Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (1/2463)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (2/2463)

During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract.  (+info)

Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes. (3/2463)

The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

Expression of the plague plasminogen activator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli. (4/2463)

Enteropathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica) typically cause chronic disease as opposed to the closely related Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. It is established that this difference reflects, in part, carriage by Y. pestis of a unique 9.6-kb pesticin or Pst plasmid (pPCP) encoding plasminogen activator (Pla) rather than distinctions between shared approximately 70-kb low-calcium-response, or Lcr, plasmids (pCD in Y. pestis and pYV in enteropathogenic yersiniae) encoding cytotoxic Yops and anti-inflammatory V antigen. Pla is known to exist as a combination of 32.6-kDa (alpha-Pla) and slightly smaller (beta-Pla) outer membrane proteins, of which at least one promotes bacterial dissemination in vivo and degradation of Yops in vitro. We show here that only alpha-Pla accumulates in Escherichia coli LE392/pPCP1 cultivated in enriched medium and that either autolysis or extraction of this isolate with 1.0 M NaCl results in release of soluble alpha and beta forms possessing biological activity. This process also converted cell-bound alpha-Pla to beta-Pla and smaller forms in Y. pestis KIM/pPCP1 and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 but did not promote solubilization. Pla-mediated posttranslational hydrolysis of pulse-labeled Yops in Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 occurred more slowly than that in Y. pestis but was otherwise similar except for accumulation of stable degradation products of YadA, a pYV-mediated fibrillar adhesin not encoded in frame by pCD. Carriage of pPCP by Y. pseudotuberculosis did not significantly influence virulence in mice.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (5/2463)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association. (6/2463)

Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization.  (+info)

Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI. (7/2463)

Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes.  (+info)

Coordinate involvement of invasin and Yop proteins in a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell-mediated response. (8/2463)

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogenic enteric bacteria that evades host cellular immune response and resides extracellularly in vivo. Nevertheless, an important contribution of T cells to defense against Yersinia has been previously established. In this study we demonstrate that Lewis rats infected with virulent strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, mount a Yersinia-specific, RT1-A-restricted, CD8+ T cell-mediated, cytotoxic response. Sensitization of lymphoblast target cells for cytolysis by Yersinia-specific CTLs required their incubation with live Yersinia and was independent of endocytosis. Although fully virulent Yersinia did not invade those cells, they attached to their surface. In contrast, invasin-deficient strain failed to bind to blast targets or to sensitize them for cytolysis. Furthermore, an intact virulence plasmid was an absolute requirement for Yersinia to sensitize blast targets for cytolysis. Using a series of Y. pseudotuberculosis mutants selectively deficient in virulence plasmid-encoded proteins, we found no evidence for a specific role played by YadA, YopH, YpkA, or YopJ in the sensitization process of blast targets. In contrast, mutations suppressing YopB, YopD, or YopE expression abolished the capacity of Yersinia to sensitize blast targets. These results are consistent with a model in which extracellular Yersinia bound to lymphoblast targets via invasin translocate inside eukaryotic cytosol YopE, which is presented in a class I-restricted fashion to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. This system could represent a more general mechanism by which bacteria harboring a host cell contact-dependent or type III secretion apparatus trigger a class I-restricted CD8+ T cell response.  (+info)

Most core residues of coiled coils are hydrophobic. Occasional polar residues are thought to lower stability, but impart structural specificity. The coiled coils of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are conspicuous for their large number of polar residues in position d of the core, which often leads to their prediction as natively unstructured regions. The most frequent residue, asparagine ([email protected]), can occur in runs of up to 19 consecutive heptads, frequently in the motif [I/V]xxNTxx. In the Salmonella TAA, SadA, the core asparagines form rings of interacting residues with the following threonines, grouped around a central anion. This conformation is observed generally in [email protected] layers from trimeric coiled coils of known structure. Attempts to impose a different register on the motif show that the asparagines orient themselves specifically into the core, even against conflicting information from flanking domains. When engineered into the GCN4 leucine zipper, [email protected] layers progressively ...
Background Fibronectin Binding Protein A (FnBPA) can be an invasin from which allows this pathogen to internalize into eukaryote cells. FnBPA expression at E 64d the top of recombinant is correlated to internalization and DNA transfer properties positively. The recombinant strains of this expresses FnBPA beneath the control of the nisin inducible appearance program could thus be looked at as a better tool in neuro-scientific DNA transfer. and (([9], the Internalin A from [10,11], or the invasin of [12,13]. Hence, these proteins contain the potential to be utilized as equipment in genetic engineering for the design of invasive bacterial strains developed from non-pathogenic strains considered GRAS (Generally Regarded As Safe) for human health, such as the model LAB, has been previously explained by Que et al. [15,16]. This process has been used in the design of recombinant bacterial strains expressing FnBPA with varying results, thus we hypothesized that an increase of the external expression of ...
Bacterial adhesins promote colonization at the initial stages of an infection by mediating attachment to host tissues, thus avoiding nonspecific host defenses such as mechanical clearance and allowing bacterial multiplication to occur within the host (1). To exert these functions, adhesins need to be presented at the surface of the bacterium. Like typical adhesins, B. pertussis FHA attaches the bacterium to receptors in the respiratory tract (17-21, 28). However, in addition to being surface-associated, large amounts of FHA are also released into the extracellular milieu (15). This has so far only been observed in vitro. In this work, we show for the first time that FHA is likely to also be released in vivo, and that its secretion is necessary for efficient colonization in a mouse model of infection. Our results support the paradigm that the secreted form of bacterial adhesins may participate in pathogenesis.. The use of B. pertussis strains deficient in FHA release but presenting FHA ...
Increasing rates of life-threatening infections and decreasing susceptibility to antibiotics urge an effective vaccine targeting Staphylococcus aureus. Here we
H-Phe-Asn-Lys-His-Thr-Glu-Ile-Ile-Glu-Glu-Asp-Thr-Asn-Lys-Asp-Lys-Pro-Ser-Tyr-Gln-Phe-Gly-Gly-His-Asn-Ser-Val-Asp-Phe-Glu-Glu-Asp-Thr-Leu-Pro-Lys-Val-OH or H-FNKHTEIIEEDTNKDKPSYQFGGHNSVDFEEDTLPKV- ...
The distribution of three putative adhesin genes in 123 Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strains was determined by PCR. The STEC strains were isolated from human patients (n = 90) and food (n = 33) and were characterized by ...
Complete information for FNBP4 gene (Protein Coding), Formin Binding Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Define adhesin: any of various specialized molecular components (such as proteins) on the surface of a bacterial cell that… - adhesin in a sentence
Baba Farid University of Health Sciences (BFUHS) Faridkot has Released BFUHS Results 2017-2018 at bfuhs.ac.in. Get Baba Farid University Result from here.
Talmud Online, zipped for download, searchable: Tohoroth, Niddah, Nazir, Horayoth, Sanhedrin, Sotah, Yebamoth, Shabbath, Kethuboth, Gittin, Berakoth, Baba Mezia, Baba Kamma, Baba Bathra, Nedarim, Abodah Zara
Background Pathogenic bacteria adhere to the host cell surface using a family of outer membrane proteins called Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAAs). Although TAAs are highly divergent in sequence and domain structure, they are all conceptually comprised of a C-terminal membrane anchoring domain and an N-terminal passenger domain. Passenger domains consist of a secretion sequence, a head region that facilitates binding to the host cell surface, and a stalk region. Methodology/Principal Findings Pathogenic species of Burkholderia contain an overabundance of TAAs, some of which have been shown to elicit an immune response in the host. To understand the structural basis for host cell adhesion, we solved a 1.35 Å resolution crystal structure of a BpaA TAA head domain from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the pathogen that causes melioidosis. The structure reveals a novel fold of an intricately intertwined trimer. The BpaA head is composed of structural elements that have been observed in other TAA head
The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is a high-molecular weight protein that is secreted by the bacterial two-partner secretion pathway and mediates adherence to respiratory epithelium, an essential early step in the pathogenesis of H. influenzae disease. In recent work, we discovered that HMW1 is a glycoprotein and undergoes N-linked glycosylation at multiple asparagine residues with simple hexose units rather than N-acetylated hexose units, revealing an unusual N-glycosidic linkage and suggesting a new glycosyltransferase activity. Glycosylation protects HMW1 against premature degradation during the process of secretion and facilitates HMW1 tethering to the bacterial surface, a prerequisite for HMW1-mediated adherence. In the current study, we establish that the enzyme responsible for glycosylation of HMW1 is a protein called HMW1C, which is encoded by the hmw1 gene cluster and shares homology with a group of bacterial proteins that are generally associated with two-partner secretion ...
Trimeric autotransporters are a family of secreted outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. These obligate homotrimeric proteins share a conserved C-terminal region, termed the translocation unit. This domain consists of an integral membrane β-barrel anchor and associated α-helices which pass through the pore of the barrel. The α-helices link to the extracellular portion of the protein, the passenger domain. Autotransportation refers to the way in which the passenger domain is secreted into the extracellular space. It appears that the translocation unit mediates the transport of the passenger domain across the outer membrane, and no external factors, such as ATP, ion gradients nor other proteins, are required. The passenger domain of autotransporters contains the specific activities of each protein. These are usually related to virulence. In trimeric autotransporters, the main function of the proteins is to act as adhesins. One such protein is the Yersinia adhesin YadA, found in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus cell surface adhesins using flow cytometry. AU - Mohamed, Nehal. AU - Visai, Livia. AU - Speziale, Pietro. AU - Ross, Julia M.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The initiation of many infectious diseases involves specific adhesion of bacteria to host tissue proteins and carbohydrates. Staphylococcus aureus is known to bind specifically to several proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). We report the quantification of the collagen and fibronectin adhesin densities on the staphylococcal surface using flow cytometry. Our results are in agreement with previous reports on the transcription of the respective genes and demonstrate different patterns of temporal expression for the two adhesins in the strains studied. We demonstrate a convenient technique for quantification of bacterial adhesins that can be used in studies aimed at characterization of bacterial adhesion to ECM components and understanding expression of adhesins during the course of an ...
Porphyromonas gingivalis, the major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis, produces a broad spectrum of virulence factors, including Arg- and Lys-gingipain cysteine proteinases. In this study, we investigated the capacity of P. gingivalis gingipains to trigger a proinflammatory response in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both Arg- and Lys-gingipain preparations induced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-8 by macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages with Arg-gingipain A/B preparation at the highest concentration was associated with lower amounts of cytokines detected, a phenomenon likely related to proteolytic degradation. The inflammatory response induced by gingipains was not dependent of their catalytic activity since heat-inactivated preparations were still effective. Stimulating macrophages with gingipain preparations was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated p38α MAPK suggesting its involvement in cell activation. In conclusion, our study brought clear evidence that P. gingivalis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a new membrane-associated protein that influences transport/maturation of gingipains and adhesins of Porphyromonas gingivalis. AU - Sato, Keiko. AU - Sakai, Eiko. AU - Veith, Paul D.. AU - Shoji, Mikio. AU - Kikuchi, Yuichiro. AU - Yukitake, Hideharu. AU - Ohara, Naoya. AU - Naito, Mariko. AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Reynolds, Eric C.. AU - Nakayama, Koji. PY - 2005/3/11. Y1 - 2005/3/11. N2 - The dual membrane envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria provide two barriers of unlike nature that regulate the transport of molecules into and out of organisms. Organisms have developed several systems for transport across the inner and outer membranes. The Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis produces proteinase and adhesin complexes, gingipains/adhesins, on the cell surface and in the extracellular milieu as one of the major virulence factors. Gingipains and/or adhesins are encoded by kgp, rgpA, rgpB, and hagA on the chromosome. In this ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple fimbrial adhesins are required for full virulence of Salmonella typhimurium in mice. AU - Van Der Velden, Adrianus W M. AU - Baumler, Andreas J. AU - Tsolis, Renee M. AU - Heffron, Fred. PY - 1998/6. Y1 - 1998/6. N2 - Adhesion is an important initial step during bacterial colonization of the intestinal mucosa. However, mutations in the Salmonella typhimurium fimbrial operons lpf, pef, fim only moderately alter mouse virulence. The respective adhesins may thus play only a minor role during infection or S. typhimurium may encode alternative virulence factors that can functionally compensate for their loss. To address this question, we constructed mutations in all four known fimbrial operons of S. typhimurium: fim, lpf, pef, and agf. A mutation in the agfB gene resulted in a threefold increase in the oral 50% lethal dose (LD50) of S. typhimurium for mice. In contrast, an S. typhimurium strain carrying mutations in all four fimbrial operons (quadruple mutant) had a 26-fold ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - E-cadherin is a receptor for the common protein pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae. AU - Anderton, Julie M.. AU - Rajam, Gowrisankar. AU - Romero-Steiner, Sandra. AU - Summer, Susan. AU - Kowalczyk, Andrew P.. AU - Carlone, George M.. AU - Sampson, Jacquelyn S.. AU - Ades, Edwin W.. N1 - Funding Information: This research was supported in part by an appointment of J.M. Anderton to the Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID) Fellowship Program administered by the Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) and funded for by the CDC. Recombinant purified PsaA was provided by Sanofi Aventis, Toronto, Ont., Canada. We would like to thank E. Tuomanen (St. Jude Childrens Hospital, Memphis, TN) for completing the pIgR experiments. Pnc PsaA − mutant was a gift from J. Paton (University of Adelaide, Australia). Lec5 and Neo cells were a gift from J. Stanley (University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA). We thank S. Hammerschmidt for helpful discussions, ...
AIMS To characterize the functionality of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 fbpA gene encoding a putative fibronectin-binding protein. METHODS AND RESULTS Adhesion tests showed that L. casei BL23 binds immobilized and soluble fibronectin in a protease-sensitive manner. A mutant with inactivated fbpA showed a decrease in binding to immobilized fibronectin and a strong reduction in the surface hydrophobicity as reflected by microbial adhesion to solvents test. However, minor effects were seen on adhesion to the human Caco-2 or HT-29 cell lines. Purified 6X(His)FbpA bound to immobilized fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot experiments with FbpA-specific antibodies showed that FbpA could be extracted from the cell surface by LiCl treatment and that protease digestion of the cells reduced the amount of extracted FbpA. Furthermore, surface exposition of FbpA was detected in other L. casei strains by LiCl extraction and whole-cell ELISA. CONCLUSIONS FbpA can be found at the L. casei BL23 surface
Adhesins are surface structures of bacteria that facilitate their attachment to host cells or non-living materials. New research has advanced our understanding of adhesins, as outlined in a new report ...
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. The molecular basis for these varied presentations, which may involve strain-specific virulence features as well as host factors, has not been elucidated. We demonstrate that, when challenged with ETEC strain H10407, originally isolated from a case of cholera-like illness, blood group A human volunteers developed severe diarrhea more frequently than individuals from other blood groups. Interestingly, a diverse population of ETEC strains, including H10407, secrete the EtpA adhesin molecule. As many bacterial adhesins also agglutinate red blood cells, we combined the use of glycan arrays, biolayer inferometry, and noncanonical amino acid labeling with hemagglutination studies to demonstrate that EtpA is a dominant ETEC blood group A-specific lectin/hemagglutinin. Importantly, we have also shown that EtpA ...
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. The molecular basis for these varied presentations, which may involve strain-specific virulence features as well as host factors, has not been elucidated. We demonstrate that, when challenged with ETEC strain H10407, originally isolated from a case of cholera-like illness, blood group A human volunteers developed severe diarrhea more frequently than individuals from other blood groups. Interestingly, a diverse population of ETEC strains, including H10407, secrete the EtpA adhesin molecule. As many bacterial adhesins also agglutinate red blood cells, we combined the use of glycan arrays, biolayer inferometry, and noncanonical amino acid labeling with hemagglutination studies to demonstrate that EtpA is a dominant ETEC blood group A-specific lectin/hemagglutinin. Importantly, we have also shown that EtpA ...
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WOODWARD, MJ and WRAY, C (1990) 9 DNA PROBES FOR DETECTION OF TOXIN AND ADHESIN GENES IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI ISOLATED FROM DIARRHEAL DISEASE IN ANIMALS ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Usher protein, CupB3 (POTRA domain containing P-usher) [Dual function in secreting fimbril subunits and cell surface adhesin, CupB5 (Q9HWU6) which is homologous to members of the AT1 and AT2 families (1.B.12 and 1.B.40)] (Ruer et al., 2008 ...
Baba Nam Kevalam Definition - Baba Nam Kevalam is a Sanskrit mantra. Baba means beloved, nam means name and kevalam means only. Therefore, the...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a novel lysine-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-Gingipain) in porphyromonas gingivalis. T2 - Structural relationship with the arginine-specific cysteine proteinase (Arg-Gingipain). AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Kadowaki, Tomoko. AU - Nakayama, Koji. AU - Yamamoto, Kenji. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Lys-gingipain (KGP), so termed due to its peptide cleavage specificity for lysine residues, is a cysteine proteinase produced by the Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Mixed oligonucleotide primers designed from the NH2-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme were used to clone the KGP-encoding gene (kgp) from the organism. The nucleotide sequence of kgp had a 5,169-bp open reading frame encoding 1,723 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 218 kDa. As the extracellular mature enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa in gels, the precursor of KGP was found to comprise at least four domains, the signal ...
Streptococcus mutans antigen I/II (AgI/II) protein was one of the first cell wall-anchored adhesins identified in Gram-positive bacteria. It mediates attachment of S. mutans to tooth surfaces and has been a focus for immunization studies against dental caries. The AgI/II family polypeptides recognize salivary glycoproteins, and are also involved in biofilm formation, platelet aggregation, tissue invasion and immune modulation. The genes encoding AgI/II family polypeptides are found among Streptococcus species indigenous to the human mouth, as well as in Streptococcus pyogenes, S. agalactiae and S. suis. Evidence of functionalities for different regions of the AgI/II proteins has emerged. A sequence motif within the C-terminal portion of Streptococcus gordonii SspB (AgI/II) is bound by Porphyromonas gingivalis, thus promoting oral colonization by this anaerobic pathogen. The significance of other epitopes is now clearer following resolution of regional crystal structures. A new picture emerges of ...
Bacterial adhesion, which plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection, may be altered by the presence of antibiotics or/and antibiotic resistance determinants. This study evaluated the effect of fluoroquinolone resistance determinants on S. aureus adhesion to solid-phase fibronectin, which is specifically mediated by two surface-located fibronectin-binding proteins. Five isogenic mutants, derived from strain NCTC 8325 and expressing various levels of quinolone resistance, were tested in an in vitro bacterial adhesion assay with polymethylmethacrylate coverslips coated with increasing amounts of fibronectin. These strains contained single or combined mutations in the three major loci contributing to fluoroquinolone resistance, namely, grlA, gyrA, and flqB, which code for altered topoisomerase IV, DNA gyrase, and increased norA-mediated efflux of fluoroquinolones, respectively. Adhesion characteristics of the different quinolone-resistant mutants grown in the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The ability of this bacterium to adhere to epithelial cells is considered as an essential early step in colonization and infection. By screening a whole genome phage display library with sera from infected patients, we previously identified three antigenic fragments matching open reading frame spr0075 of the strain R6 genome. This locus encodes for an 120-kDa protein, herein referred to as plasminogen- and fibronectin-binding protein B (PfbB), which displays an LPXTG cell wall anchoring motif and six repetitive domains. In this study, by using isogenic pfbB-deleted mutants of the encapsulated D39 and of the unencapsulated DP1004 type 2 pneumococcal strains, we show that PfbB is involved in S. pneumoniae adherence to various epithelial respiratory tract cell lines. Our data suggest that PfbB directly mediates bacterial adhesion, because fluorescent beads coated with the recombinant PfbB sp17 fragment (encompassing one ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of bone that has been shown to be internalized by osteoblasts via a receptor-mediated pathway. Here we report that there are strain-dependent differences in the uptake of S. aureus by osteoblasts. An S. aureus septic arthritis isolate, LS-1, was internalized some 10-fold more than the laboratory strain 8325-4. Disruption of the genes for the fibronectin binding proteins in these two strains of S. aureus blocked their ability to be internalized by osteoblasts, thereby demonstrating the essentiality of these genes in this process. However, there were no differences in the capacity of these two strains to bind to fibronectin or osteoblasts. Analysis of the kinetics of internalization of the two strains by osteoblasts revealed that strain 8325-4 was internalized only over a short period of time (2 h) and to low numbers, while LS-1 was taken up by osteoblasts in large numbers for over 3 h. These differences in the kinetics of uptake explain the fact that the ...
The pathogenic potential of S. aureus is a consequence of its multitude of VFs that have evolved to interact with a number of host molecules. As a result, S. aureus can survive and thrive at many tissue sites in the host and cause a wide range of diseases. Fg is a surprisingly common target for many of the staphylococcal VFs. The known Fg binding staphylococcal proteins largely fall into two groups: a family of structurally related cell wall-anchored proteins of the MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) type, which include ClfA, ClfB, FnbpA, FnbpB, and Bbp/SdrE (24) and a group of secreted smaller proteins (sometimes referred to as the SERAMs [secretable expanded repertoire adhesive molecules]), which include Efb, Coa, vWbp, Emp (extracellular matrix binding protein), and Eap (extracellular adherence protein) (25). The Fg binding sites in the MSCRAMMs are located in a segment of the proteins composed of two IgG folded subdomains that interact with Fg by ...
One super bug in particular thats problematic in hospitals and other health care facilities is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). S. aureus is a sphere-shaped (coccus), gram-positive species of bacteria (pictured) naturally found in the respiratory tract and skin of humans that, when pathogenic, causes skin conditions and respiratory problems like sinusitis. In the pre-antibiotic era, S. aureus was usually fatal. S. aureus contains a number of surface proteins, called microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) that recognize and bind to molecules like collagen, fibrinogen, and fibronectin. Once bound to these molecules, S. aureus cells can survive, grow, and persist. During infection, S. aureus produces enzymes, like proteases, lipases, and elastases, that allow the bacteria to invade and destroy host tissues by interfering with the coagulation pathway. The virulent factors of S. aureus are typically categorized as toxins (causing damage to ...
Buy kgp recombinant protein, Lys-gingipain Recombinant Protein-YP_001929844.1 (MBS969701) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
About 80% of US adults have some form of dental disease. There are a variety of new dental products available, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products that rely on nanoscale properties. Here, the application of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and optical interferometry to a range of dentistry issues, including characterization of dental enamel, oral bacteria, biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. We also include studies of new products blocking dentine tubules to alleviate hypersensitivity; antimicrobial effects of mouthwash and characterizing nanoparticle coated dental implants. An outlook on future
AEEC strains represent a large and heterogeneous group of E. coli strains sharing the capability of producing A/E lesions at the microvillus brush border of enterocytes of animals and humans (7, 16, 25). These lesions are caused by the function of the LEE, a pathogenicity island best characterized in EPEC and EHEC strains (9, 13). The intimin gene is localized in the central region of LEE and is involved in the interaction with the Tir receptor. The sequence diversity of eae has been the subject of several investigations, and it has been hypothesized that the heterologous sequences of eae of EPEC and EHEC explains the different host cell tropism (small bowel/large bowel) of these two pathogroups. Studies with infected in vitro organ cultures obtained from different regions of the gut mucosa have demonstrated that EPEC may colonize almost all regions of the small bowel whereas EHEC binding is restricted to the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyers patches (11). It has also been shown that ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cooperative binding and activation of fibronectin by a bacterial surface protein. AU - Marjenberg, Zoe R.. AU - Ellis, Ian R.. AU - Hagan, Robert M.. AU - Prabhakaran, Sabitha. AU - Höök, Magnus. AU - Talay, Susanne R.. AU - Potts, Jennifer R.. AU - Staunton, David. AU - Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich. PY - 2011/1/21. Y1 - 2011/1/21. N2 - Integrin-dependent cell invasion of some pathogenic bacteria is mediated by surface proteins targeting the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin (FN). Although the structural basis for bacterial FN recognition is well understood, it has been unclear why proteins such as streptococcal SfbI contain several FN-binding sites. We used microcalorimetry to reveal cooperative binding of FN fragments to arrays of binding sites in SfbI. In combination with thermodynamic analyses, functional cellbased assays show that SfbI induces conformational changes in the N-terminal 100-kDa region of FN (FN100kDa), most likely by competition with intramolecular ...
The department offers a highly flexible program of doctoral study (biophysics track and molecular physiology track) for individuals embarking on a career in biomedical research and teaching. Students can study crucial biological processes using state of the art biophysical techniques in a unique setting. Biological research interest: Cytokinesis and cell division; heart failure, insect flight, and various muscle-dependent processes; structure and function of metabolic enzymes, structural biology and biophysics of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins, structure and function of bacterial adhesins. Biophysical Techniques: cell imaging (time lapse, confocal microscopy), fluorescence spectroscopy, high resolution electron microscopy (3D, single particles, tomography), single molecule detection techniques (optical trap, TIRF, AFM), X-ray crystallography.. ...
Invasion of host cells by S. aureus is likely to play an important role during colonisation and infection. Studies have shown S. aureus invasion to occur via an interaction between its fibronectin binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host integrin a5~J utilising fibronectin (Fn) as a bridging molecule. The reports of S. aureus invasion vary in a number of ways and a number of factors are likely to influence invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate factors involved in determining S. aureus invasion of epithelial cells. The presence of a stable sub-population with enhanced invasive capability has previously been identified for the oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. In this study consecutive antibiotic protection assays were used in an attempt to determine whether such a sub-population structure exists in S. aureus cultures. Initial findings indicated that S. aureus cultures may contain an invasive sub-population but that this was transient and not stable. This was later attributed to ...
The focus of my research is the identification and characterization of bacterial proteins that are required for tissue colonization, the initiation of any infection. My research interests are concentrated on the membrane proteins and surface structures of the Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans is typically associated with Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, which left untreated results in tooth loss. This bacterium is also associated with numerous non-oral diseases including but not restricted to infective endocarditis and atherosclerosis, which suggest that the periodontal pocket is a potential source and reservoir of these diseases. The emphasis of my research is based on two genes and the associated proteins identified in my laboratory. We have identified and characterized a unique collagen adhesin expressed by A. actinomycetemcomitans. The extracellular matrix protein adhesin A (EmaA) ...
To evaluate the role of the Staphylococcus aureus collagen-binding adhesin (Cna) in bone and joint infection, we generated a cna mutant in S. aureus UAMS-1, a strain that was originally isolated from the bone of a patient suffering from osteomyelitis. The mutant (UAMS-237) was unable to bind collage …
Staphylococcus aureus is a significant cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), particularly in mechanically ventilated patients. We used the fibronectin-binding protein A gene (fnbA) for the species-specific and quantitative detection of S. aureus directly from lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens by a Taq Man real time PCR. For this reason, a total of 269 lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens collected from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia were assayed. Amplification of fnbA in serial dilutions ranged from 10(9) CFU/ ml to 10(2) CFU/ml. Standard curve of triplicate every dilution had slope 3.34±0.1 and R2,0.99 with SD 0.1. Based on these data, the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed real time PCR targeting the fnbA gene were both 100%. The Cohens Kappa test showed the Kappa value of 1.0. The fnbA gene is a potential marker for the species-specific detection of S. aureus and can be used to detect this bacterium in any clinical specimens by real time PCR. ...
bacterial surface protein extraction - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: Hi, I want to prepare a lysis buffer for bacterial surface protein extraction. How can i prepare 8 M (Tris-buffered) urea containing 5 mM EDTA or is there anyone who have another idea for protein extraction?
Targeting surface adhesins of pathogens has been receiving attention in recent years. Malaria, being a major killer, has been a target of intense investigation since last few decades. The identification of new drug targets and vaccine candidates to control the spread of this dreaded disease is an area of major thrust. In this context, the development of an algorithm dedicated to identify Plasmodial adhesins and antigens will serve to accelerate the ongoing research.. We have developed MAAP, a web server for the prediction of malarial adhesins and antigens. The MAAP algorithm uses 420 compositional properties and Support Vector Machines (SVM) to classify a given protein as either an adhesin or a non-adhesin. MAAP accepts FASTA format protein sequences as input and provides an SVM based numeric score to these sequences, that is indicative of the probability of a malarial protein being an adhesin or an antigen.. Using MAAP, an efficiency of 0.86-0.89 has been achieved with sensitivity of 95.9% for ...
Family built after PMID=25023666; The GT101 module of Streptococcus parasanguinis dGT1 catalyzes the transfer of glucose to the branch point of the hexasaccharide O-linked to the serine-rich repeat of the bacterial adhesin Fap1 ...
Looking for online definition of adhesin in the Medical Dictionary? adhesin explanation free. What is adhesin? Meaning of adhesin medical term. What does adhesin mean?
The extracellular matrix (ECM) acts as reservoir for a plethora of growth factors and cytokines some of which are hypothesized to be regulated by ECM fiber tension. Yet, ECM fiber tension has never been mapped in healthy versus diseased organs. Using our recently developed tension nanoprobe derived from the bacterial adhesin FnBPA5, which preferentially binds to structurally relaxed fibronectin fibers, we discovered here that fibronectin fibers are kept under high tension in selected healthy mouse organs. In contrast, tumor tissues and virus-infected lymph nodes exhibited a significantly higher content of relaxed or proteolytically cleaved fibronectin fibers. This demonstrates for the first time that the tension of ECM fibers is significantly reduced upon pathological tissue transformations. This has wide implications, as the active stretching of fibronectin fibers adjusts critical cellular niche parameters and thereby tunes the reciprocal cell-ECM crosstalk. Mapping the tensional state of ...
Pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) is docked to one of the two extracellular domains of an E-cadherin monomer. It is suspended in a box of water. The image is a snapshot that was taken using VMD. It shows the two proteins in cartoon representation ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Sabbadini PS, Assis MC, Trost E, Gomes DL, Moreira LO, Dos Santos CS, Pereira GA, Nagao PE, Azevedo VA, Hirata Junior R, Dos Santos AL, Tauch A, Mattos-Guaraldi AL., Microb. Pathog. 52(3), 2012 ...
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Visit RateMDs for information on Dr. Cary C. Newman in Thomasville. Get contact info, maps, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals & more.
马为民博士,教授。主要研究领域蓝藻类囊体膜上光合蛋白的网络调控。研究工作简介一直从事蓝藻光合作用等方面的研究。主持和参加国家自然科学基金各一项。发表学术论文19篇,其中SCI论文12篇。近年来承担的科研项目一种新型NADPH脱氢酶超分子复合体生理功能的研究。2008.01―2010.12,国家自然科学基金。(主持)一种新型蛋白CupB在蓝藻CO2浓缩中的调控作用。2005.01―2007.12,国家自然科学基金。(参加)近三年发表的SCI论文1.MaW,DengYandMiH(2007)RedoxofplastoquinonepoolregulatestheexpressionandactivityofNADPHdehydrogenasesupercomplexinSynechocystissp.strainPCC6803.CurrMicrobiol(Onlinepublication)2.MaW,ChenL,WeiLandWangQ(2007)ExcitationenergytransferbetweenphotosystemsinthecyanobacteriumSynechocy
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台裔美國學者湯猛雄最新研究發現,電子煙霧會引起小鼠罹患肺癌,且有膀胱尿路上皮細胞增生,增癌變風險。台灣專家指出,此研究首度證實電子菸會致癌,拆穿電子菸「減害」謊言。
Prokaryotes have adhesion molecules on their cell surface termed bacterial adhesins, apart from using its pili (fimbriae) and ... Klemm, Per; Schembri, Mark A. (2000). "Bacterial adhesins: function and structure". International Journal of Medical ... Adhesins can recognise a variety of ligands present on the host cell surfaces and also components in the extracellular matrix. ... Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Cossart, Pascale (2006). "Bacterial Adhesion and Entry into Host Cells". Cell. 124 (4): 715-727. doi: ...
PMID 17428568.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Soto, GE; Hultgren, SJ (1999). "Bacterial adhesins: common themes and ... often express surface lectins known as adhesins and hemagglutinins that bind to tissue-specific glycans on host cell-surface ...
It attaches to nasopharyngeal cells through interaction of bacterial surface adhesins. This normal colonization can become ... S. pneumoniae is a common member of the bacterial flora colonizing the nose and throat of 5-10% of healthy adults and 20-40% of ... However, it is also a cause of significant disease, being a leading cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. The ... Polysaccharide capsule-prevents phagocytosis by host immune cells by inhibiting C3b opsonization of the bacterial cells ...
Other adhesins have also been described, including the genes gfba, fnB, fbBA, fnBB, lmb and gapC; all mediating binding to ... Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
Davis SL; Gurusiddappa S; McCrea KW; Perkins S; Höök M (2001). "SdrG, a fibrinogen-binding bacterial adhesin of the microbial ... In molecular biology, the protein domain SdrG C terminal refers to the C terminus domain of an adhesin found only on the cell ... SdrG protein is a bacterial cell wall-anchored adhesion and its function is to adhere to human cells. It does this by binding ... Such adhesins have also been named MSCRAMMs which is short for microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix ...
Bacterial culture of H. influenzae is performed on agar plates, the preferable one being chocolate agar, with added X (hemin) ... They infect the host by sticking to the host cell using trimeric autotransporter adhesins. Naturally acquired disease caused by ... The bacterium was argued by some to be the cause of influenza as bacterial influenza. H. influenzae is responsible for a wide ... Although highly specific, bacterial culture of H. influenzae lacks sensitivity. Use of antibiotics prior to sample collection ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. Bibcode:2012PNAS.. ... a mutated bacterial haloalkane dehalogenase that covalently attaches to haloalkane substrates SNAP-tag, a mutated eukaryotic ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 ... April 2016). "Bacterial superglue enables easy development of efficient virus-like particle based vaccines". Journal of ... SpyTag/SpyCatcher react with high specificity even when in the presence of bacterial and mammalian cell environments. Because ... the discovery of an intramolecular ester bond formation in Clostridium perfringens cell-surface adhesin protein Cpe0147 led to ...
Zakeri, B. (2012). "Peptide tag forming a rapid covalent bond to a protein, through engineering a bacterial adhesin". ... The structural enzymes while varying from bacterial and eukaryotic domains, tend to be single enzymes that generally in a ... or it can form spontaneously as observed in HK97 bacteriophage capsid formation and Gram-positive bacterial pili. Spontaneous ... "Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure". Science. 318 (5856): 1625-1628. Bibcode: ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. Bibcode:2012PNAS.. ... A carbohydrate-based bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid surrounds the bacterium, protecting it from phagocytosis by ... Biofilms are a way for S. pyogenes, as well as other bacterial cells, to communicate with each other. In the biofilm gene ... Infections due to certain strains of S. pyogenes can be associated with the release of bacterial toxins. Throat infections ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 ...
Prokaryotes have adhesion molecules on their cell surface termed bacterial adhesins, apart from using its pili (fimbriae) and ... Klemm, Per; Schembri, Mark A. (2000). "Bacterial adhesins: function and structure". International Journal of Medical ... Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Cossart, Pascale (2006). "Bacterial Adhesion and Entry into Host Cells". Cell. 124 (4): 715-727. doi: ... Ofek, Itzhak; Hasty, David L; Sharon, Nathan (2003). "Anti-adhesion therapy of bacterial diseases: prospects and problems". ...
Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...
A bacterial adhesin formed as a 50-nm monomeric rigid rod based on a 19-residue repeat motif rich in beta strands and turns". J ... functioning as both a primary adhesin and an immunomodulator to bind the bacterial to cells of the respiratory epithelium. The ... "Beta-helix model for the filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin of Bordetella pertussis and related bacterial secretory proteins". ... A number of the members of this family have been designated adhesins, filamentous haemagglutinins, haem/haemopexin-binding ...
Bacterial transportation: Bacteria will readily adhere to the acquired pellicle through adhesins, proteins and enzymes within ... Irreversible interaction: Bacterial adhesins recognise specific host receptors such as pili and outer membrane proteins. The ... This results in the imbalance between host and bacterial factors which can in turn result in a change from health to disease. ... Periodontal diseases take on many different forms but are usually a result of a coalescence of bacterial plaque biofilm ...
Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA) Oomen CJ, van Ulsen P, van Gelder P, Feijen M, Tommassen J, Gros P (March 2004). " ... Leo JC, Grin I, Linke D (April 2012). "Type V secretion: mechanism(s) of autotransport through the bacterial outer membrane". ... In molecular biology, an autotransporter domain is a structural domain found in some bacterial outer membrane proteins. The ... "Structure of the translocator domain of a bacterial autotransporter". The EMBO Journal. 23 (6): 1257-66. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj. ...
... s usually target adhesin proteins, which are involved in the attachment of bacterial cells to epithelia ( ... The principal substrates of N-glycosyltransferases are adhesins. Adhesins are proteins that are used to colonize a surface, ... The glycosylation process is important for the ability of Kingella kingae to form bacterial aggregates and to bind to epithelia ... Haemophilus influenzae has an additional HMW1C homologue HMW2C, which together with the adhesin HMW2 forms a similar substrate- ...
Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion, and establishment of ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as ... Bacterial exotoxins that act as superantigens also may cause sepsis. Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility ...
... bacterial adhesins (4), and cysteine proteinases. The adhesins are four trichomonad enzymes called AP65, AP51, AP33, and AP23 ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...
Swarming motility is the coordinated translocation of a bacterial population driven by flagellar rotation in film or on fluid ... These include adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic ... Second German-Polish-Russian Meeting on Bacterial Carbohydrates, Moscow, September 10-12, 2002. Zych K, Kowalczyk M, Knirel YA ... Type strain of Proteus penneri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ...
enterica, serovar Typhi". 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack AsrC small RNA Bacterial small RNA HilD 3'UTR IsrM small RNA PinT ... A remarkably large number of fimbrial and nonfimbrial adhesins are present in Salmonella, and mediate biofilm formation and ... Hensel M (2009). "Secreted Proteins and Virulence in Salmonella enterica". Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms ... Type strain of Salmonella enterica at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Biology portal. ...
... a feature of which is inter-bacterial communication. Cell-cell contact is mediated by specific protein adhesins and often, as ... However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial ... In equilibrium, the bacterial biofilm produced by the fermentation of sugar in the mouth is quickly swept away by the saliva, ... Bacterial adhesion is particularly important for oral bacteria. Oral bacteria have evolved mechanisms to sense their ...
... the opening of this bond can induce a morphological change that interferes with the binding of bacterial adhesin (fimbriae) to ... The bacterial adhesion reduction is reached by Met I ad concentration similar to the plasmatic peak obtained after a single 300 ... Antiadhesive activity Erdosteine is able to interfere with bacterial adhesion. In fact, Met I can affect the integrity of the ... Erdosteine showed in vivo and in vitro synergistic activity with antibiotics, against bacterial adhesiveness, in patients with ...
A completely synthetic bacterial chromosome was produced in 2010 by Craig Venter, and his team introduced it to genomically ... and tumors with synthetic adhesins". ACS Synthetic Biology. 4 (4): 463-73. doi:10.1021/sb500252a. PMC 4410913. PMID 25045780. ... Gujrati V, Kim S, Kim SH, Min JJ, Choy HE, Kim SC, Jon S (February 2014). "Bioengineered bacterial outer membrane vesicles as ... One such system is the Lux operon of Aliivibrio fischeri, which codes for the enzyme that is the source of bacterial ...
It needs to have a minimal length so that other extracellular bacterial structures (adhesins and the lipopolysaccharide layer, ... Bacterial proteins that need to be secreted pass from the bacterial cytoplasm through the needle directly into the host ... The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system. T3SSs are essential for the pathogenicity ... In order for this to happen the bacterial effectors manipulate the actin polymerization machinery of the host cell. Actin is a ...
The binding of the P fimbriae to epithelial cells is mediated by the tip adhesin PapG. Four different alleles of PapG have been ... P fimbriae are large, linear structures projecting from the surface of the bacterial cell. With lengths of 1-2um, the pili can ... The short fimbrial tip is made of the subunits PapK, PapE, PapF and the tip adhesin PapG, which mediates the binding. The ... PapGI adhesins bind preferentially to globotriaosylceramide (GbO3), while the isoreceptors of PapGIV are unknown. E. coli ...
Adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin -like) Bacterial adhesin Cell adhesion Fungal adhesin Williams DW, Jordan RP, Wei XQ, Alves CT ...
Bacterial effector protein Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Secretomics ... Gerlach RG, Hensel M (October 2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: the molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens ... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ...
... is a virulence factor (adhesin) of EPEC (e.g. E. coli O127:H6) and EHEC (e.g. E. coli O157:H7) E. coli strains. It is ... Intimin is expressed on the bacterial cell surface where it can bind to its receptor Tir (Translocated intimin receptor). Tir, ... Stevens JM, Galyov EE, Stevens MP (February 2006). "Actin-dependent movement of bacterial pathogens". Nature Reviews. ... along with over 25 other bacterial proteins, is secreted from attaching and effacing E. coli directly into the cytoplasm of ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ...
This adhesion involves adhesins (e.g., hyphal wall protein 1), and extracellular polymeric materials (e.g., mannoprotein). ... "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ...
... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... Gerlach RG, Hensel M (October 2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: the molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens ... 2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ... Salyers, A. A. & Whitt, D. D. (2002). Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN ...
This organism, too, can carry the genetic material that imparts multiple bacterial resistance. It is rarely implicated in ... "An introduction to Staphylococcus aureus, and techniques for identifying and quantifying S. aureus adhesins in relation to ... The most common sialadenitis is caused by staphylococci, as bacterial infections.[23] ...
"Bacterial protein mimics DNA to sabotage cells' defenses: Study reveals details of Salmonella infections".. ... enterica were found to have certain adhesins in common that have developed out of convergent evolution.[73] This means that, as ... The T3SS-1 enables the injection of bacterial effectors within the host cytosol. These T3SS-1 effectors stimulate the formation ... Nontyphoidal serotypes preferentially enter M cells on the intestinal wall by bacterial-mediated endocytosis, a process ...
Monocytes respond to bacterial and inflammatory stimuli with very high levels of local release inflammatory mediators and ... Adhesins Leukotoxin Cytotoxins Inhibitors of fibroblast proliferation Invasins Chemotactic inhibitors Collagenase Bacteriocins ...
Viral · Bacterial (Pneumococcal, Klebsiella) / Atypical bacterial (Mycoplasma, Legionnaires' disease, Chlamydiae) · Fungal ( ... മൈക്കോപ്ലാസ്മയെപ്പോലുള്ള അണുക്കൾ പി-1 അഡ്ഹീസിൻ (P1 adhesin) എന്ന തന്മാത്രകളുടെ സഹായത്താൽ ശ്വാസകോശവ്യൂഹത്തിന്റെ ... Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team. N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 9;342(10):681-9. Comment In: N Engl J Med. 2000 Mar 9;342(10): ... 33.0 33.1 33.2 Kamangar N, Rager C.Pneumonia, Bacterial.Emedicine Review Article.Web MD. Updated: Nov 1, 2010 ...
Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion, and establishment of ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... Infections leading to sepsis are usually bacterial, but may be fungal or viral.[17] Gram-positive bacteria was the predominant ... Gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial toxins in sepsis: a brief review»։ Virulence 5 (1): 213-8։ January 2014։ PMC 3916377 ...
... with an increased number of adhesins participating in the interaction, making even harder the work for (PMN). The interaction ... Bacterial size < 0.4 μm were not grazed well Bacterial size between 0.4 μm and 1.6 μm were "grazing vulnerable" Bacterial size ... Bacterial morphological plasticity refers to changes in the shape and size that bacterial cells undergo when they encounter ... Besides bacterial size, there are several factors affecting the predation of protists. Bacterial shape, the spiral morphology ...
"Engineering trimeric fibrous proteins based on bacteriophage T4 adhesins". Protein Eng. 11 (4): 329-32. doi:10.1093/protein/ ...
Bacterial photosynthetic reaction centres and photosystems I and II. *Light-harvesting complexes from bacteria and chloroplasts ... Outer membrane protein OpcA family (n=10,S=12) that includes outer membrane protease OmpT and adhesin/invasin OpcA protein ... General bacterial porin family, known as trimeric porins (n=16,S=20) ... Alpha-helical proteins are present in the inner membranes of bacterial cells or the plasma membrane of eukaryotes, and ...
Beachey E (1981). "Bacterial adherence: adhesin-receptor interactions mediating the attachment of bacteria to mucosal surface ... Parts of a bacterial cell. *Bacterial Chemotaxis Interactive Simulator - A web-app that uses several simple algorithms to ... Young K (2006). "The selective value of bacterial shape". Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 70 (3): 660-703. doi:10.1128/MMBR.00001-06 . ... Cabeen M, Jacobs-Wagner C (2005). "Bacterial cell shape". Nat Rev Microbiol 3 (8): 601-10. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1205 . PMID ...
Bacterial strains with the cagA gene are associated with an ability to cause ulcers.[37] The cagA gene codes for a relatively ... One such adhesin, BabA, binds to the Lewis b antigen displayed on the surface of stomach epithelial cells.[41] H. pylori ... H. pylori possesses five major outer membrane protein families.[16] The largest family includes known and putative adhesins. ... As a result of the bacterial presence, neutrophils and macrophages set up residence in the tissue to fight the bacteria assault ...
Principles of Bacterial Pathogenesis. Academic Press. pp. 619-674. ISBN 0-12-304220-8. Mattoo S, Cherry J (2005). "Molecular ... The expression of many Bordetella adhesins and toxins is controlled by the two-component regulatory system BvgAS. Much of what ... Most of the toxins and adhesins under BvgAS control are expressed under Bvg+ conditions (high BvgA-Pi concentration). But there ... being a normal product of the breakdown of the bacterial cell wall. Other bacteria recycle this molecule back into the ...
It expresses blood group antigen adhesin (BabA) and outer inflammatory protein adhesin (OipA), which enables it to attach to ... "Ulcer, Diagnosis and Treatment - CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases". Cdc.gov. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. ...
A bacterial suspension is added to a set of wells containing dried substrates for 26 colorimetric tests.. After 24 hours of ... haemolyticus biofilms are not polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) dependent, and the lack of the ica operon (the gene ... A bacterial suspension is added to minitubes for 10 metabolic or enzymatic tests. The results are determined by color changes, ... 1999). "Bacterial Biofilms: A Common Cause of Persistent Infections". Science. 284 (5418): 1318-1322. Bibcode:1999Sci... ...
Beachey EH (March 1981). "Bacterial adherence: adhesin-receptor interactions mediating the attachment of bacteria to mucosal ... Main article: Bacterial taxonomy. Further information: Scientific classification, Systematics, Bacterial phyla, and Clinical ... For the history of bacterial classification, see Bacterial taxonomy. For the natural history of Bacteria, see Last universal ... There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. ...
Bacterial small RNAs play important roles in many cellular processes; 11 small RNAs have been experimentally characterised in E ... A plasmid-encoded adhesin[11] called "aggregation substance" is also important for virulence in animal models of infection.[9][ ... Type strain of Enterococcus faecalis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ...
Filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin. *Filopodia. *Flagellum. *Flapping counter-torque. *Flight feather. *Flying and gliding ...
YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... YadA stands for Yersinia adhesin protein A. This protein domain is an example of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins, and it was ... Trimeric autotransporter adhesins have a unique structure. The structure they hold is crucial to their function. They all ... All Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins are crucial virulence factors that cause serious disease in humans. The most-studied and ...
Bacterial gliding is a type of gliding motility that can also use pili for propulsion. The speed of gliding varies between ... Here the adhesin SprB is propelled along the cell surface (spiraling from pole to pole), pulling the bacterium along 25 times ... Bacterial gliding is a process of motility whereby a bacterium can move under its own power. Generally, the process occurs ... McBride, M. . (2001). "Bacterial gliding motility: multiple mechanisms for cell movement over surfaces". Annual Review of ...
Kang HJ, Middleditch M, Proft T, Baker EN (December 2009). "Isopeptide bonds in bacterial pili and their characterization by X- ... "A collagen-binding adhesin, Acb, and ten other putative MSCRAMM and pilus family proteins of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. ... Another sub-family of sortases (C60B in MEROPS) contains bacterial sortase B proteins that are approximately 200 residues long ... but also provide ingenious strategies for bacterial escape from the host's immune response. In the case of S. aureus protein A ...
The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. This adhesin is responsible for D-mannose ... However, bacterial adhesins do not serve as a sort of universal bacterial Velcro. Rather, they act as specific surface ... Adhesion and bacterial adhesins are also a potential target for prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria are ... During the bacterial lifespan, a bacterium is subjected to frequent shear-forces. In the crudest sense, bacterial adhesins ...
Bacterial Adhesins: Common Themes and Variations in Architecture and Assembly Gabriel E. Soto, Scott J. Hultgren ...
YadA, an adhesin from Yersinia, was the first member of this family to be characterised. UspA2 from Moraxella was second. The ... The importance of adhesins to YadA function and Yersinia survival is huge. Attachment further allows more interactions and ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA) Casutt-Meyer S, Renzi F, Schmaler M, Jann NJ, Amstutz M, Cornelis GR (2010). " ... The YadA protein domain, is a form of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). Each TAA must consist of a head, stalk and a ...
Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (Bacterial adhesion) to other ... Most fimbriae (Fimbriae, Bacterial) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit ... What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (Biofilms) is distinct from protein adhesin. ... In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. ...
Bacterial Infections. Clumping Factor B Promotes Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to Corneocytes in Atopic Dermatitis Orla M ... Dynamic Expression of the BabA Adhesin and Its BabB Paralog during Helicobacter pylori Infection in Rhesus Macaques Lori M. ... Three Yersinia pestis Adhesins Facilitate Yop Delivery to Eukaryotic Cells and Contribute to Plague Virulence Suleyman Felek, ... Translocation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Gingipain Adhesin Peptide A44 to Host Mitochondria Prevents Apoptosis Heike Boisvert ...
Bacterial Adhesins: Common Themes and Variations in Architecture and Assembly. Gabriel E. Soto, Scott J. Hultgren ... Bacterial Adhesins: Common Themes and Variations in Architecture and Assembly Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... 1996) Bacterial adhesins and their assembly. in Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology. eds Neidhardt ... In many instances, adhesins are assembled into hair-like appendages called pili or fimbriae that extend out from the bacterial ...
"Annotation of Transmembrane Segments of Experimentally Solved Bacterial Porins and Adhesins." Croatica Chemica Acta 78, br. 2 ( ... "Annotation of Transmembrane Segments of Experimentally Solved Bacterial Porins and Adhesins." Croatica Chemica Acta, vol. 78, ... D. Zucić, "Annotation of Transmembrane Segments of Experimentally Solved Bacterial Porins and Adhesins", Croatica Chemica Acta ... Zucić, D. (2005). Annotation of Transmembrane Segments of Experimentally Solved Bacterial Porins and Adhesins. Croatica Chemica ...
Surface contact stimulates the just-in-time deployment of bacterial adhesins. Molecular Microbiology, 83: 41-51. doi: 10.1111/j ...
Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen. Loïc Coutte, Sylvie Alonso, Nathalie Reveneau, Eve ... Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen. Loïc Coutte, Sylvie Alonso, Nathalie Reveneau, Eve ... Recognition of a bacterial adhesin by an integrin: macrophage CR3 (αMβ2, CD11b/CD18) binds filamentous hemagglutinin of ... adhesin. Introduction. The expression of virulence by bacterial pathogens often requires the production and action of toxins ...
In a preferred aspect, the invention comprises an isolated bacterial adhesin conformer F. Also provided are methods of ... For example, the immunogenic polypeptides may be combined with other bacterial antigens to provide therapeutic compositions ... isolation and/or separation of such adhesin conformers. The compositions may include one or more of the immunogenic ... The invention relates to isolated or purified bacterial adhesin conformers, preferably with improved stability and/or ...
Structure-function relationship in bacterial adhesins (completed) In the project "Structure-function relationship in bacterial ... we try to elucidate the structural basis for bacterial adhesion. The proteins of interest in this project ("adhesins") are ... Bacterial Adhesion - Chemistry, Biology and Physics. Springer 2011. D. Linke and A. Goldman, editors. Book series: Advances in ... but also x-ray crystallography and NMR to better understand the interactions of these adhesins with surfaces, hoping that one ...
What is Adhesins, bacterial? Meaning of Adhesins, bacterial medical term. What does Adhesins, bacterial mean? ... bacterial in the Medical Dictionary? Adhesins, bacterial explanation free. ... adhesin. (redirected from Adhesins, bacterial). Also found in: Dictionary. adhesin. (ăd-hē′sĭn, -zĭn). n.. Any of various ... Adhesins, bacterial , definition of Adhesins, bacterial by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Fractionation of hemagglutinating and bacterial binding adhesins of Bacteroides gingivalis.. J Boyd, B C McBride ... Fractionation of hemagglutinating and bacterial binding adhesins of Bacteroides gingivalis. Message Subject (Your Name) has ... The first membrane fraction, containing mostly protein and carbohydrate material, was found to contain the bacterial ... An outer membrane complex containing hemagglutinating and bacterial aggregating activity has been isolated from Bacteroides ...
Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction. George Hajishengallis, ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ...
A Communal Bacterial Adhesin Anchors Biofilm and Bystander Cells to Surfaces Download PDF České info ... A Communal Bacterial Adhesin Anchors Biofilm and Bystander Cells to Surfaces * Two Group A Streptococcal Peptide Pheromones Act ... Bacterial strains, plasmids, and media. The bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table S2. Vectors ... These studies present evidence for specialization of proteins in the bacterial biofilm matrix and for bacterial cooperation in ...
Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm ... Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal ... Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal ... Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm ...
Zhou, M., & Wu, H. (2009). Glycosylation and biogenesis of a family of serine-rich bacterial adhesins. Microbiology, 155(2), ... Zhou, M & Wu, H 2009, Glycosylation and biogenesis of a family of serine-rich bacterial adhesins, Microbiology, vol. 155, no ... Glycosylation and biogenesis of a family of serine-rich bacterial adhesins. In: Microbiology. 2009 ; Vol. 155, No. 2. pp. 317- ... Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Glycosylation and biogenesis of a family of serine-rich bacterial adhesins. ...
Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $478,061. ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $484,208. ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $489,555. ...
The structural biology of Gram-positive cell surface adhesins is an emerging field of research, whereas Gram-negative pilus ...
When the adhesins are used as vaccine components, specific antibodies are formed that have two functions ... The principle of Intervaccs vaccine development is to identify such surface-localised bacterial adhesins and to produce these ... Mechanism of protection with bacterial adhesins. In order for a bacterium to be infectious, it must be able to adhere to a ... This is done by surface-localised bacterial proteins, called adhesins, which have a specific binding affinity to e.g. collagen ...
Antigens, Bacterial / analysis* * Bacterial Proteins / immunology* * Enterotoxins / toxicity * Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent ... Production and evaluation of monoclonal antibodies directed against the K88 fimbrial adhesin produced by Escherichia coli ...
Microorganisms express a family of cell-surface adhesins that specifically recognize and bind components of the extracellular ... Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology * Bacterial Infections / drug therapy * Bacterial Infections / etiology * Cell Adhesion / ... Microbial adhesins recognizing extracellular matrix macromolecules Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1994 Oct;6(5):752-8. doi: 10.1016/0955- ... Microorganisms express a family of cell-surface adhesins that specifically recognize and bind components of the extracellular ...
The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is a high-molecular weight protein that is secreted by the bacterial two-partner ... The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is a high-molecular weight protein that is secreted by the bacterial two-partner ... 2006 Surface anchoring of a bacterial adhesin secreted by the two-partner secretion pathway. Mol Microbiol 61 470 83 ... Bacterial strains and plasmids. The strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table 2. H. influenzae strain Rd-HMW1 ...
A common conserved amino acid motif module shared by bacterial and intercellular adhesins: bacterial adherence mimicking cell- ... A common conserved amino acid motif module shared by bacterial and intercellular adhesins: bacterial adherence mimicking cell- ... Determination of bacterial load by real-time PCR using a broad-range (universal) probe and primers set Mangala A Nadkarni, F. ...
Ensembl bacterial and archaeal genome annotation project. More...EnsemblBacteriai. BAI34964; BAI34964; ECO111_1009. ... Predicted fimbrial-like adhesin proteinImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic ... tr,C8ULG4,C8ULG4_ECO1A Predicted fimbrial-like adhesin protein OS=Escherichia coli O111:H- (strain 11128 / EHEC) OX=585396 GN= ...
The adhesive and cohesive properties of a bacterial polysaccharide adhesin are modulated by a deacetylase. Mol Microbiol 88:486 ... Bacterial strains and growth conditions.The bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are described in Text S1. E. coli ... IMPORTANCE Exopolysaccharide (EPS) adhesins are important determinants of bacterial surface colonization and biofilm formation ... also modulates the physicochemical properties of bacterial adhesins. By demonstrating how c-di-GMP coordinates the activity and ...
These variants promoted bacterial attachment to different mammalian cell types in vitro, suggesting that fibronectin and GAG ... Many of these adhesins bind to multiple ligands, complicating efforts to understand the role of each ligand-binding activity ... Data shown are the geometric mean of bacterial loads ± 95% confidence interval of 10 mice per group and normalized to 100 ng ... Data shown are the geometric mean of bacterial loads ± 95% confidence interval of 10 mice per group and normalized to 100 ng ...
Here, we determined that expression of pneumococcal pilus-1, which includes the pilus adhesin RrgA, promotes bacterial ... Together, our data indicate that small bacterial cell size, which is signified by the absence of DivIVA, and the presence of an ... Pneumococcal bacteria penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the bacterial factors that enable this process are not ... pneumococcus) is the primary cause of bacterial meningitis. ... meningitis is promoted by single cocci expressing pilus adhesin ...
Purchase The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128001882, ... The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins 4th Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... and particularly to analyze membrane associated machineries such as bacterial secretion systems or the bacterial cell division ... Bacterial toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of many bacteria, some of which are responsible for severe diseases in human ...
In: Gyles, C.L., Prescott, J.F., Songer, G., Thoen, C.O. (eds). Pathogenesis of bacterial infections in animals. Wiley- ... Phenotypical characterization and adhesin identification in Escherichia coli strains isolated from dogs with urinary tract ... Le Bouguenec, C.; Archambaud, M.; Labigne, A. (1992). Rapid and specific detection of the pap, afa, and sfa adhesin-encoding ... This adhesin binds to epithelial and endothelial cell lines derived from the human urinary tract (5). Factor Afa (encoded by ...
  • Adherence is an essential step in bacterial pathogenesis or infection, required for colonizing a new host. (wikipedia.org)
  • To address the role of adhesin release in pathogenesis, we used Bordetella pertussis as a model, since its major adhesin, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), partitions between the bacterial surface and the extracellular milieu. (rupress.org)
  • Dissecting the molecular mechanism of this conserved biosynthetic pathway offers opportunities to develop new therapeutic strategies targeting this previously unrecognized pathway, as serine-rich glycoproteins have been shown to play a role in bacterial pathogenesis. (elsevier.com)
  • The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is a high-molecular weight protein that is secreted by the bacterial two-partner secretion pathway and mediates adherence to respiratory epithelium, an essential early step in the pathogenesis of H. influenzae disease. (prolekare.cz)
  • Bacterial toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of many bacteria, some of which are responsible for severe diseases in human and animals, but can also be used as tools in cell biology to dissect cellular processes or used as therapeutic agents. (elsevier.com)
  • To summarize, the pathogenesis of disease due to nontypeable H. influenzae involves multiple steps and the interplay of a number of bacterial and host factors, as shown in Fig. 1. (nih.gov)
  • they play important roles in bacterial biofilm formation and pathogenesis. (rcsb.org)
  • UPEC expresses multiple adhesins and virulence factors that provoke inflammation and enable bacterial colonization of the bladder as the first step in UTI pathogenesis ( 2 - 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • After the 2000 Terrain Mapping, the program shifted to its current focus on the study of pathogenesis itself, providing opportunities for researchers working in viral and bacterial systems as well as those in the eukaryote systems funded before. (bwfund.org)
  • The central mechanism of EPEC pathogenesis is a lesion called attaching and effacing (A/E), which is characterized by microvilli destruction, intimate adherence of bacteria to the intestinal epithelium, pedestal formation, and aggregation of polarized actin and other elements of the cytoskeleton at sites of bacterial attachment ( Figure 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, the objective of this study was to use bioinformatics tools to mine the newly annotated genome of a clinical isolate of A. suis [ 6 ] and identify adhesin-associated genes that may be involved in the early stages of pathogenesis of this organism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Adhesins play an important role in the pathogenesis of most bacteria by allowing them to attach to, colonise, and invade their hosts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In molecular biology, YadA is a protein domain which is short for Yersinia adhesin A. These proteins have strong sequence and structural homology, particularly at their C-terminal end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The YadA protein domain adheres to the following substrates: epithelial cells extracellular matrix collagen cellular fibronectin laminin The C-terminal domain consists of 120 amino acids which belong to a family of surface-exposed bacterial proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that for the purposes of this minireview, the term subunit will apply to the structural proteins that make up these composite organelles, while the term adhesin will be reserved for those subunits with specific receptor binding properties. (asm.org)
  • Whereas toxins are generally released by the pathogens into the extracellular milieu and can thus act at distant sites, adhesins typically remain associated with the bacterial surface, allowing the microorganisms to adhere to host determinants such as glycolipids, proteoglycans, surface, and matrix proteins ( 1 - 5 ). (rupress.org)
  • These studies define a novel paradigm for spatial and functional differentiation of proteins in the biofilm matrix and provide evidence for bacterial cooperation in maintenance and expansion of the multilayer biofilm. (prolekare.cz)
  • Glycosylation of bacterial proteins is an important process for bacterial physiology and pathophysiology. (elsevier.com)
  • the cross-talk between glycosylation-associated proteins and accessory Sec components mediates the second step of the protein glycosylation, an emerging mechanism for bacterial Olinked protein glycosylation. (elsevier.com)
  • This is done by surface-localised bacterial proteins, called adhesins, which have a specific binding affinity to e.g. collagen, fibrin, fibronectin and numerous other tissue structures. (intervacc.se)
  • The proteins that make up the adhesins have been identified by bioinformatic analysis of DNA sequences from Streptococcus equi and can be compared with previously known virulence factors from e.g. (intervacc.se)
  • In the current study, we establish that the enzyme responsible for glycosylation of HMW1 is a protein called HMW1C, which is encoded by the hmw1 gene cluster and shares homology with a group of bacterial proteins that are generally associated with two-partner secretion systems. (prolekare.cz)
  • Bacterial lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in bacterial adhesion and aggregation. (umass.edu)
  • The P2 and P5 outer-membrane proteins and probably other factors promote bacterial binding to mucus, and elaboration of LOS causes damage to ciliated cells and impairs mucociliary function. (nih.gov)
  • Here, the application of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and optical interferometry to a range of dentistry issues, including characterization of dental enamel, oral bacteria, biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. (mdpi.com)
  • Western ligand affinity blotting or immunoblotting of cell wall-associated adhesins revealed similar contents of fibrinogen- or fibronectin-binding proteins in methicillin-resistant strains compared to those of their methicillin-susceptible counterparts. (asm.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus expresses specific surface proteins called adhesins ( 11 , 12 , 22 , 33 ) allowing it to interact specifically with plasma or extracellular matrix proteins associated with normal tissues or adsorbed on biomedical devices. (asm.org)
  • Recent molecular studies of major S. aureus adhesins allowed identification and characterization of the genes coding for the fibrinogen-binding protein ClfA (clumping factor) ( 29 , 30 ), the collagen adhesin ( 34 , 36 ), and two distinct but related fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) encoded by closely linked but separately transcribed genes called fnbA and fnbB ( 10 , 13 , 23 ). (asm.org)
  • An important aspect of these molecular studies was to demonstrate the functional significance of S. aureus adhesins by the production of specific mutants expressing defective in vitro and in vivo attachment to their respective host proteins ( 13 , 14 , 29 , 32 , 35 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • Adhesins are bacterial proteins that mediate adherence to surfaces, the first step in infection. (asbmb.org)
  • For adherence, H. pylori expresses surface-located attachment proteins (adhesins) that bind to specific receptors in the gastric mucosa. (diva-portal.org)
  • Bacteria initially adhere to the cell membrane and extracellular matrix substrates through surface proteins (adhesins) [ 17 , 18 ] and are then internalized by different NPPCs. (hindawi.com)
  • Vaccines and Biomarkers: can we exploit bacterial surface proteins as vaccine candidates or as biomarkers, e.g. for improved clinical diagnostics? (uio.no)
  • Among these are 6 autotransporters, 25 fimbriae-associated genes (encoding 3 adhesins), 12 outer membrane proteins, and 4 additional genes (encoding 3 adhesins). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The focus of my research is the identification and characterization of bacterial proteins that are required for tissue colonization, the initiation of any infection. (uvm.edu)
  • Attachment further allows more interactions and increase of biofilm formation to aid bacterial colonization. (wikipedia.org)
  • The receptor binding event may activate complex signal transduction cascades in the host cell that can have diverse consequences including the activation of innate host defenses or the subversion of cellular processes facilitating bacterial colonization or invasion. (asm.org)
  • Respiratory epithelial cells and phagocytic cells are the primary targets for adherence by B. pertussis , which produces several adhesins thought to act synergistically in the colonization of the human respiratory tract ( 12 , 13 ). (rupress.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Exopolysaccharide (EPS) adhesins are important determinants of bacterial surface colonization and biofilm formation. (asm.org)
  • Glycosaminoglycan binding by Borrelia burgdorferi adhesin BBK32 specifically and uniquely promotes joint colonization. (nih.gov)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease, produces BBK32, first identified as a fibronectin-binding adhesin that promotes skin and joint colonization. (nih.gov)
  • Some methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus are defective in the production of major surface components such as protein A, clumping factor, or other important adhesins to extracellular matrix components which may play a role in bacterial colonization and infection. (asm.org)
  • This process also plays an important role in bacterial colonization of medical devices coated with various cellular and extracellular host components. (asm.org)
  • acquisition of the causative bacterium from another individual, colonization, invasion of mucosal epithelium resulting in bacteremia, haematogenous dissemination, invasion of the blood-brain barrier and, finally, the occurrence of inflammatory changes within the subarachnoid space consequent upon bacterial multiplication within the central nervous system (Figure 1). (springer.com)
  • Our research is directed towards bacterial ligands that bind to specific host receptors and mediate bacterial colonization, host cell signaling, and/or optimal toxin delivery. (upenn.edu)
  • Proteasomal degradation of NOD2 by NLRP12 in monocytes promotes bacterial tolerance and colonization by enteropathogens. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Bacterial attachment to host cells is a key step during host colonization and infection. (jove.com)
  • Bacterial attachment to host cells is one of the earliest events during bacterial colonization of host tissues and thus a key step during infection. (jove.com)
  • We posit that this adhesin is associated with tropism and colonization of disparate tissues by this pathogen. (uvm.edu)
  • Adhesins are cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion or adherence to other cells or to surfaces, usually in the host they are infecting or living in. (wikipedia.org)
  • To effectively achieve adherence to host surfaces, many bacteria produce multiple adherence factors called adhesins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of a number of bacterial virulence factors-e.g., pili in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, lipotechoic acid in group A streptococci-which jut from the surface of the bacteria and bind to glycoprotein or glycolipid receptors on host epithelial cells, facilitating bacterial adherence, a critical step in bacterial infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm. (springer.com)
  • A common conserved amino acid motif module shared by bacterial and intercellular adhesins: bacterial adherence mimicking cell-cell recognition? (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Glycosylation protects HMW1 against premature degradation during the process of secretion and facilitates HMW1 tethering to the bacterial surface, a prerequisite for HMW1-mediated adherence. (prolekare.cz)
  • Bacterial adherence to the human gastric epithelial lining is mediated by the fucosylated Lewis b (Le b ) histo-blood group antigen. (sciencemag.org)
  • Serine-rich repeat (SRR) glycoproteins of S. gordonii are sialic acid-binding adhesins mediating the bacterial adherence to the host and the development of infective endocarditis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus, the SRR adhesins are potentially involved in the bacterial adherence to DCs and the maturation and activation of DCs required for the induction of immunity to S. gordonii . (frontiersin.org)
  • The fimbriae are hair-like structures protruding from the bacterial cell and by attaching to specific receptors in the urinary tract they mediate adherence to different cell types, allowing the bacteria to resist the shear forces from urine flow. (diva-portal.org)
  • This step is mediated by important virulence factors called adhesins. (rupress.org)
  • Adhesins are important VIRULENCE factors. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Surface virulence factors of UPEC include several adhesins that are primarily fimbrial (5). (scielo.br)
  • Detailed molecular studies of bacterial virulence factors require pure cultures of isolated strains, and therefore most of these studies have been conducted on bacteria in monoculture. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • It may cause disease due to its ability to express a number of bacterial virulence factors. (diva-portal.org)
  • A. suis and A. pleuropneumoniae share many of the same putative adhesins, suggesting that the different diseases, tissue tropism, and host range of these pathogens are due to subtle genetic differences, or perhaps differential expression of virulence factors during infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Little is known about the virulence factors of A. suis , particularly the adhesins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The effectiveness of anti-adhesin antibodies is illustrated by studies with FimH, the adhesin of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). (wikipedia.org)
  • Although many different bacteria are presumably able to produce amyloid adhesins ( 32 ), detailed descriptions of the size, amount, and properties of bacterial amyloids are restricted to pure culture studies of mainly Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and the gram-positive Streptomyces coelicolor ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • P-fimbriated Escherichia coli−bacteria also possess a similar adhesin activity targeting the same disaccharide. (doria.fi)
  • This entry represents a domain superfamily found in a group of bacterial lipoproteins, such as YajI from Escherichia coli or SadB from Salmonella typhimurium. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain J96 carries multiple determinants for fimbrial adhesins. (diva-portal.org)
  • Among bacterial species that interact with spermatozoa are well-known causative pathogens of genitourinary infections such as Escherichia coli, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, and Chlamydia trachomatis [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In the crudest sense, bacterial adhesins serve as anchors allowing bacteria to overcome these environmental shear forces, thus remaining in their desired environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most fimbria of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. (wikipedia.org)
  • In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesins are expressed by both pathogenic bacteria and saprophytic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of adhesins as a point of exploitation for vaccines comes from early studies which indicated that an important component of protective immunity against certain bacteria came from an ability to prevent adhesin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, bacteria have the ability to regulate adhesin expression, meaning that when Yersinia no longer requires YadA, it can be turned off. (wikipedia.org)
  • a bacterial product that enables bacteria to adhere to and colonize a host. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacterial biofilm formation is the process by which bacteria attach to abiotic surfaces, the surfaces of other unicellular organisms, the epithelia of multicellular organisms, and interfaces such as that between air and water. (prolekare.cz)
  • We will use this knowledge for developing strategies on preventing adhesion of medically-relevant bacteria to host target cells and surfaces, for developing shear- modulated nanotechnological tools, and as a paradigm for understanding other types of shear-dependent bacterial adhesion. (grantome.com)
  • 2) bind to the adhesins and thereby provide a signal to the white blood cells to internalise and kill the bacteria. (intervacc.se)
  • Conventional vaccines against bacterial infections generally consist of live attenuated or killed bacteria or specific components, such as capsular polysaccharides and toxoids. (intervacc.se)
  • Recent studies have focused on the mechanisms of microbial attachment at a molecular level, including the identification of ligand-binding domains in several cell-surface adhesins from Gram-positive bacteria and the construction of adhesin-deficient isogenic mutants. (nih.gov)
  • In this review, we discuss carbohydrate-based microarrays that have been profiled with whole bacteria, recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. (mdpi.com)
  • When encountering surfaces, many bacteria produce adhesins to facilitate their initial attachment and to irreversibly glue themselves to the solid substrate. (asm.org)
  • Pneumococcal bacteria penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB), but the bacterial factors that enable this process are not known. (jci.org)
  • The bacteria also produce multiple adhesins. (medscape.com)
  • As these amyloids are potentially of great importance to the floc properties in activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTP), the abundance of amyloid adhesins in activated sludge flocs from different WWTP and the identity of bacteria producing these were investigated. (asm.org)
  • The identity of bacteria producing amyloid adhesins was determined using fluorescence in situ hybridization with oligonucleotide probes in combination with antibodies or thioflavin T staining. (asm.org)
  • Many filamentous bacteria also expressed amyloid adhesins, including several Alphaproteobacteria (e.g. (asm.org)
  • Some adhesins from Gram-positive bacteria covalently attach to host-cell-surface ligands through a thioester bond. (asbmb.org)
  • Long-term PPI use also can contribute to a condition called small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by creating a friendlier environment for unfavorable bacteria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The work explores such themes as the history of Microbiology, bacterial structure and physiology, bacterial toxins, secretion systems, and adhesins, the host immune system and its battle with bacteria, biofilms, sepsis, and technologies/techniques to the present day. (springer.com)
  • A live-bacteria application of surface plasmon resonance was set up, and various carbohydrate inhibitors of the galabiose-specific adhesins were studied with this assay. (doria.fi)
  • To specifically detect galabiose adhesin−expressing S. suis bacteria, a technique utilising magnetic glycoparticles and an ATP bioluminescence bacterial detection system was also developed. (doria.fi)
  • The biochemical and functional characterization of adhesins mediating these initial bacteria-host interactions is often compromised by the presence of other bacterial factors, such as cell wall components or secreted molecules, which interfere with the analysis. (jove.com)
  • However, it is becoming clear that bacteria adapt very rapidly to their surroundings and that they alter their make-up upon contact with other bacterial species or with a human host. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial Adhesion: How do bacteria stick to surfaces, or in the case of pathogens, to host cells? (uio.no)
  • The bacterial adhesion consists primarily of an intramembranous structural protein which provides a scaffold upon which several extracellular adhesins may be attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • The YadA protein domain, is a form of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). (wikipedia.org)
  • The adhesin is located at the distal end of the tip and is joined to the PapE fibrillum via a specialized adapter protein, PapF. (asm.org)
  • Another adapter protein, PapK, joins the adhesin-containing tip to the PapA rod. (asm.org)
  • The first membrane fraction, containing mostly protein and carbohydrate material, was found to contain the bacterial aggregating activity. (asm.org)
  • We investigated whether proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by certain bacterial protein adhesins may also depend on TLRs. (asm.org)
  • Our data suggest that the CD14-TLR2/4 system is involved in cytokine production and tolerance induction upon interaction with certain proinflammatory bacterial protein adhesins. (asm.org)
  • In this review, we examine a new family of serine-rich O-linked glycoproteins which are represented by fimbriae-associated adhesin Fap1 of Streptococcus parasanguinis and human platelet-binding protein GspB of Streptococcus gordonii. (elsevier.com)
  • We have shown that FimH adhesin is an allosterically regulated protein, where induced-fit mechanism of interaction of the mannose ligand with the FimH binding pocket is conformationally linked with separation between mannose-binding and fimbria-incorporating domains of FimH - the configuration favored by tensile mechanical force. (grantome.com)
  • The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Fourth Edition, contains chapters written by internationally known and well-respected specialists. (elsevier.com)
  • Although recent studies suggest that amyloid adhesins are abundant in natural biofilms ( 22 ), curli fimbriae remain the sole example of an amyloid protein that has been shown to be an important functional component of a biofilm matrix. (pnas.org)
  • The authors then investigated whether antibodies against pneumolysin or choline binding protein A (CbpA), an adhesin required for S. pneumonia translocation across the vascular endothelium, can reduce microlesion formation. (jax.org)
  • To evaluate the impact of methicillin resistance ( mec ) determinants on bacterial adhesion mediated by fibrinogen or fibronectin adhesins, we compared the in vitro attachment of two genetically distinct susceptible strains (NCTC8325 and Newman) to protein-coated surfaces with that of isogenic methicillin-resistant derivatives. (asm.org)
  • Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular effector of host GTPase signaling. (glos.ac.uk)
  • Protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, and bacterial adhesion to polyethylene-glycol-textured polyurethane biomaterial surfaces. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The best-studied protein is the BabA adhesin which binds to the Lewis b blood group antigen. (asm.org)
  • Collagen-binding outer membrane protein forming a fibrillar matrix on the bacterial cell surface. (rcsb.org)
  • Using the protein FimH (yellow/red) located at the tip of long protrusions, the bacterial pathogen E. coli (grey) attaches to cell surfaces of the urinary tract (Image: Maximilian Sauer, ETH Zürich). (unibas.ch)
  • The galabiose-binding properties of the recombinant protein were found to be consistent with previous results obtained studying whole bacterial cells. (doria.fi)
  • Bacterial adhesion and host cell factors leading to effector protein injection by type III secretion system. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Up-regulation of VEGF production requires: (1) the interaction of the bacterial F1845 adhesin with the brush border-associated decay accelerating factor (DAF, CD55) acting as a bacterial receptor, and (2) the activation of a Src protein kinase upstream of the activation of the Erk and Akt signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • The extracellular matrix protein adhesin A (EmaA) is a 202 kDa protein that trimerizes to form antenna-like structures on the surface of the bacterium. (uvm.edu)
  • We demonstrate for the first time that c-di-GMP, in addition to its role in the regulation of the rate of EPS production, also modulates the physicochemical properties of bacterial adhesins. (asm.org)
  • One way to identify the environmental cues that cause a given bacterial species to switch to the biofilm mode of growth is to monitor exo-polysaccharide elaboration in vitro. (springer.com)
  • The exo-polysaccharide involved in biofilm formation in a number of bacterial species is a polymer of N -acetyl-glucosamine. (springer.com)
  • 2004) A crucial role for exopolysaccharide modification in bacterial biofilm formation, immune evasion, and virulence. (springer.com)
  • Association of biofilm production of coagulase-negative staphylococci with expression of a specific polysaccharide intercellular adhesin. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Bacterial biofilm formation, and the structure of biofilm matrices. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Future work will continue to be directed towards understanding the molecular mechanisms of bacterial cell-cell interactions and biofilm formation. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • This supports cell-to-cell bacterial contacts by means of a multilayered biofilm. (asm.org)
  • This basic structure is conserved across type 1 fimbrial adhesins though recent studies have shown that in vitro induced mutations can lead to the addition of C-terminal domain specificity resulting in a bacterial adhesion with dual bending sites and related binding phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, the results that we present expand our knowledge about a regulatory network for different adhesin gene systems in uropathogenic E. coli and suggest a hierarchy for expression of the fimbrial adhesins. (diva-portal.org)
  • Fimbrial adhesins are particularly important for the initial establishment of infection in the urinary tract. (diva-portal.org)
  • The UPEC strains generally carry multiple determinants for fimbrial adhesins. (diva-portal.org)
  • Additionally, Adhesins are attractive vaccine candidates because they are often essential to infection and are surface-located, making them readily accessible to antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloid adhesins were quantified using a combination of conformationally specific antibodies targeting amyloid fibrils, propidium iodide to target all fixed bacterial cells, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and digital image analysis. (asm.org)
  • Adhesins are useful targets for experimental vaccines, which reduce colonisation by uropathogenic E coli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adhesins explains the pulmonary morbidity due to P aeruginosa seen in intubated ITU/ICU patients, and UTIs caused by E coli are mediated by MS and MR adhesins, which may be inhibited by fruit juices. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Factor Afa (encoded by afa gene) is an afimbrial adhesin, and together with P and S fimbriae, have been epidemiologically related to E. coli strains that cause UTI in humans and pets (4). (scielo.br)
  • Amyloid adhesins (named curli) produced by E. coli are 4 to 12 nm wide and 0.1 to 10 μm long ( 6 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • Ability to produce A/E lesions has also been detected in strains of Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (enterohemorrhagic E. coli [EHEC]) and in strains of other bacterial species (1). (cdc.gov)
  • Interestingly, proanthocyanidin shows a very strong inhibitory activity against mannose-resistant adhesins produced by urinary isolates of E. coli but shows only moderate anti adherent activity against fecal E. coli isolates. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • The bacterial factor involved in VEGF induction was identified using recombinant E. coli expressing Dr adhesin, purified Dr adhesin and lipopolysaccharide. (nih.gov)
  • The direct inhibitory effect of E. coli on progressive motility of spermatozoa is found to depend upon the bacterial concentration. (hindawi.com)
  • Expression of these adhesins at different phases during infection play the most important role in adhesion based virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • This has led to the exploration of adhesin activity interruption as a method of bacterial infection treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • To investigate the significance of adhesin release during bacterial infection, we used Bordetella pertussis , the whooping cough agent, as a model. (rupress.org)
  • 1) bind to the adhesins and block the bacterial adhesion to the tissue thereby impeding the infection process. (intervacc.se)
  • These variants promoted bacterial attachment to different mammalian cell types in vitro, suggesting that fibronectin and GAG binding may play distinct roles during infection. (nih.gov)
  • B) Higher powered magnification of a cardiac microlesion shows S. pneumoniae bacterial aggregates by 30 hours post-infection. (jax.org)
  • Bacterial adhesion to host cells or tissues is an important step in the initiation of infection. (asm.org)
  • Bacterial pathogens often target conserved cellular mechanisms within their hosts to rewire signaling pathways and facilitate infection. (glos.ac.uk)
  • Early transcriptional activation events that occur in bladder immediately following bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) are not well defined. (jimmunol.org)
  • This textbook is a resource for undergraduate, graduate, and medical students, as well as other health-oriented learners, postdoctoral scholars, basic scientists, and professors intent on expanding their knowledge of bacterial infection and virulence mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • We identify streptococcal virulence mechanisms important for bacterial lymphatic dissemination and show that metastatic streptococci within infected lymph nodes resist and subvert clearance by phagocytes, enabling replication that can seed intense bloodstream infection. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we have addressed this question in a murine model of bacterial urinary tract infection. (jimmunol.org)
  • This work begins to examine adhesin-associated factors that allow some members of the family Pasteurellaceae to invade the bloodstream while others cause a more localised infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among the earliest events in many bacterial infections are the molecular interactions that occur between the pathogen and host cells. (asm.org)
  • Molecular blueprints of these pathways will ultimately facilitate the understanding of host-pathogen interactions as well as provide a framework for understanding how complex hetero-oligomeric interactions are orchestrated within the bacterial cell. (asm.org)
  • While targeting of GTPases by secreted bacterial effectors is a well-known strategy bacterial pathogens employ to interfere with the host, we have recently described pathogen adhesion as a novel extracellular stimulus that hijacks host GTPase signaling. (glos.ac.uk)
  • The bacterial pathogen Bordetella pertussis is strictly adapted to human hosts, whereas B. bronchiseptica is also found in the environment. (asbmb.org)
  • The identification and characterisation of the SadP adhesin give valuable information on the adhesion mechanisms of S. suis, and the results of this study may be helpful for the development of novel inhibitors and specific detection methods of this pathogen. (doria.fi)
  • Microorganisms express a family of cell-surface adhesins that specifically recognize and bind components of the extracellular matrix. (nih.gov)
  • I am also interested in the structure of mixed-species biofilms, and in particular the nature of the extracellular matrix that surrounds bacterial cells and protects them from antimicrobial agents. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • Bacterial cells join monolayer and multilayer biofilms in response to distinct environmental signals, use distinct structures for adhesion in these two biofilms, and develop distinct transcriptional profiles within these two structures [2] , [3] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Recently, we found that proteinaceous amyloid adhesins are an abundant component of the EPS fraction in biofilms from different habitats among these activated sludge flocs ( 32 ). (asm.org)
  • As one of the initial colonizers of dental biofilms, S. gordonii abundantly expresses diverse adhesins that mediate its binding to host tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • The characterization and identification of new bacterial effectors and the host cell receptors involved will undoubtedly lead to new discoveries with beneficial purposes. (hindawi.com)
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the primary cause of bacterial meningitis. (jci.org)
  • We use molecular cloning techniques, but also x-ray crystallography and NMR to better understand the interactions of these adhesins with surfaces, hoping that one day, this knowledge can be used to block adhesion. (uio.no)
  • Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. (mdpi.com)
  • Flannery A, Gerlach JQ, Joshi L, Kilcoyne M. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, both fnb genes must be inactivated to eliminate bacterial interactions with fibronectin ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • In this chapter, we outline two methods that use wheat germ agglutinin, a lectin that binds to N -acetyl-glucosamine, to evaluate extracellular polysaccharide production by a variety of bacterial species. (springer.com)
  • 2004) Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protects Staphylococcus epidermidis against major components of the human innate immune system. (springer.com)
  • Upon activation of this operon, a polysaccharide intercellular adhesin is synthesized. (asm.org)
  • The polysaccharide intercellular adhesin is composed of linear β-1,6-linked glucosaminylglycans. (asm.org)
  • The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mature FimH is displayed on the bacterial surface as a component of the type 1 fimbrial organelle. (wikipedia.org)
  • AIEC uses the FimH fimbrial adhesin to bind to oligomannose glycans on the surface of host cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • After bacterial binding, FimH interacts with CEACAM6, which then clusters. (frontiersin.org)
  • In our study, a genetic and functional analysis of the mannose-specific type 1 fimbrial adhesin FimH from a variety of serovars of Salmonella enterica revealed that specific mutant variants of FimH are common in host-adapted (systemically invasive) serovars. (nih.gov)
  • The high-binding phenotype of FimH that leads to increased bacterial adhesiveness to and invasiveness of epithelial cells and macrophages usually precedes acquisition of the non-binding phenotype. (nih.gov)
  • The expression of virulence by bacterial pathogens often requires the production and action of toxins and adhesins. (rupress.org)
  • Specific bacterial toxins and compounds have not been identified to impair clearly any relevant function of spermatozoa. (hindawi.com)
  • These fimbriae recognize receptors of the host cell surface and may improve bacterial adhesion. (scielo.br)
  • A better understanding of the structure and function of the microbial ligands and host receptors will help to design new prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against bacterial pathogens. (upenn.edu)
  • In this review, we will focus on the host NPPC receptors that are involved in the molecular interaction with S. aureus to accomplish bacterial internalization. (hindawi.com)
  • Fimbriae are adhesins that attach to specific sugar based receptors on uroepithelial cells. (sciencebasedmedicine.org)
  • In conclusion, the chromosomal insertion of the mec element into genetically defined strains of S. aureus impairs the in vitro functional activities of fibrinogen or fibronectin adhesins without altering their production. (asm.org)
  • The identification was confirmed by producing knockout strains lacking functional adhesin, which had lost their ability to bind to galabiose. (doria.fi)
  • The genetic manipulation and propagation of novel CMV strains was accelerated with the app- cation of bacterial artificial chromosome technology. (wisepress.com)
  • Adhesion and bacterial adhesins are also a potential target for prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • As strange as it may sound, recent studies reveal that bacterial infections may directly damage the heart. (jax.org)
  • However, the majority of the closest homologues of the A. suis adhesins are found in A. ureae and A. capsulatus -species not known to infect swine, but both of which can cause systemic infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The typical structure of a bacterial adhesion is that of a fimbria or pilus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we determined that expression of pneumococcal pilus-1, which includes the pilus adhesin RrgA, promotes bacterial penetration through the BBB in a mouse model. (jci.org)
  • Together, our data indicate that small bacterial cell size, which is signified by the absence of DivIVA, and the presence of an adhesive RrgA-containing pilus-1 mediate pneumococcal passage from the bloodstream through the BBB into the brain to cause lethal meningitis. (jci.org)
  • The SpaC adhesin was present along the whole pilus length at numbers nearly equaling those of SpaA. (asm.org)
  • The HMW1 and HMW2 adhesins are encoded by homologous chromosomal loci that appear to represent a gene duplication event and contain 3 genes, designated hmw1A, hmw1B, and hmw1C and hmw2A, hmw2B, and hmw2C , respectively [15] , [16] . (prolekare.cz)
  • The adhesin gene was cloned in a bacterial expression host and properties of the recombinant adhesin were studied. (doria.fi)
  • U37772 Ajellomyces dermatitidis WI-1 adhesin gene, complete cds. (atcc.org)
  • The majority of bacterial pathogens exploit specific adhesion to host cells as their main virulence factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many bacterial pathogens are able to express an array of different adhesins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The long-term goal of this laboratory is to understand how bacterial pathogens initiate their infectious process. (upenn.edu)
  • However, many of the putative adhesins of A. suis share even greater homology with those of other pathogens within the family Pasteurellaceae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • For example, the immunogenic polypeptides may be combined with other bacterial antigens to provide therapeutic compositions with broader range. (google.com)
  • Any of various substances present on the surfaces of bacterial cells that facilitate binding to the cells of a host and that are used as antigens in some vaccines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • B ) Bacterial binding to soluble blood group antigens. (sciencemag.org)
  • The best characterized H. pylori adhesin-receptor interaction is that between the blood group antigen binding adhesin (BabA) and the fucosylated blood group antigens, which are glycans highly expressed in the gastric mucosa. (diva-portal.org)
  • Studies proposed in this competing renewal application are intended to dissect how tensile mechanical force increases ability of some of the most common bacterial adhesins to bind carbohydrate ligands, i.e. mediate catch-bond mechanism of receptor-ligand interaction. (grantome.com)
  • Many of these 'adhesins' bind to multiple ligands, complicating efforts to understand the role of each ligand-binding activity. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial adhesins provide species and tissue tropism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host system. (mdpi.com)
  • My research aims to identify changes that occur when one bacterial species interacts with another or with human tissues. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • With the exception of 2 autotransporter-encoding genes ( aidA and ycgV ), both with described roles in virulence in other species, all of the putative adhesin-associated genes had homologues in A. pleuropneumoniae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In other cases, the adhesins are directly associated with the microbial cell surface (so-called nonpilus adhesins). (asm.org)
  • Whether it has any relevance for the expression of virulence, or whether it even takes place in vivo, in apparent contrast with adhesins' established functions, has not been addressed so far. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinants were enriched for a gain of Le(b) binding by biopanning or for BabA expression on the bacterial surface by pulldown assay. (asm.org)
  • Temperate Prophages Increase Bacterial Adhesin Expression and Virulence in an Experimental Model of Endocarditis Due to Staphylococcus aureus From the CC398 Lineage. (unil.ch)
  • SadB is required for proper surface expression of the autotransporter adhesin SadA [ PMID: 24369174 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These results share similar properties with previously studied pure culture bacterial lectins and support the conclusion that lectin-mediated bacterial aggregation is one of the mechanisms responsible for activated sludge bioflocculation. (umass.edu)
  • I propose that bacterial pathogenicity is the result of multiple events in any given bacterium (vs. singular events) that occurred after the Fall and that no intentional pathogenic mechanisms exist. (answersingenesis.org)
  • Bacterial membranes are important for the secretion and presentation of virulence determinants as well as communication between cells. (uvm.edu)
  • Numerous studies have shown that inhibiting a single adhesin in this coordinated effort can often be enough to make a pathogenic bacterium non-virulent. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, and similar to other adhesins in many other pathogenic microorganisms, surface-associated FHA induces auto-agglutination ( 22 ). (rupress.org)
  • One of the B. pertussis major adhesins, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), * partitions in vitro between the cell surface and the extracellular milieu ( 14 - 16 ). (rupress.org)
  • A large number of bacterial adhesins with individual receptor specificities have been identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • the adhesins are responsible for recognizing and binding to specific receptor moieties of host cells. (asm.org)
  • The Le b -binding adhesin, BabA, was purified by receptor activity-directed affinity tagging. (sciencemag.org)
  • The importance of adhesins to YadA function and Yersinia survival is huge. (wikipedia.org)
  • YadA is an example of an oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin (Oca). (wikipedia.org)
  • YadA, an adhesin from Yersinia, was the first member of this family to be characterised. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biogenesis and function of the autotransporter adhesins YadA, intimin and invasin. (uni-tuebingen.de)
  • Insights into the autotransport process of a trimeric autotransporter, Yersinia Adhesin A (YadA). (uio.no)
  • In many instances, adhesins are assembled into hair-like appendages called pili or fimbriae that extend out from the bacterial surface. (asm.org)
  • The adhesin of P pili, PapG, mediates binding to Galα(1,4)Gal moieties present in the globoseries of glycolipids on uroepithelial cells and erythrocytes ( 71 , 111 ). (asm.org)
  • Evolution of Salmonella enterica virulence via point mutations in the fimbrial adhesin. (nih.gov)
  • The principle of Intervacc's vaccine development is to identify such surface-localised bacterial adhesins and to produce these in a large scale by recombinant technology. (intervacc.se)
  • This protocol describes the generation of polymer-coupled recombinant adhesins as biomimetic materials which allow analysis of the contribution of individual adhesins to these processes, independent of other bacterial factors. (jove.com)
  • While the functions of most OMPs are still unknown, some of them have been shown to be involved in bacterial adhesion to host cells ( 7 - 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Zhou, M & Wu, H 2009, ' Glycosylation and biogenesis of a family of serine-rich bacterial adhesins ', Microbiology , vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 317-327. (elsevier.com)
  • The results show that amyloid adhesins were an abundant component of activated sludge extracellular polymeric substances and seem to have unexpected, divers functions. (asm.org)
  • We have also solved the first 3D structure of the functional domain of the adhesin in collaboration with Dr. Teresa Ruiz in the Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics at the University of Vermont. (uvm.edu)
  • The biovolume fraction containing amyloid adhesins ranged from 10 to 40% in activated sludge from 10 different WWTP. (asm.org)
  • A more detailed analysis revealed that many denitrifiers (from Thauera, Azoarcus, Zoogloea , and Aquaspirillum -related organisms) and Actinobacteria -related polyphosphate-accumulating organisms most likely produced amyloid adhesins, whereas nitrifiers did not. (asm.org)
  • We have identified and characterized a unique collagen adhesin expressed by A. actinomycetemcomitans . (uvm.edu)
  • There is currently no protective vaccine against pneumonic plague and we are studying the structure and function of putative adhesins, as well as their immunogenic and protective properties for the development of a multi-subunit vaccine. (upenn.edu)
  • Forty-seven putative adhesin-associated genes predicted to encode 24 putative adhesins were discovered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fernandez and colleagues use single-molecule force spectroscopy to mechanically stretch adhesin domains and show that these force-dependent conformational changes influenced the reactivity of the bond, providing a possible mechanism for selectivity of adhesion. (asbmb.org)
  • bacterial endocytosis is accomplished through a zipper-like mechanism [ 9 , 16 , 22 , 23 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Completion of these studies will permit the dissection of the critical components involved in collagen adhesion and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of this adhesin. (uvm.edu)
  • The matrix not only mediates bacterial aggregation and surface attachment but may also serve as a reservoir for extracellular, degradative enzymes and the nutrients released by their function. (prolekare.cz)
  • Following translocation across the outer membrane, mature HMW1 and HMW2 remain non-covalently associated with the bacterial surface [18] , [19] . (prolekare.cz)
  • Adhesins are attractive candidates for vaccines and/or components of accellular vaccines such as those for pertussis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Then, insertion of the C-terminal translocator domain in the outer membrane forms a hydrophilic pore for the translocation of the passenger domain to the bacterial cell surface. (rcsb.org)
  • Glycosylation of this family of adhesins is essential for their biogenesis. (rcsb.org)
  • and (iii) microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. (mdpi.com)
  • As originally described by Lancefield, beta-hemolytic streptococci can be divided into many groups based on the antigenic differences in group-specific polysaccharides located in the bacterial cell wall. (medscape.com)
  • This adhesin binds to epithelial and endothelial cell lines derived from the human urinary tract (5). (scielo.br)
  • We have now biochemically characterized and identified the H. pylori blood group antigen-binding adhesin, BabA. (sciencemag.org)