Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.
Fat cells with light coloration and few MITOCHONDRIA. They contain a scant ring of CYTOPLASM surrounding a single large lipid droplet or vacuole.
A continuous cell line that is a substrain of SWISS 3T3 CELLS developed though clonal isolation. The mouse fibroblast cells undergo an adipose-like conversion as they move to a confluent and contact-inhibited state.
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
A glucose transport protein found in mature MUSCLE CELLS and ADIPOCYTES. It promotes transport of glucose from the BLOOD into target TISSUES. The inactive form of the protein is localized in CYTOPLASMIC VESICLES. In response to INSULIN, it is translocated to the PLASMA MEMBRANE where it facilitates glucose uptake.
The differentiation of pre-adipocytes into mature ADIPOCYTES.
Cell lines whose original growing procedure consisted being transferred (T) every 3 days and plated at 300,000 cells per plate (J Cell Biol 17:299-313, 1963). Lines have been developed using several different strains of mice. Tissues are usually fibroblasts derived from mouse embryos but other types and sources have been developed as well. The 3T3 lines are valuable in vitro host systems for oncogenic virus transformation studies, since 3T3 cells possess a high sensitivity to CONTACT INHIBITION.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A thermogenic form of adipose tissue composed of BROWN ADIPOCYTES. It is found in newborns of many species including humans, and in hibernating mammals. Brown fat is richly vascularized, innervated, and densely packed with MITOCHONDRIA which can generate heat directly from the stored lipids.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Fatty tissue composed of WHITE ADIPOCYTES and generally found directly under the skin (SUBCUTANEOUS FAT) and around the internal organs (ABDOMINAL FAT). It has less vascularization and less coloration than the BROWN FAT. White fat provides heat insulation, mechanical cushion, and source of energy.
A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES. It is a target of THIAZOLIDINEDIONES for control of DIABETES MELLITUS.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
A 30-kDa COMPLEMENT C1Q-related protein, the most abundant gene product secreted by FAT CELLS of the white ADIPOSE TISSUE. Adiponectin modulates several physiological processes, such as metabolism of GLUCOSE and FATTY ACIDS, and immune responses. Decreased plasma adiponectin levels are associated with INSULIN RESISTANCE; TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS; OBESITY; and ATHEROSCLEROSIS.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
A subclass of beta-adrenergic receptors (RECEPTORS, ADRENERGIC, BETA). The beta-3 adrenergic receptors are the predominant beta-adrenergic receptor type expressed in white and brown ADIPOCYTES and are involved in modulating ENERGY METABOLISM and THERMOGENESIS.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Mutant mice exhibiting a marked obesity coupled with overeating, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, marked insulin resistance, and infertility when in a homozygous state. They may be inbred or hybrid.
A structurally-related group of signaling proteins that are phosphorylated by the INSULIN RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE. The proteins share in common an N-terminal PHOSPHOLIPID-binding domain, a phosphotyrosine-binding domain that interacts with the phosphorylated INSULIN RECEPTOR, and a C-terminal TYROSINE-rich domain. Upon tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrate proteins interact with specific SH2 DOMAIN-containing proteins that are involved in insulin receptor signaling.
A non-metabolizable glucose analogue that is not phosphorylated by hexokinase. 3-O-Methylglucose is used as a marker to assess glucose transport by evaluating its uptake within various cells and organ systems. (J Neurochem 1993;60(4):1498-504)
A ubiquitously expressed glucose transporter that is important for constitutive, basal GLUCOSE transport. It is predominately expressed in ENDOTHELIAL CELLS and ERYTHROCYTES at the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and is responsible for GLUCOSE entry into the BRAIN.
The convoluted cordlike structure attached to the posterior of the TESTIS. Epididymis consists of the head (caput), the body (corpus), and the tail (cauda). A network of ducts leaving the testis joins into a common epididymal tubule proper which provides the transport, storage, and maturation of SPERMATOZOA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
THIAZOLES with two keto oxygens. Members are insulin-sensitizing agents which overcome INSULIN RESISTANCE by activation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma).
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.34.
Methylglucosides are a type of sugar alcohols, specifically methylated glucose derivatives, which are used as sweetening agents, excipients, and solvents in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products due to their low toxicity and good solubility in water.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
N-Isopropyl-N-phenyl-adenosine. Antilipemic agent. Synonym: TH 162.
Substances which lower blood glucose levels.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN through out the body.
Polypeptides produced by the ADIPOCYTES. They include LEPTIN; ADIPONECTIN; RESISTIN; and many cytokines of the immune system, such as TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA; INTERLEUKIN-6; and COMPLEMENT FACTOR D (also known as ADIPSIN). They have potent autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine functions.
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of insulin.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; ADIPOSE TISSUE; INTESTINES; LUNG; ADRENAL GLANDS; PLACENTA; OVARY and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (LEUKOCYTES, MONONUCLEAR). Experiments with knock-out mice have demonstrated that CCAAT-enhancer binding protein-alpha is essential for the functioning and differentiation of HEPATOCYTES and ADIPOCYTES.
A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified with the addition of a phosphate group, usually on serine, threonine or tyrosine residues, which can play a role in their regulation, function, interaction with other molecules, and localization within the cell.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A zinc-containing sialoglycoprotein that is used to study aminopeptidase activity in the pathogenesis of hypertension. EC 3.4.11.3.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Intracellular proteins that reversibly bind hydrophobic ligands including: saturated and unsaturated FATTY ACIDS; EICOSANOIDS; and RETINOIDS. They are considered a highly conserved and ubiquitously expressed family of proteins that may play a role in the metabolism of LIPIDS.
The generation of heat in order to maintain body temperature. The uncoupled oxidation of fatty acids contained within brown adipose tissue and SHIVERING are examples of thermogenesis in MAMMALS.
Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, stored in fat cells and used as energy; they are measured in blood tests to assess heart disease risk, with high levels often resulting from dietary habits, obesity, physical inactivity, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Compounds that bind to and activate ADRENERGIC BETA-3 RECEPTORS.
A double-layered fold of peritoneum that attaches the STOMACH to other organs in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A 12-kDa cysteine-rich polypeptide hormone secreted by FAT CELLS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is the founding member of the resistin-like molecule (RELM) hormone family. Resistin suppresses the ability of INSULIN to stimulate cellular GLUCOSE uptake.
A cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase subfamily that is inhibited by the binding of CYCLIC GMP to an allosteric domain found on the enzyme and through phosphorylation by regulatory kinases such as PROTEIN KINASE A and PROTEIN KINASE B. The two members of this family are referred to as type 3A, and type 3B, and are each product of a distinct gene. In addition multiple enzyme variants of each subtype can be produced due to multiple alternative mRNA splicing.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.
An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 3.1.1.3.
FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.
Dioxoles are organic compounds containing a five-membered ring consisting of two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms, often found as substructures in various natural and synthetic molecules, including certain pharmaceuticals and toxic dioxin pollutants.
Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.
Glycerolphosphate Dehydrogenase is an enzyme (EC 1.1.1.8) that catalyzes the reversible conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate to glycerol 3-phosphate, using nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) as an electron acceptor in the process.
Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.
A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.
Derivatives of the steroid androstane having two double bonds at any site in any of the rings.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Bone-marrow-derived, non-hematopoietic cells that support HEMATOPOETIC STEM CELLS. They have also been isolated from other organs and tissues such as UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD, umbilical vein subendothelium, and WHARTON JELLY. These cells are considered to be a source of multipotent stem cells because they include subpopulations of mesenchymal stem cells.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.
Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
A class of proteins that were originally identified by their ability to bind the DNA sequence CCAAT. The typical CCAAT-enhancer binding protein forms dimers and consists of an activation domain, a DNA-binding basic region, and a leucine-rich dimerization domain (LEUCINE ZIPPERS). CCAAT-BINDING FACTOR is structurally distinct type of CCAAT-enhancer binding protein consisting of a trimer of three different subunits.
Fatty tissue inside the ABDOMINAL CAVITY, including visceral fat and retroperitoneal fat. It is the most metabolically active fat in the body and easily accessible for LIPOLYSIS. Increased visceral fat is associated with metabolic complications of OBESITY.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
Thiazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a sulfur atom and a nitrogen atom, which are bound by two carbon atoms to form a five-membered ring, and are widely found in various natural and synthetic substances, including some pharmaceuticals and vitamins.
Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)
A sterol regulatory element binding protein that regulates expression of GENES involved in FATTY ACIDS metabolism and LIPOGENESIS. Two major isoforms of the protein exist due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) from nicotinamide and 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate, the rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of the NAD coenzyme. It is also known as a growth factor for early B-LYMPHOCYTES, or an ADIPOKINE with insulin-mimetic effects (visfatin).
A common saturated fatty acid found in fats and waxes including olive oil, palm oil, and body lipids.
Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of CYCLIC AMP to form adenosine 5'-phosphate. The enzymes are widely distributed in animal tissue and control the level of intracellular cyclic AMP. Many specific enzymes classified under this heading demonstrate additional spcificity for 3',5'-cyclic IMP and CYCLIC GMP.
Hexoses are simple monosaccharides, specifically six-carbon sugars, which include glucose, fructose, and galactose, and play crucial roles in biological processes such as energy production and storage, and structural components of cells.
Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups, -N=N-, linking two aromatic rings, which can impart various colors and are used in dyes, pharmaceuticals, and chemical research.
The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in recycling of proteins such as cell surface receptors from early endosomes to the cell surface. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ADENOSINE to INOSINE with the elimination of AMMONIA.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acyl group transfer of ACYL COA to 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate to generate 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate. This enzyme has alpha, beta, gamma, delta and epsilon subunits.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The amount of fat or lipid deposit at a site or an organ in the body, an indicator of body fat status.
Regulatory proteins and peptides that are signaling molecules involved in the process of PARACRINE COMMUNICATION. They are generally considered factors that are expressed by one cell and are responded to by receptors on another nearby cell. They are distinguished from HORMONES in that their actions are local rather than distal.
A cytokine that stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-LYMPHOCYTES and is also a growth factor for HYBRIDOMAS and plasmacytomas. It is produced by many different cells including T-LYMPHOCYTES; MONOCYTES; and FIBROBLASTS.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.
A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
A tyrosine phosphoprotein that plays an essential role in CAVEOLAE formation. It binds CHOLESTEROL and is involved in LIPIDS transport, membrane traffic, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
'Deoxy sugars' are monosaccharides or oligosaccharides that contain fewer hydroxyl groups than the corresponding hexose or pentose, with deoxyribose being a well-known example of a deoxy sugar.
A CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein found in LIVER; INTESTINES; LUNG and ADIPOSE TISSUE. It is an important mediator of INTERLEUKIN-6 signaling.
Fatty tissue under the SKIN in the region of the ABDOMEN.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The smaller fragment generated from the cleavage of complement C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. C3a, a 77-amino acid peptide, is a mediator of local inflammatory process. It induces smooth MUSCLE CONTRACTION, and HISTAMINE RELEASE from MAST CELLS and LEUKOCYTES. C3a is considered an anaphylatoxin along with COMPLEMENT C4A; COMPLEMENT C5A; and COMPLEMENT C5A, DES-ARGININE.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
A cyclic nucleotide derivative that mimics the action of endogenous CYCLIC AMP and is capable of permeating the cell membrane. It has vasodilator properties and is used as a cardiac stimulant. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Connective tissue cells of an organ found in the loose connective tissue. These are most often associated with the uterine mucosa and the ovary as well as the hematopoietic system and elsewhere.
A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.

DEF-1, a novel Src SH3 binding protein that promotes adipogenesis in fibroblastic cell lines. (1/5446)

The Src homology 3 (SH3) motif is found in numerous signal transduction proteins involved in cellular growth and differentiation. We have purified and cloned a novel protein, DEF-1 (differentiation-enhancing factor), from bovine brain by using a Src SH3 affinity column. Ectopic expression of DEF-1 in fibroblasts resulted in the differentiation of a significant fraction of the culture into adipocytes. This phenotype appears to be related to the induction of the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), since DEF-1 NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated augmented levels of PPARgamma mRNA and, when treated with activating PPARgamma ligands, efficient induction of differentiation. Further evidence for a role for DEF-1 in adipogenesis was provided by heightened expression of DEF-1 mRNA in adipose tissue isolated from obese and diabetes mice compared to that in tissue isolated from wild-type mice. However, DEF-1 mRNA was detected in multiple tissues, suggesting that the signal transduction pathway(s) in which DEF-1 is involved is not limited to adipogenesis. These results suggest that DEF-1 is an important component of a signal transduction process that is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts and possibly of other types of cells.  (+info)

Novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma and PPARdelta ligands produce distinct biological effects. (2/5446)

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) include three receptor subtypes encoded by separate genes: PPARalpha, PPARdelta, and PPARgamma. PPARgamma has been implicated as a mediator of adipocyte differentiation and the mechanism by which thiazolidinedione drugs exert in vivo insulin sensitization. Here we characterized novel, non-thiazolidinedione agonists for PPARgamma and PPARdelta that were identified by radioligand binding assays. In transient transactivation assays these ligands were agonists of the receptors to which they bind. Protease protection studies showed that ligand binding produced specific alterations in receptor conformation. Both PPARgamma and PPARdelta directly interacted with a nuclear receptor co-activator (CREB-binding protein) in an agonist-dependent manner. Only the PPARgamma agonists were able to promote differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In diabetic db/db mice all PPARgamma agonists were orally active insulin-sensitizing agents producing reductions of elevated plasma glucose and triglyceride concentrations. In contrast, selective in vivo activation of PPARdelta did not significantly affect these parameters. In vivo PPARalpha activation with WY-14653 resulted in reductions in elevated triglyceride levels with minimal effect on hyperglycemia. We conclude that: 1) synthetic non-thiazolidinediones can serve as ligands of PPARgamma and PPARdelta; 2) ligand-dependent activation of PPARdelta involves an apparent conformational change and association of the receptor ligand binding domain with CREB-binding protein; 3) PPARgamma activation (but not PPARdelta or PPARalpha activation) is sufficient to potentiate preadipocyte differentiation; 4) non-thiazolidinedione PPARgamma agonists improve hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in vivo; 5) although PPARalpha activation is sufficient to affect triglyceride metabolism, PPARdelta activation does not appear to modulate glucose or triglyceride levels.  (+info)

Tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulates lipolysis in adipocytes by decreasing Gi protein concentrations. (3/5446)

Prolonged treatment (12-24 h) of adipocytes with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) stimulates lipolysis. We have investigated the hypothesis that TNFalpha stimulates lipolysis by blocking the action of endogenous adenosine. Adipocytes were incubated for 48 h with TNFalpha, and lipolysis was measured in the absence or presence of adenosine deaminase. Without adenosine deaminase, the rate of glycerol release was 2-3-fold higher in the TNFalpha-treated cells, but with adenosine deaminase lipolysis increased in the controls to approximately that in the TNFalpha-treated cells. This suggests that TNFalpha blocks adenosine release or prevents its antilipolytic effect. Both N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine and nicotinic acid were less potent and efficacious inhibitors of lipolysis in treated cells. A decrease in the concentration of alpha-subunits of all three Gi subtypes was detected by Western blotting without a change in Gs proteins or beta-subunits. Gi2alpha was about 50% of control, whereas Gi1alpha and Gi3alpha were about 20 and 40% of control values, respectively. The time course of Gi down-regulation correlated with the stimulation of lipolysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of Gi by an alternative approach (prolonged incubation with N6-phenylisopropyl adenosine) stimulated lipolysis. These findings indicate that TNFalpha stimulates lipolysis by blunting endogenous inhibition of lipolysis. The mechanism appears to be a Gi protein down-regulation.  (+info)

Transgenic UCP1 in white adipocytes modulates mitochondrial membrane potential. (4/5446)

To test if mitochondrial uncoupling in white adipocytes is responsible for obesity resistance of the aP2-Ucp transgenic mice expressing ectopic uncoupling protein 1 (UCPI) in white fat, mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(m)) was estimated by flow cytometry in adipocytes isolated from gonadal fat. Ectopic UCP1 (approximately 0.8 mol UCP1/mol respiratory chain) decreased the delta psi(m) and rendered the potential sensitive to GDP and fatty acids. These ligands of UCP1 had no effect on delta psi(m) in white adipocytes from non-transgenic mice, suggesting that the function of endogenous UCP2 in adipocytes was not affected. The results support the hypothesis that mitochondrial uncoupling in white fat may prevent development of obesity.  (+info)

SNAP-23 participates in SNARE complex assembly in rat adipose cells. (5/5446)

SNARE proteins are required for vesicle docking and fusion in eukaryotic cells in processes as diverse as homotypic membrane fusion and synaptic vesicle exocytosis [SNARE stands for SNAP receptor, where SNAP is soluble NSF attachment protein]. The SNARE proteins syntaxin 4 and vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 2/3 also participate in the insulin-stimulated translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane in adipose cells. We now report the molecular cloning and characterization of rat SNAP-23, a ubiquitously expressed homologue of the essential neuronal SNARE protein SNAP-25 (synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa). Rat SNAP-23 is 86% and 98% identical respectively to human and mouse SNAP-23. Southern blot analysis reveals that the rat, mouse and human SNAP-23 genes encode species-specific isoforms of the same protein. Co-immunoprecipitation of syntaxin 4 and SNAP-23 shows association of these two proteins in rat adipose cell plasma membranes, and insulin stimulation does not alter the SNAP-23/syntaxin 4 complex. In addition, we demonstrate for the first time the participation of SNAP-23, along with syntaxin 4 and VAMP2/3, in the formation of 20S SNARE complexes prepared using rat adipose cell membranes and recombinant alpha-SNAP and NSF proteins. The stoichiometry of the SNARE complexes formed is essentially identical using membranes from either unstimulated or insulin-stimulated adipose cells. These data demonstrate that rat SNAP-23 associates with syntaxin 4 before insulin stimulation and is present in the SNARE complexes known to mediate the translocation of GLUT4 from intracellular vesicles to the plasma membrane of rat adipose cells.  (+info)

Regulation of fatty acid homeostasis in cells: novel role of leptin. (6/5446)

It is proposed that an important function of leptin is to confine the storage of triglycerides (TG) to the adipocytes, while limiting TG storage in nonadipocytes, thus protecting them from lipotoxicity. The fact that TG content in nonadipocytes normally remains within a narrow range, while that of adipocytes varies enormously with food intake, is consistent with a system of TG homeostasis in normal nonadipocytes. The facts that when leptin receptors are dysfunctional, TG content in nonadipocytes such as islets can increase 100-fold, and that constitutively expressed ectopic hyperleptinemia depletes TG, suggest that leptin controls the homeostatic system for intracellular TG. The fact that the function and viability of nonadipocytes is compromised when their TG content rises above or falls below the normal range suggests that normal homeostasis of their intracellular TG is critical for optimal function and to prevent lipoapoptosis. Thus far, lipotoxic diabetes of fa/fa Zucker diabetic fatty rats is the only proven lipodegenerative disease, but the possibility of lipotoxic disease of skeletal and/or cardiac muscle may require investigation, as does the possible influence of the intracellular TG content on autoimmune and neoplastic processes.  (+info)

Reversing adipocyte differentiation: implications for treatment of obesity. (7/5446)

Conventional treatment of obesity reduces fat in mature adipocytes but leaves them with lipogenic enzymes capable of rapid resynthesis of fat, a likely factor in treatment failure. Adenovirus-induced hyperleptinemia in normal rats results in rapid nonketotic fat loss that persists after hyperleptinemia disappears, whereas pair-fed controls regain their weight in 2 weeks. We report here that the hyperleptinemia depletes adipocyte fat while profoundly down-regulating lipogenic enzymes and their transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in epididymal fat; enzymes of fatty acid oxidation and their transcription factor, PPARalpha, normally low in adipocytes, are up-regulated, as are uncoupling proteins 1 and 2. This transformation of adipocytes from cells that store triglycerides to fatty acid-oxidizing cells is accompanied by loss of the adipocyte markers, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and leptin, and by the appearance of the preadipocyte marker Pref-1. These findings suggest a strategy for the treatment of obesity by alteration of the adipocyte phenotype.  (+info)

Caloric restriction leads to regional specialisation of adipocyte function in the rat. (8/5446)

The study analysed the responses of three metabolic parameters in five distinct adipose tissue depots to caloric restriction (4 weeks) in the rat. The aims were to evaluate whether specific adipose tissue depots were recruited for triacylglycerol (TAG) storage and/or mobilisation, and to determine to what extent specific adipose tissue depots exhibited preferences for the source of fatty acid (FA) for TAG storage. Caloric restriction led to a general enhancement of the response of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), FA synthesis and glucose utilisation to a meal. Effects were particularly marked in the parametrial, perirenal and interscapular depots compared with mesenteric and subcutaneous depots. There was no evidence that individual depots selectively expressed a preference for the pathways concerned with the generation of FA for storage (the exogenous (LPL) and the endogenous (synthesis) pathway). However, the temporal sequence of activation of these pathways differed in a manner consistent with a switch from preponderant use of FA produced via de novo synthesis during the very early phase of feeding towards later use of FA derived from circulating TAG. The overall excursions in insulin levels observed in the calorie-restricted rats were comparable to those found in free-feeding rats, but the magnitude and the rapidity of the individual metabolic responses of the adipocyte were augmented. The data are consistent with a general enhancement of insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in adipose tissue of calorie-restricted rats, together with adaptive regional specialisation of adipocyte function. These adaptations would be predicted to facilitate the immediate conservation of dietary nutrients by promoting their storage as the FA or glycerol moieties of adipose tissue TAG and thereby to ensure the regulated release of FA and glycerol from adipose tissue in accordance with the requirement for glucose conservation and/or production.  (+info)

Adipocytes are specialized cells that comprise adipose tissue, also known as fat tissue. They are responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, particularly triglycerides, and releasing energy when needed through a process called lipolysis. There are two main types of adipocytes: white adipocytes and brown adipocytes. White adipocytes primarily store energy, while brown adipocytes dissipate energy as heat through the action of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1).

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adipocytes also secrete various hormones and signaling molecules that contribute to whole-body homeostasis. These include leptin, adiponectin, resistin, and inflammatory cytokines. Dysregulation of adipocyte function has been implicated in the development of obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Adipocytes, white are specialized cells that comprise the majority of adipose tissue, also known as white fat. These cells are primarily responsible for storing energy in the form of lipids, or fatty acids, which can be released and used by the body during periods of increased metabolic demand or caloric deficit.

White adipocytes have a large, central lipid droplet that occupies most of the cell volume, giving it a characteristic appearance under the microscope. They also contain a small amount of cytoplasm and a nucleus that is often pushed to the periphery of the cell.

In addition to their energy storage function, white adipocytes also play important roles in regulating metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. Dysfunction of white adipose tissue and adipocytes has been implicated in various diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain cancers.

3T3-L1 cells are a widely used cell line in biomedical research, particularly in the study of adipocytes (fat cells) and adipose tissue. These cells are derived from mouse embryo fibroblasts and have the ability to differentiate into adipocytes under specific culture conditions.

When 3T3-L1 cells are exposed to a cocktail of hormones and growth factors, they undergo a process called adipogenesis, during which they differentiate into mature adipocytes. These differentiated cells exhibit many characteristics of fat cells, including the accumulation of lipid droplets, expression of adipocyte-specific genes and proteins, and the ability to respond to hormones such as insulin.

Researchers use 3T3-L1 cells to study various aspects of adipocyte biology, including the regulation of fat metabolism, the development of obesity and related metabolic disorders, and the effects of drugs or other compounds on adipose tissue function. However, it is important to note that because these cells are derived from mice, they may not always behave exactly the same way as human adipocytes, so results obtained using 3T3-L1 cells must be validated in human cell lines or animal models before they can be applied to human health.

Adipose tissue, also known as fatty tissue, is a type of connective tissue that is composed mainly of adipocytes (fat cells). It is found throughout the body, but is particularly abundant in the abdominal cavity, beneath the skin, and around organs such as the heart and kidneys.

Adipose tissue serves several important functions in the body. One of its primary roles is to store energy in the form of fat, which can be mobilized and used as an energy source during periods of fasting or exercise. Adipose tissue also provides insulation and cushioning for the body, and produces hormones that help regulate metabolism, appetite, and reproductive function.

There are two main types of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). WAT is the more common form and is responsible for storing energy as fat. BAT, on the other hand, contains a higher number of mitochondria and is involved in heat production and energy expenditure.

Excessive accumulation of adipose tissue can lead to obesity, which is associated with an increased risk of various health problems such as diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

Lipolysis is the process by which fat cells (adipocytes) break down stored triglycerides into glycerol and free fatty acids. This process occurs when the body needs to use stored fat as a source of energy, such as during fasting, exercise, or in response to certain hormonal signals. The breakdown products of lipolysis can be used directly by cells for energy production or can be released into the bloodstream and transported to other tissues for use. Lipolysis is regulated by several hormones, including adrenaline (epinephrine), noradrenaline (norepinephrine), cortisol, glucagon, and growth hormone, which act on lipases, enzymes that mediate the breakdown of triglycerides.

Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets, primarily in response to elevated levels of glucose in the circulating blood. It plays a crucial role in regulating blood glucose levels and facilitating the uptake and utilization of glucose by peripheral tissues, such as muscle and adipose tissue, for energy production and storage. Insulin also inhibits glucose production in the liver and promotes the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or triglycerides.

Deficiency in insulin secretion or action leads to impaired glucose regulation and can result in conditions such as diabetes mellitus, characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and associated complications. Exogenous insulin is used as a replacement therapy in individuals with diabetes to help manage their blood glucose levels and prevent long-term complications.

Glucose Transporter Type 4 (GLUT4) is a type of glucose transporter protein that plays a crucial role in regulating insulin-mediated glucose uptake into cells, particularly in muscle and fat tissues. GLUT4 is primarily located in intracellular vesicles within these cell types and moves to the plasma membrane upon stimulation by insulin or muscle contraction, facilitating the influx of glucose into the cell. Dysfunction in GLUT4 regulation has been implicated in various metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes and insulin resistance.

Adipogenesis is the process by which precursor cells differentiate into mature adipocytes, or fat cells. This complex biological process involves a series of molecular and cellular events that are regulated by various genetic and epigenetic factors.

During adipogenesis, preadipocytes undergo a series of changes that include cell cycle arrest, morphological alterations, and the expression of specific genes that are involved in lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. These changes ultimately result in the formation of mature adipocytes that are capable of storing energy in the form of lipids.

Abnormalities in adipogenesis have been linked to various health conditions, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate adipogenesis is an active area of research, as it may lead to the development of new therapies for these and other related diseases.

3T3 cells are a type of cell line that is commonly used in scientific research. The name "3T3" is derived from the fact that these cells were developed by treating mouse embryo cells with a chemical called trypsin and then culturing them in a flask at a temperature of 37 degrees Celsius.

Specifically, 3T3 cells are a type of fibroblast, which is a type of cell that is responsible for producing connective tissue in the body. They are often used in studies involving cell growth and proliferation, as well as in toxicity tests and drug screening assays.

One particularly well-known use of 3T3 cells is in the 3T3-L1 cell line, which is a subtype of 3T3 cells that can be differentiated into adipocytes (fat cells) under certain conditions. These cells are often used in studies of adipose tissue biology and obesity.

It's important to note that because 3T3 cells are a type of immortalized cell line, they do not always behave exactly the same way as primary cells (cells that are taken directly from a living organism). As such, researchers must be careful when interpreting results obtained using 3T3 cells and consider any potential limitations or artifacts that may arise due to their use.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are a type of membrane transport protein that facilitate the passive or active transport of monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, across cell membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of carbohydrates in the body.

There are two main types of monosaccharide transport proteins: facilitated diffusion transporters and active transporters. Facilitated diffusion transporters, also known as glucose transporters (GLUTs), passively transport monosaccharides down their concentration gradient without the need for energy. In contrast, active transporters, such as the sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), use energy in the form of ATP to actively transport monosaccharides against their concentration gradient.

Monosaccharide transport proteins are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the intestines, kidneys, liver, and brain. They play a critical role in maintaining glucose homeostasis by regulating the uptake and release of glucose into and out of cells. Dysfunction of these transporters has been implicated in several diseases, such as diabetes, cancer, and neurological disorders.

Adipose tissue, brown, also known as brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a type of fat in mammals that plays a crucial role in non-shivering thermogenesis, which is the process of generating heat and maintaining body temperature through the burning of calories. Unlike white adipose tissue, which primarily stores energy in the form of lipids, brown adipose tissue contains numerous mitochondria rich in iron, giving it a brown appearance. These mitochondria contain a protein called uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which allows for the efficient conversion of stored energy into heat rather than ATP production.

Brown adipose tissue is typically found in newborns and hibernating animals, but recent studies have shown that adults also possess functional brown adipose tissue, particularly around the neck, shoulders, and spine. The activation of brown adipose tissue has been suggested as a potential strategy for combating obesity and related metabolic disorders due to its ability to burn calories and increase energy expenditure. However, further research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms underlying brown adipose tissue function and its therapeutic potential in treating these conditions.

Glucose is a simple monosaccharide (or single sugar) that serves as the primary source of energy for living organisms. It's a fundamental molecule in biology, often referred to as "dextrose" or "grape sugar." Glucose has the molecular formula C6H12O6 and is vital to the functioning of cells, especially those in the brain and nervous system.

In the body, glucose is derived from the digestion of carbohydrates in food, and it's transported around the body via the bloodstream to cells where it can be used for energy. Cells convert glucose into a usable form through a process called cellular respiration, which involves a series of metabolic reactions that generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP)—the main currency of energy in cells.

Glucose is also stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, a polysaccharide (multiple sugar) that can be broken down back into glucose when needed for energy between meals or during physical activity. Maintaining appropriate blood glucose levels is crucial for overall health, and imbalances can lead to conditions such as diabetes mellitus.

Cell differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell, or stem cell, becomes a more specialized cell type with specific functions and structures. This process involves changes in gene expression, which are regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways and transcription factors. Differentiation results in the development of distinct cell types that make up tissues and organs in multicellular organisms. It is a crucial aspect of embryonic development, tissue repair, and maintenance of homeostasis in the body.

Adipose tissue, white is a type of fatty tissue in the body that functions as the primary form of energy storage. It is composed of adipocytes, which are specialized cells that store energy in the form of lipids, primarily triglycerides. The main function of white adipose tissue is to provide energy to the body during periods of fasting or exercise by releasing free fatty acids into the bloodstream. It also plays a crucial role in maintaining homeostasis by regulating metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and inflammation. White adipose tissue can be found throughout the body, including beneath the skin (subcutaneous) and surrounding internal organs (visceral).

PPAR gamma, or Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma, is a nuclear receptor protein that functions as a transcription factor. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of genes involved in adipogenesis (the process of forming mature fat cells), lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. PPAR gamma is primarily expressed in adipose tissue but can also be found in other tissues such as the immune system, large intestine, and brain.

PPAR gamma forms a heterodimer with another nuclear receptor protein, RXR (Retinoid X Receptor), and binds to specific DNA sequences called PPREs (Peroxisome Proliferator Response Elements) in the promoter regions of target genes. Upon binding, PPAR gamma modulates the transcription of these genes, either activating or repressing their expression.

Agonists of PPAR gamma, such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs), are used clinically to treat type 2 diabetes due to their insulin-sensitizing effects. These drugs work by binding to and activating PPAR gamma, which in turn leads to the upregulation of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

In summary, PPAR gamma is a nuclear receptor protein that regulates gene expression related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis. Its activation has therapeutic implications for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disorders.

Deoxyglucose is a glucose molecule that has had one oxygen atom removed, resulting in the absence of a hydroxyl group (-OH) at the 2' position of the carbon chain. It is used in research and medical settings as a metabolic tracer to study glucose uptake and metabolism in cells and organisms.

Deoxyglucose can be taken up by cells through glucose transporters, but it cannot be further metabolized by glycolysis or other glucose-utilizing pathways. This leads to the accumulation of deoxyglucose within the cell, which can interfere with normal cellular processes and cause toxicity in high concentrations.

In medical research, deoxyglucose is sometimes labeled with radioactive isotopes such as carbon-14 or fluorine-18 to create radiolabeled deoxyglucose (FDG), which can be used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to visualize and measure glucose uptake in tissues. This technique is commonly used in cancer imaging, as tumors often have increased glucose metabolism compared to normal tissue.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Muscle proteins are a type of protein that are found in muscle tissue and are responsible for providing structure, strength, and functionality to muscles. The two major types of muscle proteins are:

1. Contractile proteins: These include actin and myosin, which are responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscles. They work together to cause muscle movement by sliding along each other and shortening the muscle fibers.
2. Structural proteins: These include titin, nebulin, and desmin, which provide structural support and stability to muscle fibers. Titin is the largest protein in the human body and acts as a molecular spring that helps maintain the integrity of the sarcomere (the basic unit of muscle contraction). Nebulin helps regulate the length of the sarcomere, while desmin forms a network of filaments that connects adjacent muscle fibers together.

Overall, muscle proteins play a critical role in maintaining muscle health and function, and their dysregulation can lead to various muscle-related disorders such as muscular dystrophy, myopathies, and sarcopenia.

An insulin receptor is a transmembrane protein found on the surface of cells, primarily in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. It plays a crucial role in regulating glucose metabolism in the body. When insulin binds to its receptor, it triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that promote the uptake and utilization of glucose by cells, as well as the storage of excess glucose as glycogen or fat.

Insulin receptors are composed of two extracellular alpha subunits and two transmembrane beta subunits, which are linked together by disulfide bonds. The binding of insulin to the alpha subunits activates the tyrosine kinase activity of the beta subunits, leading to the phosphorylation of intracellular proteins and the initiation of downstream signaling pathways.

Abnormalities in insulin receptor function or number can contribute to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Adiponectin is a hormone that is produced and secreted by adipose tissue, which is another name for body fat. This hormone plays an important role in regulating metabolism and energy homeostasis. It helps to regulate glucose levels, break down fatty acids, and has anti-inflammatory effects.

Adiponectin is unique because it is exclusively produced by adipose tissue, and its levels are inversely related to body fat mass. This means that lean individuals tend to have higher levels of adiponectin than obese individuals. Low levels of adiponectin have been associated with an increased risk of developing various metabolic disorders, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Overall, adiponectin is an important hormone that plays a crucial role in maintaining metabolic health, and its levels may serve as a useful biomarker for assessing metabolic risk.

Obesity is a complex disease characterized by an excess accumulation of body fat to the extent that it negatively impacts health. It's typically defined using Body Mass Index (BMI), a measure calculated from a person's weight and height. A BMI of 30 or higher is indicative of obesity. However, it's important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying obesity in populations, it does not directly measure body fat and may not accurately reflect health status in individuals. Other factors such as waist circumference, blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and blood sugar levels should also be considered when assessing health risks associated with weight.

A sterol esterase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sterol esters, which are fatty acid esters of sterols (such as cholesterol) that are commonly found in lipoproteins and cell membranes. Sterol esterases play a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids by breaking down sterol esters into free sterols and free fatty acids, which can then be used in various biochemical processes.

There are several types of sterol esterases that have been identified, including:

1. Cholesteryl esterase (CE): This enzyme is responsible for hydrolyzing cholesteryl esters in the intestine and liver. It plays a critical role in the absorption and metabolism of dietary cholesterol.
2. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL): This enzyme is involved in the hydrolysis of sterol esters in adipose tissue, as well as other lipids such as triacylglycerols. It is regulated by hormones such as insulin and catecholamines.
3. Carboxylesterase (CES): This enzyme is a broad-specificity esterase that can hydrolyze various types of esters, including sterol esters. It is found in many tissues throughout the body.

Sterol esterases are important targets for drug development, as inhibiting these enzymes can have therapeutic effects in a variety of diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Insulin resistance is a condition in which the body's cells become less responsive to insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates blood sugar levels. In response to this decreased sensitivity, the pancreas produces more insulin to help glucose enter the cells. However, over time, the pancreas may not be able to keep up with the increased demand for insulin, leading to high levels of glucose in the blood and potentially resulting in type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or other health issues such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Insulin resistance is often associated with obesity, physical inactivity, and genetic factors.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Lipid metabolism is the process by which the body breaks down and utilizes lipids (fats) for various functions, such as energy production, cell membrane formation, and hormone synthesis. This complex process involves several enzymes and pathways that regulate the digestion, absorption, transport, storage, and consumption of fats in the body.

The main types of lipids involved in metabolism include triglycerides, cholesterol, phospholipids, and fatty acids. The breakdown of these lipids begins in the digestive system, where enzymes called lipases break down dietary fats into smaller molecules called fatty acids and glycerol. These molecules are then absorbed into the bloodstream and transported to the liver, which is the main site of lipid metabolism.

In the liver, fatty acids may be further broken down for energy production or used to synthesize new lipids. Excess fatty acids may be stored as triglycerides in specialized cells called adipocytes (fat cells) for later use. Cholesterol is also metabolized in the liver, where it may be used to synthesize bile acids, steroid hormones, and other important molecules.

Disorders of lipid metabolism can lead to a range of health problems, including obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). These conditions may be caused by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, or a combination of both. Proper diagnosis and management of lipid metabolism disorders typically involves a combination of dietary changes, exercise, and medication.

Beta-3 adrenergic receptors (β3-AR) are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds catecholamines, such as norepinephrine and epinephrine. These receptors are primarily located in the adipose tissue, where they play a role in regulating lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

Activation of β3-AR stimulates the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase, which leads to the hydrolysis of triglycerides and the release of free fatty acids. This process is important for maintaining energy homeostasis and can be activated through exercise, cold exposure, or pharmacological means.

In addition to their role in metabolism, β3-AR have also been implicated in the regulation of cardiovascular function, bladder function, and inflammation. Selective β3-AR agonists are being investigated as potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

I cannot precisely define "obese mice" from a medical perspective because "obesity" is typically defined for humans and companion animals based on body weight relative to body size. However, I can provide you with relevant information regarding obese mice in a research or laboratory context.

Obesity in mice is often induced by providing them with a high-fat diet (HFD) to promote excessive weight gain and metabolic dysfunction. This allows researchers to study the effects of obesity on various health parameters, such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and cardiovascular function.

In laboratory settings, mice are often considered obese if their body weight is 10-20% higher than the average for their strain, age, and sex. Researchers also use body mass index (BMI) or body fat percentage to determine obesity in mice. For example:

* Body Mass Index (BMI): Mice with a BMI greater than 0.69 g/cm² are considered obese. To calculate BMI, divide the body weight in grams by the square of the nose-to-anus length in centimeters.
* Body Fat Percentage: Obesity can also be determined based on body fat percentage using non-invasive methods like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) scans. Mice with more than 45% body fat are generally considered obese.

It is important to note that these thresholds may vary depending on the mouse strain, age, and sex. Researchers should consult relevant literature for their specific experimental setup when defining obesity in mice.

Insulin Receptor Substrate (IRS) proteins are a family of cytoplasmic signaling proteins that play a crucial role in the insulin signaling pathway. There are four main isoforms in humans, namely IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, and IRS-4, which contain several conserved domains for interacting with various signaling molecules.

When insulin binds to its receptor, the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain of the receptor becomes activated and phosphorylates specific tyrosine residues on IRS proteins. This leads to the recruitment and activation of downstream effectors, such as PI3K and Grb2/SOS, which ultimately result in metabolic responses (e.g., glucose uptake, glycogen synthesis) and mitogenic responses (e.g., cell proliferation, differentiation).

Dysregulation of the IRS-mediated insulin signaling pathway has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

3-O-Methylglucose is a form of glucose that has a methyl group (-CH3) attached to the third hydroxyl group (-OH) on the glucose molecule. It is a non-metabolizable sugar analog, which means it cannot be broken down and used for energy by the body's cells.

This compound is sometimes used in scientific research as a marker to study the absorption and transport of glucose in the body. Since 3-O-Methylglucose is not metabolized, it can be detected and measured in various tissues and fluids after it has been absorbed, allowing researchers to track its movement through the body.

It's important to note that 3-O-Methylglucose should not be confused with 3-O-Methyldopa, which is a medication used to treat high blood pressure.

Glucose Transporter Type 1 (GLUT1) is a specific type of protein called a glucose transporter, which is responsible for facilitating the transport of glucose across the blood-brain barrier and into the brain cells. It is encoded by the SLC2A1 gene and is primarily found in the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, as well as in other tissues such as the erythrocytes (red blood cells), placenta, and kidney.

GLUT1 plays a critical role in maintaining normal glucose levels in the brain, as it is the main mechanism for glucose uptake into the brain. Disorders of GLUT1 can lead to impaired glucose transport, which can result in neurological symptoms such as seizures, developmental delay, and movement disorders. These disorders are known as GLUT1 deficiency syndromes.

The epididymis is a tightly coiled tube located on the upper and posterior portion of the testicle that serves as the site for sperm maturation and storage. It is an essential component of the male reproductive system. The epididymis can be divided into three parts: the head (where newly produced sperm enter from the testicle), the body, and the tail (where mature sperm exit and are stored). Any abnormalities or inflammation in the epididymis may lead to discomfort, pain, or infertility.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Thiazolidinediones are a class of medications used to treat type 2 diabetes. They work by increasing the body's sensitivity to insulin, which helps to control blood sugar levels. These drugs bind to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), specifically PPAR-gamma, and modulate gene expression related to glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism.

Examples of thiazolidinediones include pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. Common side effects of these medications include weight gain, fluid retention, and an increased risk of bone fractures. They have also been associated with an increased risk of heart failure and bladder cancer, which has led to restrictions or withdrawal of some thiazolidinediones in various countries.

It is important to note that thiazolidinediones should be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and in conjunction with lifestyle modifications such as diet and exercise.

Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of lipids. It is responsible for breaking down triglycerides, which are the main constituent of dietary fats and chylomicrons, into fatty acids and glycerol. These products are then taken up by cells for energy production or storage.

LPL is synthesized in various tissues, including muscle and fat, where it is attached to the inner lining of blood vessels (endothelium). The enzyme is activated when it comes into contact with lipoprotein particles, such as chylomicrons and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), which transport triglycerides in the bloodstream.

Deficiencies or mutations in LPL can lead to various metabolic disorders, including hypertriglyceridemia, a condition characterized by high levels of triglycerides in the blood. Conversely, overexpression of LPL has been associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis due to excessive uptake of fatty acids by macrophages and their conversion into foam cells, which contribute to plaque formation in the arteries.

Methylglucosides are not a medical term, but rather a chemical term referring to a type of compound known as glycosides, where a methanol molecule is linked to a glucose molecule. They do not have a specific medical relevance, but they can be used in various industrial and laboratory applications, including as sweetening agents or intermediates in chemical reactions.

However, if you meant "Methylglucamine," it is a related term that has medical significance. Methylglucamine is an organic compound used as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) in some pharmaceutical formulations. It is often used as a solubilizing agent to improve the solubility and absorption of certain drugs, particularly those that are poorly soluble in water. Methylglucamine is generally considered safe and non-toxic, although it can cause gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea or nausea in some individuals if taken in large amounts.

Isoproterenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists. Medically, it is defined as a synthetic catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic receptor stimulating properties. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby improving breathing.

Isoproterenol can also be used in the treatment of bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), cardiac arrest, and heart blocks by increasing the heart rate and contractility. However, due to its non-selective beta-agonist activity, it may cause various side effects such as tremors, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. Its use is now limited due to the availability of more selective and safer medications.

Phenylisopropyladenosine (PIA) is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a term used in pharmacology and biochemistry. PIA is a type of adenosine receptor agonist that specifically binds to and activates the A1 adenosine receptor.

Adenosine receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) found in various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, and immune system. Activation of these receptors by agonists like PIA can have diverse effects on cellular function, such as modulating neurotransmission, reducing heart rate and contractility, and regulating inflammation.

While not a medical term per se, PIA is an important compound in the study of adenosine receptor biology and has potential therapeutic applications in various diseases, including neurological disorders, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

Hypoglycemic agents are a class of medications that are used to lower blood glucose levels in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. These medications work by increasing insulin sensitivity, stimulating insulin release from the pancreas, or inhibiting glucose production in the liver. Examples of hypoglycemic agents include sulfonylureas, meglitinides, biguanides, thiazolidinediones, DPP-4 inhibitors, SGLT2 inhibitors, and GLP-1 receptor agonists. It's important to note that the term "hypoglycemic" refers to a condition of abnormally low blood glucose levels, but in this context, the term is used to describe agents that are used to treat high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) associated with diabetes.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Subcutaneous fat, also known as hypodermic fat, is the layer of fat found beneath the skin and above the muscle fascia, which is the fibrous connective tissue covering the muscles. It serves as an energy reserve, insulation to maintain body temperature, and a cushion to protect underlying structures. Subcutaneous fat is distinct from visceral fat, which is found surrounding internal organs in the abdominal cavity.

Adipokines are hormones and signaling molecules produced by adipose tissue, which is composed of adipocytes (fat cells) and stromal vascular fraction (SVF) that includes preadipocytes, fibroblasts, immune cells, and endothelial cells. Adipokines play crucial roles in various biological processes such as energy metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, immunity, angiogenesis, and neuroendocrine regulation.

Some well-known adipokines include:

1. Leptin - regulates appetite, energy expenditure, and glucose homeostasis
2. Adiponectin - improves insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammation, and has anti-atherogenic properties
3. Resistin - impairs insulin sensitivity and is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes
4. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) - contributes to chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic dysfunction
5. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) - involved in the regulation of energy metabolism, immune response, and inflammation
6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) - associated with cardiovascular risk by impairing fibrinolysis and promoting thrombosis
7. Visfatin - has insulin-mimetic properties and contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance
8. Chemerin - regulates adipogenesis, energy metabolism, and immune response
9. Apelin - involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, cardiovascular function, and fluid balance
10. Omentin - improves insulin sensitivity and has anti-inflammatory properties

The dysregulation of adipokine production and secretion is associated with various pathological conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Insulin antagonists are drugs or substances that interfere with the action of insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels in the body. These agents can either block the binding of insulin to its receptors on cell surfaces or inhibit the signaling pathways that mediate insulin's effects.

Examples of insulin antagonists include some glucocorticoids, thyroid hormones, and certain medications used to treat diabetes such as sulfonylureas and meglitinides. These drugs can increase blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of glucose from the liver or impairing the ability of insulin to promote glucose uptake in muscle and fat tissues.

It's important to note that while insulin antagonists can be useful in managing certain medical conditions, they can also contribute to the development of insulin resistance and diabetes if used inappropriately or in excess.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha (CEBPA) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of genes involved in the differentiation and proliferation of hematopoietic cells, which are the precursor cells to all blood cells. The protein binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter regions of many genes, and activates or represses their transcription.

Mutations in the CEBPA gene have been associated with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. These mutations can lead to an increased risk of developing AML, as well as resistance to chemotherapy treatments. Therefore, understanding the function of CEBPA and its role in hematopoiesis is essential for the development of new therapies for AML and other hematological disorders.

Glycerol, also known as glycerine or glycerin, is a simple polyol (a sugar alcohol) with a sweet taste and a thick, syrupy consistency. It is a colorless, odorless, viscous liquid that is slightly soluble in water and freely miscible with ethanol and ether.

In the medical field, glycerol is often used as a medication or supplement. It can be used as a laxative to treat constipation, as a source of calories and energy for people who cannot eat by mouth, and as a way to prevent dehydration in people with certain medical conditions.

Glycerol is also used in the production of various medical products, such as medications, skin care products, and vaccines. It acts as a humectant, which means it helps to keep things moist, and it can also be used as a solvent or preservative.

In addition to its medical uses, glycerol is also widely used in the food industry as a sweetener, thickening agent, and moisture-retaining agent. It is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).

Phosphoproteins are proteins that have been post-translationally modified by the addition of a phosphate group (-PO3H2) onto specific amino acid residues, most commonly serine, threonine, or tyrosine. This process is known as phosphorylation and is mediated by enzymes called kinases. Phosphoproteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, metabolism, and gene expression. The addition or removal of a phosphate group can activate or inhibit the function of a protein, thereby serving as a switch to control its activity. Phosphoproteins can be detected and quantified using techniques such as Western blotting, mass spectrometry, and immunofluorescence.

Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long aliphatic chain, which are important components of lipids and are widely distributed in living organisms. They can be classified based on the length of their carbon chain, saturation level (presence or absence of double bonds), and other structural features.

The two main types of fatty acids are:

1. Saturated fatty acids: These have no double bonds in their carbon chain and are typically solid at room temperature. Examples include palmitic acid (C16:0) and stearic acid (C18:0).
2. Unsaturated fatty acids: These contain one or more double bonds in their carbon chain and can be further classified into monounsaturated (one double bond) and polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds) fatty acids. Examples of unsaturated fatty acids include oleic acid (C18:1, monounsaturated), linoleic acid (C18:2, polyunsaturated), and alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3, polyunsaturated).

Fatty acids play crucial roles in various biological processes, such as energy storage, membrane structure, and cell signaling. Some essential fatty acids cannot be synthesized by the human body and must be obtained through dietary sources.

Cystinyl aminopeptidase is a type of enzyme that belongs to the family of metallopeptidases. Its primary function is to catalyze the removal of cystinyl residues from the N-terminus of polypeptides, proteins, and smaller peptides. This enzyme plays an essential role in protein metabolism and turnover within cells.

Cystinyl aminopeptidase is widely distributed in various tissues throughout the body, including the liver, kidney, and brain. It has been identified as a potential therapeutic target for several diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and viral infections, due to its involvement in regulating intracellular protein degradation and processing.

The enzyme's active site contains a zinc ion that is crucial for its catalytic activity. Inhibitors of cystinyl aminopeptidase can be used as pharmaceutical agents to modulate the enzyme's function in disease states, although further research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks associated with such therapies.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Lipid mobilization, also known as lipolysis, is the process by which fat cells (adipocytes) break down stored triglycerides into free fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be released into the bloodstream and used for energy by the body's cells. This process is regulated by hormones such as adrenaline, noradrenaline, glucagon, and cortisol, which activate enzymes in the fat cell that catalyze the breakdown of triglycerides. Lipid mobilization is an important physiological response to fasting, exercise, and stress, and plays a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis in the body.

Mitochondrial proteins are any proteins that are encoded by the nuclear genome or mitochondrial genome and are located within the mitochondria, an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes including energy production, metabolism of lipids, amino acids, and steroids, regulation of calcium homeostasis, and programmed cell death or apoptosis.

Mitochondrial proteins can be classified into two main categories based on their origin:

1. Nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins (NEMPs): These are proteins that are encoded by genes located in the nucleus, synthesized in the cytoplasm, and then imported into the mitochondria through specific import pathways. NEMPs make up about 99% of all mitochondrial proteins and are involved in various functions such as oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, fatty acid oxidation, and mitochondrial dynamics.

2. Mitochondrial DNA-encoded proteins (MEPs): These are proteins that are encoded by the mitochondrial genome, synthesized within the mitochondria, and play essential roles in the electron transport chain (ETC), a key component of oxidative phosphorylation. The human mitochondrial genome encodes only 13 proteins, all of which are subunits of complexes I, III, IV, and V of the ETC.

Defects in mitochondrial proteins can lead to various mitochondrial disorders, which often manifest as neurological, muscular, or metabolic symptoms due to impaired energy production. These disorders are usually caused by mutations in either nuclear or mitochondrial genes that encode mitochondrial proteins.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Fatty acid-binding proteins (FABPs) are a group of small intracellular proteins that play a crucial role in the transport and metabolism of fatty acids within cells. They are responsible for binding long-chain fatty acids, which are hydrophobic molecules, and facilitating their movement across the cell while protecting the cells from lipotoxicity.

FABPs are expressed in various tissues, including the heart, liver, muscle, and brain, with different isoforms found in specific organs. These proteins have a high affinity for long-chain fatty acids and can regulate their intracellular concentration by controlling the uptake, storage, and metabolism of these molecules.

FABPs also play a role in modulating cell signaling pathways that are involved in various physiological processes such as inflammation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of FABP expression and function has been implicated in several diseases, including diabetes, obesity, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders.

In summary, fatty acid-binding proteins are essential intracellular proteins that facilitate the transport and metabolism of long-chain fatty acids while regulating cell signaling pathways.

Thermogenesis is the process of heat production in organisms. In a medical context, it often refers to the generation of body heat by metabolic processes, especially those that increase the rate of metabolism to produce energy and release it as heat. This can be induced by various factors such as cold exposure, certain medications, or by consuming food, particularly foods high in thermogenic nutrients like protein and certain spices. It's also a key component of weight loss strategies, as increasing thermogenesis can help burn more calories.

Adrenergic beta-agonists are a class of medications that bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. These receptors are part of the sympathetic nervous system and mediate the effects of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (also called noradrenaline) and the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline).

When beta-agonists bind to these receptors, they stimulate a range of physiological responses, including relaxation of smooth muscle in the airways, increased heart rate and contractility, and increased metabolic rate. As a result, adrenergic beta-agonists are often used to treat conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and bronchitis, as they can help to dilate the airways and improve breathing.

There are several different types of beta-agonists, including short-acting and long-acting formulations. Short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs) are typically used for quick relief of symptoms, while long-acting beta-agonists (LABAs) are used for more sustained symptom control. Examples of adrenergic beta-agonists include albuterol (also known as salbutamol), terbutaline, formoterol, and salmeterol.

It's worth noting that while adrenergic beta-agonists can be very effective in treating respiratory conditions, they can also have side effects, particularly if used in high doses or for prolonged periods of time. These may include tremors, anxiety, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. As with any medication, it's important to use adrenergic beta-agonists only as directed by a healthcare professional.

1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is a chemical compound that belongs to the class of xanthines. It is a methylated derivative of xanthine and is commonly found in some types of tea, coffee, and chocolate. This compound acts as a non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which means it can increase the levels of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) by preventing its breakdown.

In medical terms, 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine is often used as a bronchodilator and a stimulant of central nervous system. It is also known to have diuretic properties. This compound is sometimes used in the treatment of asthma, COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease), and other respiratory disorders.

It's important to note that 1-Methyl-3-isobutylxanthine can have side effects, including increased heart rate, blood pressure, and anxiety. It should be used under the supervision of a medical professional and its use should be carefully monitored to avoid potential adverse reactions.

Triglycerides are the most common type of fat in the body, and they're found in the food we eat. They're carried in the bloodstream to provide energy to the cells in our body. High levels of triglycerides in the blood can increase the risk of heart disease, especially in combination with other risk factors such as high LDL (bad) cholesterol, low HDL (good) cholesterol, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that while triglycerides are a type of fat, they should not be confused with cholesterol, which is a waxy substance found in the cells of our body. Both triglycerides and cholesterol are important for maintaining good health, but high levels of either can increase the risk of heart disease.

Triglyceride levels are measured through a blood test called a lipid panel or lipid profile. A normal triglyceride level is less than 150 mg/dL. Borderline-high levels range from 150 to 199 mg/dL, high levels range from 200 to 499 mg/dL, and very high levels are 500 mg/dL or higher.

Elevated triglycerides can be caused by various factors such as obesity, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, and certain medical conditions like diabetes, hypothyroidism, and kidney disease. Medications such as beta-blockers, steroids, and diuretics can also raise triglyceride levels.

Lifestyle changes such as losing weight, exercising regularly, eating a healthy diet low in saturated and trans fats, avoiding excessive alcohol consumption, and quitting smoking can help lower triglyceride levels. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce triglycerides to recommended levels.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. They phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring in phosphatidylinositol and its derivatives, which results in the production of second messengers that regulate various cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival.

PI3Ks are divided into three classes based on their structure and substrate specificity. Class I PI3Ks are further subdivided into two categories: class IA and class IB. Class IA PI3Ks are heterodimers consisting of a catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, or p110δ) and a regulatory subunit (p85α, p85β, p55γ, or p50γ). They are primarily activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. Class IB PI3Ks consist of a catalytic subunit (p110γ) and a regulatory subunit (p101 or p84/87). They are mainly activated by G protein-coupled receptors.

Dysregulation of PI3K signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, PI3Ks have emerged as important targets for drug development in these areas.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists are a type of medication that selectively binds to and activates the beta-3 adrenergic receptors. These receptors are found primarily in adipose tissue, where their activation is thought to increase lipolysis (the breakdown of fat) and thermogenesis (the production of heat).

Beta-3 adrenergic receptor agonists have been studied as a potential treatment for obesity and related conditions such as type 2 diabetes. By increasing lipolysis and thermogenesis, these drugs may help to promote weight loss and improve insulin sensitivity. However, their efficacy in humans has not been firmly established, and more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness.

Some examples of adrenergic beta-3 receptor agonists include mirabegron, which is approved for the treatment of overactive bladder, and solabegron, which is being studied for its potential use in treating obesity and other metabolic disorders.

The omentum, in anatomical terms, refers to a large apron-like fold of abdominal fatty tissue that hangs down from the stomach and loops over the intestines. It is divided into two portions: the greater omentum, which is larger and hangs down further, and the lesser omentum, which is smaller and connects the stomach to the liver.

The omentum has several functions in the body, including providing protection and cushioning for the abdominal organs, assisting with the immune response by containing a large number of immune cells, and helping to repair damaged tissues. It can also serve as a source of nutrients and energy for the body during times of starvation or other stressors.

In medical contexts, the omentum may be surgically mobilized and used to wrap around injured or inflamed tissues in order to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. This technique is known as an "omentopexy" or "omentoplasty."

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

Resistin is a hormone-like substance that is primarily produced by adipose (fat) cells in mammals and has been implicated in the development of insulin resistance, which is a condition that can lead to type 2 diabetes. It is also known as "adipose tissue-specific secretory factor" or ADSF.

Resistin is thought to play a role in regulating glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity by affecting the function of insulin-responsive cells, such as muscle and liver cells. In particular, resistin has been shown to interfere with the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose uptake in these cells, leading to reduced insulin sensitivity and increased blood glucose levels.

Resistin is found at higher levels in people who are overweight or obese, and its levels have been linked to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the exact role that resistin plays in these conditions is not fully understood, and more research is needed to determine its precise mechanisms of action and potential therapeutic uses.

Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are a family of enzymes that regulate intracellular levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which are important second messengers involved in various cellular processes.

Type 3 PDEs, also known as PDE3, are a subtype of this enzyme family that specifically hydrolyze cAMP and cGMP. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, vascular smooth muscle, platelets, and adipose tissue.

PDE3 plays a crucial role in regulating cardiovascular function, lipolysis, and insulin sensitivity. Inhibition of PDE3 has been shown to have positive inotropic and vasodilatory effects, making it a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of heart failure and pulmonary hypertension. Additionally, PDE3 inhibitors have been used as antiplatelet agents to prevent thrombosis.

There are two isoforms of PDE3, PDE3A and PDE3B, which differ in their tissue distribution and regulatory mechanisms. PDE3A is primarily expressed in the heart and vascular smooth muscle, while PDE3B is found in adipose tissue and insulin-sensitive cells.

Overall, the regulation of intracellular cAMP and cGMP levels by PDE3 plays a critical role in maintaining cardiovascular function, metabolism, and hemostasis.

Adrenergic receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds and responds to catecholamines, such as epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Beta adrenergic receptors (β-adrenergic receptors) are a subtype of adrenergic receptors that include three distinct subclasses: β1, β2, and β3. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the body and play important roles in various physiological functions, including cardiovascular regulation, bronchodilation, lipolysis, and glucose metabolism.

β1-adrenergic receptors are primarily located in the heart and regulate cardiac contractility, chronotropy (heart rate), and relaxation. β2-adrenergic receptors are found in various tissues, including the lungs, vascular smooth muscle, liver, and skeletal muscle. They mediate bronchodilation, vasodilation, glycogenolysis, and lipolysis. β3-adrenergic receptors are mainly expressed in adipose tissue, where they stimulate lipolysis and thermogenesis.

Agonists of β-adrenergic receptors include catecholamines like epinephrine and norepinephrine, as well as synthetic drugs such as dobutamine (a β1-selective agonist) and albuterol (a non-selective β2-agonist). Antagonists of β-adrenergic receptors are commonly used in the treatment of various conditions, including hypertension, angina pectoris, heart failure, and asthma. Examples of β-blockers include metoprolol (a β1-selective antagonist) and carvedilol (a non-selective β-blocker with additional α1-adrenergic receptor blocking activity).

Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to amplify and detect specific DNA sequences. This technique is particularly useful for the detection and quantification of RNA viruses, as well as for the analysis of gene expression.

The process involves two main steps: reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the first step, reverse transcriptase enzyme is used to convert RNA into complementary DNA (cDNA) by reading the template provided by the RNA molecule. This cDNA then serves as a template for the PCR amplification step.

In the second step, the PCR reaction uses two primers that flank the target DNA sequence and a thermostable polymerase enzyme to repeatedly copy the targeted cDNA sequence. The reaction mixture is heated and cooled in cycles, allowing the primers to anneal to the template, and the polymerase to extend the new strand. This results in exponential amplification of the target DNA sequence, making it possible to detect even small amounts of RNA or cDNA.

RT-PCR is a sensitive and specific technique that has many applications in medical research and diagnostics, including the detection of viruses such as HIV, hepatitis C virus, and SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19). It can also be used to study gene expression, identify genetic mutations, and diagnose genetic disorders.

Lipids are a broad group of organic compounds that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar organic solvents. They include fats, waxes, sterols, fat-soluble vitamins (such as vitamins A, D, E, and K), monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, and phospholipids. Lipids serve many important functions in the body, including energy storage, acting as structural components of cell membranes, and serving as signaling molecules. High levels of certain lipids, particularly cholesterol and triglycerides, in the blood are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

Ectopic hormone production refers to the situation when a hormone is produced in an unusual location or by a type of cell that does not typically produce it. This can occur due to various reasons such as genetic mutations, cancer, or other medical conditions. The ectopic hormone production can lead to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms, as the regulation of hormones in the body becomes disrupted.

For example, in some cases of lung cancer, the tumor cells may produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which is typically produced by the pituitary gland. This ectopic ACTH production can result in Cushing's syndrome, a condition characterized by symptoms such as weight gain, muscle weakness, and high blood pressure.

It's important to note that ectopic hormone production is relatively rare and usually occurs in the context of specific medical conditions. If you suspect that you or someone else may have ectopic hormone production, it's important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional who can provide appropriate evaluation and treatment.

Lipase is an enzyme that is produced by the pancreas and found in the digestive system of most organisms. Its primary function is to catalyze the hydrolysis of fats (triglycerides) into smaller molecules, such as fatty acids and glycerol, which can then be absorbed by the intestines and utilized for energy or stored for later use.

In medical terms, lipase levels in the blood are often measured to diagnose or monitor conditions that affect the pancreas, such as pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas), pancreatic cancer, or cystic fibrosis. Elevated lipase levels may indicate damage to the pancreas and its ability to produce digestive enzymes.

Nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), also known as free fatty acids (FFA), refer to fatty acid molecules that are not bound to glycerol in the form of triglycerides or other esters. In the bloodstream, NEFAs are transported while bound to albumin and can serve as a source of energy for peripheral tissues. Under normal physiological conditions, NEFA levels are tightly regulated by the body; however, elevated NEFA levels have been associated with various metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, and type 2 diabetes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "dioxoles" is not a medical term or concept. It is a chemical term that refers to a specific type of organic compound containing a dioxole ring, which is a six-membered ring consisting of two oxygen atoms and two carbon atoms. Dioxoles can be found in various natural and synthetic substances, but they are not typically relevant to medical definitions or concepts.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help answer them for you.

Fatty acid synthases (FAS) are a group of enzymes that are responsible for the synthesis of fatty acids in the body. They catalyze a series of reactions that convert acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA into longer chain fatty acids, which are then used for various purposes such as energy storage or membrane formation.

The human genome encodes two types of FAS: type I and type II. Type I FAS is a large multifunctional enzyme complex found in the cytoplasm of cells, while type II FAS consists of individual enzymes located in the mitochondria. Both types of FAS play important roles in lipid metabolism, but their regulation and expression differ depending on the tissue and physiological conditions.

Inhibition of FAS has been explored as a potential therapeutic strategy for various diseases, including cancer, obesity, and metabolic disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the complex mechanisms regulating FAS activity and its role in human health and disease.

Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of glucose and lipids. It catalyzes the conversion of dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) to glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P), which is a key intermediate in the synthesis of triglycerides, phospholipids, and other glycerophospholipids.

There are two main forms of GPD: a cytoplasmic form (GPD1) and a mitochondrial form (GPD2). The cytoplasmic form is involved in the production of NADH, which is used in various metabolic processes, while the mitochondrial form is involved in the production of ATP, the main energy currency of the cell.

Deficiencies or mutations in GPD can lead to a variety of metabolic disorders, including glycerol kinase deficiency and congenital muscular dystrophy. Elevated levels of GPD have been observed in certain types of cancer, suggesting that it may play a role in tumor growth and progression.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Zucker" is not a standard medical term or abbreviation in human medicine. It seems to be an incorrect combination of two terms from the field of laboratory animal science.

1. "Rats" are commonly used laboratory animals.
2. "Zucker" is a surname and also refers to a strain of laboratory rats, specifically the Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rat, which is a model for studying type 2 diabetes mellitus.

If you have any questions related to human medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Protein-kinase B, also known as AKT, is a group of intracellular proteins that play a crucial role in various cellular processes such as glucose metabolism, apoptosis, cell proliferation, transcription, and cell migration. The AKT family includes three isoforms: AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3, which are encoded by the genes PKBalpha, PKBbeta, and PKBgamma, respectively.

Proto-oncogene proteins c-AKT refer to the normal, non-mutated forms of these proteins that are involved in the regulation of cell growth and survival under physiological conditions. However, when these genes are mutated or overexpressed, they can become oncogenes, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and cancer development.

Activation of c-AKT occurs through a signaling cascade that begins with the binding of extracellular ligands such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) or epidermal growth factor (EGF) to their respective receptors on the cell surface. This triggers a series of phosphorylation events that ultimately lead to the activation of c-AKT, which then phosphorylates downstream targets involved in various cellular processes.

In summary, proto-oncogene proteins c-AKT are normal intracellular proteins that play essential roles in regulating cell growth and survival under physiological conditions. However, their dysregulation can contribute to cancer development and progression.

Androstadienes are a class of steroid hormones that are derived from androstenedione, which is a weak male sex hormone. Androstadienes include various compounds such as androstadiene-3,17-dione and androstanedione, which are intermediate products in the biosynthesis of more potent androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

Androstadienes are present in both males and females but are found in higher concentrations in men. They can be detected in various bodily fluids, including blood, urine, sweat, and semen. In addition to their role in steroid hormone synthesis, androstadienes have been studied for their potential use as biomarkers of physiological processes and disease states.

It's worth noting that androstadienes are sometimes referred to as "androstenes" in the literature, although this term can also refer to other related compounds.

Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They regulate the movement of ions (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride) across the cell membrane by allowing these charged particles to pass through selectively in response to various stimuli, including voltage changes, ligand binding, mechanical stress, or temperature changes. This ion movement is essential for many physiological processes, including electrical signaling, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential. Ion channels can be categorized based on their activation mechanisms, ion selectivity, and structural features. Dysfunction of ion channels can lead to various diseases, making them important targets for drug development.

Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSCs) are a type of adult stem cells found in various tissues, including bone marrow, adipose tissue, and umbilical cord blood. They have the ability to differentiate into multiple cell types, such as osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes, under specific conditions. MSCs also possess immunomodulatory properties, making them a promising tool in regenerative medicine and therapeutic strategies for various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and tissue injuries. It is important to note that the term "Mesenchymal Stem Cells" has been replaced by "Mesenchymal Stromal Cells" in the scientific community to better reflect their biological characteristics and potential functions.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

"Wistar rats" are a strain of albino rats that are widely used in laboratory research. They were developed at the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia, USA, and were first introduced in 1906. Wistar rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not have a fixed set of genetic characteristics like inbred strains.

Wistar rats are commonly used as animal models in biomedical research because of their size, ease of handling, and relatively low cost. They are used in a wide range of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and behavioral studies. Wistar rats are also used in safety testing of drugs, medical devices, and other products.

Wistar rats are typically larger than many other rat strains, with males weighing between 500-700 grams and females weighing between 250-350 grams. They have a lifespan of approximately 2-3 years. Wistar rats are also known for their docile and friendly nature, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory setting.

Dexamethasone is a type of corticosteroid medication, which is a synthetic version of a natural hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It is often used to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system in a variety of medical conditions, including allergies, asthma, rheumatoid arthritis, and certain skin conditions.

Dexamethasone works by binding to specific receptors in cells, which triggers a range of anti-inflammatory effects. These include reducing the production of chemicals that cause inflammation, suppressing the activity of immune cells, and stabilizing cell membranes.

In addition to its anti-inflammatory effects, dexamethasone can also be used to treat other medical conditions, such as certain types of cancer, brain swelling, and adrenal insufficiency. It is available in a variety of forms, including tablets, liquids, creams, and injectable solutions.

Like all medications, dexamethasone can have side effects, particularly if used for long periods of time or at high doses. These may include mood changes, increased appetite, weight gain, acne, thinning skin, easy bruising, and an increased risk of infections. It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare provider when taking dexamethasone to minimize the risk of side effects.

Membrane proteins are a type of protein that are embedded in the lipid bilayer of biological membranes, such as the plasma membrane of cells or the inner membrane of mitochondria. These proteins play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including:

1. Cell-cell recognition and signaling
2. Transport of molecules across the membrane (selective permeability)
3. Enzymatic reactions at the membrane surface
4. Energy transduction and conversion
5. Mechanosensation and signal transduction

Membrane proteins can be classified into two main categories: integral membrane proteins, which are permanently associated with the lipid bilayer, and peripheral membrane proteins, which are temporarily or loosely attached to the membrane surface. Integral membrane proteins can further be divided into three subcategories based on their topology:

1. Transmembrane proteins, which span the entire width of the lipid bilayer with one or more alpha-helices or beta-barrels.
2. Lipid-anchored proteins, which are covalently attached to lipids in the membrane via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor or other lipid modifications.
3. Monotopic proteins, which are partially embedded in the membrane and have one or more domains exposed to either side of the bilayer.

Membrane proteins are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and are targets for various therapeutic interventions, including drug development and gene therapy. However, their structural complexity and hydrophobicity make them challenging to study using traditional biochemical methods, requiring specialized techniques such as X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM).

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine, a type of small signaling protein involved in immune response and inflammation. It is primarily produced by activated macrophages, although other cell types such as T-cells, natural killer cells, and mast cells can also produce it.

TNF-α plays a crucial role in the body's defense against infection and tissue injury by mediating inflammatory responses, activating immune cells, and inducing apoptosis (programmed cell death) in certain types of cells. It does this by binding to its receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2, which are found on the surface of many cell types.

In addition to its role in the immune response, TNF-α has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis, as well as cancer, where it can promote tumor growth and metastasis.

Therapeutic agents that target TNF-α, such as infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept, have been developed to treat these conditions. However, these drugs can also increase the risk of infections and other side effects, so their use must be carefully monitored.

A high-fat diet is a type of eating plan that derives a significant proportion of its daily caloric intake from fat sources. While there is no universally agreed-upon definition for what constitutes a high-fat diet, it generally refers to diets in which total fat intake provides more than 30-35% of the total daily calories.

High-fat diets can vary widely in their specific composition and may include different types of fats, such as saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated, and trans fats. Some high-fat diets emphasize the consumption of whole, unprocessed foods that are naturally high in fat, like nuts, seeds, avocados, fish, and olive oil. Others may allow for or even encourage the inclusion of processed and high-fat animal products, such as red meat, butter, and full-fat dairy.

It's important to note that not all high-fat diets are created equal, and some may be more healthful than others depending on their specific composition and the individual's overall dietary patterns. Some research suggests that high-fat diets that are low in carbohydrates and moderate in protein may offer health benefits for weight loss, blood sugar control, and cardiovascular risk factors, while other studies have raised concerns about the potential negative effects of high-fat diets on heart health and metabolic function.

As with any dietary approach, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider or registered dietitian before making significant changes to your eating habits, especially if you have any underlying medical conditions or are taking medications that may be affected by dietary changes.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Proteins are complex, large molecules that play critical roles in the body's functions. They are made up of amino acids, which are organic compounds that are the building blocks of proteins. Proteins are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs. They are essential for the growth, repair, and maintenance of body tissues, and they play a crucial role in many biological processes, including metabolism, immune response, and cellular signaling. Proteins can be classified into different types based on their structure and function, such as enzymes, hormones, antibodies, and structural proteins. They are found in various foods, especially animal-derived products like meat, dairy, and eggs, as well as plant-based sources like beans, nuts, and grains.

Cytoplasmic receptors and nuclear receptors are two types of intracellular receptors that play crucial roles in signal transduction pathways and regulation of gene expression. They are classified based on their location within the cell. Here are the medical definitions for each:

1. Cytoplasmic Receptors: These are a group of intracellular receptors primarily found in the cytoplasm of cells, which bind to specific hormones, growth factors, or other signaling molecules. Upon binding, these receptors undergo conformational changes that allow them to interact with various partners, such as adapter proteins and enzymes, leading to activation of downstream signaling cascades. These pathways ultimately result in modulation of cellular processes like proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Examples of cytoplasmic receptors include receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), serine/threonine kinase receptors, and cytokine receptors.
2. Nuclear Receptors: These are a distinct class of intracellular receptors that reside primarily in the nucleus of cells. They bind to specific ligands, such as steroid hormones, thyroid hormones, vitamin D, retinoic acid, and various other lipophilic molecules. Upon binding, nuclear receptors undergo conformational changes that facilitate their interaction with co-regulatory proteins and the DNA. This interaction results in the modulation of gene transcription, ultimately leading to alterations in protein expression and cellular responses. Examples of nuclear receptors include estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs).

Both cytoplasmic and nuclear receptors are essential components of cellular communication networks, allowing cells to respond appropriately to extracellular signals and maintain homeostasis. Dysregulation of these receptors has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Sprague-Dawley rats are a strain of albino laboratory rats that are widely used in scientific research. They were first developed by researchers H.H. Sprague and R.C. Dawley in the early 20th century, and have since become one of the most commonly used rat strains in biomedical research due to their relatively large size, ease of handling, and consistent genetic background.

Sprague-Dawley rats are outbred, which means that they are genetically diverse and do not suffer from the same limitations as inbred strains, which can have reduced fertility and increased susceptibility to certain diseases. They are also characterized by their docile nature and low levels of aggression, making them easier to handle and study than some other rat strains.

These rats are used in a wide variety of research areas, including toxicology, pharmacology, nutrition, cancer, and behavioral studies. Because they are genetically diverse, Sprague-Dawley rats can be used to model a range of human diseases and conditions, making them an important tool in the development of new drugs and therapies.

Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, is a hormone and a neurotransmitter that is produced in the body. It is released by the adrenal glands in response to stress or excitement, and it prepares the body for the "fight or flight" response. Epinephrine works by binding to specific receptors in the body, which causes a variety of physiological effects, including increased heart rate and blood pressure, improved muscle strength and alertness, and narrowing of the blood vessels in the skin and intestines. It is also used as a medication to treat various medical conditions, such as anaphylaxis (a severe allergic reaction), cardiac arrest, and low blood pressure.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins (C/EBPs) are a family of transcription factors that play crucial roles in the regulation of various biological processes, including cell growth, development, and differentiation. They bind to specific DNA sequences called CCAAT boxes, which are found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes.

The C/EBP family consists of several members, including C/EBPα, C/EBPβ, C/EBPγ, C/EBPδ, and C/EBPε. These proteins share a highly conserved basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, which is responsible for their DNA-binding and dimerization activities.

C/EBPs can form homodimers or heterodimers with other bZIP proteins, allowing them to regulate gene expression in a combinatorial manner. They are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation, immune response, metabolism, and cell cycle control. Dysregulation of C/EBP function has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders.

Intra-abdominal fat, also known as visceral fat, is the fat that is stored within the abdominal cavity and surrounds the internal organs such as the liver, pancreas, and intestines. It's different from subcutaneous fat, which is the fat found just under the skin. Intra-abdominal fat is metabolically active and has been linked to an increased risk of various health conditions, including type 2 diabetes, heart disease, high blood pressure, and stroke. The accumulation of intra-abdominal fat can be influenced by factors such as diet, physical activity, genetics, and age. Waist circumference and imaging tests, such as CT scans and MRIs, are commonly used to measure intra-abdominal fat.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Lipogenesis is the biological process by which fatty acids are synthesized and stored as lipids or fat in living organisms. This process occurs primarily in the liver and adipose tissue, with excess glucose being converted into fatty acids and then esterified to form triglycerides. These triglycerides are then packaged with proteins and cholesterol to form lipoproteins, which are transported throughout the body for energy storage or use. Lipogenesis is a complex process involving multiple enzymes and metabolic pathways, and it is tightly regulated by hormones such as insulin, glucagon, and adrenaline. Disorders of lipogenesis can lead to conditions such as obesity, fatty liver disease, and metabolic disorders.

Norepinephrine, also known as noradrenaline, is a neurotransmitter and a hormone that is primarily produced in the adrenal glands and is released into the bloodstream in response to stress or physical activity. It plays a crucial role in the "fight-or-flight" response by preparing the body for action through increasing heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, and glucose availability.

As a neurotransmitter, norepinephrine is involved in regulating various functions of the nervous system, including attention, perception, motivation, and arousal. It also plays a role in modulating pain perception and responding to stressful or emotional situations.

In medical settings, norepinephrine is used as a vasopressor medication to treat hypotension (low blood pressure) that can occur during septic shock, anesthesia, or other critical illnesses. It works by constricting blood vessels and increasing heart rate, which helps to improve blood pressure and perfusion of vital organs.

Thiazoles are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring consisting of a nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom, along with two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms. They have the chemical formula C3H4NS. Thiazoles are present in various natural and synthetic substances, including some vitamins, drugs, and dyes. In the context of medicine, thiazole derivatives have been developed as pharmaceuticals for their diverse biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and antihypertensive properties. Some well-known examples include thiazide diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide) used to treat high blood pressure and edema, and the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone.

Subcellular fractions refer to the separation and collection of specific parts or components of a cell, including organelles, membranes, and other structures, through various laboratory techniques such as centrifugation and ultracentrifugation. These fractions can be used in further biochemical and molecular analyses to study the structure, function, and interactions of individual cellular components. Examples of subcellular fractions include nuclear extracts, mitochondrial fractions, microsomal fractions (membrane vesicles), and cytosolic fractions (cytoplasmic extracts).

Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1 (SREBP-1) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of lipid metabolism, primarily cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis. It binds to specific DNA sequences called sterol regulatory elements (SREs), which are present in the promoter regions of genes involved in lipid synthesis.

SREBP-1 exists in two isoforms, SREBP-1a and SREBP-1c, encoded by a single gene through alternative splicing. SREBP-1a is a stronger transcriptional activator than SREBP-1c and can activate both cholesterol and fatty acid synthesis genes. In contrast, SREBP-1c primarily regulates fatty acid synthesis genes.

Under normal conditions, SREBP-1 is found in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as an inactive precursor bound to another protein called SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP). When cells detect low levels of cholesterol or fatty acids, SCAP escorts SREBP-1 to the Golgi apparatus, where it undergoes proteolytic processing to release the active transcription factor. The active SREBP-1 then translocates to the nucleus and binds to SREs, promoting the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis.

Overall, SREBP-1 is a critical regulator of lipid homeostasis, and its dysregulation has been implicated in various diseases, including obesity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and atherosclerosis.

Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the metabolism of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+), which is a coenzyme found in all living cells and is involved in various cellular processes, including energy production, DNA repair, and gene expression. NAMPT catalyzes the conversion of nicotinamide (a form of vitamin B3) into nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), which is then converted into NAD+.

NAMPT has been identified as a key regulator of NAD+ levels in the body, and its activity is associated with various health benefits, such as improved insulin sensitivity, reduced inflammation, and increased lifespan. On the other hand, decreased NAMPT activity has been linked to several age-related diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, NAMPT is an important target for developing therapies aimed at preventing or treating these conditions.

Palmitic acid is a type of saturated fatty acid, which is a common component in many foods and also produced naturally by the human body. Its chemical formula is C16H32O2. It's named after palm trees because it was first isolated from palm oil, although it can also be found in other vegetable oils, animal fats, and dairy products.

In the human body, palmitic acid plays a role in energy production and storage. However, consuming large amounts of this fatty acid has been linked to an increased risk of heart disease due to its association with elevated levels of bad cholesterol (LDL). The World Health Organization recommends limiting the consumption of saturated fats, including palmitic acid, to less than 10% of total energy intake.

3',5'-Cyclic-AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) phosphodiesterases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the breakdown of cyclic AMP to 5'-AMP. These enzymes play a crucial role in regulating the levels of intracellular second messengers, such as cyclic AMP, which are involved in various cellular signaling pathways.

There are several subtypes of phosphodiesterases (PDEs) that specifically target cyclic AMP, including PDE1, PDE2, PDE3, PDE4, PDE7, PDE8, and PDE10. Each subtype has distinct regulatory and catalytic properties, allowing for specific regulation of cyclic AMP levels in different cellular compartments and signaling pathways.

Inhibition of these enzymes can lead to an increase in intracellular cyclic AMP levels, which can have therapeutic effects in various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension, and central nervous system disorders. Therefore, PDE inhibitors are a valuable class of drugs for the treatment of these conditions.

Hexoses are simple sugars (monosaccharides) that contain six carbon atoms. The most common hexoses include glucose, fructose, and galactose. These sugars play important roles in various biological processes, such as serving as energy sources or forming complex carbohydrates like starch and cellulose. Hexoses are essential for the structure and function of living organisms, including humans.

Dietary fats, also known as fatty acids, are a major nutrient that the body needs for energy and various functions. They are an essential component of cell membranes and hormones, and they help the body absorb certain vitamins. There are several types of dietary fats:

1. Saturated fats: These are typically solid at room temperature and are found in animal products such as meat, butter, and cheese, as well as tropical oils like coconut and palm oil. Consuming a high amount of saturated fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and increase the risk of heart disease.
2. Unsaturated fats: These are typically liquid at room temperature and can be further divided into monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats. Monounsaturated fats, found in foods such as olive oil, avocados, and nuts, can help lower levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol while maintaining levels of healthy HDL cholesterol. Polyunsaturated fats, found in foods such as fatty fish, flaxseeds, and walnuts, have similar effects on cholesterol levels and also provide essential omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids that the body cannot produce on its own.
3. Trans fats: These are unsaturated fats that have been chemically modified to be solid at room temperature. They are often found in processed foods such as baked goods, fried foods, and snack foods. Consuming trans fats can raise levels of unhealthy LDL cholesterol and lower levels of healthy HDL cholesterol, increasing the risk of heart disease.

It is recommended to limit intake of saturated and trans fats and to consume more unsaturated fats as part of a healthy diet.

"Chromans" are a class of organic compounds that contain a benzene fused to a five-membered saturated carbon ring containing one oxygen atom. This particular ring structure is also known as a chromane. Chromans have various applications in the field of medicinal chemistry and pharmacology, with some derivatives exhibiting biological activities such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardiovascular protective effects. Some well-known chroman derivatives include vitamin E (tocopherols and tocotrienols) and several synthetic drugs like chromanol, a calcium channel blocker used in the treatment of hypertension and angina pectoris.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

Oleic acid is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is commonly found in various natural oils such as olive oil, sunflower oil, and peanut oil. Its chemical formula is cis-9-octadecenoic acid, and it is a colorless liquid at room temperature with a slight odor. Oleic acid is an important component of human diet and has been shown to have various health benefits, including reducing the risk of heart disease and improving immune function. It is also used in the manufacture of soaps, cosmetics, and other industrial products.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Complement Factor D is a protein that plays a crucial role in the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to clear pathogens and damaged cells from the body. Specifically, Factor D is a serine protease that is involved in the alternative pathway of the complement system.

In this pathway, Factor D helps to cleave another protein called Factor B, which then activates a complex called the C3 convertase. The C3 convertase cleaves complement component 3 (C3) into C3a and C3b, leading to the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which creates a pore in the membrane of the target cell, causing its lysis and removal from the body.

Deficiencies or mutations in Complement Factor D can lead to an impaired alternative pathway and increased susceptibility to certain infections, particularly those caused by Neisseria bacteria. Additionally, abnormal regulation of the complement system has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including autoimmune disorders, inflammatory conditions, and neurodegenerative diseases.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Azo compounds are organic compounds characterized by the presence of one or more azo groups (-N=N-) in their molecular structure. The term "azo" is derived from the Greek word "azō," meaning "to boil" or "to sparkle," which refers to the brightly colored nature of many azo compounds.

These compounds are synthesized by the reaction between aromatic amines and nitrous acid or its derivatives, resulting in the formation of diazonium salts, which then react with another aromatic compound containing an active methylene group to form azo compounds.

Azo compounds have diverse applications across various industries, including dyes, pigments, pharmaceuticals, and agrochemicals. They are known for their vibrant colors, making them widely used as colorants in textiles, leather, paper, and food products. In addition, some azo compounds exhibit unique chemical properties, such as solubility, stability, and reactivity, which make them valuable intermediates in the synthesis of various organic compounds.

However, certain azo compounds have been found to pose health risks due to their potential carcinogenicity and mutagenicity. As a result, regulations have been imposed on their use in consumer products, particularly those intended for oral consumption or direct skin contact.

Cell size refers to the volume or spatial dimensions of a cell, which can vary widely depending on the type and function of the cell. In general, eukaryotic cells (cells with a true nucleus) tend to be larger than prokaryotic cells (cells without a true nucleus). The size of a cell is determined by various factors such as genetic makeup, the cell's role in the organism, and its environment.

The study of cell size and its relationship to cell function is an active area of research in biology, with implications for our understanding of cellular processes, evolution, and disease. For example, changes in cell size have been linked to various pathological conditions, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Therefore, measuring and analyzing cell size can provide valuable insights into the health and function of cells and tissues.

RAB4 GTP-binding proteins are a subfamily of RAB proteins, which are small guanosine triphosphatases (GTPases) that play crucial roles in regulating intracellular vesicle trafficking. Specifically, RAB4 GTP-binding proteins are involved in the early stages of endocytic recycling, a process by which internalized membrane receptors and cargo are transported back to the plasma membrane for reuse.

RAB4 proteins exist in two distinct conformational states: an active, GTP-bound state and an inactive, GDP-bound state. In the active state, RAB4 proteins interact with various effector molecules to facilitate vesicle transport and fusion events. Upon hydrolysis of GTP to GDP, RAB4 proteins switch to their inactive state, which leads to dissociation from effector molecules and subsequent recycling of the RAB4 protein back to the donor membrane compartment.

There are two isoforms of RAB4 proteins, RAB4A and RAB4B, which share a high degree of sequence similarity but have distinct cellular localization patterns and functions. Dysregulation of RAB4 GTP-binding proteins has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Colforsin is a drug that belongs to a class of medications called phosphodiesterase inhibitors. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical called cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the body, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels.

Colforsin is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States. However, it has been used in research settings to study its potential effects on heart function and other physiological processes. In animals, colforsin has been shown to have positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and lusitropic (relaxation-enhancing) effects on the heart, making it a potential therapeutic option for heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions.

It is important to note that while colforsin has shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in humans. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and in the context of a clinical trial or research study.

Adenosine Deaminase (ADA) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the immune system by helping to regulate the levels of certain chemicals called purines within cells. Specifically, ADA helps to break down adenosine, a type of purine, into another compound called inosine. This enzyme is found in all tissues of the body, but it is especially active in the immune system's white blood cells, where it helps to support their growth, development, and function.

ADA deficiency is a rare genetic disorder that can lead to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a condition in which babies are born with little or no functional immune system. This makes them extremely vulnerable to infections, which can be life-threatening. ADA deficiency can be treated with enzyme replacement therapy, bone marrow transplantation, or gene therapy.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

1-Acylglycerol-3-Phosphate O-Acyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the reaction of forming diacylglycerol phosphate (also known as phosphatidic acid) from 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate and acyl-CoA. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the biosynthesis of glycerophospholipids, which are major components of biological membranes. The systematic name for this enzyme is 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase; alternatively, it may also be referred to as lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase or LPAAT.

Gene expression regulation, enzymologic refers to the biochemical processes and mechanisms that control the transcription and translation of specific genes into functional proteins or enzymes. This regulation is achieved through various enzymatic activities that can either activate or repress gene expression at different levels, such as chromatin remodeling, transcription factor activation, mRNA processing, and protein degradation.

Enzymologic regulation of gene expression involves the action of specific enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions involved in these processes. For example, histone-modifying enzymes can alter the structure of chromatin to make genes more or less accessible for transcription, while RNA polymerase and its associated factors are responsible for transcribing DNA into mRNA. Additionally, various enzymes are involved in post-transcriptional modifications of mRNA, such as splicing, capping, and tailing, which can affect the stability and translation of the transcript.

Overall, the enzymologic regulation of gene expression is a complex and dynamic process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment and maintain proper physiological function.

"Adiposity" is a medical term that refers to the condition of having an excessive amount of fat in the body. It is often used to describe obesity or being significantly overweight. Adipose tissue, which is the technical name for body fat, is important for many bodily functions, such as storing energy and insulating the body. However, an excess of adipose tissue can lead to a range of health problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and certain types of cancer.

There are different ways to measure adiposity, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and skinfold thickness. BMI is the most commonly used method and is calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by their height in meters squared. A BMI of 30 or higher is considered obese, while a BMI between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight. However, it's important to note that BMI may not accurately reflect adiposity in some individuals, such as those with a lot of muscle mass.

In summary, adiposity refers to the condition of having too much body fat, which can increase the risk of various health problems.

Intercellular signaling peptides and proteins are molecules that mediate communication and interaction between different cells in living organisms. They play crucial roles in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). These signals can be released into the extracellular space, where they bind to specific receptors on the target cell's surface, triggering intracellular signaling cascades that ultimately lead to a response.

Peptides are short chains of amino acids, while proteins are larger molecules made up of one or more polypeptide chains. Both can function as intercellular signaling molecules by acting as ligands for cell surface receptors or by being cleaved from larger precursor proteins and released into the extracellular space. Examples of intercellular signaling peptides and proteins include growth factors, cytokines, chemokines, hormones, neurotransmitters, and their respective receptors.

These molecules contribute to maintaining homeostasis within an organism by coordinating cellular activities across tissues and organs. Dysregulation of intercellular signaling pathways has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, and neurodegenerative conditions. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying intercellular signaling is essential for developing targeted therapies to treat these disorders.

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a cytokine, a type of protein that plays a crucial role in communication between cells, especially in the immune system. It is produced by various cells including T-cells, B-cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells in response to infection, injury, or inflammation.

IL-6 has diverse effects on different cell types. In the immune system, it stimulates the growth and differentiation of B-cells into plasma cells that produce antibodies. It also promotes the activation and survival of T-cells. Moreover, IL-6 plays a role in fever induction by acting on the hypothalamus to raise body temperature during an immune response.

In addition to its functions in the immune system, IL-6 has been implicated in various physiological processes such as hematopoiesis (the formation of blood cells), bone metabolism, and neural development. However, abnormal levels of IL-6 have also been associated with several diseases, including autoimmune disorders, chronic inflammation, and cancer.

According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), stem cells are "initial cells" or "precursor cells" that have the ability to differentiate into many different cell types in the body. They can also divide without limit to replenish other cells for as long as the person or animal is still alive.

There are two main types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which come from human embryos, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues throughout the body. Embryonic stem cells have the ability to differentiate into all cell types in the body, while adult stem cells have more limited differentiation potential.

Stem cells play an essential role in the development and repair of various tissues and organs in the body. They are currently being studied for their potential use in the treatment of a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the properties and capabilities of these cells before they can be used safely and effectively in clinical settings.

Caveolae are small, flask-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane that are abundant in many cell types, including endothelial cells, adipocytes, and muscle cells. They are characterized by the presence of caveolin proteins, which play a crucial role in their formation and function.

Caveolae have been implicated in various cellular processes, such as endocytosis, signal transduction, cholesterol homeostasis, and mechanoprotection. They can also serve as platforms for the assembly of signaling complexes and the regulation of various enzymatic activities.

The invaginated structure of caveolae allows them to interact with extracellular molecules and intracellular proteins, facilitating the exchange of materials between the plasma membrane and the cytosol. Dysregulation of caveolae function has been linked to several diseases, including cardiovascular disorders, cancer, and neurological conditions.

Down-regulation is a process that occurs in response to various stimuli, where the number or sensitivity of cell surface receptors or the expression of specific genes is decreased. This process helps maintain homeostasis within cells and tissues by reducing the ability of cells to respond to certain signals or molecules.

In the context of cell surface receptors, down-regulation can occur through several mechanisms:

1. Receptor internalization: After binding to their ligands, receptors can be internalized into the cell through endocytosis. Once inside the cell, these receptors may be degraded or recycled back to the cell surface in smaller numbers.
2. Reduced receptor synthesis: Down-regulation can also occur at the transcriptional level, where the expression of genes encoding for specific receptors is decreased, leading to fewer receptors being produced.
3. Receptor desensitization: Prolonged exposure to a ligand can lead to a decrease in receptor sensitivity or affinity, making it more difficult for the cell to respond to the signal.

In the context of gene expression, down-regulation refers to the decreased transcription and/or stability of specific mRNAs, leading to reduced protein levels. This process can be induced by various factors, including microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation, histone modification, or DNA methylation.

Down-regulation is an essential mechanism in many physiological processes and can also contribute to the development of several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Fibroblasts are specialized cells that play a critical role in the body's immune response and wound healing process. They are responsible for producing and maintaining the extracellular matrix (ECM), which is the non-cellular component present within all tissues and organs, providing structural support and biochemical signals for surrounding cells.

Fibroblasts produce various ECM proteins such as collagens, elastin, fibronectin, and laminins, forming a complex network of fibers that give tissues their strength and flexibility. They also help in the regulation of tissue homeostasis by controlling the turnover of ECM components through the process of remodeling.

In response to injury or infection, fibroblasts become activated and start to proliferate rapidly, migrating towards the site of damage. Here, they participate in the inflammatory response, releasing cytokines and chemokines that attract immune cells to the area. Additionally, they deposit new ECM components to help repair the damaged tissue and restore its functionality.

Dysregulation of fibroblast activity has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including fibrosis (excessive scarring), cancer (where they can contribute to tumor growth and progression), and autoimmune diseases (such as rheumatoid arthritis).

Caveolin 1 is a protein that is a key component of caveolae, which are specialized invaginations of the plasma membrane found in many cell types. Caveolae play important roles in various cellular processes, including endocytosis, cholesterol homeostasis, and signal transduction.

Caveolin 1 is a structural protein that helps to form and maintain the shape of caveolae. It also plays a role in regulating the activity of various signaling molecules that are associated with caveolae, including G proteins, receptor tyrosine kinases, and Src family kinases.

Mutations in the gene that encodes caveolin 1 have been linked to several genetic disorders, including muscular dystrophy, cardiac arrhythmias, and cancer. Additionally, changes in the expression or localization of caveolin 1 have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and infectious diseases.

Deoxy sugars, also known as deoxyriboses, are sugars that have one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups replaced by a hydrogen atom. The most well-known deoxy sugar is deoxyribose, which is a component of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Deoxyribose is a pentose sugar, meaning it has five carbon atoms, and it differs from the related sugar ribose by having a hydrogen atom instead of a hydroxyl group at the 2' position. This structural difference affects the ability of DNA to form double-stranded helices through hydrogen bonding between complementary base pairs, which is critical for the storage and replication of genetic information.

Other deoxy sugars may also be important in biology, such as L-deoxyribose, a component of certain antibiotics, and various deoxyhexoses, which are found in some natural products and bacterial polysaccharides.

CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta (CEBPB) is a transcription factor that plays a crucial role in the regulation of gene expression. It binds to the CCAAT box, a specific DNA sequence found in the promoter or enhancer regions of many genes. CEBPB is involved in various biological processes such as cell growth, development, and immune response. Dysregulation of CEBPB has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Subcutaneous fat in the abdominal area refers to the adipose tissue located beneath the skin and above the abdominal muscles in the stomach region. It is the layer of fat that you can pinch between your fingers. While some level of subcutaneous fat is normal and healthy, excessive amounts can increase the risk of various health conditions such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic disorders.

It's worth noting that there is another type of fat called visceral fat, which is found deeper within the abdominal cavity, surrounding the internal organs. Visceral fat is often referred to as "active" fat because it releases hormones and inflammatory substances that can have a negative impact on health, even if overall body weight is normal. High levels of visceral fat are associated with an increased risk of developing conditions such as metabolic syndrome, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

While subcutaneous fat is less metabolically active than visceral fat, excessive amounts can still contribute to health problems. Therefore, it's important to maintain a healthy body weight through regular exercise and a balanced diet.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Complement C3a is a protein fragment that is generated during the activation of the complement system, which is a part of the immune system. The complement system helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body by marking them for destruction and attracting immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

C3a is produced when the third component of the complement system (C3) is cleaved into two smaller fragments, C3a and C3b, during the complement activation cascade. C3a is a potent anaphylatoxin, which means it can cause the release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils, leading to inflammation, increased vascular permeability, and smooth muscle contraction.

C3a also has chemotactic properties, meaning it can attract immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes to the site of complement activation. Additionally, C3a can modulate the activity of various immune cells, including dendritic cells, T cells, and B cells, and play a role in the regulation of the adaptive immune response.

It's important to note that while C3a has important functions in the immune response, uncontrolled or excessive activation of the complement system can lead to tissue damage and inflammation, contributing to the pathogenesis of various diseases such as autoimmune disorders, inflammatory diseases, and allergies.

Leptin receptors are cell surface receptors that bind to and respond to the hormone leptin. These receptors are found in various tissues throughout the body, including the hypothalamus in the brain, which plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite. Leptin is a hormone produced by adipose (fat) tissue that signals information about the size of fat stores to the brain. When leptin binds to its receptors, it activates signaling pathways that help regulate energy intake and expenditure, body weight, and glucose metabolism.

There are several subtypes of leptin receptors (LEPR), including LEPRa, LEPRb, LEPC, and LEPD. Among these, the LEPRb isoform is the most widely expressed and functionally important form. Mutations in the gene encoding the leptin receptor can lead to obesity, hyperphagia (excessive hunger), and impaired energy metabolism, highlighting the importance of this receptor in maintaining energy balance and overall health.

Enzyme inhibitors are substances that bind to an enzyme and decrease its activity, preventing it from catalyzing a chemical reaction in the body. They can work by several mechanisms, including blocking the active site where the substrate binds, or binding to another site on the enzyme to change its shape and prevent substrate binding. Enzyme inhibitors are often used as drugs to treat various medical conditions, such as high blood pressure, abnormal heart rhythms, and bacterial infections. They can also be found naturally in some foods and plants, and can be used in research to understand enzyme function and regulation.

Fatty acid transport proteins (FATPs) are a group of membrane-bound proteins that play a crucial role in the uptake and transport of long-chain fatty acids across the plasma membrane of cells. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the heart, muscle, adipose tissue, and liver.

FATPs have several domains that enable them to perform their functions, including a cytoplasmic domain that binds to fatty acids, a transmembrane domain that spans the plasma membrane, and an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) domain that hydrolyzes ATP to provide energy for fatty acid transport.

FATPs also play a role in the regulation of intracellular lipid metabolism by modulating the activity of enzymes involved in fatty acid activation, desaturation, and elongation. Mutations in FATP genes have been associated with various metabolic disorders, including congenital deficiency of long-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (LCHAD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder that affects fatty acid oxidation.

In summary, fatty acid transport proteins are essential for the uptake and metabolism of long-chain fatty acids in cells and have implications in various metabolic disorders.

I apologize for the confusion, but "Bucladesine" is not a recognized medical term or a medication in current use in medicine. It's possible that there may be some mistake or typo in the spelling. If you have any more context about where you encountered this term, I might be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

Stromal cells, also known as stromal/stroma cells, are a type of cell found in various tissues and organs throughout the body. They are often referred to as the "connective tissue" or "supporting framework" of an organ because they play a crucial role in maintaining the structure and function of the tissue. Stromal cells include fibroblasts, adipocytes (fat cells), and various types of progenitor/stem cells. They produce and maintain the extracellular matrix, which is the non-cellular component of tissues that provides structural support and biochemical cues for other cells. Stromal cells also interact with immune cells and participate in the regulation of the immune response. In some contexts, "stromal cells" can also refer to cells found in the microenvironment of tumors, which can influence cancer growth and progression.

Cell compartmentation, also known as intracellular compartmentalization, refers to the organization of cells into distinct functional and spatial domains. This is achieved through the separation of cellular components and biochemical reactions into membrane-bound organelles or compartments. Each compartment has its unique chemical composition and environment, allowing for specific biochemical reactions to occur efficiently and effectively without interfering with other processes in the cell.

Some examples of membrane-bound organelles include the nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and vacuoles. These organelles have specific functions, such as energy production (mitochondria), protein synthesis and folding (endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus), waste management (lysosomes), and lipid metabolism (peroxisomes).

Cell compartmentation is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, regulating metabolic pathways, protecting the cell from potentially harmful substances, and enabling complex biochemical reactions to occur in a controlled manner. Dysfunction of cell compartmentation can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and metabolic disorders.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis. In cell culture, ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Studies have shed light into ... Exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as marrow adipose tissue volume, as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone ... If the adipocytes in the body reach their maximum capacity of fat, they may replicate to allow additional fat storage. Adult ...
aP2 (adipocyte Protein 2) is a carrier protein for fatty acids that is primarily expressed in adipocytes and macrophages. aP2 ... Baxa CA, Sha RS, Buelt MK, Smith AJ, Matarese V, Chinander LL, Boundy KL, Bernlohr DA (1989). "Human adipocyte lipid-binding ... Floresta G, Pistarà V, Amata E, Dichiara M, Marrazzo A, Prezzavento O, Rescifina A (September 2017). "Adipocyte fatty acid ... adipocyte PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available in the PDB for Mouse Fatty acid-binding ...
July 2012). "Beige adipocytes are a distinct type of thermogenic fat cell in mouse and human". Cell. 150 (2): 366-76. doi: ... Erickson HP (October 2013). "Irisin and FNDC5 in retrospect: An exercise hormone or a transmembrane receptor?". Adipocyte. 2 (4 ... February 2014). "Irisin stimulates browning of white adipocytes through mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 MAP kinase and ERK ... August 2016). "Irisin exerts dual effects on browning and adipogenesis of human white adipocytes". American Journal of ...
Adipocyte. 2 (2): 109-112. doi:10.4161/adip.22880. PMC 3661112. PMID 23805408. Cursiefen, Claus; Chen, Lu; Borges, Leonardo P ...
Both adipocytes and brown adipocyte may be derived from pericytes, the cells which surround the blood vessels that run through ... In contrast to white adipocytes, which contain a single lipid droplet, brown adipocytes contain numerous smaller droplets and a ... The second develops from white adipocytes that are stimulated by the sympathetic nervous system. These adipocytes are found ... UCP1-containing adipocytes molecularly distinct from classic brown adipocytes". J Biol Chem. 285 (10): 7153-64. doi:10.1074/jbc ...
Erickson HP (October 2013). "Irisin and FNDC5 in retrospect: An exercise hormone or a transmembrane receptor?". Adipocyte. 2 (4 ...
2016). "Quantitative assessment of adipocyte differentiation in cell culture". Adipocyte. 5 (4): 351-358. doi:10.1080/ ...
Bone marrow adipocytes (BMAds) originate from mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) progenitors that also give rise to osteoblasts, among ... BMAT, by its "specific marrow location, and its adipocyte origin from at least LepR+ marrow MSC is separated from non-bone fat ... Duque G, Li W, Adams M, Xu S, Phipps R (May 2011). "Effects of risedronate on bone marrow adipocytes in postmenopausal women". ... Zhou BO, Yu H, Yue R, Zhao Z, Rios JJ, Naveiras O, Morrison SJ (August 2017). "Bone marrow adipocytes promote the regeneration ...
Within adipose tissue, presence of dead adipocytes is a hallmark of obesity. Macrophages surrounding dying or dead adipocytes ... 2005). "Adipocyte death defines macrophage localization and function in adipose tissue of obese mice and humans". J Lipid Res. ... Adipocyte cell death observed within pathologically expanding adipose tissue is one of the factors. Macrophages are specialized ... Moreover, expression of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α is mostly derived from macrophages rather than adipocytes. It has ...
"3T3-L1 adipocytes display phenotypic characteristics of multiple adipocyte lineages". Adipocyte. 4 (4): 295-302. doi:10.1080/ ... Although, some literature suggests that 3T3-L1 adipocytes can possess certain phenotypic signatures similar to other adipocyte ... utilized UCP-1 to increase oxygen consumption similar to brown adipocytes. This brown adipocyte characteristic was only ... In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, oleanolic acid (5umol/L) down regulated the expression of PPARy and cytidine-cytidine-adenosine-adenosine ...
Zhang X, Heckmann BL, Liu J (2013-01-01). Yang P, Li H (eds.). "Studying lipolysis in adipocytes by combining siRNA knockdown ... Villena JA, Roy S, Sarkadi-Nagy E, Kim KH, Sul HS (November 2004). "Desnutrin, an adipocyte gene encoding a novel patatin ... "Entrez Gene: PNPLA2 patatin-like phospholipase domain containing 2". Ojha S, Budge H, Symonds ME (2014). "Adipocytes in Normal ... Steinberg GR, Kemp BE, Watt MJ (October 2007). "Adipocyte triglyceride lipase expression in human obesity". American Journal of ...
It is used to mobilize stored energy during fasting or exercise, and usually occurs in fat adipocytes. The most important ... Insulin counter-regulates this increase in lipolysis when it binds to insulin receptors on the adipocyte cell membrane. Insulin ... Catecholamines bind to 7TM receptors (G protein-coupled receptors) on the adipocyte cell membrane, which activate adenylate ... Frühbeck, G; Méndez-Giménez, L; Fernández-Formoso, JA; Fernández, S; Rodríguez, A (June 2014). "Regulation of adipocyte ...
Adipocytes also have an external lamina. Wheater's Functional Histology, 5th ed. Young, Lowe, Stevens and Heath. v t e ( ...
Neurons and adipocytes exhibit the former; every other type of cell, the latter. As a result, different organs exhibit ...
Terminal differentiation is that preadipocytes differentiate into mature adipocytes. Adipocytes can arise either from ... Adipocytes play a vital role in energy homeostasis and process the largest energy reserve as triglycerol in the body of animals ... Adipocytes stay in a dynamic state, they start expanding when the energy intake is higher than the expenditure and undergo ... These genes include adipocyte protein (aP2), insulin receptor, glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, acetyl CoA ...
Infante M, Armani A, Marzolla V, Fabbri A, Caprio M (2019). "Adipocyte Mineralocorticoid Receptor". Vitamins and Hormones. ...
Adipocytes generate TNF-α and other interleukins. Cytokines derived from adipose tissue serve as remote regulators such as ... Obesity leaves an excess of nutrients for the body, thereby causing adipocytes to release more proinflammatory cytokines. ...
... -12 expression induces apoptosis of adipocytes. Galectin-3 has been shown to be the only galectin with anti-apoptotic ...
Fatty acids are normally stored in adipocytes as triglycerides. However, as triglycerides accumulate in adipocytes, fatty acids ... Adipocytes (fat cells) secrete proteins and signaling molecules known as adipokines. Certain adipokines have been implicated in ... In obesity, the greater number of adipocytes release greater amounts of leptin. These higher levels of leptin have been ... Leptin is a satiety adipokine released from adipocytes. Normally, leptin interacts with leptin receptors (LEPRs) in the brain ...
A model knocking out Noggin specifically in adipocytes has allowed to elucidate that Noggin also plays a role in adipose tissue ... its depletion in adipocytes causes alterations in the structure of both brown and white adipose tissue, along with brown fat ... "Noggin depletion in adipocytes promotes obesity in mice". Molecular Metabolism. 25: 50-63. doi:10.1016/j.molmet.2019.04.004. ...
... exists mostly as a single adipocytes in the subcutaneous tissue. In humans, white adipose tissue starts to ... PPARγ is required for both the adipogenesis and maintenance of the adipocytes. White adipose tissue exists in various depots ... White adipose tissue is composed of monolocular adipocytes. In humans, the healthy amount of white adipose tissue varies with ... A hypothesis is that the precursors for the different types of adipocytes are mesenchymal stem cells which differentiates by ...
In a 2015 study on the role of N6-methyladenosine (m6A) demethylation on adipogenesis, researchers treated porcine adipocytes ... cycloleucine increased adipocyte growth by blocking methylation by inhibiting m6A levels relative to the control adipocytes. ... "mRNA m6A Methylation Downregulates Adipogenesis In Porcine Adipocytes". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. ...
MSCs can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. In biology, oligopotency is the ability of progenitor ...
For example, insulin is known to activate LPL in adipocytes and its placement in the capillary endothelium. By contrast, ... Vannier C, Ailhaud G (August 1989). "Biosynthesis of lipoprotein lipase in cultured mouse adipocytes. II. Processing, subunit ... they responded with an increase in adipose tissue LPL activity per adipocyte, or a decrease in skeletal muscle LPL activity per ... "The role of glucose and glycosylation in the regulation of lipoprotein lipase synthesis and secretion in rat adipocytes". J. ...
... these normally energy-storing adipocytes become energy-releasing adipocytes. The calorie-burning capacity of brown and beige ... The adipocytes in this depot are derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) which can give rise to fat cells, bone cells as well ... Apart from adipocytes, which comprise the highest percentage of cells within adipose tissue, other cell types are present, ... Because adipocytes produce leptin, leptin levels are elevated in the obese. However, hunger remains, and-when leptin levels ...
Brown adipocytes consist of densely packed mitochondria that contain uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1). UCP-1 plays a key role in ... The activity of PRDM16 in white adipose tissue leads to the production of brown fat-like adipocytes within white adipose tissue ... This expression takes place primarily within mature adipocytes. Transgenic aP2-PRDM16 mice were used in a study to observe the ... PRDM16 acts as a transcription coregulator that controls the development of brown adipocytes in brown adipose tissue. ...
... treatment of adipocytes is associated with phosphorylation of FRS2, a protein linking FGF receptors to the Ras/MAP kinase ... Whether or not in-vivo responses to FGF21 in the liver and other organs are mediated through its prior action on adipocytes is ... FGF21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes but not in other cell types. This effect is additive to the activity of insulin. ... Justesen S, Haugegaard KV, Hansen JB, Hansen HS, Andersen B (July 2020). "The autocrine role of FGF21 in cultured adipocytes". ...
Adipocytes secrete leptin in response to food intake. This hormone acts in the arcuate nucleus and inhibits the AgRP/NPY neuron ...
PLIN4 is a member of the perilipin family, a group of proteins that coat lipid droplets in adipocytes, the adipose tissue cells ... PLIN4 coats lipid droplets in adipocytes to protect them from lipases. The PLIN4 gene may be associated with insulin resistance ... Wolins NE, Skinner JR, Schoenfish MJ, Tzekov A, Bensch KG, Bickel PE (September 2003). "Adipocyte protein S3-12 coats nascent ... Wolins NE, Skinner JR, Schoenfish MJ, Tzekov A, Bensch KG, Bickel PE (September 2003). "Adipocyte protein S3-12 coats nascent ...
In fact, PLIN1 is greatly expressed in white adipocytes. It controls adipocyte lipid metabolism. It handles essential functions ... In humans, Perilipin A is the most abundant protein associated with the adipocyte LDs and lower PLIN1 expression is related ... Perilipin is a protein that coats lipid droplets (LDs) in adipocytes, the fat-storing cells in adipose tissue. ... March 2013). "FSP27 and PLIN1 interaction promotes the formation of large lipid droplets in human adipocytes". Biochemical and ...
Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis. In cell culture, ... Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. Studies have shed light into ... Exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as marrow adipose tissue volume, as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone ... If the adipocytes in the body reach their maximum capacity of fat, they may replicate to allow additional fat storage. Adult ...
Here we show that in adipocytes, chronically high insulin levels inhibit β-adrenergic receptors (but not other cAMP-elevating ... These scaffold proteins may themselves be modulated by hormones2,3,4. In adipocytes, stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors ... Zhang, J., Hupfeld, C., Taylor, S. et al. Insulin disrupts β-adrenergic signalling to protein kinase A in adipocytes. Nature ... In adipocytes, stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors increases cyclic AMP levels and activates protein kinase A (PKA)5, which ...
S100B as an adipokine may play a role in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages to establish a vicious paracrine ... and is also secreted from adipocytes. We investigated the role of S100B in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages ... The role of S100B in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Feb;22(2):371-9. doi: ... Conclusions: Thus, S100B as an adipokine may play a role in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages to establish a ...
Adipocyte-derived endotrophin promotes malignant tumor progression. Jiyoung Park1 and Philipp E. Scherer1,2,3 1Touchstone ... Adipocytes represent a major cell type in the mammary tumor microenvironment and are important for tumor growth. Collagen VI ( ... Adipocyte-derived collagen VI affects early mammary tumor progression in vivo, demonstrating a critical interaction in the ... The adipocyte is an established endocrine organ, secreting various signaling molecules - such as adipokines, chemokines, and ...
Adipocytes represent a major cell type in the mammary tumor microenvironment and are important for tumor growth. Collagen VI ( ... highlight the crucial role of ETP as an obesity-associated factor that promotes tumor growth in the context of adipocyte ...
Therefore, adipocytes play an important role in B cell-mediated adaptive immunity. This review describes how adipocytes ... Therefore, adipocytes play an important role in B cell-mediated adaptive immunity. This review describes how adipocytes ... Obese adipocytes overexpress MHC class II molecules and costimulators to act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and promote the ... Obese adipocytes overexpress MHC class II molecules and costimulators to act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and promote the ...
Here, we show that murine GATA-2 and GATA-3 are specifically expressed in white adipocyte precursors and that their down- ... Thus, GATA-2 and GATA-3 regulate adipocyte differentiation through molecular control of the preadipocyte-adipocyte transition. ... Function of GATA transcription factors in preadipocyte-adipocyte transition Science. 2000 Oct 6;290(5489):134-8. doi: 10.1126/ ... Here, we show that murine GATA-2 and GATA-3 are specifically expressed in white adipocyte precursors and that their down- ...
Adipocytes, rat Cultured rat adipocytes.. Esterases (Calcein AM); DNA (Ethidium Homodimer-1).. Image courtesy of Lance ...
Psychology definition for Adipocytes in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. ... Adipocytes. Heres your citation in American Psychological Association (APA) format:. Adipocytes. (n.d.). In Alleydog.coms ... Retrieved from: https://www.alleydog.com/glossary/definition-cit.php?term=Adipocytes ...
Lipolysis regulates major transcriptional programs in brown adipocytes. Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift › Tidsskriftartikel ... β-Adrenergic signaling is a core regulator of brown adipocyte function stimulating both lipolysis and transcription of ... The Novo Nordisk Foundation to Center for Adipocyte Signaling (ADIPOSIGN) (project grant: NNF18OC0033444), and The Danish ... enabling us to uncover lipolysis-dependent signaling pathways downstream of β-adrenergic signaling in cultured brown adipocytes ...
L1 Adipocytes , Objective Indole‐3‐carbinol (I3C), a naturally occurring compound found in cruciferous vegetables, and its ... The adipocyte plays a critical role in energy balance. Adipose tissue growth involves an increase in adipocyte size and the ... Adipocyte differentiation is triggered by adipocyte hyperplasia, which leads to obesity. In this study, the inhibitory effect ... This is accompanied by a dramatic increase in expression of adipocyte genes including adipocyte fatty acid binding protein and ...
As a proof-ofconcept test, we applied cyclic stretch loading to the adipocyte model, differentiated adipocytes from 3T3-L1 ... such as adipocytes, may play a role in the exercise control of insulin sensitivity. ... we propose a mechanism that mechanical stretching of adipocytes may induce the secretion of insulin sensitizing adipokines like ... were significantly increased for cyclically stretched adipocytes relative to unstretched control. Moreover, cyclic stretch ...
STEMCELL has partnered with Cell Stem Cell to bring you this reference on the adipocyte life cycle. ... Are you studying adipocytes? STEMCELL has partnered with Cell Stem Cell to bring you this reference on the adipocyte life cycle ... An overview of the adipocyte life cycle.. *List of molecules involved in adipose stem cell proliferation, adipocyte ... Free Wallchart: A Snapshot on the Adipocyte Life Cycle. Receive a valuable reference from STEMCELL Technologies!. ...
TiTLE HERE- - > Integrase Inhibitors Uniquely Target Thermogenesis In Brown Adipocytes And Combination Drugs Potentiate These ... CROI2021 - INTEGRASE INHIBITORS TARGET MITOCHONDRIA IN BROWN ADIPOCYTES DISRUPTING THERMOGENESIS https://www.natap.org/2021/ ...
However, a similar phenotype is not observed under adipocyte-selective deletion (Nr1d1Flox2-6:AdipoqCre), and transcriptional ... Adipocyte NR1D1 does not drive an anticipatory daily rhythm in WAT lipogenesis, but rather modulates WAT activity in response ... 2021) Adipocyte NR1D1 dictates adipose tissue expansion during obesity - RNA-seq ArrayExpress E-MTAB-8840. ... 2021) Adipocyte NR1D1 dictates adipose tissue expansion during obesity - ChIP-seq ArrayExpress E-MTAB-10573. ...
Mechanisms for insulin-like activity in isolated rat adipocytes.. K Hanif, H J Goren, M D Hollenberg and K Lederis ... Mechanisms for insulin-like activity in isolated rat adipocytes.. K Hanif, H J Goren, M D Hollenberg and K Lederis ... Mechanisms for insulin-like activity in isolated rat adipocytes.. K Hanif, H J Goren, M D Hollenberg and K Lederis ... Mechanisms for insulin-like activity in isolated rat adipocytes. Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
We report here the metabolic consequences of deleting Ndufs4 specifically in adipocytes using the adiponectin promoter. ... Together, these findings support that adipocyte-specific mitochondrial dysfunction is sufficient to induce tissue inflammation ... consistent with sex-dependent regulation of its autocrine/paracrine action in adipocytes. ...
Because large adipocytes are less insulin sensitive, it is possible that the insulin sensitivity of adipocytes is also a ... It has been reported that omental adipocytes secrete more adiponectin than adipocytes isolated from subcutaneous fat (120). The ... Update on Adipocyte Hormones : Regulation of Energy Balance and Carbohydrate/Lipid Metabolism Peter J. Havel Peter J. Havel ... as suggested by one study of human adipocytes in vitro (120), but that large visceral adipocytes with greater triglyceride ...
Is Adipocyte Differentiation the Default Lineage for Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells after Loss of Mechanical Loading? A ... Payne, M.W., Uhthoff, H.K. and Trudel, G. (2007) Anemia of Immobility: Caused by Adipocyte Accumulation in the Bone Marrow. ... Maijka, S.M., Barak, Y. and Klemm, D.J. (2011) Concise Review: Adipocyte Origins: Weighing the Possibilities. Stem Cells, 29, ... Billion, N., Monteiro, M.C. and Dani, C. (2008) Developmental Origin of Adipocytes: New Insights into a Pending Question. ...
... but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed ... but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed ... but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed ... Madsen L, Pedersen LM, Lillefosse HH, Fjaere E, Bronstad I, Hao Q o.a. UCP1 induction during recruitment of brown adipocytes in ...
Lipid accumulation in adipocytes reflects a balance between enzymatic pathways leading to the formation and breakdown of ... This balance is extremely important, as both high and low lipid levels in adipocytes can have deleterious consequences. The ... 2014) Analysis of Transcription Factor Network Underlying 3T3-L1 Adipocyte Differentiation. PLoS ONE 9(7): e100177. doi:10.1371 ... Analysis of transcription factor network underlying 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Choi, KyungOh. ...
Adipocyte, Aquaporin 7, Glycerol, Perilipin 1, PKA. in Metabolism, Clinical and Experimental. volume. 65. issue. 12. pages. 12 ... Glycerol efflux from adipocytes is regulated by the aquaglyceroporin AQP7, which is translocated upon hormone stimulation. Here ... Together, these findings are indicative of how glycerol release is controlled in adipocytes, and may pave the... (More). ... Glycerol efflux from adipocytes is regulated by the aquaglyceroporin AQP7, which is translocated upon hormone stimulation. Here ...
The release of adenosine from adipocytes in which the nucleotide pool was labeled by incubation with either [14C]- or [3H] ... Lipolysis activated in a relatively dilute suspension of adipocytes (,30,000 cells/ml) with either 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine ... The antilipolytic activity of clonidine toward isoproterenol-activated lipolysis was also lost when adipocytes (,30,000 cells/ ... and Adenosine in Regulation of Lipolysis in Hamster Epididymal Adipocytes. RICHARD J. SCHIMMEL, KATHRYN K. MCMAHON and ROSALIND ...
HuR binds to a single site on the C/EBP - beta mRNA of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. ECU Author/Contributor (non-ECU co-authors, if there ... HuR binds to a single site on the C/EBP - beta mRNA of 3T3-L1 Adipocytes. http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3315. The described ...
Analysis of the mRNA levels of Mcp-1 (B) and IL-6 (C) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes were treated with 100 ng/ ... Analysis of the mRNA levels of Mcp-1 (B) and IL-6 (C) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes were treated with 100 ng/ ... PPARβ/δ activation prevents LPS-induced IL-6 expression and secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.. Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes ... The PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 induces Pdk-4 and Cpt-I expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Differentiated adipocytes were incubated ...
Our findings suggest a role for COX-2-derived lipid mediators from adipocytes in mediating type 2 immunity cues in subcutaneous ... Our findings suggest a role for COX-2-derived lipid mediators from adipocytes in mediating type 2 immunity cues in subcutaneous ... Our findings suggest a role for COX-2-derived lipid mediators from adipocytes in mediating type 2 immunity cues in subcutaneous ... Our findings suggest a role for COX-2-derived lipid mediators from adipocytes in mediating type 2 immunity cues in subcutaneous ...
Martin, P. B., Wood, W. J., & Franz, A. (2019). Cell migration by swimming: Drosophila adipocytes as a new in vivo model of ... Martin PB, Wood WJ, Franz A. Cell migration by swimming: Drosophila adipocytes as a new in vivo model of adhesion-independent ... Cell migration by swimming: Drosophila adipocytes as a new in vivo model of adhesion-independent motility. / Martin, Paul B; ... Martin, PB, Wood, WJ & Franz, A 2019, Cell migration by swimming: Drosophila adipocytes as a new in vivo model of adhesion- ...
... ... "Viscoelastic properties of human mesenchymally-derived stem cells and primary osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes." ... "Viscoelastic properties of human mesenchymally-derived stem cells and primary osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes." ... and adipocytes) and to test the hypothesis that primary differentiated cells exhibit distinct mechanical properties compared to ...
These effects were dependent on HIF1α expression in adipocytes, as mouse adipocytes lacking HIF1α showed blunted responses ... These effects were dependent on HIF1α expression in adipocytes, as mouse adipocytes lacking HIF1α showed blunted responses ... These effects were dependent on HIF1α expression in adipocytes, as mouse adipocytes lacking HIF1α showed blunted responses ... These effects were dependent on HIF1α expression in adipocytes, as mouse adipocytes lacking HIF1α showed blunted responses ...
Adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (A-FABP) is a novel fat-derived circulating protein, which is independently and positively ... From: Positive correlation of serum adipocyte fatty acid binding protein levels with carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity in ...
  • Adipocytes, also known as lipocytes and fat cells, are the cells that primarily compose adipose tissue, specialized in storing energy as fat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exercise reduces both adipocyte size as well as marrow adipose tissue volume, as quantified by MRI or μCT imaging of bone stained with the lipid binder osmium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analysis of their adipose tissue morphology revealed increases in both adipocyte size and number in most depots. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adipocytes are the main constituent cells of adipose tissue. (frontiersin.org)
  • In this study, with the assumption that adipose tissue can be mechanically responsive (as is the case for well-known musculoskeletal tissues), we hypothesized that mechanical loading applied to the adipose tissue and its component cells, such as adipocytes, may play a role in the exercise control of insulin sensitivity. (unl.edu)
  • Since it is known that adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin can instigate their insulin signaling sensitizing effect via AMPK and Akt, we propose a mechanism that mechanical stretching of adipocytes may induce the secretion of insulin sensitizing adipokines like leptin and/or adiponectin, which in turn activates AMPK and Akt phosphorylation and, ultimately, improves insulin signaling in the adipose tissue. (unl.edu)
  • List of molecules involved in adipose stem cell proliferation, adipocyte differentiation, turnover and obesigenic expansion. (stemcell.com)
  • Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) signaling in adipose tissue is selectively blunted in male mutant mice relative to wild-type littermates, consistent with sex-dependent regulation of its autocrine/paracrine action in adipocytes. (endocrine.org)
  • The goal of this study was to determine the elastic and viscoelastic properties of three primary cell types of mesenchymal lineage (chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes) and to test the hypothesis that primary differentiated cells exhibit distinct mechanical properties compared to adult stem cells (adipose-derived or bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells). (duke.edu)
  • Adipose tissue abundance relies partly on the factors that regulate adipogenesis, i.e. proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conversely, brown adipose tissue (BAT) and browning of WAT represent potential therapeutic approaches, since dysfunctional white adipocyte-induced lipid overspill can be halted by BAT/browning-mediated oxidative anti-lipotoxic effects. (springer.com)
  • There is also evidence that the deleterious effects mediated by dysfunctional white adipocyte-induced lipid overspill can be halted by the pro-oxidative anti-lipotoxic effects mediated by brown adipose tissue (BAT) activation. (springer.com)
  • However, CE did not significantly affect UCP1 expression in the adipocytes isolated from perinephric adipose tissue and epididymal adipose tissue. (edu.hk)
  • The increased white adipose tissue mass associated with obesity is the result of both hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes. (rockefeller.edu)
  • While adipocyte development and transcriptional processes are well studied in vitro, regulation of in vivo genes (such as leptin), the identity of the adipocyte progenitor cells and the development of the adipose organ have not been defined invivo. (rockefeller.edu)
  • Next, through a leptin-luciferase animal model, where luciferase is expressed only in adipocytes (see below), the location and timing of embryonic adipose development were determined. (rockefeller.edu)
  • To study the responses of adipocytes to changes in weight, leptin-luciferase animals were used to show that weight loss induced by fasting or leptin treatment results in the retention of lipid-depleted adipocytes in adipose depots. (rockefeller.edu)
  • CHCHD10 is dramatically upregulated during thermogenic adipocytes activation by PPARγ-PGC1α, and positively correlated with UCP1 expression in the adipose tissues from human and mice. (figshare.com)
  • Due to their lipophilicity, POPs are sequestered in adipose tissue, where they may impair adipocyte functioning. (cdc.gov)
  • Our results highlight the crucial role of ETP as an obesity-associated factor that promotes tumor growth in the context of adipocyte interactions with tumor and stromal cells. (jci.org)
  • GATA-3-deficient embryonic stem cells exhibit an enhanced capacity to differentiate into adipocytes, and defective GATA-2 and GATA-3 expression is associated with obesity. (nih.gov)
  • Importantly, NR1D1 action in adipocytes is critical to the development of obesity-related WAT pathology and insulin resistance. (elifesciences.org)
  • A recent example of the importance of adipocyte function to have profound systemic effects is provided by the report that mice specifically lacking insulin signaling in adipocytes (FIRKO mouse) are not only lean, leptin sensitive, and obesity resistant ( 1 ), but live almost 20% longer than wild-type control animals ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Understanding the regulation of the pathways that lead to proliferation and differentiation of white and brown pre-adipocytes could be crucial for revealing the underlying mechanisms of obesity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Obesity is characterized by the expansion of fat mass, through adipocyte size increase ( hypertrophy ) and, to a lesser extent, cell proliferation ( hyperplasia ). (ipfs.io)
  • The adipocytes showed rhythmic changes in the levels of thermogenesis that aligned with the light-dark cycles, and the mismatch between these adipocyte cycles with feeding times could lead to obesity. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In ex vivo studies, we found that CE increased brown adipocytes markers in the subcutaneous adipocytes isolated from db/db mice and diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice. (edu.hk)
  • Obesity and the adipocyte. (bvsalud.org)
  • Deletion of AQP7 in mice leads to development of obesity and adipocyte hypertrophy, suggesting an important role in human metabolism. (lu.se)
  • Perilipin, a major hormonally regulated adipocyte-specific phosphoprotein associated with the periphery of lipid storage droplets. (nature.com)
  • Several studies have shown that adipocytes highly express CD1d, which presents lipid antigens to invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells and stimulates the activation of iNKT cells ( 5 - 7 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • ASP increases the efficiency of triacylglycerol synthesis in adipocytes leading to enhanced postprandial lipid clearance. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adipocytes produce a number of hormones that have wide-ranging effects on energy intake, energy expenditure, and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, including nutrient partitioning and fuel selection. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Lipid accumulation in adipocytes reflects a balance between enzymatic pathways leading to the formation and breakdown of esterified lipids, primarily triglycerides. (tufts.edu)
  • This balance is extremely important, as both high and low lipid levels in adipocytes can have deleterious consequences. (tufts.edu)
  • Our findings suggest a role for COX-2-derived lipid mediators from adipocytes in mediating type 2 immunity cues in subcutaneous WAT associated with decreased hepatic steatosis, but with no accompanying induction of browning and increased energy expenditure. (dtu.dk)
  • While white adipocytes store energy as triacylglycerols in lipid droplets, brown adipocytes combust excess chemical energy and release in the form of heat through uncoupled respiration. (iisc.ac.in)
  • Metabolite changes under normoxia or hypoxia were measured in the media of human adipocytes by targeted LC/MS. Results: Hypoxic cancer-conditioned media increased lipolysis in both human and mouse adipocytes. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We generated transgenic (TG) C57BL/6 mice expressing the Ptgs2 gene encoding cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in mature adipocytes. (dtu.dk)
  • It has been suggested that adipogenesis is regulated by PPARβ/δ followed by PPARγ and C/EBPα promoting differentiation into mature adipocytes [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The sympathetic nervous system regulates this function through β-adrenergic stimulation of brown mature adipocytes' dissipation of energy in the form of heat mediated by mitochondrial uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) activation. (springer.com)
  • Here, we propose a molecular mechanism where the AQP7 mobility in adipocytes is dependent on perilipin 1 and protein kinase A. Biochemical analyses combined with ex vivo studies in human primary adipocytes, demonstrate that perilipin 1 binds to AQP7, and that catecholamine activated protein kinase A phosphorylates the N-terminus of AQP7, thereby reducing complex formation. (lu.se)
  • We found 65 miRNAs regulated during in vitro adipogenesis in primary adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipocyte-derived factors involved in tumor progression include proteins such as adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), IL-6, and ECM components that control tumor cell behavior within the tumor microenvironment. (jci.org)
  • In addition to their main functions, adipocytes have endocrine functions and can secrete a variety of adipokines such as leptin, adiponectin, and resistin ( 2 - 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Simultaneously, adipocytes secrete various cytokines including leptin, resistin, TNF-α and IL-6 to regulate the differentiation and function of T and B lymphocytes. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review will address the biology, actions, and regulation of three adipocyte hormones-leptin, acylation stimulating protein (ASP), and adiponectin-with an emphasis on the most recent literature. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Leptin production is primarily regulated by insulin-induced changes of adipocyte metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Work in our laboratory has primarily focused on the biology and regulation of three key adipocyte hormones: leptin, acylation-stimulating protein, and adiponectin. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Leptin is an in vivo regulated adipocyte hormone, which is the afferent signal in a negative feedback loop controlling body weight and energy expenditure. (rockefeller.edu)
  • β-Adrenergic signaling is a core regulator of brown adipocyte function stimulating both lipolysis and transcription of thermogenic genes, thereby expanding the capacity for oxidative metabolism. (ku.dk)
  • We have used pharmacological inhibitors and a direct activator of lipolysis to acutely modulate the activity of lipases, thereby enabling us to uncover lipolysis-dependent signaling pathways downstream of β-adrenergic signaling in cultured brown adipocytes. (ku.dk)
  • Our results demonstrate that lipolysis generates important metabolic signals that exert profound pleiotropic effects on transcription and function of cultured brown adipocytes. (ku.dk)
  • Hypoxia can modify the adipocyte metabolome towards accelerated lipolysis, glucose deprivation and reduced ketosis. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In conclusion, SAH did not affect adipogenesis per se but altered adipocyte functionality through epigenetic mechanisms, such that they exhibited altered glucose disposal and lipolysis. (analyteguru.com)
  • Lipolysis in adipocytes is disrupted by CHCHD10 deficiency, while augmented lipolysis via ATGL overexpression recovers adipocyte thermogenesis in Chchd10 -AKO mice. (figshare.com)
  • Decreased ATP results in downregulation of lipolysis by reducing nascent protein synthesis of ATGL, thereby suppressing adipocyte thermogenesis. (figshare.com)
  • Together, our findings reveal essential role of CHCHD10 in regulating lipolysis and thermogenic program in adipocytes. (figshare.com)
  • The aquaglyceroporin AQP7 is expressed in adipocytes where it regulates glycerol efflux as it translocate to the plasma membrane during lipolysis as a result of catecholamine stimulation. (lu.se)
  • WAT is characterised by its capacity to adapt and expand in response to surplus energy through processes of adipocyte hypertrophy and/or recruitment and proliferation of precursor cells in combination with vascular and extracellular matrix remodelling. (springer.com)
  • We are culturing human fat cells (adipocytes) and tumour cells together, to find out how adipocytes alter tumour cell phenotype and response to therapy. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Our results demonstrated that HCC cell HepG2-derived exosomes could be actively internalized by adipocytes and caused significant transcriptomic alterations and in particular induced an inflammatory phenotype in adipocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that cinnamon extract (CE) induced typical brown adipocyte multiocular phenotype in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (edu.hk)
  • Constitutive GATA-2 and GATA-3 expression suppressed adipocyte differentiation and trapped cells at the preadipocyte stage. (nih.gov)
  • Adipocytes are derived from mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to adipocytes through adipogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Marrow adipocytes are unilocular like white fat cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into adipocytes, connective tissue, muscle or bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Obese adipocytes overexpress MHC class II molecules and costimulators to act as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and promote the activation of CD4 + T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, various adipokines secreted by adipocytes regulate the proliferation and differentiation of T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • This review describes how adipocytes participate in adaptive immunity from the perspective of T cells and B cells, and discusses their role in the pathogenesis of various diseases. (frontiersin.org)
  • Recently, an increasing number of studies have shown that adipocytes have immunological functions capable of recruiting and activating immune cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Moreover, like other nucleated cells, adipocytes express MHC class I molecules. (frontiersin.org)
  • However, there is no clear evidence that adipocytes interact directly with CD8 + T cells through antigen:MHCI complex. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adipocytes can directly activate CD4 + T cells through antigen:MHCII complex in a contact-dependent manner. (frontiersin.org)
  • Next, we summarize various cytokines produced by adipocytes that regulate the survival, activation and differentiation of B cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Is Adipocyte Differentiation the Default Lineage for Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells after Loss of Mechanical Loading? (scirp.org)
  • Hart, D. (2014) Is Adipocyte Differentiation the Default Lineage for Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitor Cells after Loss of Mechanical Loading? (scirp.org)
  • Here we describe a novel adhesion-independent mode of single cell locomotion utilised by Drosophila fat body cells - the equivalent of vertebrate adipocytes. (bris.ac.uk)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Viscoelastic properties of human mesenchymally-derived stem cells and primary osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and adipocytes. (duke.edu)
  • Targeted metabolomics of the human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes media revealed that culture with hypoxic-conditioned media from non-malignant mammary epithelial cells (MCF10A) can alter the adipocyte metabolome and drive proliferation of the non-malignant cells. (ed.ac.uk)
  • These metabolic shifts in adipocytes could assist both mammary epithelial and cancer cells to bypass the inhibitory effects of hypoxia on proliferation and thrive. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In addition to the classic brown adipocytes, a different type of brown fat cells seems to exist in tissues where WAT predominates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Approximately 10% of fat cells are renewed annually at all adult ages and levels of body mass index without a significant increase in the overall number of adipocytes in adulthood. (ipfs.io)
  • The local tumour microenvironment is the milieu within which the tumour develops, and includes tumour blood vessels, other cells types (e.g. immune cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes), soluble growth factors and signalling molecules. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Given the global prevalence of NAFLD, a better understanding of the interplay between HCC cells and adipocytes is urgently needed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we explore the role of HCC-derived exosomes in the cellular and molecular conversion of adipocytes into tumor-promoting cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro, conditioned medium from exo-adipocytes promoted HepG2 cell migration and increased tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, the interplay between the HCC cells and adjacent adipocytes remains poorly understood so far. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B. AR protein level is down-regulated, TGF-β1, p-Smad3 and MMP-9 protein levels are up-regulated in PCa cells after co-culture with pre-adipocytes (pre-adi). (oncotarget.com)
  • G. The recruitment e ect for pre-adipocytes by knocking down AR or adding anti-androgen enzalutamide in C4-2 and CWR22Rv1 (22Rv1) cells. (oncotarget.com)
  • C. PCa cells were transfected with miRNA-301a inhibitor co-cultured with pre-adipocytes, then the invasion assay was performed. (oncotarget.com)
  • Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are the ideal source to study fat formation as they are the progenitors of adipocytes. (mdpi.com)
  • abstract = 'BACKGROUND: The uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is a hallmark of brown adipocytes and pivotal for cold- and diet-induced thermogenesis. (ku.dk)
  • The study indicates that the process of heat generation from calories or thermogenesis in adipocytes also shows a rhythmic pattern that aligns with the daily light-dark cycle. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Based on extensive preliminary data, we propose to test the hypothesis that glucose-dependent acetyl-CoA production by ACLY enables nutrient-dependent gene regulation in adipocytes, serving as a key control mechanism for carbohydrate handling and insulin response, as well as for thermogenesis. (grantome.com)
  • Brown and beige adipocytes dissipate energy in a non-shivering thermogenesis manner, exerting beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis. (figshare.com)
  • Herein, we identify CHCHD10 as a novel regulator for adipocyte thermogenesis. (figshare.com)
  • We generate adipocyte-specific Chchd10 knockout mice ( Chchd10 -AKO) and find that depleting CHCHD10 leads to impaired UCP1-dependent thermogenesis and energy expenditure in the fasting state, with no effect in fed state. (figshare.com)
  • Studies have shed light into potential molecular mechanisms in the fate determination of pre-adipocytes although the exact lineage of adipocyte is still unclear. (wikipedia.org)
  • The origins and basis for these fat deposits are largely unknown, but there is a possibility that the altered mechanical and biological environments lead to dysregulation of MSC/MPC and progression to preferential differentiation towards the adipocyte lineage. (scirp.org)
  • Although the lineage of adipocytes is still unclear, Preadipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. (wikidoc.org)
  • In cell culture, adipocyte progenitors can also form osteoblasts, myocytes and other cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • This network is upregulated in a lipodystrophic animal model, encoding a dominant negative transgene against C/EBP factors, suggesting that these animals carry hyper-adipogenic residual fat pads, which provide a niche for transplantation experiments for identifying possible adipocyte progenitors. (rockefeller.edu)
  • When comparing primary adipocyte profiles, with those of cell lines reported in the literature, we found a high degree of difference in 'adipogenesis' regulated miRNAs suggesting that the model systems may not be accurately representing adipogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Most recently, the presence of beige adipocytes with a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown adipocytes has been described. (ipfs.io)
  • Transcriptomic alterations of exosome-stimulated adipocytes were analyzed using gene expression profiling, and secretion of inflammation-associated cytokines was detected by RT-PCR and ELISA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While recent studies have pointed towards a bidirectional relationship between signaling and metabolic pathways, the role of nutrient metabolism in modulating signaling and gene expression in adipocytes is poorly understood. (grantome.com)
  • Specifically, we will test ACLY?s role in fat-specific and systemic carbohydrate metabolism and define the mechanisms through which ACLY regulates gene expression in white adipocytes. (grantome.com)
  • Elevated S-adenosylhomocysteine alters adipocyte functionality with corresponding changes in gene expression and associated epigenetic marks. (analyteguru.com)
  • Trimethylated histone H3-Lys27 occupancy was significantly increased on Cebpα and Rxrα promoters in SAH-treated adipocytes, consistent with the reduction in gene expression. (analyteguru.com)
  • We found that upon intestinal inflammation visceral adipocytes upregulate autophagy and that adipocyte-specific loss of the autophagy gene Atg7 exacerbates inflammation. (ox.ac.uk)
  • We conclude that Nur77 expression is necessary for MSH-mediated induction of gene expression in differentiated adipocytes. (edu.au)
  • Areolar connective tissue is composed of adipocytes. (wikidoc.org)
  • This study aimed to determine whether I3C or DIM could increase glucose uptake via enhanced insulin sensitivity in 3T3‐L1 adipocytes, as well as the mechanism involved. (researchgate.net)
  • DIM also enhanced glucose uptake by increasing expression of glucose transporter 4 in adipocytes. (researchgate.net)
  • 3,3′-diindolylmethane (DIM)-a natural compound produced from indole-3-carbinol, found in cruciferous vegetables-enhances glucose uptake by increasing the activation of the insulin signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (researchgate.net)
  • Together, these findings support that adipocyte-specific mitochondrial dysfunction is sufficient to induce tissue inflammation and can cause systemic glucose abnormalities in male mice. (endocrine.org)
  • Our previous studies implicated ACLY in regulating histone acetylation and expression of glucose metabolism genes in adipocytes, in a nutrient-dependent manner. (grantome.com)
  • CaMKII activity was increased upon insulin treatment and the CaMKII inhibitors CN21 and KN-62 or the Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM blocked insulin -dependent Myo1c phosphorylation and insulin -stimulated glucose transport in adipocytes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Cold-induced expression of UCP1 in inguinal white adipocytes was repressed in COX2 knockout (KO) mice and by administration of the COX inhibitor indomethacin in wild-type mice. (ku.dk)
  • In the current study, we investigated the effect of a small molecule, sesaminol (SML) on brown fat activity and found that SML induces the thermogenic program in primary white adipocytes as well as chow diet fed mice. (iisc.ac.in)
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report that cyclooxygenase (COX) activity and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) are crucially involved in induction of UCP1 expression in inguinal white adipocytes, but not in classic interscapular brown adipocytes. (ku.dk)
  • As a proof-ofconcept test, we applied cyclic stretch loading to the adipocyte model, differentiated adipocytes from 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, and evaluated stretch-induced activation of key insulin signaling molecules. (unl.edu)
  • On the other hand, interestingly, one of the key downstream insulin signaling molecules, protein kinase-B (PKB, or Akt) and its phosphorylation (pAkt) were significantly increased for cyclically stretched adipocytes relative to unstretched control. (unl.edu)
  • Since there have been many reports on the regulation of metabolic diseases through adaptive immunity ( 9 - 11 ), we focus on how adipocytes regulate adaptive immunity in this review. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we show that murine GATA-2 and GATA-3 are specifically expressed in white adipocyte precursors and that their down-regulation sets the stage for terminal differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • Regulation of glycerol efflux in adipocytes. (lu.se)
  • Mechanisms for insulin-like activity in isolated rat adipocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Better understanding of the cellular and molecular pathophysiological mechanisms regulating adipocyte size, number and depot-dependent expansion has become a focus of interest over recent decades. (springer.com)
  • Figure 4: Mechanisms why infiltrating pre-adipocytes could suppress PCa AR expression to promote PCa cell invasion. (oncotarget.com)
  • Therefore, we investigated whether this key one-carbon cycle intermediate directly affects adipocyte differentiation and function. (analyteguru.com)
  • Glycerol efflux from adipocytes is regulated by the aquaglyceroporin AQP7, which is translocated upon hormone stimulation. (lu.se)
  • The S100 calcium binding protein B (S100B) implicated in brain inflammation acts via the receptor of advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and is also secreted from adipocytes. (nih.gov)
  • It is presently unknown whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) β/δ activation prevents inflammation in adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Adipocyte autophagy limits gut inflammation by controlling oxylipin and IL-10. (ox.ac.uk)
  • While autophagy decreased lipolytic release of free fatty acids, loss of the major lipolytic enzyme Pnpla2/Atgl in adipocytes did not alter intestinal inflammation, ruling out free fatty acids as anti-inflammatory energy substrates. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, GATA-2 and GATA-3 regulate adipocyte differentiation through molecular control of the preadipocyte-adipocyte transition. (nih.gov)
  • These fibrocytes differentiate into myofibroblasts or adipocytes. (medscape.com)
  • We propose that disruption of acetyl-CoA metabolism is a feature of metabolic disease, and that by defining the roles of the key acetyl-CoA producer ACLY in adipocytes, these studies will point to new strategies to improve the metabolic health of individuals with or at risk for metabolic diseases. (grantome.com)
  • Individuals who become obese as adults, rather than as adolescents, have no more adipocytes than they had before. (wikipedia.org)
  • We are also studying tumour samples from normal weight and obese breast cancer patients to better understand the role adipocytes play in promoting aggressive tumour growth and spread, and identify patients likely to benefit from additional treatment during cancer therapy. (otago.ac.nz)
  • however, its role in thermogenic adipocytes remains unknown. (figshare.com)
  • Consistently, overexpression of Chchd10 activates thermogenic adipocytes. (figshare.com)
  • UCP-1-expressing multilocular adipocytes, termed 'beige' or 'brite' (brown-in-white) adipocytes, can also be found interspersed among white adipocytes within SAT under conditions requiring increased heat production (e.g. chronic cold exposure). (springer.com)
  • Indomethacin repressed beta-adrenergic induction of UCP1 expression in primary inguinal adipocytes. (ku.dk)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS AND RESULTS- First, we examined whether the PPARβ/δ agonist GW501516 prevents lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • SAH did not alter preadipocyte factor 1 (Dlk1) or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ 2 (Pparγ2) but significantly reduced expression of CAAT enhancer-binding protein-α (Cebpα), Cebpβ, and retinoid x receptor-α (Rxrα) compared with untreated adipocytes. (analyteguru.com)
  • Pre-adipocytes are undifferentiated fibroblasts that can be stimulated to form adipocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • These data suggest that insulin regulates Myo1c function via CaMKII -dependent phosphorylation , and these events play a role in insulin -regulated GLUT4 trafficking in adipocytes likely involving Myo1c motor activity . (bvsalud.org)
  • In our recent research, we observed that adipocytes express MHC class II molecules and co-stimulatory molecules CD80/CD86, and that their expression significantly increases in response to high fat diet (HFD) challenges ( 8 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In an adherent, spread configuration, chondrocytes, osteoblasts, and adipocytes all exhibited significantly different mechanical properties, with osteoblasts being stiffer than chondrocytes and both being stiffer than adipocytes. (duke.edu)
  • In contrast to the upper body fat cell response, the number of lower-body adipocytes did significantly increase during the course of experiment. (ipfs.io)
  • Egan, J. J., Greenberg, A. S., Chang, M. K. & Londos, C. Control of endogenous phosphorylation of the major cAMP-dependent protein kinase substrate in adipocytes by insulin and beta-adrenergic stimulation. (nature.com)
  • Results DIM, but not I3C, increased adipocyte differentiation through upregulation of peroxisome proliferator‐activated receptor γ and CCAAT/enhancer‐binding protein α. (researchgate.net)
  • These actions are mediated by both the actions of a number of nonsecreted proteins and hormones produced in adipocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Thus, as an alternative, we produced EXIQON microarray of brown and white primary murine adipocytes (prior to and following differentiation) to yield global profiles of miRNAs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adipocytes are key players in maintaining energy homeostasis and are classified into two different categories: white and brown adipocytes. (iisc.ac.in)
  • The treatment also increased brown adipocytes markers and reduced white adipocytes markers in the 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (edu.hk)
  • CaMKII-mediated phosphorylation of the myosin motor Myo1c is required for insulin-stimulated GLUT4 translocation in adipocytes. (bvsalud.org)
  • Taken together, our data suggest that CE has a browning effect in subcutaneous adipocytes. (edu.hk)
  • Mouse brown adipocytes were pre-treated with vehicle or 10µM Atglistatin and 20µM CAY10499 (lipase inhib. (mendeley.com)
  • Our results provide new insights into the concept that tumor cell-derived exosomes can educate surrounding adipocytes to create a favorable microenvironment for tumor progression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These effects were dependent on HIF1α expression in adipocytes, as mouse adipocytes lacking HIF1α showed blunted responses under hypoxic conditions. (ed.ac.uk)
  • We investigated the role of S100B in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages using a cell-culture model. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, S100B as an adipokine may play a role in the interaction between adipocytes and macrophages to establish a vicious paracrine loop. (nih.gov)
  • The tumor exosome-treated adipocytes, named exo-adipocytes, promoted tumor growth, enhanced angiogenesis, and recruited more macrophages in mouse xenograft model. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After exposure of 3T3-L1 adipocytes to insulin, IRAP translocated to the plasma membrane as assessed by either cell fractionation, surface biotinylation, or the plasma membrane sheet assay. (johnshopkins.edu)
  • The unconventional myosin Myo1c has been implicated in insulin -regulated GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane in adipocytes . (bvsalud.org)
  • Not only do Adipocytes have energy storage and endocrine functions, but they also play an immunological role. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have shown that NDP-MSH strikingly and preferentially induces the expression of the NR4A subgroup (but not any other members of the NR superfamily) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. (edu.au)