Adipogenesis: The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.TriterpenesAdipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.PPAR gamma: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.Anti-Obesity Agents: Agents that increase energy expenditure and weight loss by neural and chemical regulation. Beta-adrenergic agents and serotoninergic drugs have been experimentally used in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) to treat obesity.Oleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.3T3-L1 Cells: A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Glycyrrhetinic Acid: An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.AMP-Activated Protein Kinases: Intracellular signaling protein kinases that play a signaling role in the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. Their activity largely depends upon the concentration of cellular AMP which is increased under conditions of low energy or metabolic stress. AMP-activated protein kinases modify enzymes involved in LIPID METABOLISM, which in turn provide substrates needed to convert AMP into ATP.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Serial Publications: Publications in any medium issued in successive parts bearing numerical or chronological designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p203)Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.Benzopyrans: Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)Sulfonylurea CompoundsPotassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Mesenchymal Stromal Cells: Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS).Lipectomy: Removal of localized SUBCUTANEOUS FAT deposits by SUCTION CURETTAGE or blunt CANNULATION in the cosmetic correction of OBESITY and other esthetic contour defects.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Osteogenesis: The process of bone formation. Histogenesis of bone including ossification.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins: Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Apolipoprotein E3: A 34-kDa glycosylated protein. A major and most common isoform of apolipoprotein E. Therefore, it is also known as apolipoprotein E (ApoE). In human, Apo E3 is a 299-amino acid protein with a cysteine at the 112 and an arginine at the 158 position. It is involved with the transport of TRIGLYCERIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and CHOLESTERYL ESTERS in and out of the cells.
(1/5446) DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines.

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

(2/5446) Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPARdelta ligands produce distinct biological effects.

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) include three receptor subtypes encoded by separate genes: PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma. PPARgamma has been implicated as a mediator of adipocyte differentiation and the mechanism by which thiazolidinedione drugs exert in vivo insulin sensitization. Here we characterized novel, non-thiazolidinedione agonists for PPARgamma and PPARdelta that were identified by radioligand binding assays. In transient transactivation assays these ligands were agonists of the receptors to which they bind. Protease protection studies showed that ligand binding produced specific alterations in receptor conformation. Both PPARgamma and PPARdelta directly interacted with a nuclear receptor co-activator (CREB-binding protein) in an agonist-dependent manner. Only the PPARgamma agonists were able to promote differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In diabetic db/db mice all PPARgamma agonists were orally active insulin-sensitizing agents producing reductions of elevated plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations. In contrast, selective in vivo activation of PPARdelta did not significantly affect these parameters. In vivo PPARalpha activation with WY-14653 resulted in reductions in elevated triglyceride levels with minimal effect on hyperglycemia. We conclude that: 1) synthetic non-thiazolidinediones can serve as ligands of PPARgamma and PPARdelta; 2) ligand-dependent activation of PPARdelta involves an apparent conformational change and association of the receptor ligand binding domain with CREB-binding protein; 3) PPARgamma activation (but not PPARdelta or PPARalpha activation) is sufficient to potentiate preadipocyte differentiation; 4) non-thiazolidinedione PPARgamma agonists improve hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in vivo; 5) although PPARalpha activation is sufficient to affect triglyceride metabolism, PPARdelta activation does not appear to modulate glucose or triglyceride levels.  (+info)

(3/5446) Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates lipolysis in adipocytes by decreasing Gi protein concentrations.

Prolonged treatment (12-24 h) of adipocytes with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulates lipolysis. We have investigated the hypothesis that TNFalpha stimulates lipolysis by blocking the action of endogenous adenosine. Adipocytes were incubated for 48 h with TNFalpha, and lipolysis was measured in the absence or presence of adenosine deaminase. Without adenosine deaminase, the rate of glycerol release was 2-3-fold higher in the TNFalpha-treated cells, but with adenosine deaminase lipolysis increased in the controls to approximately that in the TNFalpha-treated cells. This suggests that TNFalpha blocks adenosine release or prevents its antilipolytic effect. Both N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine and nicotinic acid were less potent and efficacious inhibitors of lipolysis in treated cells. A decrease in the concentration of alpha-subunits of all three Gi subtypes was detected by Western blotting without a change in Gs proteins or beta-subunits. Gi2alpha was about 50% of control, whereas Gi1alpha and Gi3alpha were about 20 and 40% of control values, respectively. The time course of Gi down-regulation correlated with the stimulation of lipolysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of Gi by an alternative approach (prolonged incubation with N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine) stimulated lipolysis. These findings indicate that TNFalpha stimulates lipolysis by blunting endogenous inhibition of lipolysis. The mechanism appears to be a Gi protein down-regulation.  (+info)

(4/5446) Transgenic UCP1 in white adipocytes modulates mitochondrial membrane potential.

To test if mitochondrial uncoupling in white adipocytes is responsible for obesity resistance of the aP2-Ucp transgenic mice expressing ectopic uncoupling protein 1 (UCPI) in white fat, mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) was estimated by flow cytometry in adipocytes isolated from gonadal fat. Ectopic UCP1 (approximately 0.8 mol UCP1/mol respiratory chain) decreased the delta psi(m) and rendered the potential sensitive to GDP and fatty acids. These ligands of UCP1 had no effect on delta psi(m) in white adipocytes from non-transgenic mice, suggesting that the function of endogenous UCP2 in adipocytes was not affected. The results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling in white fat may prevent development of obesity.  (+info)

(5/5446) SNAP-23 participates in SNARE complex assembly in rat adipose cells.

SNARE proteins are required for vesicle docking and fusion in eukaryotic cells in processes as diverse as homotypic membrane fusion and synaptic vesicle exocytosis [SNARE stands for SNAP receptor, where SNAP is soluble NSF attachment protein]. The SNARE proteins syntaxin 4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2/3 also participate in the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane in adipose cells. We now report the molecular cloning and characterization of rat SNAP-23, a ubiquitously expressed homologue of the essential neuronal SNARE protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa). Rat SNAP-23 is 86% and 98% identical respectively to human and mouse SNAP-23. Southern blot analysis reveals that the rat, mouse and human SNAP-23 genes encode species-specific isoforms of the same protein. Co-immunoprecipitation of syntaxin 4 and SNAP-23 shows association of these two proteins in rat adipose cell plasma membranes, and insulin stimulation does not alter the SNAP-23/syntaxin 4 complex. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the participation of SNAP-23, along with syntaxin 4 and VAMP2/3, in the formation of 20S SNARE complexes prepared using rat adipose cell membranes and recombinant alpha-SNAP and NSF proteins. The stoichiometry of the SNARE complexes formed is essentially identical using membranes from either unstimulated or insulin-stimulated adipose cells. These data demonstrate that rat SNAP-23 associates with syntaxin 4 before insulin stimulation and is present in the SNARE complexes known to mediate the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane of rat adipose cells.  (+info)

(6/5446) Regulation of fatty acid homeostasis in cells: novel role of leptin.

It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. The fact that TG content in nonadipocytes normally remains within a narrow range, while that of adipocytes varies enormously with food intake, is consistent with a system of TG homeostasis in normal nonadipocytes. The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. The fact that the function and viability of nonadipocytes is compromised when their TG content rises above or falls below the normal range suggests that normal homeostasis of their intracellular TG is critical for optimal function and to prevent lipoapoptosis. Thus far, lipotoxic diabetes of fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats is the only proven lipodegenerative disease, but the possibility of lipotoxic disease of skeletal and/or cardiac muscle may require investigation, as does the possible influence of the intracellular TG content on autoimmune and neoplastic processes.  (+info)

(7/5446) Reversing adipocyte differentiation: implications for treatment of obesity.

Conventional treatment of obesity reduces fat in mature adipocytes but leaves them with lipogenic enzymes capable of rapid resynthesis of fat, a likely factor in treatment failure. Adenovirus-induced hyperleptinemia in normal rats results in rapid nonketotic fat loss that persists after hyperleptinemia disappears, whereas pair-fed controls regain their weight in 2 weeks. We report here that the hyperleptinemia depletes adipocyte fat while profoundly down-regulating lipogenic enzymes and their transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in epididymal fat; enzymes of fatty acid oxidation and their transcription factor, PPARalpha, normally low in adipocytes, are up-regulated, as are uncoupling proteins 1 and 2. This transformation of adipocytes from cells that store triglycerides to fatty acid-oxidizing cells is accompanied by loss of the adipocyte markers, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and leptin, and by the appearance of the preadipocyte marker Pref-1. These findings suggest a strategy for the treatment of obesity by alteration of the adipocyte phenotype.  (+info)

(8/5446) Caloric restriction leads to regional specialisation of adipocyte function in the rat.

The study analysed the responses of three metabolic parameters in five distinct adipose tissue depots to caloric restriction (4 weeks) in the rat. The aims were to evaluate whether specific adipose tissue depots were recruited for triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and/or mobilisation, and to determine to what extent specific adipose tissue depots exhibited preferences for the source of fatty acid (FA) for TAG storage. Caloric restriction led to a general enhancement of the response of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), FA synthesis and glucose utilisation to a meal. Effects were particularly marked in the parametrial, perirenal and interscapular depots compared with mesenteric and subcutaneous depots. There was no evidence that individual depots selectively expressed a preference for the pathways concerned with the generation of FA for storage (the exogenous (LPL) and the endogenous (synthesis) pathway). However, the temporal sequence of activation of these pathways differed in a manner consistent with a switch from preponderant use of FA produced via de novo synthesis during the very early phase of feeding towards later use of FA derived from circulating TAG. The overall excursions in insulin levels observed in the calorie-restricted rats were comparable to those found in free-feeding rats, but the magnitude and the rapidity of the individual metabolic responses of the adipocyte were augmented. The data are consistent with a general enhancement of insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in adipose tissue of calorie-restricted rats, together with adaptive regional specialisation of adipocyte function. These adaptations would be predicted to facilitate the immediate conservation of dietary nutrients by promoting their storage as the FA or glycerol moieties of adipose tissue TAG and thereby to ensure the regulated release of FA and glycerol from adipose tissue in accordance with the requirement for glucose conservation and/or production.  (+info)

*  Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
The protein encoded by this gene is PPAR-gamma and is a regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Alternatively spliced ... Gurnell M (2006). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and the regulation of adipocyte function: lessons from ... "The retinoblastoma-histone deacetylase 3 complex inhibits PPARgamma and adipocyte differentiation". Dev. Cell. 3 (6): 903-10. ...
*  Adipocyte
Marrow adipocytes, like brown and white adipocytes, are derived from mesenchymal stem cells. The marrow adipose tissue depot is ... Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes, osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Recent studies shed light into ... Most recently, the presence of beige adipocytes with a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown adipocytes ...
*  Adipocyte protein 2
aP2 (adipocyte Protein 2) is a carrier protein for fatty acids that is primarily expressed in adipocytes and macrophages. aP2 ... Shum BO, Mackay CR, Gorgun CZ, Frost MJ, Kumar RK, Hotamisligil GS, Rolph MS (2006). "The adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein ... "Human adipocyte lipid-binding protein: purification of the protein and cloning of its complementary DNA". Biochemistry. 28 (22 ... "Adipocyte/macrophage fatty acid binding proteins control integrated metabolic responses in obesity and diabetes". Cell Metab. 1 ...
*  FNDC5
"Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human". Cell. 150 (2): 366-76. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ... Adipocyte. 2 (4): 289-93. doi:10.4161/adip.26082. PMC 3774709 . PMID 24052909. Boström P, Wu J, Jedrychowski MP, Korde A, Ye L ... "Irisin stimulates browning of white adipocytes through mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 MAP kinase and ERK MAP kinase ... "Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white adipocytes". American Journal of Physiology. ...
*  Marrow adipose tissue
MAT, by its "specific marrow location, and its adipocyte origin from at least LepR+ marrow MSC is separated from non-bone fat ... Marrow adipocytes are difficult to isolate and quantify because they are interspersed with bony and hematopoietic elements. ... Duque, G.; Li, W.; Adams, M.; Xu, S.; Phipps, R. (2011-05-01). "Effects of risedronate on bone marrow adipocytes in ... Flow cytometric quantification can be used to purify adipocytes from the stromal vascular fraction of most fat depots. Early ...
*  Brown adipose tissue
Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through ... In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a ... The second develops from white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. These adipocytes are found ... UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes". J Biol Chem. 285 (10): 7153-64. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
*  Adipose tissue macrophages
Adipocyte. 2013; 2:176-83. Wagner M, Dudley AC. A three-party alliance in solid tumors: Adipocytes, macrophages and vascular ... Within adipose tissue, presence of dead adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity. Macrophages surrounding dying or dead adipocytes ... Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans. J Lipid Res 2005; 46: ... Adipocyte. 2013; 2:67-73. Appari M, Channon KM, McNeill E. Metabolic Regulation of Adipose Tissue Macrophage Function in ...
*  Lipolysis
Insulin counter-regulates this increase in lipolysis when it binds to insulin receptors on the adipocyte cell membrane. Insulin ... Catecholamines bind to 7TM receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) on the adipocyte cell membrane, which activate adenylate ... Frühbeck, G; Méndez-Giménez, L; Fernández-Formoso, JA; Fernández, S; Rodríguez, A (June 2014). "Regulation of adipocyte ... Lipolysis is directly induced in adipocytes by glucagon, epinephrine, norepinephrine, growth hormone, atrial natriuretic ...
*  External lamina
Adipocytes also have an external lamina. Wheater's Functional Histology, 5th ed. Young, Lowe, Stevens and Heath.. ...
*  Proinflammatory cytokine
Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as ... Obesity leaves an excess of nutrients for the body, thereby causing adipocytes to release more proinflammatory cytokines. ...
*  Galectin
... -12 expression induces apoptosis of adipocytes. Galectin-3 has been shown to be the only galectin with anti-apoptotic ...
*  Stefan R. Bornstein
2003). Human adipocytes secrete mineralocorticoid-releasing factors. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. doi: ...
*  Adipogenesis
... is the process of cell differentiation by which pre-adipocytes become adipocytes. Adipogenesis has been one of the ... Adipocytes play a vital role in energy homeostasis and process the largest energy reserve as triglycerol in the body of animals ... Adipocytes stay in a dynamic state, they start expanding when the energy intake is higher than the expenditure and undergo ... This mouse uses an inducible, adipose specific LacZ transgene, where one can label all the currently existing adipocytes as ...
*  Cell potency
MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. In biology, oligopotency is the ability of progenitor ...
*  Lipoprotein lipase
For example, insulin is known to activate LPL in adipocytes and its placement in the capillary endothelium. By contrast, ... Vannier C, Ailhaud G (August 1989). "Biosynthesis of lipoprotein lipase in cultured mouse adipocytes. II. Processing, subunit ... they responded with an increase in adipose tissue LPL activity per adipocyte, or a decrease in skeletal muscle LPL activity per ... "The role of glucose and glycosylation in the regulation of lipoprotein lipase synthesis and secretion in rat adipocytes". J. ...
*  Adipose tissue
Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Recent studies shed light into ... or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes. In addition to adipocytes, adipose tissue contains ... these normally energy-storing adipocytes become energy-releasing adipocytes. UCP1 is a protein predominantly found in BAT. It ... The adipocytes in this depot are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which can give rise to fat cells, bone cells as well ...
*  PRDM16
Brown adipocytes consist of densely packed mitochondria that contain uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). UCP-1 plays a key role in ... The activity of PRDM16 in white adipose tissue leads to the production of brown fat-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue ... This expression takes place primarily within mature adipocytes. Transgenic aP2-PRDM16 mice were used in a study to observe the ... PRDM16 acts as a transcription coregulator that controls the development of brown adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. ...
*  Agouti-related peptide
Adipocytes secrete leptin in response to food intake. This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron ...
*  Perilipin-4
PLIN4 is a member of the perilipin family, a group of proteins that coat lipid droplets in adipocytes, the adipose tissue cells ... PLIN4 coats lipid droplets in adipocytes to protect them from lipases. The PLIN4 gene may be associated with insulin resistance ... Wolins NE, Skinner JR, Schoenfish MJ, Tzekov A, Bensch KG, Bickel PE (September 2003). "Adipocyte protein S3-12 coats nascent ... Wolins NE, Skinner JR, Schoenfish MJ, Tzekov A, Bensch KG, Bickel PE (September 2003). "Adipocyte protein S3-12 coats nascent ...
*  Perilipin-1
Perilipin is a protein that coats lipid droplets in adipocytes, the fat-storing cells in adipose tissue. Perilipin acts as a ... 2004). "Evidence for an important role of perilipin in the regulation of human adipocyte lipolysis". Diabetologia. 46 (6): 789- ... Brasaemle DL (December 2007). "Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet ... and perilipin A is the most abundant protein associated with the adipocyte lipid droplets. Perilipin is hyperphosphorylated by ...
*  Barraquer-Simons syndrome
C3 nephritic factor induces the lysis of adipocytes that secrete adipsin, a product identical to complement factor D. The ... Hegele RA, Joy TR, Al-Attar SA, Rutt BK (Jul 2007). "Thematic review series: Adipocyte Biology. Lipodystrophies: windows on ... which stimulates the transcription of genes responsible for growth and differentiation of adipocytes. A single report has ... distribution of the lipoatrophy is postulated to be dictated by the variable amounts of adipsin secreted by the adipocytes at ...
*  MAP4K4
The silencing of MAP4K4 in adipocytes elevated the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor y (PPARy) - a ... Farmer SR (October 2006). "Transcriptional control of adipocyte formation". Cell Metabolism. 4 (4): 263-73. doi:10.1016/j.cmet. ... nuclear hormone receptor responsible for the regulation of genes associated with adipocyte differentiation, including GLUT4. ...
*  Lipid droplet
In adipocytes, lipid bodies tend to be larger and they may compose the majority of the cell, while in other cells they may only ... In non-adipocytes, lipid droplets are known to play a role in protection from lipotoxicity by storage of fatty acids in the ... In non-adipocytes, lipid storage, lipid droplet synthesis and lipid droplet growth can be induced by various stimuli including ... Lipid droplets are found in all eukaryotic organisms and store a large portion of lipids in mammalian adipocytes. Initially, ...
*  Perilipin-3
Brasaemle DL (December 2007). "Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. The perilipin family of structural lipid droplet ...
*  Congenital generalized lipodystrophy
High levels of Cav1 are normally expressed in adipocytes. Thus, when the CAV1 gene mutates the adipocytes do not have Cav1 and ...
Bone marrow adipocytes.  - PubMed - NCBI  Bone marrow adipocytes. - PubMed - NCBI
Adipocyte. 2017 Jul 3;6(3):193-204. doi: 10.1080/21623945.2017.1367881. Epub 2017 Aug 24. Review ... Recent research shows that marrow adipocytes are distinct from white, brown and beige adipocytes, indicating that the bone ... adipocyte progenitors; lineage tracing; marrow adipocyte differentiation; marrow adipose tissue; marrow fat ... Bone marrow adipocytes.. Horowitz MC1, Berry R1, Holtrup B2, Sebo Z2, Nelson T1, Fretz JA1, Lindskog D1, Kaplan JL3, Ables G4, ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=28872979
Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Adipocytes  Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Adipocytes
... M. V. Dodson,1 P. S. Mir,2 G. J. Hausman,3 L. L. Guan,4 Min Du,1 Z. Jiang,1 M. E. ... M. V. Dodson, P. S. Mir, G. J. Hausman, et al., "Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Adipocytes," Journal of Lipids, vol. 2011, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jl/2011/721686/cta/
Lsd1 prevents age-programed loss of beige adipocytes | PNAS  Lsd1 prevents age-programed loss of beige adipocytes | PNAS
Over time, beige adipocytes gain a white adipocyte morphology and lose their thermogenic activity. Here we show that levels of ... Maintaining adipocyte-specific expression of Lsd1 in transgenic mice preserves the pool of beige adipocytes in old mice. Vice ... However, the mechanisms controlling the age-related transition of beige adipocytes to white adipocytes remain unclear. Lysine- ... In particular, with time, thermogenic-competent beige adipocytes progressively gain a white adipocyte morphology. ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/early/2017/04/26/1702641114.abstract
Talk:Adipocyte - Citizendium  Talk:Adipocyte - Citizendium
That same link to the Diabesity site is also on the image file at Image:Adipocyte.png and also does not work. ... article url =http://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Adipocyte&oldid=100730842 , subpage url = , cluster =. , now =. , ToA editor ... Retrieved from "http://en.citizendium.org/wiki?title=Talk:Adipocyte&oldid=100756740" ...
more infohttp://en.citizendium.org/wiki/Talk:Adipocyte
Effects of risedronate on bone marrow adipocytes in postmenopausal women | SpringerLink  Effects of risedronate on bone marrow adipocytes in postmenopausal women | SpringerLink
Adipocyte volume/tissue volume (AV/TV), mean adipocyte number (AD#), and mean adipocyte diameter (ADdiam) were quantified. ... Adipocytes Marrow fat Osteoporosis PPARγ Risedronate A summary of this work was presented at the 2nd Joint Meeting of the ... Naveiras O, Nardi V, Wenzel PL, Hauschka PV, Fahey F, Daley GQ (2009) Bone-marrow adipocytes as negative regulators of the ... Syed FA, Oursler MJ, Hefferanm TE, Peterson JM, Riggs BL, Khosla S (2008) Effects of estrogen therapy on bone marrow adipocytes ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00198-010-1353-8
Adipocytes Impair Leukemia Treatment in Mice | Cancer Research  Adipocytes Impair Leukemia Treatment in Mice | Cancer Research
Murine fibroblasts and adipocytes were derived from 3T3-L1 cells (ATCC). 3T3-L1 cells were differentiated into adipocytes based ... Adipocytes protect leukemia cells against drug treatment. To further characterize the possible effects of adipocytes on ... Thus, adipocytes may actively contribute to leukemia cell survival in the face of multiagent chemotherapy. Adipocytes also ... Mechanisms of adipocyte-induced vincristine resistance. We considered the possibility that adipocytes might protect leukemia by ...
more infohttps://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/69/19/7867?ijkey=9cda98f14d93c360031a413081e23816ddacb2fb&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
BMP7 Drives Human Adipogenic Stem Cells into Metabolically Active Beige Adipocytes | SpringerLink  BMP7 Drives Human Adipogenic Stem Cells into Metabolically Active Beige Adipocytes | SpringerLink
The aim of this study was to confirm BMP7-derived human adipocytes as a relevant in vitro model of human beige adipocyte by ... Rosenwald M, Wolfrum C (2014) The origin and definition of brite versus white and classical brown adipocytes. Adipocyte 3:4-9 ... UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes. J Biol Chem 285:7153-7164PubMedCentralPubMed ... By confirming the cellular identity and metabolic activity, this BMP7-induced human beige adipocytes from hASC should aid in ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11745-014-3981-9
Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes | Diabetes  Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes | Diabetes
Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes. John W Hunnicutt, Robert W Hardy, Jodie Williford, Jay M ... Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes. John W Hunnicutt, Robert W Hardy, Jodie Williford, Jay M ... Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Treatment of adipocytes for 15 min with 1 mM myristate (14:0), palmitate (16:0), or stearate (18:0) stimulates glucose ...
more infohttps://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/43/4/540
Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes | Diabetes  Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes | Diabetes
Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes. John W Hunnicutt, Robert W Hardy, Jodie Williford, Jay M ... Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes. John W Hunnicutt, Robert W Hardy, Jodie Williford, Jay M ... Saturated fatty Acid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Rat Adipocytes Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Treatment of adipocytes for 15 min with 1 mM myristate (14:0), palmitate (16:0), or stearate (18:0) stimulates glucose ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/43/4/540
Rab18 Dynamics in Adipocytes in Relation to Lipogenesis, Lipolysis and Obesity  Rab18 Dynamics in Adipocytes in Relation to Lipogenesis, Lipolysis and Obesity
However, the specific contribution of Rab18 to adipocyte function remains to be elucidated. Herein, we have analyzed Rab18 ... A role for Rab18 in the regulation of adipocyte biology under both normal and pathological conditions is proposed. ... the adipocytes. Proteomic analyses of LDs have consistently identified the small GTPase Rab18 as a component of the LD coat. ... thereby suggesting that this GTPase promotes fat accumulation in adipocytes. On the other hand, studies of the β-adrenergic ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0022931
Life Extension Advanced Anti-Adipocyte Formula, Veggie Caps | Walgreens  Life Extension Advanced Anti-Adipocyte Formula, Veggie Caps | Walgreens
Get free shipping at $35 and view promotions and reviews for Life Extension Advanced Anti-Adipocyte Formula, Veggie Caps ... Life Extension Advanced Anti-Adipocyte Formula, Veggie Caps at Walgreens. ...
more infohttps://www.walgreens.com/store/c/life-extension-advanced-anti-adipocyte-formula-veggie-caps/ID=prod6174759-product
Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPARs Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes  Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes
... adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, cancer, lung diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, and obesity. ... Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes. Luca Vanella,1 Daniele Tibullo,2 Justyna ... "Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Regulates PPAR's Levels in Stem Cells-Derived Adipocytes," PPAR Research, vol. 2016, Article ID ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ppar/2016/7359521/cta/
Frontiers | Linking Arrhythmias and Adipocytes: Insights, Mechanisms, and Future Directions | Physiology  Frontiers | Linking Arrhythmias and Adipocytes: Insights, Mechanisms, and Future Directions | Physiology
The effects of adipocytes may be direct, local or remote. Direct effect refers to adipocyte or fatty infiltration of the ... The effects of adipocytes may be direct, local or remote. Direct effect refers to adipocyte or fatty infiltration of the ... Adipocytes can also have a remote effect on the myocardium arising from their systemic secretion of adipokines, cytokines and ... Obesity is defined by the expansion of adipose mass, making adipocytes a prime candidate to mediate the pro-arrhythmogenic ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2018.01752/full
Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway  Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway
Adipocyte differentiation Is the Subject Area "Adipocyte differentiation" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Adipocytes Is the Subject Area "Adipocytes" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Adipose tissue is determined by the number and size of adipocytes. The increase in the number of adipocytes involves the ... Sirt1 inhibits adipogenesis by repressing PPARγ expression in cultured adipocytes [26] and decreases adipocyte formation during ...
more infohttp://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0070135
Adipocytes modulate vascular smooth muscle cells migration potential through their secretions  Adipocytes modulate vascular smooth muscle cells migration potential through their secretions
Adipocytes were extracted from diabetic C57BL6 male mice fed with either a vegetal or an animal High-Fat-Diet (HFD) for 20 ... A significant up-regulation of CD36 mRNA level was found in VSMC treated with adipocytes from HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, we ... The most extended effects on VSMC were triggered by adipocytes from mice fed with animal HFD. These effects were concurrent ... Aortic VSMC were extracted from 10 weeks old C57BL6 mice and incubated for 24 hr in adipocytes conditioned cell culture medium ...
more infohttps://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=39984
rat adipocyte Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - CL  rat adipocyte Cells | Thermo Fisher Scientific - CL
Maintaining healthy cells is the key to experimental success and reproducible research results. To give you confidence in the health of your cells every step of the way, we've highlighted the technologies and products within cell biology that are critical to maintaining optimal cell health. No matter how you are using your cells, you can count on these products to help keep them healthy.. ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/cl/en/home/technical-resources/cell-lines/r/cell-lines-detail-531.html
BibMe: Generate Adipocyte book citations for your bibliography  BibMe: Generate Adipocyte book citations for your bibliography
If required by your instructor, you can add annotations to your citations. Just select Add Annotation while finalizing your citation. You can always edit a citation as well. ...
more infohttp://www.bibme.org/adipocyte/book-citation
Does adipocyte hypercellularity in obesity exist?  Does adipocyte hypercellularity in obesity exist?
Examines the existence of adipocyte hypercellularity in obese person. Calculation of the fat cells in obese patients; Basis of ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/5077635/does-adipocyte-hypercellularity-obesity-exist
Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes  Regulation of vascular tone by adipocytes
... Nele Maenhaut (UGent) and Johan Van de Voorde (UGent) ... "Regulation of Vascular Tone by Adipocytes." Bmc Medicine 9 (25).. APA. Maenhaut, N., & Van de Voorde, J. (2011). Regulation of ... For example, the unidentified adipocyte-derived relaxing factor (ADRF) released from adipose tissue has been shown to relax ... For example, the unidentified adipocyte-derived relaxing factor (ADRF) released from adipose tissue has been shown to relax ...
more infohttps://biblio.ugent.be/publication/1245143
Adipocytes promote ovarian cancer metastasis and provide energy for rapid tumor growth.  - PubMed - NCBI  Adipocytes promote ovarian cancer metastasis and provide energy for rapid tumor growth. - PubMed - NCBI
Adipocyte-ovarian cancer cell coculture led to the direct transfer of lipids from adipocytes to ovarian cancer cells and ... Cocultivation of ovarian cancer cells with adipocytes activates lipolysis in adipocytes and β-oxidation in cancer cells. (a,b) ... Furthermore, coculture induced lipolysis in adipocytes and β-oxidation in cancer cells, suggesting adipocytes act as an energy ... adipocyte-conditioned medium (CM) and primary human omental adipocytes (Adi). Bars report mean fold change ± s.e.m. One of ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037646?dopt=Abstract
  • However, controversy still surrounds the cellular identity in BMP7-mediated transition of white to brown adipocytes. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that pre-exposure of the stromal vascular (SV) fraction of primary human adipogenic precursor cells ( h ASC) to BMP7 would convert metabolically active brown adipocytes. (springer.com)
  • Our results showed that exposure of h ASC to human BMP7 was associated with significant escalation of (1) UCP1 gene expression, a signature gene of brown adipocytes, (2) beige specific marker gene expression (i.e. (springer.com)
  • Most recently, the presence of beige adipocytes with a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown adipocytes has been described. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, coculture induced lipolysis in adipocytes and β-oxidation in cancer cells, suggesting adipocytes act as an energy source for the cancer cells. (nih.gov)
  • The invention provides methods for determining the ability of compounds to regulate lipogenesis and lipolysis by acting as a sulfonylurea-1 (SUR 1) potassium channel activator, an adipocyte potassium channel activator, an SUR 1 antagonist, and an adipocyte specific SUR 1 antagonist. (google.com)
  • The present invention recognizes the presence of the sulfonylurea receptor in adipocytes and its utility in identifying compounds and in regulating lipogenesis and lipolysis. (google.com)
  • In adipocytes, aquaglyceroporins mediate glycerol uptake and release across the plasma membrane, which are two key steps for triacylglycerols (TAGs) synthesis (lipogenesis) and hydrolysis (lipolysis). (mdpi.com)
  • Adipocytes prevented chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, and this was associated with increased expression of the two prosurvival signals Bcl-2 and Pim-2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These findings highlight the role of the adipocyte in fostering leukemia chemotherapy resistance, and may help explain the increased leukemia relapse rate in obese children and adults. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Maintenance of beige adipocytes is mediated by the Lsd1 target gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara) and pharmacological activation of Ppara rescues the loss of beige adipocytes in Lsd1-KO mice. (pnas.org)
  • Lsd1 maintains beige adipocytes by controlling the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (Ppara), and treatment with a Ppara agonist is sufficient to rescue the loss of beige adipocytes caused by Lsd1 ablation. (pnas.org)
  • Maintaining adipocyte-specific expression of Lsd1 in transgenic mice preserves the pool of beige adipocytes in old mice. (pnas.org)
  • Aortic VSMC were extracted from 10 weeks old C57BL6 mice and incubated for 24 hr in adipocytes conditioned cell culture medium. (scirp.org)
  • Adipocytes were extracted from diabetic C57BL6 male mice fed with either a vegetal or an animal High-Fat-Diet (HFD) for 20 weeks. (scirp.org)
  • The most extended effects on VSMC were triggered by adipocytes from mice fed with animal HFD. (scirp.org)
  • A significant up-regulation of CD36 mRNA level was found in VSMC treated with adipocytes from HFD-fed mice. (scirp.org)
  • Differentiated hMSC-Tert were stably transduced with or without siRNA targeting APOE while murine adipocytes were isolated from wild type and Apoe knockout mice. (osti.gov)
  • He Y, Li Y, Zhao T, Wang Y, Sun C (2013) Ursolic Acid Inhibits Adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes through LKB1/AMPK Pathway. (plos.org)
  • In summary, our data provide insights into the mechanism controlling the age-related beige-to-white adipocyte transition and identify Lsd1 as a regulator of beige fat cell maintenance. (pnas.org)
  • In this focused review, we highlight areas of potential molecular interplay between adipocytes and cardiomyocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • Intra-abdominal tumors, such as ovarian cancer, have a clear predilection for metastasis to the omentum, an organ primarily composed of adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Palmitate has been shown to stimulate glucose transport, translocation of GLUT4 and insulin receptor autophosphorylation in isolated rat adipocytes ( Biochem Biophys Res Commun 177:343-49, 1991). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In conclusion, we have shown that the development of adipocyte-induced VSMC alterations is linked to diet fatty acid composition and the degree of metabolic alterations. (scirp.org)
  • Direct effect refers to adipocyte or fatty infiltration of the atrial and ventricular myocardium itself, possibly causing increased dispersion of normal myocardial electrical signals and fibrotic substrate of adipocytes that promote reentry or adipocytes serving as a direct source of aberrant signals. (frontiersin.org)
  • CD137 and TMEM26), (3) glucose and fatty acid uptake, and (4) basal and cAMP-stimulated oxygen consumption rate compared to white adipocyte control. (springer.com)