the male reproductive system. The epididymis can be divided into three parts: the head (where newly produced sperm enter from the testicle), the body, and the tail (where mature sperm exit and are stored). Any abnormalities or inflammation in the epididymis may lead to discomfort, pain, or infertility.

Glucose Transporter Type 1 (GLUT1) is a specific type of protein called a glucose transporter, which is responsible for facilitating the transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier and into the brain cells. It is encoded by the SLC2A1 gene and is primarily found in the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, as well as in other tissues such as the erythrocytes (red blood cells), placenta, and kidney.

GLUT1 plays a critical role in maintaining normal glucose levels in the brain, as it is the main mechanism for glucose uptake into the brain. Disorders of GLUT1 can lead to impaired glucose transport, which can result in neurological symptoms such as seizures, developmental delay, and movement disorders. These disorders are known as GLUT1 deficiency syndromes.

Thiazolidinediones are a class of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes. They work by increasing the body's sensitivity to insulin, which helps to control blood sugar levels. These drugs bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPAR-gamma, and modulate gene expression related to glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism.

Examples of thiazolidinediones include pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Common side effects of these medications include weight gain, fluid retention, and an increased risk of bone fractures. They have also been associated with an increased risk of heart failure and bladder cancer, which has led to restrictions or withdrawal of some thiazolidinediones in various countries.

It is important to note that thiazolidinediones should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and in conjunction with lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise.

3-O-Methylglucose is a form of glucose that has a methyl group (-CH3) attached to the third hydroxyl group (-OH) on the glucose molecule. It is a non-metabolizable sugar analog, which means it cannot be broken down and used for energy by the body's cells.

This compound is sometimes used in scientific research as a marker to study the absorption and transport of glucose in the body. Since 3-O-Methylglucose is not metabolized, it can be detected and measured in various tissues and fluids after it has been absorbed, allowing researchers to track its movement through the body.

It's important to note that 3-O-Methylglucose should not be confused with 3-O-Methyldopa, which is a medication used to treat high blood pressure.

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids. It is responsible for breaking down triglycerides, which are the main constituent of dietary fats and chylomicrons, into fatty acids and glycerol. These products are then taken up by cells for energy production or storage.

LPL is synthesized in various tissues, including muscle and fat, where it is attached to the inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium). The enzyme is activated when it comes into contact with lipoprotein particles, such as chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), which transport triglycerides in the bloodstream.

Deficiencies or mutations in LPL can lead to various metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood. Conversely, overexpression of LPL has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis due to excessive uptake of fatty acids by macrophages and their conversion into foam cells, which contribute to plaque formation in the arteries.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Isoproterenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists. Medically, it is defined as a synthetic catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic receptor stimulating properties. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby improving breathing.

Isoproterenol can also be used in the treatment of bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), cardiac arrest, and heart blocks by increasing the heart rate and contractility. However, due to its non-selective beta-agonist activity, it may cause various side effects such as tremors, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. Its use is now limited due to the availability of more selective and safer medications.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

Hypoglycemic agents are a class of medications that are used to lower blood glucose levels in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. These medications work by increasing insulin sensitivity, stimulating insulin release from the pancreas, or inhibiting glucose production in the liver. Examples of hypoglycemic agents include sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. It's important to note that the term "hypoglycemic" refers to a condition of abnormally low blood glucose levels, but in this context, the term is used to describe agents that are used to treat high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with diabetes.

Lipid mobilization, also known as lipolysis, is the process by which fat cells (adipocytes) break down stored triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be released into the bloodstream and used for energy by the body's cells. This process is regulated by hormones such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucagon, and cortisol, which activate enzymes in the fat cell that catalyze the breakdown of triglycerides. Lipid mobilization is an important physiological response to fasting, exercise, and stress, and plays a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis in the body.

Phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA) is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry. PIA is a type of adenosine receptor agonist that specifically binds to and activates the A1 adenosine receptor.

Adenosine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, and immune system. Activation of these receptors by agonists like PIA can have diverse effects on cellular function, such as modulating neurotransmission, reducing heart rate and contractility, and regulating inflammation.

While not a medical term per se, PIA is an important compound in the study of adenosine receptor biology and has potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

I apologize for any confusion, but "dioxoles" is not a medical term or concept. It is a chemical term that refers to a specific type of organic compound containing a dioxole ring, which is a six-membered ring consisting of two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms. Dioxoles can be found in various natural and synthetic substances, but they are not typically relevant to medical definitions or concepts.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha (CEBPA) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of genes involved in the differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells, which are the precursor cells to all blood cells. The protein binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes, and activates or represses their transcription.

Mutations in the CEBPA gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. These mutations can lead to an increased risk of developing AML, as well as resistance to chemotherapy treatments. Therefore, understanding the function of CEBPA and its role in hematopoiesis is essential for the development of new therapies for AML and other hematological disorders.

Subcutaneous fat, also known as hypodermic fat, is the layer of fat found beneath the skin and above the muscle fascia, which is the fibrous connective tissue covering the muscles. It serves as an energy reserve, insulation to maintain body temperature, and a cushion to protect underlying structures. Subcutaneous fat is distinct from visceral fat, which is found surrounding internal organs in the abdominal cavity.

Body temperature regulation, also known as thermoregulation, is the process by which the body maintains its core internal temperature within a narrow range, despite varying external temperatures. This is primarily controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which acts as a thermostat and receives input from temperature receptors throughout the body. When the body's temperature rises above or falls below the set point, the hypothalamus initiates responses to bring the temperature back into balance. These responses can include shivering to generate heat, sweating to cool down, vasodilation or vasoconstriction of blood vessels to regulate heat loss, and changes in metabolic rate. Effective body temperature regulation is crucial for maintaining optimal physiological function and overall health.

Methylglucosides are not a medical term, but rather a chemical term referring to a type of compound known as glycosides, where a methanol molecule is linked to a glucose molecule. They do not have a specific medical relevance, but they can be used in various industrial and laboratory applications, including as sweetening agents or intermediates in chemical reactions.

However, if you meant "Methylglucamine," it is a related term that has medical significance. Methylglucamine is an organic compound used as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) in some pharmaceutical formulations. It is often used as a solubilizing agent to improve the solubility and absorption of certain drugs, particularly those that are poorly soluble in water. Methylglucamine is generally considered safe and non-toxic, although it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea or nausea in some individuals if taken in large amounts.

Adipokines are hormones and signaling molecules produced by adipose tissue, which is composed of adipocytes (fat cells) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. Adipokines play crucial roles in various biological processes such as energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, and neuroendocrine regulation.

Some well-known adipokines include:

1. Leptin - regulates appetite, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis
2. Adiponectin - improves insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammation, and has anti-atherogenic properties
3. Resistin - impairs insulin sensitivity and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes
4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) - contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction
5. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) - involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, immune response, and inflammation
6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) - associated with cardiovascular risk by impairing fibrinolysis and promoting thrombosis
7. Visfatin - has insulin-mimetic properties and contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance
8. Chemerin - regulates adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and immune response
9. Apelin - involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and fluid balance
10. Omentin - improves insulin sensitivity and has anti-inflammatory properties

The dysregulation of adipokine production and secretion is associated with various pathological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Glycerol, also known as glycerine or glycerin, is a simple polyol (a sugar alcohol) with a sweet taste and a thick, syrupy consistency. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is slightly soluble in water and freely miscible with ethanol and ether.

In the medical field, glycerol is often used as a medication or supplement. It can be used as a laxative to treat constipation, as a source of calories and energy for people who cannot eat by mouth, and as a way to prevent dehydration in people with certain medical conditions.

Glycerol is also used in the production of various medical products, such as medications, skin care products, and vaccines. It acts as a humectant, which means it helps to keep things moist, and it can also be used as a solvent or preservative.

In addition to its medical uses, glycerol is also widely used in the food industry as a sweetener, thickening agent, and moisture-retaining agent. It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta adrenergic receptors (β-adrenergic receptors) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that include three distinct subclasses: β1, β2, and β3. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and play important roles in various physiological functions, including cardiovascular regulation, bronchodilation, lipolysis, and glucose metabolism.

β1-adrenergic receptors are primarily located in the heart and regulate cardiac contractility, chronotropy (heart rate), and relaxation. β2-adrenergic receptors are found in various tissues, including the lungs, vascular smooth muscle, liver, and skeletal muscle. They mediate bronchodilation, vasodilation, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis. β3-adrenergic receptors are mainly expressed in adipose tissue, where they stimulate lipolysis and thermogenesis.

Agonists of β-adrenergic receptors include catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine, as well as synthetic drugs such as dobutamine (a β1-selective agonist) and albuterol (a non-selective β2-agonist). Antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors are commonly used in the treatment of various conditions, including hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, and asthma. Examples of β-blockers include metoprolol (a β1-selective antagonist) and carvedilol (a non-selective β-blocker with additional α1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity).

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists are a type of medication that selectively binds to and activates the beta-3 adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found primarily in adipose tissue, where their activation is thought to increase lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonists have been studied as a potential treatment for obesity and related conditions such as type 2 diabetes. By increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis, these drugs may help to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. However, their efficacy in humans has not been firmly established, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness.

Some examples of adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists include mirabegron, which is approved for the treatment of overactive bladder, and solabegron, which is being studied for its potential use in treating obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a group of small intracellular proteins that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids within cells. They are responsible for binding long-chain fatty acids, which are hydrophobic molecules, and facilitating their movement across the cell while protecting the cells from lipotoxicity.

FABPs are expressed in various tissues, including the heart, liver, muscle, and brain, with different isoforms found in specific organs. These proteins have a high affinity for long-chain fatty acids and can regulate their intracellular concentration by controlling the uptake, storage, and metabolism of these molecules.

FABPs also play a role in modulating cell signaling pathways that are involved in various physiological processes such as inflammation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of FABP expression and function has been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In summary, fatty acid-binding proteins are essential intracellular proteins that facilitate the transport and metabolism of long-chain fatty acids while regulating cell signaling pathways.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Insulin antagonists are drugs or substances that interfere with the action of insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels in the body. These agents can either block the binding of insulin to its receptors on cell surfaces or inhibit the signaling pathways that mediate insulin's effects.

Examples of insulin antagonists include some glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones, and certain medications used to treat diabetes such as sulfonylureas and meglitinides. These drugs can increase blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of glucose from the liver or impairing the ability of insulin to promote glucose uptake in muscle and fat tissues.

It's important to note that while insulin antagonists can be useful in managing certain medical conditions, they can also contribute to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes if used inappropriately or in excess.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Cystinyl aminopeptidase is a type of enzyme that belongs to the family of metallopeptidases. Its primary function is to catalyze the removal of cystinyl residues from the N-terminus of polypeptides, proteins, and smaller peptides. This enzyme plays an essential role in protein metabolism and turnover within cells.

Cystinyl aminopeptidase is widely distributed in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, kidney, and brain. It has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections, due to its involvement in regulating intracellular protein degradation and processing.

The enzyme's active site contains a zinc ion that is crucial for its catalytic activity. Inhibitors of cystinyl aminopeptidase can be used as pharmaceutical agents to modulate the enzyme's function in disease states, although further research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks associated with such therapies.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

The brown recluse spider (Loxosceles reclusa) is a species of venomous spider that is native to North America. It is also known as the fiddleback spider or violin spider due to the distinctive violin-shaped marking on its cephalothorax. The brown recluse spider is a medium-sized spider, with adults ranging in size from 6 to 20 millimeters in body length. It is characterized by its light to dark brown coloration and lack of conspicuous markings on the abdomen.

The brown recluse spider is known for its necrotic bite, which can cause significant tissue damage and scarring. The venom of the brown recluse spider contains a number of different proteins, including sphingomyelinase D, which is thought to be responsible for the necrotic effects of the bite. The severity of the reaction to a brown recluse spider bite can vary widely, ranging from mild localized reactions to severe systemic reactions that can be life-threatening.

Brown recluse spiders are typically found in the central and southern United States, particularly in the states of Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Arkansas, Missouri, Mississippi, Louisiana, Alabama, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, and Indiana. They prefer to live in warm, dry environments and are often found in woodpiles, sheds, barns, and other outbuildings. Inside homes, they can be found in closets, attics, crawl spaces, and underneath furniture.

It is important to note that brown recluse spiders are not aggressive and will only bite if they feel threatened or cornered. If you think you may have been bitten by a brown recluse spider, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. Treatment for a brown recluse spider bite typically involves wound care, pain management, and in some cases, the use of antibiotics to prevent infection.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Zucker" is not a standard medical term or abbreviation in human medicine. It seems to be an incorrect combination of two terms from the field of laboratory animal science.

1. "Rats" are commonly used laboratory animals.
2. "Zucker" is a surname and also refers to a strain of laboratory rats, specifically the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, which is a model for studying type 2 diabetes mellitus.

If you have any questions related to human medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trout" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Trout is a common name that refers to several species of freshwater fish belonging to the salmonid family. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. They phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring in phosphatidylinositol and its derivatives, which results in the production of second messengers that regulate various cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival.

PI3Ks are divided into three classes based on their structure and substrate specificity. Class I PI3Ks are further subdivided into two categories: class IA and class IB. Class IA PI3Ks are heterodimers consisting of a catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, or p110δ) and a regulatory subunit (p85α, p85β, p55γ, or p50γ). They are primarily activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. Class IB PI3Ks consist of a catalytic subunit (p110γ) and a regulatory subunit (p101 or p84/87). They are mainly activated by G protein-coupled receptors.

Dysregulation of PI3K signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, PI3Ks have emerged as important targets for drug development in these areas.

Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose and lipids. It catalyzes the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), which is a key intermediate in the synthesis of triglycerides, phospholipids, and other glycerophospholipids.

There are two main forms of GPD: a cytoplasmic form (GPD1) and a mitochondrial form (GPD2). The cytoplasmic form is involved in the production of NADH, which is used in various metabolic processes, while the mitochondrial form is involved in the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

Deficiencies or mutations in GPD can lead to a variety of metabolic disorders, including glycerol kinase deficiency and congenital muscular dystrophy. Elevated levels of GPD have been observed in certain types of cancer, suggesting that it may play a role in tumor growth and progression.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of xanthines. It is a methylated derivative of xanthine and is commonly found in some types of tea, coffee, and chocolate. This compound acts as a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which means it can increase the levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) by preventing its breakdown.

In medical terms, 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is often used as a bronchodilator and a stimulant of central nervous system. It is also known to have diuretic properties. This compound is sometimes used in the treatment of asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and other respiratory disorders.

It's important to note that 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. It should be used under the supervision of a medical professional and its use should be carefully monitored to avoid potential adverse reactions.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Ectopic hormone production refers to the situation when a hormone is produced in an unusual location or by a type of cell that does not typically produce it. This can occur due to various reasons such as genetic mutations, cancer, or other medical conditions. The ectopic hormone production can lead to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms, as the regulation of hormones in the body becomes disrupted.

For example, in some cases of lung cancer, the tumor cells may produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is typically produced by the pituitary gland. This ectopic ACTH production can result in Cushing's syndrome, a condition characterized by symptoms such as weight gain, muscle weakness, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that ectopic hormone production is relatively rare and usually occurs in the context of specific medical conditions. If you suspect that you or someone else may have ectopic hormone production, it's important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional who can provide appropriate evaluation and treatment.

Fatty acid synthases (FAS) are a group of enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of fatty acids in the body. They catalyze a series of reactions that convert acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA into longer chain fatty acids, which are then used for various purposes such as energy storage or membrane formation.

The human genome encodes two types of FAS: type I and type II. Type I FAS is a large multifunctional enzyme complex found in the cytoplasm of cells, while type II FAS consists of individual enzymes located in the mitochondria. Both types of FAS play important roles in lipid metabolism, but their regulation and expression differ depending on the tissue and physiological conditions.

Inhibition of FAS has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for various diseases, including cancer, obesity, and metabolic disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the complex mechanisms regulating FAS activity and its role in human health and disease.

The omentum, in anatomical terms, refers to a large apron-like fold of abdominal fatty tissue that hangs down from the stomach and loops over the intestines. It is divided into two portions: the greater omentum, which is larger and hangs down further, and the lesser omentum, which is smaller and connects the stomach to the liver.

The omentum has several functions in the body, including providing protection and cushioning for the abdominal organs, assisting with the immune response by containing a large number of immune cells, and helping to repair damaged tissues. It can also serve as a source of nutrients and energy for the body during times of starvation or other stressors.

In medical contexts, the omentum may be surgically mobilized and used to wrap around injured or inflamed tissues in order to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. This technique is known as an "omentopexy" or "omentoplasty."

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Resistin is a hormone-like substance that is primarily produced by adipose (fat) cells in mammals and has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, which is a condition that can lead to type 2 diabetes. It is also known as "adipose tissue-specific secretory factor" or ADSF.

Resistin is thought to play a role in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by affecting the function of insulin-responsive cells, such as muscle and liver cells. In particular, resistin has been shown to interfere with the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in these cells, leading to reduced insulin sensitivity and increased blood glucose levels.

Resistin is found at higher levels in people who are overweight or obese, and its levels have been linked to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the exact role that resistin plays in these conditions is not fully understood, and more research is needed to determine its precise mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic uses.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and found in the digestive system of most organisms. Its primary function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of fats (triglycerides) into smaller molecules, such as fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be absorbed by the intestines and utilized for energy or stored for later use.

In medical terms, lipase levels in the blood are often measured to diagnose or monitor conditions that affect the pancreas, such as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), pancreatic cancer, or cystic fibrosis. Elevated lipase levels may indicate damage to the pancreas and its ability to produce digestive enzymes.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are important second messengers involved in various cellular processes.

Type 3 PDEs, also known as PDE3, are a subtype of this enzyme family that specifically hydrolyze cAMP and cGMP. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, vascular smooth muscle, platelets, and adipose tissue.

PDE3 plays a crucial role in regulating cardiovascular function, lipolysis, and insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of PDE3 has been shown to have positive inotropic and vasodilatory effects, making it a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, PDE3 inhibitors have been used as antiplatelet agents to prevent thrombosis.

There are two isoforms of PDE3, PDE3A and PDE3B, which differ in their tissue distribution and regulatory mechanisms. PDE3A is primarily expressed in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, while PDE3B is found in adipose tissue and insulin-sensitive cells.

Overall, the regulation of intracellular cAMP and cGMP levels by PDE3 plays a critical role in maintaining cardiovascular function, metabolism, and hemostasis.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

A high-fat diet is a type of eating plan that derives a significant proportion of its daily caloric intake from fat sources. While there is no universally agreed-upon definition for what constitutes a high-fat diet, it generally refers to diets in which total fat intake provides more than 30-35% of the total daily calories.

High-fat diets can vary widely in their specific composition and may include different types of fats, such as saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats. Some high-fat diets emphasize the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods that are naturally high in fat, like nuts, seeds, avocados, fish, and olive oil. Others may allow for or even encourage the inclusion of processed and high-fat animal products, such as red meat, butter, and full-fat dairy.

It's important to note that not all high-fat diets are created equal, and some may be more healthful than others depending on their specific composition and the individual's overall dietary patterns. Some research suggests that high-fat diets that are low in carbohydrates and moderate in protein may offer health benefits for weight loss, blood sugar control, and cardiovascular risk factors, while other studies have raised concerns about the potential negative effects of high-fat diets on heart health and metabolic function.

As with any dietary approach, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian before making significant changes to your eating habits, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medications that may be affected by dietary changes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sargassum" is not a medical term. It refers to a type of brown seaweed or macroalgae that floats in the ocean and forms large floating mats. The two main species are Sargassum natans and Sargassum fluitans. These seaweeds are named after the Sargasso Sea, a region in the Atlantic Ocean known for its dense population of Sargassum. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Acclimatization is the process by which an individual organism adjusts to a change in its environment, enabling it to maintain its normal physiological functions and thus survive and reproduce. In the context of medicine, acclimatization often refers to the body's adaptation to changes in temperature, altitude, or other environmental factors that can affect health.

For example, when a person moves from a low-altitude area to a high-altitude area, their body may undergo several physiological changes to adapt to the reduced availability of oxygen at higher altitudes. These changes may include increased breathing rate and depth, increased heart rate, and altered blood chemistry, among others. This process of acclimatization can take several days or even weeks, depending on the individual and the degree of environmental change.

Similarly, when a person moves from a cold climate to a hot climate, their body may adjust by increasing its sweat production and reducing its heat production, in order to maintain a stable body temperature. This process of acclimatization can help prevent heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Overall, acclimatization is an important physiological process that allows organisms to adapt to changing environments and maintain their health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but seaweed is not typically referred to in medical definitions. Seaweed is a common name for various marine macroalgae, which are multicellular aquatic plants found in the ocean. They are often consumed as food and have been used in traditional medicine in some cultures. However, there is no widely accepted medical definition for seaweed. If you're looking for information about a specific compound or substance derived from seaweed that might be relevant to medical definitions, I would be happy to help if you could provide more details.

"Fucus" is a genus of brown seaweed that commonly goes by the name "bladderwrack." It's often found in cooler waters in the Northern Hemisphere, particularly in the Baltic Sea and the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans.

In a medical or pharmacological context, "fucus" is sometimes used to refer specifically to the extracts or compounds derived from this seaweed. These extracts contain various substances, such as iodine, fucoidan, fucoxanthin, and alginic acid, which have been studied for their potential health benefits.

For example, fucoidan has been investigated for its anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antitumor properties, while fucoxanthin has shown promise in weight loss studies due to its potential to increase metabolism. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended dosages and safety guidelines.

It's important to note that while some natural health products may contain fucus extracts, they should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or professional advice. Always consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

I believe there might be some confusion in your question. "Hares" is a common name used to refer to certain types of fast-running mammals that belong to the family Leporidae and the genus Lepus. They are known for their long ears and powerful hind legs, which allow them to move quickly through open fields.

However, if you are referring to a medical term, it is possible that you may have misspelled the word. If you meant "hairs" instead of "hares," then I can provide you with a definition related to medicine.

In medical terms, hairs refer to the keratinous filaments that grow from follicles in the skin of mammals, including humans. They serve various functions, such as sensory perception, thermoregulation, and protection. Hair growth, structure, and distribution can also provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

Protein-kinase B, also known as AKT, is a group of intracellular proteins that play a crucial role in various cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription, and cell migration. The AKT family includes three isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, which are encoded by the genes PKBalpha, PKBbeta, and PKBgamma, respectively.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-AKT refer to the normal, non-mutated forms of these proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell growth and survival under physiological conditions. However, when these genes are mutated or overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and cancer development.

Activation of c-AKT occurs through a signaling cascade that begins with the binding of extracellular ligands such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) to their respective receptors on the cell surface. This triggers a series of phosphorylation events that ultimately lead to the activation of c-AKT, which then phosphorylates downstream targets involved in various cellular processes.

In summary, proto-oncogene proteins c-AKT are normal intracellular proteins that play essential roles in regulating cell growth and survival under physiological conditions. However, their dysregulation can contribute to cancer development and progression.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells found in various tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. They have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, under specific conditions. MSCs also possess immunomodulatory properties, making them a promising tool in regenerative medicine and therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and tissue injuries. It is important to note that the term "Mesenchymal Stem Cells" has been replaced by "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" in the scientific community to better reflect their biological characteristics and potential functions.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Androstadienes are a class of steroid hormones that are derived from androstenedione, which is a weak male sex hormone. Androstadienes include various compounds such as androstadiene-3,17-dione and androstanedione, which are intermediate products in the biosynthesis of more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

Androstadienes are present in both males and females but are found in higher concentrations in men. They can be detected in various bodily fluids, including blood, urine, sweat, and semen. In addition to their role in steroid hormone synthesis, androstadienes have been studied for their potential use as biomarkers of physiological processes and disease states.

It's worth noting that androstadienes are sometimes referred to as "androstenes" in the literature, although this term can also refer to other related compounds.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell growth, development, and differentiation. They bind to specific DNA sequences called CCAAT boxes, which are found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes.

The C/EBP family consists of several members, including C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPγ, C/EBPδ, and C/EBPε. These proteins share a highly conserved basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which is responsible for their DNA-binding and dimerization activities.

C/EBPs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing them to regulate gene expression in a combinatorial manner. They are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Dysregulation of C/EBP function has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.

Uncoupling agents are chemicals that interfere with the normal process of oxidative phosphorylation in cells. In this process, the energy from food is converted into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the main source of energy for cellular functions. Uncouplers disrupt this process by preventing the transfer of high-energy electrons to oxygen, which normally drives the production of ATP.

Instead, the energy from these electrons is released as heat, leading to an increase in body temperature. This effect is similar to what happens during shivering or exercise, when the body generates heat to maintain its core temperature. Uncoupling agents are therefore also known as "mitochondrial protonophores" because they allow protons to leak across the inner mitochondrial membrane, bypassing the ATP synthase enzyme that would normally use the energy from this proton gradient to produce ATP.

Uncoupling agents have been studied for their potential therapeutic uses, such as in weight loss and the treatment of metabolic disorders. However, they can also be toxic at high doses, and their long-term effects on health are not well understood.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Intra-abdominal fat, also known as visceral fat, is the fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines. It's different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat found just under the skin. Intra-abdominal fat is metabolically active and has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. The accumulation of intra-abdominal fat can be influenced by factors such as diet, physical activity, genetics, and age. Waist circumference and imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRIs, are commonly used to measure intra-abdominal fat.

Thiazoles are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring consisting of a nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom, along with two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms. They have the chemical formula C3H4NS. Thiazoles are present in various natural and synthetic substances, including some vitamins, drugs, and dyes. In the context of medicine, thiazole derivatives have been developed as pharmaceuticals for their diverse biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and antihypertensive properties. Some well-known examples include thiazide diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide) used to treat high blood pressure and edema, and the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced naturally by the human body. Its chemical formula is C16H32O2. It's named after palm trees because it was first isolated from palm oil, although it can also be found in other vegetable oils, animal fats, and dairy products.

In the human body, palmitic acid plays a role in energy production and storage. However, consuming large amounts of this fatty acid has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease due to its association with elevated levels of bad cholesterol (LDL). The World Health Organization recommends limiting the consumption of saturated fats, including palmitic acid, to less than 10% of total energy intake.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Lipogenesis is the biological process by which fatty acids are synthesized and stored as lipids or fat in living organisms. This process occurs primarily in the liver and adipose tissue, with excess glucose being converted into fatty acids and then esterified to form triglycerides. These triglycerides are then packaged with proteins and cholesterol to form lipoproteins, which are transported throughout the body for energy storage or use. Lipogenesis is a complex process involving multiple enzymes and metabolic pathways, and it is tightly regulated by hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and adrenaline. Disorders of lipogenesis can lead to conditions such as obesity, fatty liver disease, and metabolic disorders.

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, primarily cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. It binds to specific DNA sequences called sterol regulatory elements (SREs), which are present in the promoter regions of genes involved in lipid synthesis.

SREBP-1 exists in two isoforms, SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c, encoded by a single gene through alternative splicing. SREBP-1a is a stronger transcriptional activator than SREBP-1c and can activate both cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis genes. In contrast, SREBP-1c primarily regulates fatty acid synthesis genes.

Under normal conditions, SREBP-1 is found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as an inactive precursor bound to another protein called SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). When cells detect low levels of cholesterol or fatty acids, SCAP escorts SREBP-1 to the Golgi apparatus, where it undergoes proteolytic processing to release the active transcription factor. The active SREBP-1 then translocates to the nucleus and binds to SREs, promoting the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis.

Overall, SREBP-1 is a critical regulator of lipid homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and atherosclerosis.

Subcellular fractions refer to the separation and collection of specific parts or components of a cell, including organelles, membranes, and other structures, through various laboratory techniques such as centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. These fractions can be used in further biochemical and molecular analyses to study the structure, function, and interactions of individual cellular components. Examples of subcellular fractions include nuclear extracts, mitochondrial fractions, microsomal fractions (membrane vesicles), and cytosolic fractions (cytoplasmic extracts).

"Chromans" are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a five-membered saturated carbon ring containing one oxygen atom. This particular ring structure is also known as a chromane. Chromans have various applications in the field of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, with some derivatives exhibiting biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. Some well-known chroman derivatives include vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and several synthetic drugs like chromanol, a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta (CEBPB) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. It binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes. CEBPB is involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, development, and immune response. Dysregulation of CEBPB has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

Northern blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and analyze specific RNA molecules (such as mRNA) in a mixture of total RNA extracted from cells or tissues. This technique is called "Northern" blotting because it is analogous to the Southern blotting method, which is used for DNA detection.

The Northern blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Electrophoresis: The total RNA mixture is first separated based on size by running it through an agarose gel using electrical current. This separates the RNA molecules according to their length, with smaller RNA fragments migrating faster than larger ones.

2. Transfer: After electrophoresis, the RNA bands are denatured (made single-stranded) and transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or nylon membrane using a technique called capillary transfer or vacuum blotting. This step ensures that the order and relative positions of the RNA fragments are preserved on the membrane, similar to how they appear in the gel.

3. Cross-linking: The RNA is then chemically cross-linked to the membrane using UV light or heat treatment, which helps to immobilize the RNA onto the membrane and prevent it from washing off during subsequent steps.

4. Prehybridization: Before adding the labeled probe, the membrane is prehybridized in a solution containing blocking agents (such as salmon sperm DNA or yeast tRNA) to minimize non-specific binding of the probe to the membrane.

5. Hybridization: A labeled nucleic acid probe, specific to the RNA of interest, is added to the prehybridization solution and allowed to hybridize (form base pairs) with its complementary RNA sequence on the membrane. The probe can be either a DNA or an RNA molecule, and it is typically labeled with a radioactive isotope (such as ³²P) or a non-radioactive label (such as digoxigenin).

6. Washing: After hybridization, the membrane is washed to remove unbound probe and reduce background noise. The washing conditions (temperature, salt concentration, and detergent concentration) are optimized based on the stringency required for specific hybridization.

7. Detection: The presence of the labeled probe is then detected using an appropriate method, depending on the type of label used. For radioactive probes, this typically involves exposing the membrane to X-ray film or a phosphorimager screen and analyzing the resulting image. For non-radioactive probes, detection can be performed using colorimetric, chemiluminescent, or fluorescent methods.

8. Data analysis: The intensity of the signal is quantified and compared to controls (such as housekeeping genes) to determine the relative expression level of the RNA of interest. This information can be used for various purposes, such as identifying differentially expressed genes in response to a specific treatment or comparing gene expression levels across different samples or conditions.

Colforsin is a drug that belongs to a class of medications called phosphodiesterase inhibitors. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical called cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the body, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels.

Colforsin is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States. However, it has been used in research settings to study its potential effects on heart function and other physiological processes. In animals, colforsin has been shown to have positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and lusitropic (relaxation-enhancing) effects on the heart, making it a potential therapeutic option for heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions.

It is important to note that while colforsin has shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in humans. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and in the context of a clinical trial or research study.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and peanut oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a slight odor. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have various health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other industrial products.

"Laminaria" is a genus of brown algae that grows in cooler waters and is often used in medical procedures as a preparation for dilating the cervix. The dried and sterilized form of Laminaria japonica, a species of this seaweed, is known as "Laminaria tents" or "Laminaria sticks." These are gradually inserted into the cervix where they absorb water and expand over a period of hours, dilating the cervix. This is most commonly done in preparation for a surgical procedure such as a dilation and curettage (D&C) or an abortion. It's important to note that this process should be performed by a healthcare professional in a clinical setting.

Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. The term "azo" is derived from the Greek word "azō," meaning "to boil" or "to sparkle," which refers to the brightly colored nature of many azo compounds.

These compounds are synthesized by the reaction between aromatic amines and nitrous acid or its derivatives, resulting in the formation of diazonium salts, which then react with another aromatic compound containing an active methylene group to form azo compounds.

Azo compounds have diverse applications across various industries, including dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. They are known for their vibrant colors, making them widely used as colorants in textiles, leather, paper, and food products. In addition, some azo compounds exhibit unique chemical properties, such as solubility, stability, and reactivity, which make them valuable intermediates in the synthesis of various organic compounds.

However, certain azo compounds have been found to pose health risks due to their potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. As a result, regulations have been imposed on their use in consumer products, particularly those intended for oral consumption or direct skin contact.

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is a coenzyme found in all living cells and is involved in various cellular processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and gene expression. NAMPT catalyzes the conversion of nicotinamide (a form of vitamin B3) into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which is then converted into NAD+.

NAMPT has been identified as a key regulator of NAD+ levels in the body, and its activity is associated with various health benefits, such as improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and increased lifespan. On the other hand, decreased NAMPT activity has been linked to several age-related diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, NAMPT is an important target for developing therapies aimed at preventing or treating these conditions.

1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of forming diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid) from 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate and acyl-CoA. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of glycerophospholipids, which are major components of biological membranes. The systematic name for this enzyme is 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase; alternatively, it may also be referred to as lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase or LPAAT.

Oxygen consumption, also known as oxygen uptake, is the amount of oxygen that is consumed or utilized by the body during a specific period of time, usually measured in liters per minute (L/min). It is a common measurement used in exercise physiology and critical care medicine to assess an individual's aerobic metabolism and overall health status.

In clinical settings, oxygen consumption is often measured during cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) to evaluate cardiovascular function, pulmonary function, and exercise capacity in patients with various medical conditions such as heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and other respiratory or cardiac disorders.

During exercise, oxygen is consumed by the muscles to generate energy through a process called oxidative phosphorylation. The amount of oxygen consumed during exercise can provide important information about an individual's fitness level, exercise capacity, and overall health status. Additionally, measuring oxygen consumption can help healthcare providers assess the effectiveness of treatments and rehabilitation programs in patients with various medical conditions.

3',5'-Cyclic-AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of cyclic AMP to 5'-AMP. These enzymes play a crucial role in regulating the levels of intracellular second messengers, such as cyclic AMP, which are involved in various cellular signaling pathways.

There are several subtypes of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that specifically target cyclic AMP, including PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, PDE7, PDE8, and PDE10. Each subtype has distinct regulatory and catalytic properties, allowing for specific regulation of cyclic AMP levels in different cellular compartments and signaling pathways.

Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP levels, which can have therapeutic effects in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and central nervous system disorders. Therefore, PDE inhibitors are a valuable class of drugs for the treatment of these conditions.

Hexoses are simple sugars (monosaccharides) that contain six carbon atoms. The most common hexoses include glucose, fructose, and galactose. These sugars play important roles in various biological processes, such as serving as energy sources or forming complex carbohydrates like starch and cellulose. Hexoses are essential for the structure and function of living organisms, including humans.

Cell size refers to the volume or spatial dimensions of a cell, which can vary widely depending on the type and function of the cell. In general, eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus) tend to be larger than prokaryotic cells (cells without a true nucleus). The size of a cell is determined by various factors such as genetic makeup, the cell's role in the organism, and its environment.

The study of cell size and its relationship to cell function is an active area of research in biology, with implications for our understanding of cellular processes, evolution, and disease. For example, changes in cell size have been linked to various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, measuring and analyzing cell size can provide valuable insights into the health and function of cells and tissues.

Leptin receptors are cell surface receptors that bind to and respond to the hormone leptin. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the hypothalamus in the brain, which plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose (fat) tissue that signals information about the size of fat stores to the brain. When leptin binds to its receptors, it activates signaling pathways that help regulate energy intake and expenditure, body weight, and glucose metabolism.

There are several subtypes of leptin receptors (LEPR), including LEPRa, LEPRb, LEPC, and LEPD. Among these, the LEPRb isoform is the most widely expressed and functionally important form. Mutations in the gene encoding the leptin receptor can lead to obesity, hyperphagia (excessive hunger), and impaired energy metabolism, highlighting the importance of this receptor in maintaining energy balance and overall health.

Genetic transcription is the process by which the information in a strand of DNA is used to create a complementary RNA molecule. This process is the first step in gene expression, where the genetic code in DNA is converted into a form that can be used to produce proteins or functional RNAs.

During transcription, an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to the DNA template strand and reads the sequence of nucleotide bases. As it moves along the template, it adds complementary RNA nucleotides to the growing RNA chain, creating a single-stranded RNA molecule that is complementary to the DNA template strand. Once transcription is complete, the RNA molecule may undergo further processing before it can be translated into protein or perform its functional role in the cell.

Transcription can be either "constitutive" or "regulated." Constitutive transcription occurs at a relatively constant rate and produces essential proteins that are required for basic cellular functions. Regulated transcription, on the other hand, is subject to control by various intracellular and extracellular signals, allowing cells to respond to changing environmental conditions or developmental cues.

Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the immune system by helping to regulate the levels of certain chemicals called purines within cells. Specifically, ADA helps to break down adenosine, a type of purine, into another compound called inosine. This enzyme is found in all tissues of the body, but it is especially active in the immune system's white blood cells, where it helps to support their growth, development, and function.

ADA deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a condition in which babies are born with little or no functional immune system. This makes them extremely vulnerable to infections, which can be life-threatening. ADA deficiency can be treated with enzyme replacement therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Up-regulation is a term used in molecular biology and medicine to describe an increase in the expression or activity of a gene, protein, or receptor in response to a stimulus. This can occur through various mechanisms such as increased transcription, translation, or reduced degradation of the molecule. Up-regulation can have important functional consequences, for example, enhancing the sensitivity or response of a cell to a hormone, neurotransmitter, or drug. It is a normal physiological process that can also be induced by disease or pharmacological interventions.

Complement Factor D is a protein that plays a crucial role in the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to clear pathogens and damaged cells from the body. Specifically, Factor D is a serine protease that is involved in the alternative pathway of the complement system.

In this pathway, Factor D helps to cleave another protein called Factor B, which then activates a complex called the C3 convertase. The C3 convertase cleaves complement component 3 (C3) into C3a and C3b, leading to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which creates a pore in the membrane of the target cell, causing its lysis and removal from the body.

Deficiencies or mutations in Complement Factor D can lead to an impaired alternative pathway and increased susceptibility to certain infections, particularly those caused by Neisseria bacteria. Additionally, abnormal regulation of the complement system has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory conditions, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Propranolol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta blockers. Medically, it is defined as a non-selective beta blocker, which means it blocks the effects of both epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) on the heart and other organs. These effects include reducing heart rate, contractility, and conduction velocity, leading to decreased oxygen demand by the myocardium. Propranolol is used in the management of various conditions such as hypertension, angina pectoris, arrhythmias, essential tremor, anxiety disorders, and infants with congenital heart defects. It may also be used to prevent migraines and reduce the risk of future heart attacks. As with any medication, it should be taken under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to potential side effects and contraindications.

DNA primers are short single-stranded DNA molecules that serve as a starting point for DNA synthesis. They are typically used in laboratory techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. The primer binds to a complementary sequence on the DNA template through base pairing, providing a free 3'-hydroxyl group for the DNA polymerase enzyme to add nucleotides and synthesize a new strand of DNA. This allows for specific and targeted amplification or analysis of a particular region of interest within a larger DNA molecule.

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCA) is a biotin-dependent enzyme that plays a crucial role in fatty acid synthesis. It catalyzes the conversion of acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. The reaction catalyzed by ACCA is as follows:

acetyl-CoA + HCO3- + ATP + 2H+ --> malonyl-CoA + CoA + ADP + Pi + 2H2O

ACCA exists in two isoforms, a cytosolic form (ACC1) and a mitochondrial form (ACC2). ACC1 is primarily involved in fatty acid synthesis, while ACC2 is responsible for the regulation of fatty acid oxidation. The activity of ACCA is regulated by several factors, including phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, allosteric regulation, and transcriptional regulation. Dysregulation of ACCA has been implicated in various metabolic disorders, such as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

Blood glucose, also known as blood sugar, is the concentration of glucose in the blood. Glucose is a simple sugar that serves as the main source of energy for the body's cells. It is carried to each cell through the bloodstream and is absorbed into the cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas.

The normal range for blood glucose levels in humans is typically between 70 and 130 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) when fasting, and less than 180 mg/dL after meals. Levels that are consistently higher than this may indicate diabetes or other metabolic disorders.

Blood glucose levels can be measured through a variety of methods, including fingerstick blood tests, continuous glucose monitoring systems, and laboratory tests. Regular monitoring of blood glucose levels is important for people with diabetes to help manage their condition and prevent complications.

Deoxy sugars, also known as deoxyriboses, are sugars that have one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups replaced by a hydrogen atom. The most well-known deoxy sugar is deoxyribose, which is a component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Deoxyribose is a pentose sugar, meaning it has five carbon atoms, and it differs from the related sugar ribose by having a hydrogen atom instead of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position. This structural difference affects the ability of DNA to form double-stranded helices through hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs, which is critical for the storage and replication of genetic information.

Other deoxy sugars may also be important in biology, such as L-deoxyribose, a component of certain antibiotics, and various deoxyhexoses, which are found in some natural products and bacterial polysaccharides.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

RAB4 GTP-binding proteins are a subfamily of RAB proteins, which are small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that play crucial roles in regulating intracellular vesicle trafficking. Specifically, RAB4 GTP-binding proteins are involved in the early stages of endocytic recycling, a process by which internalized membrane receptors and cargo are transported back to the plasma membrane for reuse.

RAB4 proteins exist in two distinct conformational states: an active, GTP-bound state and an inactive, GDP-bound state. In the active state, RAB4 proteins interact with various effector molecules to facilitate vesicle transport and fusion events. Upon hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, RAB4 proteins switch to their inactive state, which leads to dissociation from effector molecules and subsequent recycling of the RAB4 protein back to the donor membrane compartment.

There are two isoforms of RAB4 proteins, RAB4A and RAB4B, which share a high degree of sequence similarity but have distinct cellular localization patterns and functions. Dysregulation of RAB4 GTP-binding proteins has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of protein that plays a crucial role in communication between cells, especially in the immune system. It is produced by various cells including T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation.

IL-6 has diverse effects on different cell types. In the immune system, it stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies. It also promotes the activation and survival of T-cells. Moreover, IL-6 plays a role in fever induction by acting on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature during an immune response.

In addition to its functions in the immune system, IL-6 has been implicated in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), bone metabolism, and neural development. However, abnormal levels of IL-6 have also been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

Chiroptera is the scientific order that includes all bat species. Bats are the only mammals capable of sustained flight, and they are distributed worldwide with the exception of extremely cold environments. They vary greatly in size, from the bumblebee bat, which weighs less than a penny, to the giant golden-crowned flying fox, which has a wingspan of up to 6 feet.

Bats play a crucial role in many ecosystems as pollinators and seed dispersers for plants, and they also help control insect populations. Some bat species are nocturnal and use echolocation to navigate and find food, while others are diurnal and rely on their vision. Their diet mainly consists of insects, fruits, nectar, and pollen, although a few species feed on blood or small vertebrates.

Unfortunately, many bat populations face significant threats due to habitat loss, disease, and wind turbine collisions, leading to declining numbers and increased conservation efforts.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Cell transdifferentiation is a process in which one type of differentiated cell transforms into another type of differentiated cell, without going through the stage of pluripotent stem cells. This process involves a series of genetic and epigenetic changes that result in the activation of new genetic programs and repression of old ones, leading to the acquisition of a new cell identity.

Transdifferentiation is a rare event in nature, but it has been induced in the laboratory through various methods such as gene transfer, chemical treatment, or nuclear transplantation. This process has potential applications in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering, and disease modeling. However, it also raises ethical concerns related to the generation of chimeric organisms and the possibility of uncontrolled cell growth.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Hemiptera" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic order in the classification of living things, also known as "true bugs." This group includes species such as cicadas, aphids, and bedbugs. If you have a medical term in mind, please provide it so I can give you an accurate definition.

Propanolamines are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that contain a propan-2-olamine functional group, which is a secondary amine formed by the replacement of one hydrogen atom in an ammonia molecule with a propan-2-ol group. They are commonly used as decongestants and bronchodilators in medical treatments.

Examples of propanolamines include:

* Phenylephrine: a decongestant used to relieve nasal congestion.
* Pseudoephedrine: a decongestant and stimulant used to treat nasal congestion and sinus pressure.
* Ephedrine: a bronchodilator, decongestant, and stimulant used to treat asthma, nasal congestion, and low blood pressure.

It is important to note that propanolamines can have side effects such as increased heart rate, elevated blood pressure, and insomnia, so they should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Triiodothyronine (T3) is a thyroid hormone, specifically the active form of thyroid hormone, that plays a critical role in the regulation of metabolism, growth, and development in the human body. It is produced by the thyroid gland through the iodination and coupling of the amino acid tyrosine with three atoms of iodine. T3 is more potent than its precursor, thyroxine (T4), which has four iodine atoms, as T3 binds more strongly to thyroid hormone receptors and accelerates metabolic processes at the cellular level.

In circulation, about 80% of T3 is bound to plasma proteins, while the remaining 20% is unbound or free, allowing it to enter cells and exert its biological effects. The primary functions of T3 include increasing the rate of metabolic reactions, promoting protein synthesis, enhancing sensitivity to catecholamines (e.g., adrenaline), and supporting normal brain development during fetal growth and early infancy. Imbalances in T3 levels can lead to various medical conditions, such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, which may require clinical intervention and management.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Bucladesine" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use in medicine. It's possible that there may be some mistake or typo in the spelling. If you have any more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Caveolae are small, flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that are abundant in many cell types, including endothelial cells, adipocytes, and muscle cells. They are characterized by the presence of caveolin proteins, which play a crucial role in their formation and function.

Caveolae have been implicated in various cellular processes, such as endocytosis, signal transduction, cholesterol homeostasis, and mechanoprotection. They can also serve as platforms for the assembly of signaling complexes and the regulation of various enzymatic activities.

The invaginated structure of caveolae allows them to interact with extracellular molecules and intracellular proteins, facilitating the exchange of materials between the plasma membrane and the cytosol. Dysregulation of caveolae function has been linked to several diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

AMP-activated protein kinases (AMPK) are a group of heterotrimeric enzymes that play a crucial role in cellular energy homeostasis. They are composed of a catalytic subunit (α) and two regulatory subunits (β and γ). AMPK is activated under conditions of low energy charge, such as ATP depletion, hypoxia, or exercise, through an increase in the AMP:ATP ratio.

Once activated, AMPK phosphorylates and regulates various downstream targets involved in metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and protein synthesis. This results in the inhibition of energy-consuming processes and the promotion of energy-producing processes, ultimately helping to restore cellular energy balance.

AMPK has been implicated in a variety of physiological processes, including glucose and lipid metabolism, autophagy, mitochondrial biogenesis, and inflammation. Dysregulation of AMPK activity has been linked to several diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, AMPK is an attractive target for therapeutic interventions in these conditions.

A lipoma is a common, benign (non-cancerous) soft tissue growth. It is composed of adipose or fatty tissue and typically found just beneath the skin, but they can also occur deeper within the body. Lipomas are usually round, moveable, and painless, although they may cause discomfort if they grow large enough to put pressure on nearby nerves or if they're located in a sensitive area. They generally grow slowly over time. Surgical removal is an option if the lipoma becomes bothersome or grows significantly in size. It's important to note that while lipomas are typically harmless, any new lumps or bumps should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to confirm the diagnosis and rule out other more serious conditions.

Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a type of short, double-stranded RNA molecule that plays a role in the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. The RNAi pathway is a natural cellular process that regulates gene expression by targeting and destroying specific messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, thereby preventing the translation of those mRNAs into proteins.

SiRNAs are typically 20-25 base pairs in length and are generated from longer double-stranded RNA precursors called hairpin RNAs or dsRNAs by an enzyme called Dicer. Once generated, siRNAs associate with a protein complex called the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which uses one strand of the siRNA (the guide strand) to recognize and bind to complementary sequences in the target mRNA. The RISC then cleaves the target mRNA, leading to its degradation and the inhibition of protein synthesis.

SiRNAs have emerged as a powerful tool for studying gene function and have shown promise as therapeutic agents for a variety of diseases, including viral infections, cancer, and genetic disorders. However, their use as therapeutics is still in the early stages of development, and there are challenges associated with delivering siRNAs to specific cells and tissues in the body.

Cell compartmentation, also known as intracellular compartmentalization, refers to the organization of cells into distinct functional and spatial domains. This is achieved through the separation of cellular components and biochemical reactions into membrane-bound organelles or compartments. Each compartment has its unique chemical composition and environment, allowing for specific biochemical reactions to occur efficiently and effectively without interfering with other processes in the cell.

Some examples of membrane-bound organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and vacuoles. These organelles have specific functions, such as energy production (mitochondria), protein synthesis and folding (endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus), waste management (lysosomes), and lipid metabolism (peroxisomes).

Cell compartmentation is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, regulating metabolic pathways, protecting the cell from potentially harmful substances, and enabling complex biochemical reactions to occur in a controlled manner. Dysfunction of cell compartmentation can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

Organ specificity, in the context of immunology and toxicology, refers to the phenomenon where a substance (such as a drug or toxin) or an immune response primarily affects certain organs or tissues in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. The presence of specific targets (like antigens in the case of an immune response or receptors in the case of drugs) that are more abundant in these organs.
2. The unique properties of certain cells or tissues that make them more susceptible to damage.
3. The way a substance is metabolized or cleared from the body, which can concentrate it in specific organs.

For example, in autoimmune diseases, organ specificity describes immune responses that are directed against antigens found only in certain organs, such as the thyroid gland in Hashimoto's disease. Similarly, some toxins or drugs may have a particular affinity for liver cells, leading to liver damage or specific drug interactions.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Caveolin 1 is a protein that is a key component of caveolae, which are specialized invaginations of the plasma membrane found in many cell types. Caveolae play important roles in various cellular processes, including endocytosis, cholesterol homeostasis, and signal transduction.

Caveolin 1 is a structural protein that helps to form and maintain the shape of caveolae. It also plays a role in regulating the activity of various signaling molecules that are associated with caveolae, including G proteins, receptor tyrosine kinases, and Src family kinases.

Mutations in the gene that encodes caveolin 1 have been linked to several genetic disorders, including muscular dystrophy, cardiac arrhythmias, and cancer. Additionally, changes in the expression or localization of caveolin 1 have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Eye color is a characteristic determined by variations in a person's genes. The color of the eyes depends on the amount and type of pigment called melanin found in the eye's iris.

There are three main types of eye colors: brown, blue, and green. Brown eyes have the most melanin, while blue eyes have the least. Green eyes have a moderate amount of melanin combined with a golden tint that reflects light to give them their unique color.

Eye color is a polygenic trait, which means it is influenced by multiple genes. The two main genes responsible for eye color are OCA2 and HERC2, both located on chromosome 15. These genes control the production, transport, and storage of melanin in the iris.

It's important to note that eye color can change during infancy and early childhood due to the development of melanin in the iris. Additionally, some medications or medical conditions may also cause changes in eye color over time.

"Palmitates" are salts or esters of palmitic acid, a saturated fatty acid that is commonly found in animals and plants. Palmitates can be found in various substances, including cosmetics, food additives, and medications. For example, sodium palmitate is a common ingredient in soaps and detergents, while retinyl palmitate is a form of vitamin A used in skin care products and dietary supplements.

In a medical context, "palmitates" may be mentioned in the results of laboratory tests that measure lipid metabolism or in discussions of nutrition and dietary fats. However, it is important to note that "palmitates" themselves are not typically a focus of medical diagnosis or treatment, but rather serve as components of various substances that may have medical relevance.

Subcutaneous fat in the abdominal area refers to the adipose tissue located beneath the skin and above the abdominal muscles in the stomach region. It is the layer of fat that you can pinch between your fingers. While some level of subcutaneous fat is normal and healthy, excessive amounts can increase the risk of various health conditions such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders.

It's worth noting that there is another type of fat called visceral fat, which is found deeper within the abdominal cavity, surrounding the internal organs. Visceral fat is often referred to as "active" fat because it releases hormones and inflammatory substances that can have a negative impact on health, even if overall body weight is normal. High levels of visceral fat are associated with an increased risk of developing conditions such as metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

While subcutaneous fat is less metabolically active than visceral fat, excessive amounts can still contribute to health problems. Therefore, it's important to maintain a healthy body weight through regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Complement C3a is a protein fragment that is generated during the activation of the complement system, which is a part of the immune system. The complement system helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body by marking them for destruction and attracting immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

C3a is produced when the third component of the complement system (C3) is cleaved into two smaller fragments, C3a and C3b, during the complement activation cascade. C3a is a potent anaphylatoxin, which means it can cause the release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils, leading to inflammation, increased vascular permeability, and smooth muscle contraction.

C3a also has chemotactic properties, meaning it can attract immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes to the site of complement activation. Additionally, C3a can modulate the activity of various immune cells, including dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells, and play a role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response.

It's important to note that while C3a has important functions in the immune response, uncontrolled or excessive activation of the complement system can lead to tissue damage and inflammation, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases such as autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and allergies.

Transfection is a term used in molecular biology that refers to the process of deliberately introducing foreign genetic material (DNA, RNA or artificial gene constructs) into cells. This is typically done using chemical or physical methods, such as lipofection or electroporation. Transfection is widely used in research and medical settings for various purposes, including studying gene function, producing proteins, developing gene therapies, and creating genetically modified organisms. It's important to note that transfection is different from transduction, which is the process of introducing genetic material into cells using viruses as vectors.

Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences in real-time. It is a sensitive and specific method that allows for the quantification of target nucleic acids, such as DNA or RNA, through the use of fluorescent reporter molecules.

The RT-PCR process involves several steps: first, the template DNA is denatured to separate the double-stranded DNA into single strands. Then, primers (short sequences of DNA) specific to the target sequence are added and allowed to anneal to the template DNA. Next, a heat-stable enzyme called Taq polymerase adds nucleotides to the annealed primers, extending them along the template DNA until a new double-stranded DNA molecule is formed.

During each amplification cycle, fluorescent reporter molecules are added that bind specifically to the newly synthesized DNA. As more and more copies of the target sequence are generated, the amount of fluorescence increases in proportion to the number of copies present. This allows for real-time monitoring of the PCR reaction and quantification of the target nucleic acid.

RT-PCR is commonly used in medical diagnostics, research, and forensics to detect and quantify specific DNA or RNA sequences. It has been widely used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, genetic disorders, and cancer, as well as in the identification of microbial pathogens and the detection of gene expression.

Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are a group of membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the uptake and transport of long-chain fatty acids across the plasma membrane of cells. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and liver.

FATPs have several domains that enable them to perform their functions, including a cytoplasmic domain that binds to fatty acids, a transmembrane domain that spans the plasma membrane, and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domain that hydrolyzes ATP to provide energy for fatty acid transport.

FATPs also play a role in the regulation of intracellular lipid metabolism by modulating the activity of enzymes involved in fatty acid activation, desaturation, and elongation. Mutations in FATP genes have been associated with various metabolic disorders, including congenital deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects fatty acid oxidation.

In summary, fatty acid transport proteins are essential for the uptake and metabolism of long-chain fatty acids in cells and have implications in various metabolic disorders.

Lipolysis regulates major transcriptional programs in brown adipocytes. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › Tidsskriftartikel ... β-Adrenergic signaling is a core regulator of brown adipocyte function stimulating both lipolysis and transcription of ... enabling us to uncover lipolysis-dependent signaling pathways downstream of β-adrenergic signaling in cultured brown adipocytes ... important metabolic signals that exert profound pleiotropic effects on transcription and function of cultured brown adipocytes. ...
TiTLE HERE- - > Integrase Inhibitors Uniquely Target Thermogenesis In Brown Adipocytes And Combination Drugs Potentiate These ... CROI2021 - INTEGRASE INHIBITORS TARGET MITOCHONDRIA IN BROWN ADIPOCYTES DISRUPTING THERMOGENESIS https://www.natap.org/2021/ ...
... but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed ... but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed ... but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed ... Madsen L, Pedersen LM, Lillefosse HH, Fjaere E, Bronstad I, Hao Q o.a. UCP1 induction during recruitment of brown adipocytes in ...
Here, we show that murine GATA-2 and GATA-3 are specifically expressed in white adipocyte precursors and that their down- ... Adipocytes / metabolism* * Adipose Tissue / cytology * Adipose Tissue / metabolism * Adipose Tissue, Brown / cytology ... Thus, GATA-2 and GATA-3 regulate adipocyte differentiation through molecular control of the preadipocyte-adipocyte transition. ... Function of GATA transcription factors in preadipocyte-adipocyte transition Science. 2000 Oct 6;290(5489):134-8. doi: 10.1126/ ...
Hypoxic lesions were stained in dark brown. Quantified results represent mean ± SEM (n = 5 per group). ***P = 0.0007 vs. PyMT, ... Adipocyte-derived endotrophin promotes malignant tumor progression. Jiyoung Park1 and Philipp E. Scherer1,2,3 1Touchstone ... Adipocytes represent a major cell type in the mammary tumor microenvironment and are important for tumor growth. Collagen VI ( ... Adipocyte-derived collagen VI affects early mammary tumor progression in vivo, demonstrating a critical interaction in the ...
Mouse brown adipocytes were pre-treated with vehicle or 10µM Atglistatin and 20µM CAY10499 (lipase inhib.) for 1h and ... Lipolysis stimulation brown adipocytes. Published:. 14 April 2020, Version 1 , DOI: 10.17632/ms6x538scv.1 ... Mouse brown adipocytes were pre-treated with vehicle or 10µM Atglistatin and 20µM CAY10499 (lipase inhib.) for 1h and ...
Retinol-Binding Protein 4 ; Brown adipocyte ; Fatty acid oxidation ; Browning ; Obesity ; 갈색지방세포 ; 갈색화 ; 지방산산화 ; 비만 Description ... To investigate the role of RBP4 in BAT, brown adipocyte-specific human RPB4 transgenic mice (UCP1-hRBP4 mice) were generated. I ... The metabolic effects of Retinol-Binding Protein 4 in brown adipocytes : 갈색지방에서 Retinol Binding Protein 4의 역할 ... Contrary to the conventional notion that the role of adipose tissue is to store energy, brown adipose tissue (BAT) is known for ...
Here, we report the development of a novel OoC that integrates functional mature human white adipocytes. The WAT-on-a-chip is a ... The platforms capability to maintain long-term viability and functionality of white adipocytes was confirmed by real-time ... device that features tissue chambers tailored specifically for the maintenance of 3D tissues based on human primary adipocytes ... Mature Human White Adipocytes Cultured under Membranes Maintain Identity, Function, and Can Transdifferentiate into Brown-like ...
... white and brown adipocytes. While white adipocytes store energy as triacylglycerols in lipid droplets, brown adipocytes combust ... Sesaminol induces brown and beige adipocyte formation through suppression of myogenic program ... This characteristic phenomenon of brown fat attracts researchers and pharmacological industries to view brown fat as one of the ... on brown fat activity and found that SML induces the thermogenic program in primary white adipocytes as well as chow diet fed ...
... induced typical brown adipocyte multiocular phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The treatment also increased brown adipocytes ... induced typical brown adipocyte multiocular phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The treatment also increased brown adipocytes ... induced typical brown adipocyte multiocular phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The treatment also increased brown adipocytes ... induced typical brown adipocyte multiocular phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The treatment also increased brown adipocytes ...
Similar to WAT, commitment of brown pre-adipocytes from MYF5+ MSCs (brown arrows) and differentiation into brown adipocytes ( ... BMP7 alone can stimulate the differentiation of brown pre-adipocytes and commit mesenchymal precursors to a brown adipocyte ... Embryonic origins of adipocytes. Lineage-tracing studies have shown that brown adipocytes and myocytes share common myogenic ... In between white and brown: origins of beige adipocytes. Considering that beige adipocytes can arise from white APs by in vitro ...
Bogner-Strauß, J. G., & Pelzmann, H. J. (2013). N-Acetyltransferase 8-like regulates lipid metabolism in brown adipocytes. In ... Bogner-Strauß, JG & Pelzmann, HJ 2013, N-Acetyltransferase 8-like regulates lipid metabolism in brown adipocytes. in 3rd ... N-Acetyltransferase 8-like regulates lipid metabolism in brown adipocytes. Juliane Gertrude Bogner-Strauß, Helmut Josef ... N-Acetyltransferase 8-like regulates lipid metabolism in brown adipocytes. In 3rd Scientific Retreat of the DK-Metabolic and ...
Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through ... In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes". J Biol Chem. 285 (10): 7153-64. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
Ethacrynic acid targets GSTM1 to ameliorate obesity by promoting browning of white adipocytes. Protein and Cell. 2021 Jun;12(6 ... Ethacrynic acid targets GSTM1 to ameliorate obesity by promoting browning of white adipocytes. In: Protein and Cell. 2021 ; Vol ... Ethacrynic acid targets GSTM1 to ameliorate obesity by promoting browning of white adipocytes. / Cui, Zhaomeng; Liu, Yang; Wan ... title = "Ethacrynic acid targets GSTM1 to ameliorate obesity by promoting browning of white adipocytes", ...
Berberine ameliorates obesity by inducing GDF15 secretion by brown adipocytes. Berberine (BBR), which is a compound derived ...
SKU: 4010 Category: Diagrams and Infographics Tags: adipocyte, anatomy, beige, belly, biology, body, brown, calorie, cell, ... Shop / Diagrams and Infographics / Fat cell types as adipocyte division in brown, beige or white outline diagram ... Fat cell types as adipocyte division in brown, beige or white outline diagram. €7.99. ... Description: Fat cell types as adipocyte division in brown, beige or white outline diagram. Labeled educational lipocytes ...
A: Representative images of perigonadal fat, brown fat, and liver from HFD-fed aP2Casp8−/− and control mice stained with H-E ( ... Adipocytes. Total protein extracts from cultured human adipocytes were obtained from Zen-Bio (TCE-OAD10, TCE-OA10). Samples ... Adipocyte number was calculated as previously described (18,23). Macrophages were excluded from adipocyte size and number ... To further test whether caspase 8 directly regulates inflammation in adipocytes, we stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes with TNF-α in ...
C) Comparison of OLR1 mRNA levels in ob/ob mice and lean littermates in white adipose tissue, brown adipose tissue (BAT), and ... While the role of oxLDL in adipocytes has not been well studied, adipocytes are known to express scavenger receptors, such as ... TZDs cause the differentiation of new, small adipocytes and promote apoptosis of older, larger adipocytes (30). In addition, ... B) Knockdown of OLR1 levels reduced rosiglitazone enhancement of oxLDL uptake into adipocytes by approximately 60%. Adipocytes ...
nhibiting mTORC2 in brown fat can protect against obesity and fatty liver disease. The mechanism is at least in part through a ... Non-canonical mTORC2 Signaling Regulates Brown Adipocyte Lipid Catabolism through SIRT6-FoxO1. Jung SM1, Hung CM1, Hildebrand ... They found that inhibiting mTORC2 in brown fat can protect against obesity and fatty liver disease. They went on to show that ...
... whereas Brown Adipose Tissue (BAT) dissipates stored energy as heat. ... These induced brown adipocytes in WAT are referred to as Brown in white (brite) or beige adipocytes and differ from ... Brown adipocytes are smaller than white adipocytes and contain multitudes of small (multilocular) lipid droplets. They also ... The relevance of brown adipocytes in Humans. Small mammals and new-borns are predisposed to temperature loss owing to their ...
Endogenous Akt2 expression also is upregulated in fully-differentiated C2C12 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting that ... Akt2 mRNA is highly expressed in embryonic brown fat and the AKT2 kinase is activated by insulin Oncogene. 1998 May 7;16(18): ... These studies demonstrate that Akt2 is especially abundant in brown fat and, to a lesser extent, skeletal muscle and liver, ...
We report here the metabolic consequences of deleting Ndufs4 specifically in adipocytes using the adiponectin promoter. ... Mutant mice of both sexes exhibit defects in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) signaling ... Together, these findings support that adipocyte-specific mitochondrial dysfunction is sufficient to induce tissue inflammation ... consistent with sex-dependent regulation of its autocrine/paracrine action in adipocytes. ...
... of an adipocyte, the mean number of BAT adipocytes observed per high-power-field (HPF), and the mean relative brown area in BAT ... G) Quantification of BAT adipocyte number per high-power-field (HPF). (H) Quantification of BAT brown area after H&E staining. ... Mitochondria in white, brown, beige adipocytes. Stem Cells Int. (2016) 2016:6067349. doi: 10.1155/2016/6067349 ... The mean relative brown area (%) in the BATs of mice in the Y-TWK10 and A-TWK10 groups showed strong increasing trends (P = ...
... to induce WAT browning.Methods:We analyzed gene expression of a wide number of brown/brite adipocyte markers in different WAT ... to induce WAT browning.Methods:We analyzed gene expression of a wide number of brown/brite adipocyte markers in different WAT ... to induce WAT browning.Methods:We analyzed gene expression of a wide number of brown/brite adipocyte markers in different WAT ... to induce WAT browning.Methods:We analyzed gene expression of a wide number of brown/brite adipocyte markers in different WAT ...
Parray, H. A., & Yun, J. W. (2016). Cannabidiol promotes browning in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Molecular and cellular biochemistry, ... Last but not least, CBD spurs the conversion of white fat cells to brown fat cells. This process is known as fat browning. The ... Brown, J. D., & Winterstein, A. G. (2019). Potential Adverse Drug Events and Drug-Drug Interactions with Medical and Consumer ... white cells are the ones that accumulate body fat, while brown cells are more efficiently used for burning energy. The more ...
Transplantation of brown adipose tissue up-regulates miR-99a to ameliorate liver metabolic disorders in diabetic mice by ... Adipocyte 2020; 9(1): 57 doi: 10.1080/21623945.2020.1721970 12. Manuel Suárez, Noemí Boqué, Josep del Bas, Jordi Mayneris- ...
Scheja, L. & Heeren, J. Metabolic interplay between white, beige, brown adipocytes and the liver. J. Hepatol. 64, 1176-1186 ( ... Horton, J. D., Goldstein, J. L. & Brown, M. S. SREBPs: activators of the complete program of cholesterol and fatty acid ... which regulates bone mass in osteoclasts as well as fat accumulation and redistribution in adipocytes.16,21 Arrestins are a ...
Role of Ubiquilins for Brown Adipocyte Proteostasis and Thermogenesis Autoren: Carolin Muley, Stefan Kotschi, Alexander Bartelt ... Editorial: Brown Adipose Tissue: From Heat Production in Rodents to Metabolic Health in Humans Autoren: Maria Chondronikola, ... Adipocyte function and the development of cardiometabolic disease Autoren: Maude Giroud, Henrika Jodeleit, Kacey Prentice, ...

No FAQ available that match "adipocytes brown"