An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.
A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.
One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
An intracellular signaling system involving the MAP kinase cascades (three-membered protein kinase cascades). Various upstream activators, which act in response to extracellular stimuli, trigger the cascades by activating the first member of a cascade, MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKKs). Activated MAPKKKs phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES which in turn phosphorylate the MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs). The MAPKs then act on various downstream targets to affect gene expression. In mammals, there are several distinct MAP kinase pathways including the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, the SAPK/JNK (stress-activated protein kinase/c-jun kinase) pathway, and the p38 kinase pathway. There is some sharing of components among the pathways depending on which stimulus originates activation of the cascade.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
Adenosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate). An adenine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety at the 5'-position.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside monophosphate, e.g., UMP, to form ADP and UDP. Many nucleoside monophosphates can act as acceptor while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.4.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of an adenine base attached to a ribose sugar and one, two, or three phosphate groups, including adenosine monophosphate (AMP), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which play crucial roles in energy transfer and signaling processes within cells.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of compounds which consist of a nucleotide molecule to which an additional nucleoside is attached through the phosphate molecule(s). The nucleotide can contain any number of phosphates.
Agents that inhibit PROTEIN KINASES.
A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
3-((4-Amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl)-4-methyl-5-(4,6,8,8-tetrahydroxy-3,5,7-trioxa-4,6,8-triphosphaoct-1-yl)thiazolium hydroxide, inner salt, P,P',P''-trioxide. The triphosphate ester of thiamine. In Leigh's disease, this compound is present in decreased amounts in the brain due to a metabolic block in its formation.
A PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE family that was originally identified by homology to the Rous sarcoma virus ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). They interact with a variety of cell-surface receptors and participate in intracellular signal transduction pathways. Oncogenic forms of src-family kinases can occur through altered regulation or expression of the endogenous protein and by virally encoded src (v-src) genes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Contractile tissue that produces movement in animals.
A proline-directed serine/threonine protein kinase which mediates signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus. Activation of the enzyme by phosphorylation leads to its translocation into the nucleus where it acts upon specific transcription factors. p40 MAPK and p41 MAPK are isoforms.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase. A phosphotransferase that catalyzes reversibly the phosphorylation of pyruvate to phosphoenolpyruvate in the presence of ATP. It has four isozymes (L, R, M1, and M2). Deficiency of the enzyme results in hemolytic anemia. EC 2.7.1.40.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A family of serine-threonine kinases that bind to and are activated by MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS such as RAC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS and CDC42 GTP-BINDING PROTEIN. They are intracellular signaling kinases that play a role the regulation of cytoskeletal organization.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.
A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
A 44-kDa extracellular signal-regulated MAP kinase that may play a role the initiation and regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and postmitotic functions in differentiated cells. It phosphorylates a number of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS; and MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
An enzyme that is found in mitochondria and in the soluble cytoplasm of cells. It catalyzes reversible reactions of a nucleoside triphosphate, e.g., ATP, with a nucleoside diphosphate, e.g., UDP, to form ADP and UTP. Many nucleoside diphosphates can act as acceptor, while many ribo- and deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates can act as donor. EC 2.7.4.6.
Protein kinases that catalyze the PHOSPHORYLATION of TYROSINE residues in proteins with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs) are serine-threonine protein kinases that initiate protein kinase signaling cascades. They phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES; (MAPKKs) which in turn phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; (MAPKs).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The monomeric units from which DNA or RNA polymers are constructed. They consist of a purine or pyrimidine base, a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.
Stable oxygen atoms that have the same atomic number as the element oxygen, but differ in atomic weight. O-17 and 18 are stable oxygen isotopes.
A group of protein-serine-threonine kinases that was originally identified as being responsible for the PHOSPHORYLATION of CASEINS. They are ubiquitous enzymes that have a preference for acidic proteins. Casein kinases play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by phosphorylating a variety of regulatory cytoplasmic and regulatory nuclear proteins.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group onto a phosphate group acceptor. EC 2.7.4.
A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An abundant 43-kDa mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase subtype with specificity for MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1 and MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3.
Type I Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Receptor is a G protein-coupled receptor that binds PACAP and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, activating adenylate cyclase and increasing intracellular cAMP levels upon activation.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A class of cellular receptors that have an intrinsic PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE activity.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that is widely expressed and plays a role in regulation of MEIOSIS; MITOSIS; and post mitotic functions in differentiated cells. The extracellular signal regulated MAP kinases are regulated by a broad variety of CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS and can be activated by certain CARCINOGENS.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.
Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
A group of enzymes that transfers a phosphate group onto an alcohol group acceptor. EC 2.7.1.
A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidylinositol (PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOLS) to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate, the first committed step in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A family of cell cycle-dependent kinases that are related in structure to CDC28 PROTEIN KINASE; S CEREVISIAE; and the CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE found in mammalian species.
A glycogen synthase kinase that was originally described as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism. It regulates a diverse array of functions such as CELL DIVISION, microtubule function and APOPTOSIS.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
A group of intracellular-signaling serine threonine kinases that bind to RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS. They were originally found to mediate the effects of rhoA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN on the formation of STRESS FIBERS and FOCAL ADHESIONS. Rho-associated kinases have specificity for a variety of substrates including MYOSIN-LIGHT-CHAIN PHOSPHATASE and LIM KINASES.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.
A cytoplasmic serine threonine kinase involved in regulating CELL DIFFERENTIATION and CELLULAR PROLIFERATION. Overexpression of this enzyme has been shown to promote PHOSPHORYLATION of BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and chemoresistance in human acute leukemia cells.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.

A study of the genetical structure of the Cuban population: red cell and serum biochemical markers. (1/864)

Gene frequencies of several red cell and serum gentic markers were determined in the three main racial groups--whites, mulattoes and Negroes--of the Cuban population. The results were used to estimate the relative contribution of Caucasian and Negro genes to the genetic makeup of these three groups and to calculate the frequencies of these genes in the general Cuban population.  (+info)

Changes in mitochondrial phosphorylative activity and adenylate energy charge of regenerating rabbit liver. (2/864)

The changes in the cellular concentrations of ATP, ADP, and AMP and in oxidative phosphorylation of mitochondria were investigated in the remaining liver of partially hepatectomized rabbits. The energy charge (defined as half of the average number of anhydride-bonded phosphate groups per adenosine moiety) of the liver remnant decreased from 0.866 to 0.767 (p less than 0.01) within 24 hr after hepatectomy, and then increased to a substantially higher level than normal within 7 days. On the other hand, the mitochondrial phosphyorylative activity increased rapidly to 170 per cent of the control within 12 hr and then retruned to normal within 7 days. The mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was inversely correlated with energy charge of the liver remnant (r = -0.75, p less less than 0.01). The maximal enhancement of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity was found in mitochondria obtained from the liver remnant with the lowest level of energy charge, suggesting a response of mitochondria in vivo involving enhanced biosynthetic ATP-utilizing reactions at an early stage of the regenerating process. The enhancement of phosphorylative activity was accompanied by a rise in the respiratory control ratio, P/O ratio and state 3 respiration. The adenylate kinase [EC 2.7.4.3] activity in the liver remnant increased to more than 160% of the control within 2 days after partial hepatectomy, while the pyruvate kinase [EC 2.7.1.40] activity decreased remarkably. However, the changes in the two enzyme activities did not correlate with those of mitochondrial phosphorylative activity or the energy charge of the liver remnant.  (+info)

Identification of a novel human adenylate kinase. cDNA cloning, expression analysis, chromosome localization and characterization of the recombinant protein. (3/864)

Adenylate kinases have an important role in the synthesis of adenine nucleotides that are required for cellular metabolism. We report the cDNA cloning of a novel 22-kDa human enzyme that is sequence related to the human adenylate kinases and to UMP/CMP kinase of several species. The enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and shown to catalyse phosphorylation of AMP and dAMP with ATP as phosphate donor. When GTP was used as phosphate donor, the enzyme phosphorylated AMP, CMP, and to a small extent dCMP. Expression as a fusion protein with the green fluorescent protein showed that the enzyme is located in the cytosol. Northern blot analysis with mRNA from eight different human tissues demonstrated that the enzyme was expressed exclusively in brain, with two mRNA isoforms of 2.4 and 4.0 kb. The gene that encoded the enzyme was localized to chromosome 1p31. Based on the substrate specificity and the sequence similarity with the previously identified human adenylate kinases, we have named this novel enzyme adenylate kinase 5.  (+info)

Release of adenylate kinase 2 from the mitochondrial intermembrane space during apoptosis. (4/864)

The release of two mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), into the soluble cytoplasm of cells undergoing apoptosis is well established. Using spectrophotometric determination of enzyme activity, the accumulation of adenylate kinase (AK) activity in the cytosolic fraction of apoptotic cells has also been observed recently. However, three isozymes, AK1, AK2 and AK3, have been characterized in mammalian cells and shown to be localized in the cytosol, mitochondrial intermembrane space and mitochondrial matrix, respectively, and it is unknown which one of these isozymes accumulates in the cytosol during apoptosis. We now demonstrate that in apoptotic cells only AK2 was translocated into the cytosol concomitantly with cytochrome c. The amount of AK1 in cytosol, as well as the amount of matrix-associated AK3, remained unchanged during the apoptotic process. Thus, our data suggest that only intermembrane proteins are released from mitochondria during the early phase of the apoptotic process.  (+info)

Inhibition of ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities of the second nucleotide-binding fold of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator by genistein. (5/864)

In the presence of ATP, genistein, like the ATP analogue adenosine 5'-[beta,gamma-imido]triphosphate (pp[NH]pA), increases cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride currents by prolonging open times. As pp[NH]pA is thought to increase CFTR currents by interfering with ATP hydrolysis at the second nucleotide-binding fold (NBF-2), the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of genistein on a fusion protein comprising maltose-binding protein (MBP) and NBF-2 (MBP-NBF-2). MBP-NBF-2 exhibited ATPase, GTPase and adenylate kinase activities that were inhibited by genistein in a partial non-competitive manner with respect to ATP or GTP. Ki values for competitive and uncompetitive inhibition were respectively 20 microM and 63 microM for ATPase, 15 microM and 54 microM for GTPase, and 46 microM and 142 microM for adenylate kinase. For ATPase activity, genistein reduced Vmax by 29% and Vmax/Km by 77%. Additional evidence for complex-formation between genistein and MBP-NBF-2 was obtained by the detection of genistein-dependent alterations in the CD spectrum of MBP-NBF-2 that were consistent with the formation of a higher-ordered state. Addition of MBP-NBF-2 increased the fluorescence intensity of genistein, consistent with a change to a less polar environment. pp[NH]pA partially eliminated this enhanced fluorescence of genistein. These observations provide the first direct biochemical evidence that genistein interacts with CFTR, thus inhibiting NBF-2 activity, and suggest a similar mechanism for genistein-dependent stimulation of CFTR chloride currents.  (+info)

Volume overload hypertrophy of the newborn heart slows the maturation of enzymes involved in the regulation of fatty acid metabolism. (6/864)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of volume overload hypertrophy in the newborn heart on the cardiac enzymes controlling fatty acid metabolism. BACKGROUND: Shortly after birth, a rise in 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity results in the phosphorylation and inhibition of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) carboxylase (ACC), and a decline in myocardial malonyl CoA levels with increased fatty acid oxidation rates. Whether the early onset of hypertrophy in the newborn heart alters this maturational increase in fatty acid oxidation is unknown. METHODS: Newborn piglets underwent endovascular stenting of the ductus arteriosus on day 1 of life with a 4.5-mm diameter stent, resulting in a left to right shunt, and left ventricular (LV) volume loading. Left ventricular and right ventricular samples from fetal, newborn, three-week control and three-week stented animals were compared. RESULTS: Stenting resulted in echocardiographic evidence of volume overload and myocardial hypertrophy. In control animals, left ventricular ACC activity declined from 274 +/- 30 pmol/mg/min on day 1 to 115 +/- 12 after three weeks (p < 0.05), but did not display this maturation drop in hypertrophied hearts, remaining elevated (270 +/- 50 pmol/mg/min, p < 0.05). At three weeks, malonyl CoA levels remained 2.8-fold higher in hypertrophied hearts than in control hearts. In control hearts, LV AMPK activity increased 178% between day 1 and three weeks, whereas in hypertrophied hearts AMPK activity at three weeks was only 71% of control values, due to a significant decrease in expression of the catalytic subunit of AMPK. CONCLUSIONS: Early onset LV volume overload with hypertrophy results in a delay in the normal maturation of fatty acid oxidation in the newborn heart.  (+info)

Adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer in the myocardium : increased contribution in heart failure. (7/864)

Although the downregulation of creatine kinase activity has been associated with heart failure, creatine kinase-deficient transgenic hearts have a preserved contractile function. This suggests the existence of alternative phosphotransfer pathways in the myocardium, the identity of which is still unknown. In this study, we examined the contribution of adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer to myocardial energetics. In the isolated mitochondria/actomyosin system, which possesses endogenous adenylate kinase activity in both compartments, substrates for adenylate kinase promoted the rate and amplitude of actomyosin contraction that was further enhanced by purified adenylate kinase. Inhibition of adenylate kinase activity diminished both actomyosin contraction and mitochondrial respiration, which indicated reduced energy flow between mitochondria and myofibrils. In intact myocardium, the net adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer rate was 10% of the total ATP turnover rate as measured by 18O-phosphoryl labeling in conjunction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. In pacing-induced failing heart, adenylate kinase-catalyzed phosphotransfer increased by 134% and contributed 21% to the total ATP turnover. Concomitantly, the contribution by creatine kinase dropped from 89% in normal hearts to 40% in failing hearts. These phosphotransfer changes were associated with reduced levels of metabolically active ATP but maintained overall ATP turnover rate. Thus, this study provides evidence that adenylate kinase facilitates the transfer of high-energy phosphoryls and signal communication between mitochondria and actomyosin in cardiac muscle, with an increased contribution to cellular phosphotransfer in heart failure. This phosphotransfer function renders adenylate kinase an important component for optimal myocardial bioenergetics and a compensatory mechanism in response to impaired intracellular energy flux in the failing heart.  (+info)

Experimental study on firearm wound in maxillofacial region. (8/864)

OBJECTIVE: To make clear the range of firearm wound in the maxillofacial region, the optical repair time and the characteristics of accompanied indirect brain damage, and to offer the principle of emergency treatment and the early repair of war wound. METHODS: With the aid of the standard Sweden model, 200 dogs were used in the experiment. Varies tissues around the primary canal were harvested chronologically, in different zone and different tissue, for histopathological examination. RESULTS: The necrotic range of various tissues in the maxillofacial region was less than that in the extremities. In the maxillofacial region, there was a significant temporary cavity following the passing of bullet, which caused indirect brain damages. CONCLUSION: These findings are helpful to the treatment of war wound in the maxillofacial region. Early bone transplantation using microvascular anastomosis in the treatment of gunshot wound in the maxillofacial region is recommendable.  (+info)

Adenylate kinase is an enzyme (EC 2.7.4.3) that catalyzes the reversible transfer of a phosphate group between adenine nucleotides, specifically between ATP and AMP to form two ADP molecules. This reaction plays a crucial role in maintaining the energy charge of the cell by interconverting these important energy currency molecules.

The general reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase is:

AMP + ATP ↔ 2ADP

This enzyme is widely distributed in various organisms and tissues, including mammalian cells. In humans, there are several isoforms of adenylate kinase, located in different cellular compartments such as the cytosol, mitochondria, and nucleus. These isoforms have distinct roles in maintaining energy homeostasis and protecting cells under stress conditions. Dysregulation of adenylate kinase activity has been implicated in several pathological processes, including neurodegenerative diseases, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cancer.

Adenylate cyclase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, including signal transduction and metabolism. Adenylate cyclase is activated by hormones and neurotransmitters that bind to G-protein-coupled receptors on the cell membrane, leading to the production of cAMP, which then acts as a second messenger to regulate various intracellular responses. There are several isoforms of adenylate cyclase, each with distinct regulatory properties and subcellular localization.

Phosphotransferases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule to an acceptor molecule. This reaction is essential for various cellular processes, including energy metabolism, signal transduction, and biosynthesis.

The systematic name for this group of enzymes is phosphotransferase, which is derived from the general reaction they catalyze: D-donor + A-acceptor = D-donor minus phosphate + A-phosphate. The donor molecule can be a variety of compounds, such as ATP or a phosphorylated protein, while the acceptor molecule is typically a compound that becomes phosphorylated during the reaction.

Phosphotransferases are classified into several subgroups based on the type of donor and acceptor molecules they act upon. For example, kinases are a subgroup of phosphotransferases that transfer a phosphate group from ATP to a protein or other organic compound. Phosphatases, another subgroup, remove phosphate groups from molecules by transferring them to water.

Overall, phosphotransferases play a critical role in regulating many cellular functions and are important targets for drug development in various diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is a nucleotide that is the monophosphate ester of adenosine, consisting of the nitrogenous base adenine attached to the 1' carbon atom of ribose via a β-N9-glycosidic bond, which in turn is esterified to a phosphate group. It is an important molecule in biological systems as it plays a key role in cellular energy transfer and storage, serving as a precursor to other nucleotides such as ADP and ATP. AMP is also involved in various signaling pathways and can act as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction. They phosphorylate the 3-hydroxyl group of the inositol ring in phosphatidylinositol and its derivatives, which results in the production of second messengers that regulate various cellular processes such as cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, motility, and survival.

PI3Ks are divided into three classes based on their structure and substrate specificity. Class I PI3Ks are further subdivided into two categories: class IA and class IB. Class IA PI3Ks are heterodimers consisting of a catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, or p110δ) and a regulatory subunit (p85α, p85β, p55γ, or p50γ). They are primarily activated by receptor tyrosine kinases and G protein-coupled receptors. Class IB PI3Ks consist of a catalytic subunit (p110γ) and a regulatory subunit (p101 or p84/87). They are mainly activated by G protein-coupled receptors.

Dysregulation of PI3K signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, PI3Ks have emerged as important targets for drug development in these areas.

Creatine kinase (CK) is a muscle enzyme that is normally present in small amounts in the blood. It is primarily found in tissues that require a lot of energy, such as the heart, brain, and skeletal muscles. When these tissues are damaged or injured, CK is released into the bloodstream, causing the levels to rise.

Creatine kinase exists in several forms, known as isoenzymes, which can be measured in the blood to help identify the location of tissue damage. The three main isoenzymes are:

1. CK-MM: Found primarily in skeletal muscle
2. CK-MB: Found primarily in heart muscle
3. CK-BB: Found primarily in the brain

Elevated levels of creatine kinase, particularly CK-MB, can indicate damage to the heart muscle, such as occurs with a heart attack. Similarly, elevated levels of CK-BB may suggest brain injury or disease. Overall, measuring creatine kinase levels is a useful diagnostic tool for assessing tissue damage and determining the severity of injuries or illnesses.

Adenylate cyclase toxin is a type of exotoxin produced by certain bacteria, including Bordetella pertussis (the causative agent of whooping cough) and Vibrio cholerae. This toxin functions by entering host cells and catalyzing the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), leading to increased intracellular cAMP levels.

The elevated cAMP levels can disrupt various cellular processes, such as signal transduction and ion transport, resulting in a range of physiological effects that contribute to the pathogenesis of the bacterial infection. For example, in the case of Bordetella pertussis, adenylate cyclase toxin impairs the function of immune cells, allowing the bacteria to evade host defenses and establish a successful infection.

In summary, adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by certain pathogenic bacteria that increases intracellular cAMP levels in host cells, leading to disrupted cellular processes and contributing to bacterial pathogenesis.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling system is a crucial pathway for the transmission and regulation of various cellular responses in eukaryotic cells. It plays a significant role in several biological processes, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, inflammation, and stress response. The MAPK cascade consists of three main components: MAP kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K or MEKK), MAP kinase kinase (MAP2K or MEK), and MAP kinase (MAPK).

The signaling system is activated by various extracellular stimuli, such as growth factors, cytokines, hormones, and stress signals. These stimuli initiate a phosphorylation cascade that ultimately leads to the activation of MAPKs. The activated MAPKs then translocate into the nucleus and regulate gene expression by phosphorylating various transcription factors and other regulatory proteins.

There are four major MAPK families: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5. Each family has distinct functions, substrates, and upstream activators. Dysregulation of the MAPK signaling system can lead to various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying this pathway is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies.

Protein kinases are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding phosphate groups to other proteins, a process known as phosphorylation. This modification can activate or deactivate the target protein's function, thereby regulating various signaling pathways within the cell. Protein kinases are essential for numerous biological functions, including metabolism, signal transduction, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Abnormal regulation of protein kinases has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) is a chemical compound that plays a crucial role in energy transfer within cells. It is a nucleotide, which consists of a adenosine molecule (a sugar molecule called ribose attached to a nitrogenous base called adenine) and two phosphate groups.

In the cell, ADP functions as an intermediate in the conversion of energy from one form to another. When a high-energy phosphate bond in ADP is broken, energy is released and ADP is converted to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which serves as the main energy currency of the cell. Conversely, when ATP donates a phosphate group to another molecule, it is converted back to ADP, releasing energy for the cell to use.

ADP also plays a role in blood clotting and other physiological processes. In the coagulation cascade, ADP released from damaged red blood cells can help activate platelets and initiate the formation of a blood clot.

Nucleoside-phosphate kinase (NPK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis and metabolism of nucleotides, which are the building blocks of DNA and RNA. NPK catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from a donor molecule, typically ATP, to a nucleoside or deoxynucleoside, forming a nucleoside monophosphate (NMP) or deoxynucleoside monophosphate (dNMP).

There are several isoforms of NPK found in different cellular compartments and tissues, each with distinct substrate specificities. These enzymes play essential roles in maintaining the balance of nucleotides required for various cellular processes, including DNA replication, repair, and transcription, as well as RNA synthesis and metabolism.

Abnormalities in NPK activity or expression have been implicated in several human diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, and neurological disorders. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of NPK is crucial for developing novel therapeutic strategies to target these conditions.

Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases (PSTKs) are a type of protein kinase that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chains of serine or threonine residues on target proteins. This phosphorylation process plays a crucial role in various cellular signaling pathways, including regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. PSTKs are involved in many physiological and pathological processes, and their dysregulation has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Adenine nucleotides are molecules that consist of a nitrogenous base called adenine, which is linked to a sugar molecule (ribose in the case of adenosine monophosphate or AMP, and deoxyribose in the case of adenosine diphosphate or ADP and adenosine triphosphate or ATP) and one, two, or three phosphate groups. These molecules play a crucial role in energy transfer and metabolism within cells.

AMP contains one phosphate group, while ADP contains two phosphate groups, and ATP contains three phosphate groups. When a phosphate group is removed from ATP, energy is released, which can be used to power various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. The reverse reaction, in which a phosphate group is added back to ADP or AMP to form ATP, requires energy input and often involves the breakdown of nutrients such as glucose or fatty acids.

In addition to their role in energy metabolism, adenine nucleotides also serve as precursors for other important molecules, including DNA and RNA, coenzymes, and signaling molecules.

Isoenzymes, also known as isoforms, are multiple forms of an enzyme that catalyze the same chemical reaction but differ in their amino acid sequence, structure, and/or kinetic properties. They are encoded by different genes or alternative splicing of the same gene. Isoenzymes can be found in various tissues and organs, and they play a crucial role in biological processes such as metabolism, detoxification, and cell signaling. Measurement of isoenzyme levels in body fluids (such as blood) can provide valuable diagnostic information for certain medical conditions, including tissue damage, inflammation, and various diseases.

Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide that belongs to the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)/secretin/glucagon family. It was first isolated from the ovine hypothalamus and later found in various tissues and organs throughout the body, including the brain, pituitary gland, and peripheral nerves.

PACAP exists in two forms, PACAP-38 and PACAP-27, which differ in their length but share the same amino acid sequence at the N-terminus. PACAP exerts its effects through specific G protein-coupled receptors, including PAC1, VPAC1, and VPAC2 receptors, which are widely distributed throughout the body.

PACAP has a wide range of biological activities, including neurotrophic, neuroprotective, vasodilatory, and immunomodulatory effects. In the pituitary gland, PACAP stimulates adenylate cyclase activity, leading to an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn regulates the release of various hormones, including growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Overall, PACAP is a crucial neuropeptide involved in various physiological processes, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, mood disorders, and cancer.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Dinucleoside phosphates are the chemical compounds that result from the linkage of two nucleosides through a phosphate group. Nucleosides themselves consist of a sugar molecule (ribose or deoxyribose) and a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine, or uracil). When two nucleosides are joined together by an ester bond between the phosphate group and the 5'-hydroxyl group of the sugar moiety, they form a dinucleoside phosphate.

These compounds play crucial roles in various biological processes, particularly in the context of DNA and RNA synthesis and repair. For instance, dinucleoside phosphates serve as building blocks for the formation of longer nucleic acid chains during replication and transcription. They are also involved in signaling pathways and energy transfer within cells.

It is worth noting that the term "dinucleotides" is sometimes used interchangeably with dinucleoside phosphates, although technically, dinucleotides refer to compounds formed by joining two nucleotides (nucleosides plus one or more phosphate groups) rather than just two nucleosides.

Protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs) are a class of drugs that work by interfering with the function of protein kinases. Protein kinases are enzymes that play a crucial role in many cellular processes by adding a phosphate group to specific proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules. This process of adding a phosphate group is known as phosphorylation and is a key mechanism for regulating various cellular functions, including signal transduction, metabolism, and cell division.

In some diseases, such as cancer, protein kinases can become overactive or mutated, leading to uncontrolled cell growth and division. Protein kinase inhibitors are designed to block the activity of these dysregulated kinases, thereby preventing or slowing down the progression of the disease. These drugs can be highly specific, targeting individual protein kinases or families of kinases, making them valuable tools for targeted therapy in cancer and other diseases.

Protein kinase inhibitors can work in various ways to block the activity of protein kinases. Some bind directly to the active site of the enzyme, preventing it from interacting with its substrates. Others bind to allosteric sites, changing the conformation of the enzyme and making it inactive. Still, others target upstream regulators of protein kinases or interfere with their ability to form functional complexes.

Examples of protein kinase inhibitors include imatinib (Gleevec), which targets the BCR-ABL kinase in chronic myeloid leukemia, and gefitinib (Iressa), which inhibits the EGFR kinase in non-small cell lung cancer. These drugs have shown significant clinical benefits in treating these diseases and have become important components of modern cancer therapy.

Calcium-calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. They are activated by the binding of calcium ions and calmodulin, a ubiquitous calcium-binding protein, to their regulatory domain.

Once activated, CAMKs phosphorylate specific serine or threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity, localization, or stability. This post-translational modification is essential for various cellular processes, including synaptic plasticity, gene expression, metabolism, and cell cycle regulation.

There are several subfamilies of CAMKs, including CaMKI, CaMKII, CaMKIII (also known as CaMKIV), and CaMK kinase (CaMKK). Each subfamily has distinct structural features, substrate specificity, and regulatory mechanisms. Dysregulation of CAMK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and cardiovascular disorders.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Thiamine triphosphate (TTP) is not a widely recognized or used medical term in the context of defining a specific disease, condition, or diagnostic marker. However, thiamine, also known as vitamin B1, is an essential nutrient that plays a crucial role in various bodily functions, including nerve function and energy metabolism.

Thiamine triphosphate (TTP) is a biochemical compound formed from thiamine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). TTP acts as a cofactor for several enzymes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids, and neurotransmitters. Its exact physiological role and significance are still under investigation, but it is believed to have a role in neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity, and energy homeostasis.

In summary, Thiamine Triphosphate (TTP) is a biochemical compound that plays a role in various metabolic processes, particularly in the nervous system. However, it does not have a specific medical definition as a disease or condition.

SRC-family kinases (SFKs) are a group of non-receptor tyrosine kinases that play important roles in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, survival, and migration. They are named after the founding member, SRC, which was first identified as an oncogene in Rous sarcoma virus.

SFKs share a common structure, consisting of an N-terminal unique domain, a SH3 domain, a SH2 domain, a catalytic kinase domain, and a C-terminal regulatory tail with a negative regulatory tyrosine residue (Y527 in human SRC). In their inactive state, SFKs are maintained in a closed conformation through intramolecular interactions between the SH3 domain, SH2 domain, and the phosphorylated C-terminal tyrosine.

Upon activation by various signals, such as growth factors, cytokines, or integrin engagement, SFKs are activated through a series of events that involve dephosphorylation of the regulatory tyrosine residue, recruitment to membrane receptors via their SH2 and SH3 domains, and trans-autophosphorylation of the activation loop in the kinase domain.

Once activated, SFKs can phosphorylate a wide range of downstream substrates, including other protein kinases, adaptor proteins, and cytoskeletal components, thereby regulating various signaling pathways that control cell behavior. Dysregulation of SFK activity has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and neurological disorders.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinases, also known as protein kinase A (PKA), are a family of enzymes that play a crucial role in intracellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are responsible for the regulation of various cellular processes, including metabolism, gene expression, and cell growth and differentiation.

PKA is composed of two regulatory subunits and two catalytic subunits. When cAMP binds to the regulatory subunits, it causes a conformational change that leads to the dissociation of the catalytic subunits. The freed catalytic subunits then phosphorylate specific serine and threonine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their activity.

The cAMP-dependent protein kinases are activated in response to a variety of extracellular signals, such as hormones and neurotransmitters, that bind to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) or receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). These signals lead to the activation of adenylyl cyclase, which catalyzes the conversion of ATP to cAMP. The resulting increase in intracellular cAMP levels triggers the activation of PKA and the downstream phosphorylation of target proteins.

Overall, cAMP-dependent protein kinases are essential regulators of many fundamental cellular processes and play a critical role in maintaining normal physiology and homeostasis. Dysregulation of these enzymes has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Protein Kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine-threonine kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. These enzymes are activated by second messengers such as diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), which result from the activation of cell surface receptors like G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs).

Once activated, PKC proteins phosphorylate downstream target proteins, thereby modulating their activities. This regulation is involved in numerous cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and membrane trafficking. There are at least 10 isoforms of PKC, classified into three subfamilies based on their second messenger requirements and structural features: conventional (cPKC; α, βI, βII, and γ), novel (nPKC; δ, ε, η, and θ), and atypical (aPKC; ζ and ι/λ). Dysregulation of PKC signaling has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a key secondary messenger in many biological processes, including the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, and cellular excitability. It is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) by the enzyme adenylyl cyclase and is degraded by the enzyme phosphodiesterase.

In the body, cAMP plays a crucial role in mediating the effects of hormones and neurotransmitters on target cells. For example, when a hormone binds to its receptor on the surface of a cell, it can activate a G protein, which in turn activates adenylyl cyclase to produce cAMP. The increased levels of cAMP then activate various effector proteins, such as protein kinases, which go on to regulate various cellular processes.

Overall, the regulation of cAMP levels is critical for maintaining proper cellular function and homeostasis, and abnormalities in cAMP signaling have been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (p38 MAPKs) are a family of conserved serine-threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, immune response, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress responses. They are activated by diverse stimuli such as cytokines, ultraviolet radiation, heat shock, osmotic stress, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS).

Once activated, p38 MAPKs phosphorylate and regulate several downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases. This regulation leads to the expression of genes involved in inflammation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Dysregulation of p38 MAPK signaling has been implicated in various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, p38 MAPKs are considered promising targets for developing new therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

'Escherichia coli' (E. coli) is a type of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that commonly inhabits the intestinal tract of humans and warm-blooded animals. It is a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae and one of the most well-studied prokaryotic model organisms in molecular biology.

While most E. coli strains are harmless and even beneficial to their hosts, some serotypes can cause various forms of gastrointestinal and extraintestinal illnesses in humans and animals. These pathogenic strains possess virulence factors that enable them to colonize and damage host tissues, leading to diseases such as diarrhea, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and sepsis.

E. coli is a versatile organism with remarkable genetic diversity, which allows it to adapt to various environmental niches. It can be found in water, soil, food, and various man-made environments, making it an essential indicator of fecal contamination and a common cause of foodborne illnesses. The study of E. coli has contributed significantly to our understanding of fundamental biological processes, including DNA replication, gene regulation, and protein synthesis.

A muscle is a soft tissue in our body that contracts to produce force and motion. It is composed mainly of specialized cells called muscle fibers, which are bound together by connective tissue. There are three types of muscles: skeletal (voluntary), smooth (involuntary), and cardiac. Skeletal muscles attach to bones and help in movement, while smooth muscles are found within the walls of organs and blood vessels, helping with functions like digestion and circulation. Cardiac muscle is the specific type that makes up the heart, allowing it to pump blood throughout the body.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 (MAPK1), also known as Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase 2 (ERK2), is a protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. It is a member of the MAPK family, which regulates various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and stress response.

MAPK1 is activated by a cascade of phosphorylation events initiated by upstream activators like MAPKK (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase) in response to various extracellular signals such as growth factors, hormones, and mitogens. Once activated, MAPK1 phosphorylates downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases, thereby modulating their activities and ultimately influencing gene expression and cellular responses.

MAPK1 is widely expressed in various tissues and cells, and its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative diseases. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of MAPK1 signaling pathways has important implications for developing therapeutic strategies to treat these disorders.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the final step of glycolysis, a process by which glucose is broken down to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate). Specifically, pyruvate kinase catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP), resulting in the formation of pyruvate and ATP.

There are several isoforms of pyruvate kinase found in different tissues, including the liver, muscle, and brain. The type found in red blood cells is known as PK-RBC or PK-M2. Deficiencies in pyruvate kinase can lead to a genetic disorder called pyruvate kinase deficiency, which can result in hemolytic anemia due to the premature destruction of red blood cells.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including cytoskeletal reorganization, cell motility, and gene transcription. They are activated by binding to small GTPases of the Rho family, such as Cdc42 and Rac, which become active upon stimulation of various extracellular signals. Once activated, PAKs phosphorylate a range of downstream targets, leading to changes in cell behavior and function. Aberrant regulation of PAKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Phosphorylation is the process of adding a phosphate group (a molecule consisting of one phosphorus atom and four oxygen atoms) to a protein or other organic molecule, which is usually done by enzymes called kinases. This post-translational modification can change the function, localization, or activity of the target molecule, playing a crucial role in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, metabolism, and regulation of gene expression. Phosphorylation is reversible, and the removal of the phosphate group is facilitated by enzymes called phosphatases.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases (MAP2K or MEK) are a group of protein kinases that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. They are so named because they are activated by mitogens, which are substances that stimulate cell division, and other extracellular signals.

MAP2Ks are positioned upstream of the Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPK) in a three-tiered kinase cascade. Once activated, MAP2Ks phosphorylate and activate MAPKs, which then go on to regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis.

There are several subfamilies of MAP2Ks, including MEK1/2, MEK3/6 (also known as MKK3/6), MEK4/7 (also known as MKK4/7), and MEK5. Each MAP2K is specific to activating a particular MAPK, and they are activated by different MAP3Ks (MAP kinase kinase kinases) in response to various extracellular signals.

Dysregulation of the MAPK/MAP2K signaling pathways has been implicated in numerous diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disorders. Therefore, targeting these pathways with therapeutic agents has emerged as a promising strategy for treating various diseases.

JNK (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases are a subgroup of the Ser/Thr protein kinases that are activated by stress stimuli and play important roles in various cellular processes, including inflammation, apoptosis, and differentiation. They are involved in the regulation of gene expression through phosphorylation of transcription factors such as c-Jun. JNKs are activated by a variety of upstream kinases, including MAP2Ks (MKK4/SEK1 and MKK7), which are in turn activated by MAP3Ks (such as ASK1, MEKK1, MLKs, and TAK1). JNK signaling pathways have been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

Fluorides are ionic compounds that contain the fluoride anion (F-). In the context of dental and public health, fluorides are commonly used in preventive measures to help reduce tooth decay. They can be found in various forms such as sodium fluoride, stannous fluoride, and calcium fluoride. When these compounds come into contact with saliva, they release fluoride ions that can be absorbed by tooth enamel. This process helps to strengthen the enamel and make it more resistant to acid attacks caused by bacteria in the mouth, which can lead to dental caries or cavities. Fluorides can be topically applied through products like toothpaste, mouth rinses, and fluoride varnishes, or systemically ingested through fluoridated water, salt, or supplements.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 (MAPK3), also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1), is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways. It is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and survival, in response to extracellular stimuli such as growth factors, hormones, and stress.

MAPK3 is activated through a phosphorylation cascade that involves the activation of upstream MAPK kinases (MKK or MEK). Once activated, MAPK3 can phosphorylate and activate various downstream targets, including transcription factors, to regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of MAPK3 signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

Substrate specificity in the context of medical biochemistry and enzymology refers to the ability of an enzyme to selectively bind and catalyze a chemical reaction with a particular substrate (or a group of similar substrates) while discriminating against other molecules that are not substrates. This specificity arises from the three-dimensional structure of the enzyme, which has evolved to match the shape, charge distribution, and functional groups of its physiological substrate(s).

Substrate specificity is a fundamental property of enzymes that enables them to carry out highly selective chemical transformations in the complex cellular environment. The active site of an enzyme, where the catalysis takes place, has a unique conformation that complements the shape and charge distribution of its substrate(s). This ensures efficient recognition, binding, and conversion of the substrate into the desired product while minimizing unwanted side reactions with other molecules.

Substrate specificity can be categorized as:

1. Absolute specificity: An enzyme that can only act on a single substrate or a very narrow group of structurally related substrates, showing no activity towards any other molecule.
2. Group specificity: An enzyme that prefers to act on a particular functional group or class of compounds but can still accommodate minor structural variations within the substrate.
3. Broad or promiscuous specificity: An enzyme that can act on a wide range of structurally diverse substrates, albeit with varying catalytic efficiencies.

Understanding substrate specificity is crucial for elucidating enzymatic mechanisms, designing drugs that target specific enzymes or pathways, and developing biotechnological applications that rely on the controlled manipulation of enzyme activities.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Enzyme activation refers to the process by which an enzyme becomes biologically active and capable of carrying out its specific chemical or biological reaction. This is often achieved through various post-translational modifications, such as proteolytic cleavage, phosphorylation, or addition of cofactors or prosthetic groups to the enzyme molecule. These modifications can change the conformation or structure of the enzyme, exposing or creating a binding site for the substrate and allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

For example, in the case of proteolytic cleavage, an inactive precursor enzyme, known as a zymogen, is cleaved into its active form by a specific protease. This is seen in enzymes such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, which are initially produced in the pancreas as inactive precursors called trypsinogen and chymotrypsinogen, respectively. Once they reach the small intestine, they are activated by enteropeptidase, a protease that cleaves a specific peptide bond, releasing the active enzyme.

Phosphorylation is another common mechanism of enzyme activation, where a phosphate group is added to a specific serine, threonine, or tyrosine residue on the enzyme by a protein kinase. This modification can alter the conformation of the enzyme and create a binding site for the substrate, allowing the enzymatic reaction to occur.

Enzyme activation is a crucial process in many biological pathways, as it allows for precise control over when and where specific reactions take place. It also provides a mechanism for regulating enzyme activity in response to various signals and stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, or changes in the intracellular environment.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of intracellular levels of nucleoside triphosphates and diphosphates. These nucleotides are essential for various cellular processes, including DNA replication, transcription, translation, and energy metabolism.

NDK catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from a nucleoside triphosphate (most commonly ATP or GTP) to a nucleoside diphosphate (NDP), converting it into a nucleoside triphosphate (NTP). The reaction can be summarized as follows:

NTP + NDP ↔ NDP + NTP

The enzyme has several isoforms, which are differentially expressed in various tissues and cellular compartments. In humans, there are nine known isoforms of NDK, classified into three subfamilies: NM23-H (NME1), NM23-H2 (NME2), and NME4-8. These isoforms share a conserved catalytic core but differ in their regulatory domains and cellular localization.

NDK has been implicated in several physiological processes, such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. Dysregulation of NDK activity has been associated with various pathological conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and viral infections.

Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (PTKs) are a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in various cellular functions, including signal transduction, cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. They catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to the tyrosine residues of proteins, thereby modifying their activity, localization, or interaction with other molecules.

PTKs can be divided into two main categories: receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and non-receptor tyrosine kinases (NRTKs). RTKs are transmembrane proteins that become activated upon binding to specific ligands, such as growth factors or hormones. NRTKs, on the other hand, are intracellular enzymes that can be activated by various signals, including receptor-mediated signaling and intracellular messengers.

Dysregulation of PTK activity has been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, and inflammatory disorders. Therefore, PTKs are important targets for drug development and therapy.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate (GIP) is not a medical term itself, but it is a biochemical compound that plays a crucial role in the body's signaling pathways. It is a vital intracellular second messenger involved in various physiological processes, including vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation.

To be more specific, GIP is a nucleotide that activates a family of enzymes called guanylyl cyclases (GCs). Once activated, these enzymes convert guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), another essential second messenger. The increased levels of cGMP then mediate the relaxation of smooth muscle and vasodilation by activating protein kinases and ion channels, among other mechanisms.

In summary, Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate (GIP) is a biochemical compound that plays a critical role in intracellular signaling pathways, leading to vasodilation and smooth muscle relaxation.

CDC2 protein kinase, also known as cell division cycle 2 or CDK1, is a type of enzyme that plays a crucial role in the regulation of the cell cycle. The cell cycle is the series of events that cells undergo as they grow, replicate their DNA, and divide into two daughter cells.

CDC2 protein kinase is a member of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that are activated by binding to regulatory subunits called cyclins. CDC2 protein kinase is primarily associated with the regulation of the G2 phase and the entry into mitosis, the stage of the cell cycle where nuclear and cytoplasmic division occur.

CDC2 protein kinase functions by phosphorylating various target proteins, which alters their activity and contributes to the coordination of the different events that occur during the cell cycle. The activity of CDC2 protein kinase is tightly regulated through a variety of mechanisms, including phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, as well as the binding and destruction of cyclin subunits.

Dysregulation of CDC2 protein kinase has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, where uncontrolled cell division can lead to the formation of tumors. Therefore, understanding the regulation and function of CDC2 protein kinase is an important area of research in molecular biology and medicine.

Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in regulating the cell cycle, transcription, and other cellular processes. They are activated by binding to cyclin proteins, which accumulate and degrade at specific stages of the cell cycle. The activation of CDKs leads to phosphorylation of various downstream target proteins, resulting in the promotion or inhibition of different cell cycle events. Dysregulation of CDKs has been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer, and they are considered important targets for drug development.

MAP (Mitogen-Activated Protein) Kinase Kinase Kinases (MAP3K or MAPKKK) are a group of protein kinases that play a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways, which regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis. They are called "kinases" because they catalyze the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to specific serine or threonine residues on their target proteins.

MAP3Ks function upstream of MAP Kinase Kinases (MKKs or MAP2K) and MAP Kinases (MPKs or MAPK) in the MAP kinase cascade. Upon activation by various extracellular signals, such as growth factors, cytokines, stress, and hormones, MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which subsequently phosphorylate and activate MPKs. Activated MPKs then regulate the activity of downstream transcription factors and other target proteins to elicit appropriate cellular responses.

There are several subfamilies of MAP3Ks, including ASK, DLK, TAK, MEKK, MLK, and ZAK, among others. Each subfamily has distinct structural features and functions in different signaling pathways. Dysregulation of MAP kinase cascades, including MAP3Ks, has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cancer, inflammation, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Molecular cloning is a laboratory technique used to create multiple copies of a specific DNA sequence. This process involves several steps:

1. Isolation: The first step in molecular cloning is to isolate the DNA sequence of interest from the rest of the genomic DNA. This can be done using various methods such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, or hybridization.
2. Vector construction: Once the DNA sequence of interest has been isolated, it must be inserted into a vector, which is a small circular DNA molecule that can replicate independently in a host cell. Common vectors used in molecular cloning include plasmids and phages.
3. Transformation: The constructed vector is then introduced into a host cell, usually a bacterial or yeast cell, through a process called transformation. This can be done using various methods such as electroporation or chemical transformation.
4. Selection: After transformation, the host cells are grown in selective media that allow only those cells containing the vector to grow. This ensures that the DNA sequence of interest has been successfully cloned into the vector.
5. Amplification: Once the host cells have been selected, they can be grown in large quantities to amplify the number of copies of the cloned DNA sequence.

Molecular cloning is a powerful tool in molecular biology and has numerous applications, including the production of recombinant proteins, gene therapy, functional analysis of genes, and genetic engineering.

Signal transduction is the process by which a cell converts an extracellular signal, such as a hormone or neurotransmitter, into an intracellular response. This involves a series of molecular events that transmit the signal from the cell surface to the interior of the cell, ultimately resulting in changes in gene expression, protein activity, or metabolism.

The process typically begins with the binding of the extracellular signal to a receptor located on the cell membrane. This binding event activates the receptor, which then triggers a cascade of intracellular signaling molecules, such as second messengers, protein kinases, and ion channels. These molecules amplify and propagate the signal, ultimately leading to the activation or inhibition of specific cellular responses.

Signal transduction pathways are highly regulated and can be modulated by various factors, including other signaling molecules, post-translational modifications, and feedback mechanisms. Dysregulation of these pathways has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

eIF-2 kinase is a type of protein kinase that phosphorylates the alpha subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor-2 (eIF-2) at serine 51. This phosphorylation event inhibits the guanine nucleotide exchange factor eIF-2B, thereby preventing the recycling of eIF-2 and reducing global protein synthesis.

There are four main subtypes of eIF-2 kinases:

1. HRI (heme-regulated inhibitor) - responds to heme deficiency and oxidative stress
2. PERK (PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase) - activated by ER stress and misfolded proteins in the ER
3. GCN2 (general control non-derepressible 2) - responds to amino acid starvation
4. PKR (double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase) - activated by double-stranded RNA during viral infections

These eIF-2 kinases play crucial roles in regulating cellular responses to various stress conditions, such as the integrated stress response (ISR), which helps maintain cellular homeostasis and promote survival under adverse conditions.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Nucleotides are the basic structural units of nucleic acids, such as DNA and RNA. They consist of a nitrogenous base (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil), a pentose sugar (ribose in RNA and deoxyribose in DNA) and one to three phosphate groups. Nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another, forming long chains known as polynucleotides. The sequence of these nucleotides determines the genetic information carried in DNA and RNA, which is essential for the functioning, reproduction and survival of all living organisms.

Casein Kinase II (CK2) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is widely expressed in eukaryotic cells and is involved in the regulation of various cellular processes. It is a heterotetrameric enzyme, consisting of two catalytic subunits (alpha and alpha') and two regulatory subunits (beta).

CK2 phosphorylates a wide range of substrates, including transcription factors, signaling proteins, and other kinases. It is known to play roles in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, DNA damage response, and protein stability, among others. CK2 activity is often found to be elevated in various types of cancer, making it a potential target for cancer therapy.

Oxygen isotopes are different forms or varieties of the element oxygen that have the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei, which is 8, but a different number of neutrons. The most common oxygen isotopes are oxygen-16 (^{16}O), which contains 8 protons and 8 neutrons, and oxygen-18 (^{18}O), which contains 8 protons and 10 neutrons.

The ratio of these oxygen isotopes can vary in different substances, such as water molecules, and can provide valuable information about the origins and history of those substances. For example, scientists can use the ratio of oxygen-18 to oxygen-16 in ancient ice cores or fossilized bones to learn about past climate conditions or the diets of ancient organisms.

In medical contexts, oxygen isotopes may be used in diagnostic tests or treatments, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where a radioactive isotope of oxygen (such as oxygen-15) is introduced into the body and emits positrons that can be detected by specialized equipment to create detailed images of internal structures.

Casein kinases are a family of protein kinases that play important roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, cell cycle regulation, and DNA damage repair. These enzymes phosphorylate serine and threonine residues on their target proteins by transferring a phosphate group from ATP to the hydroxyl side chain of these amino acids.

There are several isoforms of casein kinases, including Casein Kinase 1 (CK1) and Casein Kinase 2 (CK2), which differ in their structure, substrate specificity, and cellular functions. CK1 is involved in various signaling pathways, such as the Wnt signaling pathway, and regulates processes such as gene transcription, DNA repair, and circadian rhythm. CK2, on the other hand, is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in many cellular processes, including cell division, apoptosis, and transcriptional regulation.

Dysregulation of casein kinases has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular disease. Therefore, these enzymes are considered important targets for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases (RSKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play a crucial role in the regulation of cell growth, proliferation, and survival. They are so named because they phosphorylate and regulate the function of the ribosomal protein S6, which is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit involved in protein synthesis.

RSKs are activated by various signals, including growth factors, hormones, and mitogens, through a cascade of phosphorylation events involving several upstream kinases such as MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). Once activated, RSKs phosphorylate a wide range of downstream targets, including transcription factors, regulators of translation, and cytoskeletal proteins, thereby modulating their activities and functions.

There are four isoforms of RSKs in humans, namely RSK1, RSK2, RSK3, and RSK4, which share a common structural organization and functional domains, including an N-terminal kinase domain, a C-terminal kinase domain, and a linker region that contains several regulatory motifs. Dysregulation of RSKs has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and diabetes, making them attractive targets for therapeutic intervention.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Cytosol refers to the liquid portion of the cytoplasm found within a eukaryotic cell, excluding the organelles and structures suspended in it. It is the site of various metabolic activities and contains a variety of ions, small molecules, and enzymes. The cytosol is where many biochemical reactions take place, including glycolysis, protein synthesis, and the regulation of cellular pH. It is also where some organelles, such as ribosomes and vesicles, are located. In contrast to the cytosol, the term "cytoplasm" refers to the entire contents of a cell, including both the cytosol and the organelles suspended within it.

Colforsin is a drug that belongs to a class of medications called phosphodiesterase inhibitors. It works by increasing the levels of a chemical called cyclic AMP (cyclic adenosine monophosphate) in the body, which helps to relax and widen blood vessels.

Colforsin is not approved for use in humans in many countries, including the United States. However, it has been used in research settings to study its potential effects on heart function and other physiological processes. In animals, colforsin has been shown to have positive inotropic (contractility-enhancing) and lusitropic (relaxation-enhancing) effects on the heart, making it a potential therapeutic option for heart failure and other cardiovascular conditions.

It is important to note that while colforsin has shown promise in preclinical studies, more research is needed to establish its safety and efficacy in humans. Therefore, it should only be used under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional and in the context of a clinical trial or research study.

Magnesium is an essential mineral that plays a crucial role in various biological processes in the human body. It is the fourth most abundant cation in the body and is involved in over 300 enzymatic reactions, including protein synthesis, muscle and nerve function, blood glucose control, and blood pressure regulation. Magnesium also contributes to the structural development of bones and teeth.

In medical terms, magnesium deficiency can lead to several health issues, such as muscle cramps, weakness, heart arrhythmias, and seizures. On the other hand, excessive magnesium levels can cause symptoms like diarrhea, nausea, and muscle weakness. Magnesium supplements or magnesium-rich foods are often recommended to maintain optimal magnesium levels in the body.

Some common dietary sources of magnesium include leafy green vegetables, nuts, seeds, legumes, whole grains, and dairy products. Magnesium is also available in various forms as a dietary supplement, including magnesium oxide, magnesium citrate, magnesium chloride, and magnesium glycinate.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

MAPKKK1 or Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinase Kinase 1 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that belongs to the MAP3K family. It plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways, particularly in the MAPK/ERK cascade, which is involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and survival.

MAPKKK1 activates MAPKKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases) through phosphorylation of specific serine and threonine residues. In turn, activated MAPKKs phosphorylate and activate MAPKs (Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases), which then regulate the activity of various transcription factors and other downstream targets to elicit appropriate cellular responses.

Mutations in MAPKKK1 have been implicated in several human diseases, including cancer and developmental disorders. Therefore, understanding its function and regulation is essential for developing novel therapeutic strategies to treat these conditions.

Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide type I receptor (PAC1-R) is a type of G protein-coupled receptor that binds to and is activated by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). PAC1-R is widely expressed in various tissues, including the central nervous system, endocrine organs, and the cardiovascular system. Activation of PAC1-R leads to the activation of adenylate cyclase and an increase in intracellular cAMP levels, which in turn activates downstream signaling pathways involved in a variety of physiological processes such as neurotransmission, hormone secretion, and vasodilation. Abnormalities in PAC1-R function have been implicated in several diseases, including migraine, depression, and certain types of cancer.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

Guanosine triphosphate (GTP) is a nucleotide that plays a crucial role in various cellular processes, such as protein synthesis, signal transduction, and regulation of enzymatic activities. It serves as an energy currency, similar to adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and undergoes hydrolysis to guanosine diphosphate (GDP) or guanosine monophosphate (GMP) to release energy required for these processes. GTP is also a precursor for the synthesis of other essential molecules, including RNA and certain signaling proteins. Additionally, it acts as a molecular switch in many intracellular signaling pathways by binding and activating specific GTPase proteins.

Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases (RTKs) are a type of transmembrane receptors found on the cell surface that play a crucial role in signal transduction and regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, metabolism, and survival. They are called "tyrosine kinases" because they possess an intrinsic enzymatic activity that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to tyrosine residues on target proteins, thereby modulating their function.

RTKs are composed of three main domains: an extracellular domain that binds to specific ligands (growth factors, hormones, or cytokines), a transmembrane domain that spans the cell membrane, and an intracellular domain with tyrosine kinase activity. Upon ligand binding, RTKs undergo conformational changes that lead to their dimerization or oligomerization, which in turn activates their tyrosine kinase activity. Activated RTKs then phosphorylate specific tyrosine residues on downstream signaling proteins, initiating a cascade of intracellular signaling events that ultimately result in the appropriate cellular response.

Dysregulation of RTK signaling has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and developmental disorders. As such, RTKs are important targets for therapeutic intervention in these conditions.

Thymidine kinase (TK) is an enzyme that plays a crucial role in the synthesis of thymidine triphosphate (dTMP), a nucleotide required for DNA replication and repair. It catalyzes the phosphorylation of thymidine to thymidine monophosphate (dTMP) by transferring a phosphate group from adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

There are two major isoforms of thymidine kinase in humans: TK1 and TK2. TK1 is primarily found in the cytoplasm of proliferating cells, such as those involved in the cell cycle, while TK2 is located mainly in the mitochondria and is responsible for maintaining the dNTP pool required for mtDNA replication and repair.

Thymidine kinase activity has been used as a marker for cell proliferation, particularly in cancer cells, which often exhibit elevated levels of TK1 due to their high turnover rates. Additionally, measuring TK1 levels can help monitor the effectiveness of certain anticancer therapies that target DNA replication.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Extracellular signal-regulated mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERKs or Extracellular signal-regulated kinases) are a subfamily of the MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that regulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival in response to extracellular signals.

ERKs are activated by a cascade of phosphorylation events initiated by the binding of growth factors, hormones, or other extracellular molecules to their respective receptors. This activation results in the formation of a complex signaling pathway that involves the sequential activation of several protein kinases, including Ras, Raf, MEK (MAPK/ERK kinase), and ERK.

Once activated, ERKs translocate to the nucleus where they phosphorylate and activate various transcription factors, leading to changes in gene expression that ultimately result in the appropriate cellular response. Dysregulation of the ERK signaling pathway has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

MAP Kinase Kinase 4 (MAP2K4 or MKK4) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in intracellular signal transduction pathways, particularly the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades. These cascades are involved in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, survival, and apoptosis in response to extracellular stimuli like cytokines, growth factors, and stress signals.

MAP2K4 specifically activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway by phosphorylating and activating JNK proteins. The activation of JNK leads to the phosphorylation and regulation of various transcription factors, ultimately influencing gene expression and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAP2K4 has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and inflammatory disorders.

Electrophoresis, starch gel is a type of electrophoretic technique used in laboratory settings for the separation and analysis of large biomolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. In this method, a gel made from cooked starch is used as the supporting matrix for the molecules being separated.

The sample containing the mixture of biomolecules is loaded onto the gel and an electric field is applied, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode. The starch gel acts as a molecular sieve, with smaller molecules moving more quickly through the gel than larger ones. This results in the separation of the mixture into individual components based on their size and charge.

Once the separation is complete, the gel can be stained to visualize the separated bands. Different staining techniques are used depending on the type of biomolecule being analyzed. For example, proteins can be stained with dyes such as Coomassie Brilliant Blue or silver nitrate, while nucleic acids can be stained with dyes such as ethidium bromide.

Starch gel electrophoresis is a relatively simple and inexpensive technique that has been widely used in molecular biology research and diagnostic applications. However, it has largely been replaced by other electrophoretic techniques, such as polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE), which offer higher resolution and can be automated for high-throughput analysis.

Enzyme stability refers to the ability of an enzyme to maintain its structure and function under various environmental conditions, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of denaturants or inhibitors. A stable enzyme retains its activity and conformation over time and across a range of conditions, making it more suitable for industrial and therapeutic applications.

Enzymes can be stabilized through various methods, including chemical modification, immobilization, and protein engineering. Understanding the factors that affect enzyme stability is crucial for optimizing their use in biotechnology, medicine, and research.

Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases (MAPKs) are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, transformation, and apoptosis, in response to diverse stimuli such as mitogens, growth factors, hormones, cytokines, and environmental stresses. They are highly conserved across eukaryotes and consist of a three-tiered kinase module composed of MAPK kinase kinases (MAP3Ks), MAPK kinases (MKKs or MAP2Ks), and MAPKs.

Activation of MAPKs occurs through a sequential phosphorylation and activation cascade, where MAP3Ks phosphorylate and activate MKKs, which in turn phosphorylate and activate MAPKs at specific residues (Thr-X-Tyr or Ser-Pro motifs). Once activated, MAPKs can further phosphorylate and regulate various downstream targets, including transcription factors and other protein kinases.

There are four major groups of MAPKs in mammals: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2), c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 MAPKs (p38α/β/γ/δ), and ERK5/BMK1. Each group of MAPKs has distinct upstream activators, downstream targets, and cellular functions, allowing for a high degree of specificity in signal transduction and cellular responses. Dysregulation of MAPK signaling pathways has been implicated in various human diseases, including cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and inflammatory diseases.

1-Phosphatidylinositol 4-Kinase (PI4K) is a type of enzyme that belongs to the family of kinases, which are enzymes that transfer phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules to specific target proteins or lipids in the cell. PI4K specifically phosphorylates the 4th position on the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol (PI), a type of phospholipid found in the cell membrane, converting it to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P).

PI4K has several isoforms, including PI4K alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, which are located in different cellular compartments and play distinct roles. For example, PI4K alpha and beta are primarily involved in vesicle trafficking and Golgi function, while PI4K gamma and delta are associated with the plasma membrane and regulate ion channels and other signaling pathways.

PI4P, the product of PI4K activity, is an important signaling molecule that regulates various cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeleton organization, and protein sorting. Dysregulation of PI4K and its downstream pathways has been implicated in several human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and viral infection.

Isoproterenol is a medication that belongs to a class of drugs called beta-adrenergic agonists. Medically, it is defined as a synthetic catecholamine with both alpha and beta adrenergic receptor stimulating properties. It is primarily used as a bronchodilator to treat conditions such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by relaxing the smooth muscles in the airways, thereby improving breathing.

Isoproterenol can also be used in the treatment of bradycardia (abnormally slow heart rate), cardiac arrest, and heart blocks by increasing the heart rate and contractility. However, due to its non-selective beta-agonist activity, it may cause various side effects such as tremors, palpitations, and increased blood pressure. Its use is now limited due to the availability of more selective and safer medications.

CDC2 and CDC28 are members of the Serine/Threonine protein kinase family, which play crucial roles in the regulation of the cell cycle. These kinases were originally identified in yeast (CDC28) and humans (CDC2), but they are highly conserved across eukaryotes.

CDC2-CDC28 Kinases function as a part of larger complexes, often associated with cyclins, to control different phases of the cell cycle by phosphorylating specific substrates at key regulatory points. The activity of CDC2-CDC28 Kinases is tightly regulated through various mechanisms, including phosphorylation, dephosphorylation, and protein binding interactions.

During the G2 phase of the cell cycle, CDC2-CDC28 Kinases are inactivated by phosphorylation at specific residues (Tyr15 and Thr14). As the cell approaches mitosis, a family of phosphatases called Cdc25 removes these inhibitory phosphates, leading to activation of the kinase. Activated CDC2-CDC28 Kinases then initiate mitotic processes such as chromosome condensation and nuclear envelope breakdown.

In summary, CDC2-CDC28 Kinases are essential regulators of the eukaryotic cell cycle, controlling various aspects of cell division through phosphorylation of specific substrates. Their activity is tightly regulated to ensure proper progression through the cell cycle and prevent uncontrolled cell growth, which can lead to diseases such as cancer.

Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a crucial role in the regulation of several cellular processes, including glycogen metabolism, cell signaling, gene transcription, and apoptosis. It was initially discovered as a key enzyme involved in glycogen metabolism due to its ability to phosphorylate and inhibit glycogen synthase, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of glycogen from glucose.

GSK-3 exists in two isoforms, GSK-3α and GSK-3β, which share a high degree of sequence similarity and are widely expressed in various tissues. Both isoforms are constitutively active under normal conditions and are regulated through inhibitory phosphorylation by several upstream signaling pathways, such as insulin, Wnt, and Hedgehog signaling.

Dysregulation of GSK-3 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including diabetes, neurodegenerative disorders, and cancer. In recent years, GSK-3 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the development of novel drugs to treat these conditions.

Energy metabolism is the process by which living organisms produce and consume energy to maintain life. It involves a series of chemical reactions that convert nutrients from food, such as carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, into energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

The process of energy metabolism can be divided into two main categories: catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism is the breakdown of nutrients to release energy, while anabolism is the synthesis of complex molecules from simpler ones using energy.

There are three main stages of energy metabolism: glycolysis, the citric acid cycle (also known as the Krebs cycle), and oxidative phosphorylation. Glycolysis occurs in the cytoplasm of the cell and involves the breakdown of glucose into pyruvate, producing a small amount of ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). The citric acid cycle takes place in the mitochondria and involves the further breakdown of pyruvate to produce more ATP, NADH, and carbon dioxide. Oxidative phosphorylation is the final stage of energy metabolism and occurs in the inner mitochondrial membrane. It involves the transfer of electrons from NADH and other electron carriers to oxygen, which generates a proton gradient across the membrane. This gradient drives the synthesis of ATP, producing the majority of the cell's energy.

Overall, energy metabolism is a complex and essential process that allows organisms to grow, reproduce, and maintain their bodily functions. Disruptions in energy metabolism can lead to various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, and neurodegenerative disorders.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

I-kappa B kinase (IKK) is a protein complex that plays a crucial role in the activation of NF-kB (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells), a transcription factor involved in the regulation of immune response, inflammation, cell survival, and proliferation.

The IKK complex is composed of two catalytic subunits, IKKα and IKKβ, and a regulatory subunit, IKKγ (also known as NEMO). Upon stimulation by various signals such as cytokines, pathogens, or stress, the IKK complex becomes activated and phosphorylates I-kappa B (IkB), an inhibitor protein that keeps NF-kB in an inactive state in the cytoplasm.

Once IkB is phosphorylated by the IKK complex, it undergoes ubiquitination and degradation, leading to the release and nuclear translocation of NF-kB, where it can bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression. Dysregulation of IKK activity has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including chronic inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and cancer.

Aurora kinases are a family of serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in the regulation of cell division. There are three members of the Aurora kinase family, designated as Aurora A, Aurora B, and Aurora C. These kinases are involved in the proper separation of chromosomes during mitosis and meiosis, and their dysregulation has been implicated in various types of cancer.

Aurora A is primarily located at the centrosomes and spindle poles during cell division, where it regulates centrosome maturation, bipolar spindle formation, and chromosome segregation. Aurora B, on the other hand, is a component of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) that localizes to the centromeres during prophase and moves to the spindle midzone during anaphase. It plays essential roles in kinetochore-microtubule attachment, chromosome alignment, and cytokinesis. Aurora C is most similar to Aurora B and appears to have overlapping functions with it, although its specific roles are less well understood.

Dysregulation of Aurora kinases has been associated with various types of cancer, including breast, ovarian, colon, and lung cancers. Overexpression or amplification of Aurora A is observed in many cancers, leading to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Inhibition of Aurora kinases has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy for cancer treatment, with several small molecule inhibitors currently under investigation in clinical trials.

Rho-associated kinases (ROCKs) are serine/threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including actin cytoskeleton organization, cell migration, and gene expression. They are named after their association with the small GTPase RhoA, which activates them upon binding.

ROCKs exist as two isoforms, ROCK1 and ROCK2, which share a high degree of sequence homology and have similar functions. They contain several functional domains, including a kinase domain, a coiled-coil region that mediates protein-protein interactions, and a Rho-binding domain (RBD) that binds to active RhoA.

Once activated by RhoA, ROCKs phosphorylate a variety of downstream targets, including myosin light chain (MLC), LIM kinase (LIMK), and moesin, leading to the regulation of actomyosin contractility, stress fiber formation, and focal adhesion turnover. Dysregulation of ROCK signaling has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, neurological disorders, and fibrosis. Therefore, ROCKs have emerged as promising therapeutic targets for the treatment of these diseases.

Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a type of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that carries genetic information copied from DNA in the form of a series of three-base code "words," each of which specifies a particular amino acid. This information is used by the cell's machinery to construct proteins, a process known as translation. After being transcribed from DNA, mRNA travels out of the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm where protein synthesis occurs. Once the protein has been synthesized, the mRNA may be degraded and recycled. Post-transcriptional modifications can also occur to mRNA, such as alternative splicing and addition of a 5' cap and a poly(A) tail, which can affect its stability, localization, and translation efficiency.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a molecular biology technique used to introduce specific and targeted changes to a specific DNA sequence. This process involves creating a new variant of a gene or a specific region of interest within a DNA molecule by introducing a planned, deliberate change, or mutation, at a predetermined site within the DNA sequence.

The methodology typically involves the use of molecular tools such as PCR (polymerase chain reaction), restriction enzymes, and/or ligases to introduce the desired mutation(s) into a plasmid or other vector containing the target DNA sequence. The resulting modified DNA molecule can then be used to transform host cells, allowing for the production of large quantities of the mutated gene or protein for further study.

Site-directed mutagenesis is a valuable tool in basic research, drug discovery, and biotechnology applications where specific changes to a DNA sequence are required to understand gene function, investigate protein structure/function relationships, or engineer novel biological properties into existing genes or proteins.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Protein Kinase C-delta (PKC-δ) is a specific isoform of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular signaling pathways. PKC-δ is involved in several cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and motility. It is activated by second messengers like diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+), and its activation leads to the phosphorylation of specific target proteins, thereby modulating their functions. Aberrant regulation of PKC-δ has been implicated in various diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Protein Kinase C-alpha (PKC-α) is a specific isoform of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family, which are serine/threonine protein kinases that play crucial roles in various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. PKC-α is activated by diacylglycerol (DAG) and calcium ions (Ca2+). It is involved in signal transduction pathways related to cell growth, differentiation, and oncogenic transformation. Mutations or dysregulation of PKC-alpha have been implicated in several diseases including cancer, diabetes, and neurological disorders.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

... , subfamily InterPro: IPR006259 UMP-CMP kinase InterPro: IPR006266 Adenylate kinase, isozyme 1 InterPro: ... In mutated Escherichia coli that had a disrupted nucleoside diphosphate kinase, adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic ... In mutated Escherichia coli that had a disrupted nucleoside diphosphate kinase, adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic ... Lu Q, Inouye M (June 1996). "Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism". ...
In enzymology, a (deoxy)adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.11) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + dAMP ⇌ {\ ... Griffith TJ, Helleiner CW (1965). "The partial purification of deoxynucleoside monophosphate kinases from L cells". Biochim. ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AK1 gene. This gene encodes an adenylate kinase enzyme ... "Entrez Gene: Adenylate kinase 1". Retrieved 2018-10-13. Corrons JL, Garcia E, Tusell JJ, Varughese KI, West C, Beutler E (July ... Fulvia GB, Antonio P, Anna N, Patrizia S, Ada A, Egidio B, Andrea M (December 2011). "Adenylate kinase locus 1 polymorphism and ... "Red cell adenylate kinase deficiency: molecular study of 3 new mutations (118G>A, 190G>A, and GAC deletion) associated with ...
In enzymology, a nucleoside-triphosphate-adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.10) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ... Other names in common use include guanosine triphosphate-adenylate kinase, nucleoside triphosphate-adenosine monophosphate ... and isozyme 3 of adenylate kinase. This enzyme participates in pyrimidine metabolism. As of late 2007, two structures have been ...
"Ancient divergence of long and short isoforms of adenylate kinase: molecular evolution of the nucleoside monophosphate kinase ... Byeon L, Shi Z, Tsai MD (March 1995). "Mechanism of adenylate kinase. The "essential lysine" helps to orient the phosphates and ... Dreusicke D, Schulz GE (November 1986). "The glycine-rich loop of adenylate kinase forms a giant anion hole". FEBS Letters. 208 ... Müller CW, Schulz GE (March 1992). "Structure of the complex between adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli and the inhibitor ...
Adenylate kinase 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AK3 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is a GTP:ATP ... "Entrez Gene: Adenylate kinase 3". Retrieved 2017-05-19. PDBe-KB provides an overview of all the structure information available ...
"Entrez Gene: AK2 adenylate kinase 2". Bruns GA, Regina VM (1977). "Adenylate kinase 2, a mitochondrial enzyme". Biochem. Genet ... 1998). "Cloning and expression of human adenylate kinase 2 isozymes: differential expression of adenylate kinase 1 and 2 in ... Adenylate kinase 2 is an enzyme that is encoded in humans by the AK2 gene. The AK2 protein is found in the intermembrane space ... Three isozymes of adenylate kinase, namely 1, 2, and 3, have been identified in vertebrates; this gene encodes isozyme 2. ...
AMP is produced after strenuous muscle contraction when the ATP reservoir is low (ADP > ATP) by the adenylate kinase (myokinase ... Without this enzyme, the excessive AMP buildup is initially due to the adenylate kinase (myokinase) reaction which occurs after ... During strenuous exercise, AMP is created through the use of the adenylate kinase (myokinase) reaction after the phosphagen ... catalyzed by adenylate kinase/myokinase when CP is depleted, ATP is again used for muscle contraction) Muscle at rest: ATP + ...
SLC40A1 Hemolytic anemia due to adenylate kinase deficiency; 612631; AK1 Hemolytic anemia due to gamma-glutamylcysteine ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Nonsmall cell lung cancer, somatic; 211980; IRF1 Nonsmall cell lung ... response to tyrosine kinase inhibitor in; 211980; EGFR Adenocarcinoma of lung, somatic; 211980; BRAF Adenocarcinoma of lung, ... GALNT3 Tyrosine kinase 2 deficiency; 611521; TYK2 Tyrosinemia type II; 277660; TAT Tyrosinemia type III; 276710; HPD Ullrich ...
"Identification of a novel adenylate kinase system in the brain: cloning of the fourth adenylate kinase". Brain Res. Mol. Brain ... Adenylate kinase isoenzyme 4, mitochondrial is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the AK4 gene. This gene encodes a member ... of the adenylate kinase family of enzymes. The encoded protein is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. Adenylate kinases ... Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. Expression of these isozymes is tissue-specific and ...
KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 53 (7): 581-9. doi:10.1002/jobm.201200045 ...
Kaur H, Lakatos-Karoly A, Vogel R, Nöll A, Tampé R, Glaubitz C (2016). "Coupled ATPase-adenylate kinase activity in ABC ... on real-time 31P-MAS-NMR they found that the homodimeric lipid A flippase MsbA is able to catalyze a reverse adenylate kinase- ... The kinase Tbk1 was identified as important for mediating optineurin based xenophagy to remove the bacteria from the infected ... "The leukemogenic AF4-MLL fusion protein causes P-TEFb kinase activation and altered epigenetic signatures". Leukemia. 25 (1): ...
KP6107 by screening based on adenylate kinase assay". Journal of Basic Microbiology. 53 (7): 581-9. doi:10.1002/jobm.201200045 ...
Rose, I.A. (1968). "State of magnesium in cells as estimated from adenylate kinase equilibrium". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 61 ... and studied it on the basis of the equilibrium of the reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase, a complicated question, because ... Rose, I.A. (1970). "Stereochemistry of pyruvate kinase, pyruvate carboxylase, and malate enzyme reactions". J. Biol. Chem. 245 ... Rose, Irwin A. (1955). "Acetate kinase of bacteria (acetokinase)". Methods Enzymol. 1: 591-595. doi:10.1016/0076-6879(55)01102- ...
Townley R, Shapiro L (March 2007). "Crystal structures of the adenylate sensor from fission yeast AMP-activated protein kinase ... These standalone CBS domain proteins might form complexes upon binding to other proteins such as kinases to which they interact ... voltage gated chloride channels and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). CBS domains regulate the activity of associated ... "Structural basis for AMP binding to mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase". Nature. 449 (7161): 496-500. doi:10.1038/ ...
Vieille C; Krishnamurthy H; Hyun HH; Savchenko A; Yan H; Zeikus JG (June 2003). "Thermotoga neapolitana adenylate kinase is ...
... has been found to interact with Adenylate Kinase 2, Artemin, and Importin 13. The human protein has two isoforms and no ...
Similarly, nucleoside-monophosphate kinase carries out the phosphorylation of nucleoside-monophosphates. Adenylate kinase is a ... AMP and GMP can then be converted into ATP and GTP, respectively, by kinases that add additional phosphates. ATP stimulates ... is catalyzed by nucleoside diphosphate kinase, which uses ATP as the phosphate donor. ... specific nucleoside-monophosphate kinase that functions only on adenosine-monophosphate. Carbohydrate metabolism DNA Nucleic ...
... is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mitochondrial adenylate kinase 2". Nature Genetics. 41 (1): 101-105. doi:10.1038/ng ...
The quick energy sources consist of the phosphocreatine (PCr) system, fast glycolysis, and adenylate kinase. All of these ... but the most readily depleted of the above sources is the PCr system which utilizes the enzyme creatine kinase. This enzyme ... resource is short lasting because oxygen is required for the resynthesis of phosphocreatine via mitochondrial creatine kinase. ...
Gao, Yongxiang (November 2013). "Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of MJ0458, an adenylate kinase from ...
... is produced from DNA by the action of nuclease P1, adenylate kinase, and pyruvate kinase. High ... "Restoration of adenosine deaminase-deficient human thymocyte development in vitro by inhibition of deoxynucleoside kinases". ...
"The crystal structure of phosphoribulokinase from Rhodobacter sphaeroides reveals a fold similar to that of adenylate kinase". ... 5-phosphoribulose kinase, ribulose phosphate kinase, PKK, PRuK, and PRK. Berg, Jeremy M.; Tymoczko, John L.; Gatto, Jr., ... The RsPRK subunit exhibits a protein folding analogous to the folding of nucleotide monophosphate (NMP) kinases. Mutagenesis ... Miziorko HM, Eckstein F (November 1984). "The stereochemical course of the ribulose-5-phosphate kinase-catalyzed reaction". The ...
... mitochondrial creatine kinase and adenylate translocator display properties of the permeability transition pore. Implication ... for regulation of permeability transition by the kinases". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes. 1368 (1): 7-18. ...
Superoxide dismutase, malate dehydrogenase (decarboxylating), ferredoxin, adenylate kinase and NADH:ferredoxin oxido-reductase ...
1989). "Regional assignment of the loci for adenylate kinase to 9q32 and for alpha 1-acid glycoprotein to 9q31-q32. A locus for ...
The three adenylates are related by the reaction catalysed by adenylate kinase: ATP + AMP ↽ − − ⇀ 2 ADP {\displaystyle {\ce { ... Atkinson, D. E. (1968). "The energy charge of the adenylate pool as a regulatory parameter: Interaction with feedback modifiers ... but the case of the adenylates is more complicated, as there are three components to be considered, AMP, ADP and ATP. ... as a way to rationalize the dependence of metabolic processes on the proportions of the adenylates. For pairs of metabolites, ...
"Characterization of human adenylate kinase 3 (AK3) cDNA and mapping of the AK3 pseudogene to an intron of the NF1 gene". ...
Ammonia levels may rise given ammonia is a by-product of the adenylate kinase pathway, an alternative pathway for ATP ... adenylate kinase) reaction, which also runs when the ATP reservoir is low. The myokinase reaction is one of three reactions in ... The enzyme phosphorylase kinase plays a role in phosphorylating glycogen phosphorylase to activate it and another enzyme, ... This is due to the lack of normal pH fall during exercise, which impairs the creatine kinase equilibrium and exaggerates the ...
Since the adenylate kinase maintains two ADP molecules in equilibrium with one ATP ( 2 ADP ↽ − − ⇀ ATP + AMP {\displaystyle {\ ... Chapman AG, Atkinson DE (December 1973). "Stabilization of adenylate energy charge by the adenylate deaminase reaction". The ... and by adenylate kinase, an enzyme that maintains the three adenine nucleotides in equilibrium ( ATP + AMP ↽ − − ⇀ 2 ADP {\ ... The adenylate energy charge is an index used to measure the energy status of biological cells. ATP or Mg-ATP is the principal ...
Adenylate kinase, subfamily InterPro: IPR006259 UMP-CMP kinase InterPro: IPR006266 Adenylate kinase, isozyme 1 InterPro: ... In mutated Escherichia coli that had a disrupted nucleoside diphosphate kinase, adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic ... In mutated Escherichia coli that had a disrupted nucleoside diphosphate kinase, adenylate kinase performed dual enzymatic ... Lu Q, Inouye M (June 1996). "Adenylate kinase complements nucleoside diphosphate kinase deficiency in nucleotide metabolism". ...
Gene Ontology Term: adenylate kinase activity. GO ID. GO:0004017 Aspect. Molecular Function. Description. Catalysis of the ... AMP-kinase activity, 5-AMP-kinase activity, ATP:AMP phosphotransferase activity, adenylic kinase activity, adenylokinase ... adenylic kinase activity, adenylokinase activity, ATP:AMP phosphotransferase activity, myokinase activity, 5- ...
Ausgesuchte Qualitäts-Hersteller für Adenylate Kinase 5 Antikörper. Hier bestellen. ... Monoklonale und polyklonale Adenylate Kinase 5 Antikörper für viele Methoden. ... Aliase für Adenylate Kinase 5 Antikörper. adenylate kinase 5 (AK5) Antikörper. adenylate kinase 5 (Ak5) Antikörper. adenylate ... Adenylate Kinase 5 Antikörper. (Adenylate Kinase 5 (AK5)). This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family, which is ...
Protein target information for Adenylate kinase (Streptomyces lividans). Find diseases associated with this biological target ...
Test ID AK1 Adenylate Kinase Enzyme Activity, Blood Specimen Required. Collection Container/Tube: ...
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GP22411 AK1 Human Adenylate Kinase 1 Human Recombinant * GP22413 AK1 Mouse Adenylate Kinase 1 Mouse Recombinant ... GP22410 ADK Mouse Adenosine Kinase Mouse Recombinant * ... Adenylate Kinase 2 Mouse Recombinant * GP22415 AK3L1 Human 腺苷酸激 ... GP22412 AK2 Human Adenylate Kinase 2 Human Recombinant * GP22414 AK2 Mouse ... GP22409 ADK Human, Active Adenosine Kinase Human Recombinant, Active * ...
Adenylate kinase 1 Protein. Synthesized in e. coli. Protein Tag: His-SUMO. Purity: Greater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE. ... Recombinant Human AK1 / Adenylate kinase 1 Protein. $ 398.00 - $ 1,728.00. Please Select Product Options Below To View The ... Be the first to review "Recombinant Human AK1 / Adenylate kinase 1 Protein" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be ... Human AK1 / Adenylate kinase 1 Recombinant Protein Product Attributes. Product Type: Recombinant Protein ...
T2 - Virus activation induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) involves the protein kinase A ... Virus activation induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) involves the protein kinase A pathway. ... Virus activation induced by pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) involves the protein kinase A pathway, ... N2 - Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a naturally occurring peptide found in the central nervous ...
Seyler, S. L., & Beckstein, O. (2014). Sampling large conformational transitions: Adenylate kinase as a testing ground. ... Sampling large conformational transitions: Adenylate kinase as a testing ground. / Seyler, Sean L.; Beckstein, Oliver. In: ... Seyler, SL & Beckstein, O 2014, Sampling large conformational transitions: Adenylate kinase as a testing ground, Molecular ... keywords = "adenylate kinase, free energy, molecular dynamics simulations, potential of mean force, rare events, sampling, ...
Whole-genome sequencing from semen and RNA sequencing of testis tissue revealed a critical mutation in adenylate kinase 9 (AK9 ... Adenylate kinase 9 is essential for sperm function and male fertility in mammals. ...
Fluorescence and NMR investigations on the ligand binding properties of adenylate kinases [Erratum to document cited in CA113(9 ... Fluorescence and NMR investigations on the ligand binding properties of adenylate kinases [Erratum to document cited in CA113(9 ... Fluorescence and NMR investigations on the ligand binding properties of adenylate kinases [Erratum to document cited in CA113(9 ...
Adenylate kinase and aconitase in human rodent somatic cell hybrids. S. Povey, C. A. Slaughter, D. E. Wilson, K. Buckton, I. P ... Dive into the research topics of Adenylate kinase and aconitase in human rodent somatic cell hybrids. Together they form a ...
Crystallographic studies on adenylate kinase (AK) suggest that binding of ATP causes the LID domain of the enzyme to close over ... Sinev MA, Sineva EV, Ittah V, Haas E. Towards a mechanism of AMP-substrate inhibition in adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli ... Sinev, M. A., Sineva, E. V., Ittah, V., & Haas, E. (1996). Towards a mechanism of AMP-substrate inhibition in adenylate kinase ... Towards a mechanism of AMP-substrate inhibition in adenylate kinase from Escherichia coli. In: FEBS Letters. 1996 ; Vol. 397, ...
Adenylate kinase (Adk). P99062. 1.59 ↓. 1.59 ↓. 36. Inosine-5-monophosphate dehydrogenase (GuaB). P99106. 2.06 ↓. 1.95 ↓. ... and T4 polynucleotide kinase (New England Biolabs Ipswich, MA, USA). Labeled SprF1 RNA was purified on Microspin ™ G-50 Columns ...
We have demonstrated the mechanism by which the enzyme activities of Group 2 kinases, shikimate kinase (SK) and adenylate ... of conserved amino acid residues in shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase active sites, we have elucidated a mechanism by which ... The role of the C8-H of ATP in the binding and/or phosphoryl transfer on the enzyme activity of a number of kinase and ... The intrinsic catalysis rate mediated by each kinase enzyme is complex, yielding apparent KM values ranging from less than 0.4 ...
28] and the enzyme adenylate kinase. [29] The NPS locus has been linked to the locus of the alpha1 chain of type 5 collagen. ... Linkage of the loci for the nail-patella syndrome and adenylate kinase. Am J Hum Genet. 1969 Nov. 21 (6):606-30. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
INESC Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias is a private, non-profit Research and Development Institute created in January, 2002 from the former Solid State Technology group of INESC. INESC MN is dedicated to leading edge R&D in strategic technological areas of micro- and nanotechnologies and the application of these technologies to electronic, biological and biomedical devices. INESC MN research work shares the Laboratories and Class 10/100 Cleanroom facilities with student training and external services. The groups mission is to provide advanced training to undergraduate and graduate students and researchers at Master, PhD and Post-Doctoral levels, acting as a bridge between the Technical Engineering School (IST, ULisboa) and Industrial Partners worldwide. ...
The equilibrium constants for creatine kinase (crk) and adenylate kinase (adk) are likewise taken from Allen and Orchard (1987) ... Noda, L. (1973). "8 adenylate kinase," in Group Transfer Part A: Nucleotidyl Transfer Nucleosidyl Transfer Acyl Transfer ... and the adenylate kinase (Kübler and Katz, 1977; Linari et al., 2010; Newsholme, 1 72; Noda, 1973) reaction. For the sake of ... Skeletal muscle contractile performance and ADP accumulation in adenylate kinase-deficient mice. Am. J. Cell Physiol. 288, ...
... nucleotide kinase activity),GO:0042802(identical protein binding),GO:0046899(nucleoside triphosphate adenylate kinase activity) ... adenylate kinase 3. Hs.493362. ref,NM_016282,ref,NM_001199852,ref,NM_001199854,ref,NM_001199856. chr9:4711217-4711158. hs, ... Homo sapiens adenylate kinase 3 (AK3), nuclear gene encoding mitochondrial protein, transcript variant 1, mRNA [NM_016282]. GO: ... adenylate kinase activity),GO:0005524(ATP binding),GO:0005525(GTP binding),GO:0005739(mitochondrion),GO:0005759(mitochondrial ...
Here we report the application of an adenylate kinase (AK)-based cytotoxicity assay of fungal cell lysis to the ...
adenylate kinase. protein-coding. CMU_021080. hypothetical protein. protein-coding. CMU_022980. hypothetical protein. protein- ...
Adenylate kinase. *Nucleoside diphosphate kinase. What is the function of the NDPK enzyme in nucleotide synthesis? ...
Adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3) Reaction for CNA; ATP + AMP -, 2 ADP ...
Adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3) CNA did not have a reaction to regenerate AMP yet, so the reaction for adenylate kinase was added ... adenylate kinase was added to the network. The reaction for adenylate kinase is shown in figure 7. ...
PDB Compounds: (B:) sulfate adenylate transferase, subunit 1/adenylylsulfate kinase. SCOPe Domain Sequences for d1zunb1:. ... Protein Sulfate adenylate transferase subunit cysN/C, EF-Tu domain 2-like domain [141336] (1 species). ... d1zunb1 b.43.3.1 (B:238-329) Sulfate adenylate transferase subunit cysN/C, EF-Tu domain 2-like domain {Pseudomonas syringae pv ...
A Study of Red Cell Adenylate Kinase (AK) Types in 115 Danish Families Hum Hered (August,2008) ...
  • Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a naturally occurring peptide found in the central nervous system that plays a role in somatosensory processing and activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase C (PKC). (uky.edu)
  • The adenylate cyclase/cyclic AMP/protein kinase A (PKA) module is a central component of such biochemical signaling. (harvard.edu)
  • Many heterologously expressed mutants of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) exhibit residual chloride channel activity that can be stimulated by agonists of the adenylate cyclase/protein kinase A pathway. (nih.gov)
  • Using a combination of ATP deuterated at the C8 position (C8D-ATP) as a molecular probe with site directed mutagenesis (SDM) of conserved amino acid residues in shikimate kinase and adenylate kinase active sites, we have elucidated a mechanism by which the ATP C8-H is induced to be labile in the broader kinase family. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We have demonstrated the mechanism by which the enzyme activities of Group 2 kinases, shikimate kinase (SK) and adenylate kinase 1 (AK1), are controlled by the C8-H of ATP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 28911 shikimate kinase CP001857 CDS Arcpr_0034 complement(28829. (go.jp)
  • Insights into the evolution of enzymatic specificity and catalysis: From Asgard archaea to human adenylate kinases. (scilifelab.se)
  • Here, molecular dynamics simulations, enzyme kinetics, X-ray crystallography, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy are combined to elucidate the catalytic mechanism of adenylate kinase and to delineate the roles of catalytic residues in catalysis and the conformational change in the enzyme. (scilifelab.se)
  • The intrinsic catalysis rate mediated by each kinase enzyme is complex, yielding apparent K M values ranging from less than 0.4 μM to more than 1 mM for ATP in the various kinases. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Also displays broad nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity. (enquirebio.com)
  • Expression of nucleoside diphosphate kinase, mitochondria-associated adenylate kinase, and several mitochondria-associated creatine kinase isozymes was highest in the outer retina, whereas expression of cytosolic adenylate kinase and brain creatine kinase was higher in the cones, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells indicating the diversity of ATP-buffering strategies among retinal neurons. (molvis.org)
  • The lability of the C8-H mediated by active site residues co-ordinated to the purine ring of ATP therefore plays a significant role in explaining the broad K M range associated with kinase steady state enzyme activities. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These mechanisms were developed using structurally conserved amino acid residues within hydrogen-bonding distance of a nucleotide in the active sites of crystallised kinases of a particular mechanistic class. (biomedcentral.com)
  • d1zunb1 b.43.3.1 (B:238-329) Sulfate adenylate transferase subunit cysN/C, EF-Tu domain 2-like domain {Pseudomonas syringae pv. (berkeley.edu)
  • Reticular dysgenesis (aleukocytosis) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mitochondrial adenylate kinase 2. (lu.se)
  • The role of the C8-H of ATP in the binding and/or phosphoryl transfer on the enzyme activity of a number of kinase and synthetase enzymes has been elucidated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family, which is involved in regulating the adenine nucleotide composition within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate groups among adenine nucleotides. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Thus, the mitochondrion attempts to keep ATP levels high due to the combined action of adenylate kinase and the controls on oxidative phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Whole-genome sequencing from semen and RNA sequencing of testis tissue revealed a critical mutation in adenylate kinase 9 (AK9) that impaired splicing, leading to a premature termination codon and a severely truncated protein. (ul.ie)
  • Evidence that SNF1-related kinase and hexokinase are involved in separate sugar-signalling pathways modulating post-translational redox activation of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase in potato tubers. (mpg.de)
  • The combined results indicate that glycolysis is regulated by the compartmental expression of hexokinase 2, pyruvate kinase M1, and pyruvate kinase M2 in photoreceptors, whereas the inner retinal neurons exhibit a lower capacity for glycolysis and aerobic glycolysis. (molvis.org)
  • Deficiency of a plastidial adenylate kinase in Arabidopsis results in elevated photosynthetic amino acid biosynthesis and enhanced growth. (mpg.de)
  • Human adenylate kinase 2 deficiency causes a profound hematopoietic defect associated with sensorineural deafness. (lu.se)
  • It has been demonstrated that the adenyl moiety of ATP plays a direct role in the regulation of ATP binding and/or phosphoryl transfer within a range of kinase and synthetase enzymes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Five isozymes of adenylate kinase have been identified in vertebrates. (origene.com)
  • Adenylate kinases regulate the adenine and guanine nucleotide compositions within a cell by catalyzing the reversible transfer of phosphate group among these nucleotides. (origene.com)
  • The overall features with specific recognition of the correct substrate and nonproductive binding by the incorrect substrate bear a strong similarity to previous findings for the ATP specific NMP kinase adenylate kinase. (scilifelab.se)
  • Here, we have discovered an intricate interplay between the enzyme adenylate kinase and its substrate ATP. (scilifelab.se)
  • Cytotoxic effects of fipronil and fipronil sulfone were examined using the adenylate kinase and the trypan blue exclusion assays in HepG2 cells and human hepatocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • The reaction for adenylate kinase is shown in figure 7. (igem.org)
  • Hier sind Adenylate Kinase 5 Antikörper für eine Vielzahl von Species wie anti-Human Adenylate Kinase 5, anti-Mouse Adenylate Kinase 5, anti-Rat Adenylate Kinase 5 zu finden. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • A DNA sequence encoding the Homo sapiens (Human) AK1 / Adenylate kinase 1, was expressed in the hosts and tags indicated. (enquirebio.com)
  • Here, this specific problem is addressed by molecular studies of the human NMP kinase AK3, which uses GTP to phosphorylate AMP. (scilifelab.se)
  • All the kinase mechanistic classes were clustered into two proposed mechanisms depending on how the C8-H is induced to be labile, namely by either the co-ordination of a backbone carbonyl to C6-NH 2 of the adenyl moiety (a "push" mechanism), or based on the protonation of N7 of the adenyl moiety (a "pull" mechanism). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Structural Basis for GTP versus ATP Selectivity in the NMP Kinase AK3. (scilifelab.se)
  • This gene encodes a member of the adenylate kinase family of enzymes. (origene.com)
  • Two further enzymes are known to be related to the ADK family, i.e. yeast uridine monophosphokinase and slime mold UMP-CMP kinase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular enzymes such as lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenylate kinase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase are also used as cell death markers, and there are several such products available on the market. (dojindo.com)
  • Adenylate kinase (EC 2.7.4.3) (also known as ADK or myokinase) is a phosphotransferase enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of the various adenosine phosphates (ATP, ADP, and AMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Seyler, SL & Beckstein, O 2014, ' Sampling large conformational transitions: Adenylate kinase as a testing ground ', Molecular Simulation , vol. 40, no. 10-11, pp. 855-877. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cellular ATP is buffered by specialized equilibrium-driven high-energy phosphate (~P) transferring kinases. (molvis.org)
  • A significant time- and dose-dependent induction of adenylate kinase activity in HepG2 cells was noted from 0.1 to 12.5 µM fipronil followed by decreasing activities at 25 and 50 µM. (cdc.gov)
  • Taken together, we are now able to provide the fundamental principles for GTP and ATP selectivity in the large NMP kinase family. (scilifelab.se)
  • Many path-sampling algorithms have been applied to the closed open transition of the enzyme adenylate kinase (AdK), which undergoes a large, clamshell-like conformational transition between an open and a closed state. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Comparisons of adenylate kinases have revealed a particular divergence in the active site lid. (embl.de)
  • Crystallographic studies on adenylate kinase (AK) suggest that binding of ATP causes the LID domain of the enzyme to close over the ATP molecule (Schlauderer et al. (psu.edu)
  • The maximum induction of adenylate kinase was ca. 3-fold greater than the respective controls in HepG2 and 6-10-fold in the case of primary hepatocytes. (cdc.gov)
  • This suggests that MGCs utilize TCA cycle anaplerosis and cataplerosis to generate GTP and ~P transferring kinases to produce ATP that supports MGC energy requirements. (molvis.org)