Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (1/5446)

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPARdelta ligands produce distinct biological effects. (2/5446)

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) include three receptor subtypes encoded by separate genes: PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma. PPARgamma has been implicated as a mediator of adipocyte differentiation and the mechanism by which thiazolidinedione drugs exert in vivo insulin sensitization. Here we characterized novel, non-thiazolidinedione agonists for PPARgamma and PPARdelta that were identified by radioligand binding assays. In transient transactivation assays these ligands were agonists of the receptors to which they bind. Protease protection studies showed that ligand binding produced specific alterations in receptor conformation. Both PPARgamma and PPARdelta directly interacted with a nuclear receptor co-activator (CREB-binding protein) in an agonist-dependent manner. Only the PPARgamma agonists were able to promote differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In diabetic db/db mice all PPARgamma agonists were orally active insulin-sensitizing agents producing reductions of elevated plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations. In contrast, selective in vivo activation of PPARdelta did not significantly affect these parameters. In vivo PPARalpha activation with WY-14653 resulted in reductions in elevated triglyceride levels with minimal effect on hyperglycemia. We conclude that: 1) synthetic non-thiazolidinediones can serve as ligands of PPARgamma and PPARdelta; 2) ligand-dependent activation of PPARdelta involves an apparent conformational change and association of the receptor ligand binding domain with CREB-binding protein; 3) PPARgamma activation (but not PPARdelta or PPARalpha activation) is sufficient to potentiate preadipocyte differentiation; 4) non-thiazolidinedione PPARgamma agonists improve hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in vivo; 5) although PPARalpha activation is sufficient to affect triglyceride metabolism, PPARdelta activation does not appear to modulate glucose or triglyceride levels.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates lipolysis in adipocytes by decreasing Gi protein concentrations. (3/5446)

Prolonged treatment (12-24 h) of adipocytes with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulates lipolysis. We have investigated the hypothesis that TNFalpha stimulates lipolysis by blocking the action of endogenous adenosine. Adipocytes were incubated for 48 h with TNFalpha, and lipolysis was measured in the absence or presence of adenosine deaminase. Without adenosine deaminase, the rate of glycerol release was 2-3-fold higher in the TNFalpha-treated cells, but with adenosine deaminase lipolysis increased in the controls to approximately that in the TNFalpha-treated cells. This suggests that TNFalpha blocks adenosine release or prevents its antilipolytic effect. Both N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine and nicotinic acid were less potent and efficacious inhibitors of lipolysis in treated cells. A decrease in the concentration of alpha-subunits of all three Gi subtypes was detected by Western blotting without a change in Gs proteins or beta-subunits. Gi2alpha was about 50% of control, whereas Gi1alpha and Gi3alpha were about 20 and 40% of control values, respectively. The time course of Gi down-regulation correlated with the stimulation of lipolysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of Gi by an alternative approach (prolonged incubation with N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine) stimulated lipolysis. These findings indicate that TNFalpha stimulates lipolysis by blunting endogenous inhibition of lipolysis. The mechanism appears to be a Gi protein down-regulation.  (+info)

Transgenic UCP1 in white adipocytes modulates mitochondrial membrane potential. (4/5446)

To test if mitochondrial uncoupling in white adipocytes is responsible for obesity resistance of the aP2-Ucp transgenic mice expressing ectopic uncoupling protein 1 (UCPI) in white fat, mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) was estimated by flow cytometry in adipocytes isolated from gonadal fat. Ectopic UCP1 (approximately 0.8 mol UCP1/mol respiratory chain) decreased the delta psi(m) and rendered the potential sensitive to GDP and fatty acids. These ligands of UCP1 had no effect on delta psi(m) in white adipocytes from non-transgenic mice, suggesting that the function of endogenous UCP2 in adipocytes was not affected. The results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling in white fat may prevent development of obesity.  (+info)

SNAP-23 participates in SNARE complex assembly in rat adipose cells. (5/5446)

SNARE proteins are required for vesicle docking and fusion in eukaryotic cells in processes as diverse as homotypic membrane fusion and synaptic vesicle exocytosis [SNARE stands for SNAP receptor, where SNAP is soluble NSF attachment protein]. The SNARE proteins syntaxin 4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2/3 also participate in the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane in adipose cells. We now report the molecular cloning and characterization of rat SNAP-23, a ubiquitously expressed homologue of the essential neuronal SNARE protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa). Rat SNAP-23 is 86% and 98% identical respectively to human and mouse SNAP-23. Southern blot analysis reveals that the rat, mouse and human SNAP-23 genes encode species-specific isoforms of the same protein. Co-immunoprecipitation of syntaxin 4 and SNAP-23 shows association of these two proteins in rat adipose cell plasma membranes, and insulin stimulation does not alter the SNAP-23/syntaxin 4 complex. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the participation of SNAP-23, along with syntaxin 4 and VAMP2/3, in the formation of 20S SNARE complexes prepared using rat adipose cell membranes and recombinant alpha-SNAP and NSF proteins. The stoichiometry of the SNARE complexes formed is essentially identical using membranes from either unstimulated or insulin-stimulated adipose cells. These data demonstrate that rat SNAP-23 associates with syntaxin 4 before insulin stimulation and is present in the SNARE complexes known to mediate the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane of rat adipose cells.  (+info)

Regulation of fatty acid homeostasis in cells: novel role of leptin. (6/5446)

It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. The fact that TG content in nonadipocytes normally remains within a narrow range, while that of adipocytes varies enormously with food intake, is consistent with a system of TG homeostasis in normal nonadipocytes. The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. The fact that the function and viability of nonadipocytes is compromised when their TG content rises above or falls below the normal range suggests that normal homeostasis of their intracellular TG is critical for optimal function and to prevent lipoapoptosis. Thus far, lipotoxic diabetes of fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats is the only proven lipodegenerative disease, but the possibility of lipotoxic disease of skeletal and/or cardiac muscle may require investigation, as does the possible influence of the intracellular TG content on autoimmune and neoplastic processes.  (+info)

Reversing adipocyte differentiation: implications for treatment of obesity. (7/5446)

Conventional treatment of obesity reduces fat in mature adipocytes but leaves them with lipogenic enzymes capable of rapid resynthesis of fat, a likely factor in treatment failure. Adenovirus-induced hyperleptinemia in normal rats results in rapid nonketotic fat loss that persists after hyperleptinemia disappears, whereas pair-fed controls regain their weight in 2 weeks. We report here that the hyperleptinemia depletes adipocyte fat while profoundly down-regulating lipogenic enzymes and their transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in epididymal fat; enzymes of fatty acid oxidation and their transcription factor, PPARalpha, normally low in adipocytes, are up-regulated, as are uncoupling proteins 1 and 2. This transformation of adipocytes from cells that store triglycerides to fatty acid-oxidizing cells is accompanied by loss of the adipocyte markers, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and leptin, and by the appearance of the preadipocyte marker Pref-1. These findings suggest a strategy for the treatment of obesity by alteration of the adipocyte phenotype.  (+info)

Caloric restriction leads to regional specialisation of adipocyte function in the rat. (8/5446)

The study analysed the responses of three metabolic parameters in five distinct adipose tissue depots to caloric restriction (4 weeks) in the rat. The aims were to evaluate whether specific adipose tissue depots were recruited for triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and/or mobilisation, and to determine to what extent specific adipose tissue depots exhibited preferences for the source of fatty acid (FA) for TAG storage. Caloric restriction led to a general enhancement of the response of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), FA synthesis and glucose utilisation to a meal. Effects were particularly marked in the parametrial, perirenal and interscapular depots compared with mesenteric and subcutaneous depots. There was no evidence that individual depots selectively expressed a preference for the pathways concerned with the generation of FA for storage (the exogenous (LPL) and the endogenous (synthesis) pathway). However, the temporal sequence of activation of these pathways differed in a manner consistent with a switch from preponderant use of FA produced via de novo synthesis during the very early phase of feeding towards later use of FA derived from circulating TAG. The overall excursions in insulin levels observed in the calorie-restricted rats were comparable to those found in free-feeding rats, but the magnitude and the rapidity of the individual metabolic responses of the adipocyte were augmented. The data are consistent with a general enhancement of insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in adipose tissue of calorie-restricted rats, together with adaptive regional specialisation of adipocyte function. These adaptations would be predicted to facilitate the immediate conservation of dietary nutrients by promoting their storage as the FA or glycerol moieties of adipose tissue TAG and thereby to ensure the regulated release of FA and glycerol from adipose tissue in accordance with the requirement for glucose conservation and/or production.  (+info)

Amine oxidase substrates mimic several of the insulin effects on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3 F442A cells. Biochem J. 2001 Jun 15; 356(Pt 3):769-77 ...
Horowitz MC, Berry R, Holtrup B, Sebo Z, Nelson T, Fretz JA, Lindskog D, Kaplan JL, Ables GP, Rodeheffer MS, Rosen CJ.. Adipocyte. 2017 Jul 3;6(3):193-204.. PMID: 28872979. Adipocytes were identified in human bone marrow more than a century ago, yet until recently little has been known about their origin, development, function or interactions with other cells in the bone marrow. Little functional significance has been attributed to these cells, a paradigm that still persists today. However, we now know that marrow adipose tissue increases with age and in response to a variety of physiologic induction signals. Bone marrow adipocytes have recently been shown to influence other cell populations within the marrow and can affect whole body metabolism by the secretion of a defined set of adipokines. Recent research shows that marrow adipocytes are distinct from white, brown and beige adipocytes, indicating that the bone marrow is a distinct adipose depot. This review will highlight recent data ...
Gerin I, Bommer GT, McCoin CS, Sousa KM, Krishnan V, MacDougald OA. Roles for miRNA-378/378* in adipocyte gene expression and lipogenesis. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 299: E198-E206, 2010. First published May 18, 2010; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00179.2010.-In this study, we explored the roles of microRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and metabolism. We first knocked down Argonaute2 (Ago2), a key enzyme in the processing of micro-RNAs (miRNAs), to investigate a potential role for miRNAs in adipocyte differentiation and/or metabolism. Although we did not observe dramatic differences in adipogenesis between Ago2 knock-down and control 3T3-L1 cells, incorporation of [C-14] glucose or acetate into triacylglycerol, and steady-state levels of triacyglycerol were all reduced, suggesting a role for miRNAs in adipocyte metabolism. To study roles of specific miRNAs in adipocyte biology, we screened for miRNAs that are differentially expressed between preadipocytes and adipocytes for the 3T3-L1 and ST2 cell ...
The mechanism of activation for protein kinase B (PKB), an important target for insulin signaling, has been scarcely investigated in primary cells. In this study, we have characterized the insulin-induced phosphorylation and activation of PKB beta in primary rat adipocytes. Insulin stimulation resulted in a translocation of PKB beta from cytosol to membranes, and phosphorylation and activation of PKB beta. Phosphoamino acid analysis and phosphopeptide mapping demonstrated that the phosphorylation occurred mainly on serines, also when using calyculin A, and that these were localized within one major phosphopeptide. Radiosequencing showed that the radioactivity was released in Cycle No. 7. In addition, the peptide was specifically immunoprecipitated from a tryptic digest of PKB beta using the anti-phospho-PKB (Ser-473) antibody. Taken together, these results show that rat adipocyte PKB beta mainly is phosphorylated on Ser-474 in response to insulin stimulation, in contrast to previous studies in ...
Several studies in mice indicate a role for apolipoprotein E (APOE) in lipid accumulation and adipogenic differentiation in adipose tissue. However, little is yet known if APOE functions in a similar manner in human adipocytes. This prompted us to compare lipid loading and expression of adipocyte differentiation markers in APOE-deficient and control adipocytes using the differentiated human mesenchymal stem cell line hMSC-Tert as well as primary human and mouse adipocytes as model systems. Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. Human APOE knockdown hMSC-Tert adipocytes accumulated markedly less triglycerides compared to control cells. This correlated with strongly decreased gene expression levels of adipocyte markers such as adiponectin (ADIPOQ) and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) as well as the key transcription factor driving adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome ...
One of the major findings in the current report is that PIKE-A is critical for adipocyte differentiation. Several lines of evidence support the role of PIKE-A in terminal adipocyte differentiation instead of preadipocyte formation. First, the mature adipocyte marker aP2 is significantly decreased during in vitro adipocyte differentiation in PIKE−/− MEFs, indicating PIKE-A is important for adipocyte differentiation (Fig. 3B and C). Second, PIKE-A expression is increased in fat tissue development of HFD-fed and ob/ob mice, which highlights its function in the process (Fig. 2H). Lastly, HFD induced comparable preadipocyte marker Pref-1 expression in both wild-type and PIKE−/− mice, indicating that formation of new adipocytes is normal in PIKE-null adipose tissue (Fig. 3A). Interestingly, we found a small portion of PIKE−/− MEFs was able to differentiate into mature adipocytes (Fig. 3B), and quantitative analysis revealed a small but statistically significant increment of lipid ...
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Salt-inducible kinase 2 (SIK2) is downregulated in adipose tissue from obese or insulin-resistant individuals and inhibition of SIK isoforms results in reduced glucose uptake and insulin signalling in adipocytes. However, the regulation of SIK2 itself in response to insulin in adipocytes has not been studied in detail. The aim of our work was to investigate effects of insulin on various aspects of SIK2 function in adipocytes.. METHODS: Primary adipocytes were isolated from human subcutaneous and rat epididymal adipose tissue. Insulin-induced phosphorylation of SIK2 and HDAC4 was analyzed using phosphospecific antibodies and changes in the catalytic activity of SIK2 with in vitro kinase assay. SIK2 protein levels were analyzed in primary adipocytes treated with the proteasome inhibitor MG132.. RESULTS: We have identified a novel regulatory pathway of SIK2 in adipocytes, which involves insulin-induced phosphorylation at Thr484. This phosphorylation is impaired in individuals with ...
The Ca2+-insensitive protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms ε, η, δ and ζ are possible direct downstream targets of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), and might therefore be involved in insulin signalling. Although isoform-specific changes in PKC expression have been reported for skeletal muscle and liver in insulin-resistant states, little is known about these isoforms in adipocytes. Therefore we studied (1) expression and subcellular localization of these isoforms in murine adipocytes, (2) translocation of specific isoforms to membranes in response to treatment with insulin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and (3) regulation of expression in insulin-resistant states. The PKC isoforms ε, η, δ and ζ are expressed in adipocytes. Immunoreactivity for all isoforms is higher in the membranes than in the cytosol, but subcellular fractionation by differential centrifugation shows an isoform-specific distribution within the membrane fractions. PMA treatment of adipocytes induces ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Beta-mecaptoethanol suppresses inflammation and induces adipogenic differentiation in 3T3-F442A murine preadipocytes. AU - Guo, Wen. AU - Li, Yahui. AU - Liang, Wentao. AU - Wong, Siu. AU - Apovian, Caroline. AU - Kirkland, James L.. AU - Corkey, Barbara E.. PY - 2012/7/23. Y1 - 2012/7/23. N2 - Preadipocytes are present in adipose tissues throughout adult life that can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes in response to environmental cues. Abnormal increase in adipocyte number or size leads to fat tissue expansion. However, it is now recognized that adipocyte hypertrophy is a greater risk factor for metabolic syndrome whereas fat tissue that continues to produce newer and smaller fat cells through preadipocyte differentiation is metabolically healthy. Because adipocyte hypertrophy is often associated with increased oxidant stress and low grade inflammation, both are linked to disturbed cellular redox, we tested how preadipocyte differentiation may be regulated ...
The retinoblastoma protein (RB) has previously been shown to facilitate adipocyte differentiation by inducing cell cycle arrest and enhancing the transactivation by the adipogenic CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (C/EBP). We show here that the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor pivotal for adipogenesis, promotes adipocyte differentiation more efficiently in the absence of RB. PPARgamma and RB were shown to coimmunoprecipitate, and this PPARgamma-RB complex also contains the histone deacetylase HDAC3, thereby attenuating PPARgammas capacity to drive gene expression and adipocyte differentiation. Dissociation of the PPARgamma-RB-HDAC3 complex by RB phosphorylation or by inhibition of HDAC activity stimulates adipocyte differentiation. These observations underscore an important function of both RB and HDAC3 in fine-tuning PPARgamma activity and adipocyte differentiation.. Keywords: Thiazolidinediones. ...
Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1), the specific marker of brown adipose tissue, is transcriptionally activated in response to adrenergic stimuli and thyroid hormones are necessary for its full expression. We describe differences in the regulation of UCP-1 mRNA expression between rat and mouse brown adipocytes in culture, using norepinephrine (NE), triiodothyronine (T3), insulin and retinoic acid (RA). Results: NE and cAMP-elevating agents strongly increase UCP-1 mRNA levels in cultures of mouse adipocytes, but increases are low in those from rat. In rat adipocytes NE poorly increases UCP-1 mRNA expression and T3 markedly increases the adrenergic response of UCP-1, an effect not observed in mouse adipocytes. In the absence of insulin, T3 itself increases UCP-1 mRNA in rat adipocytes and enhances the response to NE, while in mouse adipocytes no effect of T3 is observed. RA by itself stimulates UCP-1 mRNA in mouse adipocytes, but not in those from rat. In rat cultures, RA requires the presence of NE ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Regulation of gene expression during adipocyte differentiation. T2 - a review.. AU - Gaskins, H. R.. AU - Hausman, G. J.. AU - Martin, R. J.. PY - 1989/9. Y1 - 1989/9. N2 - The differentiation of adipose precursor cells is accompanied by the acquisition of adipocyte-specific messenger (m) RNAs allowing characteristic changes in protein composition. The development of methods for cloning and characterizing individual genes has provided the opportunity to study selective gene expression by adipocytes at the molecular level. In this review, the information obtained to date regarding transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms utilized by adipocytes is summarized. Included are descriptions of conserved DNA sequences found in noncoding regions of adipose genes and of how protein-DNA interactions at these regions are thought to regulate the initiation of transcription. Among the transcription factors implemented in regulation of adipocyte-specific gene expression are ...
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is postulated to play a major role in the pathogenesis of obesity-linked insulin resistance, probably resulting from an interaction with insulin signaling pathways. This cross talk has now been investigated in human adipocytes at the level of phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase, and the TNF receptors (TNFRs) mediating these processes have been identified. Equilibrium binding studies using human adipocytes from mammary tissue indicated the presence of two populations of TNFR with apparent affinity constants of 13 pmol/l and 1.6 nmol/l, respectively. Interaction of TNF-alpha with insulin signaling was determined by quantification of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity. Under control conditions, PI 3-kinase was activated about 10-fold in response to insulin (10[-7] mol/l, 5 min). Preincubation of adipocytes with 5 nmol/l TNF-alpha for 15 min resulted in a 60-70% reduction of insulin action, reaching a stable inhibition (40%) after ...
In contrast to the published studies, which demonstrated associations between average adipocyte size and serum levels or secretion, our study is unique because it investigated the secretory capacity of adipocyte fractions from the same individual separated by cell size. The results obtained by the technique clearly suggest that only the very large adipocytes are dysregulated. Adipocyte hypertrophy appears to cause a differentially impaired secretion between pro- and antiinflammatory adipokines shifting the immunological balance toward the expression of proinflammatory proteins. Thisabnormal function of adipocytes may play an important role in the development of a chronic low-grade proinflammatory state in obesity, which is considered to build the common soil for the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis (5, 68 ...
Oct 17, 2019 , Publications. Sebo ZL, Rendina-Ruedy E, Ables GP, Lindskog DM, Rodeheffer MS, Fazeli PK, Horowitz MC.. Endocr Rev. 2019 Oct 1;40(5):1187-1206. PMID: 31127816. The presence of adipocytes in mammalian bone marrow (BM) has been recognized histologically for decades, yet, until recently, these cells have received little attention from the research community. Advancements in mouse transgenics and imaging methods, particularly in the last 10 years, have permitted more detailed examinations of marrow adipocytes than ever before and yielded data that show these cells are critical regulators of the BM microenvironment and whole-body metabolism. Indeed, marrow adipocytes are anatomically and functionally separate from brown, beige, and classic white adipocytes. Thus, areas of BM space populated by adipocytes can be considered distinct fat depots and are collectively referred to as marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in this review. In the proceeding text, we focus on the developmental origin and ...
There is a physiologic limit to adipocyte cell size. Adipocytes in the mouse inguinal and epididymal fat pads can increase in size three- and seven-fold, respectively, during 12 weeks of HFF (62). Cell size correlates strongly with the frequency of adipocyte death. The percentage of dead epididymal adipocytes increases progressively from 0.1% at one week to as much as 16% at 12 weeks of HFF (62). Independent of how adipocytes die - from necrosis or apoptosis - the reaction of AT to adipocyte death can be likened to the initiation of a wound healing response, triggering a considerable increase in immune cell infiltration. Monocyte recruitment and differentiation to proinflammatory macrophages are of particular importance. These macrophages surround the dead adipocytes, forming what is described histologically as crown-like structures (62-64). Concomitantly, activated myofibroblasts in the area secrete collagen to maintain the integrity of the damaged tissue (65). As macrophages and neutrophils ...
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Dermal adipose tissue (also known as dermal white adipose tissue and herein referred to as dWAT) has been the focus of much discussion in recent years. However, dWAT remains poorly characterized. The fate of the mature dermal adipocytes and the origin of the rapidly reappearing dermal adipocytes at different stages remain unclear. Here, we isolated dermal adipocytes and characterized dermal fat at the cellular and molecular level. Together with dWATs dynamic responses to external stimuli, we established that dermal adipocytes are a distinct class of white adipocytes with high plasticity. By combining pulse-chase lineage tracing and single-cell RNA sequencing, we observed that mature dermal adipocytes undergo dedifferentiation and redifferentiation under physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Upon various challenges, the dedifferentiated cells proliferate and redifferentiate into adipocytes. In addition, manipulation of dWAT highlighted an important role for mature dermal adipocytes ...
It is a desirable goal to stimulate fuel oxidation in adipocytes and shift the balance toward less fuel storage and more burning. To understand this regulatory process, respiration was measured in primary rat adipocytes, mitochondria, and fat-fed mice. Maximum O(2) consumption, in vitro, was determi …
Adipocytes play an important role in energy storage and metabolism. Adipocyte differentiation is a developmental process that is critical for metabolic homeostasis and nutrient signaling. It is controlled by complex actions involving gene expression and signal transduction. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life in adipose tissues and can proliferate and differentiate into mature adipocytes according to the energy balance. The proliferation and differentiation of these preadipocytes contribute to increases in adipose tissue mass. In vitro study indicates that different tissue-derived preadipocytes exhibit differently in lipid accumulation, adipogenic transcription factor expression, and TNF?-induced apoptosis. It has also been demonstrated that there is a close relationship between adipocyte differentiation and many physiological and pathological processes including fat metabolism, energy balance, obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and breast cancer. HPA-s from Bioarray Research ...
In a previous study designed to understand the role of Myo1c in GLUT4 trafficking and membrane dynamics, we observed that Myo1c overexpression induced dramatic cortical actin remodeling (membrane ruffling) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, in a serum- and insulin-independent manner (4). This observation suggested that Myo1c might mediate the effect of insulin on membrane ruffling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, which is supported by our observation that Myo1c depletion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes does indeed attenuate insulin-induced membrane ruffling (data not shown). Interestingly, expression of Myo1c in cultured adipocytes induces membrane ruffling even in the presence of wortmannin, suggesting that Myo1c may function downstream or independent of PI3K in activating membrane ruffling. Our studies here suggest that formation and maintenance of the Rictor-Myo1c complex are not dependent on insulin, rapamycin, or wortmannin (Fig. 1, 2, and 4). Therefore, to determine the functional relevance of Rictors association with ...
CEBPA [ENSP00000427514]. CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), alpha; Transcription factor that coordinates proliferation arrest and the differentiation of myeloid progenitors, adipocytes, hepatocytes, and cells of the lung and the placenta. Binds directly to the consensus DNA sequence 5-T[TG]NNGNAA[TG]-3 acting as an activator on distinct target genes. During early embryogenesis, plays essential and redundant functions with CEBPB. Essential for the transition from common myeloid progenitors (CMP) to granulocyte/monocyte progenitors (GMP). Critical for the proper development of the liver and the lung (By similarity). Necessary for terminal adipocyte differentiation, is required for postnatal maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis and lipid storage (By similarity). To regulate these different processes at the proper moment and tissue, interplays with other transcription factors and modulators. Downregulates the expression of genes that maintain cells in an undifferentiated and ...
Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide, and nonsurgical strategies to treat obesity have remained rather inefficient. We here show that acute loss of TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in adipocytes results in an increased rate of apoptotic adipocyte death and increased numbers of M2 macrophages in white adipose tissue. Mice with adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency have reduced adipocyte numbers and are resistant to obesity induced by a high-fat diet or leptin deficiency. In addition, adipocyte-specific TAK1-deficient mice under a high-fat diet showed increased energy expenditure, which was accompanied by enhanced expression of the uncoupling protein UCP1. Interestingly, acute induction of adipocyte-specific TAK1 deficiency in mice already under a high-fat diet was able to stop further weight gain and improved glucose tolerance. Thus, loss of TAK1 in adipocytes reduces the total number of adipocytes, increases browning of white adipose tissue, and may be an attractive strategy to treat ...
Introduction: Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) induces oxidative stress and contributes to various pathological conditions including insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. Recent studies have shown the role of PPARδ-agonist in attenuation of Angiotensin II induced oxidative stress.The aim of this study was to explore the effectiveness of a PPARδ-agonist in the prevention of Ang II-induced vascular and adipocyte dysfunction and the possible interaction between PPARδ and HO-1 system in a model of enhanced oxidative stress, the Goldblatt 2K1C model.. Methods: We first established a direct stimulatory effect of the PPARδ-agonist (GW 501516) on the HO-1 gene by demonstrating increased luciferase activity in COS-7 cells transfected with a luciferase-HO-1 promoter construct. SD rats were divided in 4 groups: sham operated animals, 2K1C rats and 2K1C rats treated with GW 501516, in the absence or presence of the HO activity inhibitor, stannous mesoporphyrin (SnMP).. Results: 2K1C animals had ...
In our studies, we initially focused on protein kinase G (PKG/cGK), which is expressed both in white and brown adipocytes. Using gain- and loss-of-function models, we found that PKG is the major receptor for cGMP in brown adipocytes. We investigated the downstream targets of PKG and found a novel negative feedback loop that regulates cGMP levels. Importantly, in the presence of increased cGMP levels, we found an enhanced development of brown-like adipocytes, so-called beige or brite (brown in white) cells both in vitro and in vivo. These data indicate that cGMP not only enhances development of classical brown adipocytes, but also promotes development of beige cells.. Therefore, we studied the effect of cGMP in white adipocytes in more detail. Lentiviral overexpression of PKG enhanced differentiation of white adipocytes. Moreover, PKG induced the expression of a brown-like adipogenic program in white fat cells. Treatment of mice with the PDE inhibitor sildenafil for only 7 days promoted ...
Chemerin is a leukocyte chemoattractant and adipokine with important immune and metabolic roles. Chemerin, secreted in an inactive form prochemerin, undergoes C-terminal proteolytic cleavage to generate active chemerin, a ligand for the chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1). We previously identified that adipocytes secrete and activate chemerin. Following treatment with the obesity-associated inflammatory mediator TNF alpha, unknown adipocyte mechanisms are altered resulting in an increased ratio of active to total chemerin production. Based on these findings we hypothesized adipocytes produce proteases capable of modifying chemerin and its ability to activate CMKRL1. 3T3-L1 adipocytes expressed mRNA of immunocyte and fibrinolytic proteases known to activate chemerin in vitro. Following treatment with a general protease inhibitor cocktail (PIC), the TNF alpha-stimulated increase in apparent active chemerin concentration in adipocyte media was amplified 10-fold, as measured by CMKLR1 activation. ...
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The number of overweight and obese individuals continues to increase in both the U.S. and worldwide. This increase has led to a significant increase in obesity-related medical problems including diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer. In obesity, the differentiation of adipocytes is suppressed. Although adipocyte differentiation is associated with changes in glucose metabolism, little is known about the potential of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism to modulate this process. Pyruvate kinase (PK) mediates the rate-limiting step of glycolysis. The M2 isoform of PK (PKM2) is expressed in adipocytes but its role in adipogenesis is unknown. Here we demonstrate that PKM2 regulates the differentiation of both human and mouse adipocytes. Silencing of PKM2 in preadipocytes led to increased lipid accumulation, enhanced expression of markers (FABP4, PPARgamma, C/EBPBeta) of adipocyte differentiation and caused a shift in the pattern of enzymes involved in glucose metabolism favoring the ...
Occurrence of hyperplasia (negative morphology value) or hypertrophy (positive morphology value) was independent of sex and body weight but correlated with fasting plasma insulin levels and insulin sensitivity, independent of adipocyte volume (β-coefficient = 0.3, P , 0.0001). Total adipocyte number and morphology were negatively related (r = −0.66); i.e., the total adipocyte number was greatest in pronounced hyperplasia and smallest in pronounced hypertrophy. The absolute number of new adipocytes generated each year was 70% lower (P , 0.001) in hypertrophy than in hyperplasia, and individual values for adipocyte generation and morphology were strongly related (r = 0.7, P , 0.001). The relative death rate (∼10% per year) or mean age of adipocytes (∼10 years) was not correlated with morphology. ...
Interestingly, the protein levels of GLUT4, PPARg and Leptin are independent of insulin. It would thus appear that insulin controls the translocation of GLUT4 to the cell surface, not the amount of GLUT4 in an adipocyte. The results of the PPARg and leptin also fly in the face of what I have blogged on before, even small adipocytes contain the same amount of leptin as large adipocytes. And PPARg does not appear to predict adipocyte size in this data set. ( I would of expected larger adipocytes to have higher PPARg, and vice versa for the small adipocytes. *shrug ...
Using a subtraction method, we have isolated genes that are induced early in the differentiation of mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells into adipocytes. These include the genes encoding transcription factors and signalling proteins, as well as unknown genes. Bach1, a transcription factor, and ARA70, a cofactor, were rapidly induced during differentiation. The induction of these two genes was observed only in growth-arrested 3T3-L1 cells, and not in proliferating cells. In NIH-3T3 cells, no induction was observed under either set of conditions. These results strongly indicate that Bach1 and ARA70 have valuable roles at the onset of adipocyte differentiation.. ...
The study on PDE3B phosphorylation shows that PDE3B is multisite phosphorylated in response to both insulin and catecholamines. We were able to identify six phosphorylation sites on PDE3B namely; 273, S296, S421, S424/5, S474 and S536. From the studies on PDE3B localization we conclude that PDE3B is localized to caveolae and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in adipocytes and that caveolae localized PDE3B is specifically activated by catecholamines while PDE3B in ER is specifically activated by insulin. Finally, the studies on PDE3B interactions demonstrate that insulin and catecholamines stimulate the recruitment of PDE3B into large macromolecular complexes in adipocytes. The recruitment is dependent on caveolin-1 especially in response to insulin and the constituents of the PDE3B macromolecular complexes are dependent on the stimuli used. After insulin stimulation insulin signaling molecules such as protein kinase B (PKB) are associated with PDE3B in the large complex while after catecholamine ...
Much of the research into obesity and diabetes is carried out using transgenic animal models. FRAMEs experience and that of many others is that such animal models are of little use when trying to study human diseases and responses to potential therapies. The FRAME Alternatives Laboratory cultures primary human adipocytes and skeletal muscle myotubes to study the effects of increased fat and carbohydrate levels on the metabolism and gene expression of human fat and muscle tissue.. ...
article{5d70646d-8df7-4e0f-a397-fb9a3b72cc4f, author = {Ridderstråle, Martin and Amstrup, J and Hilton, D J and Billestrup, N and Tornqvist, H}, issn = {1439-4286}, language = {eng}, number = {3}, pages = {169--177}, publisher = {Georg Thieme Verlag}, series = {Hormone and Metabolic Research}, title = {SOCS-3 is Involved in the Downregulation of the Acute Insulin-Like Effects of Growth Hormone in Rat Adipocytes by Inhibition of Jak2/IRS-1 Signaling.}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2003-39077}, volume = {35}, year = {2003 ...
Stimulation of lipogenesis in rat adipocytes by ATP, a ligand for P2-receptors.: The activation of P2-receptors has a wide range of diverse effects in many tiss
Adipocytes are key cells in metabolic homeostasis. They are very useful for creating models for studying metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.
Obesity has spread worldwide and become a common health problem in modern society. One typical feature of obesity is the excessive accumulation of fat in adipocytes, which occurs through the following two physiological phenomena: hyperplasia (increase in quantity) and hypertrophy (increase in size) of adipocytes. In clinical and scientific research, the accurate quantification of the number and diameter of adipocytes is necessary for assessing obesity. In this study, we present a new automatic adipocyte counting system, AdipoCount, which is based on image processing algorithms. Comparing with other existing adipocyte counting tools, AdipoCount is more accurate and supports further manual correction. AdipoCount counts adipose cells by the following three-step process: 1) It detects the image edges, which are used to segment the membrane of adipose cells; 2) It uses a watershed-based algorithm to re-segment the missing dyed membrane; and 3) It applies a domain connectivity analysis to count the cells. The
Background Middle age weight problems is recognized as a risk factor for Alzheimers disease (AD) although a mechanistic linkage remains unclear. stimulation-dependent changes in macrophage and adipocyte culture phenotype were examined for comparison to the changes. CYT997 Conclusions/Significance Adipose brain and tissue from fat rich diet given pets demonstrated increased TNF- and microglial and macrophage activation. Both brains and adipose cells got raised APP amounts localizing to neurons and macrophage/adipocytes also, respectively. APP agonist antibody excitement of macrophage ethnicities improved particular cytokine secretion without obvious results on adipocyte tradition phenotype. These data support the hypothesis that high fats diet-dependent weight problems leads to concomitant pro-inflammatory adjustments in mind and adipose cells thats characterized, partly, by improved degrees of APP which may be adding specifically to inflammatory changes that occur. Introduction Obesity, ...
A major effort in the laboratory focuses on STAT proteins. These proteins are signaling molecules and transcription factors, which means they control the gene expression in a tissue specific manner. Our laboratory studies the activation and function of STAT proteins in adipocytes. We study adipocytes because this cell type has several functions and if any one of these function is disrupted than Type 2 Diabetes can develop. To date, one of our notable observations is that STAT5 can regulate fat cell development both in vitro and in vivo. We have also identified STAT5 target genes in adipocytes. These genes play a role in insulin action, lipid metabolism and the endocrine properties of fat cells. All of our studies demonstrate that STAT5 is an important transcription factor in adipocytes and can regulate genes associated with Type 2 Diabetes. To further understand the biology of this multifunctional protein, we are identifying other proteins that associate with STAT5 and are studying a mouse model ...
Volume 156, Issue 1, January 16, 2014. There has been an upsurge of interest in the adipocyte coincident with the onset of the obesity epidemic and the realization that adipose tissue plays a major role in the regulation of metabolic function. The past few years, in particular, have seen significant changes in the way that we classify adipocytes and how we view adipose development and differentiation. We have new perspective on the roles played by adipocytes in a variety of homeostatic processes and on the mechanisms used by adipocytes to communicate with other tissues. Finally, there has been significant progress in understanding how these relationships are altered during metabolic disease and how they might be manipulated to restore metabolic health.. To view the publication, please click here.. ...
By stimulating the synthesis of AQP8 into adipocytes, Actiporine 8G maintains mitochondrial homeostasis and reactivates lipolysis by adipocytes. This action allows the decrease of adipocytes volume.
A combination of cellular, biochemical, genetic and genomic techniques have revealed a new molecular player in the production of fat cells in mice, which could improve our understanding of obesity.
Exposure of cultures of 3T3-L1 preadipose cells to nitrogen for 16 hours kills almost all of the cells, but after exposure to 5% oxygen for 16 hours most of the cells survive, and recover when culture is continued in 20 ...
The broad area of research that I am interested in is obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). My group is particularly focused on deciphering the cellular events and the molecular mechanisms regulating adipocyte energy dissipation in response to oxidative stress. The overreaching goal of our research is to understand the basic regulation of adipocyte function and to identify factors that can be used to reprogram these cells into energetically more active cells for the treatment of obesity.
Description - Human interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN, IL1F3, IL1RA, IRAP; Gene ID: 3557) is a protein that is produced in at least two forms, one that stays inside the cell and one that is secreted. This assay is for the secreted version. IL-1RA is secreted by various cell types including epithelial cells, monocytes, and adipocytes. It binds to the IL-1 receptor thus preventing signaling by both IL-1α and IL 1β cytokines ...
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Comments, concepts and statistics about Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Gallotannins from Galla Rhois with Inhibitory Effects on Adipocyte Differentiation in 3T3-L1 Cells.
ERRERA, Flavia I.V. et al. COL18A1 is highly expressed during human adipocyte differentiation and the SNP c.1136C , T in its frizzled motif is associated with obesity in diabetes type 2 patients. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. [online]. 2008, vol.80, n.1, pp.167-177. ISSN 1678-2690. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37652008000100012.. Collagen XVIII can generate two fragments, NC11-728 containing a frizzled motif which possibly acts in Wnt signaling and Endostatin, which is cleaved from the NC1 and is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis. Collagen XVIII and Wnt signaling have recently been associated with adipogenic differentiation and obesity in some animal models, but not in humans. In the present report, we have shown that COL18A1 expression increases during human adipogenic differentiation. We also tested if polymorphisms in the Frizzled (c.1136C,T; Thr379Met) and Endostatin (c.4349G,A; Asp1437Asn) regions contribute towards susceptibility to obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes (113 obese, BMI ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - microRNA-320/RUNX2 axis regulates adipocytic differentiation of human mesenchymal (skeletal) stem cells. AU - Hamam, D. AU - Ali, D. AU - Vishnubalaji, R. AU - Hamam, R. AU - Al-Nbaheen, M. AU - Chen, L. AU - Kassem, M. AU - Aldahmash, A. AU - Alajez, N M. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - The molecular mechanisms promoting lineage-specific commitment of human mesenchymal (skeletal or stromal) stem cells (hMSCs) into adipocytes (ADs) are not fully understood. Thus, we performed global microRNA (miRNA) and gene expression profiling during adipocytic differentiation of hMSC, and utilized bioinformatics as well as functional and biochemical assays, and identified several novel miRNAs differentially expressed during adipogenesis. Among these, miR-320 family (miR-320a, 320b, 320c, 320d and 320e) were ~2.2-3.0-fold upregulated. Overexpression of miR-320c in hMSC enhanced adipocytic differentiation and accelerated formation of mature ADs in ex vivo cultures. Integrated analysis of ...
The primary function of adipose tissue is to store energy in the form of triacylglycerol, which is hydrolyzed to fatty acids to supply other tissues with energy. While insulin promotes the storage of triacylglycerol, catecholamines stimulate its hydrolysis. The development of type II diabetes is strongly associated with obesity, indicating a role of triacylglycerol metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations found in most cells but are highly abundant in adipocytes. Insulin receptors are localized in caveolae and their function depends on intact caveolae structures. In the present thesis work, mass spectrometry-based methodology allowed identification of a number of new proteins and their posttranslational modifications in caveolae of human adipocytes. Variable N-terminal acetylation and phosphorylation of caveolin-1α and caveolin-1β were identified, which might regulate the function of caveolae. The transcription regulator protein PTRF was identified ...
BioVendor - BioVendor Research and Diagnostic Products is a developer and manufacturer of immunoassays, recombinant proteins, antibodies and endotoxin-removal products.
Stem cells are cells that can self-renew and differentiate into a variety of cell types under certain conditions. Stem cells have great potential in regenerative medicine and cell therapy for the treatment of certain diseases. To deliver knowledge about this frontier in science and technology to medical undergraduate students, we designed an innovative practical experiment for freshmen in their second semester. The lab exercise focused on rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) isolation, cell culture and differentiation, and it aimed to help students master the aseptic techniques for cell culture, the basic methods and procedures for the primary culture and passage of BMSCs, the basic procedure for the directional differentiation of BMSCs into adipocytes and their subsequent identification by oil-red-O staining ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of gut microbiota manipulation on ex vivo lipolysis in human abdominal subcutaneous adipocytes. AU - Jocken, Johan W. E.. AU - Reijnders, Dorien. AU - Canfora, Emanuel E.. AU - Boekschoten, Mark V.. AU - Plat, Joghum. AU - Goossens, Gijs H.. AU - Blaak, Ellen E.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. KW - Microbiota. KW - Lipolysis. KW - Fatty acid metabolism. KW - Adipose Tissue. KW - Obesity. KW - Insulin resistance. KW - HORMONE-SENSITIVE LIPASE. KW - ADIPOSE TRIGLYCERIDE LIPASE. KW - DIET-INDUCED OBESITY. KW - FREE FATTY-ACIDS. KW - PROPIONIC-ACID. KW - ACETATE. KW - PROTEIN. KW - PHOSPHORYLATION. KW - DIFFERENTIATION. KW - EXPRESSION. U2 - 10.1080/21623945.2018.1464366. DO - 10.1080/21623945.2018.1464366. M3 - Article. VL - 7. SP - 106. EP - 112. JO - Adipocyte. JF - Adipocyte. SN - 2162-3945. IS - 2. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and its role in adipocyte homeostasis and thiazolidinedione-mediated insulin sensitization. AU - Wang, Qiong A.. AU - Zhang, Fang. AU - Jiang, Lei. AU - Ye, Risheng. AU - An, Yu. AU - Shao, Mengle. AU - Tao, Caroline. AU - Gupta, Rana K. AU - Scherer, Philipp E. PY - 2018/5/1. Y1 - 2018/5/1. N2 - Adipose tissue is a dynamic organ that makes critical contributions to whole-body metabolic homeostasis. Although recent studies have revealed that different fat depots have distinct molecular signatures, metabolic functions and adipogenic mechanisms, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is still widely viewed as the master regulator of adipogenesis and critical for maintaining mature adipocyte function. Using an inducible, adipocyte-specific knockout system, we explored the role of PPARγ in mature adipocytes in vivo. Short-term PPARγ deficiency in adipocytes reduces whole-body insulin sensitivity, but adipocytes are ...
Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in preadipocytes. Pref-1 expression is, however, completely abolished in adipocytes. The extracellular domain of Pref-1 undergoes two proteolytic cleavage events that generate 50 and 25 kDa soluble products. To understand the function of Pref-1, we generated transgenic mice that express the full ectodomain corresponding to the large cleavage product of Pref-1 fused to human immunoglobulin-γ constant region. Mice expressing the Pref-1/hFc transgene in adipose tissue, driven by the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2, also known as aFABP) promoter, showed a substantial decrease in total fat pad weight. Moreover, adipose tissue from transgenic mice showed reduced expression of adipocyte markers and adipocyte-secreted factors, including leptin and adiponectin, whereas the preadipocyte marker Pref-1 was increased. Pref-1 transgenic mice with a substantial, but not complete, loss of adipose tissue exhibited ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Tumor necrosis factor increases the rate of lipolysis in primary cultures of adipocytes without altering levels of hormone-sensitive lipase. AU - Green, Allan. AU - Dobias, Susan B.. AU - Walters, Diedra J.A.. AU - Brasier, Allan R.. PY - 1994/6. Y1 - 1994/6. N2 - To investigate the effects of cytokines on adipocyte lipolysis, a macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7) was treated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (1 μg/ml) for 18 h to induce cytokine release. Conditioned medium (5%, vol/vol) from these cells was added to rat epididymal adipocytes isolated and incubated under sterile conditions. After incubation, the adipocytes were washed, and the rate of lipolysis (glycerol release) was determined after a further 1-h incubation. The conditioned medium caused an approximately 2.7-fold increase in lipolysis, detectable after 6-12 h, maximal by 24 h, and reversible by 48 h after washing the cells. The effect of conditioned medium was reversed by a neutralizing antibody to mouse ...
Saturated fatty acids have been shown to cause insulin resistance and low-grade chronic inflammation, whereas unsaturated fatty acids suppress inflammation via G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) in macrophages. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of unsaturated fatty acids in adipocytes have yet to be elucidated. Hence, the aims of the present study were to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) via GPR120 in adipocytes. We used 250 μM palmitate as a representative saturated fatty acid. 3T3-L1 adipocytes were used for in vitro studies. We further evaluated the effect of EPA supplementation in a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet-induced adipose tissue inflammatory mouse model. EPA attenuated palmitate-induced increases in inflammatory gene expression and NF-κB phosphorylation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Silencing of GPR120 abolished the anti-inflammatory effects of EPA. In GPR120 downstream signal analysis, EPA was found to decrease palmitate-induced increases in TAK1
The epidemic of obesity and diabetes has markedly spurred the research interest in adipocyte biology. Brown adipocytes are specialized for energy expenditure and of therapeutic interest for treatment of metabolic diseases, but how brown adipocytes are distinguished from white adipocytes at the level of translational regulation remains poorly understood. To systemically determine the translational control of gene expression in adipose tissue, we performed ribosome profiling and RNA-seq in parallel to depict the translatome and transcriptome changes during primary brown and white adipogenesis, and between brown and white adipose tissue. The most prominent layer of translational regulation was the increased translation efficiency of genes encoding mitochondria components in brown adipocytes relative to white. Systemic analysis of the regulatory interactions between microRNAs and their targets revealed that microRNAs were more active in repressing targets mRNA abundance and translation in brown ...
Intramuscular fat or marbling is critical for the palatability of beef. In mice, very recent studies show that adipocytes and fibroblasts share a common pool of progenitor cells, with Zinc finger protein 423 (Zfp423) as a key initiator of adipogenic differentiation. To evaluate the role of Zfp423 in intramuscular adipogenesis and marbling in beef cattle, we sampled beef muscle for separation of stromal vascular cells. These cells were immortalized with pCI neo-hEST2 and individual clones were selected by G418. A total of 288 clones (3×96 well plates) were isolated and induced to adipogenesis. The presence of adipocytes was assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Three clones with high and low adipogenic potential respectively were selected for further analyses. In addition, fibro/adipogenic progenitor cells were selected using a surface marker, platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) α. The expression of Zfp423 was much higher (307.4±61.9%, P|0.05) in high adipogenic cells, while transforming growth
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zinc-α2-glycoprotein, a lipid mobilizing factor, is expressed in adipocytes and is up-regulated in mice with cancer cachexia. AU - Bing, Chen. AU - Bao, Yi. AU - Jenkins, John. AU - Sanders, Paul. AU - Manieri, Monia. AU - Cinti, Saverio. AU - Tisdale, Michael J.. AU - Trayhurn, Paul. PY - 2004/2/24. Y1 - 2004/2/24. N2 - Zinc-α2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a 43-kDa protein, is overexpressed in certain human malignant tumors and acts as a lipid-mobilizing factor to stimulate lipolysis in adipocytes leading to cachexia in mice implanted with ZAG-producing tumors. Because white adipose tissue (WAT) is an endocrine organ secreting a wide range of protein factors, including those involved in lipid metabolism, we have investigated whether ZAG is produced locally by adipocytes. ZAG mRNA was detected by RT-PCR in the mouse WAT depots examined (epididymal, perirenal, s.c., and mammary gland) and in interscapular brown fat. In WAT, ZAG gene expression was evident in mature adipocytes and in ...
Our findings presented herein have uncovered a previously unappreciated transcription factor pathway, mediated by HIF-2 in adipocytes, that plays a critical role in the regulation of adipocyte functions. Chronic activation of HIF-2, but not HIF-1, in adipocytes leads to adipose inflammation and pathological hypertrophy in the heart. The hypertrophic heart conditions presented by our mouse models are reminiscent of the cardiac hypertrophy observed in severely obese persons.2 Our solid genetic evidence strongly suggests that adipose hypoxia, observed under the condition of pathological obesity,5-7 may facilitate the development of obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy via sustained activation of HIF-2 in adipocytes.. Our findings demonstrate that HIF activation in adipocytes exerts its cardiac effects in a manner distinct from other purported mechanisms linked to obesity-associated cardiomyopathy. The pathological cardiomegaly observed herein occurs in the absence of lipid accumulation in blood ...
High fat diet-induced endotoxaemia triggers low-grade inflammation and lipid release from adipose tissue. This study aims to unravel the cellular mechanisms leading to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects in human adipocytes. Subcutaneous pre-adipocytes surgically isolated from patients were differentiated into mature adipocytes in vitro. Lipolysis was assessed by measurement of glycerol release and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines were evaluated by real-time PCR. Treatment with LPS for 24 h induced a dose-dependent increase in interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 mRNA expression. At 1?µg/ml LPS, IL-6 and IL-8 were induced to 19.5?±?1.8-fold and 662.7?±?91.5-fold (P?,?0.01 vs basal), respectively. From 100?ng/ml to 1?µg/ml, LPS-induced lipolysis increased to a plateau of 3.1-fold above basal level (P?,?0.001 vs basal). Co-treatment with inhibitors of inhibitory kappa B kinase kinase beta (IKK?) or NF-?B inhibited LPS-induced glycerol release. Co-treatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) ...
Preadipocyte factor-1 (Pref-1) is a transmembrane protein highly expressed in preadipocytes. Pref-1 expression is, however, completely abolished in adipocytes. The extracellular domain of Pref-1 undergoes two proteolytic cleavage events that generate 50 and 25 kDa soluble products. To understand the function of Pref-1, we generated transgenic mice that express the full ectodomain corresponding to the large cleavage product of Pref-1 fused to human immunoglobulin-γ constant region. Mice expressing the Pref-1/hFc transgene in adipose tissue, driven by the adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (aP2, also known as aFABP) promoter, showed a substantial decrease in total fat pad weight. Moreover, adipose tissue from transgenic mice showed reduced expression of adipocyte markers and adipocyte-secreted factors, including leptin and adiponectin, whereas the preadipocyte marker Pref-1 was increased. Pref-1 transgenic mice with a substantial, but not complete, loss of adipose tissue exhibited ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential regulation of gene expression and insulin-induced activation of phosphodiesterase 3B in adipocytes of lean insulin-resistant IRS-1 (-/-) mice. AU - Hasegawa, Masaaki. AU - Tang, Yan. AU - Osawa, Haruhiko. AU - Onuma, Hiroshi. AU - Nishimiya, Tatsuya. AU - Ochi, Masaaki. AU - Terauchi, Yasuo. AU - Kadowaki, Takashi. AU - Makino, Hideichi. PY - 2002/11/1. Y1 - 2002/11/1. N2 - Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3B, a major isoform of PDE in adipocytes, mediates the antilipolytic action of insulin. PDE3B gene expression is generally reduced in adipocytes of either monogenic or polygenic rodent models of obese, insulin-resistance. An increased fat cell size, a common feature of obesity, could account for this reduction. Insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) (-/-) mice are lean with a reduced fat cell size and have insulin resistance due to a primary defect of insulin signaling. To determine whether the regulation of PDE3B gene expression is correlated with fat cell size, we examined ...
Although numerous works have focused on adipocyte differentiation and function as well as alterations under pathophysiological conditions, only a few studies have considered the importance of mitochondrial activity in these situations [11]. In fact, mitochondria play important roles in adipocyte differentiation and function. Pre-adipocytes mature in two steps: differentiation and then hypertrophy. During the early maturation stage, an increased number of mitochondria are required [11] and 12 E.H. Koh et al., Essential role of mitochondrial function in adiponectin synthesis in adipocytes, Diabetes 56 (2007), pp. 2973-2981.[12], resulting in small adipocytes, which are highly sensitive to insulin and that secrete high levels of adiponectin [12]. By contrast, older adipocytes increase in size (hypertrophy), lose their functional activities and become resistant to insulin. They exhibit decreased numbers of mitochondria with impaired functions and secrete less adiponectin [12]. In addition, ...
Compared to standard 2D culture systems, new methods for 3D cell culture of adipocytes could provide more physiologically accurate data and a deeper understanding of metabolic diseases such as diabetes. By resuspending living cells in a bioink of nanocellulose and hyaluronic acid, we were able to print 3D scaffolds with uniform cell distribution. After one week in culture, cell viability was 95%, and after two weeks the cells displayed a more mature phenotype with larger lipid droplets than standard 2D cultured cells. Unlike cells in 2D culture, the 3D bioprinted cells did not detach upon lipid accumulation. After two weeks, the gene expression of the adipogenic marker genes PPAR. and FABP4 was increased 2.0- and 2.2-fold, respectively, for cells in 3D bioprinted constructs compared with 2D cultured cells. Our 3D bioprinted culture system produces better adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and a more mature cell phenotype than conventional
1 reference with editorial concern (retraction etc.) - Supporting: 851, Disputing: 88, Mentioning: 38647 - Accumulating data have indicated a fundamental role of eosinophils in regulating adipose tissue homeostasis. Here, we performed whole-genome RNA sequencing of the small intestinal tract, which suggested the presence of impaired lipid metabolism in eosinophil-deficient ΔdblGATA mice. ΔdblGATA mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) showed reduced body fat mass, impaired enlargement of adipocytes, decreased expression of adipogenic genes, and developed glucose intolerance. HFD induced accumulation of eosinophils in the perigonadal white adipose tissue. Concordantly, adipocyte-differentiated 3T3-L1 cells promoted the migration of eosinophils through the expression of CCL11 (eotaxin-1) and likely promoted their survival through the expression of interleukin (IL)-3, IL-5, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor. HFD-fed ΔdblGATA mice showed increased infiltration of macrophages, CD4+ T-cells, and
TY - JOUR. T1 - Esterification of free fatty acids in adipocytes. T2 - A comparison between octanoate and oleate. AU - Guo, Wen. AU - Choi, Ji Kyung. AU - Kirkland, James L.. AU - Corkey, Barbara E.. AU - Hamilton, James A.. PY - 2000/7/15. Y1 - 2000/7/15. N2 - Medium-chain triacylglycerols (MCT) are present in milk, coconut oil and other foods, and are used therapeutically in special diets for certain disorders of lipid and glucose utilization. Recently, it has become apparent that MCT are not only oxidized in the liver, but are also present in lymph and fat tissue, particularly after chronic treatment. To evaluate the influence of MCT on metabolism in fat cells, we compared incorporation of octanoate and oleate into cellular triacylglycerols of 3T3-L1 adipocytes as well as their effects on preadipocyte differentiation. We found that less octanoate than oleate was stored and that more octanoate than oleate was oxidized. Octanoate was esterified to a greater extent at the sn-1,3 position of ...
Obesity is associated with a state of chronic, low-grade inflammation. Recent studies have demonstrated that obese adipose tissue is characterized by increased infiltration of macrophages, suggesting that they are an important source of inflammation in the adipose tissue.13-15,24 It is, therefore, important to elucidate the signals that attract macrophages to the adipose tissue and to dissect the molecular mechanisms whereby adipocytes and macrophages communicate within the adipose tissue. Here we developed an in vitro coculture system composed of differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes and the macrophage cell line RAW264. The data herein suggest that our coculture system provides the unique in vitro experimental model system to investigate the functional interaction between adipocytes and macrophages within the adipose tissue.. This study demonstrates for the first time that the coculture of 3T3-L1 and RAW264 results in marked upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines, such as MCP-1, IL-6, and TNF-α, ...
Over the past decade, great progress has been made in understanding the complexity of adipose tissue biology and its role in metabolism. This includes new insights into the multiple layers of adipose tissue heterogeneity, not only differences between white and brown adipocytes, but also differences in white adipose tissue at the depot level and even heterogeneity of white adipocytes within a single depot. These inter- and intra-depot differences in adipocytes are developmentally programmed and contribute to the wide range of effects observed in disorders with fat excess (overweight/obesity) or fat loss (lipodystrophy). Recent studies also highlight the underappreciated dynamic nature of adipose tissue, including potential to undergo rapid turnover and dedifferentiation and as a source of stem cells. Finally, we explore the rapidly expanding field of adipose tissue as an endocrine organ, and how adipose tissue communicates with other tissues to regulate systemic metabolism both centrally and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CXCL3 positively regulates adipogenic differentiation. AU - Kusuyama, Joji. AU - Komorizono, Anna. AU - Bandow, Kenjiro. AU - Ohnishi, Tomokazu. AU - Matsuguchi, Tetsuya. PY - 2016/10. Y1 - 2016/10. N2 - Chemokines are a family of cytokines inducing cell migration and inflammation. Recent reports have implicated the roles of chemokines in cell differentiation. However, little is known about the functional roles of chemokines in adipocytes. Here, we explored gene expression levels of chemokines and chemokine receptors during adipogenic differentiation. We have found that two chemokines, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3) and CXCL13, as well as CXC chemokine receptor 2(CXCR2), a CXCL3 receptor, are highly expressed in mature adipocytes. When 3T3-L1 cells and ST2 cells were induced to differentiate, both the number of lipid droplets and the expression levels of adipogenic markers were significantly promoted by the addition of CXCL3, but not CXCL13. Conversely, gene knockdown ...
Phosphodiesterase 3B (PDE3B) is an important component of insulin and cAMP-dependent signalling pathways. In order to study phosphorylation of PDE3B, we have used an adenoviral system to express recombinant flag-tagged PDE3B in primary rat adipocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells. Phosphorylation of PDE3B after treatment of cells with insulin, cAMP-increasing agents, or the phosphatase inhibitor, calyculin A was analyzed by two-dimensional tryptic phosphopeptide mapping and mass spectrometry. We found that PDE3B is multisite phosphorylated in adipocytes and H4IIE hepatoma cells in response to all these stimuli. Several sites were identified; serine (S)273, S296, S421, S424/5, S474 and S536 were phosphorylated in adipocyte as well as H4IIE hepatoma cells whereas S277 and S507 were phosphorylated in hepatoma cells only. Several of the sites were phosphorylated by insulin as well as cAMP-increasing hormones indicating integration of the two signalling pathways upstream of PDE3B, maybe at the level of ...
The present results provide direct evidence for a regulatory role of mechanical stress in adipocyte differentiation, mediated through the activation of the ERK/MAPK system. Controversial observations concerning the role of ERK/MAPK in adipocyte differentiation have been reported by several laboratories - the activation of the ERK/MAPK pathway has been shown to be involved in both the inhibition (Font de Mora et al., 1997; Hu et al., 1996; Kim et al., 2001; Shimba et al., 2001) and the promotion (Bost et al., 2002; Klemm et al., 2001; Machinal-Quelin et al., 2002; Prusty et al., 2002; Zhang et al., 1996) of adipocyte differentiation. Along these lines, Prusty et al. recently suggested that stimulation of the ERK/MAPK pathway might have opposing effects in the process of adipogenesis, depending on the time of activation during the differentiation process (Prusty et al., 2002). In the present study, the activated state of ERK1/2 was more prolonged during the induction period in response to the ...
Obesity and specifically central obesity is related to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and other components of the so-called metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to elucidate the interplay between hormones, nutrients and adipose depots in normal and insulin-resistant fat cell metabolism.. High levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) induce insulin resistance in muscle and liver in vivo. In the present study, rat adipocytes were treated with high physiological levels of oleic or palmitic acid in vitro for 4-24 h. This treatment had no effect on basal or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake capacity in these cells, neither did it affect the levels of the insulin signalling proteins; insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 or -2, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), protein kinase B (PKB) or glucose transporter (GLUT) 4, or the regulation of lipolysis rate.. Visceral adiposity is considered to be more harmful than peripheral adiposity with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In ...
Adipose tissue is a highly specialized compartment of cells actively involved in maintaining global metabolic homeostasis through lipid synthesis and storage, adipokine secretion, and insulin responsiveness (1). Adipocytes compose the majority of cells in adipose tissue and play a critical role in normal physiology, but their dysfunction is also at the center of a diverse range of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and lipodystrophies (2). Furthermore, primary preadipocytes and adipose-derived stem cells have shown promise in treating multiple conditions (3-5). Therefore, it is critical to understand the process by which spindly fibroblastic precursor cells undergo conversion into round lipid-laden fat cells.. In vitro models of adipogenesis, such as the extensively studied committed preadipocyte cell line 3T3-L1 cells, have elucidated two major phases of adipogenesis: commitment and terminal differentiation (6, 7). Terminal differentiation is characterized by the induction of metabolic ...
The activation of beige adipocyte thermogenesis by cold temperatures and β3-adrenergic receptor agonists induce beige adipocyte formation, function and perdurance.
Induction of brown-like adipocytes (beige/brite cells) in white adipose tissue (WAT) suggests a new approach for preventing and treating obesity via induction of thermogenesis associated with uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). However, whether diet-derived factors can directly induce browning of white adipocytes has not been well established. In addition, the underlying mechanism of induction of brown-like adipocytes by diet-derived factors has been unclear. Here, we demonstrate that artepillin C (ArtC), which is a typical Brazilian propolis-derived component, significantly induces brown-like adipocytes in murine C3H10T1/2 cells and primary inguinal WAT (iWAT)-derived adipocytes. This significant induction is due to activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and stabilization of PRD1-BF-1-RIZ1 homologous domain-containing protein-16 (PRDM16). Furthermore, the oral administration of ArtC (10 mg/kg) for 4 weeks significantly induced brown-like adipocytes accompanied by significant ...
Regional differences in free fatty acid (FFA) handling contribute to diseases associated with particular fat distributions. As cultured rat preadipocytes became differentiated, FFA transfer into preadipocytes increased and was more rapid in single pe
Adipocytes are now recognized as endocrine cells secreting adipocytokines, regulating multiple metabolic pathways. In this study, we addressed secretion of microvesicles by 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that MFG-E8, one of the exosomal proteins, was present in the microvesicles and was distributed in …
Adipocytes arise from mesodermal stem cells, which have the capacity to differentiate into a variety of other cell types, including myocytes (1). Once committed to the adipocyte lineage, preadipocytes can remain quiescent, multiply, or undergo differentiation and become adipocytes. 3T3-L1 and 3T3-F442A cells are established mouse preadipocyte models. Both cell lines can be induced to differentiate in cell culture, but 3T3-F442A cells are thought to be arrested at a later point in development (2). Studies of these cellular models have revealed some of the molecular events that orchestrate adipogenesis, including the role of C/EBPs and PPARγ in mediating the expression of adipocyte-specific genes (3, 4).. Wnts are a family of paracrine and autocrine factors that regulate cell growth and cell fate (5). Signaling is initiated when Wnt ligands bind to transmembrane receptors of the Frizzled family. In the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, Frizzleds signal through Dishevelled to inhibit the kinase ...
As we age, however, the body gradually gets less efficient in using brown adipose tissue - which you may have experienced in the form of slower metabolism that comes with age.. Compounding matters is the issue with sugary foods, preservatives, and a sedentary lifestyle that plagues most Americans. This, unfortunately, leads to a buildup of white adipose tissue, or fat.. Different from white adipocytes that store fat, the brown or beige adipocytes are considered a metabolic sink for fat, glucose and other metabolites, Wang said. Beige adipocytes can take up and burn excessive glucose and fat to liberate heat; therefore, they are promising targets for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic disorders, including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and cardiovascular disease.. Previously, researchers targeted reservatol - a nutrient found in the skin of red grapes and some berries - as a means to combat obesity and enhance fat burning. The problem, however, is that reservatol proved ...
Evidence from both human and animal models suggests that estrogens play an important role in adipose tissue development. Most of the actions of estrogens are mediated by two types of ER (α and β). Different roles have been assigned to ER-α and ER-β in mediating estrogen effects in adipose tissue. This was suggested by the observations that ER-α gene knockout mice develop obesity, whereas ER-β knockout mice have a normal amount of adipose tissue (19, 30). Up to now, few studies aimed to characterize ER subtypes in human adipose tissue, and they have led to discrepant results. In this work, we have studied the expression of both ER-α and ER-β subtypes in cultured preadipocytes and isolated mature adipocytes from subcutaneous and intra-abdominal fat deposits from both men and women by using real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Moreover, we have investigated the effects of E2 in vitro on ER expression in these cells.. In mature adipocytes both ER-α and ER-β subtypes are ...
The size distribution of adipocytes in a suspension, after collagenase digestion of adipose tissue, can be determined by computerized image analysis. Free lipid, forming droplets, in such suspensions implicates a bias since droplets present in the images may be identified as adipocytes. This problem is not always adjusted for and some reports state that distinguishing droplets and cells is a considerable problem. In addition, if the droplets originate mainly from rupture of large adipocytes, as often described, this will also bias size analysis. We here confirm that our ordinary manual means of distinguishing droplets and adipocytes in the images ensure correct and rapid identification before exclusion of the droplets. Further, in our suspensions, prepared with focus on gentle handling of tissue and cells, we find no association between the amount of free lipid and mean adipocyte size or proportion of large adipocytes. ...
Modulator of adipocyte lipid metabolism. Coats lipid storage droplets to protect them from breakdown by hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). Its absence may result in leanness (By similarity). Plays a role in unilocular lipid droplet formation by activating CIDEC. Their interaction promotes lipid droplet enlargement and directional net neutral lipid transfer. May modulate lipolysis and triglyceride levels.
Dr. Rayalam has worked in the areas of obesity, body weight regulation, phytochemicals and adipocyte biochemistry for over 8 years. Her research interests include: 1) to study the adipocyte life cycle and to understand the interaction of adipocytes with other cell types as an approach to address several problems associated with obesity; 2) to develop novel treatment strategies for obesity by inducing transdifferentiation of white to beige adipocytes and to inhibit lipid accumulation in white adipocytes; and 3) to identify combinations of phytochemicals and vitamins that have synergistic anti-adipogenic effects with an ultimate goal of developing pharmaceuticals or nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of obesity and associated disorders. Aging is accompanied by an accumulation of adipocytes in bone marrow and Dr. Rayalams other interest is to understand the fat-bone interaction and to identify molecular targets for the prevention of weight gain and bone loss associated with aging. Dr. ...
In the nucleus HuR binds to mRNAs containing adenylate-uridylate rich elements in the 3?- untranslated region. HuR may influence expression of its ligand mRNA through regulation of polyadenylation, translocation of the message to the cytosol, stabilization of the mRNA and/or altering its translational efficiency. Suppression of HuR using siRNA resulted in an attenuation of the 3T3-L1 differentiation program, consistent with HuR control of the expression of mRNA ligand (s) critical to the differentiation process. In the current study we begin to identify mRNA ligands of HuR whose regulated expression is necessary for adipogenesis. Originally published in Biochemical and Biophysiological Research Communications Vol. 383, No. 2 2009 ...
What initiates the reprogramming of immune cells in obese AT toward proinflammatory subtypes? The answer is likely a combination of different endogenous and exogenous danger signals. In terms of endogenous signals, saturated fatty acids directly activate TLR4 and TLR2 in macrophages, and even in adipocytes themselves, resulting in proinflammatory cytokine production (35, 36). Saturated fatty acids, specifically palmitate, can also activate the NLRP3 inflammasome, causing maturation and release of IL-1β by macrophages (37). In addition to dietary sources, fatty acids are also released from adipocytes during lipolysis, a process that occurs at an increased rate in obese AT (38). Because macrophages surround adipocytes (12, 13), they would be one of the first immune cell types to encounter fatty acids and other endogenous danger signals, such as ATP, that may be released by dying adipocytes. Notably, TNF-α secreted by stimulated macrophages can further stimulate lipolysis (39), resulting in a ...
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The present study indicates that EERP enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by its potency of PPARγ activation and are capable of reversing inhibitory effects of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression. These results suggest the value of EERP as a diet supplement for prevention and treatment of obesity and obesity-associated disorders ...
July 2012). "Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human". Cell. 150 (2): 366-76. doi: ... Erickson HP (October 2013). "Irisin and FNDC5 in retrospect: An exercise hormone or a transmembrane receptor?". Adipocyte. 2 (4 ... February 2014). "Irisin stimulates browning of white adipocytes through mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 MAP kinase and ERK ... August 2016). "Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white adipocytes". American Journal of ...
Adipocyte. 2 (2): 109-112. doi:10.4161/adip.22880. PMC 3661112. PMID 23805408. Cursiefen, Claus; Chen, Lu; Borges, Leonardo P ...
Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through ... In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a ... The second develops from white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. These adipocytes are found ... UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes". J Biol Chem. 285 (10): 7153-64. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
Erickson HP (October 2013). "Irisin and FNDC5 in retrospect: An exercise hormone or a transmembrane receptor?". Adipocyte. 2 (4 ...
2016). "Quantitative assessment of adipocyte differentiation in cell culture". Adipocyte. 5 (4): 351-358. doi:10.1080/ ...
Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAds) originate from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitors that also give rise to osteoblasts, among ... BMAT, by its "specific marrow location, and its adipocyte origin from at least LepR+ marrow MSC is separated from non-bone fat ... Duque G, Li W, Adams M, Xu S, Phipps R (May 2011). "Effects of risedronate on bone marrow adipocytes in postmenopausal women". ... Zhou BO, Yu H, Yue R, Zhao Z, Rios JJ, Naveiras O, Morrison SJ (August 2017). "Bone marrow adipocytes promote the regeneration ...
Within adipose tissue, presence of dead adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity. Macrophages surrounding dying or dead adipocytes ... 2005). "Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans". J Lipid Res. ... Adipocyte cell death observed within pathologically expanding adipose tissue is one of the factors. Macrophages are specialized ... Moreover, expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α is mostly derived from macrophages rather than adipocytes. It has ...
Zhang X, Heckmann BL, Liu J (2013-01-01). Yang P, Li H (eds.). "Studying lipolysis in adipocytes by combining siRNA knockdown ... Villena JA, Roy S, Sarkadi-Nagy E, Kim KH, Sul HS (November 2004). "Desnutrin, an adipocyte gene encoding a novel patatin ... "Entrez Gene: PNPLA2 patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2". Ojha S, Budge H, Symonds ME (2014). "Adipocytes in Normal ... Steinberg GR, Kemp BE, Watt MJ (October 2007). "Adipocyte triglyceride lipase expression in human obesity". American Journal of ...
It is used to mobilize stored energy during fasting or exercise, and usually occurs in fat adipocytes. The most important ... Insulin counter-regulates this increase in lipolysis when it binds to insulin receptors on the adipocyte cell membrane. Insulin ... Catecholamines bind to 7TM receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) on the adipocyte cell membrane, which activate adenylate ... Frühbeck, G; Méndez-Giménez, L; Fernández-Formoso, JA; Fernández, S; Rodríguez, A (June 2014). "Regulation of adipocyte ...
Adipocytes also have an external lamina. Wheater's Functional Histology, 5th ed. Young, Lowe, Stevens and Heath. v t e ( ...
Neurons and adipocytes exhibit the former; every other type of cell, the latter. As a result, different organs exhibit ...
Terminal differentiation is that preadipocytes differentiate into mature adipocytes. Adipocytes can arise either from ... Adipocytes play a vital role in energy homeostasis and process the largest energy reserve as triglycerol in the body of animals ... Adipocytes stay in a dynamic state, they start expanding when the energy intake is higher than the expenditure and undergo ... These genes include adipocyte protein (aP2), insulin receptor, glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA ...
Infante, Marco; Armani, Andrea; Marzolla, Vincenzo; Fabbri, Andrea; Caprio, Massimiliano (2019). "Adipocyte Mineralocorticoid ...
Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as ... Obesity leaves an excess of nutrients for the body, thereby causing adipocytes to release more proinflammatory cytokines. ...
... -12 expression induces apoptosis of adipocytes. Galectin-3 has been shown to be the only galectin with anti-apoptotic ...
Fatty acids are normally stored in adipocytes as triglycerides. However, as triglycerides accumulate in adipocytes, fatty acids ... Adipocytes (fat cells) secrete proteins and signaling molecules known as adipokines. Certain adipokines have been implicated in ... In obesity, the greater number of adipocytes release greater amounts of leptin. These higher levels of leptin have been ... Leptin is a satiety adipokine released from adipocytes. Normally, leptin interacts with leptin receptors (LEPRs) in the brain ...
A model knocking out Noggin specifically in adipocytes has allowed to elucidate that Noggin also plays a role in adipose tissue ... its depletion in adipocytes causes alterations in the structure of both brown and white adipose tissue, along with brown fat ... "Noggin depletion in adipocytes promotes obesity in mice". Molecular Metabolism. 25: 50-63. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2019.04.004. ...
... exists mostly as a single adipocytes in the subcutaneous tissue. In humans, white adipose tissue starts to ... PPARγ is required for both the adipogenesis and maintenance of the adipocytes. White adipose tissue exists in various depots ... White adipose tissue is composed of monolocular adipocytes. In humans, the healthy amount of white adipose tissue varies with ... A hypothesis is that the precursors for the different types of adipocytes are mesenchymal stem cells which differentiates by ...
In a 2015 study on the role of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylation on adipogenesis, researchers treated porcine adipocytes ... cycloleucine increased adipocyte growth by blocking methylation by inhibiting m6A levels relative to the control adipocytes. ... "mRNA m6A Methylation Downregulates Adipogenesis In Porcine Adipocytes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. ...
MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. In biology, oligopotency is the ability of progenitor ...
For example, insulin is known to activate LPL in adipocytes and its placement in the capillary endothelium. By contrast, ... Vannier C, Ailhaud G (August 1989). "Biosynthesis of lipoprotein lipase in cultured mouse adipocytes. II. Processing, subunit ... they responded with an increase in adipose tissue LPL activity per adipocyte, or a decrease in skeletal muscle LPL activity per ... "The role of glucose and glycosylation in the regulation of lipoprotein lipase synthesis and secretion in rat adipocytes". J. ...
... , body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, ... these normally energy-storing adipocytes become energy-releasing adipocytes. The calorie-burning capacity of brown and beige ... The adipocytes in this depot are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which can give rise to fat cells, bone cells as well ... Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, ...
Brown adipocytes consist of densely packed mitochondria that contain uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). UCP-1 plays a key role in ... The activity of PRDM16 in white adipose tissue leads to the production of brown fat-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue ... This expression takes place primarily within mature adipocytes. Transgenic aP2-PRDM16 mice were used in a study to observe the ... PRDM16 acts as a transcription coregulator that controls the development of brown adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. ...
... treatment of adipocytes is associated with phosphorylation of FRS2, a protein linking FGF receptors to the Ras/MAP kinase ... Whether or not in-vivo responses to FGF21 in the liver and other organs are mediated through its prior action on adipocytes is ... FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes but not in other cell types. This effect is additive to the activity of insulin. ... Justesen S, Haugegaard KV, Hansen JB, Hansen HS, Andersen B (July 2020). "The autocrine role of FGF21 in cultured adipocytes". ...
Adipocytes secrete leptin in response to food intake. This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron ...
PLIN4 is a member of the perilipin family, a group of proteins that coat lipid droplets in adipocytes, the adipose tissue cells ... PLIN4 coats lipid droplets in adipocytes to protect them from lipases. The PLIN4 gene may be associated with insulin resistance ... Wolins NE, Skinner JR, Schoenfish MJ, Tzekov A, Bensch KG, Bickel PE (September 2003). "Adipocyte protein S3-12 coats nascent ... Wolins NE, Skinner JR, Schoenfish MJ, Tzekov A, Bensch KG, Bickel PE (September 2003). "Adipocyte protein S3-12 coats nascent ...
In fact, PLIN1 is greatly expressed in white adipocytes. It controls adipocyte lipid metabolism. It handles essential functions ... In humans, Perilipin A is the most abundant protein associated with the adipocyte LDs and lower PLIN1 expression is related ... Perilipin is a protein that coats lipid droplets (LDs) in adipocytes, the fat-storing cells in adipose tissue. ... March 2013). "FSP27 and PLIN1 interaction promotes the formation of large lipid droplets in human adipocytes". Biochemical and ...
Dawn L., Brasaemle (2007-09-18). "Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet ...
The adipocyte, or fat cell, is designed for continuous synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides in animals, with breakdown ... Brasaemle DL (December 2007). "Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet ...
C3 nephritic factor induces the lysis of adipocytes that secrete adipsin, a product identical to complement factor D. The ... Hegele RA, Joy TR, Al-Attar SA, Rutt BK (Jul 2007). "Thematic review series: Adipocyte Biology. Lipodystrophies: windows on ... which stimulates the transcription of genes responsible for growth and differentiation of adipocytes. A single report has ... distribution of the lipoatrophy is postulated to be dictated by the variable amounts of adipsin secreted by the adipocytes at ...
Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis. In cell culture, ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Studies have shed light into ... Exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as marrow adipose tissue volume, as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone ... If the adipocytes in the body reach their maximum capacity of fat, they may replicate to allow additional fat storage. Adult ...
Human adipocytes constitutively synthesize and secrete insulin, which is biologically functional. Insulin concentrations and ... However, the role of adipocytes in linking energy metabolic disorders with insulin regulation is unknown in humans. ... Insulin expression in 10 human primary cell types including adipocytes and macrophages is an evidence for extrapancreatic ... hypertrophy in adipocytes is the main cause of energy metabolic system dysfunction, obesity and its afflictions such as T2D. ...
In support of these correlations, RNAi-mediated depletion of GPS2 and SMRT from cultured human adipocytes promoted derepression ... Consequently, there is interest in identifying the underlying regulatory mechanisms and components that drive adipocyte ... Collectively, our findings identify alterations in a regulatory transcriptional network in adipocytes involving the ... identified a regulatory cascade containing PPARγ and TWIST1 that controlled the expression of GPS2 and SMRT in human adipocytes ...
It is also known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, but the effects of Rhodiola rosea on adipocyte differentiation and ... on primary human visceral adipocytes was investigated. Pre-adipocytes were analyzed after 10 and 20 days of treatment during ... Effects of Two Different Rhodiola rosea Extracts on Primary Human Visceral Adipocytes Molecules. 2015 May 11;20(5):8409-28. doi ... Differentiation of pre-adipocytes in the presence of RS and RR extracts showed a significant decrease in expression of genes ...
... ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy dysregulates proliferation and differentiation of human pre-adipocytes. World J Virol 2017 ... Pre-adipocytes, Highly active antiretroviral therapy, Lipodystrophy ...
Adipocytes (BM-Ads) are a major component of the BM microenvironment since they occupy 70% of the total volume of adult BM. ... Human Bone Marrow Is Comprised of Adipocytes with Specific Lipid Metabolism Cell Rep 2020 Jan 28;30(4):949-958.e6. doi: 10.1016 ... We found that BM-Ads morphologically resemble paired subcutaneous adipocytes (SC-Ads; used as a control) but display distinct ... the CCR3/CCL7 axis is also involved in local PCa invasion in a process dependent of the secretion of mature adipocytes from the ...
Citation: Takada S, Sabe H and Kinugawa S (2020) Abnormalities of Skeletal Muscle, Adipocyte Tissue, and Lipid Metabolism in ... Abnormalities of Skeletal Muscle, Adipocyte Tissue, and Lipid Metabolism in Heart Failure: Practical Therapeutic Targets. ... Abnormal accumulation of adipocytes then affect whole body condition (11). In this review, we first summarize our current ... This suggests that the increased energy storage capacity of adipocytes may be associated with the suppression of ectopic fat ...
In comparison with 17 other human tissues and cell types by microarray, large adipocytes displayed by far the highest SAA and ... Thus, we have identified genes with markedly higher expression in large, compared with small, human adipocytes. These genes may ... To understand the molecular link between these diseases and adipocyte hypertrophy, we developed a technique to separate human ... Real-time RT-PCR analysis of SAA and TM4SF1 expression in adipocytes from seven subjects revealed 19-fold and 22-fold higher ...
... Home/Recombinant Proteins/Recombinant Mouse gAcrp30 ( ... gAdiponectin (gAcrp30) is a adipocyte complement-related protein and is a member of the family of defense collagens.1 ... gAdiponectin is produced and secreted exclusively by adipocytes, and is a relatively abundant plasma protein, accounting for up ...
The Role of the Protein Kinase C System in Mediating Insulin-Stimulated Adipocyte Lipogenesis N. Avasthy; N. Avasthy ... N. Avasthy, P. Dandona; The Role of the Protein Kinase C System in Mediating Insulin-Stimulated Adipocyte Lipogenesis. Clin Sci ...
... ZenBio Biological Products and Services ... Omental Adipocytes 6-Well Plate, BMI >30.0. Each. $1,342.00. OA-1012-3. Omental Adipocytes 12-Well Plate, BMI >30.0. Each. $ ... Omental Adipocytes 24-Well Plate, BMI >30.0. Each. $1119.00. OA-1048-3. Omental Adipocytes 48-Well Plate, BMI >30.0. Each. $ ... Visceral Preadipocytes and Adipocytes Publications. MAPK Signaling Is Required for Generation of Tunneling Nanotube-Like ...
The present study examined the effects of NPY on adipocyte metabolism using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that NPY potentiated ... However, the role of NPY in regulating adipocyte metabolism is poorly understood. ... The present study examined the effects of NPY on adipocyte metabolism using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We found that NPY potentiated ... However, the role of NPY in regulating adipocyte metabolism is poorly understood. ...
In obese fat, the immature adipocyte:mature adipocyte ratio is increased and immature adipocytes are a major source of ... human adipocyte stem cells (hASC) or mature adipocytes were isolated from human abdominal or breast fat. Adipocytes were ... immature adipocytes, and adipocytes. C, gel electrophoresis of PCR for adipogenesis markers in hASC (1); immature adipocytes ... immature adipocytes, and adipocytes. C, gel electrophoresis of PCR for adipogenesis markers in hASC (1); immature adipocytes ...
Co-culture of adipocytes with colon cancer cells led to a transfer of free fatty acids that released from the adipocytes to the ... In this study, we showed that adipocytes isolated from adipose tissues of colon cancer patients have an important role in ... Abundant adipocytes were found in close association with invasive tumor cells in colon cancer patients. ... Mechanistically, co-culture of adipocytes or treating cells with fatty acids induced autophagy in colon cancer cells as a ...
Proteomics analyses of subcutaneous adipocytes reveal novel abnormalities in human insulin resistance. Obesity. 2016 Jul 1;24(7 ... Proteomics analyses of subcutaneous adipocytes reveal novel abnormalities in human insulin resistance. In: Obesity. 2016 ; Vol ... N2 - Objective: To provide a more global view of adipocyte changes in human insulin resistance by proteomics analyses. Methods ... AB - Objective: To provide a more global view of adipocyte changes in human insulin resistance by proteomics analyses. Methods ...
About the Journal. As one of the first Open Access journals in its field, Food & Nutrition Research (FNR) offers an important forum for researchers to exchange the latest results from research on human nutrition broadly and food-related nutrition in particular. Learn more about the journals Aims & Scope. FNR is widely indexed by relevant services and databases, including PubMed Central/PubMed, Scopus, Science Citation Index, with an Impact Factor of 3.89 (2020).. ...
B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) Is Expressed in Human Adipocytes In Vivo and Is Related to Obesity but Not to Insulin Resistance ... In contrast to several pro-inflammatory factors, we found the source of BLyS in human adipose tissue to be the adipocytes ... B Lymphocyte Stimulator (BLyS) Is Expressed in Human Adipocytes In Vivo and Is Related to Obesity but Not to Insulin Resistance ... Since BLyS is known to promote B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, the present data suggest that adipocytes of ...
... that can differentiate into beige adipocytes rich in mitochondria (brown) or unilocular white adipocytes. SAT adipocytes can ... that can differentiate into beige adipocytes rich in mitochondria (brown) or unilocular white adipocytes. SAT adipocytes can ... mT+ and mG+ adipocytes (a) are indicated. (I) Time-course of an increase in the frequency of mG+ adipocytes from experiment in ... mT+ and mG+ adipocytes (a) are indicated. (I) Time-course of an increase in the frequency of mG+ adipocytes from experiment in ...
Avhandling: Polycystic ovary syndrome : a study of adipocyte lipolysis in relation to endocrine and metabolic status. ... Nyckelord: MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES; MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP; Adipocyte; beta-adrenoceptors; FFA; hyperandrogenism; HSL; ... Polycystic ovary syndrome : a study of adipocyte lipolysis in relation to endocrine and metabolic status. ...
... adipocyte stage) (Figure 4A). Strikingly, we found that the expression of key adipocyte markers such as CD36, PLIN1, CIDEC, ... Adipocyte differentiation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were treated as previously described (17).. In vitro MRD model. Carboplatin ( ... Alternatively, the adipocyte-like state may be induced by chemotherapy (top right, bottom left), and the EMT features may be ... Conflict of interest: AAA and MA are filing a patent application (GB 2102606.7) for the use of the adipocyte-like gene ...
recently evidenced the pivotal role of adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles in cardiac oxidative stress responses and ... Adipocyte extracellular vesicles: new rescuers of mitochondrial stress in the heart Xavier Loyer 1 Chantal Boulanger 1 Soazig ... Adipocyte extracellular vesicles: new rescuers of mitochondrial stress in the heart. Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism = ... recently evidenced the pivotal role of adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles in cardiac oxidative stress responses and ...
Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein - from Rabbit - for Western blotting - Antibodies. Product filter Adipocyte Fatty Acid ... Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Human, Rabbit Polyclonal Antibody Type: Polyclonal Antibody. ... molecule Acylation-Stimulating Protein Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein Adiponectin Adipophilin Agouti-Related Protein ...
The adipocyte is increasingly found to be a complex and metabolically active cell. At present, the adipocyte is perceived as an ... The adipocyte, which is the cellular basis for obesity, may be increased in size or number in obese persons. Hypertrophic ... Critical enzymes involved in adipocyte metabolism and function include the following:. * Endothelial-derived lipoprotein lipase ... Many of the adipocytokines secreted by adipocytes are proinflammatory or play a role in blood coagulation. Others are involved ...
The adipocyte is increasingly found to be a complex and metabolically active cell. At present, the adipocyte is perceived as an ... The adipocyte, which is the cellular basis for obesity, may be increased in size or number in obese persons. Hypertrophic ... Critical enzymes involved in adipocyte metabolism and function include the following:. * Endothelial-derived lipoprotein lipase ... Many of the adipocytokines secreted by adipocytes are proinflammatory or play a role in blood coagulation. Others are involved ...
Brown adipocytes in mammals are distinguished from the more common white fat adipocytes by having numerous small lipid droplets ... While ABALCs are therefore not functional brown adipocytes, they are generated by a developmental pathway virtually identical ... with the morphological and many of the biochemical properties of terminally differentiated brown adipocytes. Avian, and as we ... conditions in which mesenchymal cells isolated from the embryonic chicken limb bud differentiate into avian brown adipocyte- ...
Human adipocytes, expressing CETP were studied and compared to mouse adipocytes, which lack CETP gene. Human SW872 and 3T3-L1 ... Our findings indicate that CETP inhibitors influence adipocyte function and stimulate adipocyte-derived aldosterone production ... In mouse adipocytes, TORC and DALC induced aldosterone production (120 pg/mL and 117 pg/mL vs cont 79 pg/mL, p,0.05) but only ... In human adipocytes, TORC and DALC induced 2- and 1.5-fold increase respectively in ROS production after 5 min (p,0.05). ...
We show that mature PPARgamma-null white and brown adipocytes die within a few days and are replaced by newly formed PPARgamma- ... positive adipocytes, demonstrating that PPARgamma is essential for the in vivo survival of mature adipocytes, in addition to ... Therefore we have selectively ablated PPARgamma in adipocytes of adult mice by using the tamoxifen-dependent Cre-ER(T2) ... The analysis of PPARgamma functions in mature adipocytes is precluded by lethality of PPARgamma(-/-) fetuses and tetraploid- ...
Investigating the mechanisms involved in the anti-obesity effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers in 3T3-L1 adipocytes ... Understanding the underlying biological mechanisms that regulate adipogenesis and adipocyte lipid metabolism is necessary to ... which leads to weight loss via affecting adipogenesis and/or adipocyte death. Testing of this hypothesis was achieved by ... but without influencing either adipogenesis or adipocyte clearance. This study suggests a novel mechanism for the anti-obesity ...
... pathway is activated by deletion of the von Hippel-Lindau gene specifically in adipocytes, we found that mice with adipocyte- ... HIF activation in adipocytes results in overexpression of key cardiomyopathy-associated genes in adipose tissue, increased ... Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in adipocytes results in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.. ... 2013). Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in adipocytes results in pathological cardiac hypertrophy.. J Am Heart Assoc, 2 ...
... α-treated adipocytes. We conclude that the insulin resistance of glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to TNF-α for 72 ... Prolonged exposure (72-96 h) of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to TNF-α causes a substantial reduction (, 80%) in IRS-1 and GLUT4 mRNA and ... Nevertheless, the remaining proteins appear to be biochemically indistinguishable from those in untreated adipocytes. Both the ... is associated with profound insulin resistance in adipocytes and may also play a critical role in the insulin resistance of ...
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is required in mature white and brown adipocytes for their survival in the mouse. (unil.ch)
  • Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as marrow adipose tissue volume, as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of their adipose tissue morphology revealed increases in both adipocyte size and number in most depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since obesity is determined by the excessive mass of adipose tissue (AT) and in particular adipocytes, adipocytes play an important role in the development of obesity 7 , 8 . (nature.com)
  • Collectively, our findings identify alterations in a regulatory transcriptional network in adipocytes involving the dysregulation of a specific corepressor complex as among the initiating events promoting adipose tissue inflammation in human obesity. (jci.org)
  • Interesting the CCR3/CCL7 axis is also involved in local PCa invasion in a process dependent of the secretion of mature adipocytes from the periprostatic adipose tissue (Laurent et al, Nature Communications, 2016). (ipbs.fr)
  • To understand the molecular link between these diseases and adipocyte hypertrophy, we developed a technique to separate human adipocytes from an adipose tissue sample into populations of small cells (mean 57.6+-3.54 um) and large cells (mean 100.1+-3.94 um). (chalmers.se)
  • Preadipocytes are isolated from omental, mesenteric, or perirenal adipose tissue and are tested for their ability to differentiate in culture to mature adipocytes. (zen-bio.com)
  • In this study, we showed that adipocytes isolated from adipose tissues of colon cancer patients have an important role in modulating cellular metabolism to support tumor growth and survival. (uky.edu)
  • In contrast to several pro-inflammatory factors, we found the source of BLyS in human adipose tissue to be the adipocytes rather than immune cells. (uni-koeln.de)
  • The relative abundance of thermogenic beige adipocytes and lipid-storing white adipocytes in adipose tissue underlie its metabolic activity. (biologists.com)
  • The roles of adipocyte progenitor cells, which express PDGFRα or PDGFRβ, in adipose tissue function have remained unclear. (biologists.com)
  • Here, by defining the developmental timing of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expression in mouse subcutaneous and visceral adipose depots, we uncover depot specificity of pre-adipocyte delineation. (biologists.com)
  • Given that CETP inhibitors accumulate in adipose tissue and that adipocytes are a source of aldosterone, we questioned whether CETP inhibitors, TORC and Dalcetrapib (DALC), influence adipocyte aldosterone production. (gla.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, t10-c12 CLA promotes loss of adipose tissue in vivo, possibly by activating β-catenin, but without influencing either adipogenesis or adipocyte clearance. (umanitoba.ca)
  • HIF activation in adipocytes results in overexpression of key cardiomyopathy-associated genes in adipose tissue, increased serum levels of several proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1β and monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and activation of nuclear factor-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells in the heart. (cam.ac.uk)
  • CONCLUSION: We have discovered a previously uncharacterized mechanism underlying a critical and direct role of the adipocyte HIF-2 transcription factor in the development of adipose inflammation and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Adipocyte-secreted BMP8b mediates adrenergic-induced remodeling of the neuro-vascular network in adipose tissue. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Here we show that adipocyte-secreted BMP8b contributes to adrenergic-induced remodeling of the neuro-vascular network in adipose tissue (AT). (cam.ac.uk)
  • Adipocytes are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing lipids. (adipofat.com)
  • Pre-adipocytes and adipocytes are isolated from subcutaneous and viscera adipose tissue for the use of metabolic research and drug development. (tissue-solutions.com)
  • Further, increasing expression of brown adipose tissue (adipocytes) may also be correlated with increases in longevity. (geresdengle.com)
  • Studies altering white adipocytes, into adipocytes with brown adipose tissue characteristics show dramatic changes. (geresdengle.com)
  • Brown adipocytes (BAs) are major components of brown adipose tissue (BAT), which is involved in blood pressure regulation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipocyte NR1D1 dictates adipose tissue expansion during obesity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • [5-8] While WATs store excessive energy as lipid droplets within adipocytes, adipocytes in brown adipose tissue (BAT) are engaged in energy dissipation by generating heat. (lww.com)
  • We conclude by proposing the adipocyte as a potential target for the treatment of obesity, dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes, with emphasis placed on inducing brown adipose tissue. (clinicalgate.com)
  • In the first part of this study, we analyzed the different forms of lipolysis identified so far in FCCP-treated adipocytes: HSL (Hormone Sensitive Lipase) and ATGL (Adipose Triglyceride Lipase)-dependent lipolysis, the macrolipophagy and the microlipophagy. (unamur.be)
  • Targeted deletion of adipocytes by apoptosis leads to adipose tissue recruitment of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. (tamu.edu)
  • Analysis of depots 2 wk after elimination of adipocytes resulted in markedly reduced levels of adipose tissue and a robust down-regulation of circulating adipokines. (tamu.edu)
  • We conclude that adipocyte death is sufficient to initiate macrophage infiltration, and live adipocytes are required to initiate and/or sustain a proinflammatory response within the infiltrating macrophages in adipose tissue. (tamu.edu)
  • Since adipose CKD602 tissues plays an intrinsic function in energy stability a feasible function of adipocyte AOC3 could possibly be an participation in insulin signaling. (gasyblog.com)
  • Body fat, or adipose tissue, consists of adipocytes. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Over the past several years, we have identified genes critical for specifying thermogenic adipose fate and have purified the precursor populations from which these adipocytes descend. (upenn.edu)
  • Finally, supplementation with whey protein sweetened with S. rebaudiana also induced a significant decrease in retroperitoneal adipocyte diameter and an increase in the weight of brown adipose tissue pads in resistance-trained rats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • SAT2 protein was present in both plasma-membrane and internal-membrane fractions derived from rat skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, having a localization similar to that of the glucose transporter GLUT4. (uws.ac.uk)
  • Notably PPARisoforms The PPARisoform indicated primarily in adipose cells where it normally works as an adipocyte-specific transcription element in preadipocytes and regulates adipose cells differentiation, as well as the PPARprotein framework and function Much like other members from the nuclear hormone receptors superfamily, PPARprotein offers three practical domains: the N-terminal domain name, the DNA-binding area, and a carboxy-terminal ligand-binding pocket (Body 1). (hr010.net)
  • Angiotensin II treatment inhibited adipose MSCs differentiation into adipocytes in a dose dependent manner. (sages.org)
  • Male white adipose tissue exhibits the multilocular appearance of brown adipocytes, and expresses UCP1, a specific marker of brown fat. (jax.org)
  • Hypoxia and adipocyte physiology: Implications for adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity. (thieme-connect.com)
  • abstract = "Human adipose tissue contains a major source of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) that have the ability to differentiate into various cell types: in vitro, ADSCs can differentiate into mesenchymal lineages including adipocytes, while in vivo, ADSCs become mature adipocytes. (edu.au)
  • The upper panel shows interscapular white adipocytes (above a layer of muscle and above brown adipose tissue). (phys.org)
  • The lower panel shows white adipocytes from the inguinal adipose depot. (phys.org)
  • Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differentiation of pre-adipocytes in the presence of RS and RR extracts showed a significant decrease in expression of genes involved in adipocyte function such as SLC2A4 and the adipogenic factor FGF2 and significant increase in expression of genes involved in inhibition of adipogenesis, such as GATA3, WNT3A, WNT10B. (nih.gov)
  • Understanding the underlying biological mechanisms that regulate adipogenesis and adipocyte lipid metabolism is necessary to identify novel approaches that promote weight loss. (umanitoba.ca)
  • For this thesis, it was hypothesized that the anti-obesity effects of the t10-c12 CLA isomer is due to lipid droplet dynamics alteration through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which leads to weight loss via affecting adipogenesis and/or adipocyte death. (umanitoba.ca)
  • To form adipocytes (process termed adipogenesis) nearly all scientific papers refer to the use of preadipocytes, adipofibroblasts, stromal vascular cells or adipogenic cell lines, and their differentiation to form lipid-assimilating cells containing storage triacylglyceride. (jgenomics.com)
  • We sought to define the characteristics of adipocyte-derived EVs before and after adipogenesis, hypothesising that adipogenesis would affect EV structure, molecular composition and function. (cardiffmet.ac.uk)
  • The results suggest that the porcine SMAF1 gene may have similar functions as in other species, that is, it may regulate adipogenesis and/or adipocyte function. (cambridge.org)
  • In the present study, the global membrane protein glycosylation of native adipocytes was compared to ADSCs from the same individuals as a model of in vivo adipogenesis. (edu.au)
  • Lipid droplets (LDs) hypertrophy in adipocytes is the main cause of energy metabolic system dysfunction, obesity and its afflictions such as T2D. (nature.com)
  • These results from the excessive storage of energy in the form of triglycerides (TGs) in lipid droplets (a monolayer membrane with a structure similar to very low-density lipoprotein 10 ) within adipocytes, which links to obesity and to IR. (nature.com)
  • In spite of increasing studies on the properties of AT and in particular adipocytes, the mechanisms that lead to obesity-induced pathophysiological states are still poorly understood. (nature.com)
  • Hence, we chose to study human primary adipocytes alone to avoid AT complexity and obtain a clear detailed picture of human adipocytes and its link with obesity and insulin regulation. (nature.com)
  • In support of these correlations, RNAi-mediated depletion of GPS2 and SMRT from cultured human adipocytes promoted derepression of inflammatory transcription and elevation of obesity-associated inflammatory markers, such as IL-6 and MCP-1. (jci.org)
  • To provide the most relevant systems for investigating obesity-related morbidities, ZenBio is offering visceral derived human preadipocytes and cultured adipocytes to the research community. (zen-bio.com)
  • We hypothesized that the adipocyte hypoxia-signaling pathway plays an essential role in the development of obesity-associated cardiomyopathy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • A number of studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is associated with profound insulin resistance in adipocytes and may also play a critical role in the insulin resistance of obesity and non- insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (lsu.edu)
  • This study was designed to explore the anti-adipogenic effects of lyophilised Opuntia cladode powders (OCP) in an in vitro cellular model for adipocyte differentiation and an in vivo high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity rat model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neither adipocyte death nor generation rate is altered in early onset obesity, suggesting a tight regulation of fat cell number in this condition during adulthood. (adipofat.com)
  • This study was aimed at examining the anti-obesity effect of SoSoSo or its active ingredient chrysophanol on the production of inflammatory cytokines and adipokine in macrophyage cell line RAW264 and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (who.int)
  • MicroRNAs expressed in adipocytes are involved in transcriptional regulation of target mRNAs in obesity, but miRNAs critically involved in this process is not well characterized. (elsevier.com)
  • Such changes to white adipocytes may be an effective strategy for reducing obesity and obesity related disorders (such as insulin resistance and diabetes). (geresdengle.com)
  • Importantly, NR1D1 action in adipocytes is critical to the development of obesity-related WAT pathology and insulin resistance. (ox.ac.uk)
  • There is a voluminous amount of scientific literature dealing with the involvement of adipocytes in molecular regulation of carcass composition, obesity, metabolic syndrome, or diabetes. (jgenomics.com)
  • The inhibition of adipocyte differentiation has a significant role on the prevention of obesity and obesity-associated complications. (yyu.edu.tr)
  • I will contrast this to classical pathways that take up dietary fatty acids and close on important differences between mouse and human adipocyte metabolism, which might have direct implications for mechanism-based interference with fatty acid liver disease, type-2 diabetes, and obesity. (ox.ac.uk)
  • At the Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, his group investigates the molecular basis of adipocyte LD formation, spatial organization of lipid metabolism and the role of de novo lipogenesis in the etiology of obesity and type II diabetes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We hypothesize that regulation of NFAT expression and activity accounts for the positive role of NFAT in adipocyte differentiation Obesity is a rising health concern in the United States because of its association with diabetes, heart failure, and certain cancers. (elsevier.com)
  • Obesity is a consequence of energy imbalance, which increases adipocyte cell number and/or cell size to accommodate the elevated lipid load. (elsevier.com)
  • Moreover, the elevated LEP expression observed in obesity correlated well with increased FOSL2 levels in mice and humans, and adipocyte-specific genetic deletion of Fosl2 in mice reduced Lep expression. (evanrosenlab.com)
  • EVs are implicated in the pathogenesis of obesity-driven cardiovascular disease, although the characteristics of adipocyte-derived EVs are not well described. (cardiffmet.ac.uk)
  • Obesity can be defined as an excessive accumulation of lipids into cells called adipocytes. (unamur.be)
  • However, in obesity these levels of secretion change, coupled with an increase in adipocyte number and size causing a profound and lasting effect on the bone microenvironment, contributing to MM cell growth, survival, and migration as well as potentially fueling bone destruction. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Time-restricted feeding mitigates obesity through adipocyte thermogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Using a large study (n = 1,288) from 4 independent cohorts, we aimed to investigate the relationship between mean adipocyte area and obesity-related traits, and identify genetic factors associated with adipocyte cell size. (ox.ac.uk)
  • To analyse adipocyte transcription and secretion profile during the etiopathogenesis of obesity, and to detect differences in adipocyte function and secretion due to depot localization, sex and age. (europa.eu)
  • Obesity, affecting over 40% of American adults, disrupts adipocyte metabolism leading to chronic systemic inflammation and metabolic dysfunction (MetDys). (cdc.gov)
  • However, the role of adipocytes in linking energy metabolic disorders with insulin regulation is unknown in humans. (nature.com)
  • Taken together, our results show that adipocytes in the tumor microenvironment serve as an energy provider and a metabolic regulator to promote the growth and survival of colon cancer cells. (uky.edu)
  • Since BLyS is known to promote B-cell proliferation and immunoglobulin secretion, the present data suggest that adipocytes of grade 3 obese human subjects are able to activate the adaptive immune system, suggesting that in metabolic inflammation in humans both, innate and adaptive immunity, are of pathophysiological relevance. (uni-koeln.de)
  • This article reviews the recent existing CAAs studies on the functions and mechanisms of adipocytes in the development of BC, including adipokine regulating, metabolic reprogramming, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, microRNAs (miRNAs) and immune cell adjusting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipocyte NR1D1 does not drive an anticipatory daily rhythm in WAT lipogenesis, but rather modulates WAT activity in response to alterations in metabolic state. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The storage of fat within lipid droplets of adipocytes is critical for whole body metabolic health. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Early B-cell factor-1 (EBF1) is a key regulator of metabolic and inflammatory signaling pathways in mature adipocytes. (evanrosenlab.com)
  • Mammary adipocytes stimulate breast cancer invasion through metabolic remodeling of tumor cells. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • These results show a complex metabolic symbiosis between tumor-surrounding adipocytes and cancer cells that stimulate their invasiveness, highlighting ATGL as a potential therapeutic target to impede breast cancer progression. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • My thesis was focused on the role of Comparative Gene Identification-58 (CGI-58)-mediated adipocyte lipid droplet (LD) lipolysis in thermogenesis and metabolic health. (umd.edu)
  • CRISPR-enhanced human adipocyte browning as cell therapy for metabolic disease. (umassmed.edu)
  • Marrow adipocytes, like brown and white adipocytes, are derived from mesenchymal stem cells . (iiab.me)
  • White Adipocytes. (geresdengle.com)
  • Browning" of White Adipocytes. (geresdengle.com)
  • Research indicates that fat storing white adipocytes may be altered to take on the characteristics of energy producing brown adipocytes. (geresdengle.com)
  • Curcumin - Curucmin induces browning of white adipocytes as well as inhibition of new fat cell generation. (geresdengle.com)
  • Leptin is a hormone originally discovered in white adipocytes which regulates energy metabolism and appetite. (bmj.com)
  • BMP8b is secreted by brown/beige adipocytes and enhances energy dissipation. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Brown and Beige Adipocytes. (geresdengle.com)
  • Mitochondrial Patch Clamp of Beige Adipocytes Reveals UCP1-Positive and UCP1-Negative Cells Both Exhibiting Futile Creatine Cycling. (ucsf.edu)
  • As well, t10-c12-CLA inhibited adipocyte differentiation by stabilizing β-catenin, which sequesters peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in an inactive complex. (umanitoba.ca)
  • It is also known to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, but the effects of Rhodiola rosea on adipocyte differentiation and metabolism are not still elucidated. (nih.gov)
  • Human Bone Marrow Is Comprised of Adipocytes with Specific Lipid Metabolism Cell Rep 2020 Jan 28;30(4):949-958.e6. (ipbs.fr)
  • However, the molecular mechanism by which adipocytes regulate the metabolism of colon cancer cells remains elusive. (uky.edu)
  • However, the role of NPY in regulating adipocyte metabolism is poorly understood. (uwo.ca)
  • The present study examined the effects of NPY on adipocyte metabolism using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (uwo.ca)
  • Adipocyte lipid turnover, however, is strongly related to conditions with disturbed lipid metabolism. (adipofat.com)
  • However, mature adipocytes, themselves, possess ability to undergo dedifferentiation, form proliferative-competent progeny cells (the exact plasticity is unknown) and reinitiate formation of cells capable of lipid metabolism and storage. (jgenomics.com)
  • Robin's main research interest is focused on the molecular basis of lipid metabolism in professional fat storing cells called adipocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In addition, most of the studies performed so far on the systemic and cell impact of mitochondria uncoupling were mainly focused on the lipid metabolism but poorly addressed the endocrine function of adipocytes. (unamur.be)
  • In conclusion, the study presented here brings new information regarding the consequences of a mild mitochondrial uncoupling on lipid metabolism and endocrine function of white 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro. (unamur.be)
  • Overall, our findings indicate that adipocytes can function as non-professional lipid antigen presenting cells, which may present an important aspect of adipocyte-immune cell communication in the regulation of whole body energy metabolism and immune homeostasis. (ox.ac.uk)
  • These results are consistent with earlier studies indicating that TNF-α reduces the transcriptional activity of the GLUT4 gene in murine adipocytes, and reduced mRNA transcription of a number of relevant genes may be the general mechanism by which TNF-α causes insulin resistance in adipocytes. (lsu.edu)
  • PRAJA2 is expressed at the mRNA and protein level in differentiated adipocytes, with no change following stimulation with TSH or isoproterenol. (uottawa.ca)
  • Mesothelial cells also accumulated lipid indicative of a mature adipocyte phenotype when cultured in AM. All cells expressed several key osteoblast and adipocyte markers, including osteoblast-specific runt-related transcription factor 2, and demonstrated changes in mRNA expression consistent with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. (edu.au)
  • Molecular cloning of mRNA from 3T3 adipocytes. (wikidata.org)
  • Regulation of mRNA content for glycerophosphate dehydrogenase and other differentiation-dependent proteins during adipocyte development. (wikidata.org)
  • Both chemerin and chemerinR mRNA expression dramatically increased during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells and human preadipocytes into adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of fatty acid synthase mRNA in adipocytes is inhibited by beta adrenergic agonists. (tau.ac.il)
  • Both epinephrine and isoproterenol inhibited fatty acid synthase mRNA expression when adipocytes were activated in vitro. (tau.ac.il)
  • In the second part of this work, we identified several adipokines that are differentially expressed at the protein and/or at the mRNA level(s) in adipocytes exposed to FCCP. (unamur.be)
  • Here we report the presence of SAT2 mRNA and protein in both skeletal muscle and adipocytes, and the characterization of polyclonal antibodies directed against this transporter. (uws.ac.uk)
  • Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive peptides (adipokines), which act at both the local (autocrine/paracrine) and systemic (endocrine) level. (adipofat.com)
  • In several animal models, it has now been clearly demonstrated that the induction of a controlled but sustained mitochondrial uncoupling can limit the lipid accumulation in adipocytes, limiting the deleterious effects associated with adipocyte hypertrophy such as organelle dysfunction and alterations in the expression of genes encoding adipokines. (unamur.be)
  • Indeed, it is now commonly admitted that adipocytes also behave as key endocrine cells by synthesizing and secreting more than 600 adipokines. (unamur.be)
  • The aims of the present study was 1) to characterize the effect(s) of a mild mitochondrial uncoupling in 3T3-L1 adipocytes induced by a prolonged incubation (3 days) with low concentration (0.5 μM) of a chemical mitochondrial uncoupler such as FCCP (carbonyl cyanide-4- (trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone) on lipolysis and 2) to analyze the expression of several genes encoding adipokines in adipocytes exposed to the uncoupler. (unamur.be)
  • Adipokines, adiposity, and bone marrow adipocytes: Dangerous accomplices in multiple myeloma. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We subjected both cell types to hypoxic conditions and measured the release of adipokines induced by hypoxia in the presence and absence of HIF-1α inhibitor YC-1, NF-κB inhibitor SN50 and intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. Key findings: We demonstrate reduced intracellular calcium oscillations and increased oxidative stress as the cells transitioned from preadipocytes to adipocytes. (edu.sa)
  • Conclusion that the factor in adipocyte conditioned medium that synergises with c-Myc in vitro is more likely to be free fatty acids rather than adipokines, and that palmitic acid is more toxic than oleic acid. (europa.eu)
  • Cell surface receptors for ADIPOKINES, cytokines secreted by the ADIPOCYTES. (harvard.edu)
  • It is been shown here that the number of adipocytes stays constant in adulthood in lean and obese individuals, even after marked weight loss, indicating that the number of adipocytes is set during childhood and adolescence. (adipofat.com)
  • Individuals who become obese as adults, rather than as adolescents, have no more adipocytes than they had before. (iiab.me)
  • Most importantly, MGCs in obese AT have a higher capacity to phagocytose oversized particles, such as adipocytes, as shown by live-imaging of AT, 45 µm bead uptake ex vivo and a higher lipid content in vivo . (figshare.com)
  • Thus, specific alpha1- and beta-adrenoceptor subtypes participate in the regulation of 5'DII activity in the rat brown adipocytes, and therefore, an impaired alpha1- and beta-adrenergic co-work may be involved in a defective BAT function, e.g., in obese Zucker rats, too. (shengsci.com)
  • Here we present evidence that subcutaneous and visceral hypertrophic adipocytes of leptin-deficient ( ob/ob and db/db ) obese mice exhibit ultrastructural abnormalities (including calcium accumulation and cholesterol crystals), many of which are more common in hyperglycemic db/db versus normoglycemic ob/ob mice and in visceral versus subcutaneous depots. (elsevier.com)
  • RT-PCR showed NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the fat pads of both leptindeficient and high-fat diet obese mice, in which formation of active caspase-1 was documented by immunohistochemistry in the cytoplasm of several hypertrophic adipocytes. (elsevier.com)
  • NLRP3-dependent caspase-1 activation in hypertrophic adipocytes likely induces obese adipocyte death by pyroptosis, a proinflammatory programmed cell death. (elsevier.com)
  • 0.05) in the MSCs and adipocytes derived from the post-GBS group than in obese and non-obese controls. (sages.org)
  • 0.05, non-obese vs. post-GBS in adipocytes. (sages.org)
  • Description of in vitro conditioned medium from adipocytes from obese diabetic, but not from obese controls, synergising with c-Myc in beta cell apoptosis and secretory defect. (europa.eu)
  • Innervation and vascular remodeling effects required BMP8b signaling through the adipocytes to 1) secrete neuregulin-4 (NRG4), which promotes sympathetic axon growth and branching in vitro, and 2) induce a pro-angiogenic transcriptional and secretory profile that promotes vascular sprouting. (cam.ac.uk)
  • However, a similar phenotype is not observed under adipocyte-selective deletion (Nr1d1Flox2-6:AdipoqCre), and transcriptional profiling demonstrates that, under basal conditions, direct targets of NR1D1 regulation are limited, and include the circadian clock and collagen dynamics. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Surprisingly, very little is known about the transcriptional pathways that regulate adipocyte-specific expression of leptin. (evanrosenlab.com)
  • EERP strongly induced differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes into adipocytes, and enhanced the PPARγ transcriptional activity and adiponectin promoter activity. (propolisscience.org)
  • Furthermore, we identified microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, which we show is also under the transcriptional regulation of C/EBPβ and -δ, as a novel player in the presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a critical regulator of many physiological functions, ranging from satiety to immunity. (evanrosenlab.com)
  • Here, we report studies in which we pursued a strategy integrating BAC transgenic reporter mice, reporter assays, and chromatin state mapping to locate an adipocyte-specific cis-element upstream of the leptin (LEP) gene in human fat cells. (evanrosenlab.com)
  • Taken together, these data identify FOSL2 as a critical regulator of leptin expression in adipocytes. (evanrosenlab.com)
  • In accordance with these results, we found that a fragment of the leptin promoter sequence is hypermethylated in adipocytes incubated with FCCP, which negatively correlates with the fact that leptin expression is strongly repressed in adipocytes incubated with the mitochondrial uncoupler. (unamur.be)
  • Insulin sensitivity in adipocytes (propagated and differentiated from 3T3-L1 fibroblasts) was measured using assays specific for leptin concentration, glucose uptake, and Akt phosphorylation. (emerginginvestigators.org)
  • Here we investigate the role of intracellular calcium and NF-kB in the hypoxia-dependent release of leptin, VEGF, IL-6 and the hypoxia-induced inhibition of adiponectin release in human adipocytes. (edu.sa)
  • The adipocyte-derived hormone, leptin, plays a significant role in regulating energy homeostasis as well as the innate immune response against transmissions. (q-vd-oph.com)
  • Leptin is secreted by adipocytes and circulates at concentrations proportional to fat mass. (medscape.com)
  • Leptin, Fat Stores, Bone Marrow Adipocytes and the Skeleton. (uab.edu)
  • Inhibition of autophagy attenuated the ability of cancer cells to utilize fatty acids and blocked the growth-promoting effect of adipocytes. (uky.edu)
  • Both the inhibition and the stimulation of lipogenesis caused by NE showed a strong dose-response relationship within the range of 10(-11)-10(-5) M. The role of local 5′-DII was further tested by incubating brown adipocytes with 10(-6) M NE and T4 (65 x 10[-9] M) in the presence of 100 microM iopanoic acid, a potent inhibitor of 5′-DII. (deiodinase.org)
  • Our objectives were to assess the cardiac structural and functional effects of pharmacological inhibition of ATGL in mice with HF, to assess whether ATGL inhibition works in an adipocyte-autonomous manner, and to determine the role that adiposity and glucose homeostasis play in this HF treatment approach. (elsevier.com)
  • Using a known ATGL inhibitor, atglistatin, as well as mice with germline deletion of adipocyte-specific ATGL, we tested the effectiveness of ATGL inhibition in mice with pressure overload-induced HF. (elsevier.com)
  • Overall, the results of this study suggest that adipocyte-specific pharmacological inhibition of ATGL may represent a novel therapeutic option for HF. (elsevier.com)
  • Furthermore, using mice with adipocyte-specific ATGL ablation, this study demonstrates that ATGL inhibition works in an adipocyte-autonomous manner to ameliorate a functional decline in heart failure. (elsevier.com)
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using transcriptomics and proteomics, we investigated how insulin affects the transcription and protein secretion profile of mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • RESULTS: We found that insulin has a significant impact on protein secretion of 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (maastrichtuniversity.nl)
  • [13,14] These adipocyte-derived factors regulate global metabolisms and other systemic functions through endocrine, paracrine, and even autocrine mechanisms. (lww.com)
  • We tested whether EERP alone could induce differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells, regulate the expression of adipocyte-specific genes and reverse inhibitory effects of TNF-α on their differentiation. (propolisscience.org)
  • Consequently, there is interest in identifying the underlying regulatory mechanisms and components that drive adipocyte inflammation. (jci.org)
  • AT inflammation is histologically indicated by the formation of so-called crown-like structures (CLS), as accumulation of ATMs around dying adipocytes, and the occurrence of multi-nucleated giant cells (MGCs). (figshare.com)
  • Molecular mapping by RNA-sequencing showed that inflammation in brown-like adipocytes treated with LPS and 25HC was enhanced compared to controls. (figshare.com)
  • The cross talk between adipocytes and infiltrating immune cells, in particular macrophages, is thought to contribute to local and eventually systemic inflammation. (tamu.edu)
  • Purification of murine adipocyte lipid-binding protein. (wikidata.org)
  • Finally differentiation of murine-derived fibroblasts to adipocytes enables a comparison of purified enzyme to cell-associated AOC3. (gasyblog.com)
  • Although all PromoCell media are optimized for use with primary human cells, we have received feedback from customers that this particular medium can also be used for murine preadipocytes/adipocytes. (promocell.com)
  • The chemokine receptor CCR3 is potentially involved in the homing of prostate cancer cells to bone : implication of bone -marrow adipocytes. (ipbs.fr)
  • Human mesenchymal stem cells are a type of somatic stem cell derived from the mesodermal tissue (mesenchyme) such as bone marrow and adipocytes, and have the capacity to differentiate into mesodermal tissues including osteoblasts, cartilage, and adipocytes, as well as to control the immune system. (go.jp)
  • Acute myeloid leukaemia disrupts endogenous myelo-erythropoiesis by compromising the adipocyte bone marrow niche. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • gAdiponectin (gAcrp30) is a adipocyte complement-related protein and is a member of the family of defense collagens. (leinco.com)
  • 1 gAdiponectin is produced and secreted exclusively by adipocytes, and is a relatively abundant plasma protein, accounting for up to 0.05% of total serum protein. (leinco.com)
  • Here we examine the effects of tumor necrosis factor on the protein components thought to be involved in insulin- stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes, namely the insulin receptor, its major substrate IRS-1, and the insulin responsive glucose transporter GLUT4. (lsu.edu)
  • CIDEA is a lipid droplet (LD)-protein enriched in brown adipocytes promoting the enlargement of LDs, which are dynamic, ubiquitous organelles specialized for storing neutral lipids. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • Differentiation-induced gene expression in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein interacts with and activates the promoters of two adipocyte-specific genes. (wikidata.org)
  • Tissue specific expression of p422 protein, a putative lipid carrier, in mouse adipocytes. (wikidata.org)
  • Here, we show that upon the elevation of O-GlcNAc levels and the induction of IR in mature 3T3-F442a adipocytes, the transcript levels of multiple secreted proteins reflect the modulation observed at the protein level. (elsevier.com)
  • Increased expression of members of the CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) and nuclear factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) family is required to commit adipocyte differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • In addition, expression of a gain-of-function NFATc4 protein promotes adipocyte differentiation, in part, by formation of an NFAT:C/EBP composite complex on the PPARgamma2 gene promoter. (elsevier.com)
  • CD1d-mediated presentation of endogenous lipid antigens by adipocytes requires microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, consistent with the adaptive up-regulation of System A activity following chronic amino acid deprivation, a time-dependent increase in SAT2 protein abundance was observed in amino-acid-deprived L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (uws.ac.uk)
  • Adipocyte lipid-binding protein complexed with arachidonic acid. (umn.edu)
  • The association of the adipocyte lipid-binding protein (ALBP) with arachidonic acid (all cis, 20:4 Δ 5,8,11,14 ) and oleic acid (cis, 18:1 Δ 9 ) has been examined by titration calorimetry. (umn.edu)
  • Dive into the research topics of 'Adipocyte lipid-binding protein complexed with arachidonic acid. (umn.edu)
  • The glucose transporter 4-regulating protein TUG is essential for highly insulin-responsive glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, the N-glycan profiles of the in vitro differentiated progeny did not reflect native adipocytes, and the results show that bisecting GlcNAc structures are a characteristic feature of human adipocyte membrane protein N-glycosylation. (edu.au)
  • In addition, EERP attenuated the inhibitory effect of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin production in mature adipocytes. (propolisscience.org)
  • The present study indicates that EERP enhance differentiation of 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by its potency of PPARγ activation and are capable of reversing inhibitory effects of TNF-α on adipocyte differentiation and adiponectin expression. (propolisscience.org)
  • The Klemm lab has identified new molecular machinery coupling mitochondria to the ER and adipocyte lipid droplets. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Similar to human BAT, the lamprey brain periphery contains brown-like adipocytes that maintain the same morphology as human brown adipocytes, containing multilocular lipid droplets and high mitochondrion numbers. (figshare.com)
  • The free fatty acids (FFAs), released by adipocytes after lipolysis induced by tumor secretions, are transferred and stored in tumor cells as triglycerides in lipid droplets. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • Human adipocytes, expressing CETP were studied and compared to mouse adipocytes, which lack CETP gene. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Knockdown of FOSL2 in human adipocytes decreased LEP expression, and overexpression of Fosl2 increased Lep expression in mouse adipocytes. (evanrosenlab.com)
  • Interestingly, recent data also suggest that human and mouse adipocytes can present such lipid antigens to iNKT cells in a CD1d-dependent fashion, but little is known about the lipid antigen presentation machinery in adipocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Insulin expression in 10 human primary cell types including adipocytes and macrophages is an evidence for extrapancreatic insulin-producing cells. (nature.com)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: SoSoSo or its active ingredient chrysophanol regulates production of inflammatory cytokines & adipokine in both macrophages & adipocytes. (who.int)
  • Adipocyte dysfunction causes a phenotypic switch of macrophages from an alternatively activated M2-like phenotype towards a proinflammatory M1 phenotype. (tamu.edu)
  • Here, we tested the phenotypic impact of a lack of adipocytes on the inflammatory status of macrophages. (tamu.edu)
  • Apoptosis of adipocytes is sufficient to initiate a large influx of macrophages into the remnant fat pads. (tamu.edu)
  • Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-2 in adipocytes results in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a mouse model in which the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) pathway is activated by deletion of the von Hippel-Lindau gene specifically in adipocytes, we found that mice with adipocyte-von Hippel-Lindau deletion developed lethal cardiac hypertrophy. (cam.ac.uk)
  • It is found as an antiparallel homodimer in neurons, skeletal muscle, adipocytes and hepatocytes. (rndsystems.com)
  • In addition, we found that adipocytes stimulated the expression of genes associated with cancer stem cells and downregulated genes associated with intestinal epithelial cell differentiation in primary colon cancer cells and mouse tumor organoids. (uky.edu)
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARwas initially recognized like a regulator of adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis while down the road, it became obvious that it's also involved with cell differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis, natural processes that are deregulated in cancer. (hr010.net)
  • Studies have shed light into potential molecular mechanisms in the fate determination of pre-adipocytes although the exact lineage of adipocyte is still unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its molecular and expression characteristics were analyzed, and its influence on the differentiation of goat subcutaneous adipocytes was explored through overexpression. (copernicus.org)
  • Molecular analysis indicates that transcription factors play an important role in adipocyte differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Aim 3) To elucidate the molecular basis of NFAT induction during adipocyte differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • Although the order of the alpha1-adrenergic competition seemed to be rather typical for the alpha1B-adrenergic receptors, a molecular analysis on adrenoceptor mRNAs should be made to confirm the exact alpha1-adrenergic subtypes at the level of brown adipocytes, since the possibility of a mixture of different receptor subtypes in brown fat cells and/or tissue may interact with the pharmacological characterization. (shengsci.com)
  • Co-culture of adipocytes with colon cancer cells led to a transfer of free fatty acids that released from the adipocytes to the cancer cells. (uky.edu)
  • In addition, when insulin levels are low, the uptake of glucose by muscle is minimized, and adipocytes release free fatty acids. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, the production of free fatty acids in adipocytes is suppressed. (medscape.com)
  • This implies that triglycerides, on average, are replaced six times during the lifespan of the adipocyte, enabling a dynamic regulation of lipid storage and mobilization over time. (adipofat.com)
  • These results suggest that capsaicin exerts its lipolytic action by increasing the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol in adipocytes, and that these effects are mediated at least partially by regulation of the expression of multiple genes that are involved in the lipid catabolic pathway, such as HSL and CPT-Iα, and those involved in thermogenesis such as UCP2. (elsevier.com)
  • An in-depth understanding of the mechanisms of adipocytes in BC development will provide better insight into CAA-associated tumorigenesis and screen novel strategies for therapeutic interventions of BC. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, I will discuss how different mechanisms of fat biosynthesis drive lipid droplet biogenesis in adipocytes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, the adipokine chemerin likely regulates adipocyte function by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. (nih.gov)
  • There are limited quantities of donor matched omental and subcutaneous preadipocytes or cultured adipocytes for studies comparing the two depots. (zen-bio.com)
  • average R2 across cohorts = 0.49) and that adipocytes in subcutaneous depots are larger than their visceral counterparts (Pmeta = 9.8 × 10-7). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes, connective tissue, muscle or bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be expanded and differentiated into a variety of mesenchymal cell types, such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes [ 8 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, hitherto, the results have not lived up to their expected promises, prompting us to perform a well-designed and in-depth study on human primary subcutaneous and visceral preadipocytes and adipocytes. (nature.com)
  • In this study the anti-adipogenic and lipolytic activity of two extracts of Rhodiola rosea, containing 3% salidroside (RS) or 1% salidroside and 3% rosavines (RR) on primary human visceral adipocytes was investigated. (nih.gov)
  • These data support the lipolytic and anti-adipogenetic activity of two different commercial extracts of Rhodiola rosea in primary human visceral pre-adipocytes during differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • human visceral adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Main methods: We used intracellular calcium imaging to compare calcium status in preadipocytes and in adipocytes. (edu.sa)
  • Thus, white adipocyte overexpansion induces a stress state that ultimately leads to death. (elsevier.com)
  • In cell culture, adipocyte progenitors can also form osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study tests the hypothesis that mesothelial cells can differentiate into cell lineages of the embryonic mesoderm including osteoblasts and adipocytes. (edu.au)
  • Thus, we have identified genes with markedly higher expression in large, compared with small, human adipocytes. (chalmers.se)
  • cDNA of the porcine small adipocyte factor 1 ( SMAF1 ) gene was amplified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with degenerate primers designed according to the conserved sequences between human and mouse genes. (cambridge.org)
  • Straub, LG & Scherer, PE 2022, ' Insulin sensitive human adipocytes for in vitro studies ', Nature Reviews Endocrinology , vol. 18, no. 10, pp. 591-592. (elsevier.com)
  • In breast cancer, a key feature of peritumoral adipocytes is their loss of lipid content observed both in vitro and in human tumors. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • in vitro , ADSCs can differentiate into mesenchymal lineages including adipocytes, while in vivo , ADSCs become mature adipocytes. (edu.au)
  • A total of 137 glycan structures were characterized across the three cell types using PGC-LC coupled with negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS)/MS. Significantly higher levels of bisecting GlcNAc-type N-glycans were detected in mature adipocytes (32.1% of total glycans) and in in vitro dADSC progeny (1.9% of total glycans) compared to ADSCs. (edu.au)
  • These results are confirmed by the reduced but obvious level of insulin-dependent glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation observed in TNF- α-treated adipocytes. (lsu.edu)
  • RNAi-based silencing of PHLDB1 in cultured adipocytes also attenuated insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose transport and Myc-GLUT4-EGFP translocation to the plasma membrane, whereas knockdown of the PHLDB1 isoform PHLDB2 failed to attenuate insulin-stimulated deoxyglucose transport. (umassmed.edu)
  • Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of PHLDB1 in adipocytes enhanced insulin-stimulated Akt and p70 S6 kinase phosphorylation, as well as GLUT4 translocation. (umassmed.edu)
  • SEC16A is a RAB10 effector required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • TUG is a calpain-10 substrate involved in the translocation of GLUT4 in adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Both drugs induced aldosterone production in adipocytes and exerted different effects regarding adypocyte gene expression. (gla.ac.uk)
  • We took advantage of the fat apoptosis through targeted activation of caspase-8 (FAT-ATTAC) mouse model that allows for the inducible system-wide elimination of adipocytes through a proapoptotic mechanism and followed the degree and type of inflammatory response upon ablation of live adipocytes. (tamu.edu)
  • Notably, caspase-1 was not detected in FAT-ATTAC transgenic mice, where adipocytes die of apoptosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Adipocytes Activate Mitochondrial Fatty Acid Oxidation and Autophagy t" by Yang-An Wen, Xiaopeng Xing et al. (uky.edu)
  • Conclusions: These results confirm lower abundance of mitochondrial proteins and suggest increased cytoskeletal proteins and decreased FABP4 and FABP5 in subcutaneous adipocytes of typical IR individuals. (elsevier.com)
  • We also observed an increase in macroautophagy rate in adipocytes exposed to the mitochondrial uncoupler. (unamur.be)
  • However, despite their interest, the relevance of the data obtained in this study remains to be validated in other models of mitochondrial uncoupling, tested in human adipocytes, and/or analyzed in more physiological systems using animal models developed to test biological responses to the mitochondrial uncoupling in adipocytes. (unamur.be)
  • Significance: Our work suggests a major role for [Ca++]i in preadipocyte differentiation to adipocytes and that changes in mitochondrial morphology in the adipocytes might underlie the reduced calcium oscillations observed in the adipocytes. (edu.sa)
  • unreadable] DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The objective of this proposal is to elucidate the physiological relevancy of transcription factor NFAT in adipocyte differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • PCB-77 increased oxidative stress and abolished insulin stimulated 2-deoxy d-glucose uptake in 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. (uky.edu)
  • recently evidenced the pivotal role of adipocyte-derived extracellular vesicles in cardiac oxidative stress responses and revealed their unexpected protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury. (inserm.fr)
  • Furthermore, recombinant chemerin induced the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and lipolysis in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicron vesicles released from many cell types, including adipocytes. (cardiffmet.ac.uk)
  • AOC3 isn't considered to work as an adhesion proteins in adipocytes as well as the function of the highly portrayed extracellular enzyme happens to be unidentified. (gasyblog.com)
  • CAAs present a vicious phenotype compared with mature mammary adipocytes and mediate the crosstalk network between adipocytes and BC cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human adipocytes constitutively synthesize and secrete insulin, which is biologically functional. (nature.com)
  • Enlarged adipocytes are associated with insulin resistance and are an independent predictor of type 2 diabetes. (chalmers.se)
  • It also emphasized the clinical implication of the resistant effect of adipocytes on BC therapy, and the potential effect of autologous fat grafting after mastectomy on BC recurrence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our research aims to understand the pathways controlling the development and function of adipocytes (fat cells). (upenn.edu)
  • Real-time RT-PCR analysis of SAA and TM4SF1 expression in adipocytes from seven subjects revealed 19-fold and 22-fold higher expression in the large cells, respectively, and a correlation between adipocyte size and both SAA and TM4SF1 expression. (chalmers.se)
  • We show that differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes is associated with distinct morphological changes in the mitochondria. (edu.sa)
  • Defined and animal-component free cell culture medium for the differentiation of preadipocytes into mature adipocytes. (promocell.com)
  • Pre-adipocytes were analyzed after 10 and 20 days of treatment during differentiation and after 7 days of treatment when they reached mature shape. (nih.gov)
  • Preadipocytes are available cryopreserved or plated and mature adipocytes are available in a variety of plated formats. (zen-bio.com)
  • Normally, mature adipocytes and epithelial cells are separated by the basement membrane, limiting the possibility of interaction between the two cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • mature adipocytes, dedifferentiation, review. (jgenomics.com)
  • To create the study even more clinically relevant, mature adipocytes really should be utilized to show how these mature cells will react to hypoxia and CM supplementation. (nicotinic-receptor.com)
  • a) Mature adipocytes that vary little in size from one another. (hindawi.com)
  • The membrane glycome of the differentiated ADSCs (dADSCs) was compared with mature adipocytes and the progenitor ADSCs. (edu.au)
  • In comparison with 17 other human tissues and cell types by microarray, large adipocytes displayed by far the highest SAA and TM4SF1 expression. (chalmers.se)
  • Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to detect the expression level of STEAP4 in goat tissues and subcutaneous adipocyte differentiation. (copernicus.org)
  • PHLDB1 expression is increased during adipocyte differentiation, and it is abundant in many mouse tissues. (umassmed.edu)
  • Using coculture of adipocytes and islets, to explore the biocomunication between these two tissues. (europa.eu)
  • This physiological process is essential in adipocyte differentiation as well as serving to facilitate the tight coupling of lipolysis and lipogenesis in activated brown fat. (ntu.ac.uk)
  • The talk will focus on how differentiating adipocytes remodel the function of their cellular organelles to achieve this important physiological function. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Completion of these studies will provide physiological relevancy and mechanistic insights into the role of NFAT in adipocyte differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • With an intention in understanding the physiological function of AOC3 in adipocytes we have focused on characterizing the suitability of various amine substrates including main amines annotated in the Human being Metabolome database [26] for turnover by measuring kinetic guidelines using the cloned CKD602 human being AOC3 indicated and purified from insect cells. (gasyblog.com)
  • Importantly, the presence of adipocytes promoted the growth of xenograft tumors in vivo . (uky.edu)
  • In vivo, ATGL is expressed in human tumors where its expression correlates with tumor aggressiveness and is upregulated by contact with adipocytes. (c3m-nice.fr)
  • Proteins of isolated adipocytes were quantified by mass spectrometry using normalized spectral abundance factors. (elsevier.com)
  • Nevertheless, the remaining proteins appear to be biochemically indistinguishable from those in untreated adipocytes. (lsu.edu)
  • We conclude that the insulin resistance of glucose transport in 3T3-L1 adipocytes exposed to TNF-α for 72-96 h results from a reduced amount in requisite proteins involved in insulin action. (lsu.edu)
  • These proteins may prove important for lipolytic signaling or other PRAJA2-dependent process in adipocytes. (uottawa.ca)
  • The bisecting GlcNAc structures were found on the majority of human native adipocyte membrane proteins, suggesting an important role in human adipocyte biology. (edu.au)