Adhesins, Escherichia coli
Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins
Molecular Sequence Data
Urinary Tract Infections
Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections
Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
Cell Adhesion Molecules
Amino Acid Sequence
Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli
Protein Structure, Tertiary
Blood Group Antigens
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Genetic Complementation Test
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli
Surface Plasmon Resonance
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Bacterial Secretion Systems
Escherichia coli O157
Gene Knockout Techniques
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis
Extracellular Matrix Proteins
Virulence Factors, Bordetella
Receptors, Cell Surface
Sequence Analysis, Protein
Waste Disposal, Fluid
Protein Structure, Secondary
Microscopy, Electron, Transmission
Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (1/2463)Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells. (+info)
Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (2/2463)During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract. (+info)
Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes. (3/2463)The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved. (+info)
Expression of the plague plasminogen activator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli. (4/2463)Enteropathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica) typically cause chronic disease as opposed to the closely related Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. It is established that this difference reflects, in part, carriage by Y. pestis of a unique 9.6-kb pesticin or Pst plasmid (pPCP) encoding plasminogen activator (Pla) rather than distinctions between shared approximately 70-kb low-calcium-response, or Lcr, plasmids (pCD in Y. pestis and pYV in enteropathogenic yersiniae) encoding cytotoxic Yops and anti-inflammatory V antigen. Pla is known to exist as a combination of 32.6-kDa (alpha-Pla) and slightly smaller (beta-Pla) outer membrane proteins, of which at least one promotes bacterial dissemination in vivo and degradation of Yops in vitro. We show here that only alpha-Pla accumulates in Escherichia coli LE392/pPCP1 cultivated in enriched medium and that either autolysis or extraction of this isolate with 1.0 M NaCl results in release of soluble alpha and beta forms possessing biological activity. This process also converted cell-bound alpha-Pla to beta-Pla and smaller forms in Y. pestis KIM/pPCP1 and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 but did not promote solubilization. Pla-mediated posttranslational hydrolysis of pulse-labeled Yops in Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 occurred more slowly than that in Y. pestis but was otherwise similar except for accumulation of stable degradation products of YadA, a pYV-mediated fibrillar adhesin not encoded in frame by pCD. Carriage of pPCP by Y. pseudotuberculosis did not significantly influence virulence in mice. (+info)
Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (5/2463)Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (+info)
A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association. (6/2463)Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization. (+info)
Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI. (7/2463)Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes. (+info)
Coordinate involvement of invasin and Yop proteins in a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell-mediated response. (8/2463)Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogenic enteric bacteria that evades host cellular immune response and resides extracellularly in vivo. Nevertheless, an important contribution of T cells to defense against Yersinia has been previously established. In this study we demonstrate that Lewis rats infected with virulent strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, mount a Yersinia-specific, RT1-A-restricted, CD8+ T cell-mediated, cytotoxic response. Sensitization of lymphoblast target cells for cytolysis by Yersinia-specific CTLs required their incubation with live Yersinia and was independent of endocytosis. Although fully virulent Yersinia did not invade those cells, they attached to their surface. In contrast, invasin-deficient strain failed to bind to blast targets or to sensitize them for cytolysis. Furthermore, an intact virulence plasmid was an absolute requirement for Yersinia to sensitize blast targets for cytolysis. Using a series of Y. pseudotuberculosis mutants selectively deficient in virulence plasmid-encoded proteins, we found no evidence for a specific role played by YadA, YopH, YpkA, or YopJ in the sensitization process of blast targets. In contrast, mutations suppressing YopB, YopD, or YopE expression abolished the capacity of Yersinia to sensitize blast targets. These results are consistent with a model in which extracellular Yersinia bound to lymphoblast targets via invasin translocate inside eukaryotic cytosol YopE, which is presented in a class I-restricted fashion to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. This system could represent a more general mechanism by which bacteria harboring a host cell contact-dependent or type III secretion apparatus trigger a class I-restricted CD8+ T cell response. (+info)
Here are some common types of E. coli infections:
1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.
Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.
If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.
Symptoms of a UTI can include:
* Painful urination
* Frequent urination
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Blood in the urine
* Pelvic pain in women
* Rectal pain in men
If you suspect that you have a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. UTIs can lead to more serious complications if left untreated, such as kidney damage or sepsis.
Treatment for a UTI typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is completely cleared. Drinking plenty of water and taking over-the-counter pain relievers may also help alleviate symptoms.
Preventive measures for UTIs include:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back and washing hands after using the bathroom
* Urinating when you feel the need, rather than holding it in
* Avoiding certain foods that may irritate the bladder, such as spicy or acidic foods
* Drinking plenty of water to help flush bacteria out of the urinary tract.
The symptoms of pyelonephritis can vary depending on the severity and location of the infection, but may include:
* Flank pain (pain in the sides or back)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Frequent urination or difficulty urinating
* Blood in the urine
* Abdominal tenderness
* Loss of appetite
Pyelonephritis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as urinalysis, blood cultures, and imaging studies (such as CT or ultrasound scans).
Treatment of pyelonephritis typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the underlying bacterial infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever and pain. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
If left untreated, pyelonephritis can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, sepsis, and even death. Therefore, prompt recognition and treatment of this condition are crucial to prevent long-term consequences and improve outcomes for affected individuals.
While rare, yersiniosis can be a serious condition in certain populations, such as people with weakened immune systems or those who have chronic lung disease. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients.
There are several types of diarrhea, including:
1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.
Symptoms of diarrhea may include:
* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Fatigue and weakness
Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea
Complications of diarrhea can include:
* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.
Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.
It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:
* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment
Prevention of diarrhea includes:
* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.
Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.
In the medical field, cystitis is also known as urinary tract infection (UTI), which affects not only the bladder but also the kidneys and ureters. The symptoms of cystitis are similar to those of UTI, including fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. However, cystitis is limited to the bladder only, whereas UTI can affect multiple parts of the urinary tract.
Cystitis is more common in women due to their anatomy, with the shorter urethra providing easier access for bacteria to enter the bladder. Pregnant women and those with diabetes or a weakened immune system are at higher risk of developing cystitis.
While cystitis is not a serious condition in most cases, it can lead to complications such as kidney damage if left untreated. Recurrent cystitis can also cause changes in the bladder muscle and increase the risk of urinary incontinence. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage symptoms and prevent long-term consequences.
In summary, cystitis is a common condition that affects the bladder, characterized by inflammation and symptoms such as painful urination and frequent urination. It can be acute or chronic, and treatment typically involves antibiotics, fluid intake, and pain relief medication. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage symptoms and prevent long-term consequences.
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Diverticulosis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the intestine, often causing abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
4. Intestinal obstruction: A blockage that prevents food, fluids, and gas from passing through the intestine, often causing abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Intestinal ischemia: A reduction in blood flow to the intestine, which can cause damage to the tissues and lead to life-threatening complications.
6. Intestinal cancer: Cancer that develops in the small intestine or large intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
7. Gastrointestinal infections: Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites that affect the gastrointestinal tract, often causing symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Intestinal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the movement of food through the intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
9. Malabsorption: A condition in which the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, often caused by conditions such as celiac disease or pancreatic insufficiency.
10. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A condition in which the intestine becomes narrowed or blocked, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
These are just a few examples of the many potential complications that can occur when the gastrointestinal system is not functioning properly. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.
A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:
1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.
It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.
Causes and risk factors:
The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:
* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis
The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:
* Joint pain or swelling
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds
Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:
* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart
The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.
Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.
The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.
Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.
Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:
* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)
Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:
* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.
Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:
* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.
Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:
* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.
In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
Some common types of streptococcal infections include:
1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.
Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:
1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.
It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:
1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.
2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.
Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:
1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections
Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:
1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath
Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.
Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:
1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.
Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:
1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.
It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
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- Most Opa proteins engage human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) to facilitate bacterial binding and invasion. (nih.gov)
- Additional, but more limited, research of cranberry because of its inhibition of bacterial adhesion and antioxidant properties has been conducted for other infectious diseases and other conditions. (nih.gov)
- Adhesion of bacteria to glycosylated cells and surfaces is largely facilitated through adhesive organells projecting from the bacterial surface, which are called fimbriae. (eurekaselect.com)
- Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion ( BACTERIAL ADHESION ) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. (nih.gov)
- What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin ( BIOFILMS ) is distinct from protein adhesin. (nih.gov)
- Lo que en ocasiones se denomina adhesina polimérica (BIOFILMS) es distinta de la adhesina proteica. (bvsalud.org)
- The formation of sticky, multicellular bacterial agglomerations called biofilms dramatically complicates the treatment of staphylococcal infections. (nih.gov)
- Infection by bacteria is often initiated by the specific recognition of host epithelial surfaces by adhesins and lectins. (eurekaselect.com)
- Most fimbriae ( FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL ) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. (nih.gov)
- In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial adhesins implicated in the binding of bacteria to the human gastrointestinal mucins. (bvsalud.org)
- In humans, it has been found that there are about ten times as many bacterial cells inside the human body as there are human cells, with large numbers of bacteria lining the gastrointestinal tract and living on the skin. (microbiologyinpictures.com)
- The most common fatal bacterial infectious diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis (caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis ) killing approximately two million people each year, generally in sub-Saharan Africa. (microbiologyinpictures.com)
- Bacterial infections can be caused by a wide range of bacteria which can lead to mild illness to life-threatening illnesses (like bacterial meningitis ), which require immediate hospital interventions. (microbiologyinpictures.com)
- 8] Although bacteria‐mediated antitumor therapy (BMAT) appeared earlier than radiotherapy or chemotherapy, the inability to control bacterial infection limited its clinical application at that time. (sagepub.com)
- 9a,13] 2) Intratumoral penetration: the bacterial flagella allow them move autonomously to penetrate the tumor mass. 3) Tumor colonization, immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment allowed these bacteria to accumulate in tumors, but it will be eliminated by the immune system in normal tissues. (sagepub.com)
- In this study, we hypothesized that the receptor-binding capability of individual Opa proteins impacts bacterial survival in the presence of neutrophils. (nih.gov)
- Our findings indicate that the extent to which Opa proteins mediate nonopsonic binding is the predominant determinant of bacterial survival from neutrophils. (nih.gov)
- The analysis of the available crystal structures of bacterial lectins and adhesins helps deciphering the structure/function relationship for this important class of proteins. (eurekaselect.com)
- This large conformational rearrangement in the translocation channel upon activation by adhesin-chaperone is unprecedented for these barrel proteins, which until now were considered rigid structures," Li said. (bnl.gov)
- 19] 7) Specific proteins and surface markers can enable the visualization of the delivery of antitumor therapies by imaging the abundant proteins on the bacterial surface allow them to be combined with a variety of therapies. (sagepub.com)
- Many surface components of N. gonorrhoeae are phase variable, including the Opa protein family of adhesins and invasins. (nih.gov)
- The outer membrane protein intimin is required for the formation of this structure, as is Tir, a bacterial protein that is translocated into the host cell and is thought to function as a receptor for intimin. (nih.gov)
- Like many adhesins, FimH is a two-domain protein consisting of a pilin domain, that anchors FimH to the fimbrial shaft, and a distal, N-terminal lectin domain, harboring the carbohydrate binding pocket. (eurekaselect.com)
- The bacterial protein transport channel in its resting closed state (green) and the activated open state (blue). (bnl.gov)
- At the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, the Washington University/UK group determined the atomic-level crystal structure of the entire transporter protein, known as an "usher," bound to the sticky adhesin subunit that forms the end of a pilus and another helper protein, called a chaperone, that shuttles the pilus subunits to the usher one at a time. (bnl.gov)
- For comparison [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._pneumoniae ''M. pneumoniae''] has 677 protein coding sequences, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haemophilus_influenzae ''H. influenzae''] has 1703, and ''E. coli'' K-12 has 4,288. (kenyon.edu)
- This cluster contains four adhesins, one outer-membrane protein, one sensor histidine kinase and two transcriptional regulators. (pasteur.fr)
- Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the kidney parenchyma that can be organ- and/or life-threatening and that often leads to scarring of the kidney. (medscape.com)
- Pyomyositis is a severe bacterial infection of skeletal muscle, commonly affecting children in tropical regions, predominantly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . (elifesciences.org)
- How Does Bacterial Invasion Lead to an Infection? (microbiologyinpictures.com)
- Thus, the presence of SAP can increase virulence in bacterial infection models. (healthdisparitiesks.org)
- Inactivation of BCAM0224 in B. cenocepacia attenuates the ability of the mutant to promote cell adherence in vitro and impairs the overall bacterial virulence against Galleria mellonella as a model of infection. (pasteur.fr)
- Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling, we have shown that gene-regulated processes in an S. epidermidis biofilm lead to a non-aggressive and protected form of bacterial growth with low metabolic activity, optimally suited to guarantee long-term survival during chronic infection and resistance to antibiotics. (nih.gov)
- 1) Tumor targeting: the hypoxic TME can preferentially induce bacterial colonization, while the necrotic tumor center provides abundant nutrients for bacterial growth and reproduction. (sagepub.com)
- Bacterial colonization of sutures might lead to bacteremia and has been reported to contribute to post-surgical complications in dentoalveolar and periodontal surgeries (1). (ac.ir)
- Bacterial adhesins attach their hosts to surfaces through one or more ligand-binding domains. (rcsb.org)
- Even when several UTIs in a row are due to E. coli, slight differences in the bacterial strains indicate distinct infections. (nih.gov)
- We after that likened SAP binding to to SAP binding to non-pathogenic lab strains of W303-1B changed with a clear vector (pJL1) (hereinafter, adhesin Als5p (((20, 21). (healthdisparitiesks.org)
- Two trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAA) among the 13 putative antigens are absent from the other Burkholderia genomes and are clustered downstream of the cci island that is a marker for transmissible B. cenocepacia strains. (pasteur.fr)
- cell surface adhesins form amyloid-like nanodomains (8). (healthdisparitiesks.org)
- The amyloid connections are useful, in the feeling that amyloid-forming capability can be an important section of adhesin activity and it is evolutionarily conserved in fungal adhesins plus some bacterial adhesins (10). (healthdisparitiesks.org)
- Fibrillar amyloid adhesins are an important and common structural motif in biofilm architecture. (wustl.edu)
- These findings underscore how the ability of N. gonorrhoeae to change Opa expression through phase variation contributes to bacterial resistance to neutrophil clearance. (nih.gov)
- Bacterial translocation. (lookformedical.com)
- Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. (lookformedical.com)
- Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION. (lookformedical.com)
- But when the first chaperoned subunit, the adhesin, arrives, it causes a dramatic conformational change that unplugs the pore and changes its shape from an oval to nearly circular. (bnl.gov)
- Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). (nih.gov)
- Bacterial spores and various derived vesicles can also be used for cancer therapy. (sagepub.com)
- But the scientists were still not sure how the transporter protein's various parts worked to "recruit" and bring together the many subunits that make up the pili - or how it assembled and moved these structures through the membrane to the bacterial cell's surface. (bnl.gov)
- Here we have recombinantly expressed one such ~20-kDa domain from the ~340-kDa adhesin found in Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, an oil-degrading bacterium. (rcsb.org)
- The adhesins are part of organelles, they are generally located at the tip of pili or fimbriae. (eurekaselect.com)
- Our results establish staphylococcal pyomyositis, like tetanus and diphtheria, as critically dependent on a single toxin and demonstrate the potential for association studies to identify specific bacterial genes promoting severe human disease. (elifesciences.org)
- A significant portion of its genome is devoted to the transport of nutrients from its host such as glucose and fructose, as well as genes for attachment organelles, adhesins, and antigenic variation to evade the host immune system. (kenyon.edu)
- The Tir-binding region of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli intimin is sufficient to trigger actin condensation after bacterial-induced host cell signalling. (nih.gov)
- To develop a phage therapy against a diverse range of clinically relevant Escherichia coli , we screened a library of 162 wild-type (WT) phages, identifying eight phages with broad coverage of E. coli , complementary binding to bacterial surface receptors, and the capability to stably carry inserted cargo. (nature.com)
- RÉSUMÉ Les souches d'Escherichia coli diarrh￩og￨nes peuvent ￪tre consid￩r￩es comme les agents ￩tiologiques les plus importants ￠ l'origine de diarrh￩es en R￩publique islamique d'Iran, notamment chez l'enfant. (who.int)
- The human targets for bacterial adhesins and lectins are mostly fucosylated human histo-blood groups and/or sialylated epitopes. (eurekaselect.com)
- Direct physical contact of bacterial species with its neighboring co-habitants within microbial community could initiate signaling cascade and achieve modulation of gene expression in accordance with different species it is in contact with. (frontiersin.org)
- The presence of mannan chains within synthetic polyacrylic acid (PAA) enhanced the dynamics and selectivity of bacterial ingress in model microbial systems and soil microcosms. (edu.au)
- Bacterial diversity was markedly higher in mannan containing hydrogels compared to both control polymer and soil, indicating enhanced selectivity towards microbial families that contain plant beneficial species. (edu.au)
- In this case, heating for sufficient time at a temperature adequate to decrease GBS bacterial counts might not have been reached. (cdc.gov)
- Our work shows that Opa-dependent differences in bacterial survival after exposure to primary human neutrophils correlates with Opa-dependent bacterial binding and phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
- To understand the contribution of bacterial genomic factors to pyomyositis, we conducted a genome-wide association study of S. aureus cultured from 101 children with pyomyositis and 417 children with asymptomatic nasal carriage attending the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia. (elifesciences.org)
- Ace is an adhesin to collagen from Enterococcus faecalis expressed conditionally after growth in serum or in the presence of collagen. (prelekara.sk)
- Chronic periodontitis is a common oral disease with diverse bacterial etiology. (ac.ir)
- 9. Non-proteinaceous bacterial adhesins challenge the antifouling properties of polymer brush coatings. (nih.gov)
- In addition to communication through cell-cell contact, quorum sensing (QS) mediated by small signaling molecules such as competence-stimulating peptides (CSPs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), plays essential roles in bacterial physiology and ecology. (frontiersin.org)
- Objective: To detect the presence and transmission of S. mutans carrier of the spaP gene in samples of bacterial plaque in mother/child pairs from municipal child education centers, and the possible association with dental caries. (bvsalud.org)
- Plates for aerobic & anaerobic bacterial cultures were incubated in blood agar & Brain-Heart infusion agar respectively.Following incubation period, the bacterial inhibitory halos were measured in millimeters. (ac.ir)