Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Globosides: Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Flocculation: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Xylella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Uroplakin Ia: A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Pasteurellaceae: A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Yersinia enterocolitica: A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Treponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mice, Inbred BALB CSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
(1/2463) Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells.

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

(2/2463) Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract.

During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract.  (+info)

(3/2463) Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes.

The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

(4/2463) Expression of the plague plasminogen activator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli.

Enteropathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica) typically cause chronic disease as opposed to the closely related Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. It is established that this difference reflects, in part, carriage by Y. pestis of a unique 9.6-kb pesticin or Pst plasmid (pPCP) encoding plasminogen activator (Pla) rather than distinctions between shared approximately 70-kb low-calcium-response, or Lcr, plasmids (pCD in Y. pestis and pYV in enteropathogenic yersiniae) encoding cytotoxic Yops and anti-inflammatory V antigen. Pla is known to exist as a combination of 32.6-kDa (alpha-Pla) and slightly smaller (beta-Pla) outer membrane proteins, of which at least one promotes bacterial dissemination in vivo and degradation of Yops in vitro. We show here that only alpha-Pla accumulates in Escherichia coli LE392/pPCP1 cultivated in enriched medium and that either autolysis or extraction of this isolate with 1.0 M NaCl results in release of soluble alpha and beta forms possessing biological activity. This process also converted cell-bound alpha-Pla to beta-Pla and smaller forms in Y. pestis KIM/pPCP1 and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 but did not promote solubilization. Pla-mediated posttranslational hydrolysis of pulse-labeled Yops in Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 occurred more slowly than that in Y. pestis but was otherwise similar except for accumulation of stable degradation products of YadA, a pYV-mediated fibrillar adhesin not encoded in frame by pCD. Carriage of pPCP by Y. pseudotuberculosis did not significantly influence virulence in mice.  (+info)

(5/2463) Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

(6/2463) A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association.

Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization.  (+info)

(7/2463) Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI.

Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes.  (+info)

(8/2463) Coordinate involvement of invasin and Yop proteins in a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell-mediated response.

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogenic enteric bacteria that evades host cellular immune response and resides extracellularly in vivo. Nevertheless, an important contribution of T cells to defense against Yersinia has been previously established. In this study we demonstrate that Lewis rats infected with virulent strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, mount a Yersinia-specific, RT1-A-restricted, CD8+ T cell-mediated, cytotoxic response. Sensitization of lymphoblast target cells for cytolysis by Yersinia-specific CTLs required their incubation with live Yersinia and was independent of endocytosis. Although fully virulent Yersinia did not invade those cells, they attached to their surface. In contrast, invasin-deficient strain failed to bind to blast targets or to sensitize them for cytolysis. Furthermore, an intact virulence plasmid was an absolute requirement for Yersinia to sensitize blast targets for cytolysis. Using a series of Y. pseudotuberculosis mutants selectively deficient in virulence plasmid-encoded proteins, we found no evidence for a specific role played by YadA, YopH, YpkA, or YopJ in the sensitization process of blast targets. In contrast, mutations suppressing YopB, YopD, or YopE expression abolished the capacity of Yersinia to sensitize blast targets. These results are consistent with a model in which extracellular Yersinia bound to lymphoblast targets via invasin translocate inside eukaryotic cytosol YopE, which is presented in a class I-restricted fashion to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. This system could represent a more general mechanism by which bacteria harboring a host cell contact-dependent or type III secretion apparatus trigger a class I-restricted CD8+ T cell response.  (+info)

*  Bacterial adhesin
The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. This adhesin is responsible for D-mannose ... However, bacterial adhesins do not serve as a sort of universal bacterial Velcro. Rather, they act as specific surface ... Adhesion and bacterial adhesins are also a potential target for prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria are ... During the bacterial lifespan, a bacterium is subjected to frequent shear-forces. In the crudest sense, bacterial adhesins ...
*  YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain
YadA, an adhesin from Yersinia, was the first member of this family to be characterised. UspA2 from Moraxella was second. The ... The importance of adhesins to YadA function and Yersinia survival is huge. Attachment further allows more interactions and ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA) Casutt-Meyer S, Renzi F, Schmaler M, Jann NJ, Amstutz M, Cornelis GR (2010). " ... The YadA protein domain, is a form of trimeric auotransporter adhesins (TAAs). Each TAA must consist of a head, stalk and a ...
*  Bacterial display
Klemm P & Schembri MA (2000). "Bacterial Adhesins:Function and Structure". Int J Med Microbiol. 290: 27-35. doi:10.1016/S1438- ... Bacterial display systems were first introduced by Freudl et al. and Charbit et al. in 1986, when they used bacterial surface ... Bacterial display (or bacteria display or bacterial surface display) is a protein engineering technique used for in vitro ... OMPs are common scaffolds for bacterial display. Proteins can also be displayed on the bacterial cell surface through the use ...
*  Isopeptide bond
Zakeri, B. (2012). "Peptide tag forming a rapid covalent bond to a protein, through engineering a bacterial adhesin". ... The structural enzymes while varying from bacterial and eukaryotic domains, tend to be single enzymes that generally in a ... or it can form spontaneously as observed in HK97 bacteriophage capsid formation and Gram-positive bacterial pili. Spontaneous ... "Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure". Science. 318 (5856): 1625-1628. Bibcode: ...
*  Streptococcus pyogenes
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... A carbohydrate-based bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid surrounds the bacterium, protecting it from phagocytosis by ... Infections due to certain strains of S. pyogenes can be associated with the release of bacterial toxins. Throat infections ... S. pyogenes can also cause disease in the form of postinfectious "nonpyogenic" (not associated with local bacterial ...
*  Epitope
Zakeri, B. (2012). "Peptide tag forming a rapid covalent bond to a protein, through engineering a bacterial adhesin". ...
*  Protein tag
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. Bibcode:2012PNAS.. ... a mutated bacterial haloalkane dehalogenase that covalently attaches to a reactive haloalkane substrate, this allows attachment ...
*  Pneumococcal infection
It attaches to nasopharyngeal cells through interaction of bacterial surface adhesins. This normal colonization can become ... S. pneumoniae is a common member of the bacterial flora colonizing the nose and throat of 5-10% of healthy adults and 20-40% of ... However, it is also the cause of significant disease being a leading cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. The ... Polysaccharide capsule-prevents phagocytosis by host immune cells by inhibiting C3b opsonization of the bacterial cells ...
*  Haemagglutination activity domain
A bacterial adhesin formed as a 50-nm monomeric rigid rod based on a 19-residue repeat motif rich in beta strands and turns". J ... functioning as both a primary adhesin and an immunomodulator to bind the bacterial to cells of the respiratory epithelium. The ... "Beta-helix model for the filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin of Bordetella pertussis and related bacterial secretory proteins". ... A number of the members of this family have been designated adhesins, filamentous haemagglutinins, haem/haemopexin-binding ...
*  SdrG C terminal protein domain
Davis SL; Gurusiddappa S; McCrea KW; Perkins S; Höök M (2001). "SdrG, a fibrinogen-binding bacterial adhesin of the microbial ... In molecular biology, the protein domain SdrG C terminal refers to the C terminus domain of an adhesin found only on the cell ... SdrG protein is a bacterial cell wall-anchored adhesion and its function is to adhere to human cells. It does this by binding ... Such adhesins have also been named MSCRAMMs which is short for microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix ...
*  List of MeSH codes (D23)
File "2006 MeSH Trees".) MeSH D23.050.161.050 --- adhesins, bacterial MeSH D23.050.161.050.040 --- adhesins, escherichia coli ... MeSH D23.050.161.386 --- lepromin MeSH D23.050.161.616 --- polysaccharides, bacterial MeSH D23.050.161.616.200 --- bacterial ...
*  Trimeric autotransporter adhesin
YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... YadA stands for Yersinia adhesin protein A. This protein domain is an example of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins, and it was ... "Oligomeric coiled-coil adhesin YadA is a double-edged sword". PLoS ONE. 5 (12): e15159. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015159. PMC ... Trimeric autotransporter adhesins have a unique structure. The structure they hold is crucial to their function. They all ...
*  Chaperone (protein)
New functions for chaperones continue to be discovered, such as assistance in protein degradation, bacterial adhesin activity, ... Bacterial translocation-specific chaperone maintains newly synthesized precursor polypeptide chains in a translocation- ... Zhou J, Xu Z (2005). "The structural view of bacterial translocation-specific chaperone SecB: implications for function". ... 1988). "Homologous plant and bacterial proteins chaperone oligomeric protein assembly". Nature. 333 (6171): 330-4. doi:10.1038/ ...
*  Type three secretion system
It needs to have a minimal length so that other extracellular bacterial structures (adhesins and the lipopolysaccharide layer, ... Bacterial proteins that need to be secreted pass from the bacterial cytoplasm through the needle directly into the host ... The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system. T3SSs are essential for the pathogenicity ... Aizawa S (2001). "Bacterial flagella and type iii secretion systems". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 202 (2): 157-164. doi:10.1111/ ...
*  Sepsis
Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion, and establishment of ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... Infections leading to sepsis usually are bacterial, but may be fungal or viral. Gram positive bacteria was the cause of sepsis ... In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as ...
*  Bacterial small RNA
Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) include porins and adhesins. Numerous sRNAs regulate the expression of OMPs. The porins OmpC and ... Bacterial sRNAs effect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can effect ... Biofilm is a type of bacterial growth pattern where multiple layers of bacterial cells adhere to a host surface. This mode of ... The first bacterial sRNA was discovered and characterized in 1984. MicF in E. coli was found to regulate the expression of a ...
*  Bacterial morphological plasticity
... with an increased number of adhesins participating in the interaction, making even harder the work for (PMN). The interaction ... Bacterial size < 0.4 μm were not grazed well Bacterial size between 0.4 μm and 1.6 μm were "grazing vulnerable" Bacterial size ... Bacterial morphological plasticity refers to changes in the shape and size that bacterial cells undergo when they encounter ... Besides bacterial size, there are several factors affecting the predation of protists. Bacterial shape, the spiral morphology ...
*  Proanthocyanidin
A-type linkages may be important for the ability of PACs to bind to proteins, such as the adhesins present on E. coli fimbriae ... and were thought to inhibit bacterial infections, such as urinary tract infections (UTIs). However, clinical trials failed to ... by the European Food Safety Authority rejected physiological evidence that cranberry PACs have a role in inhibiting bacterial ...
*  Secretion
Bacterial effector protein Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Secretomics ... Gerlach, R; Hensel, M (2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: The molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens". ... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ...
*  Bacteria
Beachey EH (1981). "Bacterial adherence: adhesin-receptor interactions mediating the attachment of bacteria to mucosal surface ... There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. ... PATRIC, a Bioinformatics Resource Center for bacterial pathogens, funded by NIAID Bacterial Chemotaxis Interactive Simulator-A ... Bacterial cells are about one-tenth the size of eukaryotic cells and are typically 0.5-5.0 micrometres in length. However, a ...
*  Oral microbiology
... a feature of which is inter-bacterial communication. Cell-cell contact is mediated by specific protein adhesins and often, as ... However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial ... Bacterial adhesion is particularly important for oral bacteria. Oral bacteria have evolved mechanisms to sense their ... Dental plaque is the material that adheres to the teeth and consists of bacterial cells (mainly S. mutans and S. sanguis), ...
*  Dispersin B
... and proteinaceous adhesins. It allows bacteria to adhere to host surfaces, protects the bacterial cells from host defenses, ... By degrading the biofilm matrix, Dispersin B allows for the release of bacterial cells that can adhere to new surfaces close by ... Mack D, Fischer W, Krokotsch A, Leopold K, Hartmann R, Egge H, Laufs R (1996). "The intercellular adhesin involved in biofilm ... A. actinomycetemcomitans forms asymmetric biofilm lobed colonies that release single cells or small clusters of bacterial cells ...
*  Virulence factor
Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...
*  Streptococcus dysgalactiae
Other adhesins have also been described, including the genes gfba, fnB, fbBA, fnBB, lmb and gapC; all mediating binding to ... Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
*  Haemophilus influenzae
Bacterial culture of H. influenzae is performed on agar plates, the preferable one being chocolate agar, with added X (hemin) ... They infect the host by sticking to the host cell using trimeric autotransporter adhesins. Naturally acquired disease caused by ... Although highly specific, bacterial culture of H. influenzae lacks in sensitivity. Use of antibiotics prior to sample ... 2007). "Incidence of bacterial meningitis in Asia using enhanced CSF testing: polymerase chain reaction, latex agglutination ...
*  Oral candidiasis
This adhesion involves adhesins (e.g., hyphal wall protein 1), and extracellular polymeric materials (e.g., mannoprotein). ... "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.5 (2010): 340-349. Kourkoumpetis, ...
Womens Health and Education Center (WHEC) - Lower Urinary Tract Infections  Women's Health and Education Center (WHEC) - Lower Urinary Tract Infections
Traditionally bacterial growth of more than 100,000 CFU/ml was considered a positive culture. However the use of this value is ... E. coli the most common and most studied pathogen has three different types of adhesins: Type 1 pilli, P-fimbriae, and X- ... Bacterial cystitis must be differentiated from nonbacterial cystitis (radiation or interstitial cystitis). Pyelonephritis is a ... It is defined as growth of more than 100,000 CFU/ml of a single bacterial species in two consecutive clean-catch urine ...
more infohttp://womenshealthsection.com/content/print.php3?title=urog004&cat=4&lng=english
adhesins bacterial Protocols and Video...  'adhesins bacterial' Protocols and Video...
Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (Bacterial adhesion) to other ... Most fimbriae (Fimbriae, Bacterial) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit ... What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (Biofilms) is distinct from protein adhesin. ... In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/keyword/adhesins+bacterial
WO2009030978A3 - Conformers of bacterial adhesins 
        - Google Patents  WO2009030978A3 - Conformers of bacterial adhesins - Google Patents
In a preferred aspect, the invention comprises an isolated bacterial adhesin conformer F. Also provided are methods of ... For example, the immunogenic polypeptides may be combined with other bacterial antigens to provide therapeutic compositions ... isolation and/or separation of such adhesin conformers. The compositions may include one or more of the immunogenic ... The invention relates to isolated or purified bacterial adhesin conformers, preferably with improved stability and/or ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2009030978A3/en
Adhesins, bacterial | definition of Adhesins, bacterial by Medical dictionary  Adhesins, bacterial | definition of Adhesins, bacterial by Medical dictionary
What is Adhesins, bacterial? Meaning of Adhesins, bacterial medical term. What does Adhesins, bacterial mean? ... bacterial in the Medical Dictionary? Adhesins, bacterial explanation free. ... adhesin. (redirected from Adhesins, bacterial). Also found in: Dictionary. adhesin. (ăd-hē′sĭn, -zĭn). n.. Any of various ... Adhesins, bacterial , definition of Adhesins, bacterial by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Adhesins%2C+bacterial
Bacterial adhesin - Wikipedia  Bacterial adhesin - Wikipedia
The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. This adhesin is responsible for D-mannose ... However, bacterial adhesins do not serve as a sort of universal bacterial Velcro. Rather, they act as specific surface ... Adhesion and bacterial adhesins are also a potential target for prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria are ... During the bacterial lifespan, a bacterium is subjected to frequent shear-forces. In the crudest sense, bacterial adhesins ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacterial_adhesin
YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain - Wikipedia  YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain - Wikipedia
YadA, an adhesin from Yersinia, was the first member of this family to be characterised. UspA2 from Moraxella was second. The ... The importance of adhesins to YadA function and Yersinia survival is huge. Attachment further allows more interactions and ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA) Casutt-Meyer S, Renzi F, Schmaler M, Jann NJ, Amstutz M, Cornelis GR (2010). " ... The YadA protein domain, is a form of trimeric auotransporter adhesins (TAAs). Each TAA must consist of a head, stalk and a ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/YadA_bacterial_adhesin_protein_domain
Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins - Evgeni Sokurenko  Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins - Evgeni Sokurenko
Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $478,061. ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $484,208. ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $489,555. ...
more infohttp://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-AI050940-09
Structural biology of Gram-positive bacterial adhesins  Structural biology of Gram-positive bacterial adhesins
The structural biology of Gram-positive cell surface adhesins is an emerging field of research, whereas Gram-negative pilus ...
more infohttp://scholars.uab.edu/display/pub175132
Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction | Clinical and Vaccine...  Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction | Clinical and Vaccine...
Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction. George Hajishengallis, ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ...
more infohttps://cvi.asm.org/content/9/2/403.abstract
Characterization of lectins and bacterial adhesins in activated sludge flocs | Civil and Environmental Engineering | UMass...  Characterization of lectins and bacterial adhesins in activated sludge flocs | Civil and Environmental Engineering | UMass...
Characterization of lectins and bacterial adhesins in activated sludge flocs. Submitted by kberrio on August 14, 2016 - 3:35pm ... Bacterial lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in bacterial adhesion and aggregation. To investigate ... These results share similar properties with previously studied pure culture bacterial lectins and support the conclusion that ... lectin-mediated bacterial aggregation is one of the mechanisms responsible for activated sludge bioflocculation. ...
more infohttp://cee.umass.edu/biblio/characterization-lectins-and-bacterial-adhesins-activated-sludge-flocs
Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen | JEM  Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen | JEM
Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen. Loïc Coutte, Sylvie Alonso, Nathalie Reveneau, Eve ... Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen. Loïc Coutte, Sylvie Alonso, Nathalie Reveneau, Eve ... Recognition of a bacterial adhesin by an integrin: macrophage CR3 (αMβ2, CD11b/CD18) binds filamentous hemagglutinin of ... adhesin. Introduction. The expression of virulence by bacterial pathogens often requires the production and action of toxins ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/197/6/735?ijkey=b0d759889b3bc5205f682f95f24ceca971e7debe&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen | JEM  Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen | JEM
Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen. Loïc Coutte, Sylvie Alonso, Nathalie Reveneau, Eve ... Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen. Loïc Coutte, Sylvie Alonso, Nathalie Reveneau, Eve ... Recognition of a bacterial adhesin by an integrin: macrophage CR3 (αMβ2, CD11b/CD18) binds filamentous hemagglutinin of ... adhesin. Introduction. The expression of virulence by bacterial pathogens often requires the production and action of toxins ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/197/6/735
Serval - Temperate Prophages Increase Bacterial Adhesin Expression and Virulence in an Experimental Model of Endocarditis Due...  Serval - Temperate Prophages Increase Bacterial Adhesin Expression and Virulence in an Experimental Model of Endocarditis Due...
Until 2007, Staphylococcus aureus from clonal complex 398 (CC398) was exclusively associated with livestock species and companion animals. Recently, several studies described the emergence of S. aureus CC398 as etiologies of severe infections in humans living in an animal-free environment. Recent sequencing efforts showed that the mobile genetic elements found in CC398 isolates were specific for each population and enabled differentiation of strains responsible for asymptomatic colonization from strains involved in bloodstream infections. We mobilized prophages from a human CC398 isolate and introduced them into two naïve ancestral isolates devoid of prophages that exclusively colonize animals. These lysogenized ancestral CC398 isolates acquired features related to virulence, such as an increased capacity to adhere to human extracellular matrix proteins and the ability to invade and survive within non-phagocytic cells. Pathogenicity of several clinical isolates from the CC398 lineage a
more infohttps://serval.unil.ch/notice/serval:BIB_D201DDAB1F0B
Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal...  Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal...
Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm ... Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal ... Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal ... Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/protocol/10.1385/1-59745-113-4%3A119
Welcome to the CFG Paradigm Pages - CFGparadigms  Welcome to the CFG Paradigm Pages - CFGparadigms
The human targets for bacterial adhesins and lectins are mostly fucosylated human histo-blood group and/or sialylated epitopes ... Defining the biological role of bacterial adhesins and lectins together with their structure and specificity is a prerequisite ... Many bacterial toxins have been shown to bind host glycans. Glycan receptor specificity is critical for the pathogenic process ... The GBP are called adhesins when they are part of organelles, such as fimbriae and flagella. They are referred to as lectins ...
more infohttp://functionalglycomics.org/CFGparadigms/index.php?title=Welcome_to_the_CFG_Paradigm_Pages&direction=next&oldid=38&printable=yes
Welcome to the CFG Paradigm Pages - CFGparadigms  Welcome to the CFG Paradigm Pages - CFGparadigms
Bacterial Adhesins and Lectins Infection by bacteria is generally initiated by the specific recognition of host epithelial ... The human targets for bacterial adhesins and lectins are mostly fucosylated human histo-blood group and/or sialylated epitopes ... Defining the biological role of bacterial adhesins and lectins together with their structure and specificity is a prerequisite ... Bacterial Toxins Toxigenic bacteria, which include some species of Escherichia, Shigella, Vibrio, and Clostridium, release ...
more infohttp://www.functionalglycomics.org/CFGparadigms/index.php?title=Welcome_to_the_CFG_Paradigm_Pages&oldid=1604
Welcome to the CFG Paradigm Pages - CFGparadigms  Welcome to the CFG Paradigm Pages - CFGparadigms
The human targets for bacterial adhesins and lectins are mostly fucosylated human histo-blood group and/or sialylated epitopes ... Defining the biological role of bacterial adhesins and lectins together with their structure and specificity is a prerequisite ... Many bacterial toxins have been shown to bind host glycans. Glycan receptor specificity is critical for the pathogenic process ... The GBP are called adhesins when they are part of organelles, such as fimbriae and flagella. They are referred to as lectins ...
more infohttp://functionalglycomics.org/CFGparadigms/index.php?title=Welcome_to_the_CFG_Paradigm_Pages&direction=prev&oldid=45
The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and...  The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and...
The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ...
more infohttps://iai.asm.org/content/73/4/1954/article-info
Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular effector of host GTPase signaling.  - Research Repository  Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular effector of host GTPase signaling. - Research Repository
ORCID: 0000-0002-8981-7943 and Krachler, Anne Marie (2015) Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular ... Dual function of a bacterial protein as an adhesin and extracellular effector of host GTPase signaling. ... While targeting of GTPases by secreted bacterial effectors is a well-known strategy bacterial pathogens employ to interfere ... Bacterial pathogens often target conserved cellular mechanisms within their hosts to rewire signaling pathways and facilitate ...
more infohttp://eprints.glos.ac.uk/5756/
Pneumococcal bacteria can directly infect and damage the heart  Pneumococcal bacteria can directly infect and damage the heart
Antibodies against pneumolysin and the bacterial adhesin CbpA reduce lesion formation. The authors then investigated whether ... B) Higher powered magnification of a cardiac microlesion shows S. pneumoniae bacterial aggregates by 30 hours post-infection.C) ... Can one catch a heart disease? As strange as it may sound, recent studies reveal that bacterial infections may directly damage ... When the immunized mice were subsequently exposed to a high bacterial challenge (105CFU) to avoid early clearance due to pre- ...
more infohttps://www.jax.org/news-and-insights/2015/january/pneumococcal-bacteria-can-directly-infect-and-damage-the-heart
IJMS  | Free Full-Text | Nanocharacterization in Dentistry | HTML  IJMS | Free Full-Text | Nanocharacterization in Dentistry | HTML
... biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. We ... nano-characterization; dentistry; biofilms; bacterial adhesins; implants; dentine tubule; afm; interferometry; nanodentistry ... It is now well recognized that dental plaque is predominantly a complex bacterial biofilm. These diverse bacterial species have ... biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. We ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/11/6/2523/htm
Wiley: Oral Microbiology at a Glance - Richard J. Lamont, Howard F. Jenkinson  Wiley: Oral Microbiology at a Glance - Richard J. Lamont, Howard F. Jenkinson
Oral bacterial adhesins and receptors. Chapter 14 Complex communities 28. Inter-microbial reactions ...
more infohttp://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0813828929.html
The pathogenesis of disease due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae.  - PubMed - NCBI  The pathogenesis of disease due to nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae. - PubMed - NCBI
Adhesins, Bacterial/biosynthesis*. *Adhesins, Bacterial/chemistry. *Adhesins, Bacterial/genetics. *Adhesins, Bacterial/ ... Subsequently, several adhesins, including HMW1 and HMW2, pili, Hia, Hap, and others, mediate direct adherence to nonciliated ... The P2 and P5 outer-membrane proteins and probably other factors promote bacterial binding to mucus, and elaboration of LOS ... influenzae involves multiple steps and the interplay of a number of bacterial and host factors, as shown in Fig. 1. Following ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12374015?dopt=Abstract
The sweet connection: Solving the riddle of multiple sugar-binding fimbrial adhesins in Escherichia coli: Multiple E. coli...  The sweet connection: Solving the riddle of multiple sugar-binding fimbrial adhesins in Escherichia coli: Multiple E. coli...
... interact in highly specific ways with different ligands at different stages of bacterial infection or surface colonisation. ... Among them, chaperone-usher (CU) fimbriae adhesins, related to prototypical type 1 fimbriae, ... carbohydrate-binding proteins involved in various aspects of bacterial surface adhesion and tissue tropism. Combined efforts of ... molecular and structural biologists will be required to unravel the biological contribution of the bacterial lectome, however, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/The-sweet-connection%3A-Solving-the-riddle-of-in-E.-a-Korea-Ghigo/ab3c05709df23efc82115ce04fa2f6c4b8fa2078
  • Although recent studies suggest that amyloid adhesins are abundant in natural biofilms ( 22 ), curli fimbriae remain the sole example of an amyloid protein that has been shown to be an important functional component of a biofilm matrix. (pnas.org)
  • The secreted effector proteins are secreted directly from the bacterial cell into the eukaryotic (host) cell, where they exert a number of effects that help the pathogen to survive and to escape an immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gram-negative bacteria secrete a variety of virulence factors at host-pathogen interface, via membrane vesicle trafficking as bacterial outer membrane vesicles for invasion, nutrition and other cell-cell communications. (wikipedia.org)
  • The authors then investigated whether antibodies against pneumolysin or choline binding protein A (CbpA), an adhesin required for S. pneumonia translocation across the vascular endothelium, can reduce microlesion formation. (jax.org)
  • a bacterial product that enables bacteria to adhere to and colonize a host. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It allows bacteria to adhere to host surfaces, protects the bacterial cells from host defenses, results in increased resistance to antibiotics, and provides a protected environment with microchannels for the flow of water and other essential nutrients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bond formation can be either enzyme catalyzed, as in the case for the bond formed between lysine and glutamine catalyzed by transglutaminases, or it can form spontaneously as observed in HK97 bacteriophage capsid formation and Gram-positive bacterial pili. (wikipedia.org)
  • The P2 and P5 outer-membrane proteins and probably other factors promote bacterial binding to mucus, and elaboration of LOS causes damage to ciliated cells and impairs mucociliary function. (nih.gov)
  • Adhesins are attractive candidates for vaccines and/or components of accellular vaccines such as those for pertussis. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In Bordetella pertussis, the infectious agent in childhood whooping cough, filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA) is a surface-exposed and secreted protein that acts as a major virulence attachment factor, functioning as both a primary adhesin and an immunomodulator to bind the bacterial to cells of the respiratory epithelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it is also the cause of significant disease being a leading cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In infants and young children, H. influenzae type b (Hib) causes bacteremia, pneumonia, epiglottitis and acute bacterial meningitis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage. (wikipedia.org)
  • In molecular biology, YadA is a protein domain which is short for Yersinia adhesin A. These proteins have strong sequence and structural homology, particularly at their C-terminal end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The importance of adhesins to YadA function and Yersinia survival is huge. (wikipedia.org)
  • YadA, an adhesin from Yersinia, was the first member of this family to be characterised. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structural enzymes while varying from bacterial and eukaryotic domains, tend to be single enzymes that generally in a single step, fuse the two substrates together for a larger repetitive process of linking and inter-linking the said substrates to form and influence large macromolecular structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are typically 40 million bacterial cells in a gram of soil and a million bacterial cells in a millilitre of fresh water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical diagnosis of H. influenzae is typically performed by bacterial culture or latex particle agglutinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any of various substances present on the surfaces of bacterial cells that facilitate binding to the cells of a host and that are used as antigens in some vaccines. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Bacterial morphology changes help to optimize interactions with cells and the surfaces to which they attach. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies proposed in this competing renewal application are intended to dissect how tensile mechanical force increases ability of some of the most common bacterial adhesins to bind carbohydrate ligands, i.e. mediate catch-bond mechanism of receptor-ligand interaction. (grantome.com)
  • It attaches to nasopharyngeal cells through interaction of bacterial surface adhesins. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now known that most bacterial sRNAs are encoded by free-standing genes located in the intergenic regions (IGR) between two known genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since these initial discoveries, over six thousand bacterial sRNAs have been identified, largely through RNA-sequencing experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-bound organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial display can be used to find target proteins with desired properties and can be used to make affinity ligands which are cell-specific. (wikipedia.org)
  • New functions for chaperones continue to be discovered, such as assistance in protein degradation, bacterial adhesin activity, and in responding to diseases linked to protein aggregation (e.g. see prion) and cancer maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2004) Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) protects Staphylococcus epidermidis against major components of the human innate immune system. (springer.com)
  • 2002). "A novel variant of the immunoglobulin fold in surface adhesins of Staphylococcus aureus: crystal structure of the fibrinogen-binding MSCRAMM, clumping factor A". EMBO J. 21 (24): 6660-72. (wikipedia.org)
  • Achieving high affinity towards a bacterial lectin through multivalent topological isomers of calixarene glycoconjugates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • They may be located on a bacterial chromosome or may be transferred within a plasmid or can be found in bacteriophage genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intimin is expressed on the bacterial cell surface where it can bind to its receptor Tir (Translocated intimin receptor). (wikipedia.org)
  • The study of adhesins as a point of exploitation for vaccines comes from early studies which indicated that an important component of protective immunity against certain bacteria came from an ability to prevent adhesin binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • injected BALB/c mice with S. pneumoniae strain TIGR4 intraperitoneally, they found that bacterial titers from the mice correlated significantly with the animals' Tn-I levels. (jax.org)
  • S. pneumoniae is a common member of the bacterial flora colonizing the nose and throat of 5-10% of healthy adults and 20-40% of healthy children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such adhesins have also been named MSCRAMMs which is short for microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules. (wikipedia.org)