Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Adenine NucleotidesIsoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thiamine Triphosphate: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type IMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers. (1/864)

Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population.  (+info)

Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver. (2/864)

The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC 2.7.4.3] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC 2.7.1.40] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant.  (+info)

Identification of a novel human adenylate kinase. cDNA cloning, expression analysis, chromosome localization and characterization of the recombinant protein. (3/864)

Adenylate kinases have an important role in the synthesis of adenine nucleotides that are required for cellular metabolism. We report the cDNA cloning of a novel 22-kDa human enzyme that is sequence related to the human adenylate kinases and to UMP/CMP kinase of several species. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to catalyse phosphorylation of AMP and dAMP with ATP as phosphate donor. When GTP was used as phosphate donor, the enzyme phosphorylated AMP, CMP, and to a small extent dCMP. Expression as a fusion protein with the green fluorescent protein showed that the enzyme is located in the cytosol. Northern blot analysis with mRNA from eight different human tissues demonstrated that the enzyme was expressed exclusively in brain, with two mRNA isoforms of 2.4 and 4.0 kb. The gene that encoded the enzyme was localized to chromosome 1p31. Based on the substrate specificity and the sequence similarity with the previously identified human adenylate kinases, we have named this novel enzyme adenylate kinase 5.  (+info)

Release of adenylate kinase 2 from the mitochondrial intermembrane space during apoptosis. (4/864)

The release of two mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), into the soluble cytoplasm of cells undergoing apoptosis is well established. Using spectrophotometric determination of enzyme activity, the accumulation of adenylate kinase (AK) activity in the cytosolic fraction of apoptotic cells has also been observed recently. However, three isozymes, AK1, AK2 and AK3, have been characterized in mammalian cells and shown to be localized in the cytosol, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, respectively, and it is unknown which one of these isozymes accumulates in the cytosol during apoptosis. We now demonstrate that in apoptotic cells only AK2 was translocated into the cytosol concomitantly with cytochrome c. The amount of AK1 in cytosol, as well as the amount of matrix-associated AK3, remained unchanged during the apoptotic process. Thus, our data suggest that only intermembrane proteins are released from mitochondria during the early phase of the apoptotic process.  (+info)

Inhibition of ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities of the second nucleotide-binding fold of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by genistein. (5/864)

In the presence of ATP, genistein, like the ATP analogue adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (pp[NH]pA), increases cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride currents by prolonging open times. As pp[NH]pA is thought to increase CFTR currents by interfering with ATP hydrolysis at the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF-2), the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of genistein on a fusion protein comprising maltose-binding protein (MBP) and NBF-2 (MBP-NBF-2). MBP-NBF-2 exhibited ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities that were inhibited by genistein in a partial non-competitive manner with respect to ATP or GTP. Ki values for competitive and uncompetitive inhibition were respectively 20 microM and 63 microM for ATPase, 15 microM and 54 microM for GTPase, and 46 microM and 142 microM for adenylate kinase. For ATPase activity, genistein reduced Vmax by 29% and Vmax/Km by 77%. Additional evidence for complex-formation between genistein and MBP-NBF-2 was obtained by the detection of genistein-dependent alterations in the CD spectrum of MBP-NBF-2 that were consistent with the formation of a higher-ordered state. Addition of MBP-NBF-2 increased the fluorescence intensity of genistein, consistent with a change to a less polar environment. pp[NH]pA partially eliminated this enhanced fluorescence of genistein. These observations provide the first direct biochemical evidence that genistein interacts with CFTR, thus inhibiting NBF-2 activity, and suggest a similar mechanism for genistein-dependent stimulation of CFTR chloride currents.  (+info)

Volume overload hypertrophy of the newborn heart slows the maturation of enzymes involved in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. (6/864)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of volume overload hypertrophy in the newborn heart on the cardiac enzymes controlling fatty acid metabolism. BACKGROUND: Shortly after birth, a rise in 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity results in the phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), and a decline in myocardial malonyl CoA levels with increased fatty acid oxidation rates. Whether the early onset of hypertrophy in the newborn heart alters this maturational increase in fatty acid oxidation is unknown. METHODS: Newborn piglets underwent endovascular stenting of the ductus arteriosus on day 1 of life with a 4.5-mm diameter stent, resulting in a left to right shunt, and left ventricular (LV) volume loading. Left ventricular and right ventricular samples from fetal, newborn, three-week control and three-week stented animals were compared. RESULTS: Stenting resulted in echocardiographic evidence of volume overload and myocardial hypertrophy. In control animals, left ventricular ACC activity declined from 274 +/- 30 pmol/mg/min on day 1 to 115 +/- 12 after three weeks (p < 0.05), but did not display this maturation drop in hypertrophied hearts, remaining elevated (270 +/- 50 pmol/mg/min, p < 0.05). At three weeks, malonyl CoA levels remained 2.8-fold higher in hypertrophied hearts than in control hearts. In control hearts, LV AMPK activity increased 178% between day 1 and three weeks, whereas in hypertrophied hearts AMPK activity at three weeks was only 71% of control values, due to a significant decrease in expression of the catalytic subunit of AMPK. CONCLUSIONS: Early onset LV volume overload with hypertrophy results in a delay in the normal maturation of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn heart.  (+info)

Adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer in the myocardium : increased contribution in heart failure. (7/864)

Although the downregulation of creatine kinase activity has been associated with heart failure, creatine kinase-deficient transgenic hearts have a preserved contractile function. This suggests the existence of alternative phosphotransfer pathways in the myocardium, the identity of which is still unknown. In this study, we examined the contribution of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer to myocardial energetics. In the isolated mitochondria/actomyosin system, which possesses endogenous adenylate kinase activity in both compartments, substrates for adenylate kinase promoted the rate and amplitude of actomyosin contraction that was further enhanced by purified adenylate kinase. Inhibition of adenylate kinase activity diminished both actomyosin contraction and mitochondrial respiration, which indicated reduced energy flow between mitochondria and myofibrils. In intact myocardium, the net adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer rate was 10% of the total ATP turnover rate as measured by 18O-phosphoryl labeling in conjunction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In pacing-induced failing heart, adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer increased by 134% and contributed 21% to the total ATP turnover. Concomitantly, the contribution by creatine kinase dropped from 89% in normal hearts to 40% in failing hearts. These phosphotransfer changes were associated with reduced levels of metabolically active ATP but maintained overall ATP turnover rate. Thus, this study provides evidence that adenylate kinase facilitates the transfer of high-energy phosphoryls and signal communication between mitochondria and actomyosin in cardiac muscle, with an increased contribution to cellular phosphotransfer in heart failure. This phosphotransfer function renders adenylate kinase an important component for optimal myocardial bioenergetics and a compensatory mechanism in response to impaired intracellular energy flux in the failing heart.  (+info)

Experimental study on firearm wound in maxillofacial region. (8/864)

OBJECTIVE: To make clear the range of firearm wound in the maxillofacial region, the optical repair time and the characteristics of accompanied indirect brain damage, and to offer the principle of emergency treatment and the early repair of war wound. METHODS: With the aid of the standard Sweden model, 200 dogs were used in the experiment. Varies tissues around the primary canal were harvested chronologically, in different zone and different tissue, for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The necrotic range of various tissues in the maxillofacial region was less than that in the extremities. In the maxillofacial region, there was a significant temporary cavity following the passing of bullet, which caused indirect brain damages. CONCLUSION: These findings are helpful to the treatment of war wound in the maxillofacial region. Early bone transplantation using microvascular anastomosis in the treatment of gunshot wound in the maxillofacial region is recommendable.  (+info)

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Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
Saint Girons, I.S., Gilles, A.-M., Margarita, D., Michelson, S., Monnot, M., Fermandjian, S., Danchin, A. and Barzu, O. (1987). „Structural and catalytic characteristics of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 262: 622-629. PMID 3027060 ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lauren Forbes, Katherine Ebsworth-Mojica, Louis DiDone, Shao-Gang Li, Joel S Freundlich, Nancy Connell, Paul M Dunman, Damian J Krysan].
AimsTo measure the activity of the key phosphotransfer enzymes creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and glycolytic enzymes in two common mouse models of chronic heart failure.Methods and resultsC57BL/6 mice were subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC), myocardial infarction induced
Chen et al. BMC Molecular Biology 2012, 13:31 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) promotes cell proliferation in insect development Ru-Ping Chen 1, Chun-Yan Liu 1, Hong-Lian Shao 1, Wei-Wei
Definition of adenylate kinase - An enzyme that catalyses the reversible reaction by which adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine monophosphate (AMP
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of A Mitochondrial RNAi Screen Defines Cellular Bioenergetic Determinants and Identifies an Adenylate Kinase as a Key Regulator of ATP Levels. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 400 µL purified antibody (Lot-specific) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide.
Adenylate Kinase 1兔多克隆抗体(ab71621)可与仓鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
myokinase definition: adenylate kinase, a phosphotransferase chemical that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides and plays a crucial role in mobile energy homeostasis.
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Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space, and it is an essential constituent of the respiratory chain. The translocation of Cyt c from mitochondria to the cytosol is an important step in the apoptotic signaling pathway, linking mitochondrial changes to the activation of execution caspases (Liu et al, 1996). Once translocated into the cytosol, Cyt c together with Apaf-1 and procaspase-9 form a multiprotein complex, the apoptosome, which initiates the activation of caspase-3 (Li P et al, 1997). Studies in cell-free sytems have shown that addition of Cyt c to cytosols directly activates caspase-3, whereas immunodepletion of Cyt c from cell homogenates prevents caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, microinjection of Cyt c into intact cells has been shown to induce apoptosis (Li F et al, 1997). Although Cyt c release has been observed in many experimental models of apoptosis, the mechanism of translocation across the outer mitochondrial membrane is unclear. One ...
AK1 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 214 amino acids and having a molecular mass of 23.7kDa.
AK5 Human Recombinant produced in E.Coli is a single, non-glycosylated polypeptide chain containing 586 aa (1-562 a.a.) having a molecular mass of 65.9kDa.
References for Abcams Recombinant Human AK2 protein (ab116419). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
1AKE: Structure of the complex between adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli and the inhibitor Ap5A refined at 1.9 A resolution. A model for a catalytic transition state.
Adenylate kinase 2 antibody [N1C3] (adenylate kinase 2) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate kinase 2 pAb (GTX107613) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Adenylate kinase 4 antibody (adenylate kinase 4) for IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate kinase 4 pAb (GTX30038) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Monoklonale und polyklonale Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper für viele Methoden. Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper. Hier bestellen.
MTSQEKTEEYPFADIFDEDETERNFLLSKPVCFVVFGKPGVGKTTLARYITQAWKCIRVEALPILEEQIA 1 - 70 AETESGVMLQSMLISGQSIPDELVIKLMLEKLNSPEVCHFGYIITEIPSLSQDAMTTLQQIELIKNLNLK 71 - 140 PDVIINIKCPDYDLCQRISGQRQHNNTGYIYSRDQWDPEVIENHRKKKKEAQKDGKGEEEEEEEEQEEEE 141 - 210 AFIAEMQMVAEILHHLVQRPEDYLENVENIVKLYKETILQTLEEVMAEHNPQYLIELNGNKPAEELFMIV 211 - 280 MDRLKYLNLKRAAILTKLQGAEEEINDTMENDELFRTLASYKLIAPRYRWQRSKWGRTCPVNLKDGNIYS 281 - 350 GLPDYSVSFLGKIYCLSSEEALKPFLLNPRPYLLPPMPGPPCKVFILGPQYSGKTTLCNMLAENYKGKVV 351 - 420 DYAQLVQPRFDKARETLVENTIAEATAAAIKVVKEKLLRELQARKQAETALREFQRQYEKMEFGVFPMEA 421 - 490 THSSIDEEGYIQGSQRDRGSSLVDTEEAKTKSENVLHDQAAKVDKDDGKETGETFTFKRHSQDASQDVKL 491 - 560 YSDTAPTEDLIEEVTADHPEVVTMIEETIKMSQDINFEQPYEKHAEILQEVLGEVMEENKDRFPGAPKYG 561 - 630 GWIVDNCPIVKELWMALIKKGIIPDLVIYLSDTENNGKCLFNRIYLQKKSEIDSKILERLLEELQKKKKE 631 - 700 EEEARKATEEELRLEEENRRLLELMKVKAKEAEETDNEDEEEIEGDELEVHEEPEASHDTRGSWLPEEFE 701 - 770 ASEVPETEPEAVSEPIEETTVETEIPKGSKEGLEIEKLSETVVLPEFPEDSYPDVPEMEPFKEKIGSFII 771 - 840 ...
1AKY: High-resolution structures of adenylate kinase from yeast ligated with inhibitor Ap5A, showing the pathway of phosphoryl transfer.
View Notes - Slides3 011911(1) from BIOL 212 at UPenn. Today: 1) Short discussion of ATP and other carrier molecules 2) Protein folding 3) Exploration of adenylate kinase structure and
The primary mode of action of forskolin is by increasing the cellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-mediated functions, via activation of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. For details visit our online portal
Enzymes are extraordinary molecules that can accelerate chemical reactions by several orders of magnitude. With recent advancements in structural biology together with classical enzymology the mechanism of many enzymes has become understood at the molecular level. During the last ten years significant efforts have been invested to understand the structure and dynamics of the actual catalyst (i. e. the enzyme). There has been a tremendous development in NMR spectroscopy (both hardware and pulse programs) that have enabled detailed studies of protein dynamics. In many cases there exists a strong coupling between enzyme dynamics and function. Here I have studied the conformational dynamics and thermodynamics of three model systems: adenylate kinase (Adk), Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ) and the structural protein S16. By developing a novel chemical shift-based method we show that Adk binds its two substrates AMP and ATP with an extraordinarily dynamic mechanism. For both substrate-saturated states the ...
Complete information for AK8 gene (Protein Coding), Adenylate Kinase 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Numerous hits in gapped BLAST to adenylate kinases, e.g. residues 1-210 are 41% similar to KAD_MYCCA, and residues 1-209 are 38% similar to KAD_BACSU. Also several hits to eukaryotic sequences including KAD3_HUMAN, KAD3_RAT, KAD3_BOVIN, KAD2_HUMAN, and KAD1_YEAST ...
no mne ked to ten moj robil ja som myslela ze sa zblaznim.. bolo to jednoducho senzacne :)) ale myslim ze to naj ani nebolo to samotne prstovanie ale to ako mi drazdil klitoris... ked ma do toho zacal prstovat to bolo nieco ako bonus... zintenzivnilo mi to orgazmus... takze ja som urcite za :) ale samozrejme... ako tu baby hovoria... len ak chalan vie ako nato .. :)) a baby, nehanbite sa to chalanovi povedat :) nemusite hned tak tvrdo ze je v tom totalna nula.. ale tak ho trochu nasmerovat.. povedat mu co vam robi dobre.. co sa vam paci... vy z toho budete mat pozitok a chalan sa zdokolńali :)) papaa. ...
Increases of cAMP are controlled by the enzyme adenylate cyclase (sAC). This enzyme produces cAMP molecules from the cellular energy reservoir adenosyne triphosphate (ATP). In order for the enzyme to assume this catalytic function, it itself has to be activated, e.g. by bicarbonate.. • The opposite process, e.g. the reduction of cAMP levels, is initiated by another enzyme. The protein involved here originates from the family of phosphodiesterases (PDE); to be precise, an isoform of PDE2A. This enzyme must also be activated so that it may reduce the amount of cAMP contained in the mitochondria. This process is performed by molecules which aggregate along an area at the end of the protein, the N-terminus of the PDE2A molecules.. In this manner, the messenger cAMP acts as an enzyme controlled switch which strengthens or weakens the energy metabolism. The "position" of the switch is determined by which of the two enzymes dominates: Adenylate cyclase (sAC) increases the amount of cAMP, ...
Bacteria sense the amount of glucose by watching the product of another chemical reaction. The enzyme adenylate cyclase converts ATP into cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). The cAMP acts as a messenger to the cell ... it says "Im starving". How does it do that? It turns out that when glucose levels are sufficient, adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited. Glucose interferes with the production of cAMP. Thus, when glucose is high, cAMP is low and vice-versa. cAMP activates the protein CAP (sometimes called CRP, for "cAMP Receptor Protein"). When CAP-cAMP binds to the promoter of the lac operon, it revs up transcription to a very high level. If lactose is absent, repression prevents transcription ... but if lactose is present, the receptor protein is deactivated and you get tonnes of permease and beta-galactosidase (and transacetylase, whatever thats for ...). ...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is often associated with energy levels by nutritionists and doctors alike. This molecule plays an integral role in our bodies abilities to transfer energy to different areas, but it isnt a direct source in most cases. Its like crude oil, which can be further refined by different cells into different types of fuel to suit their purpose. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) is produced inside cells after the conversion of ATP via the enzyme Adenylate Cyclase. Once cells have generated cAMP, they utilize it through the binding with different proteins. In this case of this new study, researchers identified the messenger pathways with heightened activity after the binding of Epac2A and cAMP. This pathway was shown to transport the Epac2A compounds directly to the cellular plasma membrane, where they are then used to regulate insulin release. Simply put; it seems that both cAMP levels and Epac2A levels likely correlate directly to…. ...
Forskolin acts primarily by activating the enzyme adenylate cyclase, which results in increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in cells. Thus, Forskolin can increase cyclic AMP without the assistance of neurotransmitters or hormones. Get a risk-free trial of the #1 Forskolin… Continue Reading →. ...
|Mechanism for increasing muscle endurance via the small molecules AICARAICAR is a nucleoside that is taken up into muscle and converted into the nucleotide ZMP, which mimics the effects of the natural ligand, 5-AMP, on AMPK. The latter is produced by adenylate kinase acting on ADP generated from ATP during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK in…
Complete information for AK3P2 gene (Pseudogene), Adenylate Kinase 3 Pseudogene 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Success in evolution depends critically upon the ability of organisms to adapt, a property that is also true for the proteins that contribute to the fitness of an organism. Successful protein evolution is enhanced by mutational pathways that generate a wide range of physicochemical mechanisms to adaptation. In an earlier study, we used a weak-link method to favor changes to an essential but maladapted protein, adenylate kinase (AK), within a microbial population. Six AK mutants (a single mutant followed by five double mutants) had success within the population, revealing a diverse range of adaptive strategies that included changes in nonpolar packing, protein folding dynamics, and formation of new hydrogen bonds and electrostatic networks. The first mutation, AK(BSUB) Q199R, was essential in defining the structural context that facilitated subsequent mutations as revealed by a considerable mutational epistasis and, in one case, a very strong dependence upon the order of mutations. Namely, ...
A procedure has been described for the centrifugal fractionation of the cytological components of pigeon breast muscle. An analysis of the distribution of enzyme activity among the different particles reveals a predominant location of magnesium-activated ATPase and myokinase in the cytochondria. The myofibrillar nuclear components are the site of calcium-activated ATPase and adenylic acid deaminase. ...
This AK5 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 46~76 amino acids from the N-terminal region of human AK5 ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of AK1. A synthetic peptide (conjugated with KLH) corresponding to N-terminus of human AK1. (PAB4039) - Products - Abnova
Human AK3L1 full-length ORF ( AAH16180, 1 a.a. - 223 a.a.) recombinant protein with GST-tag at N-terminal. (H00000205-P01) - Products - Abnova
AKY AKY: anormal kardiyak fonksiyona ikincil olarak tedavi gerektirecek düzeyde (de novo veya tekrar) semptom ve bulguları ortaya çıkması durumudur. (azalmış kardiyak debi bozulmuş organ perfüzyonu, konjesyon, artmış PCWP) 2. Kardiyak disfonksiyon: a) sistolik veya diyastolik disfonk b) kardiyak ritm anormalliklerine c) ön yük ardyük uyumsuzluğuna bağlı olabilir 3. Acil tedavi gerektirir. The Task Force on Acute Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology
miro123, skus sa pozriet na web-stranky jednotlivych skol a tam najdes aj info o jednotlivych formach studia. Bohuzial, dnes je spoplatnene na niektorych skolach aj denne studium. Uroven, kvalita a narocnost su rozdielne a nesuvisia vzdy s tym, ci studujes na dennom, externom alebo na kombinovanom...Samozrejme zalezi aj na tom, ze aky odbor si vyberies. Pozor:neplati na kazdej skole, ze ked si za nieco platis, tak automaticky dostanes aj skusku! Mam za sebou jednu vysku (denne studium) na jednej z najlepsych skol (fyzika) a popri praci studujem na druhej vyske -dialkovo, ak to mozem posudit, nie je to az take tazke ako denne, ale mam co robit :-). Vela stastia.. ...
Filiz Aky ld z Ak ay, Serdar Bayata, Tuna Semerci, Murat Ye il, O uzhan Toklu, Erdin Ar kan, Selcen Yakar T l ce, Mehmet K seo lu, dil Ko a ra Ya ...
Aiba H.. The regulatory region of the Escherichia coli cya gene was analyzed by using S1 nuclease mapping and in vitro transcription experiments. The cya gene was transcribed, both in vivo and in vitro, from one major promoter (P2) and two weak promoters (P1 and P1) that are located about 200 base pairs upstream of P2. The transcription from P2 was specifically inhibited by cAMP-CRP (cAMP receptor protein) in vitro. This regulatory mechanism was shown to be physiologically relevant through quantitative analyses of the cya mRNA in intact cells by S1 and dot blot assays. DNase I protection experiments revealed that cAMP-CRP binds to the cya DNA region between +11 and -20, in which a consensus CRP binding sequence is present. Moreover, it was found that cAMP-CRP alters the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter region, thus inhibiting the transcription of the cya gene.. J. Biol. Chem. 260:3063-3070(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] ...
Broad-specificity nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase that catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between nucleoside triphosphates and monophosphates.
What are the implications of the CCT-mediated actin folding mechanism for the structure and function of F-actin? Reisler & Egelman (2007) have collated many disparate observations concerning biochemical and structural properties of F-actin and argued convincingly that F-actin should not be considered to be a single state but rather a dynamic ensemble of many states. Transitions between states are probably coupled to rotations and tilts of subunits, which occur readily despite the apparently severe structural constraint of a constant axial rise of every subunit in the filament of approximately 27.3 Å. Put succinctly, in its breathing modes F-actin changes its shape more than its length.. The emerging view of time-correlated motions and protein function is that active enzymatic or ligand-binding states reflect configurations that pre-exist in the ensemble. In adenylate kinase, the catalytically competent closed state is occasionally sampled on microseconds-milliseconds time scales even in the ...
J. F. Wendel, Goodman, M. M., Stuber, C. W., and Beckett, J. B., "New isozyme systems for maize (Zea mays L.): aconitate hydratase, adenylate kinase, NADH dehydrogenase, and shikimate dehydrogenase", Biochemical genetics, vol. 26, no. 5-6, pp. 421-445, 1988. ...
Effects of an AICAR treatment on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. AICAR (0.5 mM), a AMP kinase stimulator, was added after the cells reached confluency. T
Hypoxia Regulates mTORC1-Mediated Keratinocyte Motility and Migration via the AMPK Pathway. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Adenylate kinase 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AK3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a GTP:ATP ... Adenylate kinase 3". Retrieved 2017-05-19. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, ...
"Entrez Gene: AK2 adenylate kinase 2". Bruns GA, Regina VM (1977). "Adenylate kinase 2, a mitochondrial enzyme". Biochem. Genet ... 1998). "Cloning and expression of human adenylate kinase 2 isozymes: differential expression of adenylate kinase 1 and 2 in ... Adenylate kinase 2 is an enzyme that is encoded in humans by the AK2 gene. The AK2 protein is found in the intermembrane space ... Three isozymes of adenylate kinase, namely 1, 2, and 3, have been identified in vertebrates; this gene encodes isozyme 2. ...
Van Rompay AR, Johansson M, Karlsson A (1999). "Identification of a novel human adenylate kinase. cDNA cloning, expression ... Adenosine kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADK gene. This gene encodes adenosine kinase, an abundant enzyme ... Singh B, Lin A, Wu ZC, Gupta RS (2001). "Gene structure for adenosine kinase in Chinese hamster and human: high-frequency ... "Entrez Gene: ADK adenosine kinase". Human ADK genome location and ADK gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Klobutcher ...
SLC40A1 Hemolytic anemia due to adenylate kinase deficiency; 612631; AK1 Hemolytic anemia due to gamma-glutamylcysteine ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Nonsmall cell lung cancer, somatic; 211980; IRF1 Nonsmall cell lung ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Adenocarcinoma of lung, somatic; 211980; BRAF Adenocarcinoma of lung, ... GALNT3 Tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency; 611521; TYK2 Tyrosinemia type II; 277660; TAT Tyrosinemia type III; 276710; HPD Ullrich ...
"Identification of a novel adenylate kinase system in the brain: cloning of the fourth adenylate kinase". Brain Res. Mol. Brain ... Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 4, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AK3L1 gene. This gene encodes a ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ... "Entrez Gene: AK3L1 adenylate kinase 3-like 1". Lanning, NJ; Looyenga, BD; Kauffman, AL; Niemi, NM; Sudderth, J; DeBerardinis, ...
KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay". Journal of basic microbiology. 53 (7): 581-9. doi:10.1002/jobm.201200045 ...
Townley R, Shapiro L (March 2007). "Crystal structures of the adenylate sensor from fission yeast AMP-activated protein kinase ... These standalone CBS domain proteins might form complexes upon binding to other proteins such as kinases to which they interact ... voltage gated chloride channels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). CBS domains regulate the activity of associated ... "Structural basis for AMP binding to mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase". Nature. 449 (7161): 496-500. doi:10.1038/ ...
Vieille C; Krishnamurthy H; Hyun HH; Savchenko A; Yan H; Zeikus JG (June 2003). "Thermotoga neapolitana adenylate kinase is ...
... has been found to interact with Adenylate Kinase 2, Artemin, and Importin 13. The human protein has two isoforms and no ...
Adenylate kinase is a specific nucleoside-monophosphate kinase that functions only on adenosine-monophosphate. Nucleic acid RNA ... AMP and GMP can then be converted into ATP and GTP, respectively, by kinases that add additional phosphates. ATP stimulates ... Similarly, nucleoside-monophosphate kinase carries out the phosphorylation of nucleside-monophosphates. ... is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase, which uses ATP as the phosphate donor. ...
"Reticular dysgenesis (aleukocytosis) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mitochondrial adenylate kinase 2". Nature ...
Lastly, adenylate kinase catalyzes a reaction by which 2 ADP are combined to form ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This ... The quick energy sources consist of the phosphocreatine (PCr) system, fast glycolysis, and adenylate kinase. All of these ... The creation of AMP resulting from this reaction stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) which is the energy ... After sensing low energy conditions, AMP kinase stimulates various other intracellular enzymes geared towards increasing energy ...
Gao, Yongxiang (November 2013). "Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of MJ0458, an adenylate kinase from ...
... α2 receptors inhibit adenylate cyclase (via Gi), decreasing the activity of protein kinase A (PKA); β receptors activate ... The G-protein receptor can affect the function of adenylate cyclase or phospholipase C, an agonist of the receptor will ... increasing the activity of protein kinase C (PKC); ... adenylate cyclase (via Gs), thus increasing the activity of PKA ...
... mitochondrial creatine kinase and adenylate translocator display properties of the permeability transition pore. Implication ... for regulation of permeability transition by the kinases". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1368 (1): 7-18. doi:10.1016/s0005- ...
Superoxide dismutase, malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), ferredoxin, adenylate kinase and NADH:ferredoxin oxido-reductase ...
1989). "Regional assignment of the loci for adenylate kinase to 9q32 and for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to 9q31-q32. A locus for ...
"Characterization of human adenylate kinase 3 (AK3) cDNA and mapping of the AK3 pseudogene to an intron of the NF1 gene". ...
Kalckar resumed his friendship with Colowick, and they collaborated to work on the enzyme adenylate kinase in 1942, which they ...
... and thus resembles the structure of adenylate kinase. On the other hand, the phosphatase domain is located on the C-terminal. ... The kinase domain is located on the N-terminal. It consists of a central six-stranded β sheet, with five parallel strands and ... So PFK2 domain is activated and the kinase catalyzes the formation of F-2,6-BP. Thus, glycolysis is stimulated and ... In the liver Protein kinase A inactivates the PFK-2 domain of the bifunctional enzyme via phosphorylation, however this does ...
... beta-adrenergic receptor-coupled adenylate cyclase, and cAMP-dependent protein kinase activities of cardiac sarcolemmal ... Amino acids are initially adenylated by an "adenylylation" (A) domain before being attached by a thioester bond to an Acyl ...
When the glucose concentration is high, EIIA is mostly dephosphorylated and this allows it to inhibit adenylate cyclase, ... glycerol kinase, lactose permease, and maltose permease. Thus, as well as the PEP group translocation system being an efficient ... For example, at low glucose concentrations phosphorylated EIIA accumulates and this activates membrane-bound adenylate cyclase ...
Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... "Entrez Gene: ADCY3 adenylate cyclase 3". "Gene Cards: ADCY3 Gene". Retrieved 2012-12-30. Human ADCY3 genome location and ADCY3 ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of type III adenylyl cyclase by calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II in vivo". The Journal of ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ...
... and increases the activity of adenylate kinase in rat brains. Piracetam, while in the brain, appears to increase the synthesis ...
Barcova M, Speth C, Kacani L, Uberall F, Stoiber H, Dierich MP (Mar 1999). "Involvement of adenylate cyclase and p70(S6)-kinase ... "Adenylate Cyclase 2 (Brain)". Weizmann Institute of Science. Retrieved 28 May 2014. Xu W, Cohen-Woods S, Chen Q, Noor A, Knight ... In aggregate, Raf kinase associates with adenylyl cyclases and is isoform-selective, which includes adenylyl cyclase type 2. In ... Ding Q, Gros R, Gray ID, Taussig R, Ferguson SS, Feldman RD (Oct 2004). "Raf kinase activation of adenylyl cyclases: isoform- ...
... kinases. Afatinib is not only active against EGFR mutations targeted by first generation tyrosine-kinase inhibitors (TKIs) like ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP). *Pleiotrophin. *Renalase. *Thrombopoietin (see here instead) ... Like lapatinib and neratinib, afatinib is a protein kinase inhibitor that also irreversibly inhibits human epidermal growth ... Minkovsky N, Berezov A (December 2008). "BIBW-2992, a dual receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor for the treatment of solid tumors ...
1U of adenylate kinase added to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) before ADP or collagen, inhibited the platelets aggregation. One ... We conclude that adenylate kinase is involved in regulation of plate-lets aggregation. Anticoagulative role of AK indicates the ... We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when ... NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The ...
Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... ACT-induced Ca2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators ...
Article Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the ... Instead, Rin loss attenuates PACAP38-mediated HSP27 activation by disrupting a cAMP-protein kinase A cascade. RNA interference- ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated .... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38- ... No comments were found for Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and ...
... and we examined whether PACAP-induced SL release is mediated by the adenylate cyclase (AC)/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)- or the ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces somatolactin release from cultured goldfish pituitary cells by Morio ... We found that the activity of skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) parallels hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and ... In the goldfish pituitary, nerve fibers containing pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are located in ...
... and N-epsilon-32P-phospholysine from erythrocytic nucleoside diphosphate kinase, incubated with adenosine triphosphate-32P ... Identification of a phosphate-incorporating protein from bovine liver as nucleoside diphosphate kinase and isolation of 1-32P- ... Uridine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase, galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, adenylate kinase, and nucleoside ... Regulation of nucleoside diphosphate kinase and an alternative kinase in Escherichia coli: Role of the sspA and rnk genes in ...
Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide. Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, ... Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Paracrine Communication. Phosphorylation. Securin. Thyroid Neoplasms / ... Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type I; ... stimulates thyroid cell proliferation via a vascular endothelial growth factor/kinase insert domain receptor/inhibitor of DNA ...
Adenylate kinase, subfamily InterPro: IPR006259 UMP-CMP kinase InterPro: IPR006266 Adenylate kinase, isozyme 1 InterPro: ... adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic functions. ADK complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency. Adenylate kinase ... Lu Q, Inouye M (June 1996). "Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism". ... In essence, adenylate kinase shuttles ATP to sites of high energy consumption and removes the AMP generated over the course of ...
In enzymology, a (deoxy)adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + dAMP ⇌ {\ ... Griffith TJ, Helleiner CW (1965). "The partial purification of deoxynucleoside monophosphate kinases from L cells". Biochim. ...
Adenylate kinase definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ...
Gene Ontology Term: adenylate kinase activity. GO ID. GO:0004017 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis of the ... adenylic kinase activity, adenylokinase activity, ATP:AMP phosphotransferase activity, myokinase activity, 5-AMP-kinase ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
tr,D1MH80,D1MH80_9AVES Adenylate kinase (Fragment) OS=Polyonymus caroli OX=689270 GN=AK1 PE=4 SV=1 ... KinaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ...
Compare adenylate kinase 2 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... adenylate kinase 2 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and ... Your search returned 20 adenylate kinase 2 ELISA ELISA Kit across 4 suppliers. ...
MF_00235 Adenylate_kinase_Adk, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR006259 Adenyl_kin_sub. IPR000850 Adenylat/UMP- ... Adenylate kinase (adk). This subpathway is part of the pathway AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway, which is itself part of ... Belongs to the adenylate kinase family.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... sp,Q8D227,KAD_WIGBR Adenylate kinase OS=Wigglesworthia glossinidia brevipalpis OX=36870 GN=adk PE=3 SV=1 ...
Compare adenylate kinase 3 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... adenylate kinase 3 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 42 adenylate kinase 3 ELISA ELISA Kit across 7 suppliers. ...
Subcellular localization of adenylate kinases in Plasmodium falciparum.. Ma J1, Rahlfs S, Jortzik E, Schirmer RH, Przyborski JM ... Adenylate kinases (AK) play a key role in nucleotide signaling processes and energy metabolism by catalyzing the reversible ... we describe two additional adenylate kinase-like proteins: PfAKLP1, which is homologous to human AK6, and PfAKLP2. Using GFP- ...
Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry applications. This antibody ... Adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial; Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2; adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial; Adenylate ... Cite Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ...
Adenylate kinase. A, B, C, D. 217. Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: adk, VC_0986. EC: ... Crystal Structure of Adenylate Kinase from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor. Kim, Y., Zhou, M., Grimshaw, S., Anderson, W.F., ... Crystal Structure of Adenylate Kinase from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar eltor. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb4NP6/pdb ...
Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. ... Adenylate Kinase. Subscribe to New Research on Adenylate Kinase An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in ... Kinase, AMP; Kinase, Adenylate; Phosphotransferase, ATP-AMP; Transphosphorylase, ATP-AMP; Myokinase; ATP:AMP phosphotransferase ... 02/01/2001 - "After anoxia, the majority (88%) of mitochondria was damaged or swollen and released adenylate kinase, a marker ...
A full length cDNA that partially corresponded to human adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) was identified and shown to encode for two ... Identification of two active functional domains of human adenylate kinase 5.. [Nicola Solaroli, Christakis Panayiotou, Magnus ...
Adenylate kinase locus 1 belongs to a family of monophosphate kinases that plays an important ... We investigated the possible influence of adenylate kinase genetic variability on the effect of maternal smoking on ... 0/Isoenzymes; EC 2.7.4.3/Adenylate Kinase; EC 2.7.4.3/adenylate kinase 1 ... Adenylate kinase locus 1 belongs to a family of monophosphate kinases that plays an important role in the synthesis of ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial , adenylate monophosphate kinase , adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial , adenylate ... Adenylate Kinase 2 (AK2) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine ...
Crystal Structures of the Adenylate Sensor from Fission Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ... Crystal Structures of the Adenylate Sensor from Fission Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ... Crystal Structures of the Adenylate Sensor from Fission Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ... Crystal Structures of the Adenylate Sensor from Fission Yeast AMP-Activated Protein Kinase ...
Compare Adenylate Kinase 1 ELISA Kits and find the right product on antibodies-online.com. ... Order Adenylate Kinase 1 ELISA Kits for many Reactivities. Mouse and more. ... Adk1-PA , Adk1-PB , CG17146-PA , CG17146-PB , adenylate kinase-1 , adenylate kinase 5 , adenylate kinase 1 , adenylate kinase ... adenylate monophosphate kinase , myokinase , adenylate kinase 1, soluble , cytosolic adenylate kinase , Adenylate kinase ...
AMPK Is a Direct Adenylate Charge-Regulated Protein Kinase. By Jonathan S. Oakhill, Rohan Steel, Zhi-Ping Chen, John W. Scott, ... AMPK Is a Direct Adenylate Charge-Regulated Protein Kinase. By Jonathan S. Oakhill, Rohan Steel, Zhi-Ping Chen, John W. Scott, ... AMPK Is a Direct Adenylate Charge-Regulated Protein Kinase Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... AMPK activation depends on phosphorylation of the α catalytic subunit on threonine-172 (Thr172) by kinases LKB1 or CaMKKβ, and ...
  • ATP receptor regulation of adenylate cyclase and protein kinase C activity in cultured renal LLC-PK1 cells. (jci.org)
  • In LLC-PK1 membranes, several ATP analogues inhibit basal, GTP-, forskolin-, and AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in a dose-dependent manner. (jci.org)
  • The compound ATP gamma S inhibits agonist-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in solubilized and in isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX) and quinacrine pretreated membranes, suggesting that ATP gamma S inhibition occurs independent of AVP and A1 adenosine receptors and of phospholipase A2 activity. (jci.org)
  • The ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity is not affected by pertussis toxin but is attenuated by GDP beta S, suggesting a possible role for a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein in the inhibition. (jci.org)
  • However, neither of two protein kinase C inhibitors (staurosporine and H-7) prevents ATP gamma S inhibition of AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity, suggesting that this inhibition occurs by a protein kinase C independent mechanism. (jci.org)
  • The effect of P2y purinoceptors to inhibit AVP-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity may be mediated, at least in part, by a pertussis toxin insensitive G protein. (jci.org)
  • The purpose of this study was to elucidate the role of adenylate cyclase/cAMP/PKA signaling pathway in the regulation of G q protein-coupled endothelin type A receptor (ET A R)-mediated ROCE via TRPC6. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bradykinin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in serum-depleted cultured airway smooth muscle via a protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent pathway. (biochemj.org)
  • The probable target is the type II adenylate cyclase, which can integrate coincident signals from both PKC and Gs. (biochemj.org)
  • The present study indicates that the bradykinin-stimulated ERK-2 pathway is entirely cyclic AMP-sensitive, and suggests that coincident signal detection by adenylate cyclase may be an important physiological route for the modulation of early mitogenic signalling. (biochemj.org)
  • Furthermore, the direct inhibition of adenylate cyclase activity enables bradykinin to induce DNA synthesis, indicating that the PKC-dependent activation of adenylate cyclase limits entry of cells into the cell cycle. (biochemj.org)
  • The activation of adenylate cyclase by PKC appears to be downstream of phospholipase D. However, in cells that were maintained in growth serum (i.e. were not growth-arrested), bradykinin was unable to elicit a PKC-stimulated cyclic AMP response. (biochemj.org)
  • The lesion in the signal-response coupling was not at the level of either the receptor or phospholipase D, which remain functionally operative and suggests modification occurs at either PKC or adenylate cyclase itself. (biochemj.org)
  • In the presence of an adenylate cyclase blocker, mGluR-LTD was slightly enhanced in WT and therefore the difference between mGluR-LTD in WT and Fmr1 KO slices was no longer present. (frontiersin.org)
  • Conversely, activation of adenylate cyclase by either forskolin or Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) completely reversed mGluR-LTD in WT and Fmr1 KO. (frontiersin.org)
  • this effect was abolished by blockade of either adenylate cyclase or protein kinase A (PKA). (frontiersin.org)
  • Ca2+ Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) Endocytosis. (ehu.es)
  • This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. (ehu.es)
  • Arg-88, which is a highly conserved residue in all known molecular forms of adenylate kinases (corresponding to Arg-97 in muscle cytosolic enzyme), should be located inside a big cleft of the molecule, close to the phosphate-binding loop. (canada.ca)
  • Aims To measure the activity of the key phosphotransfer enzymes creatine kinase (CK), adenylate kinase (AK), and glycolytic enzymes in two common mouse models of chronic heart failure. (ovid.com)
  • Activities of phosphotransfer enzymes CK, AK, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), and pyruvate kinase were assessed spectrophotometrically. (ovid.com)
  • To explore phosphotransfer signalling pathways in more detail, we examined whether K(ATP) channel regulation in beta cells is determined by a metabolic interaction between adenylate kinase (AK) and CK. (ru.nl)
  • This was associated with up-regulation of phosphoryl flux through remaining minor AK isoforms and the glycolytic phosphotransfer enzyme, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase. (elsevier.com)
  • Adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) plays crucial roles in processes such as cellular phosphotransfer networks, neuronal maturation and regeneration, and myocardial energetic homeostasis [ 3-5 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: In a previous study, we demonstrated that a creatine kinase (CK) modulates K(ATP) channel activity in pancreatic beta cells. (ru.nl)
  • Creatine phosphokinase (CPK) is also known as phospho-creatine kinase. (livestrong.com)
  • When assayed at 30 degrees C, the affinities of the enzyme from the mutant strain were somewhat lower than those of the parent adenylate kinase. (asm.org)
  • However, this modified protein has only 1% of the maximum catalytic activity of the wild-type enzyme and 5- and 85-fold higher apparent Km values for ATP and AMP, respectively, than the parent adenylate kinase. (canada.ca)
  • A network of adenylate kinase isoforms (AK1-AK7) are distributed throughout intracellular compartments, interstitial space and body fluids to regulate energetic and metabolic signaling circuits, securing efficient cell energy economy, signal communication and stress response. (mdpi.com)
  • Exposure of hippocampal slices to LP-211 caused an increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK), an intracellular effector involved in mGluR-LTD, in WT mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • Adenylate kinase and downstream AMP signaling is an integrated metabolic monitoring system which reads the cellular energy state in order to tune and report signals to metabolic sensors. (mdpi.com)
  • Thus, by monitoring energy state and generating and distributing AMP metabolic signals adenylate kinase represents a unique hub within the cellular homeostatic network. (mdpi.com)
  • The anchoring of specific adenylate kinases within two distinct flagellar structures provides a paradigm for metabolic organization and efficiency in other flagellates. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a central regulator of multiple metabolic pathways and may have therapeutic importance for treating obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (T2D), non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and cardiovascular disease (CVD). (nih.gov)
  • During metabolic stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by sensing a decrease in the ratio of ATP to AMP, leading to inhibition of ATP-consuming metabolic pathways and activation of energy-producing pathways [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We show that a requirement to target adenylate kinase into glycosomes, which are unique kinetoplastid-specific microbodies of the peroxisome class in which many reactions of carbohydrate metabolism are compartmentalized, and two different flagellar structures as well as cytoplasm and mitochondrion explains the expansion of this gene family in trypanosomes. (hud.ac.uk)
  • Adenylate kinase is a small, usually monomeric, enzyme found in every living thing due to its crucial role in energetic metabolism [ 1 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • An increase in the assay temperature from 30 degrees to 40 degrees C had little or no effect on the Km values determined for the parental adenylate kinase, but caused the Km values determined for the mutant adenylate kinase to increase by a factor of two or more. (asm.org)
  • Measurement of the mass action ratio of the adenylate kinase reaction indicated that adenylate kinase may be rate limiting in growing cells and that mutant adenylate kinases were selectively degraded by phosphate starvation. (illinois.edu)
  • The specific adenylate kinase inhibitor diadenosine pentaphosphate decreased the rate of decomposition of ADP and inhibited the formation of ATP. (springer.com)
  • Protein Kinase B (PKB), also known as Akt, participates in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway, a master regulator of aerobic glycolysis and cellular biosynthesis, two activities shown by both normal and cancer proliferating cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Keywords: Helicoverpa armigera, Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2), Cell growth and viability, RNA interference Background Various cellular functions need ATP for energy supply. (docplayer.net)
  • Activation of Extracellular-Signal Regulated Kinase by Epidermal Growth Factor Is Potentiated by cAMP-Elevating Agents in Primary Cultures of Adult Rat Hepatocytes. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Therefore, activation of Gs (by cholera-toxin pre-treatment) amplified the bradykinin-stimulated cyclic AMP signal and concurrently attenuated the partial activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase-2 (ERK-2) by bradykinin. (biochemj.org)
  • Activation of glucose transport and AMP-activated protein kinase during muscle contraction in adenylate kinase-1 knockout mice. (ru.nl)
  • AIM: Recently it was reported that adenylate kinase-1 knockout mice (AK(-/-)) exhibit elevated rates of glucose uptake following repeated contractions and hypoxia, but the mechanism was not investigated. (ru.nl)
  • Analysis and in vivo disruption of the gene coding for adenylate kinase (ADK1) in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (mpg.de)
  • ADK1 was found to be identical to an adenylate kinase gene recently isolated by an approach entirely different from ours (Magdolen, V., Oechsner, U., and Bandlow, W. (1987) Curr. (mpg.de)
  • Site-directed mutagenesis of Arg-88 to glycine yields a modified form of adenylate kinase (RG88 mutant) closely related structurally to the wild-type protein as indicated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and limited proteolysis. (canada.ca)