Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate: 5'-Adenylic acid, monoanhydride with imidodiphosphoric acid. An analog of ATP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It is a potent competitive inhibitor of soluble and membrane-bound mitochondrial ATPase and also inhibits ATP-dependent reactions of oxidative phosphorylation.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Guanine NucleotidesGuanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Sodium Fluoride: A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Tablets: Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)ATP Binding Cassette Transporter 1: A superfamily of large integral ATP-binding cassette membrane proteins whose expression pattern is consistent with a role in lipid (cholesterol) efflux. It is implicated in TANGIER DISEASE characterized by accumulation of cholesteryl ester in various tissues.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Phospholipid Transfer Proteins: A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Eukaryotic Initiation Factor-4A: A component of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F that as an RNA helicase involved in unwinding the secondary structure of the 5' UNTRANSLATED REGION of MRNA. The unwinding facilitates the binding of the 40S ribosomal subunit.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Nonsense Mediated mRNA Decay: An mRNA metabolic process that distinguishes a normal STOP CODON from a premature stop codon (NONSENSE CODON) and facilitates rapid degradation of aberrant mRNAs containing premature stop codons.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Benzodioxoles: Compounds based on benzene fused to oxole. They can be formed from methylated CATECHOLS such as EUGENOL.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Oxaloacetic Acid: A dicarboxylic acid ketone that is an important metabolic intermediate of the CITRIC ACID CYCLE. It can be converted to ASPARTIC ACID by ASPARTATE TRANSAMINASE.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.DNA-Activated Protein Kinase: A serine-threonine protein kinase that, when activated by DNA, phosphorylates several DNA-binding protein substrates including the TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53 and a variety of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Aster Plant: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Nanofibers: Submicron-sized fibers with diameters typically between 50 and 500 nanometers. The very small dimension of these fibers can generate a high surface area to volume ratio, which makes them potential candidates for various biomedical and other applications.

Membrane deinsertion of SecA underlying proton motive force-dependent stimulation of protein translocation. (1/521)

The proton motive force (PMF) renders protein translocation across the Escherichia coli membrane highly efficient, although the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. The membrane insertion and deinsertion of SecA coupled to ATP binding and hydrolysis, respectively, are thought to drive the translocation. We report here that PMF significantly decreases the level of membrane-inserted SecA. The prlA4 mutation of SecY, which causes efficient protein translocation in the absence of PMF, was found to reduce the membrane-inserted SecA irrespective of the presence or absence of PMF. The PMF-dependent decrease in the membrane-inserted SecA caused an increase in the amount of SecA released into the extra-membrane milieu, indicating that PMF deinserts SecA from the membrane. The PMF-dependent deinsertion reduced the amount of SecA required for maximal translocation activity. Neither ATP hydrolysis nor exchange with external SecA was required for the PMF-dependent deinsertion of SecA. These results indicate that the SecA deinsertion is a limiting step of protein translocation and is accelerated by PMF, efficient protein translocation thereby being caused in the presence of PMF.  (+info)

Dual actions of the metabolic inhibitor, sodium azide on K(ATP) channel currents in the rat CRI-G1 insulinoma cell line. (2/521)

1. The effects of various inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain on the activity of ATP-sensitive K+ channels were examined in the Cambridge rat insulinoma G1 (CRI-G1) cell line using a combination of whole cell and single channel recording techniques. 2. Whole cell current clamp recordings, with 5 mM ATP in the pipette, demonstrate that the mitochondrial uncoupler sodium azide (3 mM) rapidly hyperpolarizes CRI-G1 cells with a concomitant increase in K+ conductance. This is due to activation of K(ATP) channels as the sulphonylurea tolbutamide (100 microM) completely reversed the actions of azide. Other inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, rotenone (10 microM) or oligomycin (2 microM) did not hyperpolarize CRI-G1 cells or increase K+ conductance. 3. In cell-attached recordings, bath application of 3 mM sodium azide (in the absence of glucose) resulted in a rapid increase in K(ATP) channel activity, an action readily reversible by tolbutamide (100 microM). Application of sodium azide (3 mM), in the presence of Mg-ATP, to the intracellular surface of excised inside-out patches also increased K(ATP) channel activity, in a reversible manner. 4. In contrast, rotenone (10 microM) or oligomycin (2 microM) did not increase K(ATP) channel activity in either cell-attached, in the absence of glucose, or inside-out membrane patch recordings. 5. Addition of sodium azide (3 mM) to the intracellular surface of inside-out membrane patches in the presence of Mg-free ATP or the non-hydrolysable analogue 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) inhibited, rather than increased, K(ATP) channel activity. 6. In conclusion, sodium azide, but not rotenone or oligomycin, directly activates K(ATP) channels in CRI-G1 insulin secreting cells. This action of azide is similar to that reported previously for diazoxide.  (+info)

ATP inhibition of a mouse brain large-conductance K+ (mslo) channel variant by a mechanism independent of protein phosphorylation. (3/521)

1. We investigated the effect of ATP in the regulation of two closely related cloned mouse brain large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium (BK) channel alpha-subunit variants, expressed in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293) cells, using the excised inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. 2. The mB2 BK channel alpha-subunit variant expressed alone was potently inhibited by application of ATP to the intracellular surface of the patch with an IC50 of 30 microM. The effect of ATP was largely independent of protein phosphorylation events as the effect of ATP was mimicked by the non-hydrolysable analogue 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) and the inhibitory effect of ATPgammaS was reversible. 3. In contrast, under identical conditions, direct nucleotide inhibition was not observed in the closely related mouse brain BK channel alpha-subunit variant mbr5. Furthermore, direct nucleotide regulation was not observed when mB2 was functionally coupled to regulatory beta-subunits. 4. These data suggest that the mB2 alpha-subunit splice variant could provide a dynamic link between cellular metabolism and cell excitability.  (+info)

ATP counteracts the rundown of gap junctional channels of rat ventricular myocytes by promoting protein phosphorylation. (4/521)

1. The degree of cell-to-cell coupling between ventricular myocytes of neonatal rats appeared well preserved when studied in the perforated version of the patch clamp technique or, in double whole-cell conditions, when ATP was present in the patch pipette solution. In contrast, when ATP was omitted, the amplitude of junctional current rapidly declined (rundown). 2. To examine the mechanism(s) of ATP action, an 'internal perfusion technique' was adapted to dual patch clamp conditions, and reintroduction of ATP partially reversed the rundown of junctional channels. 3. Cell-to-cell communication was not preserved by a non-hydrolysable ATP analogue (5'-adenylimidodiphosphate, AMP-PNP), indicating that the effect most probably did not involve direct interaction of ATP with the channel-forming proteins. 4. An ATP analogue supporting protein phosphorylation but not active transport processes (adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate), ATPgammaS) maintained normal intercellular communication, suggesting that the effect was due to kinase activity rather than to altered intracellular Ca2+. 5. A broad spectrum inhibitor of endogenous serine/threonine protein kinases (H7) reversibly reduced the intercellular coupling. A non-specific exogenous protein phosphatase (alkaline phosphatase) mimicked the effects of ATP deprivation. The non-specific inhibition of endogenous protein phosphatases resulted in the preservation of substantial cell-to-cell communication in ATP-free conditions. 6. The activity of gap junctional channels appears to require both the presence of ATP and protein kinase activity to counteract the tonic activity of endogenous phosphatase(s).  (+info)

Analysis of DNA cleavage by reverse gyrase from Sulfolobus shibatae B12. (5/521)

Reverse gyrase is a type I-5' topoisomerase, which catalyzes a positive DNA supercoiling reaction in vitro. To ascertain how this reaction takes places, we looked at the DNA sequences recognized by reverse gyrase. We used linear DNA fragments of its preferred substrate, the viral SSV1 DNA, which has been shown to be positively supercoiled in vivo. The Sulfolobus shibatae B12 strain, an SSV1 virus host, was chosen for production of reverse gyrase. This naturally occurring system (SSV1 DNA-S. shibatae reverse gyrase) allowed us to determine which SSV1 DNA sequences are bound and cleaved by the enzyme with particularly high selectivity. We show that the presence of ATP decreases the number of cleaved complexes obtained whereas the non-hydrolyzable ATP analog adenosine 5'-[beta, gamma-imido]triphosphate increases it without changing the sequence specificity.  (+info)

Motile properties of the kinesin-related Cin8p spindle motor extracted from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells. (6/521)

We have developed microtubule binding and motility assays for Cin8p, a kinesin-related mitotic spindle motor protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The methods examine Cin8p rapidly purified from crude yeast cell extracts. We created a recombinant form of CIN8 that fused the biotin carrying polypeptide from yeast pyruvate carboxylase to the carboxyl terminus of Cin8p. This form was biotinated in yeast cells and provided Cin8p activity in vivo. Avidin-coated glass surfaces were used to specifically bind biotinated Cin8p from crude extracts. Microtubules bound to the Cin8p-coated surfaces and moved at 3.4 +/- 0.5 micrometer/min in the presence of ATP. Force production by Cin8p was directed toward the plus ends of microtubules. A mutation affecting the microtubule-binding site within the motor domain (cin8-F467A) decreased Cin8p's ability to bind microtubules to the glass surface by >10-fold, but reduced gliding velocity by only 35%. The cin8-3 mutant form, affecting the alpha2 helix of the motor domain, caused a moderate defect in microtubule binding, but motility was severely affected. cin8-F467A cells, but not cin8-3 cells, were greatly impaired in bipolar spindle forming ability. We conclude that microtubule binding by Cin8p is more important than motility for proper spindle formation.  (+info)

Crystal structures of complexes of PcrA DNA helicase with a DNA substrate indicate an inchworm mechanism. (7/521)

We have determined two different structures of PcrA DNA helicase complexed with the same single strand tailed DNA duplex, providing snapshots of different steps on the catalytic pathway. One of the structures is of a complex with a nonhydrolyzable analog of ATP and is thus a "substrate" complex. The other structure contains a bound sulphate ion that sits in a position equivalent to that occupied by the phosphate ion produced after ATP hydrolysis, thereby mimicking a "product" complex. In both complexes, the protein is monomeric. Large and distinct conformational changes occur on binding DNA and the nucleotide cofactor. Taken together, these structures provide evidence against an "active rolling" model for helicase action but are instead consistent with an "inchworm" mechanism.  (+info)

Transformation of MutL by ATP binding and hydrolysis: a switch in DNA mismatch repair. (8/521)

The MutL DNA mismatch repair protein has recently been shown to be an ATPase and to belong to an emerging ATPase superfamily that includes DNA topoisomerase II and Hsp90. We report here the crystal structures of a 40 kDa ATPase fragment of E. coli MutL (LN40) complexed with a substrate analog, ADPnP, and with product ADP. More than 60 residues that are disordered in the apoprotein structure become ordered and contribute to both ADPnP binding and dimerization of LN40. Hydrolysis of ATP, signified by subsequent release of the gamma-phosphate, releases two key loops and leads to dissociation of the LN40 dimer. Dimerization of the LN40 region is required for and is the rate-limiting step in ATP hydrolysis by MutL. The ATPase activity of MutL is stimulated by DNA and likely acts as a switch to coordinate DNA mismatch repair.  (+info)

1CDK: Phosphotransferase and substrate binding mechanism of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit from porcine heart as deduced from the 2.0 A structure of the complex with Mn2+ adenylyl imidodiphosphate and inhibitor peptide PKI(5-24).
In the previously determined structure of mitochondrial F1-ATPase determined with crystals grown in the presence of adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) and ADP, the three catalytic beta-subunits have different conformations and nucleotide occupancies. AMP-PNP and ADP are bound to subunits beta TP and beta DP, respectively, and the third beta-subunit (beta E) has no bound nucleotide. The efrapeptins are a closely related family of modified linear peptides containing 15 amino acids that inhibit both ATP synthesis and hydrolysis by binding to the F1 catalytic domain of F1F0-ATP synthase. In crystals of F1-ATPase grown in the presence of both nucleotides and inhibitor, efrapeptin is bound to a unique site in the central cavity of the enzyme. Its binding is associated with small structural changes in side chains of F1-ATPase around the binding pocket. Efrapeptin makes hydrophobic contacts with the alpha-helical structure in the gamma-subunit, which traverses the cavity, and with subunit beta E and ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Sodium atom in PDB 1nhj: Crystal Structure of N-Terminal 40KD Mutl/A100P Mutant Protein Complex With Adpnp and One Sodium
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of myosin V binding to brain vesicles. AU - Miller, Kyle E.. AU - Sheetz, Michael. PY - 2000/1/28. Y1 - 2000/1/28. N2 - Myosin II and V are important for the generation and segregation of subcellular compartments. We observed that vesicular myosin II and V were associated with the protein scaffolding of a common subset of vesicles by density sedimentation, electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Solubilization of either myosin II or V was caused by polyphosphates with the following efficacy at 10 mM: for myosin II ATP-Mg2+ = ATP = AMP-PNP (5- adenylyl imidodiphosphate) , pyrophosphate = tripolyphosphate ,, tetrapolyphosphate = ADP , cAMP = Mg2+; and for myosin V pyrophosphate = tripolyphosphate , ATP-Mg2+ = ATP = AMP-PNP ,, ADP = tetrapolyphosphate , cAMP = Mg2+. Consequently, we suggest solubilization was not an effect of phosphorylation, hydrolysis, or disassociation of myosin from actin filaments. Scatchard analysis of myosin V binding to stripped dense ...
The mitochondrial pool of Hsp90 and its mitochondrial paralog, TRAP1, suppresses cell death and reprograms energy metabolism in cancer cells; therefore, Hsp90 and TRAP1 have been suggested as target proteins for anticancer drug development. Here, we report that the actual target protein in cancer cell mitochondria is TRAP1, not Hsp90, and current Hsp90 inhibitors cannot effectively inactivate TRAP1 due to insufficient accumulation in the mitochondria. To develop mitochondrial TRAP1 inhibitors, we determined the crystal structures of human TRAP1 complexed with Hsp90 inhibitors. The isopropyl amine of the Hsp90 inhibitor PU-H71 was replaced with the mitochondria-targeting moiety triphenylphosphonium to produce SMTIN-P01. SMTIN-P01 showed a different mode of action from the non-targeted PU-H71, as well as much improved cytotoxicity to cancer cells. In addition, we determined the structure of a TRAP1-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) complex. Based on comparative analysis of TRAP1 structures, we ...
The properties of stretch-activated K+ channels in the membrane of loach (Misgurnus fossilis) embryos were studied using the patch-clamp technique. It was found that in the early stages of embryogenesis (2-256 cells) the stretch sensitivity of stretch-activated (SA) channels changes dramatically during the cell cleavage cycle. At the beginning of interphase the stretch sensitivity of SA channels and the probability of being in the open state (P0) were minimal, whereas at prometaphase they were increased 10-100-fold. Application of ATP to the cytoplasmic surface of excised inside-out patches induced a reversible increase in resting P0 and of stretch sensitivity of the SA channels in 50% of the patches, but the non-hydrolysable analogue of ATP, 5-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), was not effective. Phosphatase inhibitors (orthovanadate and para-nitrophenyl phosphate) prolonged the effect of ATP. Combined application of ATP, cAMP and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK) induced a reversible ...
Thawed, combined with an excess of porcine microtubules and 1 mM AMPPNP, and centrifuged at 100,0006g for 15 minutes at room temperature. 5 mM ATP and 200 mM
BR-4935: cardiotonic; a non-adenosine analog adenosine1-receptor agonist with a substituted 2-thio-3,5-dicyano-4-phenyl-6-aminopyrine
1BWF: Crystal structures of Escherichia coli glycerol kinase variant S58W in complex with nonhydrolyzable ATP analogues reveal a putative active conformation of the enzyme as a result of domain motion.
Sản phẩm Pre Ampli hifi mới, chính hãng được phân phối và bán tại Audiohanoi với giá tốt nhất thị trường hiện nay.,Pre-amplifiers Hi-fi,Showroom Audiohanoi - Đại lý phân...
Sản phẩm Pre Ampli hifi mới, chính hãng được phân phối và bán tại Audiohanoi với giá tốt nhất thị trường hiện nay.,Pre-amplifiers Hi-fi,Showroom Audiohanoi - Đại lý phân...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Variably modulated gating of the 26S proteasome by ATP and polyubiquitin. AU - Li, Xiaohua. AU - DeMartino, George N.. PY - 2009/8/1. Y1 - 2009/8/1. N2 - The 26S proteasome is a 2500 kDa protease complex that degrades polyubiquitylated proteins by a mechanism that requires ATP hydrolysis. It also degrades short non-ubiquitylated peptides and certain unstructured proteins by an energy-independent mechanism that requires bound ATP to maintain its component subcomplexes, the 20S proteasome and PA700, in a functionally assembled state. Proteolysis of both types of substrate requires PA700-induced opening of reversible gates at substrate-access pores of the 20S proteasome. In the present study we demonstrate that the rate of peptide substrate hydrolysis, a functional monitor of gate opening, is regulated variably by multiple effectors. ATPγ S (adenosine 5′-[γ -thio]triphosphate) and other non-hydrolysable ATP analogues increased peptide substrate hydrolysis by intact 26S ...
In the presence of DNA damage, the protein kinase Chk1 can effect cell cycle arrest. Chen et al. determined the crystal structure of the Chk1 kinase domain (Chk1KD), and have uncovered some of its regulatory mechanisms. In the presence or absence of the nonhydrolyzable analog AMP-PNP, no conformational change was observed in the Chk1KD ATP binding site, catalytic residues, or activation loop. Therefore, the conformation of Chk1KD approximates its activated ATP-bound state, and Chk1 does not appear to require activation loop phosphorylation before activity. The authors determined that the regulation of Chk1 may be controlled by its COOH-terminal region; the kinase activity of Chk1KD was 20 times that of full-length Chk1, and autophosphorylation of full-length Chk1 did not inherently affect its kinase activity. The authors speculate on the role of the COOH-terminus in autoinhibition. The crystal structure of the linker region between the kinase domain and the COOH-terminal region indicates that, ...
Se conoce como acto locucionario al acto de decir algo. En este tipo de acto, se puede distinguir tres elemento: el acto fonético, el acto fático y el acto rético. Ejemplo: Acto: Pedir. Vicodin trouble urinating Profesora, no pude terminar el trabajo, "¿Lo puedo entregar la próxima clase?" - Acto: Conceder. Ejemplo: "Sí. Swim apologizes if this comes to no use for swiy, however, if You is worried that difficulty urinating is uncommon, I want to stress that its literally the most common side effect of opiates.. (in swims opinion) so dont worry. She hopes this reply has been a help to swiy, and she apologizes for the length- but she. does anyone know why this happens? the first time it happened to me i was on oxycontin and it took me like 20 minutes to be able to pee! now i am on vicodin because of some dental work i need done next week - and im having the same problem! what gives? (sorry if this grosses anyone out, but i have to Kidney pain after opiate detox.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The regulation of ATPase-ATPase interactions in sarcoplasmic reticulum membrane. I. The effects of Ca2+, ATP, and inorganic phosphate.. AU - Dux, L.. AU - Martonosi, A.. PY - 1983/10/10. Y1 - 1983/10/10. N2 - Two-dimensional crystalline arrays of Ca2+-ATPase molecules develop after treatment of sarcoplasmic reticulum vesicles with Na3VO4 in calcium-free medium (Dux, L., and Martonosi, A. (1983) J. Biol. Chem. 258, 2599-2603). The formation of Ca2+-ATPase crystals is inhibited by Ca2+ (2 microM), or ATP (5 mM), but not by ADP, 5-adenylylimidodiphosphate, or adenylylmethylenediphosphonate. ATPase crystals did not form at 37 degrees C and exposure of preformed crystals to 37 degrees C for 1 h caused the disappearance of crystal lattice. Inorganic orthophosphate (1 mM at pH 6.0) promoted the formation of a distinct crystal form of Ca2+-ATPase, which was different from that produced by Na3VO4. These observations indicate that Ca2+, ATP, inorganic phosphate, pH, and temperature ...
In cultured intact LLC-PK1 renal epithelial cells, a nonhydrolyzable ATP analogue, ATP gamma S, inhibits AVP-stimulated cAMP formation. In LLC-PK1 membranes, several ATP analogues inhibit basal, GTP-, forskolin-, and AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner. The rank order potency of inhibition by ATP analogues suggests that a P2y type of ATP receptor is involved in this inhibition. The compound ATP gamma S inhibits agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in solubilized and in isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and quinacrine pretreated membranes, suggesting that ATP gamma S inhibition occurs independent of AVP and A1 adenosine receptors and of phospholipase A2 activity. The ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is not affected by pertussis toxin but is attenuated by GDP beta S, suggesting a possible role for a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein in the inhibition. Exposure of intact LLC-PK cells to ATP gamma S results in a significant ...
OMEXXEL được phân phối bởi RELI USA, là một công ty chuyên cung cấp có định hướng các loại sản phẩm về dinh dưỡng và mỹ phẩm được nhập khẩu từ Hoa Kỳ do Công ty ExxelUSA sản xuất
11.Mi Cadaver.. Tribulacion Prod & Sylphorium Rec present a brutal cassette with 9 tecnical tracks under the fury a grotesque voice and emanations of dross, are 40 minutes of intense and sick Death metal.....simply brutal !!!. ...
Kinesin 5B兔多克隆抗体(ab5629)可与小鼠, 大鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, IP, ICC/IF实验严格验证,被5篇文献引用并得到2个独立的用户反馈。
Evidence has been presented for the existence in rat liver of P2-purinoceptors which are involved in the control of glycogenolysis. Isolated rat hepatocytes and purified liver plasma membranes have been used to study the binding of the ATP analogue adenosine 5′-[alpha- [35S]thio]triphosphate (ATP alpha [35S]) to these postulated P2-purinoceptors. The nucleotide analogue behaves as a full agonist for the activation of glycogen phosphorylase in isolated hepatocytes, 0.3 microM being required for half-maximal activation. Specific binding of ATP alpha [35S] to hepatocytes and plasma membranes occurs within 1 min and is essentially reversible. The analysis of the dose-dependency at equilibrium indicates the presence of binding sites with Kd of 0.23 microM with hepatocytes and Kd of 0.11 microM with plasma membranes. The relative affinities of 10 nucleotide analogues were deduced from competition experiments for ATP alpha [35S] binding to hepatocytes, and these correlated highly with their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Identification of a DNA supercoiling activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. AU - Koo, Hyeon Sook. AU - Lau, Kawai. AU - Wu, Hai Young. AU - Liu, Leroy-Fong. PY - 1992/10/11. Y1 - 1992/10/11. N2 - A relaxed plasmid DNA is shown to become positively supercoiled in cell extracts from top1 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This positive supercoiling activity is dependent on the presence of bacterial DNA topoisomerase I and ATP (or dATP), and the positive supercoils generated in this reaction are not constrained by protein(s). Non-hydrolyzable ATP analogs cannot substitute for ATP in this supercoiling reaction, and the supercoiling activity is not due to RNA synthesis. The presence of an ARS sequence in the DNA does not alter the activity. Furthermore, this activity is equally active against UV irradiated or intact DNA. Extracts prepared from rad50 and rad52 mutant cells exhibited the same activity. Partial purification of this activity suggests that a protein factor with a native ...
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Magnesium atom in PDB 1un9: Crystal Structure of the Dihydroxyacetone Kinase From C. Freundii in Complex With Amp-Pnp and MG2+
ACK1 is a multidomain non-receptor tyrosine kinase that is an effector of the Cdc42 GTPase. Members of the ACK family have a unique domain ordering and are the only tyrosine kinases known to interact with Cdc42. In contrast with many protein kinases, ACK1 has only a modest increase in activity upon phosphorylation. We have solved the crystal structures of the human ACK1 kinase domain in both the unphosphorylated and phosphorylated states. Comparison of these structures reveals that ACK1 adopts an activated conformation independent of phosphorylation. Furthermore, the unphosphorylated activation loop is structured, and its conformation resembles that seen in activated tyrosine kinases. In addition to the apo structure, complexes are also presented with a non-hydrolyzable nucleotide analog (adenosine 5-(beta,gamma-methylenetriphosphate)) and with the natural product debromohymenialdisine, a general inhibitor of many protein kinases. Analysis of these structures reveals a typical kinase fold, a ...
Với dịch vụ ship hàng từ mỹ chúng tôi sẽ giúp bạn dễ dàng thực hiện việc vận chuyển hàng từ mỹ về việt nam. Nếu bạn có thắc mắc như amazon có ship về việt nam không, amazon là gì, ebay là gì? Hãy cứ liên hệ hoặc truy cập vào website của chúng tôi để được giải đáp. Ngoài ra chúng tôi còn nhận nhập hàng từ hàn quốc, gửi hàng đi mỹ, hàng nhập khẩu từ đức, gửi hàng đi anh, chuyển hàng đi pháp, gửi hàng đi đức, hàng nhập khẩu từ pháp, ship hàng úc, ship hàng nga, gửi hàng từ thái lan về việt nam ,... Và vô số dịch vụ vận chuyển đang chờ đợi bạn. Hãy liên hệ chúng tôi khi bạn cần nhé.. ReplyDelete ...
Kinesin motor protein, molecular model. Kinesin motor proteins transport vesicles containing intracellular cargo around the cell along microtubules. - Stock Image F009/6428
500 years ago, Nguyen Trai praised the beauty of Ha Long Bay in his verse Lộ nhập Vân Đồn, in which he called it "rock wonder in the sky". Even though Ha Long Bay has an area of around 1,553 km2, no one is allowed to make there home on land. Instead people live on floating houses, sometimes as part of a floating village and use boats for transport.. Vietnamfloating villageHa Long BayPhotito travelphotitotraveltravel photographydocumentary photographyspencerphotographyculturewww.photito.com ...
Dermatan 4-sulfotransferase (EC 2.8.2.35, dermatan-specific N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferase, dermatan-4-sulfotransferase-1, dermatan-4-sulfotransferase 1, D4ST-1, dermatan N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferase, CHST14 protein, CHST14) is an enzyme with systematic name 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate:(dermatan)-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine 4-sulfotransferase. This enzyme catalyses the following chemical reaction 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate + [dermatan]-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } adenosine 3,5-bisphosphate + [dermatan]-4-O-sulfo-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine The sulfation takes place at the 4-position of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine residues of dermatan. Evers, M.R.; Xia, G.; Kang, H.G.; Schachner, M.; Baenziger, J.U. (2001). "Molecular cloning and characterization of a dermatan-specific N-acetylgalactosamine 4-O-sulfotransferase". J. Biol. Chem. 276: 36344-36353. doi:10.1074/jbc.M105848200. PMID 11470797. Mikami, T.; Mizumoto, S.; Kago, N.; Kitagawa, ...
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3-phospho-5-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of catecholamines, phenolic drugs and neurotransmitters. Has also estrogen sulfotransferase activity. responsible for the sulfonation and activation of minoxidil. Is Mediates the metabolic activation of carcinogenic N-hydroxyarylamines to DNA binding products and could so participate as modulating factor of cancer risk (By similarity).
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鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
鈉鉀泵可以將細胞外相對細胞内較低濃度的鉀離子送進細胞,並將細胞内相對細胞外較低濃度的鈉離子送出細胞。經由以具放射性的鈉、鉀離子標定,可以發現鈉、鉀離子都會經過這個通道,鈉、鉀離子的濃度在細胞膜兩側也都是相互依賴的,所以顯示了鈉、鉀離子都可以經過這個載體運輸。目前已知鈉鉀泵需消耗ATP,並可以將三個鈉離子送出細胞,同時將兩個鉀離子送進細胞。 鈉鉀泵在1950年被丹麥的科學家延斯·斯科(Jens Skou)發現,它代表了我們對離子進出細胞的認識的一個重要的里程碑。它也在細胞刺激上有著重要的意義,像神經細胞的衝動,就是用鈉鉀泵幫助維持細胞電位使神經衝動得以傳輸。 ...
The structure of MsbA-AMP-PNP (5'-adenylyl-β-γ-imidodiphosphate), obtained from S. typhimurium, is similar to Sav1866. The NBDs ... adenylyl-β-γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), showed that ATP binding, in the absence of hydrolysis, is sufficient to reduce ...
In a closed state, the two domains of eIF4AIII form composite binding sites for the 5'-adenylyl-ß- -imidodiphosphate (ADPNP) ...
Other examples of substrate analogs include: 5'-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate: substrate analog of ATP 3-acetylpyridine adenine ...
... adenylyl imidodiphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.138.236.250 --- ethenoadenosine triphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.138.382 --- coenzyme a ... adenylyl imidodiphosphate MeSH D13.695.827.068.236.250 --- ethenoadenosine triphosphate MeSH D13.695.827.068.382 --- coenzyme a ... guanylyl imidodiphosphate MeSH D13.695.667.454.525 --- 5'-guanylic acid MeSH D13.695.667.454.700 --- rna caps MeSH D13.695. ... guanylyl imidodiphosphate MeSH D13.695.827.426.525 --- 5'-guanylic acid MeSH D13.695.827.426.700 --- rna caps MeSH D13.695. ...
Isotopically labelled adenosine triphosphate analogues: Synthesis of [6-15N]- adenylyl imidodiphosphate and [6-15N]-adenylyl ... Adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), an analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), was found to be an effective inhibitor of ... 1. Effect of adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) on ATP translocation into mitochon- dria. Rat liver mitochondria (1 mg) were ... 2. Effect of adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) on ATP-dependent reversed electron transfer. ATP-dependent reversed electron ...
guanyl-5′-imidodiphosphate. SERT. serotonin transporter. GTPγS. guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate. TTX. Triton X. DTT. ... Adenylyl Cyclase Assay.. Adenylyl cyclase was assayed as described previously (Rasenick et al., 1989). C6 cells were treated as ... the escitalopram-induced increase in Gαs-activated adenylyl cyclase did not result from an intrinsic increase in adenylyl ... 1994) Adenylyl cyclase and G-protein subunit levels in postmortem frontal cortex of suicide victims. Brain Res 633:297-304. ...
guanyl-5′-imidodiphosphate. SERT. serotonin transporter. GTPγS. guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio)triphosphate. TTX. Triton X. DTT. ... type VI adenylyl cyclase. ANOVA. analysis of variance. LSD. least significant difference.. ... Chronic Treatment with Escitalopram but Not R-Citalopram Translocates Gαs from Lipid Raft Domains and Potentiates Adenylyl ... Chronic antidepressant treatment has been shown to increase adenylyl cyclase activity, in part, due to translocation of Gαs ...
Adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP),Li4. 10127558001. ADH, susp. 1g (34ml). 10171832001. Aldehyde Dehydrogenase from Yeast. ...
ATP, adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), and ATP[γS] were obtained from Boehringer Mannheim. Restriction endonucleases, T4 DNA ... 4B). Similar results were obtained when adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) was used in place of ATP[γS]. Recovery of ...
adenylyl-imidodiphosphate. CaMKII. calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II. CHAPS. 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio ... adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), and octyl-β-d-glucopyranose (OGP) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich, sodium hydrosulfite ( ...
The structure of MsbA-AMP-PNP (5-adenylyl-β-γ-imidodiphosphate), obtained from S. typhimurium, is similar to Sav1866. The NBDs ... adenylyl-β-γ-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), showed that ATP binding, in the absence of hydrolysis, is sufficient to reduce ...
... adenylyl β,γ-imidodiphosphate; ICRF-193, 4-[(2R,3S)-3-(3,5-dioxopiperazin-1-yl)butan-2-yl]piperazine-2,6-dione. ...
Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate inhibits the reaction [Prostaglandin D2 binds to PTGDR protein]. CTD. PMID:9579725. ... Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate inhibits the reaction [Prostaglandin D2 binds to PTGDR protein]. CTD. PMID:9579725. ...
In addition, we determined the structure of a TRAP1-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) complex. Based on comparative analysis ...
... protein kinase catalytic subunit from porcine heart as deduced from the 2.0 A structure of the complex with Mn2+ adenylyl ... AND MN2+ ADENYLYL IMIDODIPHOSPHATE (MNAMP-PNP) AT PH 5.6 AND 7C AND 4C. ...
Biotinylated microtubules and casein were then introduced in the presence of adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), a non- ...
In a closed state, the two domains of eIF4AIII form composite binding sites for the 5-adenylyl-ß- -imidodiphosphate (ADPNP) ...
Subsequent introduction of adenylyl imidodiphosphate precipitated a burst of large-amplitude Ca2+ sparks. This was accompanied ... In solutions containing 5 mmol/L adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP), [Mg2+] was reduced by ≈1.7 mmol/L to maintain the free [ ...
Kinesin was immobilized on polymerized MTs by adding the ATP analog, 5-adenylyl imidodiphosphate at room temperature. After ...
Here, dynein was bound to MTs in the presence of the ATP analog, AMP-PNP (adenylyl-imidodiphosphate). Active motors were then ... adenylyl-imidodiphosphate)], and functional motor proteins were subsequently released in the presence of salt and ATP (see ...
Adenylyl Imidodiphosphate Chemical Compounds * Nucleotides Chemical Compounds * Adenosine Triphosphate Chemical Compounds * ...
Nonhydrolyzable ATP analog 5′-adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) does not inhibit ATP-dependent scanning of leader sequence of ...
Other agents that inhibit gyrase-catalysed supercoiling (novobiocin and 5-adenylyl-beta,gamma-imidodiphosphate) do not arrest ...
... adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP). AMP-PNP promotes RIG-I domain compaction (8) and stabilizes the ternary complex of RIG-I: ...
2.7 Angstrom Crystal Structure of ABC transporter ATPase from Vibrio vulnificus in Complex with Adenylyl-imidodiphosphate (AMP- ...
... of 0-10 pN while attached in rigor to a microtubule in the presence of the nonhydrolyzable nucleotide adenylyl imidodiphosphate ...
Hydrolysis of adenylyl imidodiphosphate in the presence of Na+ + Mg2+ by (Na+ + K+)-activated ATPase. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. ... When the nucleotides Li4AMPPNP (5′-adenylylimido-diphosphate) or Na2ADP (adenosine 5′-diphosphate) replaced MgATP, equimolar ...
In other experiments, 200 μm adenylyl imidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP, Sigma), 10 μm aurintricarboxylic acid (AA, Sigma), 0.1 μm ...
... adenylyl-imidodiphosphate), under the following conditions:. RNA (,1 μg) was reacted with 0.1 mM AMP-PNP, 300 units yeast poly( ...
  • 3) to result from a preferen- tial inhibition by the analog for non-en- ergy-linked membrane-bound ATPase. (pdfslide.net)
  • Comparison of the human PANK3·acetyl-CoA complex to the structures of PANK3 in four catalytically relevant complexes, 5'-adenylyl-β,γ-imidodiphosphate (AMPPNP)·Mg 2+ , AMPPNP·Mg 2+ ·pantothenate, ADP·Mg 2+ ·phosphopantothenate, and AMP phosphoramidate (AMPPN)·Mg 2+ , revealed a large conformational change in the dimeric enzyme. (rcsb.org)