Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.Phosphotransferases: A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.Adenylate Cyclase Toxin: One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.MAP Kinase Signaling System: An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Adenosine Diphosphate: Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.Nucleoside-Phosphate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Adenine NucleotidesIsoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide: A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dinucleoside Phosphates: A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.Protein Kinase Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Thiamine Triphosphate: 3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.src-Family Kinases: A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases: A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Muscles: Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1: A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Pyruvate Kinase: ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.p21-Activated Kinases: A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Fluorides: Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3: A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase: An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate: A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.MAP Kinase Kinase Kinases: Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Nucleotides: The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Oxygen Isotopes: Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.Casein Kinases: A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.Phosphotransferases (Phosphate Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.MAP Kinase Kinase 1: An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.Receptors, Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide, Type IMolecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Guanosine Triphosphate: Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor): A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.CDC2-CDC28 Kinases: A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3: A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.rho-Associated Kinases: A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Protein Kinase C-alpha: A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
(1/864) A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers.

Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population.  (+info)

(2/864) Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver.

The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC 2.7.4.3] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC 2.7.1.40] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant.  (+info)

(3/864) Identification of a novel human adenylate kinase. cDNA cloning, expression analysis, chromosome localization and characterization of the recombinant protein.

Adenylate kinases have an important role in the synthesis of adenine nucleotides that are required for cellular metabolism. We report the cDNA cloning of a novel 22-kDa human enzyme that is sequence related to the human adenylate kinases and to UMP/CMP kinase of several species. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to catalyse phosphorylation of AMP and dAMP with ATP as phosphate donor. When GTP was used as phosphate donor, the enzyme phosphorylated AMP, CMP, and to a small extent dCMP. Expression as a fusion protein with the green fluorescent protein showed that the enzyme is located in the cytosol. Northern blot analysis with mRNA from eight different human tissues demonstrated that the enzyme was expressed exclusively in brain, with two mRNA isoforms of 2.4 and 4.0 kb. The gene that encoded the enzyme was localized to chromosome 1p31. Based on the substrate specificity and the sequence similarity with the previously identified human adenylate kinases, we have named this novel enzyme adenylate kinase 5.  (+info)

(4/864) Release of adenylate kinase 2 from the mitochondrial intermembrane space during apoptosis.

The release of two mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), into the soluble cytoplasm of cells undergoing apoptosis is well established. Using spectrophotometric determination of enzyme activity, the accumulation of adenylate kinase (AK) activity in the cytosolic fraction of apoptotic cells has also been observed recently. However, three isozymes, AK1, AK2 and AK3, have been characterized in mammalian cells and shown to be localized in the cytosol, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, respectively, and it is unknown which one of these isozymes accumulates in the cytosol during apoptosis. We now demonstrate that in apoptotic cells only AK2 was translocated into the cytosol concomitantly with cytochrome c. The amount of AK1 in cytosol, as well as the amount of matrix-associated AK3, remained unchanged during the apoptotic process. Thus, our data suggest that only intermembrane proteins are released from mitochondria during the early phase of the apoptotic process.  (+info)

(5/864) Inhibition of ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities of the second nucleotide-binding fold of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by genistein.

In the presence of ATP, genistein, like the ATP analogue adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (pp[NH]pA), increases cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride currents by prolonging open times. As pp[NH]pA is thought to increase CFTR currents by interfering with ATP hydrolysis at the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF-2), the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of genistein on a fusion protein comprising maltose-binding protein (MBP) and NBF-2 (MBP-NBF-2). MBP-NBF-2 exhibited ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities that were inhibited by genistein in a partial non-competitive manner with respect to ATP or GTP. Ki values for competitive and uncompetitive inhibition were respectively 20 microM and 63 microM for ATPase, 15 microM and 54 microM for GTPase, and 46 microM and 142 microM for adenylate kinase. For ATPase activity, genistein reduced Vmax by 29% and Vmax/Km by 77%. Additional evidence for complex-formation between genistein and MBP-NBF-2 was obtained by the detection of genistein-dependent alterations in the CD spectrum of MBP-NBF-2 that were consistent with the formation of a higher-ordered state. Addition of MBP-NBF-2 increased the fluorescence intensity of genistein, consistent with a change to a less polar environment. pp[NH]pA partially eliminated this enhanced fluorescence of genistein. These observations provide the first direct biochemical evidence that genistein interacts with CFTR, thus inhibiting NBF-2 activity, and suggest a similar mechanism for genistein-dependent stimulation of CFTR chloride currents.  (+info)

(6/864) Volume overload hypertrophy of the newborn heart slows the maturation of enzymes involved in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of volume overload hypertrophy in the newborn heart on the cardiac enzymes controlling fatty acid metabolism. BACKGROUND: Shortly after birth, a rise in 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity results in the phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), and a decline in myocardial malonyl CoA levels with increased fatty acid oxidation rates. Whether the early onset of hypertrophy in the newborn heart alters this maturational increase in fatty acid oxidation is unknown. METHODS: Newborn piglets underwent endovascular stenting of the ductus arteriosus on day 1 of life with a 4.5-mm diameter stent, resulting in a left to right shunt, and left ventricular (LV) volume loading. Left ventricular and right ventricular samples from fetal, newborn, three-week control and three-week stented animals were compared. RESULTS: Stenting resulted in echocardiographic evidence of volume overload and myocardial hypertrophy. In control animals, left ventricular ACC activity declined from 274 +/- 30 pmol/mg/min on day 1 to 115 +/- 12 after three weeks (p < 0.05), but did not display this maturation drop in hypertrophied hearts, remaining elevated (270 +/- 50 pmol/mg/min, p < 0.05). At three weeks, malonyl CoA levels remained 2.8-fold higher in hypertrophied hearts than in control hearts. In control hearts, LV AMPK activity increased 178% between day 1 and three weeks, whereas in hypertrophied hearts AMPK activity at three weeks was only 71% of control values, due to a significant decrease in expression of the catalytic subunit of AMPK. CONCLUSIONS: Early onset LV volume overload with hypertrophy results in a delay in the normal maturation of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn heart.  (+info)

(7/864) Adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer in the myocardium : increased contribution in heart failure.

Although the downregulation of creatine kinase activity has been associated with heart failure, creatine kinase-deficient transgenic hearts have a preserved contractile function. This suggests the existence of alternative phosphotransfer pathways in the myocardium, the identity of which is still unknown. In this study, we examined the contribution of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer to myocardial energetics. In the isolated mitochondria/actomyosin system, which possesses endogenous adenylate kinase activity in both compartments, substrates for adenylate kinase promoted the rate and amplitude of actomyosin contraction that was further enhanced by purified adenylate kinase. Inhibition of adenylate kinase activity diminished both actomyosin contraction and mitochondrial respiration, which indicated reduced energy flow between mitochondria and myofibrils. In intact myocardium, the net adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer rate was 10% of the total ATP turnover rate as measured by 18O-phosphoryl labeling in conjunction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In pacing-induced failing heart, adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer increased by 134% and contributed 21% to the total ATP turnover. Concomitantly, the contribution by creatine kinase dropped from 89% in normal hearts to 40% in failing hearts. These phosphotransfer changes were associated with reduced levels of metabolically active ATP but maintained overall ATP turnover rate. Thus, this study provides evidence that adenylate kinase facilitates the transfer of high-energy phosphoryls and signal communication between mitochondria and actomyosin in cardiac muscle, with an increased contribution to cellular phosphotransfer in heart failure. This phosphotransfer function renders adenylate kinase an important component for optimal myocardial bioenergetics and a compensatory mechanism in response to impaired intracellular energy flux in the failing heart.  (+info)

(8/864) Experimental study on firearm wound in maxillofacial region.

OBJECTIVE: To make clear the range of firearm wound in the maxillofacial region, the optical repair time and the characteristics of accompanied indirect brain damage, and to offer the principle of emergency treatment and the early repair of war wound. METHODS: With the aid of the standard Sweden model, 200 dogs were used in the experiment. Varies tissues around the primary canal were harvested chronologically, in different zone and different tissue, for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The necrotic range of various tissues in the maxillofacial region was less than that in the extremities. In the maxillofacial region, there was a significant temporary cavity following the passing of bullet, which caused indirect brain damages. CONCLUSION: These findings are helpful to the treatment of war wound in the maxillofacial region. Early bone transplantation using microvascular anastomosis in the treatment of gunshot wound in the maxillofacial region is recommendable.  (+info)

*  Adenylate kinase
... , subfamily InterPro: IPR006259 UMP-CMP kinase InterPro: IPR006266 Adenylate kinase, isozyme 1 InterPro: ... adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic functions. ADK complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency. Adenylate kinase ... Lu Q, Inouye M (June 1996). "Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism". ... In essence, adenylate kinase shuttles ATP to sites of high energy consumption and removes the AMP generated over the course of ...
*  deoxy)adenylate kinase
In enzymology, a (deoxy)adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + dAMP ⇌ {\ ... Griffith TJ, Helleiner CW (1965). "The partial purification of deoxynucleoside monophosphate kinases from L cells". Biochim. ...
*  Nucleoside-triphosphate-adenylate kinase
In enzymology, a nucleoside-triphosphate-adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Other names in common use include guanosine triphosphate-adenylate kinase, nucleoside triphosphate-adenosine monophosphate ... and isozyme 3 of adenylate kinase. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine metabolism. As of late 2007, two structures have been ...
*  Nucleoside-phosphate kinase
"Ancient Divergence of long and short isoforms of adenylate kinase molecular evolution of the nucleoside monophosphate kinase ... Dreusicke, D.; Schulz, G.E. (1986). "The glycine-rich loop of adenylate kinase forms a giant anion hole". FEBS Lett. 208 (2): ... Schlauderer, G.J.; Proba, K.; Schulz, G.E. (1996). "Structure of a mutant adenylate kinase ligated with an ATP-analogue showing ... Byeon, L.; Shi, Z.; Tsai, M.D. (1995). "Mechanism of adenylate kinase. The "essential lysine" helps to orient the phosphates ...
*  AK3
Adenylate kinase 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AK3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a GTP:ATP ... Adenylate kinase 3". Retrieved 2017-05-19. This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, ...
*  AK2
"Entrez Gene: AK2 adenylate kinase 2". Bruns GA, Regina VM (1977). "Adenylate kinase 2, a mitochondrial enzyme". Biochem. Genet ... 1998). "Cloning and expression of human adenylate kinase 2 isozymes: differential expression of adenylate kinase 1 and 2 in ... Adenylate kinase 2 is an enzyme that is encoded in humans by the AK2 gene. The AK2 protein is found in the intermembrane space ... Three isozymes of adenylate kinase, namely 1, 2, and 3, have been identified in vertebrates; this gene encodes isozyme 2. ...
*  ADK (gene)
Van Rompay AR, Johansson M, Karlsson A (1999). "Identification of a novel human adenylate kinase. cDNA cloning, expression ... Adenosine kinase is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ADK gene. This gene encodes adenosine kinase, an abundant enzyme ... Singh B, Lin A, Wu ZC, Gupta RS (2001). "Gene structure for adenosine kinase in Chinese hamster and human: high-frequency ... "Entrez Gene: ADK adenosine kinase". Human ADK genome location and ADK gene details page in the UCSC Genome Browser. Klobutcher ...
*  List of OMIM disorder codes
SLC40A1 Hemolytic anemia due to adenylate kinase deficiency; 612631; AK1 Hemolytic anemia due to gamma-glutamylcysteine ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Nonsmall cell lung cancer, somatic; 211980; IRF1 Nonsmall cell lung ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Adenocarcinoma of lung, somatic; 211980; BRAF Adenocarcinoma of lung, ... GALNT3 Tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency; 611521; TYK2 Tyrosinemia type II; 277660; TAT Tyrosinemia type III; 276710; HPD Ullrich ...
*  AK3L1
"Identification of a novel adenylate kinase system in the brain: cloning of the fourth adenylate kinase". Brain Res. Mol. Brain ... Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 4, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AK3L1 gene. This gene encodes a ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ... "Entrez Gene: AK3L1 adenylate kinase 3-like 1". Lanning, NJ; Looyenga, BD; Kauffman, AL; Niemi, NM; Sudderth, J; DeBerardinis, ...
*  Niphimycin
KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay". Journal of basic microbiology. 53 (7): 581-9. doi:10.1002/jobm.201200045 ...
*  Thermotoga neapolitana
Vieille C; Krishnamurthy H; Hyun HH; Savchenko A; Yan H; Zeikus JG (June 2003). "Thermotoga neapolitana adenylate kinase is ...
*  SH3D21
... has been found to interact with Adenylate Kinase 2, Artemin, and Importin 13. The human protein has two isoforms and no ...
*  Nucleic acid metabolism
Adenylate kinase is a specific nucleoside-monophosphate kinase that functions only on adenosine-monophosphate. Nucleic acid RNA ... AMP and GMP can then be converted into ATP and GTP, respectively, by kinases that add additional phosphates. ATP stimulates ... Similarly, nucleoside-monophosphate kinase carries out the phosphorylation of nucleside-monophosphates. ... is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase, which uses ATP as the phosphate donor. ...
*  Reticular dysgenesis
"Reticular dysgenesis (aleukocytosis) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mitochondrial adenylate kinase 2". Nature ...
*  Exercise physiology
Lastly, adenylate kinase catalyzes a reaction by which 2 ADP are combined to form ATP and adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This ... The quick energy sources consist of the phosphocreatine (PCr) system, fast glycolysis, and adenylate kinase. All of these ... The creation of AMP resulting from this reaction stimulates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase) which is the energy ... After sensing low energy conditions, AMP kinase stimulates various other intracellular enzymes geared towards increasing energy ...
*  Methanocaldococcus jannaschii
Gao, Yongxiang (November 2013). "Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of MJ0458, an adenylate kinase from ...
*  Hydrogenosome
Superoxide dismutase, malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), ferredoxin, adenylate kinase and NADH:ferredoxin oxido-reductase ...
*  ORM1
1989). "Regional assignment of the loci for adenylate kinase to 9q32 and for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to 9q31-q32. A locus for ...
*  EVI2B
"Characterization of human adenylate kinase 3 (AK3) cDNA and mapping of the AK3 pseudogene to an intron of the NF1 gene". ...
*  Herman Kalckar
Kalckar resumed his friendship with Colowick, and they collaborated to work on the enzyme adenylate kinase in 1942, which they ...
*  Phosphofructokinase 2
... and thus resembles the structure of adenylate kinase. On the other hand, the phosphatase domain is located on the C-terminal. ... The kinase domain is located on the N-terminal. It consists of a central six-stranded β sheet, with five parallel strands and ... So PFK2 domain is activated and the kinase catalyzes the formation of F-2,6-BP. Thus, glycolysis is stimulated and ... In the liver Protein kinase A inactivates the PFK-2 domain of the bifunctional enzyme via phosphorylation, however this does ...
*  Piracetam
... and increases the activity of adenylate kinase in rat brains. Piracetam, while in the brain, appears to increase the synthesis ...
*  Adenosine monophosphate
AMP can be regenerated to ATP as follows: AMP + ATP → 2 ADP (adenylate kinase in the opposite direction) ADP + Pi → ATP (this ... AMP can also exist as a cyclic structure known as cyclic AMP (or cAMP). Within certain cells the enzyme adenylate cyclase makes ...
*  Streptomycetaceae
Similarly, a one- amino-acid insertion is present in a conserved region of adenylate kinase and is found in all Streptomyces ...
*  Roger S. Goody
... adenylate kinase, EF-Tu, HRAS-p21, reverse transcriptase, nucleotides and nucleic acid sequencing. An overriding theme of his ...
*  Olfactory receptor neuron
The activated OR in turn activates the intracellular G-protein, GOLF (GNAL), adenylate cyclase and production of cyclic AMP ( ... "Phosphorylation and inhibition of olfactory adenylyl cyclase by CaM kinase II in Neurons: a mechanism for attenuation of ...
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Activation and aggregation of blood platelets is crucial for hemostasis and thrombosis. In the vascular system adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules playing a key role in hemostasis. ADP was the first low molecular weight agent recognized to cause blood platelets activation and aggregation. NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The majority of studies concentrated on the role of NTPDase1 (apyrase) in the inhibition of platelets aggregation. Up to now, there are still insufficient data concerning the role of AK in this process. We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when compared to the healthy volunteers. The elevated activity of AK is connected to appearance of another isoform of that enzyme, expressed in patients with myocardial infarction. The influence of AK on the pig blood platelets aggregation induced by 20 μM ADP or 7.5
Saint Girons, I.S., Gilles, A.-M., Margarita, D., Michelson, S., Monnot, M., Fermandjian, S., Danchin, A. and Barzu, O. (1987). „Structural and catalytic characteristics of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 262: 622-629. PMID 3027060 ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Lauren Forbes, Katherine Ebsworth-Mojica, Louis DiDone, Shao-Gang Li, Joel S Freundlich, Nancy Connell, Paul M Dunman, Damian J Krysan].
Adenylate kinase (Adk) that catalyses the synthesis of ADP from ATP and AMP has also been shown to perform an ATP dependent phosphorylation of ribo- and deoxynucleoside diphosphates to their corresponding nucleoside triphosphate; ATP+(d)NDPADP+(d)NTP. This reaction, suggested to occur by the transfer of the gamma-phosphoryl from ATP to the nucleoside diphosphate, is overall similar to that normally carried out by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (Ndk). Accordingly, Adk was proposed to be responsible for residual Ndk-like activity measured in a mutant strain of Escherichia coli, where the ndk gene was disrupted. We present data supporting a mechanism for the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates by Adk that unlike the previously suggested mechanism mentioned above are in complete agreement with the current knowledge about the Adk enzyme and its various catalytic properties. We propose that nucleoside triphosphate synthesis occurs by beta-phosphoryl transfer from ADP to any bound nucleoside ...
Chen et al. BMC Molecular Biology 2012, 13:31 RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) promotes cell proliferation in insect development Ru-Ping Chen 1, Chun-Yan Liu 1, Hong-Lian Shao 1, Wei-Wei
Definition of adenylate kinase - An enzyme that catalyses the reversible reaction by which adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is converted to adenosine monophosphate (AMP
Numerous significant hits to adenylate kinase proteins in gapped BLAST; e.g. residues 1-213 are 72% similar to dbj,BAA75818.1, adenylate kinase of Pseudomonas putida, residues 1-213 are 65% similar to gb,AAF94147.1, adenylate kinase of Vibrio cholerae, residues 1-213 are 63% similar to emb,CAA82801.1, adenylate kinase of Bordetella pertussis ...
Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. Supplied as 400 µL purified antibody (Lot-specific) in PBS with 0.09% sodium azide.
Adenylate Kinase 1兔多克隆抗体(ab71621)可与仓鼠, 人样本反应并经WB, ELISA, IHC实验严格验证。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
myokinase definition: adenylate kinase, a phosphotransferase chemical that catalyzes the interconversion of adenine nucleotides and plays a crucial role in mobile energy homeostasis.
1AKY: High-resolution structures of adenylate kinase from yeast ligated with inhibitor Ap5A, showing the pathway of phosphoryl transfer.
Cytochrome c (Cyt c) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space, and it is an essential constituent of the respiratory chain. The translocation of Cyt c from mitochondria to the cytosol is an important step in the apoptotic signaling pathway, linking mitochondrial changes to the activation of execution caspases (Liu et al, 1996). Once translocated into the cytosol, Cyt c together with Apaf-1 and procaspase-9 form a multiprotein complex, the apoptosome, which initiates the activation of caspase-3 (Li P et al, 1997). Studies in cell-free sytems have shown that addition of Cyt c to cytosols directly activates caspase-3, whereas immunodepletion of Cyt c from cell homogenates prevents caspase-3 activation. Furthermore, microinjection of Cyt c into intact cells has been shown to induce apoptosis (Li F et al, 1997). Although Cyt c release has been observed in many experimental models of apoptosis, the mechanism of translocation across the outer mitochondrial membrane is unclear. One ...
References for Abcams Recombinant Human AK2 protein (ab116419). Please let us know if you have used this product in your publication
This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.. The inference is based on the homology mapping in Ensembl Compara. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.. More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome. For details on the Ensembl Compara system see also: Gene orthology/paralogy prediction method.. ...
Adenylate kinase 4 antibody [N1C3-2] (adenylate kinase 4) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate kinase 4 pAb (GTX107482) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
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MTSQEKTEEYPFADIFDEDETERNFLLSKPVCFVVFGKPGVGKTTLARYITQAWKCIRVEALPILEEQIA 1 - 70 AETESGVMLQSMLISGQSIPDELVIKLMLEKLNSPEVCHFGYIITEIPSLSQDAMTTLQQIELIKNLNLK 71 - 140 PDVIINIKCPDYDLCQRISGQRQHNNTGYIYSRDQWDPEVIENHRKKKKEAQKDGKGEEEEEEEEQEEEE 141 - 210 AFIAEMQMVAEILHHLVQRPEDYLENVENIVKLYKETILQTLEEVMAEHNPQYLIELNGNKPAEELFMIV 211 - 280 MDRLKYLNLKRAAILTKLQGAEEEINDTMENDELFRTLASYKLIAPRYRWQRSKWGRTCPVNLKDGNIYS 281 - 350 GLPDYSVSFLGKIYCLSSEEALKPFLLNPRPYLLPPMPGPPCKVFILGPQYSGKTTLCNMLAENYKGKVV 351 - 420 DYAQLVQPRFDKARETLVENTIAEATAAAIKVVKEKLLRELQARKQAETALREFQRQYEKMEFGVFPMEA 421 - 490 THSSIDEEGYIQGSQRDRGSSLVDTEEAKTKSENVLHDQAAKVDKDDGKETGETFTFKRHSQDASQDVKL 491 - 560 YSDTAPTEDLIEEVTADHPEVVTMIEETIKMSQDINFEQPYEKHAEILQEVLGEVMEENKDRFPGAPKYG 561 - 630 GWIVDNCPIVKELWMALIKKGIIPDLVIYLSDTENNGKCLFNRIYLQKKSEIDSKILERLLEELQKKKKE 631 - 700 EEEARKATEEELRLEEENRRLLELMKVKAKEAEETDNEDEEEIEGDELEVHEEPEASHDTRGSWLPEEFE 701 - 770 ASEVPETEPEAVSEPIEETTVETEIPKGSKEGLEIEKLSETVVLPEFPEDSYPDVPEMEPFKEKIGSFII 771 - 840 ...
View Notes - Slides3 011911(1) from BIOL 212 at UPenn. Today: 1) Short discussion of ATP and other carrier molecules 2) Protein folding 3) Exploration of adenylate kinase structure and
Enzymes are extraordinary molecules that can accelerate chemical reactions by several orders of magnitude. With recent advancements in structural biology together with classical enzymology the mechanism of many enzymes has become understood at the molecular level. During the last ten years significant efforts have been invested to understand the structure and dynamics of the actual catalyst (i. e. the enzyme). There has been a tremendous development in NMR spectroscopy (both hardware and pulse programs) that have enabled detailed studies of protein dynamics. In many cases there exists a strong coupling between enzyme dynamics and function. Here I have studied the conformational dynamics and thermodynamics of three model systems: adenylate kinase (Adk), Peroxiredoxin Q (PrxQ) and the structural protein S16. By developing a novel chemical shift-based method we show that Adk binds its two substrates AMP and ATP with an extraordinarily dynamic mechanism. For both substrate-saturated states the ...
Complete information for AK8 gene (Protein Coding), Adenylate Kinase 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
no mne ked to ten moj robil ja som myslela ze sa zblaznim.. bolo to jednoducho senzacne :)) ale myslim ze to naj ani nebolo to samotne prstovanie ale to ako mi drazdil klitoris... ked ma do toho zacal prstovat to bolo nieco ako bonus... zintenzivnilo mi to orgazmus... takze ja som urcite za :) ale samozrejme... ako tu baby hovoria... len ak chalan vie ako nato .. :)) a baby, nehanbite sa to chalanovi povedat :) nemusite hned tak tvrdo ze je v tom totalna nula.. ale tak ho trochu nasmerovat.. povedat mu co vam robi dobre.. co sa vam paci... vy z toho budete mat pozitok a chalan sa zdokolńali :)) papaa. ...
Increases of cAMP are controlled by the enzyme adenylate cyclase (sAC). This enzyme produces cAMP molecules from the cellular energy reservoir adenosyne triphosphate (ATP). In order for the enzyme to assume this catalytic function, it itself has to be activated, e.g. by bicarbonate.. • The opposite process, e.g. the reduction of cAMP levels, is initiated by another enzyme. The protein involved here originates from the family of phosphodiesterases (PDE); to be precise, an isoform of PDE2A. This enzyme must also be activated so that it may reduce the amount of cAMP contained in the mitochondria. This process is performed by molecules which aggregate along an area at the end of the protein, the N-terminus of the PDE2A molecules.. In this manner, the messenger cAMP acts as an enzyme controlled switch which strengthens or weakens the energy metabolism. The "position" of the switch is determined by which of the two enzymes dominates: Adenylate cyclase (sAC) increases the amount of cAMP, ...
Bacteria sense the amount of glucose by watching the product of another chemical reaction. The enzyme adenylate cyclase converts ATP into cAMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate). The cAMP acts as a messenger to the cell ... it says "Im starving". How does it do that? It turns out that when glucose levels are sufficient, adenylate cyclase activity is inhibited. Glucose interferes with the production of cAMP. Thus, when glucose is high, cAMP is low and vice-versa. cAMP activates the protein CAP (sometimes called CRP, for "cAMP Receptor Protein"). When CAP-cAMP binds to the promoter of the lac operon, it revs up transcription to a very high level. If lactose is absent, repression prevents transcription ... but if lactose is present, the receptor protein is deactivated and you get tonnes of permease and beta-galactosidase (and transacetylase, whatever thats for ...). ...
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is often associated with energy levels by nutritionists and doctors alike. This molecule plays an integral role in our bodies abilities to transfer energy to different areas, but it isnt a direct source in most cases. Its like crude oil, which can be further refined by different cells into different types of fuel to suit their purpose. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP) is produced inside cells after the conversion of ATP via the enzyme Adenylate Cyclase. Once cells have generated cAMP, they utilize it through the binding with different proteins. In this case of this new study, researchers identified the messenger pathways with heightened activity after the binding of Epac2A and cAMP. This pathway was shown to transport the Epac2A compounds directly to the cellular plasma membrane, where they are then used to regulate insulin release. Simply put; it seems that both cAMP levels and Epac2A levels likely correlate directly to…. ...
Forskolin acts primarily by activating the enzyme adenylate cyclase, which results in increased cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in cells. Thus, Forskolin can increase cyclic AMP without the assistance of neurotransmitters or hormones. Get a risk-free trial of the #1 Forskolin… Continue Reading →. ...
|Mechanism for increasing muscle endurance via the small molecules AICARAICAR is a nucleoside that is taken up into muscle and converted into the nucleotide ZMP, which mimics the effects of the natural ligand, 5-AMP, on AMPK. The latter is produced by adenylate kinase acting on ADP generated from ATP during muscle contraction. Activated AMPK in…
A procedure has been described for the centrifugal fractionation of the cytological components of pigeon breast muscle. An analysis of the distribution of enzyme activity among the different particles reveals a predominant location of magnesium-activated ATPase and myokinase in the cytochondria. The myofibrillar nuclear components are the site of calcium-activated ATPase and adenylic acid deaminase.. ...
This AK5 antibody is generated from rabbits immunized with a KLH conjugated synthetic peptide between 46~76 amino acids from the N-terminal region of human AK5 ...
Rabbit polyclonal antibody raised against synthetic peptide of AK1. A synthetic peptide (conjugated with KLH) corresponding to N-terminus of human AK1. (PAB4039) - Products - Abnova
AKY AKY: anormal kardiyak fonksiyona ikincil olarak tedavi gerektirecek düzeyde (de novo veya tekrar) semptom ve bulguları ortaya çıkması durumudur. (azalmış kardiyak debi bozulmuş organ perfüzyonu, konjesyon, artmış PCWP) 2. Kardiyak disfonksiyon: a) sistolik veya diyastolik disfonk b) kardiyak ritm anormalliklerine c) ön yük ardyük uyumsuzluğuna bağlı olabilir 3. Acil tedavi gerektirir. The Task Force on Acute Heart Failure of the European Society of Cardiology
Filiz Aky ld z Ak ay, Serdar Bayata, Tuna Semerci, Murat Ye il, O uzhan Toklu, Erdin Ar kan, Selcen Yakar T l ce, Mehmet K seo lu, dil Ko a ra Ya ...
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Aiba H.. The regulatory region of the Escherichia coli cya gene was analyzed by using S1 nuclease mapping and in vitro transcription experiments. The cya gene was transcribed, both in vivo and in vitro, from one major promoter (P2) and two weak promoters (P1 and P1) that are located about 200 base pairs upstream of P2. The transcription from P2 was specifically inhibited by cAMP-CRP (cAMP receptor protein) in vitro. This regulatory mechanism was shown to be physiologically relevant through quantitative analyses of the cya mRNA in intact cells by S1 and dot blot assays. DNase I protection experiments revealed that cAMP-CRP binds to the cya DNA region between +11 and -20, in which a consensus CRP binding sequence is present. Moreover, it was found that cAMP-CRP alters the binding of RNA polymerase to the promoter region, thus inhibiting the transcription of the cya gene.. J. Biol. Chem. 260:3063-3070(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] ...
Adenosine 3:5-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP, cAMP) is one of the most important secondary messengers involved in signal transduction, gene regulation, steroid hormone biosynthesis and intracellular signaling. Its regulatory role extends to the nervous system, cell growth and differentiation, immune mechanisms and general metabolism. Cyclic AMP production is stimulated by compounds (hormones, drugs, neuromodulators) binding to target cells through cell membrane receptors. These binding events activate G-proteins which in turn activate the enzyme adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase converts ATP to cyclic AMP. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases can then be activated resulting in phosphorylation of substrate proteins. Cyclic AMP levels may aid in understanding the mechanism of action of a variety of hormones and biologically active substances.. ...
What are the implications of the CCT-mediated actin folding mechanism for the structure and function of F-actin? Reisler & Egelman (2007) have collated many disparate observations concerning biochemical and structural properties of F-actin and argued convincingly that F-actin should not be considered to be a single state but rather a dynamic ensemble of many states. Transitions between states are probably coupled to rotations and tilts of subunits, which occur readily despite the apparently severe structural constraint of a constant axial rise of every subunit in the filament of approximately 27.3 Å. Put succinctly, in its breathing modes F-actin changes its shape more than its length.. The emerging view of time-correlated motions and protein function is that active enzymatic or ligand-binding states reflect configurations that pre-exist in the ensemble. In adenylate kinase, the catalytically competent closed state is occasionally sampled on microseconds-milliseconds time scales even in the ...
Effects of an AICAR treatment on the differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. AICAR (0.5 mM), a AMP kinase stimulator, was added after the cells reached confluency. T
Hypoxia Regulates mTORC1-Mediated Keratinocyte Motility and Migration via the AMPK Pathway. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
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J:153804 Vijayaraj P, Kroger C, Reuter U, Windoffer R, Leube RE, Magin TM, Keratins regulate protein biosynthesis through localization of GLUT1 and -3 upstream of AMP kinase and Raptor. J Cell Biol. 2009 Oct 19;187(2):175-84 ...
Baby, nemate niektora skusenosti so zlymi vysledkami pecenovych testov na zaciatku tehotensva? nikdy som s tym problemy nemala, aspon o tom neviem... a vcera mi prisli vysledky ze testy mam zle...nic ine mi na to doktorka nepovedala...aky to ma vplyv na babatko? a ake mozu byt nasledky? vobec sa...
ak pandang kat dpan blik, alamak.. Puan Rohayah nk buat hal ngan ak..dye datang dkat ak usai shaja ak pndang kat dye..dye tnyer hipotesis apa yg boleh dbuat..Weyh!ak tdo lah tadi..ak snyap smbil tersengih..lalu, ak mnggelengkan kpala ak..lalu dye tnya kawan ak yg len.Ya Allah..ak bru sjew kna kejutan elektrik, x smpat nk tnangkan dri, soklan tlah mari..ak mmg x paham lah apa yang Puan bncangkan tadi..mmg x mngikuti lngsung..isyh ...
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زمینه مطالعه: ادیپونکتین یکی از مهمترین ادیپوسیتوکاین‌های بافت چربی است که بواسطه گیرنده‌های AdipoR1 و AdipoR2 در تنظیم باروری جنس نر و ماده نقش دارد. اخیرا بیان ژن‌های سیستم ادیپونکتین و نقش تنظیمی منفی آن بر محور هیپوفیز- هیپوتالاموس به تأیید رسیده است. هدف: در حال حاضر اطلاعاتی در مورد بیان ادیپونکتین و گیرنده‌های آن در محور هیپوفیز - هیپوتالاموس در دام‌های اهلی در دسترس نمی‌باشد. در این مطالعه برای اولین بار بیان ژن‌های سیستم ادیپونکتین در مراحل مختلف سیکل فحلی گاو در بافت‌های هیپوفیز و هیپوتالاموس مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. روش کار: نمونه‌گیری از بافت‌های
The 5′ adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric, evolutionary conserved enzyme which has emerged as a critical regulator of skeletal muscle cellular bioenergetics. AMPK is activated by both chemical (adipokines) and mechanical (stretch, contraction) stimuli leading to metabolic changes within muscle cells that include increased fatty acid oxidation, glucose uptake and glycolysis, as well as the stimulation and regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis. Collectively these acute responses and chronic adaptations act to reduce cellular disturbances, resulting in tighter metabolic control and maintenance of energy homeostasis. This brief review will describe the structure, function and activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle and how this ubiquitous molecule may be a plausible target for the treatment of several lifestyle-related metabolic disorders.
adenylate kinase (Adk):In all organisms adenylate kinases (Adks) play a vital role in cellular energy metabolism and nucleic acid synthesis. Due to differences in catalytic properties between the Adks found in prokaryotes and in the cytoplasm of eukaryotes, there is interest in targeting this enzyme for new drug therapies against infectious bacterial agents. We present here the three-dimensional protein structure of Burkholderia pseudomallei Adk. This pathogen is an aerobic, Gram-negative, soil-dwelling bacterium responsible for the infectious disease melioidosis, which is a serious health problem in Northern Australia and Southeast Asia and accounts for 40% of all sepsis-related mortality in northeast Thailand. Due to its potential use in biological warfare and biological terrorism, B. pseudomallei is also of concern to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. An unexpected feature of the BpAdk crystal structure was the observation of two significantly different conformations of the protein
Crystallographic evidence suggests that there is a large hinged domain motion in adenylate kinase. To test this hypothesis, resonance energy transfer measurements of substrate binding were initiated. Two tryptophan mutants were positioned at residues 133 (Y133W) and 137 (F137W), which are in the domain that closes over the ATP binding site. Mutant F86W that is located at the AMP binding site, while mutant S41W that is in the loop that closes over AMP. Energy transfer was measured between each of these tryptophans and 5-((2(-(acetyl)-amino) ethyl) amino) naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid covalently bound to the single cysteine residue at position 77. The distance between the tryptophan of the F137W mutant adenylate kinase and the AEDANS-labeled cys-77 decreased by 12.1 A upon the binding of the bisubstrate inhibitor $\rm P\sp1,P\sp5$-$\rm bis(5\sp\prime$-$\rm adenosyl)$pentaphosphate $(AP\sb5A).$ These results suggest that there is significant closure of the ATP binding domain upon the binding of ATP ...
Cilia and flagella have a characteristic 9 + 2 structure in which a ring of nine microtubule doublets surrounds a central pair of two microtubules and numerous associated proteins. The central pair is critical for motility, but we know little about its associated proteins and their functions. On p. 4179, Hui Zhang and David Mitchell reveal that one of these, Cpc1, is responsible for refuelling the organelle. Chlamydomonas cpc1 mutants exhibit reduced flagellar beating. The authors have cloned the Cpc1 gene and use an anti-Cpc1 antibody to show that it encodes a conserved component of a 16S complex associated with the central pair. Sequence analysis indicates that Cpc1 has an unusual adenylate kinase domain. Since adenylate kinases generate ATP from ADP, Zhang and Mitchell examined the effect of increasing the concentration of ATP on flagellar beating in cpc1 mutants: significantly, the increase suppresses the beating defect. The authors conclude that, under normal conditions, Cpc1 is needed to ...
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
Cyclic AMP is an adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3- and 5-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH. cAMP is synthesized from ATP by adenylate cyclase. Adenylate cyclase is located at the cell membranes. Adenylate cyclase is activated by the hormones glucagon and adrenaline and by G protein. Liver adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to glucagon, and muscle adenylate cyclase responds more strongly to adrenaline. cAMP decomposition into AMP is catalyzed by the enzyme phosphodiesterase ...
If you have problems with a majority of the weight loss pillars, you might consider increasing the activity of a key cellular switch: AMPK (adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase). AMPK is… ...
Recently, fatty acid transport across the plasma membrane has been shown to be a key process that contributes to the regulation of fatty acid metabolism in the heart. Since AMP kinase activation by 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-D: -ribofurano
Visualization for given category : Effector, level : Node and node : ____Cyclases____Adenylate cyclases____Adenylate cyclase 8____Adenylate cyclase 8-Homo sapiens ...
InChI=1S/C12H16N5O8P/c1-5(18)25-26(21,22)23-2-6-8(19)9(20)12(24-6)17-4-16-7-10(13)14-3-15-11(7)17/h3-4,6,8-9,12,19-20H,2H2,1H3,(H,21,22)(H2,13,14,15)/t6-,8-,9-,12-/m1/ ...
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This study aimed to investigate the effects of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 to treat mice experimentally infected by Toxoplasma gondii on seric biomarkers of cardiac function (creatine kinase, creatine kinase MB, troponin, and myoglobin), and lactate dehydrogenase, as well as to evaluate the enzymatic activity of creatine kinase (CK) and adenylate kinase (AK) in heart tissue. For the study, 40 female mice were divided into four groups of 10 animals each: the group A (uninfected and untreated), the group B (uninfected and treated), the group C (infected and untreated) and the group D (infected and treated). The inoculation was performed with 50 cysts of T. gondii (ME-49 strain). Mice from groups B and D were treated at days 1 and 20 post-infection (PI) with 5 μmol kg-1 of (PhSe)2 subcutaneously. On day 30 PI, the mice were anesthetized and euthanized for blood and heart collection. As a result, it was observed a decrease in AK activity (P , 0.01) in the heart samples of groups C and D compared to ...
Activated AMPK promotes all the processes needed to maintain a youthful profile. However, AMPK activity fades with age. As previously mentioned, AMPK is activated in the presence of increased AMP. Therefore, to test the anti-aging properties of AMPK, researchers used fruit flies that were genetically engineered to synthesize higher levels of AMP. The research found that the modified flies lived up to one-third longer as a result of increased AMPK activity. "The life span benefit of these mutations depends upon increased AMP:ATP and ADP:ATP ratios and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Transgenic expression of AMPK in adult fat body or adult muscle, key metabolic tissues, extended life span" (Stenesen, 2013 ...
Autophagy is a process by which eukaryotic cells engulf and break down cellular components to provide new substrates for metabolism. Egan et al. (see the Perspective by Hardie) report a biochemical mechanism by which low energy stores in a cell can be linked to autophagy. The authors searched for targets of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is activated when cellular concentrations of adenosine triphosphate are depleted. AMPK was found to regulate another protein kinase, ULK1, which functions in regulation of autophagy. Cells engineered so that ULK1 could not be phosphorylated by AMPK failed to respond properly to starvation, had decreased autophagy, and were prone to starvation-induced cell death.. D. F. Egan, D. B. Shackelford, M. M. Mihaylova, S. Gelino, R. A. Kohnz, W. Mair, D. S. Vasquez, A. Joshi, D. M. Gwinn, R. Taylor, J. M. Asara, J. Fitzpatrick, A. Dillin, B. Viollet, M. Kundu, M. Hansen, R. J. Shaw, Phosphorylation of ULK1 (hATG1) by AMP-activated ...
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Özbaş A, Çavdar İ, Akyolcu N, Oktay O, Fındık ÜY, Kanan N, Akyüz N, Dündar C, Aslan M. Comparison of the General Comfort and Pain Levels of Patients who Underwent Open and Laparoskopic Surgery Interventions in Urology. 12th International EAUN Meeting, 19-21 March 2011, Vienna-Austria, pp.42 (Poster Presentation) (March 2011) ...
Expression of FNIP2 (FNIPL, KIAA1450, MAPO1) in epididymis tissue. Antibody staining with HPA042779 and HPA072420 in immunohistochemistry.
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Die Goethe-Universität ist eine forschungsstarke Hochschule in der europäischen Finanzmetropole Frankfurt. Lebendig, urban und weltoffen besitzt sie als Stiftungsuniversität ein einzigartiges Maß an Eigenständigkeit.
Gruff (?), a. [Compar. Gruffer (); superl. Gruffest.] [D. grof; akin to G. grob, OHG. gerob, grob, Dan. grov, Sw. grof, perh. ak...
This is a consultative evaluation in which the case will be evaluated at Mayo Medical Laboratories, the appropriate tests performed at an additional charge, and the results interpreted.. Note: RBCE / Reflexed RBC Enzymes, Blood includes: adenylate kinase, phosphofructokinase, phosphoglycerate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase, and pyrimidine 5nucleotidase.. ...
No hope of ever seeing this in bulk is there? Its outrageously expensive in small amounts now. AMP-kinase activation with AICAR simultaneously
RD is a rare and life-threatening disease affecting infants in the immediate newborn period. Although previous studies have shown that mutations in the AK2 gene are responsible for RD, the rarity of this condition and the lack of suitable animal and cellular models have represented significant obstacles to defining its molecular and cellular pathophysiology. Here we describe ak2 mutant zebrafish and patient-derived iPSCs as platforms to investigate the effects of AK2 mutations on hematopoiesis and to explore novel therapeutic approaches.. Manipulations of AK activity in different organisms results in impaired adenine nucleotide homeostasis, block of ATP export from mitochondria, and reduced cell growth and metabolism, as well as increased susceptibility to metabolic stress (Bandlow et al., 1988; Janssen et al., 2000; Pucar et al., 2000, 2002). Impairment of AK2 activity in humans leads to the severe lymphocyte and granulocyte differentiation defects and sensorineural deafness characteristic for ...
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Resveratrol is a natural polyphenolic compound produced by plants under various stress conditions. Resveratrol has been reported to exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-proliferative properties in mammalian cells and animal models, and might therefore exert pleiotropic beneficial effects in different pathophysiological states. More recently, resveratrol has also been shown to potentially target many mitochondrial metabolic pathways, including fatty acid β-oxidation or oxidative phosphorylation, leading to the up-regulation of the energy metabolism via signaling pathways involving PGC-1α, SIRT1, and/or AMP-kinase, which are not yet fully delineated. Some of resveratrol beneficial effects likely arise from its cellular effects in the skeletal muscle, which, surprisingly, has been given relatively little attention, compared to other target tissues. Here, we review the potential for resveratrol to ameliorate or correct mitochondrial metabolic deficiencies responsible for myopathies, due to
Deregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in peripheral tissues is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. AMP- activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a master regulator...
In a paper published today in Diabetologia, a team at Joslin Diabetes Center, headed by Mary R. Loeken, PhD, has identified the enzyme AMP kinase (AMPK) as key to the molecular mechanism that significantly increases the risk ...
Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Die Goethe-Universität ist eine forschungsstarke Hochschule in der europäischen Finanzmetropole Frankfurt. Lebendig, urban und weltoffen besitzt sie als Stiftungsuniversität ein einzigartiges Maß an Eigenständigkeit.
Background & Aims: Aspirin reduces the incidence of and mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) by unknown mechanisms. Cancer cells have defects in signaling via the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), which regulates proliferation. We investigated whether aspirin affects adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mTOR signaling in CRC cells. Methods: The effects of aspirin on mTOR signaling, the ribosomal protein S6, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) were examined in CRC cells by immunoblotting. Phosphorylation of AMPK was measured; the effects of loss of AMPKa on the aspirin-induced effects of mTOR were determined using small interfering RNA (siRNA) in CRC cells and in AMPK mouse embryonic fibroblasts. LC3 and ULK1 were used as markers of autophagy. We analyzed rectal mucosa samples from patients given 600 mg aspirin, once daily for 1 week. Results: Aspirin reduced mTOR signaling in CRC cells by inhibiting the ...
AMPK is a metabolic "master switch", phosphorylating key target proteins that control flux through metabolic pathways of hepatic ketogenesis, cholesterol synthesis, lipogenesis, triglyceride synthesis, adipocyte lipolysis and skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation.3 We hypothesised that genetic variation in the AMPK α2 subunit gene PRKAA2 is associated with regulation of the lipid profile, affecting body fat deposition and sensitivity of target organs to insulin, potentially mediated by differential expression or activity of the AMPK α2 subunit. To this end, we have examined association of a set of five tSNPs spanning the AMPK catalytic α2 subunit gene PRKAA2, with a range of phenotypes representing body fat, insulin sensitivity and lipids. Minor associations were observed with ApoB, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and measures of body fat, and none with the insulin-sensitivity parameters. Therefore, in this study sample, common variation in PRKAA2 does not seem to be responsible for changes in ...
Figure 5: Immunoblotting survey of cardiac proteins in dystrophic tissue. Shown is a Coomassie-stained gel (a) and corresponding immunoblots with expanded views of immuno-decorated bands ((b)-(j)). Immunoblotting was performed with antibodies to laminin (b), desmin (c), slow/cardiac myosin heavy chain ((d); MHCs), adenylate kinase isoform AK1 (e), porin isoform VDAC1 (f), succinate dehydrogenase ((g); SDH), fatty acid binding protein FABP3 (h), isocitrate dehydrogenase ((i); ICDH), and ATP synthase (j). See Figure 6 for the statistical evaluation of this immunoblotting survey of cardiac proteins. Molecular mass standards (in kDa) are indicated on the left of panel (a). Lanes 1 and 2 represent normal and dystrophic muscle extracts from control and MDX mice, respectively ...
Cold-adapted enzymes are produced by microorganisms living at permanently low temperature, which constitutes the major environment on planet Earth and includes deep sea, polar, and mountain regions. This chapter deals with those enzymes that are significantly adapted to low temperatures, that is, displaying a high specific activity at low temperatures. Many enzymes produced by cold-adapted microorganisms have now been fully characterized in terms of their physical, chemical, and kinetic properties but still only 11 structures have been solved by X-ray crystallography: α-amylase, citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase, Ca2+-Zn2+ protease, xylanase, adenylate kinase, cellulase, subtilisin-like protease, tyrosine phosphatase, and β-galactosidase. The in vitro growth temperature of these psychrophilic microorganisms is very important for enzyme production, especially for extracellular enzymes, since the production is highly dependent on temperature. In another systematic
Introduction: Protection of the heart from chemotherapeutic (Doxorubicin, DOX) drug-induced toxicity is a desirable goal, to limit side effects of cancer treatments. DOX toxicity has been linked to the activation (phosphorylation) of the AMP-activated kinase, AMPK. The 18 kDa low molecular weight isoform of fibroblast growth factor 2 (Lo-FGF-2) is a known cardioprotective and cytoprotective agent. In this study we have tested the ability of Lo-FGF-2 to protect from DOX-induced damage in rat cardiomyocytes in vitro, and in transgenic mouse models in vivo, in relation to AMPK activation.. Methods: Rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in culture were exposed to DOX (0.5 μM) in the presence or absence of pre-treatment Lo-FGF-2 (10 ng/ml). Compound C was used to block phosphorylation (activity) of AMPK. Levels of cell viability/death (using Calcein-AM/Propidium iodide assay), phospho -and total AMPK, and apoptotic markers such as active caspase 3 were analyzed. In addition, transgenic mice expressing only ...
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Kielley, R K., "Purification and properties of thymidine monophosphate kinase from mouse hepatoma." (1970). Subject Strain Bibliography 1970. 89 ...
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AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) is activated when the cellular (AMP+ADP)/ATP ratio rises; it therefore serves as a detector of cellular
The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing a study does not mean it has been evaluated by the U.S. Federal Government. Read our disclaimer for details ...
The IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology. AK198 ligand page. Quantitative data and detailed annnotation of the targets of licensed and experimental drugs.
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Snáď ani najortodoxnejší fanúšik HammerFall neočakáva od svojich obľúbencov nič revolučné, či dokonca evolučné. Kapela doteraz nikdy neuhla a stále priniesla to čo sa od nich očakávalo, viac či menej slušnú porciu melodického heavy/power metalu so zborovými chorálmi, […]. ...
Browse our Adenylate Kinase 1 ELISA Kits  Browse our Adenylate Kinase 1 ELISA Kits
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more infohttp://www.antibodies-online.com/nucleotide-phosphorylation-pathway-31/adenylate-kinase-1-elisa-kit-8958/
The increase of adenylate kinase activity in the blood can control aggregation of platelets in coronary or peripheral arterial...  The increase of adenylate kinase activity in the blood can control aggregation of platelets in coronary or peripheral arterial...
1U of adenylate kinase added to platelet-rich plasma (PRP) before ADP or collagen, inhibited the platelets aggregation. One ... We conclude that adenylate kinase is involved in regulation of plate-lets aggregation. Anticoagulative role of AK indicates the ... We found that adenylate kinase activity in the serum of patients with myocardial infarction is significantly increased when ... NTPDases and adenylate kinase (AK) are the main enzymes involved in metabolism of extracellular adenine nucleotides. The ...
more infohttp://www.scirp.org/journal/papercitationdetails.aspx?PaperID=1424&JournalID=65
Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of...  Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of...
Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... ACT-induced Ca2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators ...
more infohttp://libros.duhnnae.com/2017/jun8/149829571451-Ca2-Influx-and-Tyrosine-Kinases-Trigger-Bordetella-Adenylate-Cyclase-Toxin-ACT-Endocytosis-Cell-Physiology-and-Expression-of-the-CD11b-CD18-Integrin.php
Adenilat kinaza - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија  Adenilat kinaza - Википедија, слободна енциклопедија
Structural and catalytic characteristics of Escherichia coli adenylate kinase". J. Biol. Chem. 262: 622-629. PMID 3027060.. CS1 ...
more infohttps://sr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenilat_kinaza
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the regulation of...  Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the regulation of...
Article Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and contributes to the ... Instead, Rin loss attenuates PACAP38-mediated HSP27 activation by disrupting a cAMP-protein kinase A cascade. RNA interference- ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated .... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38- ... No comments were found for Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide 38-mediated rin activation requires src and ...
more infohttps://www.environmental-expert.com/articles/pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-38-mediated-rin-activation-requires-src-and-contr-36524
Peptides (v.30, #7) | www.chemweb.com  Peptides (v.30, #7) | www.chemweb.com
... and we examined whether PACAP-induced SL release is mediated by the adenylate cyclase (AC)/cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)- or the ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide induces somatolactin release from cultured goldfish pituitary cells by Morio ... We found that the activity of skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) parallels hypothalamic leptin sensitivity and ... In the goldfish pituitary, nerve fibers containing pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) are located in ...
more infohttps://chemweb.com/articles/01969781/00300007
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In addition, activators and inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) or PKA exhibit differential effects on NKA binding and ... The agonists (PACAP-27 and -38) stimulated adenylate cyclase (AC) with equal potencies, but only PACAP-38 could invoke the ... However, the mutants showed no zinc-dependent impairment of phosphorylation by G-protein-coupled receptor kinase-2. Likewise, ... protein kinase C; RX 831003, 2-(2-n-pentyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofuran-2-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazole; DAMGO, [d-Ala(2),N-Me-Phe(4), ...
more infohttp://pharmrev.aspetjournals.org/content/57/2/147
Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host. | SBRC  Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host. | SBRC
Adenylate Cyclase, Animals, Catalytic Domain, Cell Line, Cyclic AMP, Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases, Enzyme Activation, ... Adenylate cyclases of Trypanosoma brucei inhibit the innate immune response of the host.. Title. Adenylate cyclases of ... Thus, adenylate cyclase activity of lyzed trypanosomes favors early host colonization by live parasites. The role of adenylate ... Using a dominant-negative strategy, we found that reducing adenylate cyclase activity by about 50% allowed trypanosome growth ...
more infohttp://sbrc.vub.ac.be/node/196
Adenylate kinase | Define Adenylate kinase at Dictionary.com  Adenylate kinase | Define Adenylate kinase at Dictionary.com
Adenylate kinase definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/adenylate-kinase
adenylate kinase 3 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com  adenylate kinase 3 ELISA Kits | Biocompare.com
Compare adenylate kinase 3 ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, ... adenylate kinase 3 ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a well-established antibody-based tool for ... Your search returned 42 adenylate kinase 3 ELISA ELISA Kit across 7 suppliers. ...
more infohttps://www.biocompare.com/pfu/110627/soids/2-321109/ELISA_Kit/ELISA_adenylate_kinase_3
Adenylate Kinase 2 Antibody
		        
	  Adenylate Kinase 2 Antibody
Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody from Invitrogen for Western Blot and Immunohistochemistry applications. This antibody ... Adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial; Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2; adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial; Adenylate ... Cite Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal Antibody. The following antibody was used in this experiment: Adenylate Kinase 2 Polyclonal ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ...
more infohttps://www.thermofisher.com/antibody/product/AK2-Antibody-Polyclonal/PA5-15430
AK1 - Adenylate kinase - Polyonymus caroli - AK1 gene & protein  AK1 - Adenylate kinase - Polyonymus caroli - AK1 gene & protein
tr,D1MH80,D1MH80_9AVES Adenylate kinase (Fragment) OS=Polyonymus caroli OX=689270 GN=AK1 PE=4 SV=1 ... KinaseImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a href="/ ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/D1MH80
Adenylate Kinase
     Summary Report | CureHunter  Adenylate Kinase Summary Report | CureHunter
Adenylate Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. ... Adenylate Kinase. Subscribe to New Research on Adenylate Kinase An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in ... Kinase, AMP; Kinase, Adenylate; Phosphotransferase, ATP-AMP; Transphosphorylase, ATP-AMP; Myokinase; ATP:AMP phosphotransferase ... 02/01/2001 - "After anoxia, the majority (88%) of mitochondria was damaged or swollen and released adenylate kinase, a marker ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD000263-Adenylate-Kinase.do
RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Adenylate kinase - B1LJN2 (KAD ECOSM)  RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Adenylate kinase - B1LJN2 (KAD ECOSM)
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex assemblies. As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/B1LJN2
adk - Adenylate kinase - Wigglesworthia glossinidia brevipalpis - adk gene & protein  adk - Adenylate kinase - Wigglesworthia glossinidia brevipalpis - adk gene & protein
MF_00235 Adenylate_kinase_Adk, 1 hit. InterProi. View protein in InterPro. IPR006259 Adenyl_kin_sub. IPR000850 Adenylat/UMP- ... Adenylate kinase (adk). This subpathway is part of the pathway AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway, which is itself part of ... Belongs to the adenylate kinase family.UniRule annotation. Manual assertion according to rulesi ... sp,Q8D227,KAD_WIGBR Adenylate kinase OS=Wigglesworthia glossinidia brevipalpis OX=36870 GN=adk PE=3 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q8D227
Produktübersicht anti-Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper  Produktübersicht anti-Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Adenylate Kinase 2 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial , adenylate monophosphate kinase , adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial , adenylate ... Adenylate Kinase 2 (AK2) Antigen-Profil Beschreibung des Gens Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine ...
more infohttps://www.antikoerper-online.de/nucleotide-phosphorylation-pathway-31/adenylate-kinase-2-antibody-5748/
anti-Adenylate Kinase 4 antibody  | GeneTex  anti-Adenylate Kinase 4 antibody | GeneTex
... adenylate kinase 4) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate Kinase 4 pAb (GTX30038) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100% ... adenylate kinase 4. Background. This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family of enzymes. The encoded protein is ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ... Adenylate kinases regulate the adenine and guanine nucleotide compositions within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Adenylate-Kinase-4-antibody-GTX30038.html
Subcellular localization of adenylate kinases in Plasmodium falciparum.  - PubMed - NCBI  Subcellular localization of adenylate kinases in Plasmodium falciparum. - PubMed - NCBI
Subcellular localization of adenylate kinases in Plasmodium falciparum.. Ma J1, Rahlfs S, Jortzik E, Schirmer RH, Przyborski JM ... Adenylate kinases (AK) play a key role in nucleotide signaling processes and energy metabolism by catalyzing the reversible ... we describe two additional adenylate kinase-like proteins: PfAKLP1, which is homologous to human AK6, and PfAKLP2. Using GFP- ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22819813?dopt=Abstract
Adenylate kinase - Wikipedia  Adenylate kinase - Wikipedia
Adenylate kinase, subfamily InterPro: IPR006259 UMP-CMP kinase InterPro: IPR006266 Adenylate kinase, isozyme 1 InterPro: ... adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic functions. ADK complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency. Adenylate kinase ... Lu Q, Inouye M (June 1996). "Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism". ... In essence, adenylate kinase shuttles ATP to sites of high energy consumption and removes the AMP generated over the course of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adenylate_kinase
anti-Adenylate kinase 2 antibody [N1C3]  | GeneTex  anti-Adenylate kinase 2 antibody [N1C3] | GeneTex
... adenylate kinase 2) for ICC/IF, IHC-P, WB. Anti-Adenylate kinase 2 pAb (GTX107613) is tested in Human, Mouse, Rat samples. 100 ... "adenylate kinase 2, mitochondrial antibody", "adenylate kinase isoenzyme 2, mitochondrial antibody", adenylate kinase 2 ... adenylate kinase 2. Background. Adenylate kinases are involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell ... Green: Adenylate kinase 2 protein stained by Adenylate kinase 2 antibody [N1C3] (GTX107613) diluted at 1:500.. Blue: Hoechst ...
more infohttp://www.genetex.com/Adenylate-kinase-2-antibody-N1C3-GTX107613.html
  • We show that a requirement to target adenylate kinase into glycosomes, which are unique kinetoplastid-specific microbodies of the peroxisome class in which many reactions of carbohydrate metabolism are compartmentalized, and two different flagellar structures as well as cytoplasm and mitochondrion explains the expansion of this gene family in trypanosomes. (hud.ac.uk)
  • In enzymology, a (deoxy)adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + dAMP ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } ADP + dADP Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and dAMP, whereas its two products are ADP and dADP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) kinase that catalyzes the reversible transfer of the terminal phosphate group between nucleoside triphosphates and monophosphates. (mybiosource.com)