Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.Adhesins, Escherichia coli: Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Antigens, CD55: GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Adhesiveness: A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Mannosides: Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Urinary Tract Infections: Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.Pyelonephritis: Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.Streptococcus gordonii: A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Globosides: Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Cell Adhesion Molecules: Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Glycoconjugates: Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.Porphyromonas gingivalis: A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.Trichomonas vaginalis: A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.Flocculation: The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Xylella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Yersinia pseudotuberculosis: A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Uroplakin Ia: A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Pasteurellaceae: A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Actinomyces: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.Bordetella bronchiseptica: A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.Cysteine Endopeptidases: ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Fibrinogen: Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.Bordetella pertussis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Yersinia pestis: The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.Uropathogenic Escherichia coli: Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Yersinia enterocolitica: A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Candida glabrata: A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.Mucins: High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.Cystitis: Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Mouth: The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli: Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Treponema: A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.Bacterial Secretion Systems: In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Escherichia coli O157: A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Aminoacyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Phagocytosis: The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis: Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Saliva: The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Glycosphingolipids: Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Helicobacter pylori: A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).Respiratory System: The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Peptide Hydrolases: Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.Virulence Factors, Bordetella: A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.Receptors, Cell Surface: Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Mice, Inbred BALB CSwine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Urinary Bladder: A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Flagellin: A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.Waste Disposal, Fluid: The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Endocarditis, Bacterial: Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (1/2463)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (2/2463)

During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract.  (+info)

Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes. (3/2463)

The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

Expression of the plague plasminogen activator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli. (4/2463)

Enteropathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica) typically cause chronic disease as opposed to the closely related Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. It is established that this difference reflects, in part, carriage by Y. pestis of a unique 9.6-kb pesticin or Pst plasmid (pPCP) encoding plasminogen activator (Pla) rather than distinctions between shared approximately 70-kb low-calcium-response, or Lcr, plasmids (pCD in Y. pestis and pYV in enteropathogenic yersiniae) encoding cytotoxic Yops and anti-inflammatory V antigen. Pla is known to exist as a combination of 32.6-kDa (alpha-Pla) and slightly smaller (beta-Pla) outer membrane proteins, of which at least one promotes bacterial dissemination in vivo and degradation of Yops in vitro. We show here that only alpha-Pla accumulates in Escherichia coli LE392/pPCP1 cultivated in enriched medium and that either autolysis or extraction of this isolate with 1.0 M NaCl results in release of soluble alpha and beta forms possessing biological activity. This process also converted cell-bound alpha-Pla to beta-Pla and smaller forms in Y. pestis KIM/pPCP1 and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 but did not promote solubilization. Pla-mediated posttranslational hydrolysis of pulse-labeled Yops in Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 occurred more slowly than that in Y. pestis but was otherwise similar except for accumulation of stable degradation products of YadA, a pYV-mediated fibrillar adhesin not encoded in frame by pCD. Carriage of pPCP by Y. pseudotuberculosis did not significantly influence virulence in mice.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (5/2463)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association. (6/2463)

Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization.  (+info)

Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI. (7/2463)

Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes.  (+info)

Coordinate involvement of invasin and Yop proteins in a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell-mediated response. (8/2463)

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogenic enteric bacteria that evades host cellular immune response and resides extracellularly in vivo. Nevertheless, an important contribution of T cells to defense against Yersinia has been previously established. In this study we demonstrate that Lewis rats infected with virulent strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, mount a Yersinia-specific, RT1-A-restricted, CD8+ T cell-mediated, cytotoxic response. Sensitization of lymphoblast target cells for cytolysis by Yersinia-specific CTLs required their incubation with live Yersinia and was independent of endocytosis. Although fully virulent Yersinia did not invade those cells, they attached to their surface. In contrast, invasin-deficient strain failed to bind to blast targets or to sensitize them for cytolysis. Furthermore, an intact virulence plasmid was an absolute requirement for Yersinia to sensitize blast targets for cytolysis. Using a series of Y. pseudotuberculosis mutants selectively deficient in virulence plasmid-encoded proteins, we found no evidence for a specific role played by YadA, YopH, YpkA, or YopJ in the sensitization process of blast targets. In contrast, mutations suppressing YopB, YopD, or YopE expression abolished the capacity of Yersinia to sensitize blast targets. These results are consistent with a model in which extracellular Yersinia bound to lymphoblast targets via invasin translocate inside eukaryotic cytosol YopE, which is presented in a class I-restricted fashion to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. This system could represent a more general mechanism by which bacteria harboring a host cell contact-dependent or type III secretion apparatus trigger a class I-restricted CD8+ T cell response.  (+info)

Most core residues of coiled coils are hydrophobic. Occasional polar residues are thought to lower stability, but impart structural specificity. The coiled coils of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs) are conspicuous for their large number of polar residues in position d of the core, which often leads to their prediction as natively unstructured regions. The most frequent residue, asparagine ([email protected]), can occur in runs of up to 19 consecutive heptads, frequently in the motif [I/V]xxNTxx. In the Salmonella TAA, SadA, the core asparagines form rings of interacting residues with the following threonines, grouped around a central anion. This conformation is observed generally in [email protected] layers from trimeric coiled coils of known structure. Attempts to impose a different register on the motif show that the asparagines orient themselves specifically into the core, even against conflicting information from flanking domains. When engineered into the GCN4 leucine zipper, [email protected] layers progressively ...
Bacterial adhesins promote colonization at the initial stages of an infection by mediating attachment to host tissues, thus avoiding nonspecific host defenses such as mechanical clearance and allowing bacterial multiplication to occur within the host (1). To exert these functions, adhesins need to be presented at the surface of the bacterium. Like typical adhesins, B. pertussis FHA attaches the bacterium to receptors in the respiratory tract (17-21, 28). However, in addition to being surface-associated, large amounts of FHA are also released into the extracellular milieu (15). This has so far only been observed in vitro. In this work, we show for the first time that FHA is likely to also be released in vivo, and that its secretion is necessary for efficient colonization in a mouse model of infection. Our results support the paradigm that the secreted form of bacterial adhesins may participate in pathogenesis.. The use of B. pertussis strains deficient in FHA release but presenting FHA ...
The distribution of three putative adhesin genes in 123 Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) strains was determined by PCR. The STEC strains were isolated from human patients (n = 90) and food (n = 33) and were characterized by ...
Complete information for FNBP4 gene (Protein Coding), Formin Binding Protein 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Define adhesin: any of various specialized molecular components (such as proteins) on the surface of a bacterial cell that… - adhesin in a sentence
Baba Farid University of Health Sciences (BFUHS) Faridkot has Released BFUHS Results 2017-2018 at bfuhs.ac.in. Get Baba Farid University Result from here.
Talmud Online, zipped for download, searchable: Tohoroth, Niddah, Nazir, Horayoth, Sanhedrin, Sotah, Yebamoth, Shabbath, Kethuboth, Gittin, Berakoth, Baba Mezia, Baba Kamma, Baba Bathra, Nedarim, Abodah Zara
Background Pathogenic bacteria adhere to the host cell surface using a family of outer membrane proteins called Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAAs). Although TAAs are highly divergent in sequence and domain structure, they are all conceptually comprised of a C-terminal membrane anchoring domain and an N-terminal passenger domain. Passenger domains consist of a secretion sequence, a head region that facilitates binding to the host cell surface, and a stalk region. Methodology/Principal Findings Pathogenic species of Burkholderia contain an overabundance of TAAs, some of which have been shown to elicit an immune response in the host. To understand the structural basis for host cell adhesion, we solved a 1.35 Å resolution crystal structure of a BpaA TAA head domain from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the pathogen that causes melioidosis. The structure reveals a novel fold of an intricately intertwined trimer. The BpaA head is composed of structural elements that have been observed in other TAA head
The Haemophilus influenzae HMW1 adhesin is a high-molecular weight protein that is secreted by the bacterial two-partner secretion pathway and mediates adherence to respiratory epithelium, an essential early step in the pathogenesis of H. influenzae disease. In recent work, we discovered that HMW1 is a glycoprotein and undergoes N-linked glycosylation at multiple asparagine residues with simple hexose units rather than N-acetylated hexose units, revealing an unusual N-glycosidic linkage and suggesting a new glycosyltransferase activity. Glycosylation protects HMW1 against premature degradation during the process of secretion and facilitates HMW1 tethering to the bacterial surface, a prerequisite for HMW1-mediated adherence. In the current study, we establish that the enzyme responsible for glycosylation of HMW1 is a protein called HMW1C, which is encoded by the hmw1 gene cluster and shares homology with a group of bacterial proteins that are generally associated with two-partner secretion ...
Trimeric autotransporters are a family of secreted outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria. These obligate homotrimeric proteins share a conserved C-terminal region, termed the translocation unit. This domain consists of an integral membrane β-barrel anchor and associated α-helices which pass through the pore of the barrel. The α-helices link to the extracellular portion of the protein, the passenger domain. Autotransportation refers to the way in which the passenger domain is secreted into the extracellular space. It appears that the translocation unit mediates the transport of the passenger domain across the outer membrane, and no external factors, such as ATP, ion gradients nor other proteins, are required. The passenger domain of autotransporters contains the specific activities of each protein. These are usually related to virulence. In trimeric autotransporters, the main function of the proteins is to act as adhesins. One such protein is the Yersinia adhesin YadA, found in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus cell surface adhesins using flow cytometry. AU - Mohamed, Nehal. AU - Visai, Livia. AU - Speziale, Pietro. AU - Ross, Julia M.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The initiation of many infectious diseases involves specific adhesion of bacteria to host tissue proteins and carbohydrates. Staphylococcus aureus is known to bind specifically to several proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). We report the quantification of the collagen and fibronectin adhesin densities on the staphylococcal surface using flow cytometry. Our results are in agreement with previous reports on the transcription of the respective genes and demonstrate different patterns of temporal expression for the two adhesins in the strains studied. We demonstrate a convenient technique for quantification of bacterial adhesins that can be used in studies aimed at characterization of bacterial adhesion to ECM components and understanding expression of adhesins during the course of an ...
Porphyromonas gingivalis, the major etiologic agent of chronic periodontitis, produces a broad spectrum of virulence factors, including Arg- and Lys-gingipain cysteine proteinases. In this study, we investigated the capacity of P. gingivalis gingipains to trigger a proinflammatory response in human monocyte-derived macrophages. Both Arg- and Lys-gingipain preparations induced the secretion of TNF-α and IL-8 by macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages with Arg-gingipain A/B preparation at the highest concentration was associated with lower amounts of cytokines detected, a phenomenon likely related to proteolytic degradation. The inflammatory response induced by gingipains was not dependent of their catalytic activity since heat-inactivated preparations were still effective. Stimulating macrophages with gingipain preparations was associated with increased levels of phosphorylated p38α MAPK suggesting its involvement in cell activation. In conclusion, our study brought clear evidence that P. gingivalis
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a new membrane-associated protein that influences transport/maturation of gingipains and adhesins of Porphyromonas gingivalis. AU - Sato, Keiko. AU - Sakai, Eiko. AU - Veith, Paul D.. AU - Shoji, Mikio. AU - Kikuchi, Yuichiro. AU - Yukitake, Hideharu. AU - Ohara, Naoya. AU - Naito, Mariko. AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Reynolds, Eric C.. AU - Nakayama, Koji. PY - 2005/3/11. Y1 - 2005/3/11. N2 - The dual membrane envelopes of Gram-negative bacteria provide two barriers of unlike nature that regulate the transport of molecules into and out of organisms. Organisms have developed several systems for transport across the inner and outer membranes. The Gram-negative periodontopathogenic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis produces proteinase and adhesin complexes, gingipains/adhesins, on the cell surface and in the extracellular milieu as one of the major virulence factors. Gingipains and/or adhesins are encoded by kgp, rgpA, rgpB, and hagA on the chromosome. In this ...
AIMS To characterize the functionality of the Lactobacillus casei BL23 fbpA gene encoding a putative fibronectin-binding protein. METHODS AND RESULTS Adhesion tests showed that L. casei BL23 binds immobilized and soluble fibronectin in a protease-sensitive manner. A mutant with inactivated fbpA showed a decrease in binding to immobilized fibronectin and a strong reduction in the surface hydrophobicity as reflected by microbial adhesion to solvents test. However, minor effects were seen on adhesion to the human Caco-2 or HT-29 cell lines. Purified 6X(His)FbpA bound to immobilized fibronectin in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot experiments with FbpA-specific antibodies showed that FbpA could be extracted from the cell surface by LiCl treatment and that protease digestion of the cells reduced the amount of extracted FbpA. Furthermore, surface exposition of FbpA was detected in other L. casei strains by LiCl extraction and whole-cell ELISA. CONCLUSIONS FbpA can be found at the L. casei BL23 surface
Adhesins are surface structures of bacteria that facilitate their attachment to host cells or non-living materials. New research has advanced our understanding of adhesins, as outlined in a new report ...
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. The molecular basis for these varied presentations, which may involve strain-specific virulence features as well as host factors, has not been elucidated. We demonstrate that, when challenged with ETEC strain H10407, originally isolated from a case of cholera-like illness, blood group A human volunteers developed severe diarrhea more frequently than individuals from other blood groups. Interestingly, a diverse population of ETEC strains, including H10407, secrete the EtpA adhesin molecule. As many bacterial adhesins also agglutinate red blood cells, we combined the use of glycan arrays, biolayer inferometry, and noncanonical amino acid labeling with hemagglutination studies to demonstrate that EtpA is a dominant ETEC blood group A-specific lectin/hemagglutinin. Importantly, we have also shown that EtpA ...
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections are highly prevalent in developing countries, where clinical presentations range from asymptomatic colonization to severe cholera-like illness. The molecular basis for these varied presentations, which may involve strain-specific virulence features as well as host factors, has not been elucidated. We demonstrate that, when challenged with ETEC strain H10407, originally isolated from a case of cholera-like illness, blood group A human volunteers developed severe diarrhea more frequently than individuals from other blood groups. Interestingly, a diverse population of ETEC strains, including H10407, secrete the EtpA adhesin molecule. As many bacterial adhesins also agglutinate red blood cells, we combined the use of glycan arrays, biolayer inferometry, and noncanonical amino acid labeling with hemagglutination studies to demonstrate that EtpA is a dominant ETEC blood group A-specific lectin/hemagglutinin. Importantly, we have also shown that EtpA ...
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WOODWARD, MJ and WRAY, C (1990) 9 DNA PROBES FOR DETECTION OF TOXIN AND ADHESIN GENES IN ESCHERICHIA-COLI ISOLATED FROM DIARRHEAL DISEASE IN ANIMALS ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Usher protein, CupB3 (POTRA domain containing P-usher) [Dual function in secreting fimbril subunits and cell surface adhesin, CupB5 (Q9HWU6) which is homologous to members of the AT1 and AT2 families (1.B.12 and 1.B.40)] (Ruer et al., 2008 ...
Baba Nam Kevalam Definition - Baba Nam Kevalam is a Sanskrit mantra. Baba means beloved, nam means name and kevalam means only. Therefore, the...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cloning and sequencing of the gene encoding a novel lysine-specific cysteine proteinase (Lys-Gingipain) in porphyromonas gingivalis. T2 - Structural relationship with the arginine-specific cysteine proteinase (Arg-Gingipain). AU - Okamoto, Kuniaki. AU - Kadowaki, Tomoko. AU - Nakayama, Koji. AU - Yamamoto, Kenji. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - Lys-gingipain (KGP), so termed due to its peptide cleavage specificity for lysine residues, is a cysteine proteinase produced by the Gram-negative anaerobic bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. Mixed oligonucleotide primers designed from the NH2-terminal sequence of the purified enzyme were used to clone the KGP-encoding gene (kgp) from the organism. The nucleotide sequence of kgp had a 5,169-bp open reading frame encoding 1,723 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 218 kDa. As the extracellular mature enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 51 kDa in gels, the precursor of KGP was found to comprise at least four domains, the signal ...
Bacterial adhesion, which plays an important role in Staphylococcus aureus colonization and infection, may be altered by the presence of antibiotics or/and antibiotic resistance determinants. This study evaluated the effect of fluoroquinolone resistance determinants on S. aureus adhesion to solid-phase fibronectin, which is specifically mediated by two surface-located fibronectin-binding proteins. Five isogenic mutants, derived from strain NCTC 8325 and expressing various levels of quinolone resistance, were tested in an in vitro bacterial adhesion assay with polymethylmethacrylate coverslips coated with increasing amounts of fibronectin. These strains contained single or combined mutations in the three major loci contributing to fluoroquinolone resistance, namely, grlA, gyrA, and flqB, which code for altered topoisomerase IV, DNA gyrase, and increased norA-mediated efflux of fluoroquinolones, respectively. Adhesion characteristics of the different quinolone-resistant mutants grown in the ...
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The ability of this bacterium to adhere to epithelial cells is considered as an essential early step in colonization and infection. By screening a whole genome phage display library with sera from infected patients, we previously identified three antigenic fragments matching open reading frame spr0075 of the strain R6 genome. This locus encodes for an 120-kDa protein, herein referred to as plasminogen- and fibronectin-binding protein B (PfbB), which displays an LPXTG cell wall anchoring motif and six repetitive domains. In this study, by using isogenic pfbB-deleted mutants of the encapsulated D39 and of the unencapsulated DP1004 type 2 pneumococcal strains, we show that PfbB is involved in S. pneumoniae adherence to various epithelial respiratory tract cell lines. Our data suggest that PfbB directly mediates bacterial adhesion, because fluorescent beads coated with the recombinant PfbB sp17 fragment (encompassing one ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of bone that has been shown to be internalized by osteoblasts via a receptor-mediated pathway. Here we report that there are strain-dependent differences in the uptake of S. aureus by osteoblasts. An S. aureus septic arthritis isolate, LS-1, was internalized some 10-fold more than the laboratory strain 8325-4. Disruption of the genes for the fibronectin binding proteins in these two strains of S. aureus blocked their ability to be internalized by osteoblasts, thereby demonstrating the essentiality of these genes in this process. However, there were no differences in the capacity of these two strains to bind to fibronectin or osteoblasts. Analysis of the kinetics of internalization of the two strains by osteoblasts revealed that strain 8325-4 was internalized only over a short period of time (2 h) and to low numbers, while LS-1 was taken up by osteoblasts in large numbers for over 3 h. These differences in the kinetics of uptake explain the fact that the ...
The pathogenic potential of S. aureus is a consequence of its multitude of VFs that have evolved to interact with a number of host molecules. As a result, S. aureus can survive and thrive at many tissue sites in the host and cause a wide range of diseases. Fg is a surprisingly common target for many of the staphylococcal VFs. The known Fg binding staphylococcal proteins largely fall into two groups: a family of structurally related cell wall-anchored proteins of the MSCRAMM (microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules) type, which include ClfA, ClfB, FnbpA, FnbpB, and Bbp/SdrE (24) and a group of secreted smaller proteins (sometimes referred to as the SERAMs [secretable expanded repertoire adhesive molecules]), which include Efb, Coa, vWbp, Emp (extracellular matrix binding protein), and Eap (extracellular adherence protein) (25). The Fg binding sites in the MSCRAMMs are located in a segment of the proteins composed of two IgG folded subdomains that interact with Fg by ...
One "super bug" in particular thats problematic in hospitals and other health care facilities is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). S. aureus is a sphere-shaped (coccus), gram-positive species of bacteria (pictured) naturally found in the respiratory tract and skin of humans that, when pathogenic, causes skin conditions and respiratory problems like sinusitis. In the pre-antibiotic era, S. aureus was usually fatal. S. aureus contains a number of surface proteins, called microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMM) that recognize and bind to molecules like collagen, fibrinogen, and fibronectin. Once bound to these molecules, S. aureus cells can survive, grow, and persist. During infection, S. aureus produces enzymes, like proteases, lipases, and elastases, that allow the bacteria to invade and destroy host tissues by interfering with the coagulation pathway. The virulent factors of S. aureus are typically categorized as toxins (causing damage to ...
Buy kgp recombinant protein, Lys-gingipain Recombinant Protein-YP_001929844.1 (MBS969701) product datasheet at MyBioSource, Recombinant Proteins
About 80% of US adults have some form of dental disease. There are a variety of new dental products available, ranging from implants to oral hygiene products that rely on nanoscale properties. Here, the application of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and optical interferometry to a range of dentistry issues, including characterization of dental enamel, oral bacteria, biofilms and the role of surface proteins in biochemical and nanomechanical properties of bacterial adhesins, is reviewed. We also include studies of new products blocking dentine tubules to alleviate hypersensitivity; antimicrobial effects of mouthwash and characterizing nanoparticle coated dental implants. An outlook on future
The department offers a highly flexible program of doctoral study (biophysics track and molecular physiology track) for individuals embarking on a career in biomedical research and teaching. Students can study crucial biological processes using state of the art biophysical techniques in a unique setting. Biological research interest: Cytokinesis and cell division; heart failure, insect flight, and various muscle-dependent processes; structure and function of metabolic enzymes, structural biology and biophysics of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins, structure and function of bacterial adhesins. Biophysical Techniques: cell imaging (time lapse, confocal microscopy), fluorescence spectroscopy, high resolution electron microscopy (3D, single particles, tomography), single molecule detection techniques (optical trap, TIRF, AFM), X-ray crystallography.. ...
Invasion of host cells by S. aureus is likely to play an important role during colonisation and infection. Studies have shown S. aureus invasion to occur via an interaction between its fibronectin binding proteins (FnBPs) and the host integrin a5~J utilising fibronectin (Fn) as a bridging molecule. The reports of S. aureus invasion vary in a number of ways and a number of factors are likely to influence invasion. The aim of this study was to investigate factors involved in determining S. aureus invasion of epithelial cells. The presence of a stable sub-population with enhanced invasive capability has previously been identified for the oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis. In this study consecutive antibiotic protection assays were used in an attempt to determine whether such a sub-population structure exists in S. aureus cultures. Initial findings indicated that S. aureus cultures may contain an invasive sub-population but that this was transient and not stable. This was later attributed to ...
The focus of my research is the identification and characterization of bacterial proteins that are required for tissue colonization, the initiation of any infection. My research interests are concentrated on the membrane proteins and surface structures of the Gram-negative bacterium Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. A. actinomycetemcomitans is typically associated with Periodontitis, an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth, which left untreated results in tooth loss. This bacterium is also associated with numerous non-oral diseases including but not restricted to infective endocarditis and atherosclerosis, which suggest that the periodontal pocket is a potential source and reservoir of these diseases. The emphasis of my research is based on two genes and the associated proteins identified in my laboratory. We have identified and characterized a unique collagen adhesin expressed by A. actinomycetemcomitans. The extracellular matrix protein adhesin A (EmaA) ...
Staphylococcus aureus is a significant cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), particularly in mechanically ventilated patients. We used the fibronectin-binding protein A gene (fnbA) for the species-specific and quantitative detection of S. aureus directly from lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens by a Taq Man real time PCR. For this reason, a total of 269 lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens collected from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia were assayed. Amplification of fnbA in serial dilutions ranged from 10(9) CFU/ ml to 10(2) CFU/ml. Standard curve of triplicate every dilution had slope 3.34±0.1 and R2,0.99 with SD 0.1. Based on these data, the sensitivity and specificity of the newly developed real time PCR targeting the fnbA gene were both 100%. The Cohens Kappa test showed the Kappa value of 1.0. The fnbA gene is a potential marker for the species-specific detection of S. aureus and can be used to detect this bacterium in any clinical specimens by real time PCR. ...
Targeting surface adhesins of pathogens has been receiving attention in recent years. Malaria, being a major killer, has been a target of intense investigation since last few decades. The identification of new drug targets and vaccine candidates to control the spread of this dreaded disease is an area of major thrust. In this context, the development of an algorithm dedicated to identify Plasmodial adhesins and antigens will serve to accelerate the ongoing research.. We have developed MAAP, a web server for the prediction of malarial adhesins and antigens. The MAAP algorithm uses 420 compositional properties and Support Vector Machines (SVM) to classify a given protein as either an adhesin or a non-adhesin. MAAP accepts FASTA format protein sequences as input and provides an SVM based numeric score to these sequences, that is indicative of the probability of a malarial protein being an adhesin or an antigen.. Using MAAP, an efficiency of 0.86-0.89 has been achieved with sensitivity of 95.9% for ...
Family built after PMID=25023666; The GT101 module of Streptococcus parasanguinis dGT1 catalyzes the transfer of glucose to the branch point of the hexasaccharide O-linked to the serine-rich repeat of the bacterial adhesin Fap1 ...
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The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Sabbadini PS, Assis MC, Trost E, Gomes DL, Moreira LO, Dos Santos CS, Pereira GA, Nagao PE, Azevedo VA, Hirata Junior R, Dos Santos AL, Tauch A, Mattos-Guaraldi AL., Microb. Pathog. 52(3), 2012 ...
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马为民博士,教授。主要研究领域蓝藻类囊体膜上光合蛋白的网络调控。研究工作简介一直从事蓝藻光合作用等方面的研究。主持和参加国家自然科学基金各一项。发表学术论文19篇,其中SCI论文12篇。近年来承担的科研项目一种新型NADPH脱氢酶超分子复合体生理功能的研究。2008.01―2010.12,国家自然科学基金。(主持)一种新型蛋白CupB在蓝藻CO2浓缩中的调控作用。2005.01―2007.12,国家自然科学基金。(参加)近三年发表的SCI论文1.MaW,DengYandMiH(2007)RedoxofplastoquinonepoolregulatestheexpressionandactivityofNADPHdehydrogenasesupercomplexinSynechocystissp.strainPCC6803.CurrMicrobiol(Onlinepublication)2.MaW,ChenL,WeiLandWangQ(2007)ExcitationenergytransferbetweenphotosystemsinthecyanobacteriumSynechocy
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台裔美國學者湯猛雄最新研究發現,電子煙霧會引起小鼠罹患肺癌,且有膀胱尿路上皮細胞增生,增癌變風險。台灣專家指出,此研究首度證實電子菸會致癌,拆穿電子菸「減害」謊言。
It has been demonstrated that the Porphyromonas gingivalis cysteine proteinases (gingipains) activate and/or degrade a broad range of host proteins. Inactivation of gingipains R prior to infection of mice results in a decrease in the virulence of P. gingivalis. Analysis of mouse, rabbit, and chicken antisera raised to gingipain R1 demonstrated that the hemagglutinin domains of gingipains are very immunogenic; however, immunization of mice with a peptide derived from the hemagglutinin domain did not protect mice from P. gingivalis infection. Our recent studies indicate that immunization of mice with a peptide corresponding to the N-terminus of the catalytic domain of gingipains R results in the generation of an immune response that affords protection of mice from P. gingivalis infection. It is postulated that the protection observed results from the inactivation of the enzymatic activity of gingipains R as a result of antibody recognition of a processing site on the gingipain R precursor.. ...
Moraxella catarrhalis is a fastidious, nonmotile, Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase-positive diplococcus that can cause infections of the respiratory system, middle ear, eye, central nervous system, and joints of humans. It causes the infection of the host cell by sticking to the host cell using trimeric autotransporter adhesins. M. catarrhalis is a human pathogen with an affinity for the human upper respiratory tract. Other primates, such as macaques, might become infected by this bacterium. M. catarrhalis was previously placed in a separate genus named Branhamella. The rationale for this was that other members of the genus Moraxella are rod-shaped and rarely caused infections in humans. However, results from DNA hybridization studies and 16S rRNA sequence comparisons were used to justify inclusion of the species M. catarrhalis in the genus Moraxella. As a consequence, the name Moraxella catarrhalis is currently preferred for these bacteria. Nevertheless, some in the medical field continue to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional mapping of the Yersinia enterocolitica adhesin YadA. Identification of eight NSVAIG - S motifs in the amino-terminal half of the protein involved in collagen binding. AU - El Tahir, Yasmin. AU - Kuusela, Pentti. AU - Skurnik, Mikael. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The virulence plasmid-encoded YadA of Yersinia enterocolitica serotype O:3 is a 430-amino-acid outer membrane protein, synthesized with a 25-amino-acid signal peptide. YadA forms homotrimeric surface structures that function as adhesin between bacteria and collagen as well as other host proteins. The structure-function relationships of YadA were studied, and the collagen-binding determinants of YadA were located to its amino-terminal half. Collagen did not bind to any of the overlapping 16-mer YadA peptides, indicating that the collagen binding site of YadA is conformational. Epitope mapping of YadA identified 12 linear antigenic epitopes altogether. Seven epitopes were uniquely recognized by an anti-YadA ...
The intimin gene eae, located within the locus of enterocyte effacement pathogenicity island, distinguishes enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and some Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) strains from all other pathotypes of diarrheagenic E. coli. EPEC is a leading cause of infantile diarrhea in developing countries, and intimin-positive STEC isolates are typically associated with life-threatening diseases such as hemolytic-uremic syndrome and hemorrhagic colitis. Here we describe the development of a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay that reliably differentiates all 11 known intimin types (α1, α2, β, γ, κ, ɛ, η, ι, λ, θ, and ζ) and three new intimin genes that show less than 95% nucleotide sequence identity with existing intimin types. We designated these new intimin genes Int-μ, Int-ν, and Int-ξ. The PCR-RFLP assay was used to screen 213 eae-positive E. coli isolates derived from ovine, bovine, and human sources comprising 60 serotypes. Of these, 82 were
This chapter reviews what is known about surface proteins of Staphylococcus aureus, their mechanisms of anchoring to the cell wall envelope, and their contributions to the pathogenesis of staphylococcal infections. Protein A amino acid sequence, gene sequence, and three dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and X-ray diffraction structures revealed a molecule comprised of five nearly identical Ig-binding domains as well as the molecular elements involved in binding Ig. S. aureus strains clump in the presence of plasma; this phenomenon, which has been exploited for diagnostic purposes, is the product of a molecular interaction between two microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMS), clumping factor A and B, with fibrinogen. Both S. aureus and S. epidermidis strains encode for multiple cell wall-anchored surface proteins with large serine-aspartate repeat (Sdr) domains. In addition to the subset of S. aureus sortase-anchored cell wall surface proteins that are covalently
Serine-rich repeat proteins (SRRPs) belong to a growing family of bacterial adhesins required for biofilm formation and pathogenesis. Fap1 from Streptococcus parasanguinis is the first SRRP identified. A number of genes involved in Fap1 glycosylation have been characterized. Glycosyltransferases Gtf1, Gtf2 and Gtf3 catalyze the first and second steps of Fap1 glycosylation. A glycosyltransferase, GalT1, catalyzes the third step of Fap1 glycosylation. At the N-terminus of GalT1, there is a domain of unknown function 1792 (DUF1792) that is highly conserved in bacteria and may constitute a broad protein superfamily, however its function is unknown. Objective: Solve 3-D structure of DUF1792 to determine the function of the domain Method: The recombinant DUF1792 protein was purified via Ni2+ affinity chromatography and gel filtration. The hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method was used for the crystallization trials. The structure was determined by multiwavelength anomalous diffraction (MAD) utilizing Se ...
Background: Staphylococcus aureus cell wall anchored Serine Aspartate repeat containing protein D (sdrD) is a member of the microbial surface component recognising adhesive matrix molecules (MSCRAMMs). It is involved in the bacterial adhesion and virulence. However the extent of genetic variation in S. aureus sdrD gene within isolates from healthy carriers are not known. The aim of this study was to evaluate allelic variation of the sdrDgene among S. aureus from healthy nasal carriers.. Results: The sdrD A region from 48 S. aureus isolates from healthy carriers were analysed and classified into seven variants. Variations in the sdrD A region were concentrated in the N2 and N3 subdomains. Sequence analysis of the entire sdrD gene of representative isolates revealed variations in the SD repeat and the EF motifs of the B repeat. In silico structural modelling indicates that there are no differences in the sdrD structure of the 7 variants. Variable amino acid residues mapped onto the 3D structure ...
Characterization of a second cell-associated Arg-specific cysteine proteinase of Porphyromonas gingivalis and identification of an adhesin-binding motif involved in association of the prtR and prtK proteinases and adhesins into large complexes
British medical scientists say they have discovered how meningococcal bacteria break through the bodys natural defense system to attack the brain.. University of Nottingham researchers said their discovery could lead to better treatment and vaccines.. The scientists said it can take just hours after symptoms appear for someone to die from bacterial meningitis, which in childhood is nearly exclusively caused by the respiratory tract pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae.. The mechanism used by those lethal bacteria to break through the blood brain barrier has been unknown.. But a team led by Professor Dlawer AlaAldeen discovered all three pathogens target the same receptor on human cerebrovascular endothelial cells -- the specialized filtering system that protects the brain from disease -- enabling the organisms to cross the blood-brain barrier.. That finding suggests disruption or modulation of the interaction of bacterial adhesins with the ...
This study also suggests that α-toxin is active in producing ocular changes in eyes infected with strain Newman. All the Newman strains, except the one deficient in α-toxin, produced corneal epithelial erosions that were readily visible on gross examination and in histologic sections of corneas. Corneal erosions produced by the γ-toxin-deficient Newman strain, but not the α-toxin-deficient mutant, are evidence for a role for α-toxin in corneal epithelial erosion produced by strain Newman. Also, supporting a role for α-toxin in the corneal virulence of strain Newman was the protection against corneal damage, especially epithelial erosion, afforded by either active or passive immunization to α-toxin. The epithelial erosions caused by Newman strains developed more slowly and were smaller throughout the 25 hours of infection than those caused by strain 8325-4, a strain in which α-toxin is the key hemolytic toxin. This difference in the rate of erosion formation correlates with the relatively ...
Adherence of M. pneumoniae to a host cell (usually a respiratory tract cell, but occasionally an erythrocyte or urogenital lining cell) is the initiating event for pneumonic disease and related symptoms. The specialized attachment organelle is a polar, electron dense and elongated cell extension that facilitates motility and cytadherence to host cells. It is composed of a central filament surrounded by an intracytoplasmic space, along with a number of adhesins and structural and accessory proteins localized at the tip of the organelle. A variety of proteins are known to contribute to the formation and functionality of the attachment organelle, including the accessory proteins HMW1â "HMW5, P30, P56, and P90 that confer structure and adhesin support, and P1, P30 and P116 which are involved directly in attachment. This network of proteins participates not only in the initiation of attachment organelle formation and adhesion but also in motility. The P1 adhesin (trypsin-sensitive protein) is a 120 ...
Immobilization of microbial cells is an important strategy for the efficient use of whole-cell catalysts because it simplifies product separation, enables the cell concentration to be increased, stabilizes enzymatic activity, and permits repeated or continuous biocatalyst use. However, conventional immobilization methods have practical limitations, such as limited mass transfer in the inner part of a gel, gel fragility, cell leakage from the support matrix, and adverse effects on cell viability and catalytic activity. We previously showed a new method for bacterial cell immobilization using AtaA, a member of the trimeric autotransporter adhesin family found in Acinetobacter sp. Tol 5. This approach is expected to solve the drawbacks of conventional immobilization methods. However, similar to all other immobilization methods, the use of support materials increases the cost of bioprocesses and subsequent waste materials. We found that the stickiness of the AtaA molecule isolated from Tol 5 cells is
The pathogenicity of the periodontal biofilm is highly dependent on a few key species, of which Porphyromonas gingivalis is considered to be one of the most important pathogens. P. gingivalis expresses a broad range of virulence factors, of these cysteine proteases (gingipains) are of special importance both for the bacterial survival/proliferation and for the pathological outcome. Several cell types, for example, epithelial cells, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts, reside in the periodontium and are part of the innate host response, as well as platelets, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes/macrophages. These cells recognize and respond to P. gingivalis and its components through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), for example, Toll-like receptors and protease-activated receptors. Ligation of PRRs induces downstream-signaling pathways modifying the activity of transcription factors that regulates the expression of genes linked to inflammation. This is followed by the
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Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease-causing spirochete, is often found associated with host connective tissue, where it interacts with components of the extracellular matrix, including fibronectin. BBK32 is a surface-expressed lipoprotein with fibronectin-binding ability of Borrelia burgdorferi. A fragment of the bbk32 gene of Borrelia afzelii strain ACAI encoding the N-terminus of the protein including the fibronectin-binding domain (designated BS4 in this study) was cloned end expressed in Echerichia coli under the control of arabinose promoter as six histidine-tagged protein. Expression for the target protein showed that BS4 was accumulated both in soluble and insoluble forms. The molecular weight of the recombinant protein was estimated by SDS-PAGE to be 35 kDa including the six histidine tag. The expressed protein was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography under denaturing conditions. The purified BS4 recombinant protein was evaluated as an antigen in the serology of Lyme disease. ...
Professional Summary:. Research is directed towards understanding the mechanisms of virulence of mucosal pathogens. Adherence is a critical first step in the pathogenesis of mucosal diseases, as it is important in interactions with mammalian cells, they can activate macrophages and play a role in invasion of epithelial cells. The molecular basis of adherence and fimbrial and nonfimbrial-associated adhesins are investigated. Adhesin for binding of pathogenic bacteria to mucous-covered surfaces have been studied at the molecular level. Studies of fimbrial adhesins of P. gingivalis have shown that protein interactions with salivary components are critical. Investigation of binding domains of fimbrial adhesin-associated proteins, their synthesis, and assembly, and expression of this organelle are among our current projects. We are exploring the immunogenicity of adhesins as well, using synthetic peptides in order to evaluate their usefulness as vaccines. Studies of S. gordonii as a vector for these ...
is a major cause of pharyngitis in humans and encodes several fibronectin-binding proteins. lines and tonsillar epithelial cells (5, 15). The regulon encodes one or more M-like proteins, Velcade which vary functionally in their abilities to bind immunoglobulins, Fn, fibrinogen, and albumin (7, 9). Protein F1 (PrtF1/SfbI), which is not part of the regulon, also binds Fn and promotes adhesion and internalization by epithelial cells (11, 17, 24, 26). M protein and PrtF1/SfbI are genetically unlinked, and their expression is differentially regulated by oxygen and carbon dioxide, respectively (10). M proteins expression enables to withstand phagocytosis by two systems. M protein-expressing bacterias bind element H, a regulator from the go with program, which inhibits C3b deposition (9). M proteins can bind fibrinogen, which inhibits the choice go with pathway (12). The opsonization of with neutralizing antibodies against M proteins or other surface area proteins enhances C3 fixation and following ...
Porphyromonas gingivalis KGP-381 protein: gene kgp(381) has high homology with the proteolytic domain of cysteine proteases/hemagglutination genes; MW 40 kDa; amino acid sequence in first source
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Regulation and Cell signalingQuorum sensing and biofilm formationBiofilm formation in Staphylococcus Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) biosynthesis protein IcaC ...
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Suddenly one day evening, my consultant Engineer called me and asked whether i am prepared for Bore well dealer whom he knew for drilling bore well. I prayed the Lord Baba and accepted for drilling the bore well for 1000 ft depth. Drilling machine vendor asked me to show an alternate point other than the north east corner point, as the drilling machine cannot accommodate and inconvenient for Drilling work since the north east corner bore well point is near to electrical pole. Again I lost hope, started cursing me for having started the drilling work hastily and suddenly and without making the pre arrangements. I prayed my beloved Lord Baba, Who suggested me to contact the geologist whether to shift to few yards away from the original point fixed by him. Again I prayed Baba and asked the Bore well vendor to shift few yards away from the original point, leaving the entire burden on Babas shoulders. When the drilling was in process, a huge cloud of dust started and neighbours assembled at my site ...
Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm. The important role of biofilm formation in the pathogenesis of certain...
Morfina Fada is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Morfina Fada is available on the Drugs.com website.
Nollywood Actress and wife of 2Baba, Annie Idibia took to Instagram to share the picture below, saying she stands by him in the upcoming protest and that they will march in peace.. The planned protest has brought about different reactions with some people slamming 2Baba and others encouraging him and joining him in the march. The protest is set to take place on the 6th of February.. ...
Genetic information processingTranscriptionDegradation of RNAVacB and RNase II family 3-5 exoribonucleases (TIGR00358; EC 3.1.13.1; HMM-score: 16.6) ...
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Śródbłonkowe działanie aldosteronu implikacje terapeutyczne płynące z badań podstawowych i klinicznych Endothelial action of aldosteron therapeutic implications from basic and clinical research. Drelicharz
Get the facts about Newman University forensic nursing. Qualifications for nursing programs vary widely. Learn about the various medical specializations available within technical training programs.
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Porphyromonas gingivalis is a highly proteolytic organism which metabolizes small peptides and amino acids. Indirect evidence suggests that the proteases produced by this microorganism constitute an important virulence factor. In this study, a gene bank of P. gingivalis W83 DNA was constructed by cloning 0.5- to 20-kb HindIII-cut DNA fragments into Escherichia coli DH5 alpha by using the plasmid vector pUC19. A clone expressing a protease from P. gingivalis was isolated on LB agar containing 1% skim milk. The clone contained a 3.0-kb insert that coded for a protease with an apparent molecular mass of 64 kDa. Sequencing part of the 3.0-kb DNA fragment revealed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 482 amino acids with a molecular mass of 62.5 kDa. Putative promoter and termination elements flanking the open reading frame were identified. The activity expressed in E. coli was extensively characterized by using various substrates and protease inhibitors, and the results suggest that it is ...
Background: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1), an immunoglobulin (Ig)-related glycoprotein, serves as cellular receptor for a variety of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens associated with the human mucosa. In particular, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, N. meningitidis, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae possess well-characterized CEACAM1-binding adhesins. CEACAM1 is typically involved in cell-cell attachment, epithelial differentiation, neovascularisation and regulation of T-cell proliferation, and is one of the few CEACAM family members with homologues in different mammalian lineages. However, it is unknown whether bacterial adhesins of human pathogens can recognize CEACAM1 orthologues from other mammals.,br /,Results: Sequence comparisons of the amino-terminal Ig-variable-like domain of CEACAM1 reveal that the highest sequence divergence between human, murine, canine and bovine orthologues is found in the β-strands comprising the bacteria-binding ...
Many bacteria, both environmental and pathogenic, exhibit the property of autoaggregation. In autoaggregation (sometimes also called autoagglutination or flocculation), bacteria of the same type form multicellular clumps that eventually settle at the bottom of culture tubes. Autoaggregation is generally mediated by self-recognising surface structures, such as proteins and exopolysaccharides, which we term collectively as autoagglutinins. Although a widespread phenomenon, in most cases the function of autoaggregation is poorly understood, though there is evidence to show that aggregating bacteria are protected from environmental stresses or host responses. Autoaggregation is also often among the first steps in forming biofilms. Here, we review the current knowledge on autoaggregation, the role of autoaggregation in biofilm formation and pathogenesis, and molecular mechanisms leading to aggregation using specific examples ...
Group B streptococci (GBS) are pathogens of both neonates and adults, with serotype III strains in particular being associated with invasive disease and meningitis. In this study, a novel GBS surface antigen, ε, was found to be co-expressed with the previously reported δ antigen on an identical subset of serotype III GBS. Expression of δ/ε on the surface of serotype III GBS was shown to distinguish the restriction digest pattern (RDP) III-3 and multilocus sequence typing (ST)-17 lineage. ε-Specific antibodies were reactive with a unique, high-molecular-mass, serine-rich repeat protein (Srr-2) found exclusively in RDP III-3 strains. The gene encoding Srr-2 was located within a putative accessory secretory locus that included secY2 and secA2 homologues and had a genetic organization similar to that of the secY2/A2 locus of staphylococci. In contrast, serotype III δ/ε-negative strains and strains representative of serotypes Ia, Ib, Ic and II shared a common Srr-encoding gene, srr-1, and an
Adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to the host tissue is an important step in the initiation of pathogenesis. At least 10 adhesins produced by S. aureus have been described and it is becoming clear that the expression of these adhesins and their interactions with eukaryotic cells involve complex processes. Some of these, such as the fibronectin-binding proteins (FnBPs) and Clumping Factor A, are well characterized. However, in the last 10 years a number of novel S. aureus adhesins have been described. Functional analyses of these proteins, one of which is Eap (extracellular adherence protein, also known as Map and p70), are revealing important information on the pathogenesis of staphylococcal disease. More than 10 years after the first report of Eap, we are beginning to understand that this protein, which has a broad spectrum of functions, may be a critical factor in the pathogenesis of S. aureus. This review will focus on the interactions of Eap with eukaryotic cells, plasma proteins and the
Porphyromonas gingivalis ATCC ® BAA-308D-5™ Designation: Genomic DNA from Porphyromonas gingivalis strain W83 TypeStrain=False Application:
Porphyromonas gingivalis porphypain protein: isolated from Prophyromonas gingivalis W12; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank U42210; do not confuse with PrtP from Lactococcus
Invasin and intimin are major virulence factors of enteropathogenic Yersiniae and Escherichia coli, mediating invasion into and intimate adherence to host cells, respectively. Several studies have hinted that extracellular portion of these homologous proteins might be exported via an autotransport mechanism, but rigorous experimental proof has been lacking. Here, we present a topology model for invasin and intimin, consistent with the hypothesis that the N-terminal β-barrel domain acts as a translocation pore to secrete the C-terminal passenger domain. We confirmed this topology model by inserting epitope tags into the loops of the β-barrel. We further show that obstructing the pore of β-barrel hinders the export of the passenger domain. As for classical autotransport, the biogenesis of invasin and intimin is dependent on the Bam complex and the periplasmic chaperone SurA, whereas the chaperone/protease DegP is involved in quality control. However, compared to classical autotransporters (Type Va
S. pneumoniae is normally found in the nasopharynx of 5-10% of healthy adults, and 20-40% of healthy children. It attaches to nasopharyngeal cells through interaction of bacterial surface adhesins and epithelial cells. This normal colonization can become infection if the organisms are carried into areas, such as the Eustachian tube or nasal sinuses, where their clearance is hindered (as it might be if allergies or viral infection is present). Pneumonia occurs if the organisms are inhaled into the lungs and not cleared (again, viral infection, or smoking-induced ciliary paralysis might be contributing factors). Once the organism makes its way to a site where it is not normally found, it activates the complement protein group, stimulates cytokine production, and attracts white blood cells (specifically polymorphonuclear neutrophils). The organisms polysaccharide capsule makes it resistant to phagocytosis, and if there is no pre-existing anticapsular antibody, alveolar macrophages cannot ...
Cell adhesion proteins on fungal cell surfaces mediate interactions both with other cells of the same type and with the external environment (Douglas, et al. 2007, Dranginis, et al. 2007). These interactions impact critical processes including mating, pathogenesis, and biofilm formation. Fungal adhesins are typically GPI-anchored proteins that have been covalently liked to the cell wall, such that their N-terminal ligand binding domains extend from the cell surface. They frequently occur as families of related proteins (Tronchin, et al. 2008). Members of two such groups, the flocculation/agglutination genes of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Kobayashi, et al. 1998) and the related EPA genes (Kaur, et al. 2005) of the pathogenic fungus Candida glabrata, are lectins. Several of the 23 identified EPA genes have been functionally shown to mediate binding of C. glabrata to host cells (Castano, et al. 2005, Domergue, et al. 2005), an essential step in infection and virulence. Defining ...
G. Li*, P.J.B. Brown*, J.X. Tang, J. Xu, E.M. Quardokus, C. Fuqua and Y.V. Brun. 2012. Stimulation of bacterial adhesin production by surface contact. Mol Micro. 83:41-51.*equal contributions. Cover feature and cover image. Accompanied by a commentary article. Recommended by Faculty of 1000. Highlighted in NIH Biomedical Beat and NSF Research in Action series.. 2011. Chertkov, O., P.J.B. Brown, D.T. Kysela, 18 authors, H.-P. Klenk, Y.V. Brun. 2011. Complete genome sequence of Hirschia baltica type strain (IFAM 1418T). 2011. Stand Genomic Sci. 5:287-297. P.J.B. Brown*, D.T. Kysela*, and Y.V. Brun. 2011. Polarity and the diversity of growth mechanisms in bacteria. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 22: 790-798. *equal contributions P.J.B. Brown, D.T. Kysela, A. Buechlein, C. Hemmerich, and Y.V. Brun. 2011. Genome sequences of eight morphologically diverse Alphaproteobacteria. J. Bacteriol. 193:4567-4568.. 2010. M.L. Kovarik, P.J.B. Brown, D.T. Kysela, C. Berne, A.C. Kinsella, Y.V. Brun, and S.C. Jacobson. 2010. ...
welcome to the emaa 2011 Bienvenue à l emaa 2011 welcome to the emaa 2011 Bienvenue à l emaa 2011 Dear Colleague, For its 7th year, the EMAA (European Masters in Aesthetic and Anti-Aging Medicine) will
Flanagan, Rebecca C. et al "Examination of Campylobacter jejuni Putative Adhesins Leads to the Identification of a New Protein, Designated FlpA, Required for Chicken Colonization ." Infection and Immunity 77.6 (2009): 2399-2407. Web. 29 Feb. 2020. ...
A team of researchers led by UC Davis Health System has found that human alpha-defensin 6 (HD6) - a key component of the bodys innate defense system - binds to microbial surfaces and forms nanonets that surround, entangle and disable microbes, preventing bacteria from attaching to or invading intestinal cells.
Structures of the C-terminal CLTD subdomains of the Intimin and Invasin passenger domains.The cysteine residues are depicted by spheres with the C-terminal cyst
Moonens, K., J. Bouckaert, A. Coddens, T. Tran, S. Panjikar, M. De Kerpel, E. Cox, H. Remaut, and H. De Greve, Structural insight in histo-blood group binding by the F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF., Mol Microbiol, vol. 86, issue 1, pp. 82-95, 2012 Oct. ...
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It attaches to nasopharyngeal cells through interaction of bacterial surface adhesins. This normal colonization can become ... S. pneumoniae is a common member of the bacterial flora colonizing the nose and throat of 5-10% of healthy adults and 20-40% of ... However, it is also the cause of significant disease being a leading cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. The ... Polysaccharide capsule-prevents phagocytosis by host immune cells by inhibiting C3b opsonization of the bacterial cells ...
Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...
Prokaryotes have adhesion molecules on their cell surface termed bacterial adhesins, apart from using its pili (fimbriae) and ... Klemm, Per; Schembri, Mark A. (2000). "Bacterial adhesins: function and structure". International Journal of Medical ... Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Cossart, Pascale (2006). "Bacterial Adhesion and Entry into Host Cells". Cell. 124 (4): 715-727. doi: ... Ofek, Itzhak; Hasty, David L; Sharon, Nathan (2003). "Anti-adhesion therapy of bacterial diseases: prospects and problems". ...
Bacterial culture of H. influenzae is performed on agar plates, the preferable one being chocolate agar, with added X (hemin) ... They infect the host by sticking to the host cell using trimeric autotransporter adhesins. Naturally acquired disease caused by ... Although highly specific, bacterial culture of H. influenzae lacks in sensitivity. Use of antibiotics prior to sample ... 2007). "Incidence of bacterial meningitis in Asia using enhanced CSF testing: polymerase chain reaction, latex agglutination ...
Other adhesins have also been described, including the genes gfba, fnB, fbBA, fnBB, lmb and gapC; all mediating binding to ... Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
Zakeri, B. (2012). "Peptide tag forming a rapid covalent bond to a protein, through engineering a bacterial adhesin". ... The structural enzymes while varying from bacterial and eukaryotic domains, tend to be single enzymes that generally in a ... or it can form spontaneously as observed in HK97 bacteriophage capsid formation and Gram-positive bacterial pili. Spontaneous ... "Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure". Science. 318 (5856): 1625-1628. Bibcode: ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. doi:10.1073/pnas. ... A carbohydrate-based bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid surrounds the bacterium, protecting it from phagocytosis by ... Infections due to certain strains of S. pyogenes can be associated with the release of bacterial toxins. Throat infections ... S. pyogenes can also cause disease in the form of postinfectious "nonpyogenic" (not associated with local bacterial ...
Zakeri, B. (2012). "Peptide tag forming a rapid covalent bond to a protein, through engineering a bacterial adhesin". ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin. In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. ...
Davis SL; Gurusiddappa S; McCrea KW; Perkins S; Höök M (2001). "SdrG, a fibrinogen-binding bacterial adhesin of the microbial ... In molecular biology, the protein domain SdrG C terminal refers to the C terminus domain of an adhesin found only on the cell ... SdrG protein is a bacterial cell wall-anchored adhesion and its function is to adhere to human cells. It does this by binding ... Such adhesins have also been named MSCRAMMs which is short for microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. Bibcode:2012PNAS.. ... a mutated bacterial haloalkane dehalogenase that covalently attaches to a reactive haloalkane substrate, this allows attachment ...
A bacterial adhesin formed as a 50-nm monomeric rigid rod based on a 19-residue repeat motif rich in beta strands and turns". J ... functioning as both a primary adhesin and an immunomodulator to bind the bacterial to cells of the respiratory epithelium. The ... "Beta-helix model for the filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin of Bordetella pertussis and related bacterial secretory proteins". ... A number of the members of this family have been designated adhesins, filamentous haemagglutinins, haem/haemopexin-binding ...
Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion, and establishment of ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... Infections leading to sepsis usually are bacterial, but may be fungal or viral. Gram positive bacteria was the cause of sepsis ... In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as ...
This organism, too, can carry the genetic material that imparts multiple bacterial resistance. It is rarely implicated in ... aureus adhesins in relation to adhesion to biomaterials: review" (PDF). European Cells & Materials. 4: 39-60. PMID 14562246. ... The most common sialadenitis is caused by staphylococci, as bacterial infections. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus Vancomycin- ...
... is a virulence factor (adhesin) of EPEC (e.g. E. coli O127:H6) and EHEC (e.g. E. coli O157:H7) E. coli strains. It is ... Intimin is expressed on the bacterial cell surface where it can bind to its receptor Tir (Translocated intimin receptor). Tir, ... 2006). "Actin-dependent movement of bacterial pathogens". Nature Reviews Microbiology. 4: 91-101. doi:10.1038/nrmicro1320. PMID ... along with over 25 other bacterial proteins, is secreted from attaching and effacing E. coli directly into the cytoplasm of ...
These proteins act as modulators of bacterial gene expression. Members of this family act in conjunction with members of the H- ... YmoA modulates the expression of various virulence factors, such as Yop proteins and YadA adhesin, in response to temperature. ...
... a feature of which is inter-bacterial communication. Cell-cell contact is mediated by specific protein adhesins and often, as ... However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial ... Bacterial adhesion is particularly important for oral bacteria. Oral bacteria have evolved mechanisms to sense their ... Dental plaque is the material that adheres to the teeth and consists of bacterial cells (mainly S. mutans and S. sanguis), ...
97 bacterial sRNAs from Salmonella Typhi were discovered by Chinni et al. AsdA (antisense RNA of dnaA) is a cis-encoded ... A remarkable large number of fimbrial and non-fimbrial adhesins are present in Salmonella, and mediate biofilm formation and ... enterica, serovar Typhi". 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack AsrC small RNA Bacterial small RNA HilD 3'UTR PinT small RNA Typhoid ... Hensel M (2009). "Secreted Proteins and Virulence in Salmonella enterica". Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms ...
Bacterial effector protein Bacterial outer membrane vesicles Host-pathogen interface Membrane vesicle trafficking Secretomics ... Gerlach, R; Hensel, M (2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: The molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens". ... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... Secretion in bacterial species means the transport or translocation of effector molecules for example: proteins, enzymes or ...
It needs to have a minimal length so that other extracellular bacterial structures (adhesins and the lipopolysaccharide layer, ... Bacterial proteins that need to be secreted pass from the bacterial cytoplasm through the needle directly into the host ... The bacterial flagellum shares a common ancestor with the type III secretion system. T3SSs are essential for the pathogenicity ... Aizawa S (2001). "Bacterial flagella and type iii secretion systems". FEMS Microbiology Letters. 202 (2): 157-164. doi:10.1111/ ...
... of a bacterial cell to its exterior. Secretion is a very important mechanism in bacterial functioning and operation in their ... Gerlach RG, Hensel M (October 2007). "Protein secretion systems and adhesins: the molecular armory of Gram-negative pathogens ... 2009). Bacterial Secreted Proteins: Secretory Mechanisms and Role in Pathogenesis. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-42 ... Salyers, A. A. & Whitt, D. D. (2002). Bacterial Pathogenesis: A Molecular Approach, 2nd ed., Washington, D.C.: ASM Press. ISBN ...
... and proteinaceous adhesins. It allows bacteria to adhere to host surfaces, protects the bacterial cells from host defenses, ... By degrading the biofilm matrix, Dispersin B allows for the release of bacterial cells that can adhere to new surfaces close by ... Mack D, Fischer W, Krokotsch A, Leopold K, Hartmann R, Egge H, Laufs R (1996). "The intercellular adhesin involved in biofilm ... A. actinomycetemcomitans forms asymmetric biofilm lobed colonies that release single cells or small clusters of bacterial cells ...
... with an increased number of adhesins participating in the interaction, making even harder the work for (PMN). The interaction ... Bacterial size < 0.4 μm were not grazed well Bacterial size between 0.4 μm and 1.6 μm were "grazing vulnerable" Bacterial size ... Bacterial morphological plasticity refers to changes in the shape and size that bacterial cells undergo when they encounter ... Besides bacterial size, there are several factors affecting the predation of protists. Bacterial shape, the spiral morphology ...
Klemm P & Schembri MA (2000). "Bacterial Adhesins:Function and Structure". Int J Med Microbiol. 290: 27-35. doi:10.1016/S1438- ... Bacterial display systems were first introduced by Freudl et al. and Charbit et al. in 1986, when they used bacterial surface ... Bacterial display (or bacteria display or bacterial surface display) is a protein engineering technique used for in vitro ... OMPs are common scaffolds for bacterial display. Proteins can also be displayed on the bacterial cell surface through the use ...
The Dr adhesins bind Dr blood group antigen (Dra) which is present on decay accelerating factor (DAF) on erythrocytes and other ... Sela S, Nestel D, Pinto R, Nemny-Lavy E, Bar-Joseph M (2005). "Mediterranean fruit fly as a potential vector of bacterial ... There, the Dr adhesins induce the development of long cellular extensions that wrap around the bacteria, accompanied by the ... These adhesins specifically bind D-galactose-D-galactose moieties on the P blood-group antigen of erythrocytes and ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase ...
Other adhesins have also been described, including the genes gfba, fnB, fbBA, fnBB, lmb and gapC; all mediating binding to ... Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (Bacterial adhesion) to other ... Most fimbriae (Fimbriae, Bacterial) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit ... What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (Biofilms) is distinct from protein adhesin. ... In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. ...
The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. This adhesin is responsible for D-mannose ... However, bacterial adhesins do not serve as a sort of universal bacterial Velcro. Rather, they act as specific surface ... Adhesion and bacterial adhesins are also a potential target for prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria are ... During the bacterial lifespan, a bacterium is subjected to frequent shear-forces. In the crudest sense, bacterial adhesins ...
YadA, an adhesin from Yersinia, was the first member of this family to be characterised. UspA2 from Moraxella was second. The ... The importance of adhesins to YadA function and Yersinia survival is huge. Attachment further allows more interactions and ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA) Casutt-Meyer S, Renzi F, Schmaler M, Jann NJ, Amstutz M, Cornelis GR (2010). " ... The YadA protein domain, is a form of trimeric auotransporter adhesins (TAAs). Each TAA must consist of a head, stalk and a ...
Bacterial Adhesins: Common Themes and Variations in Architecture and Assembly. Gabriel E. Soto, Scott J. Hultgren ... Bacterial Adhesins: Common Themes and Variations in Architecture and Assembly Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page ... 1996) Bacterial adhesins and their assembly. in Escherichia coli and Salmonella: cellular and molecular biology. eds Neidhardt ... In many instances, adhesins are assembled into hair-like appendages called pili or fimbriae that extend out from the bacterial ...
"Annotation of Transmembrane Segments of Experimentally Solved Bacterial Porins and Adhesins." Croatica Chemica Acta 78, br. 2 ( ... "Annotation of Transmembrane Segments of Experimentally Solved Bacterial Porins and Adhesins." Croatica Chemica Acta, vol. 78, ... D. Zucić, "Annotation of Transmembrane Segments of Experimentally Solved Bacterial Porins and Adhesins", Croatica Chemica Acta ... Zucić, D. (2005). Annotation of Transmembrane Segments of Experimentally Solved Bacterial Porins and Adhesins. Croatica Chemica ...
Surface contact stimulates the just-in-time deployment of bacterial adhesins. Molecular Microbiology, 83: 41-51. doi: 10.1111/j ...
Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen. Loïc Coutte, Sylvie Alonso, Nathalie Reveneau, Eve ... Role of Adhesin Release for Mucosal Colonization by a Bacterial Pathogen. Loïc Coutte, Sylvie Alonso, Nathalie Reveneau, Eve ... Recognition of a bacterial adhesin by an integrin: macrophage CR3 (αMβ2, CD11b/CD18) binds filamentous hemagglutinin of ... adhesin. Introduction. The expression of virulence by bacterial pathogens often requires the production and action of toxins ...
In a preferred aspect, the invention comprises an isolated bacterial adhesin conformer F. Also provided are methods of ... For example, the immunogenic polypeptides may be combined with other bacterial antigens to provide therapeutic compositions ... isolation and/or separation of such adhesin conformers. The compositions may include one or more of the immunogenic ... The invention relates to isolated or purified bacterial adhesin conformers, preferably with improved stability and/or ...
Structure-function relationship in bacterial adhesins (completed) In the project "Structure-function relationship in bacterial ... we try to elucidate the structural basis for bacterial adhesion. The proteins of interest in this project ("adhesins") are ... Bacterial Adhesion - Chemistry, Biology and Physics. Springer 2011. D. Linke and A. Goldman, editors. Book series: Advances in ... but also x-ray crystallography and NMR to better understand the interactions of these adhesins with surfaces, hoping that one ...
What is Adhesins, bacterial? Meaning of Adhesins, bacterial medical term. What does Adhesins, bacterial mean? ... bacterial in the Medical Dictionary? Adhesins, bacterial explanation free. ... adhesin. (redirected from Adhesins, bacterial). Also found in: Dictionary. adhesin. (ăd-hē′sĭn, -zĭn). n.. Any of various ... Adhesins, bacterial , definition of Adhesins, bacterial by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
Fractionation of hemagglutinating and bacterial binding adhesins of Bacteroides gingivalis.. J Boyd, B C McBride ... Fractionation of hemagglutinating and bacterial binding adhesins of Bacteroides gingivalis. Message Subject (Your Name) has ... The first membrane fraction, containing mostly protein and carbohydrate material, was found to contain the bacterial ... An outer membrane complex containing hemagglutinating and bacterial aggregating activity has been isolated from Bacteroides ...
Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction. George Hajishengallis, ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ... Dependence of Bacterial Protein Adhesins on Toll-Like Receptors for Proinflammatory Cytokine Induction ...
A Communal Bacterial Adhesin Anchors Biofilm and Bystander Cells to Surfaces Download PDF České info ... A Communal Bacterial Adhesin Anchors Biofilm and Bystander Cells to Surfaces * Two Group A Streptococcal Peptide Pheromones Act ... Bacterial strains, plasmids, and media. The bacterial strains and plasmids used in this study are listed in Table S2. Vectors ... These studies present evidence for specialization of proteins in the bacterial biofilm matrix and for bacterial cooperation in ...
Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm ... Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal ... Bacterial-Bacterial Cell Interactions in Biofilms: Detection of Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesins by Blotting and Confocal ... Adhesive interactions between bacterial cells coupled with adherence to a solid surface can lead to the formation of a biofilm ...
The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ... The TibA Adhesin/Invasin from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Is Self Recognizing and Induces Bacterial Aggregation and ...
Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $478,061. ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $484,208. ... Dynamic Properties of Bacterial Adhesins. Sokurenko, Evgeni Veniaminovic / University of Washington. $489,555. ...
The structural biology of Gram-positive cell surface adhesins is an emerging field of research, whereas Gram-negative pilus ...
A common conserved amino acid motif module shared by bacterial and intercellular adhesins: bacterial adherence mimicking cell- ... A common conserved amino acid motif module shared by bacterial and intercellular adhesins: bacterial adherence mimicking cell- ... Determination of bacterial load by real-time PCR using a broad-range (universal) probe and primers set Mangala A Nadkarni, F. ...
Purchase The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128001882, ... The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins 4th Edition. 0 star rating Write a review ... and particularly to analyze membrane associated machineries such as bacterial secretion systems or the bacterial cell division ... Bacterial toxins are involved in the pathogenesis of many bacteria, some of which are responsible for severe diseases in human ...
... shaped YadA structure covers the entire bacterial surface giving it hydrophobic properties. The yadA gene expression is induced ... YadA, the multifaceted Yersinia adhesin Int J Med Microbiol. 2001 Aug;291(3):209-18. doi: 10.1078/1438-4221-00119. ...
Characterization of lectins and bacterial adhesins in activated sludge flocs. Submitted by kberrio on August 14, 2016 - 3:35pm ... Bacterial lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins that are involved in bacterial adhesion and aggregation. To investigate ... These results share similar properties with previously studied pure culture bacterial lectins and support the conclusion that ... lectin-mediated bacterial aggregation is one of the mechanisms responsible for activated sludge bioflocculation. ...
Oral bacterial adhesins and receptors. Chapter 14 Complex communities 28. Inter-microbial reactions ...
... recombinantly expressed adhesins or serum antibodies. Three main types of carbohydrate-based microarray platform are considered ... Additionally, bacterial glycosylation is often the first bacterial molecular species encountered and responded to by the host ... Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific ... microarrays constructed from bacterial polysaccharides or their components. Determining the nature of the interactions between ...
The human targets for bacterial adhesins and lectins are mostly fucosylated human histo-blood group and/or sialylated epitopes ... Defining the biological role of bacterial adhesins and lectins together with their structure and specificity is a prerequisite ... Many bacterial toxins have been shown to bind host glycans. Glycan receptor specificity is critical for the pathogenic process ... The GBP are called adhesins when they are part of organelles, such as fimbriae and flagella. They are referred to as lectins ...
  • We demonstrate for the first time that c-di-GMP, in addition to its role in the regulation of the rate of EPS production, also modulates the physicochemical properties of bacterial adhesins. (asm.org)
  • The PorSS is not related to the well-studied bacterial type I-VIII secretion systems ( 6 , 7 ), and for this reason it recently has been referred to as the type IX secretion system (T9SS) ( 5 , 8 ). (pnas.org)
  • The run-off replication causes the amplification of a chromosome region containing genes such as secretion systems or adhesins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial gene pool well exceeds the number of human genes by a factor of 150. (pnas.org)
  • Many of these bacterial genes are expected not only to have an impact on the local conditions in the colon but also to have more general effects on the host metabolism ( 7 ). (pnas.org)
  • Thus, both fnb genes must be inactivated to eliminate bacterial interactions with fibronectin ( 13 ). (asm.org)
  • fimbrial adhesin cholera toxin genes carried on a bacteriophage in the chromosome and coregulated with adhesin and other genes by a HAP signal (global). (brainscape.com)
  • Bacterial sRNAs effect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can effect a variety of bacterial functions like metabolism, virulence, environmental stress response, and structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is now known that most bacterial sRNAs are encoded by free-standing genes located in the intergenic regions (IGR) between two known genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative genome analysis revealed the widespread occurrence of PorSS genes in members of the phylum Bacteroidetes and their absence in members of other bacterial phyla ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • M. pneumoniae are the only bacterial cells that possess cholesterol in their cell membrane (obtained from the host) and possess more genes that encode for membrane lipoprotein variations than other mycoplasmas, which are thought to be associated with its parasitic lifestyle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most of the RcGTA structural genes are encoded in a ~ 15 kb genetic cluster on the bacterial chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intracellular GBS invasion is enhanced by bacterial-dependent cytoskeletal rearrangements triggered by host PI3K/AKT- and FAK-signalling pathways and the Rho family of GTPases. (nih.gov)
  • This difference is also reflected in invasion of the liver 12 h later, suggesting that flagellum-mediated motility enhances L. monocytogenes infectivity soon after bacterial ingestion in vivo. (asm.org)
  • Adhesins are useful targets for experimental vaccines, which reduce colonisation by uropathogenic E coli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Adhesins explains the pulmonary morbidity due to P aeruginosa seen in intubated ITU/ICU patients, and UTIs caused by E coli are mediated by MS and MR adhesins, which may be inhibited by fruit juices. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Amyloid adhesins (named curli) produced by E. coli are 4 to 12 nm wide and 0.1 to 10 μm long ( 6 , 15 ). (asm.org)
  • In Caulobacter crescentus , c-di-GMP regulates the synthesis of the polar holdfast adhesin during the cell cycle, yet the molecular and cellular details of this control are currently unknown. (asm.org)
  • To inspire and educate the next generation of microbe hunters, the author, Microbiologist and Scientist Anthony William Maresso, integrates the major findings of the field into a single, easy-to-understand volume emphasizing a molecular appreciation of the concepts underlying bacterial infectious diseases. (springer.com)
  • While the functions of most OMPs are still unknown, some of them have been shown to be involved in bacterial adhesion to host cells ( 7 - 12 ). (asm.org)
  • Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) has been implicated as a major adhesin of group A streptococci that interacts with fibronectin (Fn). (nih.gov)
  • Whether it has any relevance for the expression of virulence, or whether it even takes place in vivo, in apparent contrast with adhesins' established functions, has not been addressed so far. (rupress.org)
  • Recombinants were enriched for a gain of Le(b) binding by biopanning or for BabA expression on the bacterial surface by pulldown assay. (asm.org)
  • Carbohydrate-based microarray platforms have been an underused tool for screening bacterial interactions with specific carbohydrate structures, but they are growing in popularity in recent years. (mdpi.com)
  • Flannery A, Gerlach JQ, Joshi L, Kilcoyne M. Assessing Bacterial Interactions Using Carbohydrate-Based Microarrays. (mdpi.com)
  • The biovolume fraction containing amyloid adhesins ranged from 10 to 40% in activated sludge from 10 different WWTP. (asm.org)
  • A more detailed analysis revealed that many denitrifiers (from Thauera, Azoarcus, Zoogloea , and Aquaspirillum -related organisms) and Actinobacteria -related polyphosphate-accumulating organisms most likely produced amyloid adhesins, whereas nitrifiers did not. (asm.org)
  • Many of these 'adhesins' bind to multiple ligands, complicating efforts to understand the role of each ligand-binding activity. (nih.gov)