Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Escherichia coli K12: A species of gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria belonging to the K serogroup of ESCHERICHIA COLI. It lives as a harmless inhabitant of the human LARGE INTESTINE and is widely used in medical and GENETIC RESEARCH.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Coliphages: Viruses whose host is Escherichia coli.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.beta-Galactosidase: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Escherichia coli Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat both enterotoxigenic and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli infections.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Bacteriophage lambda: A temperate inducible phage and type species of the genus lambda-like viruses, in the family SIPHOVIRIDAE. Its natural host is E. coli K12. Its VIRION contains linear double-stranded DNA with single-stranded 12-base 5' sticky ends. The DNA circularizes on infection.Chloramphenicol: An antibiotic first isolated from cultures of Streptomyces venequelae in 1947 but now produced synthetically. It has a relatively simple structure and was the first broad-spectrum antibiotic to be discovered. It acts by interfering with bacterial protein synthesis and is mainly bacteriostatic. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 29th ed, p106)Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.DNA-Directed RNA Polymerases: Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).Transduction, Genetic: The transfer of bacterial DNA by phages from an infected bacterium to another bacterium. This also refers to the transfer of genes into eukaryotic cells by viruses. This naturally occurring process is routinely employed as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Colicins: Bacteriocins elaborated by strains of Escherichia coli and related species. They are proteins or protein-lipopolysaccharide complexes lethal to other strains of the same species.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Genetics, Microbial: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Shiga Toxin 1: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It is closely related to SHIGA TOXIN produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Lac Operon: The genetic unit consisting of three structural genes, an operator and a regulatory gene. The regulatory gene controls the synthesis of the three structural genes: BETA-GALACTOSIDASE and beta-galactoside permease (involved with the metabolism of lactose), and beta-thiogalactoside acetyltransferase.Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.SOS Response (Genetics): An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Ribosomes: Multicomponent ribonucleoprotein structures found in the CYTOPLASM of all cells, and in MITOCHONDRIA, and PLASTIDS. They function in PROTEIN BIOSYNTHESIS via GENETIC TRANSLATION.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Rec A Recombinases: A family of recombinases initially identified in BACTERIA. They catalyze the ATP-driven exchange of DNA strands in GENETIC RECOMBINATION. The product of the reaction consists of a duplex and a displaced single-stranded loop, which has the shape of the letter D and is therefore called a D-loop structure.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Suppression, Genetic: Mutation process that restores the wild-type PHENOTYPE in an organism possessing a mutationally altered GENOTYPE. The second "suppressor" mutation may be on a different gene, on the same gene but located at a distance from the site of the primary mutation, or in extrachromosomal genes (EXTRACHROMOSOMAL INHERITANCE).Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Shiga Toxin 2: A toxin produced by certain pathogenic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157. It shares 50-60% homology with SHIGA TOXIN and SHIGA TOXIN 1.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Maltose-Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that bind MALTOSE and maltodextrin. They take part in the maltose transport system of BACTERIA.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Meningitis, Escherichia coli: A form of gram-negative meningitis that tends to occur in neonates, in association with anatomical abnormalities (which feature communication between the meninges and cutaneous structures) or as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS in association with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES. In premature neonates the clinical presentation may be limited to ANOREXIA; VOMITING; lethargy; or respiratory distress. Full-term infants may have as additional features FEVER; SEIZURES; and bulging of the anterior fontanelle. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp398-400)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Transfer: The small RNA molecules, 73-80 nucleotides long, that function during translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) to align AMINO ACIDS at the RIBOSOMES in a sequence determined by the mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). There are about 30 different transfer RNAs. Each recognizes a specific CODON set on the mRNA through its own ANTICODON and as aminoacyl tRNAs (RNA, TRANSFER, AMINO ACYL), each carries a specific amino acid to the ribosome to add to the elongating peptide chains.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Ribosomal Proteins: Proteins found in ribosomes. They are believed to have a catalytic function in reconstituting biologically active ribosomal subunits.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.DNA Replication: The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.Shiga Toxins: A class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS. They include SHIGA TOXIN which is produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE and a variety of shiga-like toxins that are produced by pathologic strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI such as ESCHERICHIA COLI O157.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).F Factor: A plasmid whose presence in the cell, either extrachromosomal or integrated into the BACTERIAL CHROMOSOME, determines the "sex" of the bacterium, host chromosome mobilization, transfer via conjugation (CONJUGATION, GENETIC) of genetic material, and the formation of SEX PILI.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.ThymineDNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Periplasmic Proteins: Proteins found in the PERIPLASM of organisms with cell walls.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Bacillus subtilis: A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Isopropyl Thiogalactoside: A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.Periplasm: The space between the inner and outer membranes of a cell that is shared with the cell wall.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Nalidixic Acid: A synthetic 1,8-naphthyridine antimicrobial agent with a limited bacteriocidal spectrum. It is an inhibitor of the A subunit of bacterial DNA GYRASE.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.ArabinoseCarbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.UracilSpheroplasts: Cells, usually bacteria or yeast, which have partially lost their cell wall, lost their characteristic shape and become round.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Porins: Porins are protein molecules that were originally found in the outer membrane of GRAM-NEGATIVE BACTERIA and that form multi-meric channels for the passive DIFFUSION of WATER; IONS; or other small molecules. Porins are present in bacterial CELL WALLS, as well as in plant, fungal, mammalian and other vertebrate CELL MEMBRANES and MITOCHONDRIAL MEMBRANES.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Shigella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that ferments sugar without gas production. Its organisms are intestinal pathogens of man and other primates and cause bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).Cell-Free System: A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome: A syndrome that is associated with microvascular diseases of the KIDNEY, such as RENAL CORTICAL NECROSIS. It is characterized by hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC); THROMBOCYTOPENIA; and ACUTE RENAL FAILURE.RNA, Ribosomal: The most abundant form of RNA. Together with proteins, it forms the ribosomes, playing a structural role and also a role in ribosomal binding of mRNA and tRNAs. Individual chains are conventionally designated by their sedimentation coefficients. In eukaryotes, four large chains exist, synthesized in the nucleolus and constituting about 50% of the ribosome. (Dorland, 28th ed)DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.PeptidoglycanAntibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Multienzyme Complexes: Systems of enzymes which function sequentially by catalyzing consecutive reactions linked by common metabolic intermediates. They may involve simply a transfer of water molecules or hydrogen atoms and may be associated with large supramolecular structures such as MITOCHONDRIA or RIBOSOMES.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Shiga Toxin: A toxin produced by SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE. It is the prototype of class of toxins that inhibit protein synthesis by blocking the interaction of ribosomal RNA; (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) with PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTORS.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Hydro-Lyases: Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.Lyases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of C-C, C-O, and C-N, and other bonds by other means than by hydrolysis or oxidation. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (1/525)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

P fimbriae and other adhesins enhance intestinal persistence of Escherichia coli in early infancy. (2/525)

Resident and transient Escherichia coli strains were identified in the rectal flora of 22 Pakistani infants followed from birth to 6 months of age. All strains were tested for O-antigen expression, adhesin specificity (P fimbriae, other mannose-resistant adhesins or type 1 fimbriae) and adherence to the colonic cell line HT-29. Resident strains displayed higher mannose-resistant adherence to HT-29 cells, and expressed P fimbriae (P = 0.0036) as well as other mannose-resistant adhesins (P = 0.012) more often than transient strains. In strains acquired during the first month of life, P fimbriae were 12 times more frequent in resident than in transient strains (P = 0.0006). The O-antigen distribution did not differ between resident and transient strains, and none of the resident P-fimbriated strains belonged to previously recognized uropathogenic clones. The results suggest that adhesins mediating adherence to intestinal epithelial cells, especially P fimbriae, enhance the persistence of E. coli in the large intestine of infants.  (+info)

Organization of biogenesis genes for aggregative adherence fimbria II defines a virulence gene cluster in enteroaggregative Escherichia coli. (3/525)

Several virulence-related genes have been described for prototype enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strain 042, which has been shown to cause diarrhea in human volunteers. Among these factors are the enterotoxins Pet and EAST and the fimbrial antigen aggregative adherence fimbria II (AAF/II), all of which are encoded on the 65-MDa virulence plasmid pAA2. Using nucleotide sequence analysis and insertional mutagenesis, we have found that the genes required for the expression of each of these factors, as well as the transcriptional activator of fimbrial expression AggR, map to a distinct cluster on the pAA2 plasmid map. The cluster is 23 kb in length and includes two regions required for expression of the AAF/II fimbria. These fimbrial biogenesis genes feature a unique organization in which the chaperone, subunit, and transcriptional activator lie in one cluster, whereas the second, unlinked cluster comprises a silent chaperone gene, usher, and invasin reminiscent of Dr family fimbrial clusters. This plasmid-borne virulence locus may represent an important set of virulence determinants in EAEC strains.  (+info)

Adhesins as targets for vaccine development. (4/525)

Blocking the primary stages of infection, namely bacterial attachment to host cell receptors and colonization of the mucosal surface, may be the most effective strategy to prevent bacterial infections. Bacterial attachment usually involves an interaction between a bacterial surface protein called an adhesin and the host cell receptor. Recent preclinical vaccine studies with the FimH adhesin (derived from uropathogenic Escherichia coli) have confirmed that antibodies elicited against an adhesin can impede colonization, block infection, and prevent disease. The studies indicate that prophylactic vaccination with adhesins can block bacterial infections. With recent advances in the identification, characterization, and isolation of other adhesins, similar approaches are being explored to prevent infections, from otitis media and dental caries to pneumonia and sepsis.  (+info)

The mast cell tumor necrosis factor alpha response to FimH-expressing Escherichia coli is mediated by the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule CD48. (5/525)

Mast cells are well known for their harmful role in IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reactions, but their physiological role remains a mystery. Several recent studies have reported that mast cells play a critical role in innate immunity in mice by releasing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) to recruit neutrophils to sites of enterobacterial infection. In some cases, the mast cell TNF-alpha response was triggered when these cells directly bound FimH on the surface of Escherichia coli. We have identified CD48, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored molecule, to be the complementary FimH-binding moiety in rodent mast cell membrane fractions. We showed that (i) pretreatment of mast cell membranes with antibodies to CD48 or phospholipase C inhibited binding of FimH+ E. coli, (ii) FimH+ E. coli but not a FimH- derivative bound isolated CD48 in a mannose-inhibitable manner, (iii) binding of FimH+ bacteria to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells was markedly increased when these cells were transfected with CD48 cDNA, and (iv) antibodies to CD48 specifically blocked the mast cell TNF-alpha response to FimH+ E. coli. Thus, CD48 is a functionally relevant microbial receptor on mast cells that plays a role in triggering inflammation.  (+info)

Decay-accelerating factor and cytoskeleton redistribution pattern in HeLa cells infected with recombinant Escherichia coli strains expressing Dr family of adhesins. (6/525)

Escherichia coli strains expressing Dr fimbriae are able to enter epithelial cells by interacting with a complement-regulatory protein, decay-accelerating factor. This model of bacterial internalization, with a well-characterized bacterial ligand and host receptor, provides a unique opportunity to investigate the early stages of invasion. We used immunofluorescence staining techniques to examine the distribution of receptor and cytoskeletal proteins in HeLa cells infected with E. coli recombinant strains that expressed Dr family of adhesins: Dr, Dr-II, F1845, AFA-I, and AFA-III. A major rearrangement of decay-accelerating factor was found at the adherence sites of recombinant strains expressing Dr, Dr-II, and F1845 adhesins. The changes in the distribution of receptor were significantly smaller on HeLa cells infected with E. coli bearing AFA-I or AFA-III afimbrial adhesins. Receptor aggregation was associated with the redistribution of cytoskeleton-associated proteins such as actin, alpha-actinin, ezrin, and occasionally tropomyosin. Purified Dr fimbriae coated on polystyrene beads were capable of triggering clustering of receptor and accumulating actin at the adhesion sites of beads to HeLa cells. Using scanning and transmission electron microscopic techniques, we have shown that beads coated with Dr fimbriae, as opposed to beads coated with bovine serum albumin, were enwrapped by cellular microvilli and ultimately internalized into HeLa cells. This indicates that interaction of Dr fimbriae with decay-accelerating factor is associated with redistribution of receptor and is sufficient to promote bacterial internalization.  (+info)

X-ray structure of the FimC-FimH chaperone-adhesin complex from uropathogenic Escherichia coli. (7/525)

Type 1 pili-adhesive fibers expressed in most members of the Enterobacteriaceae family-mediate binding to mannose receptors on host cells through the FimH adhesin. Pilus biogenesis proceeds by way of the chaperone/usher pathway. The x-ray structure of the FimC-FimH chaperone-adhesin complex from uropathogenic Escherichia coli at 2.5 angstrom resolution reveals the basis for carbohydrate recognition and for pilus assembly. The carboxyl-terminal pilin domain of FimH has an immunoglobulin-like fold, except that the seventh strand is missing, leaving part of the hydrophobic core exposed. A donor strand complementation mechanism in which the chaperone donates a strand to complete the pilin domain explains the basis for both chaperone function and pilus biogenesis.  (+info)

Virulence characteristics of Escherichia coli in acute bacterial prostatitis. (8/525)

To assess the urovirulence characteristics of Escherichia coli strains causing acute prostatitis, urinary isolates from men with acute prostatitis (n=107) and from women with acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (n=76) were examined for the prevalence of sfa, foc, and 3 papG allele genotypes and phenotypes and for the production of alpha-hemolysin and cytotoxic necrotizing factor 1. The papG allele III and foc gene were found more frequently and the papG allele II less frequently among prostatitis than from pyelonephritis isolates. A higher proportion of hly+ cnf1+ genotype in prostatitis strains (64% vs. 36%) was particularly striking. Both prostatitis and pyelonephritis strains expressed virulence factors similarly except for a higher proportion of nonhemolytic prostatitis isolates. Although the pathogenetic mechanisms of urinary tract infections in men and women may differ, virulence factors such as adhesins and cytotoxins may have important roles in the pathogenesis of acute prostatitis.  (+info)

The O26 serogroup of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) is one of the serogroups most frequently implicated in infant diarrhea and is also common among enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) strains. the most common O26 strains belong to EPEC/EHEC serotype O26:H11 and are generally Shiga toxin (Stx) positive. Stx-negative E. coli strains that are negative for the EPEC EAF plasmid and bundle-forming pilus (Bfp) are classified as atypical EPEC. Here, we report a novel adhesin present in an stx-negative bfpA-negative atypical EPEC O26:H11 strain isolated from an infant with diarrhea. A cloned 15-kb genomic region from this strain, designated the locus for diffuse adherence (lda), confers diffuse adherence on HEp-2 cells when expressed in E. coli K-12. Sequence analysis of lda revealed a G+C content of 46.8% and 15 open reading frames sharing homology with the E. coli K88 fae and CS31A clp fimbrial operons. the lda region is part of a putative 26-kb genomic island inserted into the proP gene of the ...
Background: The discovery of the autotransporter family has provided a mechanism for surface expression of proteins in laboratory strains of Escherichia coli. We have previously reported the use of the AIDA-I autotransport system to express the Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis proteins SefA and H: gm. The SefA protein was successfully exposed to the medium, but the orientation of H:gm in the outer membrane could not be determined due to proteolytic cleavage of the N-terminal detection-tag. The goal of the present work was therefore to construct a vector containing elements that facilitates analysis of surface expression, especially for proteins that are sensitive to proteolysis or otherwise difficult to express. Results: The surface expression system pAIDA1 was created with two detection tags flanking the passenger protein. Successful expression of SefA and H:gm on the surface of E. coli was confirmed with fluorescently labeled antibodies specific for the N-terminal His(6)-tag and the ...
If screening applications are viable for the success of your R&D efforts, a very unique approach can help:. Our proprietary technologies MATE and Autodisplay enable the development of cost-efficient high-throughput screening tools for the identification of binding partners such as inhibitors, activators, biomarkers or autoantigens. The use of fluorescence marked libraries speeds up the process significantly, when coupled to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS).. Find out how our custom-tailored products and services can assist in bringing your R&D processes forward ...
S fimbrial adhesins (Sfa) enable pathogenic Escherichia coli strains to bind to sialic acid-containing eucaryotic receptor molecules. In order to determine the influence of culture conditions on the expression of the sfa determinant in a wild-type strain, we fused the gene lacZ, coding for the enzyme beta-galactosidase, to the sfaA gene, responsible for the major protein subunit of S fimbriae. By using a plasmid which carries an R6K origin, the sfaA-lac hybrid construct was site-specifically integrated into the chromosome of the uropathogenic E. coli strain 536WT. The expression of lacZ, which was under the control of the sfa wild-type promoters, was now equivalent to the sfa expression of strain 536WT. With the help of this particular wild-type construct, it was demonstrated that the sfa determinant is better expressed on solid media than in liquid broth. The growth rate had a strong influence on Sfa expression under aerobic but not under anaerobic conditions. Production of Sfa was further ...
Autotransporter proteins are synthesized as multidomain proteins containing all structural requirements for the transport to the cell surface. They contain an N-terminal signal peptide typical for the Sec pathway, enabling export across the inner membrane. After truncation of the signal peptide in the periplasm, the C-terminal domain folds into the outer membrane as a porine-like structure, a so called β-barrel. The passenger domain can be efficiently translocated to the extracellular milieu by this structure. Recombinant passengers can be transported to the surface by simple insertion of the corresponding coding sequence into a distinct position of the precursor gene.. .reading-box-container-2 .element-bottomshadow:before,.reading-box-container-2 .element-bottomshadow:after{opacity:0.7;} ...
Papež Jan Pavel II. se již poněkolikáté vrátil do nemocnice, vážně nemocen. I pro nekatolíky, jako jsem já, jde o příležitost k zamyšlení, o co svět přijde, až papežovo tělo nakonec podlehne svým neduhům. Obraz, který vyvstane, je směsicí barev. Pro ty z nás, kdo považují pád komunismu z roku 1989 za zásadní událost dějin dvacátého století, je papež Jan Pavel hrdina. V Polsku byl ohniskem všech aktivit občanské společnosti. Zatímco v ostatních zemích, nejsilněji v Rumunsku, ale i v tehdejším Československu a v Maďarsku, vedle komunismu bylo vakuum nebo přinejlepším několik izolovaných organizací občanské společnosti, Polsko mělo alternativní zdroj legitimity. Tehdejší krakovský kardinál Karol Wojtyla byl jeho nejpůsobivějším představitelem, před svým zvolením i po něm. Zvolení kardinála Wojtyly papežem tak svým významem přesahovalo hranice církve. On sám vlastně ztotožňování své církve s občanskou ...
When you exercise heavily, you lose water and salt in your sweat. One good source is Emergen-C®. Emergen-C has an advantage over water because it is packed with the potassium, magnesium, calcium, sodium and sugar to provide electrolyte replenishment and energy during workouts Athletes can stave off fatigue longer if they fortify their water with…
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Moonens, K., J. Bouckaert, A. Coddens, T. Tran, S. Panjikar, M. De Kerpel, E. Cox, H. Remaut, and H. De Greve, Structural insight in histo-blood group binding by the F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF., Mol Microbiol, vol. 86, issue 1, pp. 82-95, 2012 Oct. ...
Michaelis, W. , Seifert, R. , Nauhaus, K. , Treude, T. , Thiel, V. , Blumenberg, M. , Knittel, K. , Gieseke, A. , Peterknecht, K. , Pape, T. , Boetius, A. , Amann, R. , Jorgensen, B. B. , Widdel, F. , Peckmann, J. , Pimenov, N. V. and Gulin, M. B. (2002 ...
Nitsch, J.; Pregger, T.; Naegler, T.; Heide, D.; Scholz, Y.; Luca de Tena, D.; Trieb, F.; Nienhaus, K.; Gerhardt, N.; Sterner, M.; Trost, T.; von Oehsen, A.; Schwinn, R.; Pape, C.; Hahn, H.; Wickert, M.; Wenzel, B.. ...
We recently reported that the type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli strains CSH-50 and HB101(pPKL4), both K-12 derivatives, have different patterns of adhesion to yeast mannan, human plasma fibronectin, and fibronectin derivatives, suggesting functional heterogeneity of type 1 fimbriae. In this report, we provide evidence that this functional heterogeneity is due to variations in the fimH genes. We also investigated functional heterogeneity among clinical isolates and whether variation in fimH genes accounts for differences in receptor specificity. Twelve isolates obtained from human urine were tested for their ability to adhere to mannan, fibronectin, periodate-treated fibronectin, and a synthetic peptide copying the 30 amino-terminal residues of fibronectin. CSH-50 and HB101(pPKL4) were tested for comparison. Selected isolates were also tested for adhesion to purified fragments spanning the entire fibronectin molecule. Three distinct functional classes, designated M, MF, and MFP, were observed. ...
The adhesin involved in diffuse adherence (AIDA) is an autotransporter protein that confers the diffuse adherence phenotype to certain diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains. It consists of a 49 amino acid signal peptide, a 797 amino acid passenger domain, and a 440 amino acid beta-domain integrated into the outer membrane. The beta-domain consists of two parts: the beta(1)-domain, which is predicted to form two beta-strands on the bacterial cell surface, and the beta(2)-domain, which constitutes the transmembrane domain. We have previously shown that the beta-domain can be folded from the urea-denatured state when bound to a nickel column during purification. It has not been possible to achieve proper refolding of the beta-domain in solution; instead, a misfolded state C is formed. Here, we characterize this misfolded state in greater detail, showing that despite being misfolded, C can be analyzed as a conventional conformational state, with cooperative unfolding in urea and SDS as well as ...
Surface expression has attracted much recent interest, and it has been suggested for a variety of applications. Two such applications are whole-cell biocatalysis and the creation of live vaccines. For successful implementation of these applications there is a need for flexible surface expression systems that can yield a high level of expression with a variety of recombinant fusion proteins. The aim of this work was thus to create a surface expression system that would fulfil these requirements.. A novel surface expression system based on the AIDA-I autotransporter was created with the key qualities being are good, protein-independent detection of the expression through the presence of two epitope tags flanking the recombinant protein, and full modularity of the different components of the expression cassette. To evaluate the flexibility of this construct, 8 different model proteins with potential use as live-vaccines or biocatalysts were expressed and their surface expression levels were ...
Background & Objective: Patient satisfaction is an indicator of the health services that is increasingly important in today's competitive world and perhaps the simplest method for evaluation of family physician program. This study aimed to determine the level of satisfaction of service recipients in urban areas in Fasa, Iran, with ...
The ability of Escherichia coli to express the K88 fimbrial adhesin was satisfactorily indicated by the combined techniques of ELISA, haemagglutination and latex agglutination. Detection of expression by electron microscopy and the ability to metabolize raffinose were unsuitable. Quantitative expression of the K88 adhesin was determined by ELISA. Expression was found to vary according to the E.coli strain examined, media type and form. In general it was found that the total amount was greater, while the amount/cfu was less on agar than in broth cultures. Expression of the K88 adhesin during unshaken batch culture was related to the growth rate and was maximal during late logarithmic to early stationary phase. A combination of heat extraction, ammonium sulphate and isoelectric precipitation was found suitable for both large and small scale preparation of purified K88ab adhesin. Extraction of the K88 adhesin was sensitive to pH and it was postulated that this may affect the site of colonisation of ...
Define adhesin: any of various specialized molecular components (such as proteins) on the surface of a bacterial cell that… - adhesin in a sentence
I work on an uropathogenic strain of E.coli. When I artificially express from a plasmid one of the transcriptional regulator, it results in secretion of a protein factor in the media, which has interesting biological roles. My aim is to purify this unknown factor present in the growth media and to identify it by Mass Spec ...
Lobenberg: Feinste, aber deutlich spürbare Mineralität im Mund, rote und schwarze, aber auch gelbe Frucht. Verspielt und doch konzentriert dicht. In der Nase Erdbeere und Himbeere neben Blumen und satter Kirsche, wieder dieser Eindruck aufgelöster, verflü
The most important they really understanding in any situation they faced during the day. Pinggan xde di meja kek,Saya yg tiba2 senggugut hari majlis,Saya dn suami dtg lambat di lokasi outdoor.Agaknya mungkin sejam jugak mereka menunggu. *maafkan saye yee...* Tetapi hasil kerja yg mereka berikan tetap berkualiti. Ada umph laaa..:P..And if u like any pose tat u have seen before,atau tiba2 teringin nak bergambar ats pokok ke..just tell them..they will fulfill your wish..*err..boleh ke abg wan?..heheh* ...
The main causative agent of human urinary tract infections is the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) pathotype. It may cause disease due to its ability to express a number of bacterial virulence factors. Fimbrial adhesins are particularly important for the initial establishment of infection in the urinary tract. The fimbriae are hair-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell and by attaching to specific receptors in the urinary tract they mediate adherence to different cell types, allowing the bacteria to resist the shear forces from urine flow. The UPEC strains generally carry multiple determinants for fimbrial adhesins. Previous studies have indicated that there is a co-regulation between different fimbrial genes and one factor that has been implicated in this is the PapB protein, acting as a transcriptional regulator of P-fimbrial expression. The PapB protein can be regarded as the prototype of a family of fimbrial regulators that show high homology between different fimbrial ...
Escherichia coli colonizes the human intestine shortly after birth, with most strains engaging in a commensal relationship. However, some E. coli strains have evolved toward acquiring genetic traits associated with virulence. Currently, five categories of enteroadherent E. coli strains are well-recognized, and are classified in regard to expressed adhesins and the strategy used during the colonization. The high morbidity associated with diarrhea has motivated investigations focusing on E. coli adhesins, as well on factors that inhibit bacterial adherence. Breastfeeding has proved to be the most effective strategy for preventing diarrhea in children. Aside from the immunoglobulin content, glycocompounds and oligosaccharides in breast milk play a critical role in the innate immunity against diarrheagenic E. coli strains. This review summarizes the colonization factors and virulence strategies exploited by diarrheagenic E. coli strains, addressing the inhibitory effects that oligosaccharides and
Fig. 2. Biofilm formation by E. coli cells expressing FimH variants. Each FimH variant is indicated by its expression plasmid. (A) Biofilm formation on a microtiter plate surface by cells expressing the K-12 fimH allele when grown in LB under static conditions. (B) Biofilm formation on a microtiter plate surface by cells expressing FimH variants when grown in LB under HDF conditions. Note that no biofilm is produced by the K-12fimH allele (pMAS1) under these conditions. (C) Quantification of biofilm formation as determined by the amount of crystal violet staining for each of the FimH variants. All experiments were performed in the presence and absence of methyl-α-d-mannopyranoside (α mm). Results are expressed as the average of four independent experiments (± standard deviation). ...
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) result in $1.6 billion in medical expenditures in the United States each year (1), with uropathogenic strains of Escherichia coli (UPEC) accounting for 70 to 95% of all UTIs (2). With the advance of multi-drug-resistant UPEC (3), it is important to determine the pathogenic mechanisms of UPEC. In animal models, UPEC pathogenesis initiates with bacterial binding of superficial bladder epithelial cells via the adhesin FimH at the tips of bacterially expressed type 1 pili (4). Initial colonization events activate inflammatory and apoptotic cascades in the epithelium, which is normally inert and only turns over every 6 to 12 months (5). Bladder epithelial cells respond to invading bacteria in part by recognizing bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) via the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4)-CD14 pathway, which results in strong neutrophil influx into the bladder (6). In addition, FimH-mediated interactions with the bladder epithelium stimulate exfoliation of superficial ...
UPEC utilizes complex mechanisms to subvert innate defenses to persist and cause disease. The ability of UPEC to invade into superficial cells of the bladder has been shown to be a critical mechanism in the ability of UPEC to establish a persistent infection (8, 12, 14, 15). Upon entry, UPEC diverts itself into the cytoplasm by an unknown mechanism that depends on the FimH adhesin present at the tips of type 1 pili (7). Previous light and electron microscopic studies identified loose intracellular collections of bacteria at early time points (≈6 h) in the superficial umbrella cells of the bladder, which were termed bacterial factories (8). In addition, at later time points (24 h) intracellular biofilm-like communities were observed that created a bulging appearance on the luminal surface of the bladder that were termed pods (15). Based on real-time fluorescence microscopy studies presented here, we discovered that these various structures are formed as part of a continuous developmental and ...
The paper in Nature Microbiology can be found here. The work presented in this paper was the result of a strong collaboration between the laboratories of Dr. Scott J. Hultgren and Dr. Peng Yuan at Washington University in St. Louis. Chaperone-usher pathway (CUP) pili are extracellular proteinaceous fibers ubiquitously found on Gram-negative bacteria. Type 1 and P pili are produced by uropathogenic strains of E. coli and are tipped with the FimH and PapG adhesins, respectively, to mediate host and tissue tropism to the bladder and kidney. During pilus assembly hundreds of individual pilus subunits called pilins are first exported across the inner membrane to the periplasm. Chaperone-pilin complexes are then guided to an outer membrane (OM) nanomachine called the usher, which catalyzes subunit-subunit interactions. The usher contains five functional domains: a 24-stranded transmembrane β-barrel domain, a β-sandwich plug domain that resides in the pore of the TD in the apo-usher, an ...
1O9Z: The Fimbrial Adhesin F17-G of Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli Has an Immunoglobulin-Like Lectin Domain that Binds N-Acetylglucosamine
1 Sequence alignment [w] Consider the strings APPLE and PAPE over the alphabet E = {A,E,L,P} and a penalty matrix P: A E L P A 1 E 1 1 L. 2 1 2 Compute the sequ
Vanwetswinkel, S., A. Volkov, Y. G. J. Sterckx, A. Garcia-Pino, L. Buts, W. F. Vranken, J. Bouckaert, R. Roy, L. Wyns, and N. A. J. van Nuland, Study of the structural and dynamic effects in the FimH adhesin upon α-d-heptyl mannose binding., J Med Chem, vol. 57, issue 4, pp. 1416-27, 2014 Feb 27. ...
Advocacy, Education, and Research Services The Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (AAFA), a not-for-profit organization founded in 1953, is the leading organization for people with asthma...
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Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung (Reports on Polar and Marine Research), Bremerhaven, Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research, 473 , 103 p ...
Cara mengobati Gout - Gout merupakan bentuk dari artritis yang bisa mengakibatkan terjadinya rasa sakit secara tiba - tiba dan kemerahan, parah, sembap, penghangatan serta pembengkakan pada persendian. Penyakit ini…. ...
Cara mengobati Gout - Gout merupakan bentuk dari artritis yang bisa mengakibatkan terjadinya rasa sakit secara tiba - tiba dan kemerahan, parah, sembap, penghangatan serta pembengkakan pada persendian. Penyakit ini…. ...
saya students uitm arau, menyewa di taman sri wang fasa 3, lorong 28.. betul2 depan sawah.. saya merupakan mangsa terbaru gigitan cinta pakcik charlie nih,, iaitu malam semalam. mmg betul kate kamu sebab saye tido x tutup lampu. sedih kot, minggu depan nak raye dah.. kene kat muke pulak tuh. masalah pada saya, saye x kenal rupe pkcik charlie nih. kalo jumpe, ku gigit2 balik siap kamu!! ...
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Poslat na n j arm du t kood nc a kolonu pandur , chalupu zbourat a d dka zav t na 150 let. Je extr mn spole ensky nebezpe n !!! V echny papou ky na cel m sv t zlikvidovat a p b h napsat do u ebnic.. Ty vynalo en pen ze za to rozhodn stoj !!!. To je opravdu nesl chan .. Bo e a pape i, chra n s p ed t mito hrozn mi narkotiky, men ...
Saya baru je balik kerja ni. Now tgh tunggu mak, abah n adik2 sampai. Mereka bertolak tghhari td dr kedah. Skrg (6.00pm) dah ada di behrang. Menurut mak, ujan lebat sgt. Dianggarkan akan tiba lepas maghrib.. X kisahlah, asalkan semuanya selamat... ...
SUFU 2020 the range of Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli (UPEC) motility types UPEC strains from women with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs).
Many bacteria, both environmental and pathogenic, exhibit the property of autoaggregation. In autoaggregation (sometimes also called autoagglutination or flocculation), bacteria of the same type form multicellular clumps that eventually settle at the bottom of culture tubes. Autoaggregation is generally mediated by self-recognising surface structures, such as proteins and exopolysaccharides, which we term collectively as autoagglutinins. Although a widespread phenomenon, in most cases the function of autoaggregation is poorly understood, though there is evidence to show that aggregating bacteria are protected from environmental stresses or host responses. Autoaggregation is also often among the first steps in forming biofilms. Here, we review the current knowledge on autoaggregation, the role of autoaggregation in biofilm formation and pathogenesis, and molecular mechanisms leading to aggregation using specific examples ...
The chaperone-usher (CU) pathway is a translocation system used to assemble adhesive multi-subunit fibres on the outer surface of gram-negative bacteria. CU pili are formed by the non-covalent polymerisation of several hundreds or thousands of pilus subunits which consist of an incomplete immunoglobulin (Ig)-like fold lacking the C-terminal ß-strand. In the periplasm, a cognate chaperone assists in pilus subunit folding by donating a b-strand to complement the truncated Ig-like fold of the pilus subunit, a process termed donor-strand complementation (Figure 69, A*) [1]. Chaperone:subunit complexes are then recruited to a pilus assembly platform in the outer membrane (OM) called the "usher". The usher catalyses ordered subunit polymerisation and mediates translocation of the nascent pilus to the cell surface. Polymerisation of pilus subunits occurs through an intermolecular fold complementation mechanism involving the first 10-20 residues (termed "N-terminal extension" or Nte) of the pilus ...
Bacterial adhesins promote colonization at the initial stages of an infection by mediating attachment to host tissues, thus avoiding nonspecific host defenses such as mechanical clearance and allowing bacterial multiplication to occur within the host (1). To exert these functions, adhesins need to be presented at the surface of the bacterium. Like typical adhesins, B. pertussis FHA attaches the bacterium to receptors in the respiratory tract (17-21, 28). However, in addition to being surface-associated, large amounts of FHA are also released into the extracellular milieu (15). This has so far only been observed in vitro. In this work, we show for the first time that FHA is likely to also be released in vivo, and that its secretion is necessary for efficient colonization in a mouse model of infection. Our results support the paradigm that the secreted form of bacterial adhesins may participate in pathogenesis.. The use of B. pertussis strains deficient in FHA release but presenting FHA ...
WOODWARD, MJ and WRAY, C (1990) 9 DNA PROBES FOR DETECTION OF TOXIN AND ADHESIN GENES IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI ISOLATED FROM DIARRHEAL DISEASE IN ANIMALS ...
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Shaffer, Carrie L. and Zhang, Ellisa W. and Dudley, Anne G. et al. (2017) Purine Biosynthesis Metabolically Constrains Intracellular Survival of Uropathogenic Escherichia coli. Infection and Immunity, 85 (1). Art. No. e00471-16. ISSN 0019-9567. PMCID PMC5203662. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20170331-075358953 ...
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Aida - Name Meaning. Your name, Aida, gives you the desire to understand and help others ... Is the name of Aida helping you? Discover the full name meaning of Aida. Free Name Report.
Korang pernah tak mengalami bengkak pada mata yang terjadi dengan sendirinya? Entah dari mana tah dia datang. Tiba tiba je da muncul dekat kelopak mata. Pernah tak. Pernah tak? Orang biasa paggil ketumbit ke ketumbr tah. Aku pun tak sure. Ala, yang kalau orang nampak mata kita bengkak, orang akan selalu cakap: " Haa. Tula, gi ngitai orang mandi la tu." Ntah pape je kan alasan tuh. ...
Simple gila bukan heavy gila lil bit gila² tak suka makan gula² senyum manis macam air gula. Suka buat muka bikin entri ikut suka. Thanks reading ...
Found in the outer membrane of gram-negative enterobacteria such as Shigella flexneri, Yersinia pestis, Escherichia coli, and ... Kukkonen M, Korhonen TK (July 2004). "The omptin family of enterobacterial surface proteases/adhesins: from housekeeping in ... Escherichia coli to systemic spread of Yersinia pestis". Int. J. Med. Microbiol. 294 (1): 7-14. doi:10.1016/j.ijmm.2004.01.003 ...
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D12.776.097.120.050.040 -- adhesins, escherichia coli MeSH D12.776.097.120.300.500 -- transferrin ...
September 2012). "Effects of cranberry extracts on growth and biofilm production of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus species ... The adhesin for S. saprophyticus is a lactosamine structure. S. saprophyticus produces no exotoxins. Patients with urinary ... after Escherichia coli. Sexual activity increases the risk of S. saprophyticus UTIs because bacteria are displaced from the ...
Bacteria like Escherichia coli O157:H7 gain the majority of their virulence from mobile genetic elements. Gram-negative ... Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other ... Exotoxins are also produced by a range of other bacteria including Escherichia coli; Vibrio cholerae (causative agent of ... These factors include adhesins, invasins, and antiphagocytic factors. The factors, including toxins, hemolysins, and proteases ...
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D23.050.161.050 --- adhesins, bacterial MeSH D23.050.161.050.040 --- adhesins, escherichia coli ...
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D12.776.543.100.050.040 -- adhesins, escherichia coli MeSH D12.776.543.325.100.100 -- gtp-binding ...
The PapG adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli contains separate regions for receptor binding and for the incorporation ... Tennent JM, Lindberg F, Normark S. Integrity of Escherichia coli P pili during biogenesis: properties and role of PapJ. Mol ... Her research into the genetic mechanism and control of host attachment by uropathogenic Escherichia coli was an important part ... Horizontal gene transfer of the Escherichia coli pap and prs pili operons as a mechanism for the development of tissue-specific ...
The fim switch in Escherichia coli is the mechanism by which the fim gene cluster, encoding Type I Pili, is transcriptionally ... coding for an adhesin at the tip, to name just a few important elements. The fim S region is flanked by 9bp repeats that are ... Klemm, P (1986). "Two regulatory fim genes, fimB and fimE, control the phase variation of type 1 fimbriae in Escherichia coli ... These pili are virulence factors involved in adhesion, especially important in uropathogenic Escherichia coli. The gene ...
The Dr adhesins bind Dr blood group antigen (Dra) which is present on decay accelerating factor (DAF) on erythrocytes and other ... List of strains of Escherichia coli "Escherichia coli O157:H7". CDC Division of Bacterial and Mycotic Diseases. Retrieved 2011- ... "Escherichia coli in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases: An update on adherent invasive Escherichia coli pathogenicity". World ... Escherichia coli (/ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlɪ/ Anglicized to /ˌɛʃəˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/; commonly abbreviated E. coli) is a gram-negative, rod ...
... typically associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, which often encode the adhesin intimin). The putative cause ... Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC or EAggEC) are a pathotype of Escherichia coli associated with acute and chronic ... "Outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 Infections Associated with Sprout Consumption - Europe and North America, May-July 2011". ... Ruan, Xiaosai; Crupper, Scott S.; Schultz, Bruce D.; Robertson, Donald C.; Zhang, Weiping (2012-08-15). "Escherichia coli ...
EIEC are highly invasive, and they use adhesin proteins to bind to and enter intestinal cells. They produce no toxins, but ... Enterovirulent classes of E. coli are referred to as the EEC group (enterovirulent E. coli): Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) ... "Shigella and enteroinvasive Escherichia coli strains are derived from distinct ancestral strains of E. coli". Microbiology. 144 ... Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) is a type of pathogenic bacteria whose infection causes a syndrome that is identical to ...
OmpA from Escherichia coli is required for pathogenesis, and can interact with host receptor molecules. MotB (and MotA) serve ... De Mot R, Proost P, Van Damme J, Vanderleyden J (February 1992). "Homology of the root adhesin of Pseudomonas fluorescens OE ... Freudl R, Klose M, Henning U (June 1990). "Export and sorting of the Escherichia coli outer membrane protein OmpA". J. Bioenerg ... Hosking ER, Vogt C, Bakker EP, Manson MD (December 2006). "The Escherichia coli MotAB proton channel unplugged". J. Mol. Biol. ...
The effectiveness of anti-adhesin antibodies is illustrated by studies with FimH, the adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli ... Schembri MA, Klemm P (May 1998). "Heterobinary adhesins based on the Escherichia coli FimH fimbrial protein". Appl. Environ. ... August 1999). "X-ray structure of the FimC-FimH chaperone-adhesin complex from uropathogenic Escherichia coli". Science. 285 ( ... October 2011). "Type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH elicits an immune response that enhances cell adhesion of Escherichia coli". ...
Wang Y (2002). "The Function of OmpA in Escherichia coli". Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 292: 396-401. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2002.6657 ... Klemm P & Schembri MA (2000). "Bacterial Adhesins:Function and Structure". Int J Med Microbiol. 290: 27-35. doi:10.1016/S1438- ... "Cell Surface Exposure of the Outer Membrane Protein OmpA of Escherichia coli K-12". J Mol Biol. 188 (3): 491-4. doi:10.1016/ ... Many types of bacteria have cell surface proteins such as the enteropathogenic E. coli intimin protein which is involved in ...
2008). "UpaG, a new member of the trimeric autotransporter family of adhesins in uropathogenic Escherichia coli". J Bacteriol. ... YadA stands for Yersinia adhesin protein A. This protein domain is an example of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins, and it was ... "Oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin YadA is a double-edged sword". PLoS ONE. 5 (12): e15159. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015159. PMC ... Trimeric autotransporter adhesins have a unique structure. The structure they hold is crucial to their function. They all ...
The Eib immunoglobulin-binding proteins from Escherichia coli were third, followed by the DsrA proteins of Haemophilus ducreyi ... and IgG Fc by distinct sequence segments of the EibF cell surface protein of Escherichia coli". Infect. Immun. 69 (12): 7293- ... YadA, an adhesin from Yersinia, was the first member of this family to be characterised. UspA2 from Moraxella was second. ... The importance of adhesins to YadA function and Yersinia survival is huge. Attachment further allows more interactions and ...
This family consists of haemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) from Escherichia coli and its enterobacterial homologues ... YmoA modulates the expression of various virulence factors, such as Yop proteins and YadA adhesin, in response to temperature. ...
Bedouelle, Hugues; Duplay, Pascale (Feb 1988). "Production in Escherichia coli and one-step purification of bifunctional hybrid ... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. Bibcode:2012PNAS.. ... Solubilization tags are used, especially for recombinant proteins expressed in chaperone-deficient species such as E. coli, to ...
... in Staphylococcus species and PGA in Escherichia coli. By degrading the biofilm matrix, Dispersin B allows for the release of ... Mack D, Fischer W, Krokotsch A, Leopold K, Hartmann R, Egge H, Laufs R (1996). "The intercellular adhesin involved in biofilm ... The three-dimensional structure of dispersin B was determined by expressing the protein in E. coli, purifying it from cultures ... and proteinaceous adhesins. It allows bacteria to adhere to host surfaces, protects the bacterial cells from host defenses, ...
a b H. Bedouelle, P. Duplay: Production in Escherichia coli and one-step purification of bifunctional hybrid proteins which ... through engineering a bacterial adhesin. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ... B. A. Fong, D. W. Wood: Expression and purification of ELP-intein-tagged target proteins in high cell density E. coli ...
The exposure to β-lactam antibiotics induced the SOS response in Escherichia coli. During repair of DNA damage, the SOS ... with an increased number of adhesins participating in the interaction, making even harder the work for (PMN). The interaction ... This mechanism has been described in bacteria such as Escherichia coli and Helicobacter pylori. Oxidative stress, nutrient ... Justice, Sheryl S.; Hunstad (2006). "Filamentation by Escherichia coli subverts innate defenses during urinary tract infection ...
2001 Structural and sequence diversity of the pathogenicity island of uropathogenic Escherichia coli which encodes the USP ... Pathogenicity islands carry genes encoding one or more virulence factors, including, but not limited to, adhesins, secretion ... mosomal regions coding for fimbriae and hemolysins occur in vivo and in vitro in various extraintestinal Escherichia coli iso- ...
2011). "Urinary tract infections of Escherichia coli strains of chaperone-usher system". Polish journal of microbiology. 60: ... Immune evasion is also facilitated by the tip adhesin, for example the binding of Decay accelerating factor (DAF) by gamma3 ... uropathogenic Escherichia coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. All chaperone/usher systems are found within gene clusters ...
5 prime ureB sRNA Aar small RNA, an sRNA produced by species of Acinetobacter Bacillus subtilis BSR sRNAs Escherichia coli sRNA ... Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) include porins and adhesins. Numerous sRNAs regulate the expression of OMPs. The porins OmpC and ... MicF in E. coli was found to regulate the expression of a key structural gene that makes up the outer membrane of the E. coli ... Hershberg R, Altuvia S, Margalit H (April 2003). "A survey of small RNA-encoding genes in Escherichia coli". Nucleic Acids Res ...
The molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, (10 kDa) to the Pseudomonas fluorescens ... Gerlach, R; Hensel, M (2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: The molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens". ... A common example of an autotransporter that uses this secretion system is the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins. Type VI ... "Structural Features of the Pseudomonas fluorescens Biofilm Adhesin LapA Required for LapG-Dependent Cleavage, Biofilm Formation ...
The molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, (10 kDa) to the Pseudomonas fluorescens ... Gerlach RG, Hensel M (October 2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: the molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens ... A common example of an autotransporter that uses this secretion system is the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins.[18] ... "Structural features of the Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm adhesin LapA required for LapG-dependent cleavage, biofilm ...
Nandre RM, Ruan X, Duan Q, Sack DA, Zhang W. Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip ... keywords = "Adhesin tip, Diarrhea, ETEC (enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli), MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen), Vaccine", ... T1 - Antibodies derived from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) adhesin tip MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) against ...
Transcriptional organization of the F1845 fimbrial adhesin determinant of Escherichia coli.. Bilge SS1, Apostol JM Jr, Fullner ... transcriptional organization of the gene cluster encoding the F1845 fimbrial adhesin of a diarrhoea-associated Escherichia coli ... were determined to share limited homology with the papB and papI genes of the P fimbrial adhesin, respectively. The 5 termini ...
... Mol Biol Evol. 2004 Jul; ... mutations in the Escherichia coli gene encoding FimH-the major, mannose-sensitive adhesin. Analysis of distribution of ... The selective footprint in fimH indicates that the pathoadaptive niche differentiation of E. coli is either in its initial ... coli, and (5) pathoadaptive functional changes in FimH brought by the mutations. ...
Fimbrial adhesins produced by atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. Applied and environmental microbiology (2011 ...
Globoside-specific adhesins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are encoded by similar trans-complementable gene clusters.. B ... Globoside-specific adhesins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are encoded by similar trans-complementable gene clusters. ... Globoside-specific adhesins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are encoded by similar trans-complementable gene clusters. ... Globoside-specific adhesins of uropathogenic Escherichia coli are encoded by similar trans-complementable gene clusters. ...
... Lindberg, Stina Umeå University, Faculty ... Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96 carries multiple determinants for fimbrial adhesins. The regulatory protein PapB of P ... coli Abstract [en]. The main causative agent of human urinary tract infections is the uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) ... 1. Molecular analysis of transcription factors in uropathogenic E. coli adhesin operons. Open this publication in new window or ...
Localization of a domain in the FimH adhesin of Escherichia coli type 1 fimbriae capable of receptor recognition and use of a ... The FimH subunit of type 1-fimbriated Escherichia coli has been implicated as an important determinant of bacterial adherence ... coli. Only the antibody directed at the putative binding region of FimH (anti- s-FimH1-25) significantly reduced E. coli ... coli to the bladder mucosa in situ and in vivo in an established mouse model of cystitis. We generated translational fusion ...
Phenotypical characterization and adhesin identification in Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs with urinary tract ... Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) from calves and lambs with diarrhoea ... Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) (5, 10, 30). E. coli that are ... Escherichia coli mediated urinary tract infections: Are there distinct uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) pathotypes? FEMS Microbiol ...
Monoclonal antibody K88-13 bound to all K88+ Escherichia coli … ... against the K88 fimbrial adhesin produced by Escherichia coli ... The monoclonal antibodies failed to react with K88+ E coli grown at 18 degrees C or with K88- E coli grown at 37 degrees C or ... Monoclonal antibody K88-13 bound to all K88+ Escherichia coli examined, whereas K88-18 and 5CA3 bound to K88ab+ and K88ac+ ... One hundred and forty-nine strains of K88+ E coli representing seven somatic O groups were agglutinated by antibody K88-13; 142 ...
Genetic organization of the afimbrial adhesin operon and nucleotide sequence from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli gene ... Genetic organization of the afimbrial adhesin operon and nucleotide sequence from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli gene ... Genetic organization of the afimbrial adhesin operon and nucleotide sequence from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli gene ... Genetic organization of the afimbrial adhesin operon and nucleotide sequence from a uropathogenic Escherichia coli gene ...
Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains of fecal origin rarely express F1845 adhesin. Microbiol. Immunol. 43:167-170 ... Afa, a Diffuse Adherence Fibrillar Adhesin Associated with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Rogéria Keller, Juana G. Ordoñez, ... Afa, a Diffuse Adherence Fibrillar Adhesin Associated with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Rogéria Keller, Juana G. Ordoñez, ... Afa, a Diffuse Adherence Fibrillar Adhesin Associated with Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Rogéria Keller, Juana G. Ordoñez, ...
Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From ... Detection of pap, sfa, afa, foc, and fim Adhesin-Encoding Operons in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates Collected From ... Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) with its virulence factors is the most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection (UTI). ... Adhesion Proteins-Encoding Operons; Urinary Tract Infections; Uropathogenic Escherichia coli; Virulence Genes ...
The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ...
WOODWARD, MJ and WRAY, C (1990) 9 DNA PROBES FOR DETECTION OF TOXIN AND ADHESIN GENES IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI ISOLATED FROM ... 9 DNA PROBES FOR DETECTION OF TOXIN AND ADHESIN GENES IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI ISOLATED FROM DIARRHEAL DISEASE IN ANIMALS ...
CU fimbriae homologues in the genome of commensal and pathogenic Escherichia coli and closely related bacteria. We propose that ... Among them, chaperone-usher (CU) fimbriae adhesins, related to prototypical type 1 fimbriae, interact in highly specific ways ... The sweet connection: Solving the riddle of multiple sugar-binding fimbrial adhesins in Escherichia coli: Multiple E. coli ... Solving the riddle of multiple sugar-binding fimbrial adhesins in Escherichia coli: Multiple E. coli fimbriae form a versatile ...
... ... The ability of Escherichia coli to colonize both intestinal and extraintestinal sites is driven by the presence of specific ... In this study, we characterized a new trimeric AT adhesin (UpaG) from uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Molecular analysis of UpaG ... Thus, UpaG is a novel trimeric AT adhesin from E. coli that mediates aggregation, biofilm formation, and adhesion to various ...
H7 and is associated with a coincident upregulation of the expression of a putative adhesin gene, yadK. Further gene expression ... Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) survives exposure to acute acid stress during gastric passage and progresses to ... 2005;). The IrgA homologue adhesin Iha is an Escherichia coli virulence factor in murine urinary tract infection. Infect Immun ... Identification of a novel adhesin involved in acid-induced adhesion of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 : H7 * Frances ...
Afimbrial adhesin AFA-I (P08180) Accession. P08180 (AFAE1_ECOLX) Species. Escherichia coli ...
Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. Loading... A3QNQ5 Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. Loading... A3QNQ6 Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. ... Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. Loading... A3QNR0 Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. Loading... A3QNR3 Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. ... Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. Loading... A3QNR7 Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. Loading... A3QNR8 Dr adhesin. Escherichia coli. ...
Blood group antigen binding adhesin BabA of Helicobacter pylori strain 17875 in complex with blood group A Lewis b ... Expression System: Escherichia coli. *Deposited: 2015-12-08 Released: 2016-01-20 ... The Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA binds mucosal ABO/Le(b) blood group (bg) carbohydrates. BabA facilitates bacterial ... The Helicobacter pylori adhesin BabA binds mucosal ABO/Le(b) blood group (bg) carbohydrates. BabA facilitates bacterial ...
Adhesins of Escherichia coli associated with extra-intestinal pathogenicity confer binding to colonic epithelial cells.. ... Escherichia coli adhesins are virulence factors in intestinal and extra-intestinal infections, but their role in normal ... Adhesins, Escherichia coli, metabolism, Bacterial Adhesion, Bacterial Proteins, metabolism, Cells, Cultured, Colon, cytology, ... E. coli with S-fimbrial adhesins (Sfa I or Sfa II), P or type 1 fimbriae, adhered in a non-polarized manner, and in similar ...
Diarrhea-causing Escherichia coli strains are responsible for numerous cases of gastrointestinal disease and constitute a ... AIDA is a potent bacterial adhesin associated with some diarrheagenic E. coli strains. AIDA mediates bacterial attachment to a ... Additionally, AIDA expression dramatically enhances biofilm formation by E. coli on abiotic surfaces in How chambers. Type: ... Here, we show that AIDA possesses self-association characteristics and can mediate autoaggregation of E. coli cells. We ...
It is produced in E.coli. High purity. Good price. ... Purchase Recombinant Escherichia coli Type 1 fimbrin D-mannose ... Recombinant Escherichia coli Type 1 fimbrin D-mannose specific adhesin(fimH). Recombinant Escherichia coli Type 1 fimbrin D- ... E.coli. CSB-BP362349ENV. CSB-MP362349ENV. Recombinant Escherichia coli Type 1 fimbrin D-mannose specific adhesin(fimH). ... E.coli. CSB-EP362349ENV. Recombinant Escherichia coli Type 1 fimbrin D-mannose specific adhesin(fimH). ...
We recently showed that STEC strains isolated in Chile displayed a wide variety of adhesins; here we demonstrate that some of ... The eae-encoded protein intimin is the main adhesin implicated in intestinal colonization in vivo. ... coli. The DNA sequence of the STEC 472-1 psu-int region identified five open reading frames with homology to phage genes. We ... coli (EHEC) O157 : H7 prototype strain EDL933. This phenotype is associated with the presence of adherence factors different ...
A novel putative extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli fimbrial adhesin identified via Signature-tagged Mutagenesis (2010 ...
  • In this study, we applied MEFA (multiepitope fusion antigen) approach to integrate epitopes from adhesin tips or adhesive subunits of CFA/I, CS1, CS2, CS3, CS4, CS5, CS6, CS21 and EtpA adhesins and to construct an adhesin tip MEFA peptide. (elsevier.com)
  • here we demonstrate that some of these STEC strains are eae-negative and still adhere to epithelial cells at a level 100-fold higher than enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O157 : H7 prototype strain EDL933. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 1998). Non-0157:H 7 Stx2-producing E. coli strain associated with sporadic cases of hemolytic-uremic syndrome in adults. (springer.com)
  • Resistance of the E. coli 1000G-BA strain to five antibiotics compared with that of the E. coli lac plus (WT) strain and the E. coli 1000G-BA strain exposed to nonantibiotic conditions over 110 generations (110E = 11 cycles) in shaker flasks. (asm.org)
  • Persistence of antibiotic resistance of the E. coli 1000G-BA strain to the antibiotic cefalotin despite exposure to nonantibiotic conditions over 110 generations (110E = 11 cycles) in shaker flasks. (asm.org)
  • genomic changes contributing to or representing the consequences of the antibiotic resistance of the E. coli 1000G-BA strain. (asm.org)
  • The cell-free culture filtrates of the E. coli ONT strain isolated from the outbreak cases induced considerable amount of fluid accumulation in suckling mouse intestine, indicating production of an enterotoxic factor(s). (ajtmh.org)
  • Escherichia coli is the most common pathogen associated with urinary tract infection (UTI) (5, 10, 30). (scielo.br)
  • 150 women with urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli randomly allocated into three groups. (bmj.com)
  • Women who had a urinary tract infection caused by Escherichia coli (≥10 5 colony forming units/ml in clean voided midstream urine) and were not taking antimicrobial prophylaxis were invited to participate. (bmj.com)
  • 1998) Minimum chemi cal requirements for adhesin activity of the acidstable part of Candida albicans cell wall phosphomannoprotein complex. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Mutants of the Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Enterotoxin with Reduced ADP-Ribosylation Activity or No Activity Retain the Immunogenic Properties of the Native Holotoxin', Infect Immun, Dec. 1996, vol. 64, No. 12, p. 5413-5416. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • To exert these functions, adhesins are typically surface-exposed, although, surprisingly, some are also released into the extracellular milieu, the relevance of which has previously not been studied. (rupress.org)
  • More recently, it has become apparent that some bacterial adhesins are, in part, released from the cell surface into the extracellular milieu ( 6 - 11 ). (rupress.org)
  • One of the B. pertussis major adhesins, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), * partitions in vitro between the cell surface and the extracellular milieu ( 14 - 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • The results show that amyloid adhesins were an abundant component of activated sludge extracellular polymeric substances and seem to have unexpected, divers functions. (asm.org)