An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers. (1/864)

Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population.  (+info)

Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver. (2/864)

The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC 2.7.4.3] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC 2.7.1.40] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant.  (+info)

Identification of a novel human adenylate kinase. cDNA cloning, expression analysis, chromosome localization and characterization of the recombinant protein. (3/864)

Adenylate kinases have an important role in the synthesis of adenine nucleotides that are required for cellular metabolism. We report the cDNA cloning of a novel 22-kDa human enzyme that is sequence related to the human adenylate kinases and to UMP/CMP kinase of several species. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to catalyse phosphorylation of AMP and dAMP with ATP as phosphate donor. When GTP was used as phosphate donor, the enzyme phosphorylated AMP, CMP, and to a small extent dCMP. Expression as a fusion protein with the green fluorescent protein showed that the enzyme is located in the cytosol. Northern blot analysis with mRNA from eight different human tissues demonstrated that the enzyme was expressed exclusively in brain, with two mRNA isoforms of 2.4 and 4.0 kb. The gene that encoded the enzyme was localized to chromosome 1p31. Based on the substrate specificity and the sequence similarity with the previously identified human adenylate kinases, we have named this novel enzyme adenylate kinase 5.  (+info)

Release of adenylate kinase 2 from the mitochondrial intermembrane space during apoptosis. (4/864)

The release of two mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), into the soluble cytoplasm of cells undergoing apoptosis is well established. Using spectrophotometric determination of enzyme activity, the accumulation of adenylate kinase (AK) activity in the cytosolic fraction of apoptotic cells has also been observed recently. However, three isozymes, AK1, AK2 and AK3, have been characterized in mammalian cells and shown to be localized in the cytosol, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, respectively, and it is unknown which one of these isozymes accumulates in the cytosol during apoptosis. We now demonstrate that in apoptotic cells only AK2 was translocated into the cytosol concomitantly with cytochrome c. The amount of AK1 in cytosol, as well as the amount of matrix-associated AK3, remained unchanged during the apoptotic process. Thus, our data suggest that only intermembrane proteins are released from mitochondria during the early phase of the apoptotic process.  (+info)

Inhibition of ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities of the second nucleotide-binding fold of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by genistein. (5/864)

In the presence of ATP, genistein, like the ATP analogue adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (pp[NH]pA), increases cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride currents by prolonging open times. As pp[NH]pA is thought to increase CFTR currents by interfering with ATP hydrolysis at the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF-2), the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of genistein on a fusion protein comprising maltose-binding protein (MBP) and NBF-2 (MBP-NBF-2). MBP-NBF-2 exhibited ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities that were inhibited by genistein in a partial non-competitive manner with respect to ATP or GTP. Ki values for competitive and uncompetitive inhibition were respectively 20 microM and 63 microM for ATPase, 15 microM and 54 microM for GTPase, and 46 microM and 142 microM for adenylate kinase. For ATPase activity, genistein reduced Vmax by 29% and Vmax/Km by 77%. Additional evidence for complex-formation between genistein and MBP-NBF-2 was obtained by the detection of genistein-dependent alterations in the CD spectrum of MBP-NBF-2 that were consistent with the formation of a higher-ordered state. Addition of MBP-NBF-2 increased the fluorescence intensity of genistein, consistent with a change to a less polar environment. pp[NH]pA partially eliminated this enhanced fluorescence of genistein. These observations provide the first direct biochemical evidence that genistein interacts with CFTR, thus inhibiting NBF-2 activity, and suggest a similar mechanism for genistein-dependent stimulation of CFTR chloride currents.  (+info)

Volume overload hypertrophy of the newborn heart slows the maturation of enzymes involved in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. (6/864)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of volume overload hypertrophy in the newborn heart on the cardiac enzymes controlling fatty acid metabolism. BACKGROUND: Shortly after birth, a rise in 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity results in the phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), and a decline in myocardial malonyl CoA levels with increased fatty acid oxidation rates. Whether the early onset of hypertrophy in the newborn heart alters this maturational increase in fatty acid oxidation is unknown. METHODS: Newborn piglets underwent endovascular stenting of the ductus arteriosus on day 1 of life with a 4.5-mm diameter stent, resulting in a left to right shunt, and left ventricular (LV) volume loading. Left ventricular and right ventricular samples from fetal, newborn, three-week control and three-week stented animals were compared. RESULTS: Stenting resulted in echocardiographic evidence of volume overload and myocardial hypertrophy. In control animals, left ventricular ACC activity declined from 274 +/- 30 pmol/mg/min on day 1 to 115 +/- 12 after three weeks (p < 0.05), but did not display this maturation drop in hypertrophied hearts, remaining elevated (270 +/- 50 pmol/mg/min, p < 0.05). At three weeks, malonyl CoA levels remained 2.8-fold higher in hypertrophied hearts than in control hearts. In control hearts, LV AMPK activity increased 178% between day 1 and three weeks, whereas in hypertrophied hearts AMPK activity at three weeks was only 71% of control values, due to a significant decrease in expression of the catalytic subunit of AMPK. CONCLUSIONS: Early onset LV volume overload with hypertrophy results in a delay in the normal maturation of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn heart.  (+info)

Adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer in the myocardium : increased contribution in heart failure. (7/864)

Although the downregulation of creatine kinase activity has been associated with heart failure, creatine kinase-deficient transgenic hearts have a preserved contractile function. This suggests the existence of alternative phosphotransfer pathways in the myocardium, the identity of which is still unknown. In this study, we examined the contribution of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer to myocardial energetics. In the isolated mitochondria/actomyosin system, which possesses endogenous adenylate kinase activity in both compartments, substrates for adenylate kinase promoted the rate and amplitude of actomyosin contraction that was further enhanced by purified adenylate kinase. Inhibition of adenylate kinase activity diminished both actomyosin contraction and mitochondrial respiration, which indicated reduced energy flow between mitochondria and myofibrils. In intact myocardium, the net adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer rate was 10% of the total ATP turnover rate as measured by 18O-phosphoryl labeling in conjunction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In pacing-induced failing heart, adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer increased by 134% and contributed 21% to the total ATP turnover. Concomitantly, the contribution by creatine kinase dropped from 89% in normal hearts to 40% in failing hearts. These phosphotransfer changes were associated with reduced levels of metabolically active ATP but maintained overall ATP turnover rate. Thus, this study provides evidence that adenylate kinase facilitates the transfer of high-energy phosphoryls and signal communication between mitochondria and actomyosin in cardiac muscle, with an increased contribution to cellular phosphotransfer in heart failure. This phosphotransfer function renders adenylate kinase an important component for optimal myocardial bioenergetics and a compensatory mechanism in response to impaired intracellular energy flux in the failing heart.  (+info)

Experimental study on firearm wound in maxillofacial region. (8/864)

OBJECTIVE: To make clear the range of firearm wound in the maxillofacial region, the optical repair time and the characteristics of accompanied indirect brain damage, and to offer the principle of emergency treatment and the early repair of war wound. METHODS: With the aid of the standard Sweden model, 200 dogs were used in the experiment. Varies tissues around the primary canal were harvested chronologically, in different zone and different tissue, for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The necrotic range of various tissues in the maxillofacial region was less than that in the extremities. In the maxillofacial region, there was a significant temporary cavity following the passing of bullet, which caused indirect brain damages. CONCLUSION: These findings are helpful to the treatment of war wound in the maxillofacial region. Early bone transplantation using microvascular anastomosis in the treatment of gunshot wound in the maxillofacial region is recommendable.  (+info)

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Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hereditary erythrocyte adenylate kinase deficiency. T2 - A defect of multiple phosphotransferases?. AU - Lachant, N. A.. AU - Zerez, C. R.. AU - Barredo, J.. AU - Lee, D. W.. AU - Savely, S. M.. AU - Tanaka, K. R.. PY - 1991. Y1 - 1991. N2 - Adenylate kinase (AK) modulates the interconversion of adenine nucleotides (AMP + adenosine triphosphate → 2 ADP). We evaluated the fifth kindred with hereditary erythrocyte (RBC) AK deficiency. The proband had chronic hemolytic anemia. Her RBC had undetectable AK activity when measured spectrophotometrically, whereas those of her parents had half-normal AK activity. AK electrophoresis showed only AK-1 in the parents. The activities of pyruvate kinase and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase were decreased given the young age of the probands RBC. Despite the absence of spectrophotometric AK activity, the probands RBC were able to incorporate 14C-adenine into 14C-adenine nucleotides at 50% of the rate expected for her young RBC ...
Saint Girons, I.S., Gilles, A.-M., Margarita, D., Michelson, S., Monnot, M., Fermandjian, S., Danchin, A. and Barzu, O. (1987). „Structural and catalytic characteristics of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase. J. Biol. Chem. 262: 622-629. PMID 3027060 ...
Order Adenylate Kinase 1 ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Mouse and more. Compare Adenylate Kinase 1 ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lauren Forbes, Katherine Ebsworth-Mojica, Louis DiDone, Shao-Gang Li, Joel S Freundlich, Nancy Connell, Paul M Dunman, Damian J Krysan].
AimsTo measure the activity of the key phosphotransfer enzymes creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and glycolytic enzymes in two common mouse models of chronic heart failure.Methods and resultsC57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC), myocardial infarction induced
Chen et al. BMC Molecular Biology 2012, 13:31 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) promotes cell proliferation in insect development Ru-Ping Chen 1, Chun-Yan Liu 1, Hong-Lian Shao 1, Wei-Wei
Definition of adenylate kinase - An enzyme that catalyses the reversible reaction by which adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine monophosphate (AMP
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A Mitochondrial RNAi Screen Defines Cellular Bioenergetic Determinants and Identifies an Adenylate Kinase as a Key Regulator of ATP Levels. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 400 µL purified antibody (Lot-specific) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide.
Adenylate Kinase 1兔多克隆抗体(ab71621)可与仓鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
myokinase definition: adenylate kinase, a phosphotransferase chemical that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides and plays a crucial role in mobile energy homeostasis.
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Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space, and it is an essential constituent of the respiratory chain. The translocation of Cyt c from mitochondria to the cytosol is an important step in the apoptotic signaling pathway, linking mitochondrial changes to the activation of execution caspases (Liu et al, 1996). Once translocated into the cytosol, Cyt c together with Apaf-1 and procaspase-9 form a multiprotein complex, the apoptosome, which initiates the activation of caspase-3 (Li P et al, 1997). Studies in cell-free sytems have shown that addition of Cyt c to cytosols directly activates caspase-3, whereas immunodepletion of Cyt c from cell homogenates prevents caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, microinjection of Cyt c into intact cells has been shown to induce apoptosis (Li F et al, 1997). Although Cyt c release has been observed in many experimental models of apoptosis, the mechanism of translocation across the outer mitochondrial membrane is unclear. One ...
AK1 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 214 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 23.7kDa.
AK5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 586 aa (1-562 a.a.) having a molecular mass of 65.9kDa.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human AK2 protein (ab116419). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Opens the Highlight Feature Bar and highlights feature annotations from the FEATURES table of the record. The Highlight Feature Bar can be used to navigate to and highlight other features and provides links to display the highlighted region separately. Links in the FEATURES table will also highlight the corresponding region of the sequence. More... ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
1AKE: Structure of the complex between adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli and the inhibitor Ap5A refined at 1.9 A resolution. A model for a catalytic transition state.
Regardless of the weather, our bodies have evolved to function optimally at 37 ℃. However, we are an insignificant speck of the vast array of species out there, where many, if not most, species are operating at temperatures that could either freeze or frazzle us! Enzymes are the key players in catalysing the many biochemical…
Adenylate kinase 2 antibody [N1C3] (adenylate kinase 2) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate kinase 2 pAb (GTX107613) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Adenylate kinase 4 antibody (adenylate kinase 4) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate kinase 4 pAb (GTX30038) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Monoklonale und polyklonale Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
MTSQEKTEEYPFADIFDEDETERNFLLSKPVCFVVFGKPGVGKTTLARYITQAWKCIRVEALPILEEQIA 1 - 70 AETESGVMLQSMLISGQSIPDELVIKLMLEKLNSPEVCHFGYIITEIPSLSQDAMTTLQQIELIKNLNLK 71 - 140 PDVIINIKCPDYDLCQRISGQRQHNNTGYIYSRDQWDPEVIENHRKKKKEAQKDGKGEEEEEEEEQEEEE 141 - 210 AFIAEMQMVAEILHHLVQRPEDYLENVENIVKLYKETILQTLEEVMAEHNPQYLIELNGNKPAEELFMIV 211 - 280 MDRLKYLNLKRAAILTKLQGAEEEINDTMENDELFRTLASYKLIAPRYRWQRSKWGRTCPVNLKDGNIYS 281 - 350 GLPDYSVSFLGKIYCLSSEEALKPFLLNPRPYLLPPMPGPPCKVFILGPQYSGKTTLCNMLAENYKGKVV 351 - 420 DYAQLVQPRFDKARETLVENTIAEATAAAIKVVKEKLLRELQARKQAETALREFQRQYEKMEFGVFPMEA 421 - 490 THSSIDEEGYIQGSQRDRGSSLVDTEEAKTKSENVLHDQAAKVDKDDGKETGETFTFKRHSQDASQDVKL 491 - 560 YSDTAPTEDLIEEVTADHPEVVTMIEETIKMSQDINFEQPYEKHAEILQEVLGEVMEENKDRFPGAPKYG 561 - 630 GWIVDNCPIVKELWMALIKKGIIPDLVIYLSDTENNGKCLFNRIYLQKKSEIDSKILERLLEELQKKKKE 631 - 700 EEEARKATEEELRLEEENRRLLELMKVKAKEAEETDNEDEEEIEGDELEVHEEPEASHDTRGSWLPEEFE 701 - 770 ASEVPETEPEAVSEPIEETTVETEIPKGSKEGLEIEKLSETVVLPEFPEDSYPDVPEMEPFKEKIGSFII 771 - 840 ...
1AKY: High-resolution structures of adenylate kinase from yeast ligated with inhibitor Ap5A, showing the pathway of phosphoryl transfer.
View Notes - Slides3 011911(1) from BIOL 212 at UPenn. Today: 1) Short discussion of ATP and other carrier molecules 2) Protein folding 3) Exploration of adenylate kinase structure and
The primary mode of action of forskolin is by increasing the cellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-mediated functions, via activation of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. For details visit our online portal
Enzymes are extraordinary molecules that can accelerate chemical reactions by several orders of magnitude. With recent advancements in structural biology together with classical enzymology the mechanism of many enzymes has become understood at the molecular level. During the last ten years significant efforts have been invested to understand the structure and dynamics of the actual catalyst (i. e. the enzyme). There has been a tremendous development in NMR spectroscopy (both hardware and pulse programs) that have enabled detailed studies of protein dynamics. In many cases there exists a strong coupling between enzyme dynamics and function. Here I have studied the conformational dynamics and thermodynamics of three model systems: adenylate kinase (Adk), Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ) and the structural protein S16. By developing a novel chemical shift-based method we show that Adk binds its two substrates AMP and ATP with an extraordinarily dynamic mechanism. For both substrate-saturated states the ...
Expression and function of creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK) and hexokinase (HK) isoforms in relation to their roles in regulation of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and intracellular energy transfer were assessed in beating (B) and non-beating (NB) cardiac HL-l cell lines and adult rat …
Complete information for AK8 gene (Protein Coding), Adenylate Kinase 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Proteins have evolved to harness thermal fluctuations, rather than frustrated by them, to carry out chemical transformations and mechanical work. What are, then, the operation and design principles of protein machines? To frame the problem in a tractable way, several basic questions have been formulated to guide the experimental design: (a) How many conformational states can a protein sample on the functionally important timescale? (b) What are the inter-conversion rates between states? (c) How do ligand binding or interactions with other proteins modulate the motions? (d) What are the structural basis of flexibility and its underlying molecular mechanics? Guided by this framework, we have studied protein tyrosine phosphatase B, PtpB, from M. tuberculosis (a virulence factor of tuberculosis and a potential drug target) and adenylate kinase, AK, from E. coli (a ubiquitous energy-balancing enzyme in cells). These domain movements have been followed in real time on their respective catalytic ...
Numerous hits in gapped BLAST to adenylate kinases, e.g. residues 1-210 are 41% similar to KAD_MYCCA, and residues 1-209 are 38% similar to KAD_BACSU. Also several hits to eukaryotic sequences including KAD3_HUMAN, KAD3_RAT, KAD3_BOVIN, KAD2_HUMAN, and KAD1_YEAST ...
no mne ked to ten moj robil ja som myslela ze sa zblaznim.. bolo to jednoducho senzacne :)) ale myslim ze to naj ani nebolo to samotne prstovanie ale to ako mi drazdil klitoris... ked ma do toho zacal prstovat to bolo nieco ako bonus... zintenzivnilo mi to orgazmus... takze ja som urcite za :) ale samozrejme... ako tu baby hovoria... len ak chalan vie ako nato .. :)) a baby, nehanbite sa to chalanovi povedat :) nemusite hned tak tvrdo ze je v tom totalna nula.. ale tak ho trochu nasmerovat.. povedat mu co vam robi dobre.. co sa vam paci... vy z toho budete mat pozitok a chalan sa zdokolńali :)) papaa. ...
a teraz nemyslim sidliskovych degesov typu taliansky chrt ako ma kamarat- nezamrzne, pokial ma dostatok potravy a moznost pohybu po dvore. Moj (krizenec nemeckeho ovciaka a madarskej vyzly) spava pred dverami na starej zimnej bunde a ja mu akurat mozem zavidiet, aky je zdravy, culy a aktivny. Takze ak mas preslachteneho degesa, daj si ho aj do postele (aj takych poznam...), ak mas PSA, daj mu zrat, volnost pohybu a vsetku svoju lasku...to mu staci ...
Human coilin interacting nuclear ATPase protein (hCINAP) directly interacts with coilin, a marker protein of Cajal Bodies (CBs), nuclear organelles involved in the maturation of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins UsnRNPs and snoRNPs. hCINAP has previously been designated as an adenylate kinase (AK6), but is very atypical as it exhibits unusually broad substrate specificity, structural features characteristic of ATPase/GTPase proteins (Walker motifs A and B) and also intrinsic ATPase activity. Despite its intriguing structure, unique properties and cellular localization, the enzymatic mechanism and biological function of hCINAP have remained poorly characterized. Here, we offer the first high-resolution structure of hCINAP in complex with the substrate ADP (and dADP), the structure of hCINAP with a sulfate ion bound at the AMP binding site, and the structure of the ternary complex hCINAP-Mg 2+ADP-Pi. Induced fit docking calculations are used to predict the structure of the hCINAP-Mg 2+ATP-AMP ...
The HLA-F adjacent transcript 10 (FAT10) is a member of the ubiquitin-like gene family that alters protein function/stability through covalent ligation. Although FAT10 is induced by inflammatory mediators and implicated in immunity, the physiological functions of FAT10 are poorly defined. We report the discovery that FAT10 regulates lifespan through pleiotropic actions on metabolism and inflammation. Median and overall lifespan are increased 20% in FAT10ko mice, coincident with elevated metabolic rate, preferential use of fat as fuel, and dramatically reduced adiposity. This phenotype is associated with metabolic reprogramming of skeletal muscle (i.e., increased AMP kinase activity, β-oxidation and -uncoupling, and decreased triglyceride content). Moreover, knockout mice have reduced circulating glucose and insulin levels and enhanced insulin sensitivity in metabolic tissues, consistent with elevated IL-10 in skeletal muscle and serum. These observations suggest novel roles of FAT10 in immune ...
Increases of cAMP are controlled by the enzyme adenylate cyclase (sAC). This enzyme produces cAMP molecules from the cellular energy reservoir adenosyne triphosphate (ATP). In order for the enzyme to assume this catalytic function, it itself has to be activated, e.g. by bicarbonate.. • The opposite process, e.g. the reduction of cAMP levels, is initiated by another enzyme. The protein involved here originates from the family of phosphodiesterases (PDE); to be precise, an isoform of PDE2A. This enzyme must also be activated so that it may reduce the amount of cAMP contained in the mitochondria. This process is performed by molecules which aggregate along an area at the end of the protein, the N-terminus of the PDE2A molecules.. In this manner, the messenger cAMP acts as an enzyme controlled switch which strengthens or weakens the energy metabolism. The position of the switch is determined by which of the two enzymes dominates: Adenylate cyclase (sAC) increases the amount of cAMP, ...
Bacteria sense the amount of glucose by watching the product of another chemical reaction. The enzyme adenylate cyclase converts ATP into cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). The cAMP acts as a messenger to the cell ... it says Im starving. How does it do that? It turns out that when glucose levels are sufficient, adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited. Glucose interferes with the production of cAMP. Thus, when glucose is high, cAMP is low and vice-versa. cAMP activates the protein CAP (sometimes called CRP, for cAMP Receptor Protein). When CAP-cAMP binds to the promoter of the lac operon, it revs up transcription to a very high level. If lactose is absent, repression prevents transcription ... but if lactose is present, the receptor protein is deactivated and you get tonnes of permease and beta-galactosidase (and transacetylase, whatever thats for ...). ...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is often associated with energy levels by nutritionists and doctors alike. This molecule plays an integral role in our bodies abilities to transfer energy to different areas, but it isnt a direct source in most cases. Its like crude oil, which can be further refined by different cells into different types of fuel to suit their purpose. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) is produced inside cells after the conversion of ATP via the enzyme Adenylate Cyclase. Once cells have generated cAMP, they utilize it through the binding with different proteins. In this case of this new study, researchers identified the messenger pathways with heightened activity after the binding of Epac2A and cAMP. This pathway was shown to transport the Epac2A compounds directly to the cellular plasma membrane, where they are then used to regulate insulin release. Simply put; it seems that both cAMP levels and Epac2A levels likely correlate directly to…. ...
Forskolin acts primarily by activating the enzyme adenylate cyclase, which results in increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in cells. Thus, Forskolin can increase cyclic AMP without the assistance of neurotransmitters or hormones. Get a risk-free trial of the #1 Forskolin… Continue Reading →. ...
|Mechanism for increasing muscle endurance via the small molecules AICARAICAR is a nucleoside that is taken up into muscle and converted into the nucleotide ZMP, which mimics the effects of the natural ligand, 5-AMP, on AMPK. The latter is produced by adenylate kinase acting on ADP generated from ATP during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK in…
Complete information for AK3P2 gene (Pseudogene), Adenylate Kinase 3 Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Success in evolution depends critically upon the ability of organisms to adapt, a property that is also true for the proteins that contribute to the fitness of an organism. Successful protein evolution is enhanced by mutational pathways that generate a wide range of physicochemical mechanisms to adaptation. In an earlier study, we used a weak-link method to favor changes to an essential but maladapted protein, adenylate kinase (AK), within a microbial population. Six AK mutants (a single mutant followed by five double mutants) had success within the population, revealing a diverse range of adaptive strategies that included changes in nonpolar packing, protein folding dynamics, and formation of new hydrogen bonds and electrostatic networks. The first mutation, AK(BSUB) Q199R, was essential in defining the structural context that facilitated subsequent mutations as revealed by a considerable mutational epistasis and, in one case, a very strong dependence upon the order of mutations. Namely, ...
A procedure has been described for the centrifugal fractionation of the cytological components of pigeon breast muscle. An analysis of the distribution of enzyme activity among the different particles reveals a predominant location of magnesium-activated ATPase and myokinase in the cytochondria. The myofibrillar nuclear components are the site of calcium-activated ATPase and adenylic acid deaminase. ...
This AK5 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 46~76 amino acids from the N-terminal region of human AK5 ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of AK1. A synthetic peptide (conjugated with KLH) corresponding to N-terminus of human AK1. (PAB4039) - Products - Abnova
Human AK3L1 full-length ORF ( AAH16180, 1 a.a. - 223 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00000205-P01) - Products - Abnova
AKY AKY: anormal kardiyak fonksiyona ikincil olarak tedavi gerektirecek düzeyde (de novo veya tekrar) semptom ve bulguları ortaya çıkması durumudur. (azalmış kardiyak debi bozulmuş organ perfüzyonu, konjesyon, artmış PCWP) 2. Kardiyak disfonksiyon: a) sistolik veya diyastolik disfonk b) kardiyak ritm anormalliklerine c) ön yük ardyük uyumsuzluğuna bağlı olabilir 3. Acil tedavi gerektirir. The Task Force on Acute Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology
miro123, skus sa pozriet na web-stranky jednotlivych skol a tam najdes aj info o jednotlivych formach studia. Bohuzial, dnes je spoplatnene na niektorych skolach aj denne studium. Uroven, kvalita a narocnost su rozdielne a nesuvisia vzdy s tym, ci studujes na dennom, externom alebo na kombinovanom...Samozrejme zalezi aj na tom, ze aky odbor si vyberies. Pozor:neplati na kazdej skole, ze ked si za nieco platis, tak automaticky dostanes aj skusku! Mam za sebou jednu vysku (denne studium) na jednej z najlepsych skol (fyzika) a popri praci studujem na druhej vyske -dialkovo, ak to mozem posudit, nie je to az take tazke ako denne, ale mam co robit :-). Vela stastia.. ...
Filiz Aky ld z Ak ay, Serdar Bayata, Tuna Semerci, Murat Ye il, O uzhan Toklu, Erdin Ar kan, Selcen Yakar T l ce, Mehmet K seo lu, dil Ko a ra Ya ...
Adenylate kinase 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AK3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a GTP:ATP ... "Entrez Gene: Adenylate kinase 3". Retrieved 2017-05-19. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) PDBe-KB provides an overview of ...
"Entrez Gene: AK2 adenylate kinase 2". Bruns GA, Regina VM (1977). "Adenylate kinase 2, a mitochondrial enzyme". Biochem. Genet ... 1998). "Cloning and expression of human adenylate kinase 2 isozymes: differential expression of adenylate kinase 1 and 2 in ... Adenylate kinase 2 is an enzyme that is encoded in humans by the AK2 gene. The AK2 protein is found in the intermembrane space ... Three isozymes of adenylate kinase, namely 1, 2, and 3, have been identified in vertebrates; this gene encodes isozyme 2. ...
SLC40A1 Hemolytic anemia due to adenylate kinase deficiency; 612631; AK1 Hemolytic anemia due to gamma-glutamylcysteine ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Nonsmall cell lung cancer, somatic; 211980; IRF1 Nonsmall cell lung ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Adenocarcinoma of lung, somatic; 211980; BRAF Adenocarcinoma of lung, ... GALNT3 Tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency; 611521; TYK2 Tyrosinemia type II; 277660; TAT Tyrosinemia type III; 276710; HPD Ullrich ...
"Identification of a novel adenylate kinase system in the brain: cloning of the fourth adenylate kinase". Brain Res. Mol. Brain ... Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 4, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AK4 gene. This gene encodes a member ... of the adenylate kinase family of enzymes. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. Adenylate kinases ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ...
Kaur H, Lakatos-Karoly A, Vogel R, Nöll A, Tampé R, Glaubitz C (2016). "Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC ... on real-time 31P-MAS-NMR they found that the homodimeric lipid A flippase MsbA is able to catalyze a reverse adenylate kinase- ... The kinase Tbk1 was identified as important for mediating optineurin based xenophagy to remove the bacteria from the infected ... "The leukemogenic AF4-MLL fusion protein causes P-TEFb kinase activation and altered epigenetic signatures". Leukemia. 25 (1): ...
KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 53 (7): 581-9. doi:10.1002/jobm.201200045 ...
Townley R, Shapiro L (March 2007). "Crystal structures of the adenylate sensor from fission yeast AMP-activated protein kinase ... These standalone CBS domain proteins might form complexes upon binding to other proteins such as kinases to which they interact ... voltage gated chloride channels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). CBS domains regulate the activity of associated ... "Structural basis for AMP binding to mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase". Nature. 449 (7161): 496-500. doi:10.1038/ ...
Vieille C; Krishnamurthy H; Hyun HH; Savchenko A; Yan H; Zeikus JG (June 2003). "Thermotoga neapolitana adenylate kinase is ...
... has been found to interact with Adenylate Kinase 2, Artemin, and Importin 13. The human protein has two isoforms and no ...
Similarly, nucleoside-monophosphate kinase carries out the phosphorylation of nucleside-monophosphates. Adenylate kinase is a ... AMP and GMP can then be converted into ATP and GTP, respectively, by kinases that add additional phosphates. ATP stimulates ... is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase, which uses ATP as the phosphate donor. ... specific nucleoside-monophosphate kinase that functions only on adenosine-monophosphate. Carbohydrate metabolism DNA Nucleic ...
... is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mitochondrial adenylate kinase 2". Nature Genetics. 41 (1): 101-105. doi:10.1038/ng ...
The quick energy sources consist of the phosphocreatine (PCr) system, fast glycolysis, and adenylate kinase. All of these ... but the most readily depleted of the above sources is the PCr system which utilizes the enzyme creatine kinase. This enzyme ... resource is short lasting because oxygen is required for the resynthesis of phosphocreatine via mitochondrial creatine kinase. ...
... an adenylate kinase from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii". Acta Crystallographica Section F. 69: 1272-1274. doi:10.1107/ ...
Using a mixture of adenylate kinase and pyruvate kinase, the deoxyadenosine monophosphate was selectively converted to dATP. ... adenylate kinase, and pyruvate kinase. The synthesis starts with the heat denaturation of DNA followed by treatment with DNase ... such as adenosine kinase and deoxycytidine kinase. Deoxycytidine administered intravenously has also been used as an ADA ... "Restoration of adenosine deaminase-deficient human thymocyte development in vitro by inhibition of deoxynucleoside kinases". ...
"The crystal structure of phosphoribulokinase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides reveals a fold similar to that of adenylate kinase". ... 5-phosphoribulose kinase, ribulose phosphate kinase, PKK, PRuK, and PRK. 1958-, Berg, Jeremy M. (Jeremy Mark) (2015-04-08). ... The RsPRK subunit exhibits a protein folding analogous to the folding of nucleotide monophosphate (NMP) kinases. Mutagenesis ... Miziorko HM, Eckstein F (November 1984). "The stereochemical course of the ribulose-5-phosphate kinase-catalyzed reaction". The ...
... mitochondrial creatine kinase and adenylate translocator display properties of the permeability transition pore. Implication ... for regulation of permeability transition by the kinases". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. 1368 (1): 7-18. ...
Superoxide dismutase, malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), ferredoxin, adenylate kinase and NADH:ferredoxin oxido-reductase ...
1989). "Regional assignment of the loci for adenylate kinase to 9q32 and for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to 9q31-q32. A locus for ...
"Characterization of human adenylate kinase 3 (AK3) cDNA and mapping of the AK3 pseudogene to an intron of the NF1 gene". ...
Ammonia levels may rise given ammonia is a by-product of the adenylate kinase pathway, an alternative pathway for ATP ... The enzyme phosphorylase kinase plays a role in phosphorylating glycogen phosphorylase to activate it and another enzyme, ... This is due to the lack of normal pH fall during exercise, which impairs the creatine kinase equilibrium and exaggerates the ... Ser-14 is modified by phosphorylase kinase during activation of the enzyme. Lys-680 is involved in binding the pyridoxal ...
Since the adenylate kinase maintains two ADP molecules in equilibrium with one ATP ( 2 ADP ↽ − − ⇀ ATP + AMP {\displaystyle {\ ... Chapman AG, Atkinson DE (December 1973). "Stabilization of adenylate energy charge by the adenylate deaminase reaction". The ... and by adenylate kinase, an enzyme that maintains the three adenine nucleotides in equilibrium ( ATP + AMP ↽ − − ⇀ 2 ADP {\ ... The adenylate energy charge is an index used to measure the energy status of biological cells. ATP or Mg-ATP is the principal ...
Structural and catalytic characteristics of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 262: 622-629. PMID 3027060.. CS1 ...
... α2 receptors inhibit adenylate cyclase (via Gi), decreasing the activity of protein kinase A (PKA); β receptors activate ... The G-protein receptor can affect the function of adenylate cyclase or phospholipase C, an agonist of the receptor will ... increasing the activity of protein kinase C (PKC); ... adenylate cyclase (via Gs), thus increasing the activity of PKA ...
Van Rompay AR, Johansson M, Karlsson A (1999). "Identification of a novel human adenylate kinase. cDNA cloning, expression ... Adenosine kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADK gene. This gene encodes adenosine kinase, an abundant enzyme ... Spychala J, Datta NS, Takabayashi K, Datta M, Fox IH, Gribbin T, Mitchell BS (Mar 1996). "Cloning of human adenosine kinase ... Singh B, Lin A, Wu ZC, Gupta RS (2001). "Gene structure for adenosine kinase in Chinese hamster and human: high-frequency ...
Kalckar resumed his friendship with Colowick, and they collaborated to work on the enzyme adenylate kinase in 1942, which they ...
This is due to the basic pH in the stroma, where the reaction occurs, as well as high concentrations of adenylate kinase and ... However, pyruvate kinase catalyses an irreversible reaction, and does not consume ATP. By contrast, PPDK catalyses a reversible ... Research has shown that the PPDK binding mechanisms are similar to that of D-Ala-D-Ala ligase and pyruvate kinase. In ... Evolutionary history suggests that it once had a role in glycolysis like the similar pyruvate kinase, and eventually evolved ...
When the glucose concentration is high, EIIA is mostly dephosphorylated and this allows it to inhibit adenylate cyclase, ... glycerol kinase, lactose permease, and maltose permease. Thus, as well as the PEP group translocation system being an efficient ... For example, at low glucose concentrations phosphorylated EIIA accumulates and this activates membrane-bound adenylate cyclase ...
... and increases the activity of adenylate kinase in rat brains. Piracetam, while in the brain, appears to increase the synthesis ...
... monophosphate and fluoride as adenylate kinase inhibitors in the creatine kinase assay". Clin. Chem. 22 (7): 1078-83. PMID ...
... kinases. Afatinib is not only active against EGFR mutations targeted by first generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... Like lapatinib and neratinib, afatinib is a protein kinase inhibitor that also irreversibly inhibits human epidermal growth ... Minkovsky N, Berezov A (December 2008). "BIBW-2992, a dual receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of solid tumors ...
Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ...
Glucagon activates adenylate cyclase through a seven transmembrane receptor coupled to Gs which, in turn, activates adenylate ... cAMP binds to and releases an active form of protein kinase A (PKA). Next, PKA phosphorylates phosphorylase kinase, which, in ... Glycogen phosphorylase kinase activates glycogen phosphorylase in the same manner mentioned previously. ... The increased calcium availability binds to the calmodulin subunit and activates glycogen phosphorylase kinase. ...
Tropomyosin receptor kinase B § Agonists. References[edit]. *^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000176697 - Ensembl, May ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... positive regulation of non-membrane spanning protein tyrosine kinase activity. • transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... The TrkB receptor is encoded by the NTRK2 gene and is member of a receptor family of tyrosine kinases that includes TrkA and ...
Kinase inhibitors: Altiratinib. *CE-245677. *Rebastinib. *Antibodies: Evinacumab (against angiopoietin 3). *Nesvacumab (against ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ...
The ligands interact with the two tyrosine kinase receptor monomers, PDGFRα (PDGFRA) and -Rβ (PDGFRB).[6] The PDGF family also ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... The receptor for PDGF, PDGFR is classified as a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), a type of cell surface receptor. Two types of ... receptor tyrosine kinases". EMBO J. 15 (2): 290-298. doi:10.1002/j.1460-2075.1996.tb00359.x. PMC 449944. PMID 8617204.. ...
Kinase inhibitors: Linsitinib. *Antibodies: Xentuzumab (against IGF-1 and IGF-2). Kisspeptin. *Agonists: Kisspeptin ...
protein serine/threonine kinase activator activity. • receptor ligand activity. Cellular component. • extracellular region. • ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • regulation of transcription, DNA-templated. • ossification. • platelet ... positive regulation of protein serine/threonine kinase activity. • carbohydrate metabolic process. • regulation of receptor ...
2010). "Extended kinase profile and properties of the protein kinase inhibitor nilotinib". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... Nilotinib inhibits the kinases BCR-ABL,[16] KIT, LCK, EPHA3, EPHA8, DDR1, DDR2, PDGFRB, MAPK11 and ZAK.[17] ... See also: Discovery and development of Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Nilotinib was developed by Novartis.[3] It was ...
The synthetase first binds ATP and the corresponding amino acid (or its precursor) to form an aminoacyl-adenylate, releasing ... "Phosphorylation of glutamyl-prolyl tRNA synthetase by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 dictates transcript-selective translational ... inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi). The adenylate-aaRS complex then binds the appropriate tRNA molecule's D arm, and the amino acid ...
From left to right are: immunoglobulin G (IgG, an antibody), hemoglobin, insulin (a hormone), adenylate kinase (an enzyme), and ... Domains usually also have specific functions, such as enzymatic activities (e.g. kinase) or they serve as binding modules (e.g ...
... and subsequent activation of protein kinase A. ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide. *RVD-Hpα. *VGF ...
1995). "Ligands for the receptor tyrosine kinases hek and elk: isolation of cDNAs encoding a family of proteins". Oncogene. 10 ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... The ephrins and EPH-related receptors comprise the largest subfamily of receptor protein-tyrosine kinases and have been ... "Characterization of ephrin-A1 and ephrin-A4 as ligands for the EphA8 receptor protein tyrosine kinase". Mol. Cells. 9 (4): 440- ...
Adenylate cyclase. *cAMP. *3',5'-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterase. *Protein kinase A. cGMP:. *Transducin ...
Also recently discovered A2B has Gq → DAG and IP3 → Release calcium → activate calmodulin → activate myosin light chain kinase ... This integral membrane protein stimulates adenylate cyclase activity in the presence of adenosine. This protein also interacts ...
negative regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. • adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway ... Kinase inhibitors: Linsitinib. *Antibodies: Xentuzumab (against IGF-1 and IGF-2). Kisspeptin. *Agonists: Kisspeptin ...
3-kinase and PI 4-kinase binding to the CD4-p56lck complex: the p56lck SH3 domain binds to PI 3-kinase but not PI 4-kinase". ... 1-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity. • phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity. • kinase activity. • ... protein kinase activator activity. • 1-phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 3-kinase activity. • protein serine/threonine kinase ... phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex. • cytosol. • phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex, class IA. • plasma membrane. • ...
adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • activation of adenylate cyclase activity. • ... activation of protein kinase activity. • positive regulation of interleukin-1 alpha production. • positive regulation of ... positive regulation of adenylate cyclase activity. • negative regulation of blood pressure. • positive regulation of ...
"Role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase in adenosine A2B receptor ... 2b receptor-mediated signaling and short circuit current in the intestinal epithelia by inhibiting the expression of adenylate ...
Kinase inhibitors: Linsitinib. *Antibodies: Xentuzumab (against IGF-1 and IGF-2). Kisspeptin. *Agonists: Kisspeptin ...
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase. References[edit]. *Stein RC( 2001) Prospects for phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibition as a cancer ... Class II PI 3-kinases are a subgroup of the enzyme family, phosphoinositide 3-kinase that share a common protein domain ... Class II PI 3-kinases were the most recently identified class of PI 3-kinases and little is currently known about these enzymes ... Foster FM, Traer CJ, Abraham SM, and Fry MJ (2003) The phosphoinositide (PI) 3-kinase family J Cell Sci 116:3037-3040.[2] ...
adenylate cyclase-activating dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration ... 1omw: Crystal Structure of the complex between G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 and Heterotrimeric G Protein beta 1 and ... Buhl AM, Osawa S, Johnson GL (1995). "Mitogen-activated protein kinase activation requires two signal inputs from the human ... 2bcj: Crystal Structure of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 2 in Complex with Galpha-q and Gbetagamma Subunits ...
positive regulation of protein tyrosine kinase activity. • activation of transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity. Cellular component. • integral component of membrane. • membrane. • ... positive regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • negative regulation of Notch signaling pathway. • regulation of JAK-STAT ...
This in turn leads to increased cAMP-dependent protein kinase or PKA (protein kinase A) activity, ultimately promoting ... This sends a signal to increase adenylate cyclase activity, which leads to increased synthesis of cyclic adenosine ... The cGMP then activates cGMP-dependent kinase or PKG (protein kinase G). Activated PKG promotes vasorelaxation (via a reduction ... For example, the mitochondrial enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is pathologically activated in PAH, causing a ...
negative regulation of protein kinase B signaling. • cell differentiation. • immune system process. • negative regulation of ... adenylate cyclase-activating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • modulation of chemical synaptic transmission. ... positive regulation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling. • positive regulation of apoptotic process. • intracellular ...
Kinase. L[cuir in eagar , athraigh foinse]. For substances with an l- or L- prefix such as L-alanine or DL-alanine, please see ... Adenylate cyclase. *Adonitol. *Aidréanailín Adrenaline, epinephrine. *Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). *Aequorin. * ...
They produce their effects by activation of tyrosine kinases.. *^ Sanes, Dan H., Reh, Thomas A., Harris, William A. Development ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4) is a neurotrophic factor that signals predominantly through the TrkB receptor tyrosine kinase. It is also ... The cleaved death domain of p75NTR activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK).[23][28][29] The activated JNK translocates into the ...
positive regulation of adenylate cyclase-inhibiting dopamine receptor signaling pathway. • regulation of signal transduction by ... "Interaction of the somatostatin receptor subtype 1 with the human homolog of the Shk1 kinase-binding protein from yeast". J. ... "The human homologue of the yeast proteins Skb1 and Hsl7p interacts with Jak kinases and contains protein methyltransferase ... "The human homologue of the yeast proteins Skb1 and Hsl7p interacts with Jak kinases and contains protein methyltransferase ...
Adenylate kinase. *Creatine kinase. Inner membrane. oxidative phosphorylation. *Coenzyme Q - cytochrome c reductase ...
Adenylate kinase definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ...
Adenylate kinase, subfamily InterPro: IPR006259 UMP-CMP kinase InterPro: IPR006266 Adenylate kinase, isozyme 1 InterPro: ... adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic functions. ADK complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency. Adenylate kinase ... Lu Q, Inouye M (June 1996). "Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism". ... In essence, adenylate kinase shuttles ATP to sites of high energy consumption and removes the AMP generated over the course of ...
In enzymology, a (deoxy)adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + dAMP ⇌ {\ ... Griffith TJ, Helleiner CW (1965). "The partial purification of deoxynucleoside monophosphate kinases from L cells". Biochim. ...
Gene Ontology Term: adenylate kinase activity. GO ID. GO:0004017 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis of the ... adenylic kinase activity, adenylokinase activity, ATP:AMP phosphotransferase activity, myokinase activity, 5-AMP-kinase ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
tr,D1MH80,D1MH80_9AVES Adenylate kinase (Fragment) OS=Polyonymus caroli OX=689270 GN=AK1 PE=4 SV=1 ... KinaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ...
Compare adenylate kinase 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... adenylate kinase 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and ... Your search returned 20 adenylate kinase 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 4 suppliers. ...
MF_00235 Adenylate_kinase_Adk, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR006259 Adenyl_kin_sub. IPR000850 Adenylat/UMP- ... Adenylate kinase (adk). This subpathway is part of the pathway AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway, which is itself part of ... Belongs to the adenylate kinase family.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... sp,Q8D227,KAD_WIGBR Adenylate kinase OS=Wigglesworthia glossinidia brevipalpis OX=36870 GN=adk PE=3 SV=1 ...
Compare adenylate kinase 3 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... adenylate kinase 3 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 42 adenylate kinase 3 ELISA ELISA Kit across 7 suppliers. ...
Adenylate kinase. A. 217. Cryptosporidium parvum Iowa II. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: cdg5_3360, cgd5_3360. ... Crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum adenylate kinase cgd5_3360.. Wernimont, A.K., Lew, J., Kozieradzki, I., Lin, Y.H., ... Crystal structure of Cryptosporidium parvum adenylate kinase cgd5_3360. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb3BE4/pdb ...
Subcellular localization of adenylate kinases in Plasmodium falciparum.. Ma J1, Rahlfs S, Jortzik E, Schirmer RH, Przyborski JM ... Adenylate kinases (AK) play a key role in nucleotide signaling processes and energy metabolism by catalyzing the reversible ... we describe two additional adenylate kinase-like proteins: PfAKLP1, which is homologous to human AK6, and PfAKLP2. Using GFP- ...
Adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3) from leaves of maize (Zea mays) was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, ... Maize Leaf Adenylate Kinase. Purification and Partial Characterization. Leszek A. Kleczkowski, Douglas D. Randall ... The Mr value of adenylate kinase, determined by electrophoresis in dissociating conditions and by gel filtration, was 29,000 ... The nucleoside triphosphate-binding site of adenylate kinase was fairly nonspecific with regard to nucleotide species. On the ...
Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry applications. This antibody ... Adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial; Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2; adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial; Adenylate ... Cite Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ...
Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. ... Adenylate Kinase. Subscribe to New Research on Adenylate Kinase An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in ... Kinase, AMP; Kinase, Adenylate; Phosphotransferase, ATP-AMP; Transphosphorylase, ATP-AMP; Myokinase; ATP:AMP phosphotransferase ... 02/01/2001 - "After anoxia, the majority (88%) of mitochondria was damaged or swollen and released adenylate kinase, a marker ...
A full length cDNA that partially corresponded to human adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) was identified and shown to encode for two ... Identification of two active functional domains of human adenylate kinase 5.. [Nicola Solaroli, Christakis Panayiotou, Magnus ...
Adenylate kinase locus 1 belongs to a family of monophosphate kinases that plays an important ... We investigated the possible influence of adenylate kinase genetic variability on the effect of maternal smoking on ... 0/Isoenzymes; EC 2.7.4.3/Adenylate Kinase; EC 2.7.4.3/adenylate kinase 1 ... Adenylate kinase locus 1 belongs to a family of monophosphate kinases that plays an important role in the synthesis of ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial , adenylate monophosphate kinase , adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial , adenylate ... Adenylate Kinase 2 (AK2) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine ...
Crystal Structures of the Adenylate Sensor from Fission Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ... Crystal Structures of the Adenylate Sensor from Fission Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ... Crystal Structures of the Adenylate Sensor from Fission Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ... Crystal Structures of the Adenylate Sensor from Fission Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ...
Compare Adenylate Kinase 1 ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order Adenylate Kinase 1 ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Mouse and more. ... Adk1-PA , Adk1-PB , CG17146-PA , CG17146-PB , adenylate kinase-1 , adenylate kinase 5 , adenylate kinase 1 , adenylate kinase ... adenylate monophosphate kinase , myokinase , adenylate kinase 1, soluble , cytosolic adenylate kinase , Adenylate kinase ...
AMPK Is a Direct Adenylate Charge-Regulated Protein Kinase. By Jonathan S. Oakhill, Rohan Steel, Zhi-Ping Chen, John W. Scott, ... AMPK Is a Direct Adenylate Charge-Regulated Protein Kinase. By Jonathan S. Oakhill, Rohan Steel, Zhi-Ping Chen, John W. Scott, ... AMPK Is a Direct Adenylate Charge-Regulated Protein Kinase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... AMPK activation depends on phosphorylation of the α catalytic subunit on threonine-172 (Thr172) by kinases LKB1 or CaMKKβ, and ...
Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 5 (AK5) belongs to the adenylate kinase family, which is involved in regulating the adenine ... Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 5, AK 5, ATP-AMP transphosphorylase 5, AK5, AK6. ... AK5 is related to the UMP/CMP kinase of several species. AK5 is located in the cytosol and expressed exclusively in the brain. ...
Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1, AK 1, ATP-AMP transphosphorylase 1, Myokinase, AK1. ...
ATP receptor regulation of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C activity in cultured renal LLC-PK1 cells.. R J Anderson, R ... Exposure of intact LLC-PK cells to ATP gamma S results in a significant increase in protein kinase C activity. However, neither ... of two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and H-7) prevents ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase ... The effect of P2y purinoceptors to inhibit AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity may be mediated, at least in part, by a ...
A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and ... The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent ... Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 ... Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub ...
Compare and order Adenylate Kinase 2 ELISA Kits. View citations, images, detection ranges, sensitivity, prices and more. ... adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial , adenylate monophosphate kinase , adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial , adenylate ... Protein level used designations for Adenylate Kinase 2 Adk2-PA , CG3140-PA , adenylate kinase-2 , adenylate kinase 2 , AK 2 , ... Adenylate Kinase 2 Antigen Profile Antigen Summary Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide ...
... adenylate kinase 4) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate Kinase 4 pAb (GTX30038) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% ... adenylate kinase 4. Background. This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family of enzymes. The encoded protein is ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ... Adenylate kinases regulate the adenine and guanine nucleotide compositions within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer ...
Adenylate energy charge in Escherichia coli CR341T28 and properties of heat-sensitive adenylate kinase.. C C Glembotski, A G ... The adenylate ratios in the parental strain did not change between 30 and 34 degrees C. The adenylate kinase mass action ratio ... Adenylate energy charge in Escherichia coli CR341T28 and properties of heat-sensitive adenylate kinase. ... Adenylate energy charge in Escherichia coli CR341T28 and properties of heat-sensitive adenylate kinase. ...
... adenylate kinase 2) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate kinase 2 pAb (GTX107613) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100 ... "adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial antibody", "adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial antibody", adenylate kinase 2 ... adenylate kinase 2. Background. Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell ... Green: Adenylate kinase 2 protein stained by Adenylate kinase 2 antibody [N1C3] (GTX107613) diluted at 1:500.. Blue: Hoechst ...
Relaxation dispersion Lanthanide binding tags Protein dynamics Paramagnetic NMR Caged lanthanide NMR probe Adenylate kinase ... The two-point attached CLaNP-5 lanthanide tag was linked to adenylate kinase. From the paramagnetic relaxation dispersion only ... A minor conformation of a lanthanide tag on adenylate kinase characterized by paramagnetic relaxation dispersion NMR ...
Adenylate kinase and NDP kinase activities were then quantified radiochemically by TLC analysis of the ATP-induced conversion ... Dinucleotide polyphosphates contribute to purinergic signalling via inhibition of adenylate kinase activity Gennady G. Yegutkin ... Dinucleoside polyphosphates and suramin have an inhibitory effect on the serum adenylate kinase [pIC50 values (−log IC50): Ap4A ... are relatively insignificant compared with the 800 μmol/l ATP added as a phosphate donor in the adenylate kinase and NDP kinase ...
  • TRPC6 is phosphorylated by various protein kinases including protein kinase A (PKA). (aspetjournals.org)
  • typically these elements are protein kinases at the core of physiology and disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • ATP-dependent protein kinases have long been known to play a key role in the regulation of metabolism and signal transduction in eukaryotic organisms ( 17 ) but were discovered later also in prokaryotes ( 18 , 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • The lack of sequence similarities of HPr kinase/phosphatase to other protein kinases indicates that HPrK represents a new family of bacterial ATP-dependent protein kinases. (pnas.org)
  • The following antibody was used in this experiment: Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody from Thermo Fisher Scientific, catalog # PA5-15430, RRID AB_2225283. (thermofisher.com)
  • WB analysis of extracts from various cell lines using Adenylate Kinase 4 antibody. (genetex.com)
  • ICC/IF analysis of A549 cells using Adenylate Kinase 4 antibody (green) and DAPI (blue). (genetex.com)
  • Wild-type (WT) and Adenylate kinase 2 knockout (KO) 293T cell extracts (30 µg) were separated by 12% SDS-PAGE, and the membrane was blotted with Adenylate kinase 2 antibody (GTX107613) diluted at 1:1000. (genetex.com)
  • Adenylate kinase 2 antibody [N1C3] detects Adenylate kinase 2 protein at mitochondria by immunofluorescent analysis. (genetex.com)
  • Green: Adenylate kinase 2 protein stained by Adenylate kinase 2 antibody [N1C3] (GTX107613) diluted at 1:500. (genetex.com)
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of paraffin-embedded Cal27 xenograft, using Adenylate kinase 2(GTX107613) antibody at 1:500 dilution. (genetex.com)
  • Adenylate Kinase 5 antibody LS-C502240 is an FITC-conjugated rabbit polyclonal antibody to human Adenylate Kinase 5 (AK5). (lsbio.com)
  • Purified E. coli inner membranes contain several proteins that are precipitated by addition of anti adenylate kinase antibody to detergent-solubilized membranes. (illinois.edu)
  • Adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3) (also known as ADK or myokinase) is a phosphotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of the various adenosine phosphates (ATP, ADP, and AMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylate kinase (AdK), a phosphotransferase enzyme, plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3) (also known as ADK or myokinase) is a phosphotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides, and plays an important role in cellular energy homeostasis. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Also known as Adenylate kinase 1 (AK 1) (ATP-AMP transphosphorylase 1) (ATP:AMP phosphotransferase 1) (Adenylate monophosphate kinase 1). (mybiosource.com)
  • Adenylate kinase (AK) (ATP:AMP phosphotransferase) catalyses the reversible transfer of the gamma-phosphate group from ATP to AMP, releasing two molecules of ADP. (semanticscholar.org)
  • BMC Molecular Biology 2012, 13:31 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) promotes cell proliferation in insect development Ru-Ping Chen 1, Chun-Yan Liu 1, Hong-Lian Shao 1, Wei-Wei Zheng 1,2, Jin-Xing Wang 1 and Xiao-Fan Zhao 1* Abstract Background: Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) is a phosphotransferase that catalyzes the reversible reaction 2ADP(GDP) ATP(GTP) + AMP and influences cellular energy homeostasis. (docplayer.net)
  • Adenylate kinase (AK or ADK) is a phosphotransferase that catalyzes the reversible reaction 2ADP(GDP) ATP(GTP) + AMP in the presence of Mg 2+ and influences cellular energy homeostasis and cellular adenine nucleotide metabolism [1,2]. (docplayer.net)
  • Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 5 (AK5) belongs to the adenylate kinase family, which is involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate groups among adenine nucleotides. (prospecbio.com)
  • Also known as Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 6 (AK6) (Adrenal gland protein AD-004) (Coilin-interacting nuclear ATPase protein) (hCINAP) (Dual activity adenylate kinase/ATPase) (AK/ATPase). (mybiosource.com)
  • Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 4, mitochondrial, also known as ATP-AMP transphosphorylase, Adenylate kinase 3-like, AK4 and AK3L1, is a member the adenylate kinase family. (novoprolabs.com)
  • abstract = "We report evidence that adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli can be activated by the direct binding of a magnesium ion to the enzyme, in addition to ATP-complexed Mg2+. (princeton.edu)
  • The nucleoside triphosphate-binding site of adenylate kinase was fairly nonspecific with regard to nucleotide species. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase that catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between nucleoside triphosphates and monophosphates. (lsbio.com)
  • Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity. (lsbio.com)
  • The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the interconversion of nucleosides, possessing both nucleoside monophosphate and diphosphate kinase activities. (mybiosource.com)
  • Has both nucleoside monophosphate and diphosphate kinase activities. (nih.gov)
  • The human adenylate kinase 9 is a nucleoside mono- and diphosphate kinase. (nih.gov)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity and cytidylate kinase activity . (genecards.org)
  • As an effort to identify other vaccine candidates, this study was initiated to evaluate protective efficacy of adenylate kinase (AK), nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NdK), and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Also known as Adenylate kinase (AK) (ATP-AMP transphosphorylase). (mybiosource.com)
  • Adenylate energy charge in Escherichia coli CR341T28 and properties of heat-sensitive adenylate kinase. (asm.org)
  • Escherichia coli strain CR341T28 will not grow at temperatures above 34 degrees C in liquid medium, and the adenylate kinase of this strain is heat sensitive. (asm.org)
  • The gene encoding the Escherichia coli adenylate kinase has been cloned by phage Mu-mediated transposition. (illinois.edu)
  • ADPase activity of recombinantly expressed thermotolerant ATPases may be caused by copurification of adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli. (duke.edu)
  • This activity is actually a combination of the activities of the ATPase and contaminating adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli, which is present at 1/10,000 of the level of the ATPase. (duke.edu)
  • We report evidence that adenylate kinase (AK) from Escherichia coli can be activated by the direct binding of a magnesium ion to the enzyme, in addition to ATP-complexed Mg 2+ . (princeton.edu)
  • To uncover the mechanisms that enable enzymes to operate at low temperatures, Saavedra's team used an enzyme essential to the bacterium, Escherichia coli (E. coli) , adenylate kinase . (asheekeyscienceblog.com)
  • Previous genetic and biochemical experiments have suggested that the adenylate kinase of Escherichia coli may be directly involved in phospholipid synthesis through formation of a complex with sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, the membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the first step in phospholipid synthesis. (illinois.edu)
  • Goelz, SE & Crona, JE 1982, ' Adenylate Kinase of Escherichia coli: Evidence for a Functional Interaction in Phospholipid Synthesis ', Biochemistry , vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 189-195. (illinois.edu)
  • Phenylglyoxal inactivates Escherichia coli adenylate kinase by modifying a single arginine residue (Arg-88). (canada.ca)
  • Adenylate kinase 2 deficiency limits survival and regulates various genes during larval stages of Drosophila melanogaster. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • CaMKIalpha (show CAMK1 ELISA Kits ) regulates AMP (show TMPRSS5 ELISA Kits ) kinase-dependent, TORC-1 (show CRTC1 ELISA Kits )-independent autophagy during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung neutrophilic inflammation. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates whole-body and cellular energy balance in response to energy demand and supply. (sciencemag.org)
  • The dynamics of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer regulates multiple intracellular and extracellular energy-dependent and nucleotide signaling processes, including excitation-contraction coupling, hormone secretion, cell and ciliary motility, nuclear transport, energetics of cell cycle, DNA synthesis and repair, and developmental programming. (mdpi.com)
  • Additionally, we identified a mitochondrial adenylate kinase (AK4) that regulates cellular ATP levels and AMPK signaling and whose expression significantly correlates with glioma patient survival. (nih.gov)
  • Adenylate Kinase (AK) is a signal transducing protein that regulates cellular energy homeostasis balancing between different conformations. (ethz.ch)
  • The human p50csk tyrosine kinase phosphorylates p56lck at Tyr-505 and down regulates its catalytic activity. (nature.com)
  • The assay utilizes the release of the intracellular enzyme adenylate kinase into the culture medium as a reporter of mycobacterial cell death. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • One exception is the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The gene encoding the mitochondrial energy metabolism enzyme adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) is mutated in individuals with reticular dysgenesis. (nih.gov)
  • ATP receptor regulation of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C activity in cultured renal LLC-PK1 cells. (jci.org)
  • In LLC-PK1 membranes, several ATP analogues inhibit basal, GTP-, forskolin-, and AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner. (jci.org)
  • The compound ATP gamma S inhibits agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in solubilized and in isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and quinacrine pretreated membranes, suggesting that ATP gamma S inhibition occurs independent of AVP and A1 adenosine receptors and of phospholipase A2 activity. (jci.org)
  • The ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is not affected by pertussis toxin but is attenuated by GDP beta S, suggesting a possible role for a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein in the inhibition. (jci.org)
  • However, neither of two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and H-7) prevents ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, suggesting that this inhibition occurs by a protein kinase C independent mechanism. (jci.org)
  • The effect of P2y purinoceptors to inhibit AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity may be mediated, at least in part, by a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein. (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in the regulation of G q protein-coupled endothelin type A receptor (ET A R)-mediated ROCE via TRPC6. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in serum-depleted cultured airway smooth muscle via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. (biochemj.org)
  • The probable target is the type II adenylate cyclase, which can integrate coincident signals from both PKC and Gs. (biochemj.org)
  • The present study indicates that the bradykinin-stimulated ERK-2 pathway is entirely cyclic AMP-sensitive, and suggests that coincident signal detection by adenylate cyclase may be an important physiological route for the modulation of early mitogenic signalling. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, the direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity enables bradykinin to induce DNA synthesis, indicating that the PKC-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase limits entry of cells into the cell cycle. (biochemj.org)
  • The activation of adenylate cyclase by PKC appears to be downstream of phospholipase D. However, in cells that were maintained in growth serum (i.e. were not growth-arrested), bradykinin was unable to elicit a PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP response. (biochemj.org)
  • The lesion in the signal-response coupling was not at the level of either the receptor or phospholipase D, which remain functionally operative and suggests modification occurs at either PKC or adenylate cyclase itself. (biochemj.org)
  • In the presence of an adenylate cyclase blocker, mGluR-LTD was slightly enhanced in WT and therefore the difference between mGluR-LTD in WT and Fmr1 KO slices was no longer present. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conversely, activation of adenylate cyclase by either forskolin or Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) completely reversed mGluR-LTD in WT and Fmr1 KO. (frontiersin.org)
  • this effect was abolished by blockade of either adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A (PKA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ca2+ Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) Endocytosis. (ehu.es)
  • This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. (ehu.es)
  • Here, we describe two additional adenylate kinase-like proteins: PfAKLP1, which is homologous to human AK6, and PfAKLP2. (nih.gov)
  • Additionally we are shipping Adenylate Kinase 1 Antibodies (158) and Adenylate Kinase 1 Proteins (25) and many more products for this protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • The sperm-associated proteins, P25b and adenylate kinase 1 , are linked to detergent-resistant membrane of epididymal spermatozoa, but were exclusively associated with detergent-soluble material in ejaculated spermatozoa. (antibodies-online.com)
  • In vitro kinase assay with Phos-tag biotin to determine the phosphorylation level of TRPC6 revealed that wild-type and mutant (TRPC6 S28A and TRPC6 T69A ) TRPC6 proteins were phosphorylated by PKA, but the phosphorylation level of these mutants was lower (approximately 50%) than that of wild type. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Among these Adenylate Kinase 1 proteins, there are 1 Human Adenylate Kinase 1 protein, 1 Rat Adenylate Kinase 1 protein. (sinobiological.com)
  • These Adenylate Kinase 1 proteins are produced with different tags, such as His Tag. (sinobiological.com)
  • Atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) is an enzyme which plays a part in governing the function of other proteins in your body. (livestrong.com)
  • GENTAUR suppliers human normal cells, cell lines, RNA extracts and lots of antibodies and ELISA kits to Human proteins as well as Recombinant Human Adenylate Kinase 3 Like 1. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Using Trypanosoma brucei and a proteomic approach, we have identified and characterized a novel set of adenylate kinase proteins that are localized to the flagellum. (ox.ac.uk)
  • hCINAP has previously been designated as an adenylate kinase (AK6), but is very atypical as it exhibits unusually broad substrate specificity, structural features characteristic of ATPase/GTPase proteins (Walker motifs A and B) and also intrinsic ATPase activity. (uclan.ac.uk)
  • Adenylate kinases (AK) play a key role in nucleotide signaling processes and energy metabolism by catalyzing the reversible conversion of ATP and AMP to 2 ADP. (nih.gov)
  • This gene encodes an adenylate kinase enzyme involved in energy metabolism and homeostasis of cellular adenine nucleotide ratios in different intracellular compartments. (nih.gov)
  • Lee, Kim, Lee, Kim, Lee, Park, Choe: Cloning and expression of human adenylate kinase 2 isozymes: differential expression of adenylate kinase 1 and 2 in human muscle tissues. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • However, adjustable expression of adenylate kinase from 30% below the level of the mutant to 50-fold above the wild-type level did not have any effect on the adenine nucleotide concentrations. (illinois.edu)
  • Two further enzymes are known to be related to the ADK family, i.e. yeast uridine monophosphokinase and slime mold UMP-CMP kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family of enzymes. (genetex.com)
  • Aims To measure the activity of the key phosphotransfer enzymes creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and glycolytic enzymes in two common mouse models of chronic heart failure. (ovid.com)
  • Activities of phosphotransfer enzymes CK, AK, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), and pyruvate kinase were assessed spectrophotometrically. (ovid.com)
  • Differential expression of adenine nucleotide converting enzymes in mitochondrial intermembrane space: a potential role of adenylate kinase isozyme 2 in neutrophil differentiation. (nih.gov)
  • 1 use adenylate kinase to demonstrate how enzymes can cope with the cold by increasing their disorder with flexible amino acids like glycine far from their active site. (asheekeyscienceblog.com)
  • Adenylate kinases 1-5 (AK 1-5) are a set of enzymes that regulate intracellular adenine nucleotide levels. (chemical-reagent.com)
  • A sequence comparison with 52 different forms of adenylate kinases (AK) suggests that the enzyme from M. tuberculosis belongs to a new subfamily of 'short' bacterial AKs. (mysciencework.com)
  • Arg-88, which is a highly conserved residue in all known molecular forms of adenylate kinases (corresponding to Arg-97 in muscle cytosolic enzyme), should be located inside a big cleft of the molecule, close to the phosphate-binding loop. (canada.ca)
  • To explore phosphotransfer signalling pathways in more detail, we examined whether K(ATP) channel regulation in beta cells is determined by a metabolic interaction between adenylate kinase (AK) and CK. (ru.nl)
  • This was associated with up-regulation of phosphoryl flux through remaining minor AK isoforms and the glycolytic phosphotransfer enzyme, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • In the absence of metabolic stress, deletion of AK1 did not translate into gross abnormalities in nucleotide levels, γ-ATP turnover rate or creatine kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer. (elsevier.com)
  • However, this present study shows that whereas the isolated NBDs exhibit adenylate kinase activity, the full-length purified and reconstituted CFTR protein functions as an ATPase, arguing that the enzymatic activity of the NBDs is dependent on their molecular context and appropriate domain-domain assembly. (biochemj.org)
  • F‐type ATPases: Are Nucleotide Domains in Adenylate Kinase Appropriate Models for Nucleotide Domains in ATP Synthase/ATPase Complexes? (elsevier.com)
  • Purified preparations were stable for at least 1 month at 0 to 4°C. Magnesium ions were essential for activity of adenylate kinase in both directions of the reaction. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Exposure of intact LLC-PK cells to ATP gamma S results in a significant increase in protein kinase C activity. (jci.org)
  • When a culture was shifted from a permissive (30 degrees C) to a nonpermissive (36 degrees C) temperature, the adenylate energy charge fell from 0.9 to 0.2, with a concurrent decrease in the number of viable cells and in the specific activity of adenylate kinase. (asm.org)
  • When cultures of the temperature-sensitive strain were grown at temperatures above 30 degrees C, the adenylate energy charge, the specific activity of adenylate kinase, and the growth rate were lower than the corresponding parameters for the parental strain. (asm.org)
  • Recently, it was shown that the individual NBDs isolated from CFTR primarily mediate adenylate kinase activity, raising the possibility that this activity may also contribute to gating of the CFTR channel. (biochemj.org)
  • Neither of these mutants exhibited detectable adenylate kinase activity. (biochemj.org)
  • Ecto-adenylate kinase activity was also observed in purified synaptosomes. (springer.com)
  • In summary, we demonstrate the presence of an ecto-adenylate kinase activity in the hippocampus, which is a previously unrecognized pathway that influences the availability of purines in the central nervous system. (springer.com)
  • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In a previous study, we demonstrated that a creatine kinase (CK) modulates K(ATP) channel activity in pancreatic beta cells. (ru.nl)
  • Adenylate kinase activity is critical for regulation of the phosphate utilization and the AMP de novo biosynthesis pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Adenylate kinase 4 ( AK4 / AK3L1 ) is a unique member with no enzymatic activity in the adenylate kinase (AK) family although it shares high sequence homology with other AKs. (novoprolabs.com)
  • Hemolytic anemia due to adenylate kinase deficiency (HAAKD): A disease characterized by hemolytic anemia and undetectable erythrocyte adenylate kinase activity. (nih.gov)
  • This strategy enabled fine temporal and spatial control over kinase activity, thus allowing us to quantify phosphorylation kinetics in situ using biochemical and imaging approaches. (nature.com)
  • Figure 2: Phosphorylation of LCK active-site loop is essential for its kinase activity. (nature.com)
  • Figure 3: Intramolecular SH3 interaction restrains LCK kinase activity. (nature.com)
  • Figure 6: Precise spatiotemporal control of LCK kinase activity in live cells. (nature.com)
  • In Bacillus subtilis , the HPrK is active only in the presence of F-1,6-BP ( 11 ), whereas in Streptococcus salivarius , Enterococcus faecalis and Mycoplasma pneumoniae this metabolite does not affect the kinase activity of the enzyme (7, 12, J. Stülke, personal communication). (pnas.org)
  • For HPrK of Staphylococcus xylosus , it could be observed that F-1,6-BP indeed increases the kinase activity in the presence of 2 mM ATP, albeit to a lower extent. (pnas.org)
  • The adenylate kinase activity of this strain is only minimally altered either in vitro or [as assayed by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) levels] in vivo. (illinois.edu)
  • We report the purification of E. coli adenylate kinase to homogeneity and find that the addition of homogeneous wild-type adenylate kinase to membranes containing a mutationally altered temperature-sensitive acyltransferase results in thermal stabilization of the acyltransferase activity. (illinois.edu)
  • The purpose of the present study was to measure the changes in glucose transport and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation/activity following repeated contractions in isolated muscles from AK(-/-) mice. (ru.nl)
  • However, this modified protein has only 1% of the maximum catalytic activity of the wild-type enzyme and 5- and 85-fold higher apparent Km values for ATP and AMP, respectively, than the parent adenylate kinase. (canada.ca)
  • Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is also known as phospho-creatine kinase. (livestrong.com)
  • When assayed at 30 degrees C, the affinities of the enzyme from the mutant strain were somewhat lower than those of the parent adenylate kinase. (asm.org)
  • A new subfamily of short bacterial adenylate kinases with the. (mysciencework.com)
  • A new subfamily of short bacterial adenylate kinases with the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme as a model: A predictive and experimental study. (mysciencework.com)
  • Hereditary erythrocyte adenylate kinase deficiency: A defect of multiple phosphotransferases? (elsevier.com)
  • The 5′-AMP (adenosine monophosphate)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) coordinates metabolic function with energy availability by responding to changes in intracellular ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and AMP concentrations. (sciencemag.org)
  • The cellular energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase also binds and is regulated by adenosine diphosphate. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adenylate kinase (AK) modulates the interconversion of adenine nucleotides (AMP + adenosine triphosphate → 2 ADP). (elsevier.com)
  • Adenylate kinase locus 1 belongs to a family of monophosphate kinases that plays an important role in the synthesis of nucleotides involved in several metabolic functions. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. (mdpi.com)
  • A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. (mdpi.com)
  • The anchoring of specific adenylate kinases within two distinct flagellar structures provides a paradigm for metabolic organization and efficiency in other flagellates. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways and may have therapeutic importance for treating obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). (nih.gov)
  • Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. (thermofisher.com)
  • This indicates the existence of two or more adenylate kinase isozymes in yeast. (mpg.de)
  • AK5 is related to the UMP/CMP kinase of several species. (prospecbio.com)
  • There are 2 Adenylate Kinase 1 protein produced in house with high quality which are covering various species. (sinobiological.com)
  • Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate groups among adenine nucleotides. (thermofisher.com)
  • Data demonstrate that adenylate kinase 2 plays a critical role in adenine nucleotide metabolism in the mitochondrial intermembrane space and is essential for growth. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Adenylate kinases regulate the adenine and guanine nucleotide compositions within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate group among these nucleotides. (genetex.com)
  • Adenylate kinase (AK)-catalyzed transfer of adenine nucleotide β- and γ-phosphoryls has been implicated in intracellular energy communication and nucleotide metabolism. (elsevier.com)
  • Here, we report crystal structures at 2.9 and 2.6 Å resolution for ATP- and AMP-bound forms of a core αβγ adenylate-binding domain from the fission yeast AMPK homolog. (sciencemag.org)
  • Data indicate that the neuronal adenylate kinase-1 (AK1 ) is induced by Abeta (show APP ELISA Kits )(42) to increase abnormal tau phosphorylation via AMPK (show PRKAA1 ELISA Kits )- GSK3beta (show GSK3b ELISA Kits ) and contributes to tau-mediated neurodegeneration. (antibodies-online.com)
  • AMPK activation depends on phosphorylation of the α catalytic subunit on threonine-172 (Thr 172 ) by kinases LKB1 or CaMKKβ, and this is promoted by AMP binding to the γ subunit. (sciencemag.org)
  • Molecular and functional characterization of adenylate kinase 2 gene from Leishmania donovani. (semanticscholar.org)
  • AMP promotes oxygen consumption and ATP synthesis in heart mitochondria through the adenylate kinase reaction: an NMR spectroscopy and polarography study. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Properties of adenylate kinase from Paracoccus denitrificans and comparison with the enzyme from cytosol and mitochondria. (dartmouth.edu)
  • Exposure of hippocampal slices to LP-211 caused an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), an intracellular effector involved in mGluR-LTD, in WT mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Protein Kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, participates in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, a master regulator of aerobic glycolysis and cellular biosynthesis, two activities shown by both normal and cancer proliferating cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Keywords: Helicoverpa armigera, Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), Cell growth and viability, RNA interference Background Various cellular functions need ATP for energy supply. (docplayer.net)
  • Identification of two active functional domains of human adenylate kinase 5. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • A full length cDNA that partially corresponded to human adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) was identified and shown to encode for two separate domains. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Smoking and human reproduction: the effect of adenylate kinase genetic polymorphism. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Noma, Song, Yoon, Tanaka, Nakazawa: cDNA cloning and tissue-specific expression of the gene encoding human adenylate kinase isozyme 2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • The adipokine zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein activates AMP (show APRT ELISA Kits ) kinase in human primary skeletal muscle cells. (antibodies-online.com)
  • Recombinant protein encompassing a sequence within the center region of human Adenylate kinase 2. (genetex.com)
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of four CAD/CAM all-ceramic materials on cell viability, migration ability and adenylate kinase (ADK) release of human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) and oral keratinocytes (HOK). (nih.gov)
  • Adenylate Kinase (AK) is an enzyme which functions to control the energy transfer and balance in human cells. (livestrong.com)
  • We have isolated and characterized a cDNA clone encoding human adenylate kinase 2A (AK2A) from cDNA libraries of fetal liver origin. (kribb.re.kr)
  • Recombinant Human Adenylate Kinase 3 Like 1 Human samples 80 % of the research is conducted on human samples. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Synthetic peptide from the C-terminal region of human Adenylate Kinase 1 conjugated to KLH. (abcam.cn)
  • Thus, the mitochondrion attempts to keep ATP levels high due to the combined action of adenylate kinase and the controls on oxidative phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, HPr is subject to regulatory phosphorylation at Ser-46 by the ATP:Mg 2+ -dependent HPr kinase/phosphatase (HPrK), a general sensor for ATP, free phosphate (P i ), and glycolytic intermediates ( 7 - 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • We show that a requirement to target adenylate kinase into glycosomes, which are unique kinetoplastid-specific microbodies of the peroxisome class in which many reactions of carbohydrate metabolism are compartmentalized, and two different flagellar structures as well as cytoplasm and mitochondrion explains the expansion of this gene family in trypanosomes. (hud.ac.uk)
  • An increase in the assay temperature from 30 degrees to 40 degrees C had little or no effect on the Km values determined for the parental adenylate kinase, but caused the Km values determined for the mutant adenylate kinase to increase by a factor of two or more. (asm.org)
  • Measurement of the mass action ratio of the adenylate kinase reaction indicated that adenylate kinase may be rate limiting in growing cells and that mutant adenylate kinases were selectively degraded by phosphate starvation. (illinois.edu)
  • The specific adenylate kinase inhibitor diadenosine pentaphosphate decreased the rate of decomposition of ADP and inhibited the formation of ATP. (springer.com)
  • This comparative competitive study suggests that Ap 4 A and Ap 5 A contribute to the purinergic responses via inhibition of adenylate-kinase-mediated conversion of endogenous ADP, whereas Up 4 A most likely mediates its vasoregulatory effects via direct binding-mediated mechanisms. (portlandpress.com)
  • Recent studies indicate that derangements in adenylate kinase-mediated energetic signaling due to mutations in AK1, AK2 or AK7 isoforms are associated with hemolytic anemia, reticular dysgenesis and ciliary dyskinesia. (mdpi.com)
  • Activation of Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase by Epidermal Growth Factor Is Potentiated by cAMP-Elevating Agents in Primary Cultures of Adult Rat Hepatocytes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Therefore, activation of Gs (by cholera-toxin pre-treatment) amplified the bradykinin-stimulated cyclic AMP signal and concurrently attenuated the partial activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2) by bradykinin. (biochemj.org)
  • Adenylate kinase-4 modulates oxidative stress and stabilizes HIF-1α to drive lung cancer metastasis. (genetex.com)
  • High purity recombinant Adenylate kinase (Myokinase) (prokaryote) for use in research, biochemical enzyme assays and in vitro diagnostic analysis. (megazyme.com)
  • The primary structure of B. stearothermophilus adenylate kinase exhibited 76% identity with the enzyme from Bacillus subtilis, 60% identity with the enzyme from Lactococcus lactis, and 42% identity with the enzyme from E. coli. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • Defects in AK1 are the cause of hemolytic anemia due to adenylate kinase deficiency [MIM:612631]. (abcam.cn)
  • Activation of glucose transport and AMP-activated protein kinase during muscle contraction in adenylate kinase-1 knockout mice. (ru.nl)
  • AIM: Recently it was reported that adenylate kinase-1 knockout mice (AK(-/-)) exhibit elevated rates of glucose uptake following repeated contractions and hypoxia, but the mechanism was not investigated. (ru.nl)
  • Your search returned 20 adenylate kinase 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 4 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • Your search returned 42 adenylate kinase 3 ELISA ELISA Kit across 7 suppliers. (biocompare.com)
  • The gene (designated ADK1) encoding the so-called cytosolic adenylate kinase of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was isolated using a single mixed oligonucleotide hybridization probe designed from the published amino acid sequence. (mpg.de)