Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Thin, filamentous protein structures, including proteinaceous capsular antigens (fimbrial antigens), that mediate adhesion of E. coli to surfaces and play a role in pathogenesis. They have a high affinity for various epithelial cells.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
GPI-linked membrane proteins broadly distributed among hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic cells. CD55 prevents the assembly of C3 CONVERTASE or accelerates the disassembly of preformed convertase, thus blocking the formation of the membrane attack complex.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
A property of the surface of an object that makes it stick to another surface.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-mannosides.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Inflammatory responses of the epithelium of the URINARY TRACT to microbial invasions. They are often bacterial infections with associated BACTERIURIA and PYURIA.
Inflammation of the KIDNEY involving the renal parenchyma (the NEPHRONS); KIDNEY PELVIS; and KIDNEY CALICES. It is characterized by ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; NAUSEA; VOMITING; and occasionally DIARRHEA.
A species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family STREPTOCOCCACEAE. It is a normal inhabitant of the human oral cavity, and causes DENTAL PLAQUE and ENDOCARDITIS. It is being investigated as a vehicle for vaccine delivery.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
Infections with bacteria of the species YERSINIA PSEUDOTUBERCULOSIS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI characterized by attaching-and-effacing histopathology. These strains of bacteria intimately adhere to the epithelial cell membrane and show effacement of microvilli. In developed countries they are associated with INFANTILE DIARRHEA and infantile GASTROENTERITIS and, in contrast to ETEC strains, do not produce ENDOTOXINS.
A species of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria originally classified within the BACTEROIDES genus. This bacterium produces a cell-bound, oxygen-sensitive collagenase and is isolated from the human mouth.
A species of TRICHOMONAS that produces a refractory vaginal discharge in females, as well as bladder and urethral infections in males.
The aggregation of suspended solids into larger clumps.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria, in the family XANTHOMONADACEAE. It is found in the xylem of plant tissue.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
A human and animal pathogen causing mesenteric lymphadenitis, diarrhea, and bacteremia.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that produce or contain at least one member of either heat-labile or heat-stable ENTEROTOXINS. The organisms colonize the mucosal surface of the small intestine and elaborate their enterotoxins causing DIARRHEA. They are mainly associated with tropical and developing countries and affect susceptible travelers to those places.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A tetraspanin domain-containing uroplakin subtype. It heterodimerizes with UROPLAKIN II to form a component of the asymmetric unit membrane found in urothelial cells.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
A family of coccoid to rod-shaped nonsporeforming, gram-negative, nonmotile, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that includes the genera ACTINOBACILLUS; HAEMOPHILUS; MANNHEIMIA; and PASTEURELLA.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms are nonmotile. Filaments that may be present in certain species are either straight or wavy and may have swollen or clubbed heads.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
ENDOPEPTIDASES which have a cysteine involved in the catalytic process. This group of enzymes is inactivated by CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS such as CYSTATINS and SULFHYDRYL REAGENTS.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
Plasma glycoprotein clotted by thrombin, composed of a dimer of three non-identical pairs of polypeptide chains (alpha, beta, gamma) held together by disulfide bonds. Fibrinogen clotting is a sol-gel change involving complex molecular arrangements: whereas fibrinogen is cleaved by thrombin to form polypeptides A and B, the proteolytic action of other enzymes yields different fibrinogen degradation products.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The etiologic agent of PLAGUE in man, rats, ground squirrels, and other rodents.
Strains of Escherichia coli that preferentially grow and persist within the urinary tract. They exhibit certain virulence factors and strategies that cause urinary tract infections.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A species of the genus YERSINIA, isolated from both man and animal. It is a frequent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in children.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of MITOSPORIC FUNGI commonly found on the body surface. It causes opportunistic infections especially in immunocompromised patients.
High molecular weight mucoproteins that protect the surface of EPITHELIAL CELLS by providing a barrier to particulate matter and microorganisms. Membrane-anchored mucins may have additional roles concerned with protein interactions at the cell surface.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI that are a subgroup of SHIGA-TOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI. They cause non-bloody and bloody DIARRHEA; HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME; and hemorrhagic COLITIS. An important member of this subgroup is ESCHERICHIA COLI O157-H7.
Inflammation of the URINARY BLADDER, either from bacterial or non-bacterial causes. Cystitis is usually associated with painful urination (dysuria), increased frequency, urgency, and suprapubic pain.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
The oval-shaped oral cavity located at the apex of the digestive tract and consisting of two parts: the vestibule and the oral cavity proper.
Strains of ESCHERICHIA COLI with the ability to produce at least one or more of at least two antigenically distinct, usually bacteriophage-mediated cytotoxins: SHIGA TOXIN 1 and SHIGA TOXIN 2. These bacteria can cause severe disease in humans including bloody DIARRHEA and HEMOLYTIC UREMIC SYNDROME.
A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A genus of microorganisms of the order SPIROCHAETALES, many of which are pathogenic and parasitic for man and animals.
In GRAM NEGATIVE BACTERIA, multiprotein complexes that function to translocate pathogen protein effector molecules across the bacterial cell envelope, often directly into the host. These effectors are involved in producing surface structures for adhesion, bacterial motility, manipulation of host functions, modulation of host defense responses, and other functions involved in facilitating survival of the pathogen. Several of the systems have homologous components functioning similarly in GRAM POSITIVE BACTERIA.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A verocytotoxin-producing serogroup belonging to the O subfamily of Escherichia coli which has been shown to cause severe food-borne disease. A strain from this serogroup, serotype H7, which produces SHIGA TOXINS, has been linked to human disease outbreaks resulting from contamination of foods by E. coli O157 from bovine origin.
A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of an aminoacyl group from donor to acceptor resulting in the formation of an ester or amide linkage. EC 2.3.2.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.
Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.
Gram-negative aerobic cocci of low virulence that colonize the nasopharynx and occasionally cause MENINGITIS; BACTEREMIA; EMPYEMA; PERICARDITIS; and PNEUMONIA.
Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
The tubular and cavernous organs and structures, by means of which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange between ambient air and the blood are brought about.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
Cell surface proteins that bind signalling molecules external to the cell with high affinity and convert this extracellular event into one or more intracellular signals that alter the behavior of the target cell (From Alberts, Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2nd ed, pp693-5). Cell surface receptors, unlike enzymes, do not chemically alter their ligands.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A musculomembranous sac along the URINARY TRACT. URINE flows from the KIDNEYS into the bladder via the ureters (URETER), and is held there until URINATION.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A protein with a molecular weight of 40,000 isolated from bacterial flagella. At appropriate pH and salt concentration, three flagellin monomers can spontaneously reaggregate to form structures which appear identical to intact flagella.
The discarding or destroying of liquid waste products or their transformation into something useful or innocuous.
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.

Role of antibodies against Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. (1/2463)

Immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccines (WCV) containing heat-killed Bordetella pertussis cells and with acellular vaccines containing genetically or chemically detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) in combination with filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (Prn), or fimbriae confers protection in humans and animals against B. pertussis infection. In an earlier study we demonstrated that FHA is involved in the adherence of these bacteria to human bronchial epithelial cells. In the present study we investigated whether mouse antibodies directed against B. pertussis FHA, PTg, Prn, and fimbriae, or against two other surface molecules, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the 40-kDa outer membrane porin protein (OMP), that are not involved in bacterial adherence, were able to block adherence of B. pertussis and B. parapertussis to human bronchial epithelial cells. All antibodies studied inhibited the adherence of B. pertussis to these epithelial cells and were equally effective in this respect. Only antibodies against LPS and 40-kDa OMP affected the adherence of B. parapertussis to epithelial cells. We conclude that antibodies which recognize surface structures on B. pertussis or on B. parapertussis can inhibit adherence of the bacteria to bronchial epithelial cells, irrespective whether these structures play a role in adherence of the bacteria to these cells.  (+info)

Role of Bordetella pertussis virulence factors in adherence to epithelial cell lines derived from the human respiratory tract. (2/2463)

During colonization of the respiratory tract by Bordetella pertussis, virulence factors contribute to adherence of the bacterium to the respiratory tract epithelium. In the present study, we examined the roles of the virulence factors filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, pertactin (Prn), and pertussis toxin (PT) in the adherence of B. pertussis to cells of the human bronchial epithelial cell line NCI-H292 and of the laryngeal epithelial cell line HEp-2. Using B. pertussis mutant strains and purified FHA, fimbriae, Prn, and PT, we demonstrated that both fimbriae and FHA are involved in the adhesion of B. pertussis to laryngeal epithelial cells, whereas only FHA is involved in the adherence to bronchial epithelial cells. For PT and Prn, no role as adhesion factor was found. However, purified PT bound to both bronchial and laryngeal cells and as such reduced the adherence of B. pertussis to these cells. These data may imply that fimbriae play a role in infection of only the laryngeal mucosa, while FHA is the major factor in colonization of the entire respiratory tract.  (+info)

Yops of Yersinia enterocolitica inhibit receptor-dependent superoxide anion production by human granulocytes. (3/2463)

The virulence plasmid-borne genes encoding Yersinia adhesin A (YadA) and several Yersinia secreted proteins (Yops) are involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis and killing of Yersinia enterocolitica by human granulocytes. One of these Yops, YopH, dephosphorylates multiple tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the inhibition of phagocytosis of Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes. We investigated whether antibody- and complement-opsonized plasmid-bearing (pYV+) Y. enterocolitica inhibits O2- production by human granulocytes in response to various stimuli and whether YopH is involved. Granulocytes were preincubated with mutant strains unable to express YadA or to secrete Yops or YopH. O2- production by granulocytes during stimulation was assessed by measuring the reduction of ferricytochrome c. PYV+ Y. enterocolitica inhibited O2- production by granulocytes incubated with opsonized Y. enterocolitica or N-formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (f-MLP). This inhibitory effect mediated by pYV did not affect receptor-independent O2- production by granulocytes in response to phorbol myristate acetate, indicating that NADPH activity remained unaffected after activation of protein kinase C. The inhibition of f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes depends on the secretion of Yops and not on the expression of YadA. Insertional inactivation of the yopH gene abrogated the inhibition of phagocytosis of antibody- and complement-opsonized Y. enterocolitica by human granulocytes but not of the f-MLP-induced O2- production by granulocytes or tyrosine phosphorylation of granulocyte proteins. These findings suggest that the specific targets for YopH are not present in f-MLP receptor-linked signal transduction and that other Yop-mediated mechanisms are involved.  (+info)

Expression of the plague plasminogen activator in Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Escherichia coli. (4/2463)

Enteropathogenic yersiniae (Yersinia pseudotuberculosis and Yersinia enterocolitica) typically cause chronic disease as opposed to the closely related Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of bubonic plague. It is established that this difference reflects, in part, carriage by Y. pestis of a unique 9.6-kb pesticin or Pst plasmid (pPCP) encoding plasminogen activator (Pla) rather than distinctions between shared approximately 70-kb low-calcium-response, or Lcr, plasmids (pCD in Y. pestis and pYV in enteropathogenic yersiniae) encoding cytotoxic Yops and anti-inflammatory V antigen. Pla is known to exist as a combination of 32.6-kDa (alpha-Pla) and slightly smaller (beta-Pla) outer membrane proteins, of which at least one promotes bacterial dissemination in vivo and degradation of Yops in vitro. We show here that only alpha-Pla accumulates in Escherichia coli LE392/pPCP1 cultivated in enriched medium and that either autolysis or extraction of this isolate with 1.0 M NaCl results in release of soluble alpha and beta forms possessing biological activity. This process also converted cell-bound alpha-Pla to beta-Pla and smaller forms in Y. pestis KIM/pPCP1 and Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 but did not promote solubilization. Pla-mediated posttranslational hydrolysis of pulse-labeled Yops in Y. pseudotuberculosis PB1/+/pPCP1 occurred more slowly than that in Y. pestis but was otherwise similar except for accumulation of stable degradation products of YadA, a pYV-mediated fibrillar adhesin not encoded in frame by pCD. Carriage of pPCP by Y. pseudotuberculosis did not significantly influence virulence in mice.  (+info)

Molecular basis for the enterocyte tropism exhibited by Salmonella typhimurium type 1 fimbriae. (5/2463)

Salmonella typhimurium exhibits a distinct tropism for mouse enterocytes that is linked to their expression of type 1 fimbriae. The distinct binding traits of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is also reflected in their binding to selected mannosylated proteins and in their ability to promote secondary bacterial aggregation on enterocyte surfaces. The determinant of binding in Salmonella type 1 fimbriae is a 35-kDa structurally distinct fimbrial subunit, FimHS, because inactivation of fimHS abolished binding activity in the resulting mutant without any apparent effect on fimbrial expression. Surprisingly, when expressed in the absence of other fimbrial components and as a translational fusion protein with MalE, FimHS failed to demonstrate any specific binding tropism and bound equally to all cells and mannosylated proteins tested. To determine if the binding specificity of Salmonella type 1 fimbriae was determined by the fimbrial shaft that is intimately associated with FimHS, we replaced the amino-terminal half of FimHS with the corresponding sequence from Escherichia coli FimH (FimHE) that contains the receptor binding domain of FimHE. The resulting hybrid fimbriae bearing FimHES on a Salmonella fimbrial shaft exhibited binding traits that resembled that of Salmonella rather than E. coli fimbriae. Apparently, the quaternary constraints imposed by the fimbrial shaft on the adhesin determine the distinct binding traits of S. typhimurium type 1 fimbriae.  (+info)

A region of the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis invasin protein enhances integrin-mediated uptake into mammalian cells and promotes self-association. (6/2463)

Invasin allows efficient entry into mammalian cells by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. It has been shown that the C-terminal 192 amino acids of invasin are essential for binding of beta1 integrin receptors and subsequent uptake. By analyzing the internalization of latex beads coated with invasin derivatives, an additional domain of invasin was shown to be required for efficient bacterial internalization. A monomeric derivative encompassing the C-terminal 197 amino acids was inefficient at promoting entry of latex beads, whereas dimerization of this derivative by antibody significantly increased uptake. By using the DNA-binding domain of lambda repressor as a reporter for invasin self-interaction, we have demonstrated that a region of the invasin protein located N-terminal to the cell adhesion domain of invasin is able to self-associate. Chemical cross-linking studies of purified and surface-exposed invasin proteins, and the dominant-interfering effect of a non-functional invasin derivative are consistent with the presence of a self-association domain that is located within the region of invasin that enhances bacterial uptake. We conclude that interaction of homomultimeric invasin with multiple integrins establishes tight adherence and receptor clustering, thus providing a signal for internalization.  (+info)

Protective immune response against Streptococcus pyogenes in mice after intranasal vaccination with the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI. (7/2463)

Despite the significant impact on human health of Streptococcus pyogenes, an efficacious vaccine has not yet been developed. Here, the potential as a vaccine candidate of a major streptococcal adhesin, the fibronectin-binding protein SfbI, was evaluated. Intranasal immunization of mice with either SfbI alone or coupled to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) triggered efficient SfbI-specific humoral (mainly IgG) and lung mucosal (14% of total IgA) responses. CTB-immunized control mice were not protected against challenge with S. pyogenes (90%-100% lethality), whereas SfbI-vaccinated animals showed 80% and 90% protection against homologous and heterologous challenge, respectively. Multiple areas of consolidation with diffused cellular infiltrates (macrophages and neutrophils) were observed in lungs from control mice; the histologic structure was preserved in SfbI-vaccinated animals, which occasionally presented focal infiltrates confined to the perivascular, peribronchial, and subpleural areas. These results suggest that SfbI is a promising candidate for inclusion in acellular vaccines against S. pyogenes.  (+info)

Coordinate involvement of invasin and Yop proteins in a Yersinia pseudotuberculosis-specific class I-restricted cytotoxic T cell-mediated response. (8/2463)

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis is a pathogenic enteric bacteria that evades host cellular immune response and resides extracellularly in vivo. Nevertheless, an important contribution of T cells to defense against Yersinia has been previously established. In this study we demonstrate that Lewis rats infected with virulent strains of Y. pseudotuberculosis, mount a Yersinia-specific, RT1-A-restricted, CD8+ T cell-mediated, cytotoxic response. Sensitization of lymphoblast target cells for cytolysis by Yersinia-specific CTLs required their incubation with live Yersinia and was independent of endocytosis. Although fully virulent Yersinia did not invade those cells, they attached to their surface. In contrast, invasin-deficient strain failed to bind to blast targets or to sensitize them for cytolysis. Furthermore, an intact virulence plasmid was an absolute requirement for Yersinia to sensitize blast targets for cytolysis. Using a series of Y. pseudotuberculosis mutants selectively deficient in virulence plasmid-encoded proteins, we found no evidence for a specific role played by YadA, YopH, YpkA, or YopJ in the sensitization process of blast targets. In contrast, mutations suppressing YopB, YopD, or YopE expression abolished the capacity of Yersinia to sensitize blast targets. These results are consistent with a model in which extracellular Yersinia bound to lymphoblast targets via invasin translocate inside eukaryotic cytosol YopE, which is presented in a class I-restricted fashion to CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. This system could represent a more general mechanism by which bacteria harboring a host cell contact-dependent or type III secretion apparatus trigger a class I-restricted CD8+ T cell response.  (+info)

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

Symptoms of a UTI can include:

* Painful urination
* Frequent urination
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Blood in the urine
* Pelvic pain in women
* Rectal pain in men

If you suspect that you have a UTI, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible. UTIs can lead to more serious complications if left untreated, such as kidney damage or sepsis.

Treatment for a UTI typically involves antibiotics to clear the infection. It is important to complete the full course of treatment to ensure that the infection is completely cleared. Drinking plenty of water and taking over-the-counter pain relievers may also help alleviate symptoms.

Preventive measures for UTIs include:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as wiping from front to back and washing hands after using the bathroom
* Urinating when you feel the need, rather than holding it in
* Avoiding certain foods that may irritate the bladder, such as spicy or acidic foods
* Drinking plenty of water to help flush bacteria out of the urinary tract.

The symptoms of pyelonephritis can vary depending on the severity and location of the infection, but may include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Flank pain (pain in the sides or back)
* Nausea and vomiting
* Frequent urination or difficulty urinating
* Blood in the urine
* Abdominal tenderness
* Loss of appetite

Pyelonephritis can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as urinalysis, blood cultures, and imaging studies (such as CT or ultrasound scans).

Treatment of pyelonephritis typically involves antibiotics to eradicate the underlying bacterial infection, as well as supportive care to manage symptoms such as fever and pain. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

If left untreated, pyelonephritis can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, sepsis, and even death. Therefore, prompt recognition and treatment of this condition are crucial to prevent long-term consequences and improve outcomes for affected individuals.

While rare, yersiniosis can be a serious condition in certain populations, such as people with weakened immune systems or those who have chronic lung disease. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes for patients.

There are several types of diarrhea, including:

1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.

Symptoms of diarrhea may include:

* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Headache
* Fatigue and weakness

Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea

Complications of diarrhea can include:

* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.

Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.

Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.

In the medical field, cystitis is also known as urinary tract infection (UTI), which affects not only the bladder but also the kidneys and ureters. The symptoms of cystitis are similar to those of UTI, including fever, chills, nausea, and vomiting. However, cystitis is limited to the bladder only, whereas UTI can affect multiple parts of the urinary tract.

Cystitis is more common in women due to their anatomy, with the shorter urethra providing easier access for bacteria to enter the bladder. Pregnant women and those with diabetes or a weakened immune system are at higher risk of developing cystitis.

While cystitis is not a serious condition in most cases, it can lead to complications such as kidney damage if left untreated. Recurrent cystitis can also cause changes in the bladder muscle and increase the risk of urinary incontinence. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage symptoms and prevent long-term consequences.

In summary, cystitis is a common condition that affects the bladder, characterized by inflammation and symptoms such as painful urination and frequent urination. It can be acute or chronic, and treatment typically involves antibiotics, fluid intake, and pain relief medication. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to manage symptoms and prevent long-term consequences.

1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A chronic condition characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
2. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
3. Diverticulosis: A condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the intestine, often causing abdominal pain and changes in bowel habits.
4. Intestinal obstruction: A blockage that prevents food, fluids, and gas from passing through the intestine, often causing abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting.
5. Intestinal ischemia: A reduction in blood flow to the intestine, which can cause damage to the tissues and lead to life-threatening complications.
6. Intestinal cancer: Cancer that develops in the small intestine or large intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss, and rectal bleeding.
7. Gastrointestinal infections: Infections caused by viruses, bacteria, or parasites that affect the gastrointestinal tract, often causing symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.
8. Intestinal motility disorders: Disorders that affect the movement of food through the intestine, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.
9. Malabsorption: A condition in which the body is unable to properly absorb nutrients from food, often caused by conditions such as celiac disease or pancreatic insufficiency.
10. Intestinal pseudo-obstruction: A condition in which the intestine becomes narrowed or blocked, often causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and constipation.

These are just a few examples of the many potential complications that can occur when the gastrointestinal system is not functioning properly. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe symptoms in order to receive proper diagnosis and treatment.

A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.

It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.

Causes and risk factors:

The most common cause of bacterial endocarditis is a bacterial infection that enters the bloodstream and travels to the heart. This can occur through various means, such as:

* Injecting drugs or engaging in other risky behaviors that allow bacteria to enter the body
* Having a weakened immune system due to illness or medication
* Having a previous history of endocarditis or other heart conditions
* Being over the age of 60, as older adults are at higher risk for developing endocarditis


The symptoms of bacterial endocarditis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the infected area. Some common symptoms include:

* Fever
* Chills
* Joint pain or swelling
* Fatigue
* Shortness of breath
* Heart murmurs or abnormal heart sounds


Bacterial endocarditis is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as:

* Blood cultures to identify the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream
* Echocardiogram to visualize the heart and detect any abnormalities
* Chest X-ray to look for signs of infection or inflammation in the lungs or heart
* Electrocardiogram (ECG) to measure the electrical activity of the heart


The treatment of bacterial endocarditis typically involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. Antibiotics are used to kill the bacteria and reduce inflammation, while surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart tissue. In some cases, the infected heart tissue may need to be removed.


Preventing bacterial endocarditis involves good oral hygiene, regular dental check-ups, and avoiding certain high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles. People with existing heart conditions should also take antibiotics before dental or medical procedures to reduce the risk of infection.


The prognosis for bacterial endocarditis is generally good if treatment is prompt and effective. However, delays in diagnosis and treatment can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or death. Patients with pre-existing heart conditions are at higher risk for complications.


Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively rare condition, affecting approximately 2-5 cases per million people per year in the United States. However, people with certain risk factors such as heart conditions or prosthetic heart valves are at higher risk for developing the infection.


Bacterial endocarditis can lead to a number of complications, including:

* Heart failure
* Stroke or brain abscess
* Kidney damage or failure
* Pregnancy complications
* Nerve damage or peripheral neuropathy
* Skin or soft tissue infections
* Bone or joint infections
* Septicemia (blood poisoning)


Preventive measures for bacterial endocarditis include:

* Good oral hygiene and regular dental check-ups to reduce the risk of dental infections
* Avoiding high-risk activities such as unprotected sex or sharing of needles
* Antibiotics before dental or medical procedures for patients with existing heart conditions
* Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment
* Use of antimicrobial prophylaxis (prevention) in high-risk patients.

Emerging Trends:

Newly emerging trends in the management of bacterial endocarditis include:

* The use of novel antibiotics and combination therapy to improve treatment outcomes
* The development of new diagnostic tests to help identify the cause of infection more quickly and accurately
* The increased use of preventive measures such as antibiotic prophylaxis in high-risk patients.

Future Directions:

Future directions for research on bacterial endocarditis may include:

* Investigating the use of novel diagnostic techniques, such as genomics and proteomics, to improve the accuracy of diagnosis
* Developing new antibiotics and combination therapies to improve treatment outcomes
* Exploring alternative preventive measures such as probiotics and immunotherapy.

In conclusion, bacterial endocarditis is a serious infection that can have severe consequences if left untreated. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial to improving patient outcomes. Preventive measures such as good oral hygiene and antibiotic prophylaxis can help reduce the risk of developing this condition. Ongoing research is focused on improving diagnostic techniques, developing new treatments, and exploring alternative preventive measures.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.

Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:

1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:

1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.

2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.

Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:

1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections

Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:

1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath

Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.

Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:

1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.

Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:

1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.

It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

The best characterized bacterial adhesin is the type 1 fimbrial FimH adhesin. This adhesin is responsible for D-mannose ... However, bacterial adhesins do not serve as a sort of universal bacterial Velcro. Rather, they act as specific surface ... Adhesion and bacterial adhesins are also a potential target for prophylaxis or treatment of bacterial infections. Bacteria are ... During the bacterial lifespan, a bacterium is subjected to frequent shear-forces. In the crudest sense, bacterial adhesins ...
YadA, an adhesin from Yersinia, was the first member of this family to be characterised. UspA2 from Moraxella was second. The ... The importance of adhesins to YadA function and Yersinia survival is huge. Attachment further allows more interactions and ... Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA) Casutt-Meyer S, Renzi F, Schmaler M, Jann NJ, Amstutz M, Cornelis GR (2010). " ... The YadA protein domain, is a form of trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs). Each TAA must consist of a head, stalk and a ...
Klemm P, Schembri MA (2000). "Bacterial Adhesins:Function and Structure". Int J Med Microbiol. 290 (1): 27-35. doi:10.1016/ ... Bacterial display systems were first introduced by Freudl et al. and Charbit et al. in 1986, when they used bacterial surface ... Bacterial display (or bacteria display or bacterial surface display) is a protein engineering technique used for in vitro ... OMPs are common scaffolds for bacterial display. Proteins can also be displayed on the bacterial cell surface through the use ...
Prokaryotes have adhesion molecules on their cell surface termed bacterial adhesins, apart from using its pili (fimbriae) and ... Klemm, Per; Schembri, Mark A. (2000). "Bacterial adhesins: function and structure". International Journal of Medical ... Adhesins can recognise a variety of ligands present on the host cell surfaces and also components in the extracellular matrix. ... Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Cossart, Pascale (2006). "Bacterial Adhesion and Entry into Host Cells". Cell. 124 (4): 715-727. doi: ...
YadA bacterial adhesin protein domain Type V secretion system Virulence factor Cell adhesion Outer membrane Gram negative ... YadA stands for Yersinia adhesin protein A. This protein domain is an example of Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins, and it was ... Trimeric autotransporter adhesins have a unique structure. The structure they hold is crucial to their function. They all ... All Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins are crucial virulence factors that cause serious disease in humans. The most-studied and ...
Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) include porins and adhesins. Numerous sRNAs regulate the expression of OMPs. The porins OmpC and ... Bacterial sRNAs affect how genes are expressed within bacterial cells via interaction with mRNA or protein, and thus can affect ... Biofilm is a type of bacterial growth pattern where multiple layers of bacterial cells adhere to a host surface. This mode of ... The first bacterial sRNA was discovered and characterized in 1984. MicF in E. coli was found to regulate the expression of a ...
An example of autotransporter is the Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins. Type VI secretion systems (T6SS) were discovered by the ... Bacterial secretion systems are protein complexes present on the cell membranes of bacteria for secretion of substances. ... Type II (T2SS) secretion system depends on the Sec or Tat system for initial secretion inside the bacterial cell. From the ... Type III secretion system (T3SS or TTSS) is structurally similar and related to the basal body of bacterial flagella. Seen in ...
PMID 17428568.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) Soto, GE; Hultgren, SJ (1999). "Bacterial adhesins: ... often express surface lectins known as adhesins and hemagglutinins that bind to tissue-specific glycans on host cell-surface ...
It attaches to nasopharyngeal cells through interaction of bacterial surface adhesins. This normal colonization can become ... S. pneumoniae is a common member of the bacterial flora colonizing the nose and throat of 5-10% of healthy adults and 20-40% of ... However, it is also a cause of significant disease, being a leading cause of pneumonia, bacterial meningitis, and sepsis. The ... an adhesin that can interact with carbohydrates on the cell surface of pulmonary epithelial cells and can inhibit complement- ...
Adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin -like) Bacterial adhesin Cell adhesion de Groot, Piet W. J.; Bader, Oliver; de Boer, Albert D ... Hwp1 is a fungal adhesin belonging to the opportunistic dimorphic fungus Candida albicans. Hwp1 is unique among fungal adhesins ... Fungal adhesins are proteins located on the surface of fungal cells, specifically found on the outside of the cell wall. They ... Adhesins also have other functions, such as mating and biofilm formation. Candida albicans can cause opportunistic oral and ...
v t e (Bacterial proteins, Whooping cough, Virulence factors, All stub articles, Protein stubs). ... The filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin (FHA) is a large, filamentous protein that serves as a dominant attachment factor for ... Adhesin (disambiguation) Locht, C; Bertin, P; Menozzi, FD; Renauld, G. (1993). "The filamentous haemagglutinin, a multifaceted ... One notable bacterium that produces filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin is Bordetella pertussis, which uses this protein as a ...
Bacterial transportation: bacteria will readily adhere to the acquired pellicle through adhesins, proteins and enzymes within ... Irreversible interaction: bacterial adhesins recognise specific host receptors such as pili and outer membrane proteins. The ... This results in the imbalance between host and bacterial factors which can in turn result in a change from health to disease. ... Dental plaque forms a bacterial biofilm on the tooth surface; if not adequately removed from the tooth surface in close ...
Other adhesins have also been described, including the genes gfba, fnB, fbBA, fnBB, lmb and gapC; all mediating binding to ... Skerman, V.B.D.M.; Sneath, P.H.A. (1980). "Approved list of bacterial names". Int J Syst Bacteriol. 30: 225-420. doi:10.1099/ ... In 1980, they were even removed from the List of Approved Bacterial species. Three years later, though, DNA hybridization ... S. dysgalactiae has been particularly linked to mastitis occurring during the summer time ("Summer mastitis"), and bacterial ...
Davis SL; Gurusiddappa S; McCrea KW; Perkins S; Höök M (2001). "SdrG, a fibrinogen-binding bacterial adhesin of the microbial ... In molecular biology, the protein domain SdrG C terminal refers to the C terminus domain of an adhesin found only on the cell ... SdrG protein is a bacterial cell wall-anchored adhesion and its function is to adhere to human cells. It does this by binding ... Such adhesins have also been named MSCRAMMs which is short for microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. Bibcode:2012PNAS.. ... a mutated bacterial haloalkane dehalogenase that covalently attaches to haloalkane substrates SNAP-tag, a mutated eukaryotic ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 ... April 2016). "Bacterial superglue enables easy development of efficient virus-like particle based vaccines". Journal of ... SpyTag/SpyCatcher react with high specificity even when in the presence of bacterial and mammalian cell environments. Because ... the discovery of an intramolecular ester bond formation in Clostridium perfringens cell-surface adhesin protein Cpe0147 led to ...
Zakeri, B. (2012). "Peptide tag forming a rapid covalent bond to a protein, through engineering a bacterial adhesin". ... The structural enzymes while varying from bacterial and eukaryotic domains, tend to be single enzymes that generally in a ... or it can form spontaneously as observed in HK97 bacteriophage capsid formation and Gram-positive bacterial pili. Spontaneous ... "Stabilizing isopeptide bonds revealed in gram-positive bacterial pilus structure". Science. 318 (5856): 1625-1628. Bibcode: ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 109 (12): E690-7. Bibcode:2012PNAS.. ... A carbohydrate-based bacterial capsule composed of hyaluronic acid surrounds the bacterium, protecting it from phagocytosis by ... Biofilms are a way for S. pyogenes, as well as other bacterial cells, to communicate with each other. In the biofilm gene ... Infections due to certain strains of S. pyogenes can be associated with the release of bacterial toxins. Throat infections ...
... through engineering a bacterial adhesin". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 109 ...
A bacterial adhesin formed as a 50-nm monomeric rigid rod based on a 19-residue repeat motif rich in beta strands and turns". J ... functioning as both a primary adhesin and an immunomodulator to bind the bacterial to cells of the respiratory epithelium. The ... "Beta-helix model for the filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin of Bordetella pertussis and related bacterial secretory proteins". ... A number of the members of this family have been designated adhesins, filamentous haemagglutinins, haem/haemopexin-binding ...
Bacteria produce various adhesins including lipoteichoic acid, trimeric autotransporter adhesins and a wide variety of other ... For the most part, the genetic approach is the most extensive way in identifying the bacterial virulence factors. Bacterial DNA ... As with bacterial toxins, there is a wide array of fungal toxins. Arguably one of the more dangerous mycotoxins is aflatoxin ... These obtained bacterial virulence factors have two different routes used to help them survive and grow: The factors are used ...
Trimeric Autotransporter Adhesins (TAA) Oomen CJ, van Ulsen P, van Gelder P, Feijen M, Tommassen J, Gros P (March 2004). " ... Leo JC, Grin I, Linke D (April 2012). "Type V secretion: mechanism(s) of autotransport through the bacterial outer membrane". ... In molecular biology, an autotransporter domain is a structural domain found in some bacterial outer membrane proteins. The ... "Structure of the translocator domain of a bacterial autotransporter". The EMBO Journal. 23 (6): 1257-66. doi:10.1038/sj.emboj. ...
... s usually target adhesin proteins, which are involved in the attachment of bacterial cells to epithelia ( ... The principal substrates of N-glycosyltransferases are adhesins. Adhesins are proteins that are used to colonize a surface, ... The glycosylation process is important for the ability of Kingella kingae to form bacterial aggregates and to bind to epithelia ... Haemophilus influenzae has an additional HMW1C homologue HMW2C, which together with the adhesin HMW2 forms a similar substrate- ...
Bacterial virulence factors, such as glycocalyx and various adhesins, allow colonization, immune evasion, and establishment of ... muramyl dipeptide in the peptidoglycan of the gram-positive bacterial cell wall, and CpG bacterial DNA. These PAMPs are ... In common clinical usage, neonatal sepsis refers to a bacterial blood stream infection in the first month of life, such as ... Bacterial exotoxins that act as superantigens also may cause sepsis. Superantigens simultaneously bind major histocompatibility ...
... bacterial adhesins (4), and cysteine proteinases. The adhesins are four trichomonad enzymes called AP65, AP51, AP33, and AP23 ...
"Structure of the decoy module of human glycoprotein 2 and uromodulin and its interaction with bacterial adhesin FimH". Nat. ... A role in bacterial binding and sequestration is suggested by studies showing that Escherichia coli which express MS (mannose- ...
"Structure of the decoy module of human glycoprotein 2 and uromodulin and its interaction with bacterial adhesin FimH". Nat. ...
"Structure of the decoy module of human glycoprotein 2 and uromodulin and its interaction with bacterial adhesin FimH". Nat. ...
Swarming motility is the coordinated translocation of a bacterial population driven by flagellar rotation in film or on fluid ... These include adherence due to the presence of fimbriae or afimbrial adhesins, invasiveness, swarming phenomenon, hemolytic ... Second German-Polish-Russian Meeting on Bacterial Carbohydrates, Moscow, September 10-12, 2002. Zych K, Kowalczyk M, Knirel YA ... Type strain of Proteus penneri at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Portal: Biology (CS1: long volume value, ...
... a feature of which is inter-bacterial communication. Cell-cell contact is mediated by specific protein adhesins and often, as ... However, a highly efficient innate host defense system constantly monitors the bacterial colonization and prevents bacterial ... In equilibrium, the bacterial biofilm produced by the fermentation of sugar in the mouth is quickly swept away by the saliva, ... Bacterial adhesion is particularly important for oral bacteria. Oral bacteria have evolved mechanisms to sense their ...
This adhesion involves adhesins (e.g., hyphal wall protein 1), and extracellular polymeric materials (e.g., mannoprotein). ... Peleg AY, Hogan DA, Mylonakis E (May 2010). "Medically important bacterial-fungal interactions". Nature Reviews. Microbiology. ...
Bacterial gliding is a type of gliding motility that can also use pili for propulsion. The speed of gliding varies between ... Here the adhesin SprB is propelled along the cell surface (spiraling from pole to pole), pulling the bacterium along 25 times ... In the diagram above, right: Bacterial gliding is a process of motility whereby a bacterium can move under its own power. ... McBride, M. (2001). "Bacterial gliding motility: Multiple mechanisms for cell movement over surfaces". Annual Review of ...
Kang HJ, Middleditch M, Proft T, Baker EN (December 2009). "Isopeptide bonds in bacterial pili and their characterization by X- ... "A collagen-binding adhesin, Acb, and ten other putative MSCRAMM and pilus family proteins of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. ... Another sub-family of sortases (C60B in MEROPS) contains bacterial sortase B proteins that are approximately 200 residues long ... but also provide ingenious strategies for bacterial escape from the host's immune response. In the case of S. aureus protein A ...
The bacterial chaperone ClpB is a major driver in the overall virulence of L. interrogans, as it aids in survival inside the ... "Evaluation of cell binding activities of Leptospira ECM adhesins". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 9 (4): e0003712. doi: ... the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with 'species' microformats, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations ...
Despite the rare infections caused by L. rhamnosus, the species is included in the list of bacterial species with qualified ... an important adhesin in L. rhamnosus GG adhesion to the intestinal epithelial cells. In contrast, L. rhamnosus GR-1 utilises ... Type strain of Lactobacillus rhamnosus at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description, ... most particularly very difficult to treat cases of bacterial vaginosis (or "BV"). The species Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus and ...
call into question the extent of urease produced by bacteria in mice, as an argument against the bacterial theory of PUD. 1960 ... 2004). "Functional adaptation of BabA, the H. pylori ABO blood group antigen binding adhesin". Science. 305 (5683): 519-22. ... that Gastric Urease was Caused by a Bacterial Infectio", in Helicobacter Pioneers, pp. 39-52. Lieber CS, Lefèvre A (August 1959 ... suggesting a relationship between urease and a bacterial infection. 1954 Palmer publishes a study which finds no bacteria in ...
Other adhesins are fimbriae and petractin. Once anchored, the bacterium produces tracheal cytotoxin, which stops the cilia from ... It also decreases the function of tissue-resident macrophages, which are responsible for some bacterial clearance. Another ... The bacterium contains a surface protein, filamentous haemagglutinin adhesin, which binds to the sulfatides found on cilia of ... Type strain of Bordetella pertussis at BacDive-the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (CS1 maint: others, Articles with short ...
These proteins act as modulators of bacterial gene expression. Members of this family act in conjunction with members of the H- ... YmoA modulates the expression of various virulence factors, such as Yop proteins and YadA adhesin, in response to temperature. ...
The Dr adhesins bind Dr blood group antigen (Dra) which is present on decay accelerating factor (DAF) on erythrocytes and other ... Sela S, Nestel D, Pinto R, Nemny-Lavy E, Bar-Joseph M (2005). "Mediterranean fruit fly as a potential vector of bacterial ... There, the Dr adhesins induce the development of long cellular extensions that wrap around the bacteria, accompanied by the ... These adhesins specifically bind D-galactose-D-galactose moieties on the P blood-group antigen of erythrocytes and ...
... bacterial endotoxins and exotoxins). The bacterial adhesion to the host tissues, involving a direct and a specific interaction ... are non proteinaceous adhesins like Wall Teichoic acids (WTAs) and lipoteichoic acids. Since WTAs are required for host ... "Two-for-one bacterial virulence factor revealed". phys.org. Retrieved 17 January 2016. Cascioferro, S., Totsika, M., & ... Virulence factors are the weapons possessed by pathogens to cause damage to the host, hence they are molecules or bacterial ...
List of bacteria genera List of bacterial orders De Vos, Paul; et al. (2009). Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology (2nd ... Persidis, A.; Lay, J. G.; Manousis, T.; Bishop, A. H.; Ellar, D. J. (1991-11-01). "Characterisation of potential adhesins of ...
This RGD domain allows PRN to function as an adhesin and invasin, binding to integrins on the outer membrane of the cell. ... The N-terminal signal sequences promotes the secretion of PRN into the periplasm through the bacterial secretion system (Sec) ...
This organism, too, can carry the genetic material that imparts multiple bacterial resistance. It is rarely implicated in ... aureus adhesins in relation to adhesion to biomaterials: review". European Cells & Materials. 4: 39-60. doi:10.22203/ecm. ... The most common sialadenitis is caused by staphylococci, as bacterial infections. Staphylococci break down leucine into ...
Bacterial Inclusion Bodies Contain Amyloid-Like Structure at SciVee Amyloid Cascade Hypothesis Amyloid: Journal of Protein ... Larsen P, Nielsen JL, Dueholm MS, Wetzel R, Otzen D, Nielsen PH (December 2007). "Amyloid adhesins are abundant in natural ... encoding the curli system are phylogenetic widespread and can be found in at least four bacterial phyla. This suggest that many ...
Bacterial pili are hair-like surface-exposed organelles. They are responsible for recognition of and attachment to the host and ... coli adhesin to its human kidney receptor". Cell. 105 (6): 733-43. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00388-9. PMID 11440716. S2CID ... Allen WJ, Phan G, Waksman G (August 2012). "Pilus biogenesis at the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacterial pathogens". ... CU) pili have clear relevance in the pathogenicity of uropathogenic Escherichia coli, where CU pili mediate bacterial tropism ...
Bacterial adhesin Cell adhesion Fungal adhesin Tan K, Casasnovas JM, Liu JH, Briskin MJ, Springer TA, Wang JH (June 1998). "The ... In molecular biology, the adhesin molecule (immunoglobulin-like) is a protein domain. This domain is found in mucosal vascular ...
... the opening of this bond can induce a morphological change that interferes with the binding of bacterial adhesin (fimbriae) to ... The bacterial adhesion reduction is reached by Met I ad concentration similar to the plasmatic peak obtained after a single 300 ... Antiadhesive activity Erdosteine is able to interfere with bacterial adhesion. In fact, Met I can affect the integrity of the ... Erdosteine showed in vivo and in vitro synergistic activity with antibiotics, against bacterial adhesiveness, in patients with ...
Natural bacterial transformation involves the transfer of DNA from one bacterium to another through the surrounding medium. ... Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... van de Beek, Diederik; de Gans, Jan; Tunkel, Allan R.; Wijdicks, Eelco F.M. (5 January 2006). "Community-Acquired Bacterial ... Type strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase Archived 2020-04-20 at the Wayback ...
... the Bacterial Diversity Metadatabase (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Use dmy dates from ... "Identification of a new adhesin-like protein from Lactobacillus mucosae ME-340 with specific affinity to the human blood group ... "Identification of a new adhesin-like protein from Lactobacillus mucosae ME-340 with specific affinity to the human blood group ...
... and Polysaccharide Intercellular Adhesin Production. Author: Wu, Yang; Ma, Yue; Xu, Tao; Zhang, Qing-zhao; Bai, Jinna; Wang, ... Nicotine Enhances Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Altering the Bacterial Autolysis, Extracellular DNA Releasing ... Nicotine Enhances Staphylococcus epidermidis Biofilm Formation by Altering the Bacterial Autolysis, Extracellular DNA Releasing ...
Categories: Adhesins, Bacterial Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted ...
MeSH Terms: Actins/metabolism*; Adhesins, Bacterial*; Bacterial Adhesion; Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins/genetics; Bacterial ... The outer membrane protein intimin is required for the formation of this structure, as is Tir, a bacterial protein that is ... Outer Membrane Proteins/metabolism*; Bacterial Proteins/genetics; Bacterial Proteins/metabolism; Binding Sites; Carcinoma, ... Tir-binding region of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli intimin is sufficient to trigger actin condensation after bacterial- ...
Adhesins, Bacterial / chemistry Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH * Add to Search ... Bacterial amyloids. Zhou Y, Blanco LP, Smith DR, Chapman MR. Zhou Y, et al. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;849:303-20. doi: 10.1007/978 ... Emerging Roles of Functional Bacterial Amyloids in Gene Regulation, Toxicity, and Immunomodulation. Salinas N, Povolotsky TL, ...
Bacterial attachment usually involves an interaction between a bacterial surface protein called an adhesin and the host cell ... The studies indicate that prophylactic vaccination with adhesins can block bacterial infections. With recent advances in the ... Adhesins as Targets for Vaccine Development [PDF - 189 KB - 9 pages] T. M. Wizemann et al. View Abstract. Cite This Article. ... Bacterial Vaccines and Serotype Replacement: Lessons from Haemophilus influenzae and Prospects for Streptococcus pneumoniae [ ...
Bacterial adhesins attach their hosts to surfaces through one or more ligand-binding domains. In RTX adhesins, which are ... Bacterial adhesins attach their hosts to surfaces through one or more ligand-binding domains. In RTX adhesins, which are ... Structure and functional analysis of a bacterial adhesin sugar-binding domain.. Vance, T.D.R., Guo, S., Assaie-Ardakany, S., ... Here we have recombinantly expressed one such ~20-kDa domain from the ~340-kDa adhesin found in Marinobacter ...
It is facilitated by fimbriae (proteinaceous fibers on the bacterial cell well). Fimbriae produce adhesins which attach to ... bacterial adherence; o Evaluate relationship of cranberry/cranberry constituents and bacterial adherence to urinary pH; o Study ... Even when several UTIs in a row are due to E. coli, slight differences in the bacterial strains indicate distinct infections.) ... reason that because cranberry has been shown to inhibit bacterial adhesion to uroepithelial cells, it may also be useful as ...
Adhesins have specific regions that attach to cell receptor epitopes in a lock-and-key fashion. Mannose-sensitive adhesins ( ... Most bacterial data are derived from research with Escherichia coli, which accounts for 70-90% of uncomplicated UTIs and 21-54 ... This family of adhesins is associated with less than 20% of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strains. The AFA/Dr family is ... Mannose-resistant adhesins permit the bacteria to attach to epithelial cells, thereby resisting the cleansing action of urine ...
Identification of a Supramolecular Functional Architecture of Streptococcus mutans Adhesin P1 on the Bacterial Cell Surface. J ... Many Means to a Common End: the Intricacies of (p)ppGpp Metabolism and Its Control of Bacterial Homeostasis. J Bacteriol. 2015 ... CXCR3 expression defines a novel subset of innate CD8+ T cells that enhance immunity against bacterial infection and cancer ... Melillo was a postdoctoral fellow from 2010-2012 at the Food and Drug Administration, Division of Bacterial Products, Center ...
9. Non-proteinaceous bacterial adhesins challenge the antifouling properties of polymer brush coatings.. Zeng G; Ogaki R; Meyer ...
The optimization framework should be generally applicable to developing therapeutic phages against bacterial pathogens. ... Bacteriophage T4 host range is expanded by duplications of a small domain of the tail fiber adhesin. J. Mol. Biol. 1996, 258, ... an efficiently translated bacterial or phage mRNA must have a well-positioned SD sequence. Highly expressed bacterial genes or ... Bacterial hosts such as E. coli can evolve resistance to phage T4. In this particular context, it is beneficial for phage T4 to ...
Bacterial Lectins and Adhesins: Structures, Ligands and Functions Page: 3-11 (9). Author: Anne Imberty. PDF Price: $15 ... The human targets for bacterial adhesins and lectins are mostly fucosylated human histo-blood groups and/or sialylated epitopes ... The analysis of the available crystal structures of bacterial lectins and adhesins helps deciphering the structure/function ... This chapter will illustrate a few examples of bacterial and human lectins together with bacterial toxins having varied number ...
... plays essential roles in bacterial physiology and ecology. This review will summarize the evidence that oral microbes ... plays essential roles in bacterial physiology and ecology. This review will summarize the evidence that oral microbes ... Direct physical contact of bacterial species with its neighboring co-habitants within microbial community could initiate ... Direct physical contact of bacterial species with its neighboring co-habitants within microbial community could initiate ...
The mucus barrier regulates bacterial colonization. The mucus layer creates a habitat for commensal bacterial colonization. ... The fimbrial adhesin F17-G of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli has an immunoglobulin-like lectin domain that binds N- ... 2: The mucus barrier functions to modulate bacterial colonization.. a The mucus barrier forms a fundamental niche for gut ... which restricts bacterial motility and confers spatial organization of bacterial populations. As a result, bacteria are ...
ADHESINS BACT. Entry Term(s). Adhesin, Bacterial Adhesins, Fimbrial Bacterial Adhesin Bacterial Adhesins Fimbrial Adhesins ... Bacterial Proteins [D12.776.097] * Antigens, Bacterial [D12.776.097.025] * Adhesins, Bacterial [D12.776.097.025.050] * Adhesins ... Antigens, Bacterial [D23.050.161] * Adhesins, Bacterial [D23.050.161.050] * Adhesins, Escherichia coli [D23.] ... Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins [D12.776.097.120] * Adhesins, Bacterial [D12.776.097.120.050] * Adhesins, Escherichia coli [ ...
Several mutations affect genes involved in bacterial adhesion. These might affect persistence of infection in cattle, quantity ... mainly adhesins. These changes may have greatly altered the adhesive properties of the bacteria. Possible consequences include ... IMPORTANCE Food-borne bacterial infections cause substantial illness and death. Understanding how bacteria contaminate food and ...
Pertussis acellular (aP) vaccines, containing pertussis toxoid (PT) and one, two or four bacterial adhesins, were developed- ...
In summary, the GAS surface adhesin Scl1 may have an important role in biofilm-associated pathogenicity. ... Microorganisms; Bacteria; Bacterial-infections; Bacteriology; Bacterial-cultures; In-vitro-studies. Contact. Slawomir Lukomski ...
But when the first chaperoned subunit, the adhesin, arrives, it causes a dramatic conformational change that unplugs the pore ... The bacterial protein transport channel in its resting closed state (green) and the activated open state (blue). The channel is ... Bacterial Protein Caught in the Act of Secreting Sticky Appendages. Atomic-level structural images and mechanism suggest new ... "This large conformational rearrangement in the translocation channel upon activation by adhesin-chaperone is unprecedented for ...
... coli are often initiated by binding of the bacteria to the host cell surface via specific bacterial adhesins. Binding of ... All bacterial isolates were microbiologically identified in the microbiology laboratory of the hospital using standard ... fimbrial adhesins enabling bacteria to adhere to host cells. Type 1 fimbriae were the adhesins first described in E. coli [6]. ... Among the bacterial causes of diarrhoea, diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli is the most important etiologic agent of childrens ...
Two kmers mapping at a position near 0.2 Mb in the PYO2014 reference genome showed homology to platelet adhesin sraP by BLAST. ... even when the full bacterial genome is considered. Bacterial GWAS can pinpoint virulence variants when MGEs act to unravel ... To understand the bacterial genetic basis of pyomyositis, we sampled and whole-genome sequenced S. aureus from 101 pyomyositis ... For each bacterial culture, a single colony was sub-cultured and DNA was extracted from the sub-cultured plate using a ...
How do they stick together? Bacterial adhesins implicated in the binding of bacteria to the human gastrointestinal mucins. ...
Bacterial Adhesins and Lectins Infection by bacteria is generally initiated by the specific recognition of host epithelial ... The human targets for bacterial adhesins and lectins are mostly fucosylated human histo-blood group and/or sialylated epitopes ... Defining the biological role of bacterial adhesins and lectins together with their structure and specificity is a prerequisite ... Bacterial Toxins Toxigenic bacteria, which include some species of Escherichia, Shigella, Vibrio, and Clostridium, release ...
Adhesin, Bacterial. Adhesins, Fimbrial. Bacterial Adhesin. Bacterial Adhesins. Fimbrial Adhesins. Tree number(s):. D12.776. ... Adhesins, Bacterial Entry term(s). Adhesin, Bacterial Bacterial Adhesin Bacterial Adhesins Fimbrial Adhesins - Narrower Concept ... Adhesins, Bacterial - Preferred Concept UI. M0028184. Scope note. Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that ... Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit ...
Biblioteca Central de la Facultad de Agronomía - ...
ADHESINS BACT. Entry Term(s). Adhesin, Bacterial Adhesins, Fimbrial Bacterial Adhesin Bacterial Adhesins Fimbrial Adhesins ... Bacterial Proteins [D12.776.097] * Antigens, Bacterial [D12.776.097.025] * Adhesins, Bacterial [D12.776.097.025.050] * Adhesins ... Antigens, Bacterial [D23.050.161] * Adhesins, Bacterial [D23.050.161.050] * Adhesins, Escherichia coli [D23.] ... Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins [D12.776.097.120] * Adhesins, Bacterial [D12.776.097.120.050] * Adhesins, Escherichia coli [ ...
In contrast, ingress of Bacillus subtilis, lacking adhesins, was unaltered by mannan showing motility comparable to bulk ... Copolymers enhance selective bacterial community colonization for potential root zone applications. Vy T.H. Pham, Pandiyan ... Copolymers enhance selective bacterial community colonization for potential root zone applications. In: Scientific Reports. ... Copolymers enhance selective bacterial community colonization for potential root zone applications. / Pham, Vy T.H.; Murugaraj ...
1963 Pathogenesis of bacterial endocarditis. JAMA 183 249 252. 27. LebretonF. Riboulet-BissonE ... Ace is an adhesin to collagen from Enterococcus faecalis expressed conditionally after growth in serum or in the presence of ... Ace is an adhesin to collagen from Enterococcus faecalis expressed conditionally after growth in serum or in the presence of ... Importance of the Collagen Adhesin Ace in Pathogenesis and Protection against Experimental Endocarditis English version České ...
  • Most Opa proteins engage human carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules (CEACAMs) to facilitate bacterial binding and invasion. (nih.gov)
  • Additional, but more limited, research of cranberry because of its inhibition of bacterial adhesion and antioxidant properties has been conducted for other infectious diseases and other conditions. (nih.gov)
  • Adhesion of bacteria to glycosylated cells and surfaces is largely facilitated through adhesive organells projecting from the bacterial surface, which are called fimbriae. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion ( BACTERIAL ADHESION ) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin ( BIOFILMS ) is distinct from protein adhesin. (nih.gov)
  • Lo que en ocasiones se denomina adhesina polimérica (BIOFILMS) es distinta de la adhesina proteica. (bvsalud.org)
  • The formation of sticky, multicellular bacterial agglomerations called biofilms dramatically complicates the treatment of staphylococcal infections. (nih.gov)
  • Pneumococcal surface adhesin A (PsaA) is a genetically conserved, surface-expressed protein common to all serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae and is highly immunogenic. (nih.gov)
  • In summary, the GAS surface adhesin Scl1 may have an important role in biofilm-associated pathogenicity. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection by bacteria is often initiated by the specific recognition of host epithelial surfaces by adhesins and lectins. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Most fimbriae ( FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL ) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. (nih.gov)
  • In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial adhesins implicated in the binding of bacteria to the human gastrointestinal mucins. (bvsalud.org)
  • In humans, it has been found that there are about ten times as many bacterial cells inside the human body as there are human cells, with large numbers of bacteria lining the gastrointestinal tract and living on the skin. (microbiologyinpictures.com)
  • The most common fatal bacterial infectious diseases are respiratory infections, with tuberculosis (caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis ) killing approximately two million people each year, generally in sub-Saharan Africa. (microbiologyinpictures.com)
  • Bacterial infections can be caused by a wide range of bacteria which can lead to mild illness to life-threatening illnesses (like bacterial meningitis ), which require immediate hospital interventions. (microbiologyinpictures.com)
  • 8] Although bacteria‐mediated antitumor therapy (BMAT) appeared earlier than radiotherapy or chemotherapy,[9] the inability to control bacterial infection limited its clinical application at that time. (sagepub.com)
  • 9a,13] 2) Intratumoral penetration: the bacterial flagella allow them move autonomously to penetrate the tumor mass.[14] 3) Tumor colonization, immune suppression in the tumor microenvironment allowed these bacteria to accumulate in tumors, but it will be eliminated by the immune system in normal tissues. (sagepub.com)
  • In this study, we hypothesized that the receptor-binding capability of individual Opa proteins impacts bacterial survival in the presence of neutrophils. (nih.gov)
  • Our findings indicate that the extent to which Opa proteins mediate nonopsonic binding is the predominant determinant of bacterial survival from neutrophils. (nih.gov)
  • The analysis of the available crystal structures of bacterial lectins and adhesins helps deciphering the structure/function relationship for this important class of proteins. (eurekaselect.com)
  • This large conformational rearrangement in the translocation channel upon activation by adhesin-chaperone is unprecedented for these barrel proteins, which until now were considered rigid structures," Li said. (bnl.gov)
  • 19] 7) Specific proteins and surface markers can enable the visualization of the delivery of antitumor therapies by imaging the abundant proteins on the bacterial surface allow them to be combined with a variety of therapies. (sagepub.com)
  • Many surface components of N. gonorrhoeae are phase variable, including the Opa protein family of adhesins and invasins. (nih.gov)
  • The outer membrane protein intimin is required for the formation of this structure, as is Tir, a bacterial protein that is translocated into the host cell and is thought to function as a receptor for intimin. (nih.gov)
  • Like many adhesins, FimH is a two-domain protein consisting of a pilin domain, that anchors FimH to the fimbrial shaft, and a distal, N-terminal lectin domain, harboring the carbohydrate binding pocket. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The bacterial protein transport channel in its resting closed state (green) and the activated open state (blue). (bnl.gov)
  • At the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility in Grenoble, France, the Washington University/UK group determined the atomic-level crystal structure of the entire transporter protein, known as an "usher," bound to the sticky adhesin subunit that forms the end of a pilus and another helper protein, called a chaperone, that shuttles the pilus subunits to the usher one at a time. (bnl.gov)
  • For comparison [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/M._pneumoniae ''M. pneumoniae''] has 677 protein coding sequences, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haemophilus_influenzae ''H. influenzae''] has 1703, and ''E. coli'' K-12 has 4,288. (kenyon.edu)
  • This cluster contains four adhesins, one outer-membrane protein, one sensor histidine kinase and two transcriptional regulators. (pasteur.fr)
  • Acute pyelonephritis is a bacterial infection of the kidney parenchyma that can be organ- and/or life-threatening and that often leads to scarring of the kidney. (medscape.com)
  • Pyomyositis is a severe bacterial infection of skeletal muscle, commonly affecting children in tropical regions, predominantly caused by Staphylococcus aureus . (elifesciences.org)
  • How Does Bacterial Invasion Lead to an Infection? (microbiologyinpictures.com)
  • Thus, the presence of SAP can increase virulence in bacterial infection models. (healthdisparitiesks.org)
  • Inactivation of BCAM0224 in B. cenocepacia attenuates the ability of the mutant to promote cell adherence in vitro and impairs the overall bacterial virulence against Galleria mellonella as a model of infection. (pasteur.fr)
  • Using genome-wide transcriptional profiling, we have shown that gene-regulated processes in an S. epidermidis biofilm lead to a non-aggressive and protected form of bacterial growth with low metabolic activity, optimally suited to guarantee long-term survival during chronic infection and resistance to antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • 1) Tumor targeting:[12] the hypoxic TME can preferentially induce bacterial colonization, while the necrotic tumor center provides abundant nutrients for bacterial growth and reproduction. (sagepub.com)
  • Bacterial colonization of sutures might lead to bacteremia and has been reported to contribute to post-surgical complications in dentoalveolar and periodontal surgeries (1). (ac.ir)
  • Bacterial adhesins attach their hosts to surfaces through one or more ligand-binding domains. (rcsb.org)
  • Even when several UTIs in a row are due to E. coli, slight differences in the bacterial strains indicate distinct infections. (nih.gov)
  • We after that likened SAP binding to to SAP binding to non-pathogenic lab strains of W303-1B changed with a clear vector (pJL1) (hereinafter, adhesin Als5p (((20, 21). (healthdisparitiesks.org)
  • Two trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAA) among the 13 putative antigens are absent from the other Burkholderia genomes and are clustered downstream of the cci island that is a marker for transmissible B. cenocepacia strains. (pasteur.fr)
  • cell surface adhesins form amyloid-like nanodomains (8). (healthdisparitiesks.org)
  • The amyloid connections are useful, in the feeling that amyloid-forming capability can be an important section of adhesin activity and it is evolutionarily conserved in fungal adhesins plus some bacterial adhesins (10). (healthdisparitiesks.org)
  • Fibrillar amyloid adhesins are an important and common structural motif in biofilm architecture. (wustl.edu)
  • These findings underscore how the ability of N. gonorrhoeae to change Opa expression through phase variation contributes to bacterial resistance to neutrophil clearance. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial translocation. (lookformedical.com)
  • Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. (lookformedical.com)
  • Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION. (lookformedical.com)
  • Under normal circumstances, people are protected against bacterial infections by a healthy immune system . (microbiologyinpictures.com)
  • Antimicrobial peptides are a key part of innate host defense to bacterial infections. (nih.gov)
  • But when the first chaperoned subunit, the adhesin, arrives, it causes a dramatic conformational change that unplugs the pore and changes its shape from an oval to nearly circular. (bnl.gov)
  • Polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA). (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial spores and various derived vesicles can also be used for cancer therapy. (sagepub.com)
  • But the scientists were still not sure how the transporter protein's various parts worked to "recruit" and bring together the many subunits that make up the pili - or how it assembled and moved these structures through the membrane to the bacterial cell's surface. (bnl.gov)
  • Here we have recombinantly expressed one such ~20-kDa domain from the ~340-kDa adhesin found in Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, an oil-degrading bacterium. (rcsb.org)
  • The adhesins are part of organelles, they are generally located at the tip of pili or fimbriae. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Our results establish staphylococcal pyomyositis, like tetanus and diphtheria, as critically dependent on a single toxin and demonstrate the potential for association studies to identify specific bacterial genes promoting severe human disease. (elifesciences.org)
  • A significant portion of its genome is devoted to the transport of nutrients from its host such as glucose and fructose, as well as genes for attachment organelles, adhesins, and antigenic variation to evade the host immune system. (kenyon.edu)
  • The Tir-binding region of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli intimin is sufficient to trigger actin condensation after bacterial-induced host cell signalling. (nih.gov)
  • To develop a phage therapy against a diverse range of clinically relevant Escherichia coli , we screened a library of 162 wild-type (WT) phages, identifying eight phages with broad coverage of E. coli , complementary binding to bacterial surface receptors, and the capability to stably carry inserted cargo. (nature.com)
  • RÉSUMÉ Les souches d'Escherichia coli diarrh←og│nes peuvent ↑tre consid←r←es comme les agents ←tiologiques les plus importants ¢ l'origine de diarrh←es en R←publique islamique d'Iran, notamment chez l'enfant. (who.int)
  • The human targets for bacterial adhesins and lectins are mostly fucosylated human histo-blood groups and/or sialylated epitopes. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Direct physical contact of bacterial species with its neighboring co-habitants within microbial community could initiate signaling cascade and achieve modulation of gene expression in accordance with different species it is in contact with. (frontiersin.org)
  • The presence of mannan chains within synthetic polyacrylic acid (PAA) enhanced the dynamics and selectivity of bacterial ingress in model microbial systems and soil microcosms. (edu.au)
  • Bacterial diversity was markedly higher in mannan containing hydrogels compared to both control polymer and soil, indicating enhanced selectivity towards microbial families that contain plant beneficial species. (edu.au)
  • The result of laboratory testing for the sensitivity of an isolated bacterial strain to different antibiotics. (nih.gov)
  • 18] 6) The choice of a commensal or probiotic bacterial strain will help ensure biocompatibility. (sagepub.com)
  • In this case, heating for sufficient time at a temperature adequate to decrease GBS bacterial counts might not have been reached. (cdc.gov)
  • Our work shows that Opa-dependent differences in bacterial survival after exposure to primary human neutrophils correlates with Opa-dependent bacterial binding and phagocytosis. (nih.gov)
  • To understand the contribution of bacterial genomic factors to pyomyositis, we conducted a genome-wide association study of S. aureus cultured from 101 children with pyomyositis and 417 children with asymptomatic nasal carriage attending the Angkor Hospital for Children, Cambodia. (elifesciences.org)
  • Ace is an adhesin to collagen from Enterococcus faecalis expressed conditionally after growth in serum or in the presence of collagen. (prelekara.sk)
  • Chronic periodontitis is a common oral disease with diverse bacterial etiology. (ac.ir)
  • 9. Non-proteinaceous bacterial adhesins challenge the antifouling properties of polymer brush coatings. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to communication through cell-cell contact, quorum sensing (QS) mediated by small signaling molecules such as competence-stimulating peptides (CSPs) and autoinducer-2 (AI-2), plays essential roles in bacterial physiology and ecology. (frontiersin.org)
  • Objective: To detect the presence and transmission of S. mutans carrier of the spaP gene in samples of bacterial plaque in mother/child pairs from municipal child education centers, and the possible association with dental caries. (bvsalud.org)
  • Plates for aerobic & anaerobic bacterial cultures were incubated in blood agar & Brain-Heart infusion agar respectively.Following incubation period, the bacterial inhibitory halos were measured in millimeters. (ac.ir)