Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Adipose Tissue, Brown: A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.Adipocytes, White: Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Adipocytes, Brown: Fat cells with dark coloration due to the densely packed MITOCHONDRIA. They contain numerous small lipid droplets or vacuoles. Their stored lipids can be converted directly to energy as heat by the mitochondria.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose Transporter Type 4: A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.3T3 Cells: Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Adipose Tissue, White: Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.Thermogenesis: The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Phaeophyta: A division of predominantly marine EUKARYOTA, commonly known as brown algae, having CHROMATOPHORES containing carotenoid PIGMENTS, BIOLOGICAL. ALGINATES and phlorotannins occur widely in all major orders. They are considered the most highly evolved algae because of their well-developed multicellular organization and structural complexity.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta-3: A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Rats, Inbred BNCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Leptin: A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Receptor, Insulin: A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.Adiponectin: A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Mice, Obese: Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sterol Esterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins: A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.Epididymis: The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.Glucose Transporter Type 1: A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.Thiazolidinediones: THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).3-O-Methylglucose: A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Inbred C57BLIsoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Hypoglycemic Agents: Substances which lower blood glucose levels.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.Phenylisopropyladenosine: N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.DioxolesCCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.Subcutaneous Fat: Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.Body Temperature Regulation: The processes of heating and cooling that an organism uses to control its temperature.MethylglucosidesAdipokines: Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Receptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.PhosphoproteinsAdrenergic beta-3 Receptor Agonists: Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Insulin Antagonists: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Cystinyl Aminopeptidase: A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.TriglyceridesBrown Recluse Spider: A spider of the genus Loxosceles, found in the midwestern and other parts of the United States, which carries a hemolytic venom that produces local necrosis or ulceration.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Glycerolphosphate DehydrogenaseFatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine: A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASESRats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Hormones, Ectopic: Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Omentum: A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Resistin: A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 3: A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Sargassum: One of the largest genera of BROWN ALGAE, comprised of more than 150 species found in tropical, subtropical, and temperate zones of both hemispheres. Some species are attached (benthic) but most float in the open sea (pelagic). Sargassum provides a critical habitat for hundreds of species of FISHES; TURTLES; and INVERTEBRATES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Seaweed: Multicellular marine macroalgae including some members of red (RHODOPHYTA), green (CHLOROPHYTA), and brown (PHAEOPHYTA) algae. They are widely distributed in the ocean, occurring from the tide level to considerable depths, free-floating (planktonic) or anchored to the substratum (benthic). They lack a specialized vascular system but take up fluids, nutrients, and gases directly from the water. They contain CHLOROPHYLL and are photosynthetic, but some also contain other light-absorbing pigments. Many are of economic importance as FOOD, fertilizer, AGAR, potash, or source of IODINE.Fucus: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Fucaceae. It is found in temperate, marine intertidal areas along rocky coasts and is a source of ALGINATES. Some species of Fucus are referred to as KELP.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Androstadienes: Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins: A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Intra-Abdominal Fat: Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.ThiazolesPalmitic Acid: A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Adiposity: The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.Epinephrine: The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1: A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta: A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Laminaria: A genus of BROWN ALGAE in the family Laminariaceae. Dried pencil-like pieces may be inserted in the cervix where they swell as they absorb moisture, serving as osmotic dilators.Azo CompoundsNicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)3',5'-Cyclic-AMP Phosphodiesterases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.HexosesCell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Receptors, Leptin: Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Adenosine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Propranolol: A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase: A carboxylating enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, acetyl-CoA, and HCO3- to ADP, orthophosphate, and malonyl-CoA. It is a biotinyl-protein that also catalyzes transcarboxylation. The plant enzyme also carboxylates propanoyl-CoA and butanoyl-CoA (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.4.1.2.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Deoxy SugarsCricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.rab4 GTP-Binding Proteins: A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.Interleukin-6: A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.Chiroptera: Order of mammals whose members are adapted for flight. It includes bats, flying foxes, and fruit bats.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Eating: The consumption of edible substances.Cell Transdifferentiation: A naturally occurring phenomenon where terminally differentiated cells dedifferentiate to the point where they can switch CELL LINEAGES. The cells then differentiate into other cell types.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Propanolamines: AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the propanolamine (NH2CH2CHOHCH2) group and its derivatives.Triiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Bucladesine: A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It can be surrounded by a thin layer of connective tissue (encapsulated), or diffuse without the capsule.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Caveolin 1: A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.Eye Color: Color of the iris.Palmitates: Salts and esters of the 16-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--palmitic acid.Subcutaneous Fat, Abdominal: Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.Complement C3a: The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction: Methods used for detecting the amplified DNA products from the polymerase chain reaction as they accumulate instead of at the end of the reaction.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.

Expression of mitochondrial biogenesis-signaling factors in brown adipocytes is influenced specifically by 17beta-estradiol, testosterone, and progesterone. (1/125)

Control of mitochondrial biogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT), as part of the thermogenesis program, is a complex process that requires the integration of multiple transcription factors to orchestrate mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. Despite the knowledge of the role of sex hormones on BAT physiology, little is known about the effect of these hormones on the mitochondrial biogenic program. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of testosterone, 17beta-estradiol, and progesterone on the expression of nuclear factors involved in the control of mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenic function such as ppargamma, pgc1alpha, nrf1, gabpa, and tfam, and also an inhibitor of PI3K-Akt pathway, recently found to be involved in the control of mitochondrial recruitment (pten). For this purpose, an in vitro assay using cell-cultured brown adipocytes was used to address the role of steroid hormones, progesterone, testosterone, and 17beta-estradiol on the mRNA expression of these factors by real-time PCR. Thus 17beta-estradiol seemed to exert a dual effect, activating the PI3K-Akt pathway by inhibiting pten mRNA expression and also inhibiting nrf1 and tfam mRNA expression. Progesterone seemed to positively stimulate mitochondriogenesis and BAT differentiation by increasing the mRNA expression of the gabpa-tfam axis and ppargamma, respectively, but also exerted a negative output by increasing pten mRNA levels. Finally, testosterone inhibited the transcription of pgc1alpha, the master factor involved in UCP1 expression and mitochondrial biogenesis. In conclusion, our results support the idea that sex hormones have direct effects on different mediators of the mitochondriogenesis program.  (+info)

Bidirectional Ca2+ coupling of mitochondria with the endoplasmic reticulum and regulation of multimodal Ca2+ entries in rat brown adipocytes. (2/125)

How the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria communicate with each other and how they regulate plasmalemmal Ca(2+) entry were studied in cultured rat brown adipocytes. Cytoplasmic Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by fluorometry. The sustained component of rises in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) produced by thapsigargin was abolished by removing extracellular Ca(2+), depressed by depleting extracellular Na(+), and enhanced by raising extracellular pH. FCCP, dinitrophenol, and rotenone caused bi- or triphasic rises in [Ca(2+)](i), in which the first phase was accompanied by mitochondrial depolarization. The FCCP-induced first phase was partially inhibited by oligomycin but not by ruthenium red, cyclosporine A, U-73122, a Ca(2+)-free EGTA solution, and an Na(+)-free solution. The FCCP-induced second phase paralleling mitochondrial repolarization was partially blocked by removing extracellular Ca(2+) and fully blocked by oligomycin but not by thapsigargin or an Na(+)-deficient solution, was accompanied by a rise in cytoplasmic Mg(2+) concentration, and was summated with a high pH-induced rise in [Ca(2+)](i), whereas the extracellular Ca(2+)-independent component was blocked by U-73122 and cyclopiazonic acid. The FCCP-induced third phase was blocked by removing Ca(2+) but not by thapsigargin, depressed by decreasing Na(+), and enhanced by raising pH. Cyclopiazonic acid-evoked rises in [Ca(2+)](i) in a Ca(2+)-free solution were depressed after FCCP actions. Thus mitochondrial uncoupling causes Ca(2+) release, activating Ca(2+) release from the ER and store-operated Ca(2+) entry, and directly elicits a novel plasmalemmal Ca(2+) entry, whereas Ca(2+) release from the ER activates Ca(2+) accumulation in, or release from, mitochondria, indicating bidirectional mitochondria-ER couplings in rat brown adipocytes.  (+info)

Hypoxic adipocytes pattern early heterotopic bone formation. (3/125)

The factors contributing to heterotopic ossification, the formation of bone in abnormal soft-tissue locations, are beginning to emerge, but little is known about microenvironmental conditions promoting this often devastating disease. Using a murine model in which endochondral bone formation is triggered in muscle by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), we studied changes near the site of injection of BMP2-expressing cells. As early as 24 hours later, brown adipocytes began accumulating in the lesional area. These cells stained positively for pimonidazole and therefore generated hypoxic stress within the target tissue, a prerequisite for the differentiation of stem cells to chondrocytes and subsequent heterotopic bone formation. We propose that aberrant expression of BMPs in soft tissue stimulates production of brown adipocytes, which drive the early steps of heterotopic endochondral ossification by lowering oxygen tension in adjacent tissue, creating the correct environment for chondrogenesis. Results in misty gray lean mutant mice not producing brown fat suggest that white adipocytes convert into fat-oxidizing cells when brown adipocytes are unavailable, providing a compensatory mechanism for generation of a hypoxic microenvironment. Manipulation of the transcriptional control of adipocyte fate in local soft-tissue environments may offer a means to prevent or treat development of bone in extraskeletal sites.  (+info)

Transcriptional control of brown fat determination by PRDM16. (4/125)

Brown fat cells are specialized to dissipate energy and can counteract obesity; however, the transcriptional basis of their determination is largely unknown. We show here that the zinc-finger protein PRDM16 is highly enriched in brown fat cells compared to white fat cells. When expressed in white fat cell progenitors, PRDM16 activates a robust brown fat phenotype including induction of PGC-1alpha, UCP1, and type 2 deiodinase (Dio2) expression and a remarkable increase in uncoupled respiration. Transgenic expression of PRDM16 at physiological levels in white fat depots stimulates the formation of brown fat cells. Depletion of PRDM16 through shRNA expression in brown fat cells causes a near total loss of the brown characteristics. PRDM16 activates brown fat cell identity at least in part by simultaneously activating PGC-1alpha and PGC-1beta through direct protein binding. These data indicate that PRDM16 can control the determination of brown fat fate.  (+info)

Ca(2+) -independent effects of BAPTA and EGTA on single-channel Cl(-) currents in brown adipocytes. (5/125)

The Cl(-) channels of brown adipocytes electrophysiologically resemble outwardly rectifying Cl(-) channels (ORCC). To study tentative Ca(2+) regulation of these channels, we attempted to control Ca(2+) levels at the cytoplasmic side of the inside-out membrane patches with Ca(2+)-chelating agents. However, we found that the commonly used Ca(2+)-chelators EGTA and BAPTA by themselves influenced the Cl(-) channel currents, unrelated to their calcium chelating effects. Consequently, in this report we delineate effects of Ca(2+)-chelators (acting from the cytoplasmic side) on the single Cl(-) channel currents in patch-clamp experiments. Using fixed (1-2 mM) concentrations of chelators, two types of Cl(-) channels were identified, as discriminated by their reaction to the Ca(2+)-chelators and by their conductance: true-blockage channels (31 pS) and quasi-blockage channels (52 pS). In true-blockage channels, EGTA and BAPTA inhibited channel activity in a classical flickery type manner. In quasi-blockage channels, chelators significantly shortened the duration of individual openings, as in a flickering block, but the overall channel activity tended to increase. This dual effect of mean open time decrease accompanied by a tendency of open probability to increase we termed a quasi-blockage. Despite the complications due to the chelators as such, we could detect a moderate inhibitory effect of Ca(2+). The anionic classical Cl(-) channel blockers DIDS and SITS could mimic the true/quasi blockage of EGTA and BAPTA. It was concluded that at least in this experimental system, standard techniques for Ca(2+) level control in themselves could fundamentally affect the behaviour of Cl(-) channels.  (+info)

Insulin resistance induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha in myocytes and brown adipocytes. (6/125)

Insulin resistance is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, and obesity is a risk factor for its development, in part because adipose tissue secretes proteins, called adipokines, that may influence insulin sensitivity. Among these molecules, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha has been proposed as a link between obesity and insulin resistance because TNF-alpha is overexpressed in adipose tissues of obese animals and humans, and obese mice lacking either TNF-alpha or its receptor show protection against developing insulin resistance. Direct exposure to TNF-alpha induces a state of insulin resistance in terms of glucose uptake in myocytes and brown adipocytes because of the activation of proinflammatory pathways that impair insulin signaling at the level of the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. In this regard, the Ser(307) residue in IRS-1 has been identified as a site for the inhibitory effects of TNF-alpha in myotubes, with p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and inhibitor kB kinase being involved in the phosphorylation of this residue. Conversely, Ser phosphorylation of IRS-2 mediated by TNF-alpha activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase was the mechanism found in brown adipocytes. Protein-Tyr phosphatase (PTP)1B acts as a physiological, negative regulator of insulin signaling by dephosphorylating the phosphotyrosine residues of the insulin receptor and IRS-1, and PTP1B expression is increased in muscle and white adipose tissue of obese and diabetic humans and rodents. Moreover, up-regulation of PTP1B expression was recently found in cells treated with TNF-alpha Accordingly, myocytes and primary brown adipocytes deficient in PTP1B are protected against insulin resistance induced by this cytokine. Furthermore, down-regulation of PTP1B activity is possible by the use of pharmacological agonists of nuclear receptors that restore insulin sensitivity in the presence of TNF-alpha. In conclusion, the lack of PTP1B in muscle and brown adipocytes increases insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake and could confer protection against insulin resistance induced by adipokines.  (+info)

Nutritional and hormonal regulation of uncoupling protein gene expression in rat adipocytes. (7/125)

Nutritional and hormonal regulation of the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP)-1, -2, and -3 mRNA and protein was investigated in primary cultured adipocytes of rats. The UCP-1, -2, -3 mRNA and protein induction in the adipocytes reached maximal levels at 4 h in the presence of glucose with or without insulin. Moreover, the UCP induction was accelerated by triiodothyronine (T3) or epinephrine, and reached a maximum at 2 h. It appeared that the induction of UCP mRNA and protein was rapid. UCP-1 mRNA expression was stimulated by the presence of T3 or epinephrine in the culture medium. UCP-2 mRNA expression was more markedly increased by glucose, unsaturated fatty acids, insulin and T3 than UCP-1 or -3 mRNA expression. UCP-3 expression was more markedly increased by epinephrine than by T3. The protein expression of the UCPs was induced by glucose and the hormones nearly parallel to the UCP mRNA expression. Thus, UCP-2 expression appears to be stimulated by energy sources such as glucose and fat, and by regulators of thermogenesis and basal metabolic rate such as T3 and insulin, in contrast to UCP-1 and -3 expression.  (+info)

Forkhead transcription factor FoxO1 in adipose tissue regulates energy storage and expenditure. (8/125)

OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissue serves as an integrator of various physiological pathways, energy balance, and glucose homeostasis. Forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily (FoxO) 1 mediates insulin action at the transcriptional level. However, physiological roles of FoxO1 in adipose tissue remain unclear. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: In the present study, we generated adipose tissue-specific FoxO1 transgenic mice (adipocyte protein 2 [aP(2)]-FLAG-Delta 256) using an aP(2) promoter/enhancer and a mutant FoxO1 (FLAG Delta 256) in which the carboxyl terminal transactivation domain was deleted. Using these mice, we analyzed the effects of the overexpression of FLAG Delta 256 on glucose metabolism and energy homeostasis. RESULTS: The aP(2)-FLAG-Delta 256 mice showed improved glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity accompanied with smaller-sized adipocytes and increased adiponectin (adipoq) and Glut 4 (Slc2a4) and decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (Tnf) and chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 2 (Ccr2) gene expression levels in white adipose tissue (WAT) under a high-fat diet. Furthermore, the aP(2)-FLAG-Delta 256 mice had increased oxygen consumption accompanied with increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC)-1 alpha protein and uncoupling protein (UCP)-1 (Ucp1), UCP-2 (Ucp2), and beta 3-AR (Adrb3) in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Overexpression of FLAG Delta 256 in T37i cells, which are derived from the hibernoma of SV40 large T antigen transgenic mice, increased expression of PGC-1 alpha protein and Ucp1. Furthermore, knockdown of endogenous FoxO1 in T37i cells increased Pgc1 alpha (Ppargc1a), Pgc1 beta (Ppargc1b), Ucp1, and Adrb3 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that FoxO1 modulates energy homeostasis in WAT and BAT through regulation of adipocyte size and adipose tissue-specific gene expression in response to excessive calorie intake.  (+info)

*IRX3

Aug 2015). "FTO Obesity Variant Circuitry and Adipocyte Browning in Humans". New England Journal of Medicine. 373: 895-907. doi ...

*FTO gene

"FTO Obesity Variant Circuitry and Adipocyte Browning in Humans". The New England Journal of Medicine. 373: 895-907. doi:10.1056 ... this single nucleotide alteration promoted a shift from energy-dissipating beige adipocytes to energy-storing white adipocytes ... and that there is a pathway for adipocyte thermoregulation which involves the proteine ARID5B, the single-nucleotide variant ... Another study found indications that the FTO allele associated with obesity represses mitochondrial thermogenesis in adipocyte ...

*Sterol regulatory element-binding protein

"ADD1/SREBP1c activates the PGC1-alpha promoter in brown adipocytes". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1801 (4): 421-9. doi: ... Yokoyama C, Wang X, Briggs MR, Admon A, Wu J, Hua X, Goldstein JL, Brown MS (Oct 1993). "SREBP-1, a basic-helix-loop-helix- ... Brown MS, Goldstein JL (May 1997). "The SREBP pathway: regulation of cholesterol metabolism by proteolysis of a membrane-bound ... Brown MS, Goldstein JL (Sep 1999). "A proteolytic pathway that controls the cholesterol content of membranes, cells, and blood ...

*Mir-455 microRNA precursor family

... in brown adipocytes". Journal of Cellular Physiology. 218 (2): 444-449. doi:10.1002/jcp.21621. PMID 18937285. Hu, Z; Shen, WJ; ...

*Arotinolol

"Arotinolol is a weak partial agonist on beta 3-adrenergic receptors in brown adipocytes". Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 79 (7): 585- ... Markedly Increase Regional Blood Flow in the Brown Adipose Tissue in Anesthetized Rats". Japanese Circulation Journal. 56 (9): ...

*Mir-127

October 2005). "The orphan nuclear receptor SHP regulates PGC-1alpha expression and energy production in brown adipocytes". ...

*Beta-adrenergic agonist

"Beta 3-adrenergic receptor-mediated lipolysis and oxygen consumption in brown adipocytes from cynomolgus monkeys". J. Clin. ... "Brown adipose tissue, beta 3-adrenergic receptors, and obesity". Annu. Rev. Med. 48. pp. 307-16. "Archived copy". Archived from ...

*KLF15

2010). "Transcriptional regulation of a brown adipocyte-specific gene, UCP1, by KLF11 and KLF15". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun ... "Overexpression of KLF15 in adipocytes of mice results in down-regulation of SCD1 expression in adipocytes and consequent ... Wade HE, Kobayashi S, Eaton ML, Jansen MS, Lobenhofer EK, Lupien M, Geistlinger TR, Zhu W, Nevins JR, Brown M, Otteson DC, ... The expression of the KLF15 gene is markedly up-regulated during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes. ...

*SR 59230A

"Functional studies of the first selective β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist SR 59230A in rat brown adipocytes". Mol. Pharmacol ...

*Beta-3 adrenergic receptor

"Functional studies of the first selective β3-adrenergic receptor antagonist SR 59230A in rat brown adipocytes". Mol. Pharmacol ... Their role in gallbladder physiology is unknown, but they are thought to play a role in lipolysis and thermogenesis in brown ... relationship with the atypical receptor of adipocytes". EMBO J. 10 (12): 3721-7. PMC 453106 . PMID 1718744. Emorine LJ, Marullo ...

*Super-enhancer

April 2014). "Prdm16 is required for the maintenance of brown adipocyte identity and function in adult mice". Cell Metabolism. ... "Browning of human adipocytes requires KLF11 and reprogramming of PPARγ superenhancers". Genes & Development. 29 (1): 7-22. doi: ...

*Adrenergic receptor

"Functional studies of the first selective beta 3-adrenergic receptor antagonist SR 59230A in rat brown adipocytes". Molecular ... ISBN 0-87893-725-0. Zhao TJ, Sakata I, Li RL, Liang G, Richardson JA, Brown MS, et al. (Sep 2010). "Ghrelin secretion ... Dec 1997). "Human beta-2 adrenoceptor gene polymorphisms are highly frequent in obesity and associate with altered adipocyte ...

*PRDM16

... acts as a transcription coregulator that controls the development of brown adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. ... showing that PRDM16 activity is important in determining brown adipose fate. Brown adipocytes consist of densely packed ... The activity of PRDM16 in white adipose tissue leads to the production of brown fat-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue ... PRDM16 activates brown fat cell identity and can control the determination of brown adipose fate. A knock-out of PRDM16 in mice ...

*Organic anion transporter 1

... stavudine and zidovudine involves multiple cellular targets in white and brown adipocytes". Antivir. Ther. (Lond.). 12 (6): 919 ... Fujita T, Brown C, Carlson EJ, et al. (2005). "Functional analysis of polymorphisms in the organic anion transporter, SLC22A6 ( ... in white fat cells but not brown fat cells. Since stavudine and zidovudine are OAT1 substrates, they may have similar effects ...

*Adipose tissue

... a phenotype distinguishing brown adipocytes from interscapular brown adipose tissue and white adipose tissue". The Journal of ... Browning of WAT, also referred to as "beiging", occurs when adipocytes within WAT depots develop features of BAT. Beige ... Lo, KA; Sun, L (2013). "Turning WAT into BAT: a review on regulators controlling the browning of white adipocytes". Bioscience ... Brown fat or brown adipose tissue is a specialized form of adipose tissue in humans and other mammals. It is located mainly ...

*UCP3

... proteins are transporters in mitochondrial membrane which deplete the proton gradient.UCP1 asseverate in brown adipocytes, But ... Argyropoulos G, Brown AM, Willi SM, Zhu J, He Y, Reitman M, Gevao SM, Spruill I, Garvey WT (1998). "Effects of mutations in the ... "Entrez Gene: UCP3 uncoupling protein 3 (mitochondrial, proton carrier)". Argyropoulos G, Brown AM, Willi SM, Zhu J, He Y, ... an uncoupling protein homologue expressed preferentially and abundantly in skeletal muscle and brown adipose tissue". Biochem ...

*Brown adipose tissue

Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through ... In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) or brown fat makes up the adipose organ together with white adipose tissue (or white fat). Brown ... UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes". J Biol Chem. 285 (10): 7153-64. doi:10.1074/jbc ...

*Adipocyte

Brown fat, also known as "baby fat," is used to generate heat. Marrow adipocytes, like brown and white adipocytes, are derived ... Most recently, the presence of beige adipocytes with a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown adipocytes ... Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes, osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Recent studies shed light into ...

*KMT2D

Targeted knockout of Kmt2d in precursors cells of brown adipocytes and myocytes results in decreases in brown adipose tissue ... Juhlin CC, Stenman A, Haglund F, Clark VE, Brown TC, Baranoski J, et al. (September 2015). "Whole-exome sequencing defines the ... "MLL3/MLL4 are required for CBP/p300 binding on enhancers and super-enhancer formation in brown adipogenesis". Nucleic Acids ...

*Fludeoxyglucose (18F)

... brown adipocytes, kidney, and cancer cells, where phosphorylation prevents the glucose from being released again from the cell ...

*Sirtuin 3

... and overexpression of SIRT3 in HIB1B brown adipocytes increases the expression of PGC-1α and UCP1, suggesting a role for SIRT3 ... Fasting increases SIRT3 expression in white and brown adipose tissue (WAT and BAT, respectively) ...

*MYF5

"Myogenic gene expression signature establishes that brown and white adipocytes originate from distinct cell lineages". ... Firstly, it is expressed in brown adipose precursors. However, its expression is limited to brown and not white adipose ...

*Marrow adipose tissue

Wu, Jun; Cohen, Paul; Spiegelman, Bruce M. (2013-02-01). "Adaptive thermogenesis in adipocytes: is beige the new brown?". Genes ... MAT, by its "specific marrow location, and its adipocyte origin from at least LepR+ marrow MSC is separated from non-bone fat ... Marrow adipocytes are difficult to isolate and quantify because they are interspersed with bony and hematopoietic elements. ... Krings, A.; Rahman, S.; Huang, S.; Lu, Y.; Czernik, P. J.; Lecka-Czernik, B. (February 2012). "Bone marrow fat has brown ...

*Tofacitinib

White-to-brown metabolic conversion of human adipocytes by JAK inhibition. Nature Cell Biology, 8 December 2014. doi:10.1038/ ... A 2014 study showed that tofacitinib treatment was able to convert white fat tissues into more metabolically active brown fat, ...

*FNDC5

"Irisin stimulates browning of white adipocytes through mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 MAP kinase and ERK MAP kinase ... "Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white adipocytes". American Journal of Physiology. ... A 2016 in vitro study of white and brown fat cell tissue found dose-related upregulation of a protein called UCP1 that ... Park A (April 8, 2009). "Brown Fat: A Fat That Helps You Lose Weight?". Health & Family. Time Magazine. Retrieved January 12, ...

*ACTH receptor

Boston, Bruce A. (1999-10-01). "The Role of Melanocortins in Adipocyte Function". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. ... and in both white and brown adipoctyes, and is expressed in greater concentrations when adipose cells differentiate. Protein ... promotes a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile and stimulates UCP-1 in adipocytes". The Journal of Endocrinology. 196 (3): 465- ... "Characterization of murine melanocortin receptors mediating adipocyte lipolysis and examination of signalling pathways involved ...
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As a prototypical second messenger, cAMP is involved in the regulation of multiple cell functions. cAMP has a well established inhibitory effect on cell proliferation in smooth muscle and epithelial cell types. However, there is accumulating evidence also for stimulatory effect on proliferation, mainly in endocrine cell types.. Mechanisms mediating the cAMP stimulatory effect are not well studied. cAMP, produced via β1-adrenoceptor activation, promotes cell proliferation in brown preadipocytes. Due to the importance of brown adipose tissue in energy metabolism and its implication in the treatment of obesity and type II diabetes, understanding the mechanisms of tissue recruitment has clinical implication for the treatment of these metabolic syndromes.. We found that the Erk1/2 family of MAPK, often involved in regulation of cell proliferation, can be activated in response to the stimulation of G protein-coupled receptors, including adrenergic receptors (α1-, α2-, β1- and β3-Adrenoceptors) ...
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A mesenchymal cell with large lipid-filled vesicles typical of fatty tissue. Those in brown fat may be distinct. 3T3-L1 cells are often used as a model system because they will differentiate into adipocyte-like cells when treated with a combination of dexamethasone, insulin, and IBMX. ...
Background Brown adipocytes are specialised in dissipating energy through adaptive thermogenesis, whereas white adipocytes are specialised in energy storage. These essentially opposite functions are possible for two reasons relating to mitochondria, namely expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a remarkably higher mitochondrial abundance in brown adipocytes. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a comprehensive characterisation of gene expression linked to mitochondrial DNA replication, transcription and function during white and brown fat cell differentiation in vitro as well as in white and brown fat, brown adipose tissue fractions and in selected adipose tissues during cold exposure. We find a massive induction of the majority of such genes during brown adipocyte differentiation and recruitment, e.g. of the mitochondrial transcription factors A (Tfam) and B2 (Tfb2m), whereas only a subset of the same genes were induced during white adipose conversion. In addition, PR domain containing
Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high-and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation of mature ...
Much of the current excitement in the obesity field stems from recent observations highlighting that, even as adults, we have the ability to generate brown fat cells in response to cold exposure. Unlike white fat cells that mostly just store fat, brown adipocytes keep us warm by burning fat at a high rate," said Dr. Philipp Scherer, Director of the Touchstone Center for Diabetes Research at UT Southwestern and senior author of the study available online at Nature Medicine.. While generation of brown fat cells previously was thought to be mostly relevant for rodents and human infants, Dr. Scherer said, current evidence points to the observation that adults also generate these cells when exposed to cold.. Brown fat cells in adults tend to be randomly interspersed in subcutaneous white fat, with a trend toward increased accumulation in the upper chest and neck areas. In general, brown fat tissue makes up just a small percentage of total body fat mass.. The Touchstone Centers staff devotes its ...
Yale scientists uncover how a molecular process in the brain that known to control eating transforms white fat into brown fat, impacting how much energy we burn and how much weight we can lose.. The results are published in the October 9 issue of the journal Cell.. Obesity is a rising global epidemic. Excess fatty tissue is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, neurological disorders, and cancer. People become overweight and obese when energy intake exceeds energy expenditure, and excess calories are stored in the adipose tissues. The adipose organ is made up of both white and brown fat. While white fat primarily stores energy as triglycerides, brown fat dissipates chemical energy as heat. The more brown fat you have, the more weight you can lose.. It has previously been shown that energy-storing white fat has the capacity to transform into energy-burning "brown-like" fat. In this new study, researchers from the Yale Program in Integrative Cell Signaling ...
But the two fats differ in a number of ways. One key difference is that brown fat cells express high levels of UCP1, a protein required by mitochondria that burns calories and generates heat, whereas beige cells normally express low levels of it. Beige cells can, however, turn on high levels of UCP1 in response to cold or the release of irisin, enabling beige fat to burn calories nearly as effectively as brown fat. Also, brown fat cells appear to arise from stem cells precursors that also produce muscle cells, while beige fat forms within deposits of white fat cells from beige cell precursors ...
Islands of brown fat can occur in many different places in the body. You may be able to appreciate a bit of extra pinkness to these cells, in addition to the vacuoles. You are seeing the protein-rich mitochondria. In this section, you cannot really tell where the cell borders are. But the vacuoles make the brown fat clear. ...
Joslin scientists have discovered a mechanism that regulates the production of brown fat, a type of fat which plays an important role in heat production and energy metabolism.
In this issue of the Journal of Clinical Investigation, researchers led by Laurie Goodyear at the Joslin Diabetes Center in Boston, performed brown fat transplants in mice to determine if this intervention could treat obesity.
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Recent research may help develop pharmaceuticals that activate brown fat - thus making a difference for people suffering from diabetes and obesity.
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Im 56, period started last thrusday, brown spotting and then bleeding, still bleeding lightly, over 5 years had none,is it normal, visiting my doc only Dec. 21, 2011 Thank you
In this chapter, pharmacologic agents are grouped according to the preferred practice patterns as listed originally in Chapter 6 of the Guide to Physical Therapist Practice, 2nd edition (revised).1 For each preferred practice pattern, medications that specifically address cardiovascular or pulmonary problems will be discussed as they relate to that practice pattern. It is, of course, not possible to describe all medications that might be related to each pattern. For example, medications used to control infection, treat cancer, and so forth, may help improve the patients overall health, thereby helping the patient to participate in aerobic conditioning, respiratory exercises, and other activities that will ultimately lead to better cardiovascular and pulmonary function. This chapter, however, will focus only on the medications that directly affect the heart, circulation, or lungs and describe how these medications relate to the physical therapy interventions described in the preferred practice ...
Phytanic acid (3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadecanoic acid) is a phytol-derived branched-chain fatty acid present in dietary products. Phytanic acid increased uncoupling protein-1 (UCP1) mRNA expression in brown adipocytes differentiated in culture. Phytanic acid induced the expression of the UCP1 gene promoter, which was enhanced by co-transfection with a retinoid X receptor (RXR) expression vector but not with other expression vectors driving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, PPARγ or a form of RXR devoid of ligand-dependent sensitivity. The effect of phytanic acid on the UCP1 gene required the 5′ enhancer region of the gene and the effects of phytanic acid were mediated in an additive manner by three binding sites for RXR. Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid promoted the acquisition of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of ...
The adipose tissue in mammals consists of 2 types: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), but also mixed areas. WAT and BAT share many metabolic characteristics but, whereas WAT mainly stores excess energy for subsequent needs, BAT functions as an energy-dissipating organ. In rodents, it is well established that BAT plays an important role in preventing and reducing obesity through increased energy dissipation and heat production. However, the role of BAT is unclear in man. It is well- known that newborns are provided with a considerable amount of BAT which becomes drastically reduced shortly after birth. However, brown adipocytes are dispersed in the WAT also in adult life, with a calculated presence of 1 brown adipocyte for every 100 to 200 white adipocytes.27 The importance of brown cells within the WAT or cells with a "brownish phenotype" has been discussed. Interestingly, treatment with the thiazolidinediones (TZD) has been shown to induce a brown adipocyte phenotype in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Complementary roles of estrogen-related receptors in brown adipocyte thermogenic function. AU - Gantner, Marin L.. AU - Hazen, Bethany C.. AU - Eury, Elodie. AU - Brown, Erin L.. AU - Kralli, Anastasia. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis relies on a high abundance of mitochondria and the unique expression of the mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 1 (UCP1), which uncouples substrate oxidation from ATP synthesis. Adrenergic stimulation of brown adipocytes activates UCP1-mediated thermogenesis; it also induces the expression of Ucp1 and other genes important for thermogenesis, thereby endowing adipocytes with higher oxidative and uncoupling capacities. Adipocyte mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative capacity are controlled by multiple transcription factors, including the estrogen-related receptor (ERR)β. Whole-body ERRβ knockout mice show decreased BAT mitochondrial content and oxidative function but normal induction of Ucp1 in response to ...
Posted on 08/06/2012 1:46:58 AM PDT by neverdem. Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) researchers have identified a mechanism that can give energy-storing white fat some of the beneficial characteristics of energy-burning brown fat. The findings, based on studies of mice and of human fat tissue, could lead to new strategies for treating obesity and type 2 diabetes. The study was published August 2 in the online edition of the journal Cell. Humans have two types of fat tissue: white fat, which stores excess energy in the form of triglycerides, and brown fat, which is highly efficient at dissipating stored energy as heat. Newborns have a relative abundance of brown fat, as protection against exposure to cold temperatures. In adults, however, almost all excess energy is stored as white fat. Turning white fat into brown fat is an appealing therapeutic approach to staunching the obesity epidemic, but it has been difficult to do so in a safe and effective way, said study leader Domenico Accili, ...
Researchers at UCSF have identified the lynchpin that activates brown fat cells, which burn fat molecules instead of storing them, making them the focus of pharmaceutical research aimed at fighting obesity.
Researchers at UCSF have identified the lynchpin that activates brown fat cells, which burn fat molecules instead of storing them, making them the focus of pharmaceutical research aimed at fighting obesity.
Brown fat cells, freshly isolated from cold-acclimated hamsters and rats, did not respond to norepinephrine addition with the characteristic increase in oxygen consumption (heat production) seen in cells from control animals. However, incubation of t
Until the discovery of UCP2, UCP3 and a plant UCP in 1997, the brown fat UCP (UCP1), represented a very specific type of protein. UCP1 is uniquely present in brown adipocytes, and its function is to create a fatty acid-activated uncoupling of respiration. UCP1 is expressed at a very high level in brown adipocytes, where it may account for up to 4% of total protein and 8% of mitochondrial protein. The reason why UCP1 is present at a high level is unknown, but it suggests that a rapid and full uncoupling of respiration leading to a marked thermogenesis requires a large number of UCP1 molecules, with the activity of each molecule probably being weak. Physiological, pharmacological, biochemical, and genetic studies established the role of UCP1 in uncoupling of respiration and adaptive thermogenesis. Cold exposure of rodents is the most illustrative way of UCP1 induction. This depends on many hormones such as the thyroid hormones, but many studies based on the use of drugs activating ...
The ability of adrenergic agents to promote the differentiation and especially the mitochondriogenesis of brown fat precursor cells, grown in culture, was investigated. These cells begin to differentiate during the days preceding confluence. We found here that, already during the early growth phase, the cultures (essentially precursor cells and preadipocytes at this stage) show increased cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels when acutely stimulated with norepinephrine (NE). The cultured cells were therefore chronically treated with NE up to the time of confluence, and their cytochrome-c oxidase activity was measured as an index of mitochondriogenesis. Chronic NE treatment resulted in an increased cytochrome-c oxidase activity of the cells at confluence. This effect was reproduced by selective activation of adenylate cyclase with cholera toxin, suggesting that the NE effect was exerted through an increase in cAMP. Ascorbate (added with NE as an antioxidant) had in itself a positive effect, both on final cell ...
Irisin can help in transforming white fat cells into brown ones. So what? The point is that brown fat cells are typically found in small amounts in adults while theyre common in babies and children. The role of brown fat tissues is to promote energy burning while fat cells promote fat storage! So when you exercise, your body secretes Irisin hormone, transforms white fat into metabolically active brown fat, consequently, increasing fat burning for longer! ...
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There is much interest in being able to harvest the power of brown fat in humans to combat obesity and accompanying metabolic disease.
MR imaging has been used to successfully identify calorie-burning brown adipose tissue (BAT), and the results could be a major step forward in finding therapies against diabetes and obesity, according
Brown Said Stimulus Would "Go a Long Way Toward Putting Americans Back to Work." "This bill will go a long way toward putting Americans back to work and our economy back on track, Mr. Brown said. It includes critical infrastructure funds that provide immediate job creation while driving long-term economic development. It also creates a new generation of green jobs that will revive our nations manufacturing base while reducing our dependence on foreign oil." (Tom Troy, "Brown, Kaptur Back Stimulus; GOPs Voinovich Rejects It," The [Toledo, OH] Blade, 2/12/09 ...
After 14 years of being beaten every way imaginable, nobody is spitting on the Browns defense anymore.The Browns carry the third-ranked defense into their Thursday night game against the Bills. They are fourth against the run, ninth against the pa
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Is it normal to have brown discharge after your period - Is it normal to have brown discharge after your period? Common. That should not represent a problem. It is pretty common.
Near the end of the menstrual period, the blood can turn a dark brown or black, which WebMD states is common and not cause for alarm. What To Expect warns that brown discharge can also be an early...
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Hello ,this is embarrassing but this has been going on for quite some time. My stools are almost always a reddish brown color never the usual darker brown.This has been going on so long I cant even re...
My first look out the window this morning was to startle the brown thrasher.I was so happy to see him.It was this same day last year they arrived.He is larger than a robin & a beautiful rusty brown color,his eyes which are yellowish-orange looked directly at me ...
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Gary A Brown DO is a Psychiatrist who practices in Trenton, NJ. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
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An odd title, I know, but it will make sense. Originally, our light switch plates were brown Bakelite. All but one of them was replaced during the last sixty
We report the discovery of a low-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulation with unique molecular and metabolic features, coexisting with the classical brown adipocytes in vivo. The results presented here offer critical insight toward our understanding of how brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is regulated at the cellular level. The discovery of the new low-thermogenic subpopulation is of great interest since this population of cells does not have typical brown adipocyte morphology and displays a unique metabolic profile. However, the exact function of this subpopulation is largely unknown. These brown adipocytes have relatively large lipid droplets and low mitochondrial content and an extremely low respiration rate, compared with the high-thermogenic subpopulation. Are these brown adipocytes in a resting status and readily recruitable to convert into high-thermogenic cells? Or do they have critical metabolic functions other than thermogenesis? As the low-thermogenic brown adipocytes have a much ...
We report the discovery of a low-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulation with unique molecular and metabolic features, coexisting with the classical brown adipocytes in vivo. The results presented here offer critical insight toward our understanding of how brown adipose tissue thermogenesis is regulated at the cellular level. The discovery of the new low-thermogenic subpopulation is of great interest since this population of cells does not have typical brown adipocyte morphology and displays a unique metabolic profile. However, the exact function of this subpopulation is largely unknown. These brown adipocytes have relatively large lipid droplets and low mitochondrial content and an extremely low respiration rate, compared with the high-thermogenic subpopulation. Are these brown adipocytes in a resting status and readily recruitable to convert into high-thermogenic cells? Or do they have critical metabolic functions other than thermogenesis? As the low-thermogenic brown adipocytes have a much ...
Dr. Søren Nielsen is a Post doctoral researcher at the Centre of Inflammation and Metabolism at Rigshospitalet in Denmark. His research focus is long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and their role in brown adipogenesis in humans. Human brown fat is intensely studied due to its potential anti-diabetic properties. The aim of the proposed project is to investigate the function of five lncRNAs substantially expressed in white fat and barely detectable in brown fat cells. LncRNAs are potent regulators of gene expression through chromatin modifications and therefore possible determinants of brown versus white fat cell fate. Identifying a lncRNA that turn excess white fat into brown could provide a tool for counteracting obesity and its associated diseases. ...
While some individuals believe that one way to utilize brown fat is to develop a "cold sauna" that individuals can simply sit in, wouldnt it be better to combine brown fat activation with white fat "activation"? There still is limited information on what type of exposure regiment is optimal for brown fat activation. For example is it better to be exposed to high intensity cold at low volume (-50 degrees F for 30 seconds) or low intensity cold at high volume (20 degrees F for 5 minutes)? Note that brown fat activates as long as the temperature is cold enough whether it is acute cold or eventual chronic cold; however, prolonged exposure to certain cold conditions can produce negative results for exposed skin, so determining a differentiated methodology would be advisable. Also gyms or cold saunas would have to set up a stepwise exposure protocol allowing users to move gradually from initial temperatures to final temperatures because a near instant temperature change from say 70 degrees F to 0 ...
Dynamic subcellular localization of aquaporin-7 in white adipocytes(審査報告)Dynamic subcellular localization of aquaporin-7 in white adipocytes(審査報告) ...
Biologists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have identified a signaling pathway that switches on a powerful calorie-burning process in brown fat cells.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Science Signaling.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
US scientists have discovered a protein switch that decides whether precursor fat cells turn into white fat cells that store calories, or brown fat cells t
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High levels of Id1 suppresses brown fats burning ability by binding to and suppressing the action of a protein that can regulate gene expression up or down.
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Rihanna was blindsided by the criticism fired at her for reuniting with ex-boyfriend Chris Brown in the studio - because she didnt think anyone would care that the former lovers were working together.Brown and Rihanna recently worked on two tracks...
The Conservative Party said leaked documents showed Brown misled the public on plans for spending cuts. The claim came on the same day that U.K.s unemployment jumped to its highest level in 14 years.
Troy coach Neal Brown says he likes the #ranktroy movement, but how well the Trojans play will determine if they move into the national rankings.
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BEREA, Ohio (AP) - Now the longest tenured coach of Clevelands three professional teams, Eric Mangini understands Mike Browns pain.
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Trailing 2-0, the Brown womens hockey team scored an early third period goal to pull within one, but Yale generated two scores to go up 4-1 and eventually held on for a 4-2 win over the Bears on T. ...
Trailing 2-0, the Brown womens hockey team scored an early third period goal to pull within one, but Yale generated two scores to go up 4-1 and eventually held on for a 4-2 win over the Bears on T. ...
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Et tu, Charlie Brown? Everything else is going 3-D and CG. Why not Lucy, Snoopy and the rest of the Peanuts gang? At least, that's what those behind a November 2015 release starring Charlie and his beloved canine are hoping. Directed by
As Bobbi Kristina Brown remains in a medically induced coma, little info about the incident at her home or her condition has slipped from police, family.
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Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an energy-dispensing thermogenic tissue that plays an important role in balancing energy metabolism. Lineage-tracing experiments indicate that brown adipocytes are derived from myogenic progenitors during embryonic development. However, adult skeletal muscle stem cells (satellite cells) have long been considered uniformly determined toward the myogenic lineage. Here, we report that adult satellite cells give rise to brown adipocytes and that microRNA-133 regulates the choice between myogenic and brown adipose determination by targeting the 3UTR of Prdm16. Antagonism of microRNA-133 during muscle regeneration increases uncoupled respiration, glucose uptake, and thermogenesis in local treated muscle and augments whole-body energy expenditure, improves glucose tolerance, and impedes the development of diet-induced obesity. Finally, we demonstrate that miR-133 levels are downregulated in mice exposed to cold, resulting in de novo generation of satellite cell-derived ...
Grant #1-17-ACE-17. Not all fat cells are the same. Most of the fat tissue in the body is composed of white fat cells that are primarily used for storage of excess energy. In the obese state, white fat cells become inflamed and contribute to diabetes. In contrast, brown fat cells dissipate energy as heat and protect against obesity and diabetes. Beige fat cells are present within white fat. They share many properties with brown fat, and, as a result, are an interesting target for modulating metabolism. This study will test whether factors present in beige fat can reduce glucose production by the liver, thereby lowering blood glucose levels. The results could facilitate the development of novel mechanism-based therapies to treat diabetes and other obesity-associated diseases.. ...
In this paper, we have used the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoproterenol for all the in vivo and in vitro studies. We have extensively shown (Chernogubova et al., 2004, 2005; Hutchinson and Bengtsson, 2006; Dallner et al., 2006) that the β3-adrenoceptor is the only β-adrenoceptor subtype that increases glucose uptake via increased de novo synthesis of GLUT1 in brown adipocytes from wild-type mice in vitro through the use of specific agonists and antagonists (Chernogubova et al., 2004, 2005; Dallner et al., 2006). The exception occurs in β3-adrenoceptor knockout mice, where there is compensation by both the α1- and β1-adrenoceptors that is not evident in cultures derived from wild-type mice (Chernogubova et al., 2005). Hence we strongly believe that the effects of isoproterenol in vitro are due solely to activation of β3-adrenoceptors. With respect to glucose uptake in vivo, isoproterenol is still effective in promoting glucose uptake into BAT in β1β2-adrenoceptor knockout mice (Fig. 4 A), ...
In mammals, two tissues are primarily responsible for adaptive thermogenesis: brown fat and beige fat. Although brown fat has long been known as a specialized thermogenic tissue, beige adipocytes, a morphologically distinct type of fat cells that develop within white fat depots upon exposure to cold or high-fat diet, have been discovered only recently. Similar to brown adipocytes, beige adipocytes contain abundant mitochondria and seem to express mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which promotes mitochondrial production of heat by increasing the passive proton (H+) leak of the inner mitochondrial membrane. However, the mechanisms of mitochondrial uncoupling and thermogenesis in various beige fat depots as well as the relative contribution of UCP1 remain unclear. Moreover, brown and beige adipocytes retain partial thermogenic capacity even in UCP1-deficient mice. Therefore, this proposal is focused on the identification and characterization of UCP1-dependent and UCP1-independent ...
Brown adipose tissue is a thermogenic organ that dissipates chemical energy as heat to protect animals against hypothermia and to counteract metabolic disease. However, the transcriptional mechanisms that determine the thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue before environmental cold are unknown. Here we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required to activate brown adipose tissue enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude. Mice with brown adipose tissue-specific genetic ablation of HDAC3 become severely hypothermic and succumb to acute cold exposure. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is nearly absent in brown adipose tissue lacking HDAC3, and there is also marked downregulation of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation genes resulting in diminished mitochondrial respiration. Remarkably, although HDAC3 acts canonically as a transcriptional corepressor, it functions as a coactivator of oestrogen-related receptor α (ERRα) in brown adipose tissue. HDAC3 coactivation of ERRα is mediated by
AbeBooks.com: HISTOCHEMICAL AND MICROCHEMICAL OBSERVATIONS ON THE LIPIDS OF THE INTERSCAPULAR BROWN FAT OF THE FEMALE VESPERTILIONID BAT MYOTIS LUCIFUGUS LUCIFUGUS: NY 1958. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 72, Art. 1. Octavo, 68pp., illustrations, rebound in later wraps with original front wrap included. VG.

Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes.  - PubMed - NCBIGenetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes. - PubMed - NCBI

Identification of human brown adipocyte markers. (a) Venn diagram of the overlapping genes enriched in human brown adipocytes, ... mouse classical brown adipocytes, and mouse beige adipocytes versus white adipocytes of the respective species by two-fold or ... P , 0.001, brown versus white adipocyte lines; *P , 0.05, **P , 0.01, ***P , 0.001, brown or white (as indicated) versus basal ... Isolation of clonal brown adipocytes from adult human BAT. (a) Representative Oil-Red-O staining of differentiated brown ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25774848?dopt=Abstract

JCI -
Low- and high-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulations coexist in murine adipose tissueJCI - Low- and high-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulations coexist in murine adipose tissue

C) Quantification of the percentage of LacZ+ brown adipocytes in the total brown adipocytes. n = 11 mice (10 weeks old); n = 5 ... B) Quantification of the percentage of LacZ+ brown adipocytes in the total brown adipocytes. n = 8 mice (6°C); 6 mice (24°C); 7 ... Brown adipocytes heterogeneously and dynamically express Adipoq. To better understand brown adipocyte dynamics in vivo, we used ... Compared with the LacZ+ brown adipocytes (Adipoq high-expressing), the LacZ- brown adipocytes had markedly lower mitochondrial ...
more infohttps://www.jci.org/articles/view/129167

Serotonin prevents differentiation into brown adipocytes and induces transdifferentiation into white adipocytesSerotonin prevents differentiation into brown adipocytes and induces transdifferentiation into white adipocytes

... ... Differentiated HIB1B brown adipocytes treated with serotonin had reduced levels of the thermogenic markers uncoupling protein 1 ... In parallel, serotonin led to 3-6-fold reduction in the gene expression of brown adipocyte differentiation markers, that is, ... Non-differentiated HIB1B cells and differentiated HIB1B brown adipocytes were treated with serotonin and their metabolism and ...
more infohttps://insights.ovid.com/pubmed?PMID=29081505

Synergism between cAMP and PPAR Signalling in the Initiation of UCP1 Gene Expression in HIB1B Brown AdipocytesSynergism between cAMP and PPAR Signalling in the Initiation of UCP1 Gene Expression in HIB1B Brown Adipocytes

... adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, cancer, lung diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and obesity. ... Signalling in the Initiation of UCP1 Gene Expression in HIB1B Brown Adipocytes. H. Y. Chen, Q. Liu, A. M. Salter, and M. A. ... Signalling in the Initiation of UCP1 Gene Expression in HIB1B Brown Adipocytes," PPAR Research, vol. 2013, Article ID 476049, 8 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2013/476049/cta/

Frontiers | TGF-β/Smad3 Signaling Regulates Brown Adipocyte Induction in White Adipose Tissue | EndocrinologyFrontiers | TGF-β/Smad3 Signaling Regulates Brown Adipocyte Induction in White Adipose Tissue | Endocrinology

Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown ... Here we review the data supporting this phenomenon and put into perspective the promise of conversion of white fat to a brown ... described an important role played by the TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in ... described an important role played by the TGF-beta/Smad3 signaling pathway in modulating the appearance of brown adipocytes in ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fendo.2012.00035/full

The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix.  - PubMed -...The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix. - PubMed -...

The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix.. Barneda D1 ... The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix ... The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix ... The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26609809?dopt=Abstract

A high-throughput, image-based screen to identify kinases involved in brown adipocyte development | Science SignalingA high-throughput, image-based screen to identify kinases involved in brown adipocyte development | Science Signaling

A high-throughput, image-based screen to identify kinases involved in brown adipocyte development ... A high-throughput, image-based screen to identify kinases involved in brown adipocyte development ... A high-throughput, image-based screen to identify kinases involved in brown adipocyte development ... A high-throughput, image-based screen to identify kinases involved in brown adipocyte development ...
more infohttp://stke.sciencemag.org/content/10/466/eaaf5357.full

Inhibitory Effects of Toll-Like Receptor 4, NLRP3 Inflammasome, and Interleukin-1β on White Adipocyte Browning | Springer for...Inhibitory Effects of Toll-Like Receptor 4, NLRP3 Inflammasome, and Interleukin-1β on White Adipocyte Browning | Springer for...

... on white adipocyte browning. We report that TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide repressed white adipocyte browning in ... TLR4 NLRP3 inflammasome IL-1β uncoupling protein 1 beige adipocytes brown adipocytes β3-adrenergic receptor ... Mitochondria in white, brown, and beige adipocytes. Stem cells International 2016: 6067349.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle ... Intrinsic properties of brown and white adipocytes have differential effects on macrophage inflammatory responses. Mediators of ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10753-017-0718-y

Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation | Biochemical...Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation | Biochemical...

Moreover, phytanic acid activates brown adipocyte differentiation: long-term exposure of brown preadipocytes to phytanic acid ... of the brown adipocyte morphology and caused a co-ordinate induction of the mRNAs for gene markers of brown adipocyte ... Phytanic acid, a novel activator of uncoupling protein-1 gene transcription and brown adipocyte differentiation Agatha SCHLÜTER ... In conclusion, phytanic acid is a natural product of phytol metabolism that activates brown adipocyte thermogenic function. It ...
more infohttps://portlandpress.com/biochemj/article/362/1/61/39304/Phytanic-acid-a-novel-activator-of-uncoupling

Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white...Oleoylethanolamide enhances β-adrenergic-mediated thermogenesis and white-to-brown adipocyte phenotype in epididymal white...

UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 285, 7153-7164. ... transgenic expression of PRDM16 in white adipocytes stimulates the formation of brown fat-like adipocytes (Seale et al., 2007 ... 2010). Cyclooxygenase-2 controls energy homeostasis in mice by de novo recruitment of brown adipocytes. Science 328, 1158-1161. ... 2003). Acquirement of brown fat cell features by human white adipocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 278, 33370-33376. ...
more infohttps://dmm.biologists.org/content/7/1/129

Phospholipase C-related Catalytically Inactive Protein Is a New Modulator of Thermogenesis Promoted by β-Adrenergic Receptors...Phospholipase C-related Catalytically Inactive Protein Is a New Modulator of Thermogenesis Promoted by β-Adrenergic Receptors...

6E), suggesting high lipolytic activity in Prip-KO brown adipocytes. In β-AR-stimulated cultured brown adipocytes from Prip-KO ... Primary Culture of Mouse Brown Adipocytes and Oil Red O Staining Brown adipocyte precursors were isolated using a previously ... lipolytic products can activate Ucp1 gene expression in brown adipocytes (43). In Prip-KO cultured primary brown adipocytes, ... The culture medium was changed every 2 days until the differentiated cells resembled brown adipocytes. The primary brown ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC4759193/

Effects of differentiation on gene expression of certain brown adipocyte-secreted factorsEffects of differentiation on gene expression of certain brown adipocyte-secreted factors

1. The secretome of brown adipose tissue. Open this publication in new window or tab ,,The secretome of brown adipose tissue. ... Effects of differentiation on gene expression of certain brown adipocyte-secreted factors. Hansen, Ida Stockholm University, ... However, there was no effect on gene expression of chemerin and collagen type 3 a1 in norepinephrine-treated brown adipocyte ... Results from the signal-sequence trap generated a list of suggested brown adipocyte secreted proteins; gene expression of these ...
more infohttp://su.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:714070

Hibernoma formation in transgenic mice and isolation of a brown adipocyte cell line expressing the uncoupling protein gene. -...Hibernoma formation in transgenic mice and isolation of a brown adipocyte cell line expressing the uncoupling protein gene. -...

Most of the transgenic mice developed brown fat tumors (hibernomas) in their interscapular brown adipose tissue. Hibernoma ... All of the tumor tissue expressed the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein (UCP) gene as well as the aP2 gene. Several of the ... used to establish cultured cell lines and at least one of these lines can be induced to differentiate into brown adipocytes. ... The cultured adipocytes express mRNA for UCP upon stimulation with N6,O2-dibutyryladenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Hibernoma-formation-in-transgenic-mice-and-of-a-the-Ross-Choy/c390ded822b4761e6477c7741e0e5ab13c1dcbe7

Complementary roles of estrogen-related receptors in brown adipocyte thermogenic function<...Complementary roles of estrogen-related receptors in brown adipocyte thermogenic function<...

Gantner ML, Hazen BC, Eury E, Brown EL, Kralli A. Complementary roles of estrogen-related receptors in brown adipocyte ... brown adipocytes express ERRα and ERR, 2 nuclear receptors that are highly similar to ERRβ and whose function in adipocytes is ... brown adipocytes express ERRα and ERR, 2 nuclear receptors that are highly similar to ERRβ and whose function in adipocytes is ... brown adipocytes express ERRα and ERR, 2 nuclear receptors that are highly similar to ERRβ and whose function in adipocytes is ...
more infohttps://jhu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/complementary-roles-of-estrogen-related-receptors-in-brown-adipoc

Na+-dependent, alpha-adrenergic mobilization of intracellular (mitochondrial) Ca2+ in brown adipocytes.Na+-dependent, alpha-adrenergic mobilization of intracellular (mitochondrial) Ca2+ in brown adipocytes.

... Connolly, E ... The existence and significance of a hormone-sensitive, rapidly mobilizable intracellular pool of Ca2+ in hamster brown-fat ...
more infohttp://kau.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:657586

Alpha 1-adrenergic inositol trisphosphate production in brown adipocytes is Na+ dependent.Alpha 1-adrenergic inositol trisphosphate production in brown adipocytes is Na+ dependent.

... Nånberg, Eewa Uppsala universitet, ... In order to investigate the ionic requirements for inositol trisphosphate production, brown adipocytes were prelabelled with ...
more infohttp://kau.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:657597

De Novo Reconstruction of Adipose Tissue Transcriptomes Reveals Long Non-coding RNA Regulators of Brown Adipocyte DevelopmentDe Novo Reconstruction of Adipose Tissue Transcriptomes Reveals Long Non-coding RNA Regulators of Brown Adipocyte Development

... ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) protects against obesity by promoting energy expenditure via uncoupled respiration. To uncover BAT- ... lnc-BATE1 inhibition impairs concurrent activation of brown fat and repression of white fat genes and is partially rescued by ... We show that lnc-BATE1 binds heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U and that both are required for brown adipogenesis. Our ...
more infohttps://dr.ntu.edu.sg/handle/10220/39722

Assessment of Brown Adipocyte Thermogenic Function by  ...Assessment of Brown Adipocyte Thermogenic Function by ...

Here we provide protocols for measuring respiration in adherent intact and plasma membrane permeabilized brown adipocytes using ... A key parameter in assessing brown adipocyte thermogenic capacity is mitochondrial uncoupling as determined by respiration. ... Brown adipose tissue (BAT) has the unique ability to dramatically increase mitochondrial uncoupled fuel oxidation for ... Figure 2. Representative images of pre-adipocytes 24 h after isolation and mature brown-adipocytes after 7 days of ...
more infohttps://en.bio-protocol.org/e1641

Brown and Beige Adipocytes: Effects of Inflammation and Nutritional In by Jiyoung Bae"Brown and Beige Adipocytes: Effects of Inflammation and Nutritional In" by Jiyoung Bae

... the roles of PRR activation in brown adipocytes and brown adipose tissue (BAT) have not been studied. In addition, in vitro and ... The results suggest that PRR-mediated inflammation in brown adipocytes may be a potential target for regulating BAT development ... Understanding of the regulation of brown and beige adipocytes will provide novel strategies to reach the goal. Pattern ... activation of PRRs reduces adipogenesis and suppresses expression of brown-specific genes in both classic brown adipocytes and ...
more infohttps://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/3541/

The origin and definition of brite versus white and classical brown adipocytes - Research CollectionThe origin and definition of brite versus white and classical brown adipocytes - Research Collection

Brown adipose tissue; Brown fat; Brite adipocyte; Beige adipocyte; Non-shivering thermogenesis; Bi-directional interconversion ... The origin and definition of brite versus white and classical brown adipocytes. * Mendeley ...
more infohttps://www.research-collection.ethz.ch/handle/20.500.11850/99732

Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 increases lipolysis, UCP1 protein expression and mitochondrial activity in brown adipocytesCarnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 increases lipolysis, UCP1 protein expression and mitochondrial activity in brown adipocytes

This indicates that CPT1AM-mediated increase in brown adipocytes FAO may be a new approach to the treatment of obesity-induced ... Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 increases lipolysis, UCP1 protein expression and mitochondrial activity in brown adipocytes ... Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 increases lipolysis, UCP1 protein expression and mitochondrial activity in brown adipocytes ... Carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 increases lipolysis, UCP1 protein expression and mitochondrial activity in brown adipocytes ...
more infohttp://www.recercat.cat/handle/2072/266503

JCI -
Low- and high-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulations coexist in murine adipose tissueJCI - Low- and high-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulations coexist in murine adipose tissue

... brown adipocyte subpopulation with low thermogenic activity co-existing with the classical high thermogenic brown adipocytes ... the two brown adipocyte subpopulations underwent dynamic inter-conversions. Cold exposure converted low thermogenic brown ... These low thermogenic brown adipocytes had significantly lower Ucp1 and Adipoq expression, larger lipid droplets, and lower ... This recruitment of high thermogenic brown adipocytes by cold stimulation is not affected by high fat diet feeding, but ...
more infohttps://mascool.cn.insight.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/129167/pdf

JCI -
Low- and high-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulations coexist in murine adipose tissueJCI - Low- and high-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulations coexist in murine adipose tissue

Compared with the high-thermogenic brown adipocytes, these low-thermogenic brown adipocytes had substantially lower Ucp1 and ... Functional analyses showed that, unlike the high-thermogenic brown adipocytes, the low-thermogenic brown adipocytes have ... new brown adipocyte subpopulation with low thermogenic activity coexisting with the classical high-thermogenic brown adipocytes ... the 2 brown adipocyte subpopulations underwent dynamic interconversions. Cold exposure converted low-thermogenic brown ...
more infohttps://tejiachina.net.insight.mobile.jci.org/articles/view/129167/pdf

JCI -
Low- and high-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulations coexist in murine adipose tissueJCI - Low- and high-thermogenic brown adipocyte subpopulations coexist in murine adipose tissue

Compared with the high-thermogenic brown adipocytes, these low-thermogenic brown adipocytes had substantially lower Ucp1 and ... Functional analyses showed that, unlike the high-thermogenic brown adipocytes, the low-thermogenic brown adipocytes have ... a brown adipocyte subpopulation with low thermogenic activity coexisting with the classical high-thermogenic brown adipocytes ... the 2 brown adipocyte subpopulations underwent dynamic interconversions. Cold exposure converted low-thermogenic brown ...
more infohttps://mobile.jci.org/articles/view/129167/pdf
  • The brown adipocyte protein CIDEA promotes lipid droplet fusion via a phosphatidic acid-binding amphipathic helix. (nih.gov)
  • CIDEA is a lipid droplet (LD)-protein enriched in brown adipocytes promoting the enlargement of LDs, which are dynamic, ubiquitous organelles specialized for storing neutral lipids. (nih.gov)
  • The thermogenic capability of brown fat is mainly mediated by the presence of a mitochondria uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1), which uncouples the electron transport chain from energy production and results in the release of potential energy obtained from food as heat. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • When the amount of brown adipose tissue was decreased, lower unsaturation/saturation ratio, qualitatively longer hydrocarbon acyl chain length of lipids and higher amount of triglycerides were obtained in both adipose tissues of mice lines. (rsc.org)
  • Irisin, a newly identified hormone, is secreted by skeletal muscles into circulation and promotes WAT "browning" with unknown mechanisms. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This dissertation further demonstrates that naringenin, a flavanone mainly found in citrus fruits, enhances thermogenic activation in isoproterenol-stimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes through PKA/p38 MAPK pathways. (tennessee.edu)
  • Strikingly, non-differentiated HIB1B preadipocytes incubated with serotonin failed to differentiate into brown adipocytes. (ovid.com)
  • Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • To understand the nature of adult human brown adipocytes at single cell resolution, we isolated clonally derived adipocytes from stromal vascular fractions of adult human BAT from two individuals and globally analyzed their molecular signatures. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple kinases are potential targets to enhance the development and function of brown fat. (sciencemag.org)
  • In addition to ERRβ, brown adipocytes express ERRα and ERR, 2 nuclear receptors that are highly similar to ERRβ and whose function in adipocytes is largely unknown. (elsevier.com)