One of the virulence factors produced by virulent BORDETELLA organisms. It is a bifunctional protein with both ADENYLYL CYCLASES and hemolysin components.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that is the causative agent of WHOOPING COUGH. Its cells are minute coccobacilli that are surrounded by a slime sheath.
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of BORDETELLA INFECTIONS, such as WHOOPING COUGH. They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic toxin; tracheal cytotoxin; Bordetella LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES; and tracheal colonization factor.
A species of BORDETELLA that is parasitic and pathogenic. It is found in the respiratory tract of domestic and wild mammalian animals and can be transmitted from animals to man. It is a common cause of bronchopneumonia in lower animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus BORDETELLA.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria whose cells are minute coccobacilli. It consists of both parasitic and pathogenic species.
A CD antigen that contains a conserved I domain which is involved in ligand binding. When combined with CD18 the two subunits form MACROPHAGE-1 ANTIGEN.
One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 - S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
Cell-surface glycoprotein beta-chains that are non-covalently linked to specific alpha-chains of the CD11 family of leukocyte-adhesion molecules (RECEPTORS, LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION). A defect in the gene encoding CD18 causes LEUKOCYTE-ADHESION DEFICIENCY SYNDROME.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
An enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of AMP to ADP in the presence of ATP or inorganic triphosphate. EC 2.7.4.3.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.6.1.2.
A non-hydrolyzable analog of GTP, in which the oxygen atom bridging the beta to the gamma phosphate is replaced by a nitrogen atom. It binds tightly to G-protein in the presence of Mg2+. The nucleotide is a potent stimulator of ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A multi-function neuropeptide that acts throughout the body by elevating intracellular cyclic AMP level via its interaction with PACAP RECEPTORS. Although first isolated from hypothalamic extracts and named for its action on the pituitary, it is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. PACAP is important in the control of endocrine and homeostatic processes, such as secretion of pituitary and gut hormones and food intake.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The engulfing and degradation of microorganisms; other cells that are dead, dying, or pathogenic; and foreign particles by phagocytic cells (PHAGOCYTES).
A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
Inorganic salts of hydrofluoric acid, HF, in which the fluorine atom is in the -1 oxidation state. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed) Sodium and stannous salts are commonly used in dentifrices.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
A source of inorganic fluoride which is used topically to prevent dental caries.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A heat-stable, low-molecular-weight activator protein found mainly in the brain and heart. The binding of calcium ions to this protein allows this protein to bind to cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases and to adenyl cyclase with subsequent activation. Thereby this protein modulates cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels.
One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.
A potent vasodilator agent that increases peripheral blood flow.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
An ester formed between the aldehydic carbon of RIBOSE and the terminal phosphate of ADENOSINE DIPHOSPHATE. It is produced by the hydrolysis of nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) by a variety of enzymes, some of which transfer an ADP-ribosyl group to target proteins.
A potent mycotoxin produced in feedstuffs by several species of the genus FUSARIUM. It elicits a severe inflammatory reaction in animals and has teratogenic effects.
(11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-Dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-13-en-1-oic acid (PGE(1)); (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13-dien-1-oic acid (PGE(2)); and (5Z,11 alpha,13E,15S,17Z)-11,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprosta-5,13,17-trien-1-oic acid (PGE(3)). Three of the six naturally occurring prostaglandins. They are considered primary in that no one is derived from another in living organisms. Originally isolated from sheep seminal fluid and vesicles, they are found in many organs and tissues and play a major role in mediating various physiological activities.
A potent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase inhibitor; due to this action, the compound increases cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP in tissue and thereby activates CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-REGULATED PROTEIN KINASES
Cell-surface proteins that bind epinephrine and/or norepinephrine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. The two major classes of adrenergic receptors, alpha and beta, were originally discriminated based on their cellular actions but now are distinguished by their relative affinity for characteristic synthetic ligands. Adrenergic receptors may also be classified according to the subtypes of G-proteins with which they bind; this scheme does not respect the alpha-beta distinction.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Specialized cells of the hematopoietic system that have branch-like extensions. They are found throughout the lymphatic system, and in non-lymphoid tissues such as SKIN and the epithelia of the intestinal, respiratory, and reproductive tracts. They trap and process ANTIGENS, and present them to T-CELLS, thereby stimulating CELL-MEDIATED IMMUNITY. They are different from the non-hematopoietic FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS, which have a similar morphology and immune system function, but with respect to humoral immunity (ANTIBODY PRODUCTION).
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.

Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity. (1/644)

We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.  (+info)

Distinct roles for Galphai2, Galphai3, and Gbeta gamma in modulation offorskolin- or Gs-mediated cAMP accumulation and calcium mobilization by dopamine D2S receptors. (2/644)

Previous studies have shown that a single G protein-coupled receptor can regulate different effector systems by signaling through multiple subtypes of heterotrimeric G proteins. In LD2S fibroblast cells, the dopamine D2S receptor couples to pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive Gi/Go proteins to inhibit forskolin- or prostaglandin E1-stimulated cAMP production and to stimulate calcium mobilization. To analyze the role of distinct Galphai/o protein subtypes, LD2S cells were stably transfected with a series of PTX-insensitive Galphai/o protein Cys --> Ser point mutants and assayed for D2S receptor signaling after PTX treatment. The level of expression of the transfected Galpha mutant subunits was similar to the endogenous level of the most abundant Galphai/o proteins (Galphao, Galphai3). D2S receptor-mediated inhibition of forskolin-stimulated cAMP production was retained only in clones expressing mutant Galphai2. In contrast, the D2S receptor utilized Galphai3 to inhibit PGE1-induced (Gs-coupled) enhancement of cAMP production. Following stable or transient transfection, no single or pair set of mutant Galphai/o subtypes rescued the D2S-mediated calcium response following PTX pretreatment. On the other hand, in LD2S cells stably transfected with GRK-CT, a receptor kinase fragment that specifically antagonizes Gbeta gamma subunit activity, D2S receptor-mediated calcium mobilization was blocked. The observed specificity of Galphai2 and Galphai3 for different states of adenylyl cyclase activation suggests a higher level of specificity for interaction of Galphai subunits with forskolin- versus Gs-activated states of adenylyl cyclase than has been previously appreciated.  (+info)

GABA(B) receptor-mediated stimulation of adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes of rat olfactory bulb. (3/644)

Previous studies have shown that GABA(B) receptors facilitate cyclic AMP formation in brain slices likely through an indirect mechanism involving intracellular second messengers. In the present study, we have investigated whether a positive coupling of GABA(B) receptors to adenylyl cyclase could be detected in a cell-free preparation of rat olfactory bulb, a brain region where other Gi/Go-coupled neurotransmitter receptors have been found to stimulate the cyclase activity. The GABA(B) receptor agonist (-)-baclofen significantly increased basal adenylyl cyclase activity in membranes of the granule cell and external plexiform layers, but not in the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer. The adenylyl cyclase stimulation was therefore examined in granule cell layer membranes. The (-)-baclofen stimulation (pD2=4.53) was mimicked by 3-aminopropylphosphinic acid (pD2=4.60) and GABA (pD2=3.56), but not by (+)-baclofen, 3-aminopropylphosphonic acid, muscimol and isoguvacine. The stimulatory effect was counteracted by the GABA(B) receptor antagonists CGP 35348 (pA2=4.31), CGP 55845 A (pA2=7.0) and 2-hydroxysaclofen (pKi=4.22). Phaclofen (1 mM) was inactive. The (-)-baclofen stimulation was not affected by quinacrine, indomethacin, nordihydroguaiaretic acid and staurosporine, but was completely prevented by pertussis toxin and significantly reduced by the alpha subunit of transducin, a betagamma scavenger. The betagamma subunits of transducin stimulated the cyclase activity and this effect was not additive with that produced by (-)-baclofen. In the external plexiform and granule cell layers, but not in the olfactory nerve-glomerular layer, (-)-baclofen enhanced the adenylyl cyclase stimulation elicited by the neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) 38. Conversely, the adenylyl cyclase activity stimulated by either forskolin or Ca2+/calmodulin-(Ca2+/CaM) was inhibited by (-)-baclofen in all the olfactory bulb layers examined. These data demonstrate that in specific layers of rat olfactory bulb activation of GABA(B) receptors enhances basal and neurotransmitter-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activities by a mechanism involving betagamma subunits of Gi/Go. This positive coupling is associated with a widespread inhibitory effect on forskolin- and Ca2+/CaM-stimulated cyclic AMP formation.  (+info)

Signalling by CXC-chemokine receptors 1 and 2 expressed in CHO cells: a comparison of calcium mobilization, inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and stimulation of GTPgammaS binding induced by IL-8 and GROalpha. (4/644)

The effect of interleukin-8 (IL-8) and growth-related oncogene alpha (GROalpha) on [35S]-guanosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) ([35S]GTPgammaS) binding, forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and cytosolic calcium concentration were determined in recombinant CHO cells expressing HA-tagged CXC-chemokine receptors 1 and 2 (CXCR1 and CXCR2). Radioligand binding assays confirmed that the binding profiles of the recombinant receptors were similar to those of the native proteins. IL-8 displaced [125I]-IL-8 binding to CXCR1 and CXCR2 with pKi values of 8.89+/-0.05 and 9.27+/-0.03, respectively. GROalpha, a selective CXCR2 ligand, had a pKi value of 9.66+/-0.39 at CXCR2 but a pKi>8 at CXCR1. Calcium mobilization experiments were also consistent with previous reports on native receptors. Activation of both receptors resulted in stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase. A comparison of the functional data at CXCRI showed that a similar potency order (IL-8> >GROalpha) was obtained in all three assays. However, at CXCR2 whilst the potency orders for calcium mobilization and inhibition of adenylyl cyclase were similar (IL-8 > or = GROalpha), the order was reversed for stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding (GROalpha > IL-8). All of the functional responses at both receptors were inhibited by pertussis toxin (PTX), suggesting coupling to a Gi/Go protein. However, the calcium mobilization induced by IL-8 at CXCR1 was not fully inhibited by PTX, suggesting an interaction with a G-protein of the Gq family. Our results with pertussis toxin also suggested that, in the [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay, CXCR1 displays some constitutive activity. Thus, we have characterized the binding and several functional responses at HA-tagged CXCRs 1 and 2 and have shown that their pharmacology agrees well with that of the native receptors. We also have preliminary evidence that CXCR1 displays constitutive activity in our cell line and that CXCR2 may traffic between different PTX sensitive G-proteins.  (+info)

Cell-specific coupling of PGE2 to different transduction pathways in arginine vasopressin- and glucagon-sensitive segments of the rat renal tubule. (5/644)

1. The aim of the present study was to investigate the transduction pathways elicited by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to inhibit hormone-stimulated adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation in the outer medullary collecting duct (OMCD) and medullary thick ascending limb (MTAL) microdissected from the rat nephron. 2. In the OMCD, 0.3 microM PGE2 and low concentrations of Ca2+ ionophores (10 nM ionomycin or 50 nM A23187) inhibited by about 50% a same pool of arginine vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated cyclic AMP content through a same process insensitive to Bordetella pertussis toxin (PTX). 3. Sulprostone, an agonist of the EP1/EP3 subtypes of the PGE2 receptor, decreased AVP-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation in OMCD and MTAL samples. The concentration eliciting half-maximal inhibition was of about 50 nM in OMCD and 0.1 nM in MTAL. 4. In MTAL, 1 nM sulprostone and PGE2 inhibited by about 90% a same pool of AVP-dependent cyclic AMP content through a PTX-sensitive, Ca2+ -independent pathway. 5. In the OMCD, PGE2 decreased by about 50% glucagon-dependent cyclic AMP synthesis by a process sensitive to PTX and Ca2+ -independent. Sulprostone 1 nM induced the same level of inhibition. 6. These results demonstrate that PGE2 decrease hormone-dependent cyclic AMP accumulation through a G(alpha)i-mediated inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity in MTAL cells and glucagon-sensitive cells of the OMCD or through a PTX-insensitive increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration in AVP-sensitive cells of the OMCD.  (+info)

The conserved lysine 860 in the additional fatty-acylation site of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase is crucial for toxin function independently of its acylation status. (6/644)

The Bordetella pertussis RTX (repeat in toxin family protein) adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (ACT) acquires biological activity upon a single amide-linked palmitoylation of the epsilon-amino group of lysine 983 (Lys983) by the accessory fatty-acyltransferase CyaC. However, an additional conserved RTX acylation site can be identified in ACT at lysine 860 (Lys860), and this residue becomes palmitoylated when recombinant ACT (r-Ec-ACT) is produced together with CyaC in Escherichia coli K12. We have eliminated this additional acylation site by replacing Lys860 of ACT with arginine, leucine, and cysteine residues. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and microcapillary high performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometric analyses of mutant proteins confirmed that the two sites are acylated independently in vivo and that mutations of Lys860 did not affect the quantitative acylation of Lys983 by palmitoyl (C16:0) and palmitoleil (cis Delta9 C16:1) fatty-acyl groups. Nevertheless, even the most conservative substitution of lysine 860 by an arginine residue caused a 10-fold decrease of toxin activity. This resulted from a 5-fold reduction of cell association capacity and a further 2-fold reduction in cell penetration efficiency of the membrane-bound K860R toxin. These results suggest that lysine 860 plays by itself a crucial structural role in membrane insertion and translocation of the toxin, independently of its acylation status.  (+info)

Therapy of murine tumors with recombinant Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase carrying a cytotoxic T cell epitope. (7/644)

Bordetella pertussis secretes an invasive adenylate cyclase toxin, CyaA, that is able to deliver its N-terminal catalytic domain into the cytosol of eukaryotic target cells directly through the cytoplasmic membrane. We have shown previously that recombinant CyaA can be used to deliver viral CD8+ T cell epitopes to the MHC-class I presentation pathway to trigger specific CTL responses in vivo. In the present study, we show that mice immunized with a detoxified but still invasive CyaA carrying a CD8+ T cell epitope of OVA developed strong epitope-specific CTL responses, which kill tumor cells expressing this Ag. Treating mice with this recombinant molecule after the graft of melanoma cells expressing OVA induced a strong survival advantage compared with control animals. To our knowledge, this study represents the first demonstration that a nonreplicative and nontoxic vector carrying a single CTL epitope can stimulate efficient protective and therapeutic antitumor immunity.  (+info)

Activation of adenylate cyclase by human recombinant sst5 receptors expressed in CHO-K1 cells and involvement of Galphas proteins. (8/644)

1. The coupling of the human somatostatin sst5 receptor recombinantly expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells to adenylate cyclase was investigated using receptor selective ligands. 2. Forskolin (10 microM)-stimulated adenosine 3': 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP) accumulation was inhibited by somatostatin-14 and a number of receptor-selective agonists with a rank order of agonist potency typical of the sst5 receptor. L-362,855 and BIM-23056 behaved as full agonists. At higher somatostatin-14 concentrations there was sub-maximal inhibition resulting in a bell-shaped concentration-effect relationship. Pertussis toxin (PTx; 100 ng ml(-1), 18 h) pre-treatment abolished agonist-mediated inhibition of cyclic AMP accumulation and markedly enhanced stimulation of cyclic AMP at higher agonist concentrations. 3. The concentration of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the incubation media was raised 14 fold by 1 microM somatostatin-14 but was insufficient to stimulate adenylate cyclase activity via endogenous prostanoid receptors. 4. Pre-treatment with cholera toxin (ChTx; 20 microg ml(-1), 18 h) markedly inhibited sst5 receptor-mediated increases in cyclic AMP formation in intact cells. Somatostatin-14-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation was also observed in sst5 receptor containing CHO-K1 membranes and was inhibited by the synthetic peptide Galphasacetyl-354-372-amide (100 microM) by 65.9+/-3.5%, implicating a Galphas protein involvement in this response. 5. Activation of Galphas proteins by somatostatin-14 could be demonstrated with [35S]-guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate ([35S]-GTPgammaS) binding and subsequent immunoprecipitation of 35S labelled Galphas proteins with anti-Galphas serum. 6. These data show that the sst5 receptor is very efficiently coupled in a negative manner to adenylate cyclase. However, at higher agonist concentrations the receptor can also mediate activation of adenylate cyclase by a mechanism apparently involving Galphas protein activation.  (+info)

Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of the CD11b-CD18 Integrin Major Determinants of the Entry Route. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The adenylate cyclase toxin (AC toxin) is necessary for disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which has reemerged in the United States over the last two decad...
Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis can subvert host immune responses allowing bacterial colonization. Here we have examined its adjuvant and immunomodulatory properties and the possible contribution of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), known to be present in purified CyaA preparations. CyaA enhanced antigen-specific interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-10 production and immunoglobulin G1 antibodies to coadministered antigen in vivo. Antigen-specific CD4+-T-cell clones generated from mice immunized with antigen and CyaA had cytokine profiles characteristic of Th2 or type 1 regulatory T (Tr1) cells. Since innate immune cells direct the induction of T-cell subtypes, we examined the influence of CyaA on activation of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages. CyaA significantly augmented LPS-induced IL-6 and IL-10 and inhibited LPS-driven tumor necrosis factor alpha and IL-12p70 production from bone marrow-derived DC and macrophages. CyaA also enhanced cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, and ...
Vaccines designed to stimulate CTL should be able to deliver protein antigens to the cytoplasm of host cells for processing and presentation by MHC-I. Many systems have been exploited to accomplish cytoplasmic delivery, including viral and bacterial vectors and DNA vaccines (7, 8, 14, 22, 27, 33, 36). There have also been reports demonstrating that antiviral immunity can be primed in mice vaccinated with a recombinant Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin incorporating a CTL epitope from LCMV (11, 29, 31); however, the data demonstrated protection only when the recombinant toxin was injected in the presence of an adjuvant, aluminum hydroxide (29). Therefore, it remains unclear whether the antiviral protection was a result of toxin delivery or adjuvant activity. This report describes the use of a nontoxic, truncated form of anthrax toxin as an epitope delivery system without the use of adjuvant.. We demonstrate that protective immunity against a viral pathogen, LCMV, is generated in BALB/c mice ...
Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase. Penetration into host cells.: Exposure of Chinese hamster ovary, mouse adrenal cortex tumor (Y-1), THP-1 and U-937 cells
CyaA, the adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis, can deliver its N-terminal catalytic domain into the cytosol of a large number of eukaryotic
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Spermine inhibition of basal and stimulated adenylate cyclase is mediated by the inhibitory GTP-binding protein (Gi). by Carlo Clô et al.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reconstitution of catecholamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity using three purified proteins. AU - May, D. C.. AU - Ross, E. M.. AU - Gilman, A. G.. AU - Smigel, M. D.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - β-Adrenergic receptors, the GTP-binding regulatory protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase (G(s)), and adenylate cyclase were each purified and reconstituted into unilamellar vesicles composed of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylserine (3:2, w/w). The molar ratio of receptor:G(s):adenylate cyclase was estimated to be about 1:10:1. Adenylate cyclase activity in the vesicles was stimulated up to 2.6-fold by β-adrenergic agonists. Stimulation was dependent on the presence of guanine nucleotide, displayed appropriate β-adrenergic selectivity and stereoselectivity for agonists, and was blocked appropriately by β-adrenergic antagonists. Therefore, while additional proteins may modulate adenylate cyclase activity in native membranes, these results show that these three ...
Pertussis, also known as whooping cough, is an acute respiratory infectious disease caused by a bacteria called Bordetella Pertussis. The characteristic symptoms are paroxysmal cough, inspiratory wheezing and post-tussive vomiting. Following the inhalation of respiratory secretions from an infected individual, bacteria enter the upper respiratory tract and adhere to epithelial cells. Several adhesion factors have been implicated: the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), fimbriae, and pertactin (Prn). Pertussis toxin (Ptx) and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) have been identified so far as major protein toxins of B. pertussis. PTX is a hexameric AB5-type exotoxin. Catalytic A subunit catalyzes the ADP-ribosylation of the Gi subunits of the heterotrimeric G protein, then inhibits multiple downstream pathways. ACT is able to penetrate the cytoplasmic membrane of host cells and becomes activated through the cleavage and the binding of calmodulin (CaM). Activated ACT converts ATP to cyclic AMP and subverts ...
A factor [the feedback regulator (FR)] formed by adipocytes after the stimulation of a cAMP raising hormone has been found to be a potent inhibitor of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase [EC 4.6.1.1.; ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing)]. In a standard assay system using rat adipocyte plasma membrane as the source of adenylate cyclase, the FR inhibited adenylate cyclase by lowering the Vmax without affecting the apparent Km for ATP (0.3-0.6 mM). The apparent Ka for epinephrine (5-6 muM) was also not affected by FR. The inhibitory action of FR was partially countered by Mg2+ ions. An increase in phosphorylation of plasma membrane was observed when FR was present in the incubation system. The concentration required for a 50% inhibition was four times higher when adenosine 5-(beta,gamma-imino) triphosphate [AMP-P(NH)P] replaced ATP as the substrate for adenylate cyclase, implying that adenylate cyclase was inactivated by phosphorylation caused by FR. Increase in FR inhibition obtained by adding low ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Demonstration and Characterization of Opiate Inhibition of the Striatal Adenylate Cyclase. AU - Law, P. Y.. AU - Wu, J.. AU - Koehler, J. E.. AU - Loh, H. H.. PY - 1981/5. Y1 - 1981/5. N2 - Abstract: The conditions in which Leu5‐enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase was observed were defined. It was determined that enkephalin inhibition was dependent on GTP. The apparent Km for GTP in opiate inhibition was determined to be 0.5 and 2 μM when 0.1 mM‐ and 0.5 mM‐ATP were used as substrate. ITP, but not CTP or UTP, could substitute for GTP in the reaction. Though the addition of monovalent cations-Na+,K+, Li+, Cs+, and choline+-stimulated striatal adenylate cyclase activity, enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase did not require Na+ when theophylline was used as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Under optimal conditions, i.e., 20 μM‐GTP and 100 mM‐Na+, Leu5‐enkephalin inhibited the striatal adenylate cyclase activity by 23-27%. When the ...
The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis is a bi-functional leukotoxin. It penetrates myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 and delivers into their cytosol its N-terminal adenylate cyclase enzyme domain (~400 residues). In parallel, ~1300 residue-long RT …
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Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
The series of molecular signals generated as a consequence of a G-protein coupled receptor binding to its physiological ligand, where the pathway proceeds through inhibition of adenylyl cyclase activity and a subsequent decrease in the concentration of cy…
Visualization for given category : Effector, level : Node and node : ____Cyclases____Adenylate cyclases____Adenylate cyclase 8____Adenylate cyclase 8-Homo sapiens ...
Visualization for given category : Effector, level : Node and node : ____Cyclases____Adenylate cyclases____Adenylate cyclase 9____Adenylate cyclase 9-Homo sapiens ...
The effect of exogenously added adenylate cyclase from Bordetella pertussis (strain 114) has been investigated in Y-1 mouse adrenal tumor, chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and several other cells. A partially purified adenylate cyclase was found not to enter cells but, nevertheless, produced large amounts of cAMP in the medium. We could show that this resulted from release of ATP (and not larger molecules). The ATP released by the cells could be (1) directly measured and was replenished after each change of medium; (2) was reciprocally related to the cAMP produced; and (3) was competed for by ATPases present in added serum or by hexokinase and, less effectively, by exoenzymes on the cell surface. The extent of ATP leakage varied widely between different cell lines, being marked in CHO and Y-1 adrenal cells but negligible in transformed lymphocyte lines. The uncertainty of the origin of cAMP found in media of cultured cells requires separate analysis of cell and medium cAMP and an assessment of ATP ...
The effects of Ca2+-calmodulin on adenylate cyclase activity in EGTA-washed, 27000 g particulate fractions of mouse and rat pancreatic islets were studied. Ca2+ (10 microM)-calmodulin (1 microM) stimulated adenylate cyclase activity 53.1 +/- 5.2 (N = 6)% in the particulate fraction of rat islets. Trifluoperazine (50 microM), a specific inhibitor of calmodulin, inhibited the Ca2+-calmodulin activation of the adenylate cyclase activity of this fraction of rat islets. These results confirm previous reports dealing with Ca2+-Calmodulin and rat islet adenylate cyclase [Valverde, Vandermeers. Anjaneyulu & Malaisse (1979) Science 206, 225-227; Sharp, Wiedenkeller, Kaelin, Siegel & Wollheim (1980) Diabetes 29, 74-77]. In contrast, however, Ca2+ (1-100 microM)-calmodulin (1-10 microM) did not stimulate the adenylate cyclase activity in the EGTA-washed particulate fraction of mouse islets, and trifluoperazine (50 microM) did not inhibit the adenylate cyclase activity of this fraction of mouse islets, ...
Inositol phosphate accumulation and adenylate cyclase activity were investigated in the cortex of young and aged ethanol-treated rats. Three months of ethanol treatment of young rats decreased maximal stimulation of inositol phosphate accumulation by carbachol by 26%, from 494 ± 76% of basal turnover in control animals to 396 ± 54% in ethanol-treated animals (mean ± SD). In aged rats ethanol-related changes were no longer observed but age-related changes were evident. EC50 was significantly higher than in young animals and maximal stimulation was significantly lower. Basal adenylate cyclase activity in cortical membranes of all groups of animals was not different. Forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity was not affected by ethanol treatment, but was higher in aged animals. The activity of forskolin-stimulated adenylate cyclase in the presence of carbachol was higher in both young and aged ethanol-treated animals, when compared to young controls. These results suggest that both ethanol ...
B pertussis produces numerous virulence factors, including toxins and attachment agents, many of which are antigenic and included in the acellular vaccine. The link of each virulence factor to clinical illness has been difficult to elucidate due to lack of an animal model for experimentation. However, a recently developed model in infant baboons has the potential to address unanswered questions. The bacteria attach to ciliated epithelial cells of the respiratory tract, induce ciliary paralysis and local inflammation, and thicken and decrease clearance of secretions. B pertussis is not invasive. Pertussis toxin, necessary but not sufficient to cause clinical pertussis, is secreted by the bacteria and affects G-protein function, which prevents migration of lymphocytes to the area of infection, and inhibits the function of neutrophils, macrophages, monocytes, and lymphocytes. Adenylate cyclase toxin invades phagocytes and induces high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMP), which impairs ...
Adipocytes of hypothyroid rats display an increased responsiveness to agents which function by inhibiting the production of cyclic AMP. Anti-peptide antisera which selectively recognise the alpha subunit of the inhibitory guanine nucleotide binding protein (Gi) detected a 40 kDa polypeptide in adipocyte plasma membranes of both euthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Amounts of the alpha subunit of Gi were elevated some 2-fold in the hypothyroid preparations in comparison with the euthyroid controls, when equal amounts of membrane protein of the two treatments were examined. As cells from the hypothyroid animals contained 2.7 times as much membrane protein as those from the control animals, the amounts of alpha subunit of Gi are elevated some 5.6-fold per cell in adipocytes of the hypothyroid animals compared with the euthyroid controls. Amounts of the 36 kDa beta subunit of G-proteins were also elevated in plasma membranes of adipocytes of hypothyroid animals, in this case by some 50% when compared on ...
This study investigates the hypothesis that inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1alpha IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), influence cardiac function by affecting calcium homeostasis and that this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic-adenylate cyclase system. After 4 days in culture, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were treated with cytokines (10 ng/ml) for short (2 h) or longer (18 h) times. Myocyte calcium, contractility, and adenylate cyclase were measured under each condition. Anticipated stepwise increases in adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium were found in controls (non-cytokine-treated) with 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M isoproterenol + 0.1 mM guanosine triphosphate, and 10(-9) M forskolin. Cells in the presence of cytokine for 2 h show increased basal calcium levels but no changes in adenylate cyclase activities, and isoproterenol fails to elevate adenylate cyclase levels or affect contractile shortening. After long-term treatment with IL-1beta or TNF, but ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple forms of brain adenylate cyclase. T2 - Stimulation by Mn2+. AU - Malamuda, Daniel F.. AU - DiRusso, Concetta C.. AU - Aprille, June R.. PY - 1977/11/23. Y1 - 1977/11/23. N2 - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both solubilization and storage at 0-4°C, the ability of the enzyme to be stimulated by Mn2+ was maintained for up to one week. By including Mn+ in the assay of adenylate cyclase in gel fractions after isoelectric focusing, two distinct peaks of enzyme activity (pI1 = 5.8, pI2 = 6.4) were detected, suggesting the existence of more than one type of catalytic subunit in mouse brain cell membranes.. AB - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential unmasking of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in cardiac membrane sheets and vesicles. AU - Fleming, J. W.. AU - Besch, H. R.. AU - Jones, L. R.. AU - Watanabe, A. M.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017841068. VL - 20. JO - Pharmacologist. JF - Pharmacologist. SN - 0031-7004. IS - 3. ER - ...
Braun, Sergei and Tolkovsky, Aviva M. and Steer, Michael L. and Lester, Henry A. and Levitzki, Alexander (1982) Activation and inhibition of adenylate cyclase by hormones. Biochemical Society Transactions, 10 (6). pp. 496-498. ISSN 0300-5127. https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201020-074502837 Full text is not posted in this repository. Consult Related URLs below.. Use this Persistent URL to link to this item: https://resolver.caltech.edu/CaltechAUTHORS:20201020-074502837 ...
|br| |br| The plan has a unique method which helps you reach a specific weight healthy measures will increase your ability to lose weight in a short span of time. Adverse Effects of the Diet While you may notice that you have lost weight or can help you lose weight without a balanced diet and regular exercise. This condition is termed as ketosis...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Effect of membrane phospholipid composition changes on adenylate cyclase activity in normal and rous-sarcoma-transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of gentamicin treatment on adenylate cyclase and Na+,K+-ATPase activities in renal tissues of rats. AU - Queener, S. F.. AU - Luft, F. C.. AU - Hamel, F. G.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - Gentamicin (20 mg/kg) treatment of male rats reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity by 32% in renal cortical plasma membranes. In contrast, adenylate cyclase stimulation by isoproterenol or a guanyl nucleotide or both was enhanced by as much as twofold in glomeruli and in plasma membranes of gentamicin-treated rats. These effects of gentamicin are suggested to be related to the changes in renal phospholipid metabolism produced by the drug.. AB - Gentamicin (20 mg/kg) treatment of male rats reduced Na+,K+-ATPase activity by 32% in renal cortical plasma membranes. In contrast, adenylate cyclase stimulation by isoproterenol or a guanyl nucleotide or both was enhanced by as much as twofold in glomeruli and in plasma membranes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hormone-sensitive adenylate cyclase in glomerular cells. Possible role for inflammatory diseases of the glomerulus. AU - Paietta, Elisabeth M.. AU - Schwarzmeier, J. D.. AU - Simbruner, G.. AU - Latzka, U.. AU - Lubec, G.. PY - 1981. Y1 - 1981. N2 - Using the adenylate cyclase assay after Ross the authors examined hormone sensitivity of isolated glomerular cells. cAMP production was increased 1.3-1.6-fold by stimulation with isoproterenol, 1.5-1.8 times by prostaglandin E 1 and 1.4-1.5 times by histamine. The isoproterenol reaction could be completely inhibited by propranolol, the histamine effect was abolished by the H2-blocking agent cimetidine. As a control the authors applied sodium fluoride, which directly activates the catalytic adenylate cyclase unit, increasing the activity 1.8-2.7 times (depending on the method of homogenization). These findings could reflect some physiological or pathophysiological implications, which are discussed.. AB - Using the adenylate cyclase ...
Previous studies on immortalized B lymphoblasts from patients with EH and enhanced Na+-H+ exchanger activity have revealed an enhanced activation of PTX-sensitive G proteins.7 This conclusion was mainly based on two findings. First, HT lymphoblasts displayed enhanced [Ca2+]i signals upon stimulation with platelet-activating factor and somatostatin. Pretreatment with PTX strongly reduced these agonist-evoked Ca2+ signals, and the residual Ca2+ responses were no longer different between NT and HT cell lines. Second, both receptor-mediated stimulation and direct (by mastoparan-7) stimulation of GTPγS binding to PTX-sensitive G proteins were significantly increased in HT lymphoblasts.7 Unfortunately, B lymphoblasts apparently do not express functional receptors that are selectively coupled to PTX-insensitive G proteins, eg, Gq or Gs. Therefore, our proposal of a selective enhancement of signal transduction via PTX-sensitive G proteins in HT cell lines was based on circumstantial evidence but could ...
K01768 E4.6.1.1; adenylate cyclase [EC:4.6.1.1] K08042 ADCY2; adenylate cyclase 2 [EC:4.6.1.1] K08043 ADCY3; adenylate cyclase 3 [EC:4.6.1.1] K08045 ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [EC:4.6.1.1] K08048 ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 [EC:4.6.1.1] K08049 ADCY9; adenylate cyclase 9 [EC:4.6.1.1 ...
Hudson, T H. and Johnson, G L., Peptide mapping of adenylate cyclase regulatory proteins that are cholera toxin substrates. (1980). Subject Strain Bibliography 1980. 3108 ...
Adenylate cyclase type 5 (EC 4.6.1.1) (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 5) (Adenylate cyclase type V) (Adenylyl cyclase 5) (Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase ...
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P-ARs are coupled by Gs to adenylate cyclase and produce alterations in cellular activity by raising intracellular levels of cyclic AMP (Fig. 3).
An important eukaryotic signal transduction pathway involves the regulation of the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger, cAMP. Previous genetic analyses demonstrated that glucose repression of transcription of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene requires the function of adenylate cyclase, encoded by the git2 gene. As mutations in git2 and in six additional git genes are suppressed by exogenous cAMP, these upstream git genes were proposed to act to produce a glucose-induced cAMP signal. We report here that assays of cAMP levels in wild-type and various mutant S. pombe cells, before and after exposure to glucose, show that this is the case. The data suggest that the cAMP signal results from the activation of adenylate cyclase. Therefore these upstream git genes appear to encode a glucose-induced adenylate cyclase activation pathway. Assays of cAMP on a strain carrying a mutation in the git6 gene, which acts downstream of adenylate cyclase, indicate that ...
The time course of cAMP production by S49 cell membranes in the presence of forskolin and a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog can yield information about the regulation of adenylate cyclase by both the inhibitory and stimulatory GTP-binding proteins (Gi and Gs). The time courses are complex and interpretation in terms of the activities of G1 and Gs requires a quantitative hypothesis. We present a general quantitative hypothesis that defines adenylate cyclase as existing in a distribution of two states, active and inactive. Gi and Gs, in their active states, alter the equilibrium of this distribution. Two distinct models are derived based on this hypothesis to accommodate two different proposed mechanisms for the action of Gi to inhibit adenylate cyclase: 1) a direct interaction between Gi and the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase and 2) a direct interaction between Gi and Gs. Perturbations of the regulation of adenylate cyclase by pertussis toxin and phorbol ester are simulated and interpreted ...
integral component of plasma membrane, adenylate cyclase activity, adenylate cyclase-activating G protein-coupled receptor signaling pathway, axon midline choice point recognition, cAMP biosynthetic process, retinal ganglion cell axon guidance
PST receptors were purified and characterized in the liver, hepatoma membranes, as well as the signal transduction (55, 62, 63). This receptor appears to mediate the dual signaling mechanism in liver (57). PST stimulation activates pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein (Gαq/11), leading to the activation of phospholipase C b3 isoform (PLC-b3) (69), and therefore mediates the glycogenolytic effect in the liver by increasing cytoplasmic free calcium and stimulating PKC, while the pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein (Gai1,2) leads to the activation of guanylatecyclase (51). In the signaling pathway, hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate by Ca2+-mobilizing hormones leads to the formation of two second messengers i.e., inositol-1,4,5-triphosphate (InsP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). The primary function of InsP3 is to mobilize Ca2+ from intracellular stores (60), whereas DAG stimulates PKC (58).. Active PST receptors were solubilized from rat liver membranes, and these results support the ...
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Separation of the catalytic and stimulatory regulatory subunits of rat brain adenylate cyclase.: The catalytic subunit of rat brain adenylate cyclase was separa
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The primary mode of action of forskolin is by increasing the cellular concentrations of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and cAMP-mediated functions, via activation of the enzyme adenylate cyclase. For details visit our online portal
Another toxin that inhibits the immune response is the adenylate cyclase toxin. This toxin has an intrinsic adenylate cyclase ... The toxin, known as pertussis toxin (or PTx), inhibits G protein coupling that regulates an adenylate cyclase-mediated ... Its virulence factors include pertussis toxin, adenylate cyclase toxin, filamentous hæmagglutinin, pertactin, fimbria, and ... Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim; Masin, Jiri (2014-08-04). "Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin relevance for pertussis vaccines". ...
Carbonetti NH, Artamonova GV, Andreasen C, Bushar N (May 2005). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin provide a one-two ... Ladant D, Ullmann A (April 1999). "Bordatella pertussis adenylate cyclase: a toxin with multiple talents". Trends Microbiol. 7 ... "The adenylate cyclase toxin of Bordetella pertussis binds to target cells via the alpha(M)beta(2) integrin (CD11b/CD18)". J. ... Bifunctional hemolysin/adenylate cyclase is a protein that in B. pertussis (the bacteria that causes whooping cough) is encoded ...
One of the most important of the regulated toxins is adenylate cyclase toxin, which aids in the evasion of innate immunity. The ... and toxins, such as adenylate cyclase-hemolysin, dermonecrotic toxin and tracheal cytotoxin. These factors are then expressed ... Gray MC, Donato GM, Jones FR, Kim T, Hewlett EL (2004). "Newly secreted adenylate cyclase toxin is responsible for intoxication ... Hewlett EL, Donato GM, Gray MC (2006). "Macrophage cytotoxicity produced by adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis: ...
"Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the purified regulatory component of adenylate cyclase". The ... Haga, T; Ross, EM; Anderson, HJ; Gilman, AG (1977). "Adenylate cyclase permanently uncoupled from hormone receptors in a novel ... Haga, T; Haga, K; Gilman, AG (1977). "Hydrodynamic properties of the beta-adrenergic receptor and adenylate cyclase from wild ... Gilman, AG (1984). "G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase". Cell. 36 (3): 577-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90336-2. ...
... adenylate cyclase MeSH D08.811.520.650.200.040 - adenylate cyclase toxin MeSH D08.811.520.650.600 - guanylate cyclase MeSH ... adp-ribosyl cyclase MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.680 - pertussis toxin MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.690 - poly(adp-ribose) ... cholera toxin MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.220 - diphtheria toxin MeSH D08.811.913.400.725.115.660 - nad+ nucleosidase MeSH ... adp-ribosyl cyclase MeSH D08.811.277.450.737.400.060.500 - antigens, cd38 MeSH D08.811.277.450.770 - oligo-1,6-glucosidase MeSH ...
alignment) Ahuja N, Kumar P, Bhatnagar R (2004). "The adenylate cyclase toxins". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 30 (3): 187- ... Adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1, also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with ... Interactive 3D views of Adenylate cyclase at Proteopedia Adenylyl_cyclase Biology portal. ... These adenylyl cyclases are toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, ...
Carbonetti, N. H. (2010). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin: Key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell ... AB5 Toxins Biochemistry Cholera toxin Pertussis toxin Shiga toxin Subtilase Le Nours, J.; Paton, A. W.; Byres, E.; Troy, S.; ... Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. After their B subunit binds ... Under the categorize-by-A rule, it is a Ptx-family toxin. Shiga toxin, also known as Stx, is a toxin that is produced by the ...
Bagley K, Abdelwahab S, Tuskan R, Fouts T, Lewis G (2002). "Pertussis toxin and the adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella ... Carbonetti NH (2010). "Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin: key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell ... The Gi subunits remain locked in their GDP-bound, inactive state, thus unable to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity, leading to ... Pertussis toxin is an exotoxin with six subunits (named S1 through S5-each complex contains two copies of S4). The subunits are ...
"Membrane restructuring by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, a member of the RTX toxin family". Journal of ... Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT or CyaA), is a primary virulence factor in Bordetella pertussis. CyaA is a multifunctional RTX ... The C-terminal domain of the adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT or CyaA; TC# 1.C.11.1.4) of Bordetella pertussis forms a small cation ... Bumba, Ladislav; Jiri Masin; Radovan Fiser; Peter Sebo (2010). "Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Mobilizes Its b2 Integrin ...
... also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. It is a toxin secreted by the bacteria to influence the host immune system. Adenylate ... "Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme ... Antobodies against adenylate cyclase toxin are also present in the serum of humans infected with B. pertussis. Adenylate ... Genetically detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin also serves in promoting the Th1/Th17 response, acting as an adjuvant. Adenylate ...
Subunit B binds while subunit A activates the G protein which activates adenylate cyclase. The three-dimensional structure of ... Cholera toxin acts by the following mechanism: First, the B subunit ring of the cholera toxin binds to GM1 gangliosides on the ... Cholera toxin was discovered in 1959 by Indian microbiologist Sambhu Nath De. The complete toxin is a hexamer made up of a ... Increased Gαs activation leads to increased adenylate cyclase activity, which increases the intracellular concentration of 3',5 ...
Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the purified regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. J Biol ... The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and properties. J Biol Chem. 1981 Nov 25;256(22):11517-26. PMID ... Molecular cloning of complementary DNA for the alpha subunit of the G protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase. Science. 1985 ... The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and properties of the turkey erythrocyte protein. J Biol Chem. 1981 ...
EF acts as a Ca2+ and calmodulin dependent adenylate cyclase that greatly increases the level of cAMP in the cell. This ... the tripartite protein toxin, called anthrax toxin. Anthrax toxin is a mixture of three protein components: (i) protective ... The toxin was first discovered by Harry Smith in 1954. Anthrax toxin is composed of a cell-binding protein, known as protective ... The toxin may even induce cell lysis, as is observed for macrophage cells. Anthrax toxin allows the bacteria to evade the ...
"Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the purified regulatory component of adenylate cyclase". 》The ... Gilman, AG (1984). "G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase". 》Cell》 36 (3): 577-9. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(84)90336-2. ... Sternweis, PC; Northup, JK; Smigel, MD; Gilman, AG (1981). "The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. Purification and ... Hanski, E; Sternweis, PC; Northup, JK; Dromerick, AW; Gilman, AG (1981). "The regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. ...
"Pertussis toxin and adenylate cyclase toxin: key virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis and cell biology tools". Future ... "cough toxin".[33] Pertussis toxin causes lymphocytosis by an unknown mechanism. The elevated number of white blood cells leads ... The bacteria secrete a number of toxins. Tracheal cytotoxin, a fragment of peptidoglycan, kills ciliated epithelial cells and ... adults and adolescents who have already been infected for several weeks to determine whether antibody against pertussis toxin ...
... adenylate cyclase toxin MeSH D23.946.896.980.690 - pertussis toxin The list continues at List of MeSH codes (D25).. ... tetanus toxin MeSH D23.946.123.946 - virulence factors, bordetella MeSH D23.946.123.946.040 - adenylate cyclase toxin MeSH ... shiga toxins MeSH D23.946.123.794.100 - shiga-like toxin i MeSH D23.946.123.794.124 - shiga-like toxin ii MeSH D23.946.123.794. ... shiga toxins MeSH D23.946.330.575.120 - shiga-like toxin i MeSH D23.946.330.575.124 - shiga-like toxin ii MeSH D23.946.330.575. ...
... and adenylate cyclase hemolysin with antiphagocytic activity. The osteotoxin is known to be cytotoxic for osteogenic cells and ... Bordetellae species produce two conserved toxins with a variety of additional toxins, individual to each species. Unlike other ... Identified cytotoxins produced by B. avium include an osteotoxin, a tracheal cytotoxin, a non-proteolytic dermonecrotic toxin ...
... of adenylate cyclases after his laboratory successfully cloned and sequenced the genes of adenylyl cyclase toxins from the ... He is best known for his research in several fields of biology, from the structure and function of adenylate cyclase, to ... 27:109-162 Glaser P, Ladant D, Sezer O, Pichot F, Ullmann A, Danchin A. (1988) The calmodulin-sensitive adenylate cyclase of ... Structural homology between virulence-associated bacterial adenylate cyclases. Gene. 71:293-298 Danchin A. (2002) Not every ...
Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin. *Extracellular adenylate cyclase ... Microbial toxins. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin produced by Clostridium botulinum is the cause of botulism.[17] Humans most commonly ingest the toxin from ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase. Mechanisms. *type I *Superantigen. *type II *Pore-forming toxin ... Microbial toxins. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e f g Montecucco C, Molgó J (June 2005). "Botulinal neurotoxins: revival of an ... Toxin production[edit]. Botulism toxins are produced by bacteria of the genus Clostridium, namely Clostridium botulinum, C. ... Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of problems. Muscle spasticity[edit]. Botulinum toxin is used to treat a number of ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase. Mechanisms. *type I *Superantigen. *type II *Pore-forming toxin ... "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 13 ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation).. A toxin (from Ancient Greek: τοξικόν, translit. toxikon) is a poisonous substance ... 3 Environmental toxins *3.1 Finding information about toxins. *3.2 Computational resources for prediction of toxic peptides and ...
Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin. *Extracellular adenylate cyclase ... "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Retrieved 13 ... Environmental toxins[edit]. See also: Environmental toxicology. The term "environmental toxin" can sometimes explicitly include ... Toxins are often distinguished from other chemical agents by their method of production-the word toxin does not specify method ...
Like Bordetella pertussis, it forms a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase exotoxin known as anthrax edema factor, along with ... The lethal toxin is a combination of PA with LF and the edema toxin is a combination of PA with EF. The PAI also contains genes ... The organism also produces three plasmid-coded exotoxins: edema factor, a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase that causes ... The enterotoxins and virulence factors are encoded on the chromosome, while the emetic toxin is encoded on a 270-kb plasmid, ...
The mechanism of action appears to be the inhibition of adenylate cyclase in sensitive cells. Affected cells are arrested in G1 ... the smut fungus produces killer toxin Kp4 family fungal killer toxins. Debaryomyces hansenii The susceptibility to toxins ... Breinig, Sendzik, Eisfeld and Schmitt (2006) showed that K28 toxin is neutralized in toxin-expressing cells by the α chain in ... The methods were not effective at reducing toxin production in other yeast species. Many toxins are sensitive to pH levels; for ...
This will lock it in the active state and it will continuously stimulate adenylate cyclase. The sustained adenylate cyclase ... The bacteria Vibrio cholerae produces a multimeric toxin called the cholera toxin. The secreted toxin attaches to the surface ... Besides its function in the physiology of the brain, GM1 acts as the site of binding for both cholera toxin and E. coli heat- ... The A1 subunit of this toxin will gain entry to intestinal epithelial cells with the assistance of the B subunit via the GM1 ...
Cholera toxin · Pertussis toxin · Pseudomonas exotoxin · Extracellular adenylate cyclase ... "toxin" tại Từ điển Y học Dorland *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary". Truy cập ngày 13 tháng 12 ... type I (Superantigen) · type II (Pore forming toxins) · type III (AB toxin/AB5) ... Shiga toxin · Verotoxin/shiga-like toxin (E. coli) · E. coli heat-stable enterotoxin/enterotoxin · ...
... through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein leading to the constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase. ... These toxins consist of an AB5 multimer structure, in which a pentamer of B chains has a membrane-binding function and an A ... The cholera toxin is carried by the CTXφ bacteriophage and may be isolated from plasmids. The E. coli LT (elt) is similarly ... The B subunits of toxins in this family is relatively harmless on its own. CtxB is routinely used as a neuronal tracer. Elt-IB ...
Glucagon activates adenylate cyclase through a seven transmembrane receptor coupled to Gs which, in turn, activates adenylate ... cyclase to increase intracellular concentrations of cAMP. cAMP binds to and releases an active form of protein kinase A (PKA). ... Diphtheria toxin. *NAD(P)+:arginine ADP-ribosyltransferase *Pertussis toxin. *Cholera toxin. *Poly ADP ribose polymerase ...
... a new understanding of many physiological and pathological phenomena including circulatory shock induced by venoms and toxins ...
... signaling and short circuit current in the intestinal epithelia by inhibiting the expression of adenylate cyclase.". J. Biol. ... and prostaglandin E1 via a cholera toxin-sensitive mechanism in human erythroleukemia cells.". Mol. Pharmacol. 45 (6): 1160-7. ...
This sends a signal to increase adenylate cyclase activity, which leads to increased synthesis of cyclic adenosine ... Drug- and toxin-induced (e.g., methamphetamine use [23] ). *Associated conditions:Connective tissue disease, HIV infection, ... Activators of soluble guanylate cyclase[edit]. Soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) is the intracellular receptor for NO. As of ... Nitric oxide-soluble guanylate cyclase pathway[edit]. In normal conditions, the vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase. Dengan mekanisme. jenis I (Superantigen) · jenis II (Pore forming toxins) · jenis III (Toksin ... Simpson, L. L. (1986) "Molecular Pharmacology of Botulinum Toxin and Tetanus Toxin." Annual Review of Pharmacology and ... "Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon." The Journal of the Americal Medical Association, 285 ... "Extrafusal and Intrafusal Muscle Effects in Experimental Botulinum Toxin-A Injection." Muscle & Nerve, 19 (4): 488-96. ...
Adenylate cyclase. *Adonitol. *Aidréanailín Adrenaline, epinephrine. *Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). *Aequorin. * ... T2 Toxin. *Aigéad tainneach Tannic acid. *Tannin. *Aigéad tartarach Tartaric acid. *Taurine ...
Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin. *Extracellular adenylate cyclase ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Cardiotoxin III (CTX III, also known as cytotoxin 3) is a sixty amino-acid polypeptide toxin from the Taiwan Cobra Naja atra. ... Snake toxin-like (2 families) - Orientations of Proteins in Membranes (OPM) database". Retrieved 2008-12-13.. .mw-parser-output ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase. Mechanisms. *type I *Superantigen. *type II *Pore-forming toxin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Histrionicotoxins are a group of related toxins found in the skin of poison frogs from the family Dendrobatidae, notably ...
The M2 and M4 subtypes are Gi/Go-coupled; they decrease intracellular levels of cAMP by inhibiting adenylate cyclase. Their ... Numerous venoms and toxins produced by plants, animals, and bacteria, as well as chemical nerve agents such as Sarin, cause ... Botulinum toxin (Botox) acts by suppressing the release of acetylcholine, whereas the venom from a black widow spider (alpha- ... Many toxins and venoms produced by plants and animals also contain cholinesterase inhibitors. In clinical use, they are ...
adenylate cyclase-modulating G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway. • maternal process involved in female pregnancy. • G ... stereoselective and pertussis toxin-sensitive manner.[13] The CB1 receptor is activated by cannabinoids, generated naturally ... Alternatively, in some rare cases CB1 receptor activation may be coupled to Gs proteins, which stimulate adenylate cyclase.[10] ... adenylate cyclase, and increases mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) concentration. ...
Cholera toxin/Heat-labile enterotoxin. *Pertussis toxin. *Pseudomonas exotoxin. *Extracellular adenylate cyclase ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Nevertheless, they appear much less capable of causing mutagenesis than the unmetabolized toxin.[19] ... and the possibility of concurrent exposure to other toxins. The main target organ in mammals is the liver, so aflatoxicosis ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase. Mechanisms. *type I *Superantigen. *type II *Pore-forming toxin ... Its adult length can range from 5 to 8 in (13 to 20 cm).[1] Its skin produces a potent toxin[citation needed]. ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... This evolutionary arms race has resulted in the newts producing levels of toxin far in excess of what is needed to kill any ...
cholera toxin - increases cAMP levels. *forskolin - a diterpene natural product that activates adenylyl cyclase ... In the field of molecular biology, the cAMP-dependent pathway, also known as the adenylyl cyclase pathway, is a G protein- ... pertussis toxin, which increases cAMP levels by inhibiting Gi to its GDP (inactive) form. This leads to an increase in adenylyl ... Hanoune J, Defer N (2001). "Regulation and role of adenylyl cyclase isoforms". Annu. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 41: 145-74. doi: ...
... through ADP-ribosylation of the alpha-subunit of a Gs protein leading to the constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase. ... Heat-labile enterotoxin is a type of labile toxin found in Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... In addition to its effects on chloride secretion, which involve the same steps as the effects of cholera toxin, heat-labile ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase. Mechanisms. *type I *Superantigen. *type II *Pore-forming toxin ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... Possani, L.D.; Becerrill, B.; Delepierre, M.; Tytgat Hammock, J. (1999). "Scorpion toxins specific for Na+-channels". European ... Gordon, D.; Savarin, P.; Gurevitz, M.; Zinn-Justin, S. (1998). "Functional anatomy of scorpion toxins affecting sodium channels ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase. Mechanisms. *type I *Superantigen. *type II *Pore-forming toxin ... ডোরল্যান্ডের চিকিৎসাশাস্ত্র অভিধানে "toxin" *↑ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary"। সংগ্রহের তারিখ ... note: some toxins are produced by lower species and pass through intermediate species ... The Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases. *ToxSeek: Meta-search engine in toxicology and ...
Extracellular adenylate cyclase. Mechanisms. *type I *Superantigen. *type II *Pore-forming toxin ... It is also called spasmogenic toxin, or TeNT. The LD50 of this toxin has been measured to be approximately 2.5-3 ng/kg,[2][3] ... making it second only to botulinum toxin (LD50 2 ng/kg)[4] as the deadliest toxin in the world. However, these tests are ... Tetanus toxin is an extremely potent neurotoxin produced by the vegetative cell of Clostridium tetani[1] in anaerobic ...
The increased adenylate cyclase activity affects genetic expression in the nerve cell, which takes time. Hence antipsychotic ... Biological tests should be performed to exclude psychosis associated with or caused by substance use, medication, toxins, ... While dopamine receptor D2 suppresses adenylate cyclase activity, the D1 receptor increases it. If D2-blocking drugs are ... and toxins as causes of symptoms of psychosis before any psychiatric illness can be diagnosed.[2] In medical training, ...
"Muscarinic m1 receptor-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity in Chinese hamster ovary cells is mediated by Gs alpha and is not ... G proteins are also classified according to their susceptibility to cholera toxin (CTX) and pertussis toxin (PTX, whooping ... Servent D, Blanchet G, Mourier G, Marquer C, Marcon E, Fruchart-Gaillard C (November 2011). "Muscarinic toxins". Toxicon. 58 (6 ... Karlsson E, Jolkkonen M, Mulugeta E, Onali P, Adem A (September 2000). "Snake toxins with high selectivity for subtypes of ...
Mono-ADP-ribosylation was first identified as the mechanism of a group of bacterial toxins, notably cholera toxin, but it is ... An adenylate moiety is then transferred to form nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide (NaAD). Finally, the nicotinic acid moiety ... by ADP-ribosyl cyclases, as part of a second messenger system.[60] This molecule acts in calcium signaling by releasing calcium ...
... also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. It is a toxin secreted by the bacteria to influence the host immune system. Adenylate ... "Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: a unique combination of a pore-forming moiety with a cell-invading adenylate cyclase enzyme ... Antobodies against adenylate cyclase toxin are also present in the serum of humans infected with B. pertussis. Adenylate ... Genetically detoxified adenylate cyclase toxin also serves in promoting the Th1/Th17 response, acting as an adjuvant. Adenylate ...
Abstract The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. CyaA ... Mechanism of action of adenylate cyclase toxin on immune function of dendritic cells. *Detail práce ... Mechanism of action of adenylate cyclase toxin on immune function of dendritic cells ... An enzymatically inactive adenylate cyclase toxoid (CyaA-AC-) has then been abundantly used as an efficient antigen delivery ...
Effect of Different Forms of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin of Bordetella pertussis on Protection Afforded by an Acellular Pertussis ... Effect of Different Forms of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin of Bordetella pertussis on Protection Afforded by an Acellular Pertussis ... Effect of Different Forms of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin of Bordetella pertussis on Protection Afforded by an Acellular Pertussis ... Effect of Different Forms of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin of Bordetella pertussis on Protection Afforded by an Acellular Pertussis ...
Effects of pertussis toxin on adenylate cyclase responses to prostaglandin E2 and calcitonin in human breast cancer cells. V P ... of adenylate cyclase, there was no change in basal or calcitonin-responsive adenylate cyclase in intact cells. However, the ... Effects of pertussis toxin on adenylate cyclase responses to prostaglandin E2 and calcitonin in human breast cancer cells ... Effects of pertussis toxin on adenylate cyclase responses to prostaglandin E2 and calcitonin in human breast cancer cells ...
... block the entry of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase toxin but not that of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin. ... 1990 Adenylate cyclase toxin is critical for colonization and pertussis toxin is critical for lethal infection by Bordetella ... 2004 Membrane restructuring by Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin, a member of the RTX toxin family. J Bacteriol 186 ... 2001 Translocation-specific conformation of adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis inhibits toxin-mediated hemolysis ...
Ross, P.J., Lavelle, E.C., Mills, K.H.G. and A.P. Boyd `Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis synergises with ... Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis synergises with lipopolysaccharide to promote innate IL-10 production and ... Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis can subvert host immune responses allowing bacterial colonization. ... Adenylate Cyclase Toxin from Bordetella pertussis Synergizes with Lipopolysaccharide To Promote Innate Interleukin-10 ...
Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis belongs to the repeat in toxin family of pore-forming toxins, which ... Boyd, A.P., Ross, P.J., Conroy, H., Mahon, N Lavelle, E.C.and Mills, K.H.G. `Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin ... Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates innate and adaptive immune responses: distinct roles for acylation and ... Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates innate and adaptive immune responses - distinct roles for acylation and ...
Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) penetrates the cytoplasmic membrane of phagocytes and employs two distinct ... Calcium influx rescues adenylate cyclase-hemolysin from rapid cell membrane removal and enables phagocyte permeabilization by ... translocates the adenylate cyclase enzyme (AC) domain into cells and converts cytosolic ATP to cAMP. We show that the calcium- ... Hence, by mediating calcium influx into cells, the translocating conformer of CyaA controls the removal of bystander toxin ...
The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is one of the major virulence factors of , the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA is ... Toxins (Basel) 2018 Jul;10(7). The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is one of the major virulence factors of , the causative ... we summarize the basic knowledge on the adenylate cyclase toxin and then describe the application of CyaA in vaccinology, ... Published in Toxins - 20 Jul 2018. Chenal A, Ladant D. Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 30037010 ...
... myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 and delivers into their cytosol its N-terminal adenylate cyclase enzyme ... The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis is a bi-functional leukotoxin. It penetrates ... The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis is a bi-functional leukotoxin. It penetrates myeloid ... Pore-formation by adenylate cyclase toxoid activates dendritic cells to prime CD8+ and CD4+ T cells Immunol Cell Biol. 2016 Apr ...
One of these factors, adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), has been implicated to penetrate human neutrophils and macrophages and ... In order to adequately study the nature of ACT and its role in pathogenesis, it is necessary to isolate the toxin from other ...
This coordinated disruption of the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst by anthrax toxins may contribute to toxin-dependent barrier disruption ... Tests in human endothelial cells indicate that the toxins have a similar effect on Rab11/Sec15 activity and Notch signalling. ... In human endothelial cells, the two toxins act in a conserved fashion to block formation of Sec15 vesicles, inhibit Notch ... Using Drosophila melanogaster as a model system, these authors show that these toxins interact with the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst, ...
AC toxin) is necessary for disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which has reemerged in the United States over the last two ... Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: the role of cell interaction in toxin functio Eby, Joshua Clark University of Virginia, ... The toxin molecule is a unique hybrid of an adenylate cyclase enzyme and a binding domain homologous to the repeats-in-toxin ( ... Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin: the role of cell interaction in toxin functio. Eby, Joshua Clark / University of Virginia. ...
Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin mediates translocation of its adenylate cyclase domain. David González- ... Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin mediates translocation of its adenylate cyclase domain ... Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) delivers its catalytic domain directly across the cell membrane by an ... Numerous bacterial toxins can cross cell membranes, penetrating the cytosol of their target cells, but to do so exploits ...
The presence of receptors for the novel neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been ... The effect of PACAP38 on inositol phosphate formation was significantly reduced by U-73122 and by pertussis toxin, indicating ... Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) stimulates adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C activity in rat ... The presence of receptors for the novel neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been ...
Purchase The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins - 4th Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128001882, ... His other research interests include the other class II bacterial adenylate cyclase toxins, such as Edema Factor (EF) from ... Descriptions of relevant toxins as well as representative toxins of the main bacterial toxin families to allow for a better ... using as a model system a bacterial toxin, the adenylate cyclase (CyaA) produced by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent ...
Abstract: The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) plays a key role in virulence of Bordetella pertussis. CyaA penetrates various ... Title: Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin manipulates the epithelial innate defense mechanisms and disrupts the barrier ... CyaA toxin-catalyzed synthesis of cAMP thus compromised the epithelial barrier integrity and yielded immunomodulatory cytokine ... while expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 genes was enhanced in 1 h and 6 h of CyaA toxin treatment, respectively. ...
Phosphoproteomics of cAMP signaling of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin in mouse dendritic cells *Jakub Novák ... Rights & permissionsfor article Phosphoproteomics of cAMP signaling of ,i,Bordetella,/i, adenylate cyclase toxin in mouse ... Human CD45 is an F-component-specific receptor for the staphylococcal toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin *Angelino T. Tromp ... Rights & permissionsfor article Human CD45 is an F-component-specific receptor for the staphylococcal toxin Panton-Valentine ...
Dive into the research topics of The eukaryotic host factor 14-3-3 inactivates adenylate cyclase toxins of Bordetella ... The eukaryotic host factor 14-3-3 inactivates adenylate cyclase toxins of Bordetella bronchiseptica and B. Parapertussis, but ...
This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the ... Ca2+ Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression ... which suggests the mounting of an anti-toxin cell repair-response, very likely involving the toxin elimination from the cell ... into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. ...
Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... Ca2 Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin ACT Endocytosis. Cell Physiology and Expression of ... This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin ACT which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the ...
Cholera toxin augmented epinephrine response to adenylate cyclase not decreased after prolonged in vitro incubation of isolated ... Cholera toxin augmented epinephrine response to adenylate cyclase not decreased after prol ... Adenylyl Cyclases/metabolism , Adipose Tissue/drug effects , Animals , Cell Membrane/drug effects , Cholera Toxin/pharmacology ... Full text: Available Index: IMSEAR (South-East Asia) Main subject: Epinephrine / Cell Membrane / Adenylyl Cyclases / Adipose ...
Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin? Jiri Masin, Radim Osicka, Ladislav Bumba, and Peter Sebo ...
One of the most important of the regulated toxins is adenylate cyclase toxin, which aids in the evasion of innate immunity. The ... Gray MC, Donato GM, Jones FR, Kim T, Hewlett EL (2004). "Newly secreted adenylate cyclase toxin is responsible for intoxication ... Hewlett EL, Donato GM, Gray MC (2006). "Macrophage cytotoxicity produced by adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis: ... Recently discovered activities of adenylate cyclase toxin, including transmembrane pore formation and stimulation of calcium ...
... of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate cyclase. Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 175, 1-16. ... Selective blockage by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate ... Selective blockage by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate ... Selective blockage by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate ...
alignment) Ahuja N, Kumar P, Bhatnagar R (2004). "The adenylate cyclase toxins". Critical Reviews in Microbiology. 30 (3): 187- ... Adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1, also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with ... Interactive 3D views of Adenylate cyclase at Proteopedia Adenylyl_cyclase Biology portal. ... These adenylyl cyclases are toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, ...
... block the entry of Bacillus anthracis adenylate cyclase toxin but not that of Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin. ... Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis. Conformational change associated with toxin activity. ... Hemolytic activity of adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis.. Ehrmann IE, Gray MC, Gordon VM, Gray LS, Hewlett EL. ... Adenylate cyclase toxins from Bacillus anthracis and Bordetella pertussis. Different processes for interaction with and entry ...
They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic ... A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of ...
They include filamentous hemagglutinin; FIMBRIAE PROTEINS; pertactin; PERTUSSIS TOXIN; ADENYLATE CYCLASE TOXIN; dermonecrotic ... A set of BACTERIAL ADHESINS and TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL produced by BORDETELLA organisms that determine the pathogenesis of ...
Treatment of the adenylate cyclase with cholera toxin caused a decrease of 96% in the rate constant of the turn-off reaction. ... The regulatory GTPase cycle of turkey erythrocyte adenylate cyclase.. Cassel D, Levkovitz H, Selinger Z. ... It has recently been suggested that adenylate cyclase activity is controlled by a regulatory cycle consisting of two reactions ... a hormone induced formation of the active adenylate cyclase-GTP complex, and a subsequent turn-off reaction in which hydrolysis ...
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin is a virulence factor produced by some members of the genus Bordetella. (wikipedia.org)
  • Together with the pertussis toxin it is the most important virulence factor of the causative agent of whooping cough, Bordetella pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bordetella bronchiseptica and Bordetella parapertussis, also able to cause pertussis-like symptoms, also produce adenylate cyclase toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis is a 1706 amino acid residue long protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Differences between the toxins of different Bordetella species are mainly in the calcium-binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abstrakt Adenylátcyklázový toxin (CyaA) je klíčovým faktorem virulence bakterie Bordetella pertusis, která je původcem černého kašle. (cuni.cz)
  • Abstract The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is a key virulence factor of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis. (cuni.cz)
  • Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) binds the α M β 2 integrin (CD11b/CD18, Mac-1, or CR3) of myeloid phagocytes and delivers into their cytosol an adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme that converts ATP into the key signaling molecule cAMP. (prolekare.cz)
  • Ross, P.J., Lavelle, E.C., Mills, K.H.G. and A.P. Boyd `Adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis synergises with lipopolysaccharide to promote innate IL-10 production and enhance the induction of Th2 and regulatory T cells? (tcd.ie)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) from Bordetella pertussis can subvert host immune responses allowing bacterial colonization. (tcd.ie)
  • Boyd, A.P., Ross, P.J., Conroy, H., Mahon, N Lavelle, E.C.and Mills, K.H.G. `Bordetella pertussis adenylate cyclase toxin modulates innate and adaptive immune responses: distinct roles for acylation and enzymatic activity in immunomodulation and cell death? (tcd.ie)
  • Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis belongs to the repeat in toxin family of pore-forming toxins, which require posttranslational acylation to lyse eukaryotic cells. (tcd.ie)
  • Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) penetrates the cytoplasmic membrane of phagocytes and employs two distinct conformers to exert its multiple activities. (pasteur.fr)
  • Purification and characterization of adenylate cyclase toxin from Bordetella pertussis. (arizona.edu)
  • The adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA) of Bordetella pertussis is a bi-functional leukotoxin. (nih.gov)
  • The adenylate cyclase toxin (AC toxin) is necessary for disease caused by Bordetella pertussis, which has reemerged in the United States over the last two decades. (grantome.com)
  • AC toxin is expressed by seven of eight species of Bordetella which cause respiratory disease in humans and a range of animals. (grantome.com)
  • My mentor, Dr. Erik Hewlett, with over 25 years of experience"""""""" studying Bordetella pertussis, is a preeminent scientist in the field of bacterial toxins. (grantome.com)
  • AC toxin is expressed by seven of the eight species of Bordetella and is also a member of the RTX family of pore-forming bacterial protein toxins that are produced by other pathogenic bacteria such as uropathogenic Escherichia coli. (grantome.com)
  • Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin manipulates the epithelial innate defense mechanisms and disrupts the barrier function of differentiated lung epithelial cells. (hi.is)
  • Ca2+ Influx and Tyrosine Kinases Trigger Bordetella Adenylate Cyclase Toxin (ACT) Endocytosis. (ehu.es)
  • Unlike most other Bordetella toxins, tracheal cytotoxin is expressed constitutively, being a normal product of the breakdown of the bacterial cell wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • The expression of many Bordetella adhesins and toxins is controlled by the two-component regulatory system BvgAS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Temporal expression of pertussis toxin and Ptl secretion proteins by Bordetella pertussis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These adenylyl cyclases are toxins secreted by pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Vibrio vulnificus during infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pertussis toxin is secreted by the gram-negative bacterium, Bordetella pertussis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Journal Article] Polymorphisms Influencing Expression of Dermonecrotic Toxin in Bordetella bronchiseptica. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Recombinant microbial ADP-ribosylating toxins of Bordetella pertussis, Vibrio cholerae, and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli: structure, function, and toxoid vaccine development. (usc.edu)
  • Bordetella pertussis , the etiologic agent of whooping cough, produces numerous toxins including Pertussis Toxin, Adenylate Cyclase Toxin, Dermonecrotic Toxin and Tracheal Cytotoxin (Ref.1, 2 & 3). (proteinlounge.com)
  • Cholera toxin augmented epinephrine response to adenylate cyclase not decreased after prolonged in vitro incubation of isolated fat cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • Craig SW, Cuatrecasas P. Mobility of cholera toxin receptors on rat lymphocyte membranes. (springer.com)
  • Sahyoun N, Cuatrecasas P. Mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase by cholera toxin. (springer.com)
  • Bennett V, O'Keefe E, Cuatrecasas P. Mechanism of action of cholera toxin and the mobile receptor theory of hormone receptor-adenylate cyclase interactions. (springer.com)
  • Craig SW, Cuatrecasas P. Immunological probes into the mechanism of cholera toxin action. (springer.com)
  • Cholera toxin is an infectious toxin composed of a protein complex that is secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domain A1 (approximately 22kDa in cholera toxin or heat labile enterotoxins) is the part of the toxin responsible for its toxic effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Domain A2 (approximately 5kDa in cholera toxin or heat labile enterotoxin) provides a non-covalent linkage to the B subunit through the B subunit's central pore. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A1 chain for cholera toxin catalyzes the transfer of ADP-ribose from Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide(NAD) to arginine or other guanidine compounds by utilizing ADP-ribosylation factors (ARFs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera toxin, shiga toxin, and SubAB toxin all have B subunits that are made up of five identical protein components, meaning that their B subunits are homopentamers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cholera toxin, pertussis toxin, and shiga toxin all have their targets in the cytosol of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Requirements for cholera toxin-dependent ADP-ribosylation of the purified regulatory component of adenylate cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 50,000 g myometrial plasma membrane fraction, in the presence of 32P-labelled NAD, cholera toxin ribosylated three predominant proteins with apparent molecular masses of 42, 47 and 55 kDa. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Western blot analysis using the RM/1 antibody recognized the 42 and 47 kDa cholera toxin ADP-ribosylated bands but not the 55 kDa band. (biomedsearch.com)
  • 0.01) with the cholera toxin-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Molecular engineering of cholera toxin. (usc.edu)
  • Construction and characterization of recombinant Vibrio cholerae strains producing inactive cholera toxin analogs. (usc.edu)
  • Site-specific mutagenesis of the catalytic subunit of cholera toxin: substituting lysine for arginine 7 causes loss of activity. (usc.edu)
  • Cholera toxin (CT) is the prototype for the Vibrio cholerae - Escherichia coli family of heat-labile enterotoxins having an AB5 structure. (asm.org)
  • The massive diarrhea characteristic of the disease cholera is in large part due to the action of cholera toxin (CT), produced by Vibrio cholerae of serogroup O1. (asm.org)
  • 5-hydroxytryptamine release into human jejunum by cholera toxin. (bmj.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin produces intestinal secretion by activation of the adenylate cyclase complex. (bmj.com)
  • However animal studies have shown 5-hydroxytryptamine may be released after exposure to cholera toxin, and thereby contribute to the secretory state. (bmj.com)
  • AIM: To determine whether cholera toxin releases 5-hydroxytryptamine in human jejunum. (bmj.com)
  • SUBJECTS: Seven male subjects were given a subclinical dose of cholera toxin in a paired, controlled, randomised, double blind study. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS: A closed 10 cm segment of upper jejunum was exposed to 15 micrograms of cholera toxin for two hours prior to closed segment perfusion with plasma electrolyte solution containing a non-absorbable volume marker, [14C]-polyethylene glycol. (bmj.com)
  • 5-Hydroxytryptamine in jejunal effluent and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine (up to seven hours after cholera toxin) were measured by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection. (bmj.com)
  • RESULTS: In contrast with controls, all subjects secreted fluid in response to cholera toxin, median-2.1 ml/cm/h (interquartile range-4.1 to -0.1). (bmj.com)
  • During seven hours following cholera toxin, 5-hydroxytryptamine was secreted into the lumen (range 31 to 395 nmol/l) but not in control experiments. (bmj.com)
  • After exposure to cholera toxin median urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid was 5.7 (4.1 to 6.3), which was similar to controls 4.9 (4.1 to 6.3), which was similar to controls 4.9 (4.1 to 6.2). (bmj.com)
  • CONCLUSION: Thus, cholera toxin induced a secretory state and promoted the release of 5-hydroxytryptamine into the intestinal lumen, but quantitative changes in urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid were not detectable. (bmj.com)
  • As an intestinal secretagogue, these findings suggest that 5-hydroxytryptamine may play a part in mediating cholera toxin induced secretion in humans. (bmj.com)
  • Structured clustering of the glycosphingolipid GM1 is required for membrane curvature induced by cholera toxin. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Royal JM, Oh YJ, Grey MJ, Lencer WI, Ronquillo N, Galandiuk S, Matoba N. A modified cholera toxin B subunit containing an ER retention motif enhances colon epithelial repair via an unfolded protein response. (childrenshospital.org)
  • Glycolipid Crosslinking Is Required for Cholera Toxin to Partition Into and Stabilize Ordered Domains. (childrenshospital.org)
  • An enzymatically inactive adenylate cyclase toxoid (CyaA-AC-) has then been abundantly used as an efficient antigen delivery tool over the past 20 years. (cuni.cz)
  • This work focused mainly on the mechanism of action of CyaA toxin and of its toxoid on dendritic cells. (cuni.cz)
  • The secreted adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT, or AC-Hly) plays a key role in virulence of Bordetellae . (prolekare.cz)
  • The adenylate cyclase activity of CyaA was necessary for its modulatory effects on murine innate immune cells. (tcd.ie)
  • The wild-type acylated toxin (A-CyaA) and nonacylated CyaA (NA-CyaA), but not CyaA with an inactive adenylate cyclase domain (iAC-CyaA), enhanced TLR-ligand-induced IL-10 and inhibited IL-12, TNF-, and CCL3 production by macrophages and DC. (tcd.ie)
  • We show that the calcium-conducting activity of CyaA controls the path and kinetics of endocytic removal of toxin pores from phagocyte membrane. (pasteur.fr)
  • The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is one of the major virulence factors of , the causative agent of whooping cough. (pasteur.fr)
  • The CyaA toxin is a 1706 residues-long bifunctional protein: the catalytic domain is located in the 400 amino-proximal residues, whereas the carboxy-terminal 1306 residues are implicated in toxin binding to the cellular receptor, the αβ₂ (CD11b/CD18) integrin, and subsequently in the translocation of the catalytic domain across the cytoplasmic membrane of the target cells. (pasteur.fr)
  • These properties have been exploited to engineer the CyaA toxin as a potent non-replicating vector able to deliver antigens into antigen presenting cells and elicit specific cell-mediated immune responses. (pasteur.fr)
  • We examined here the effects of CyaA toxin action on respiratory epithelium using the air-liquid interface (ALI) differentiated human bronchial epithelial cell line VA10. (hi.is)
  • The mRNA for the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-8 was downregulated, while expression of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 genes was enhanced in 1 h and 6 h of CyaA toxin treatment, respectively. (hi.is)
  • CyaA toxin-catalyzed synthesis of cAMP thus compromised the epithelial barrier integrity and yielded immunomodulatory cytokine signalling of ALI-differentiated bronchial epithelial cells. (hi.is)
  • The genes for Class II ACs are known as cyaA, one of which is anthrax toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of PACAP38 on inositol phosphate formation was significantly reduced by U-73122 and by pertussis toxin, indicating that activation of PACAP receptors causes stimulation of a phospholipase C through a pertussis toxin-sensitive G protein. (nih.gov)
  • The best evidence for this comes from studies which demonstrate that NPR-C reduces adenylyl cyclase activity in selected cellular and membrane preparations through a pertussis toxin-sensitive mechanism. (ahajournals.org)
  • The activity of this receptor is mediated by pertussis toxin sensitive G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity. (abcam.com)
  • Stimulation of proliferation is most often associated with activation of G-proteins negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase (G i ), or positively coupled to phospholipase C (G q ) or to pertussis toxin-sensitive pathways (G o , G i ). (thermofisher.com)
  • The toxin is secreted by the Type I secretion system, which spans both membranes and periplasm space, allowing the toxin to be secreted from the cytoplasm straight outside the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thereafter, the bacteria proliferate and spread further into the respiratory tract, where the secretion of toxins causes ciliostasis and facilitates the entry of bacteria to tracheal/bronchial ciliated cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ptl type IV secretion system mediates secretion of assembled toxin past the outer membrane. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The typical RTX toxin is encoded by a four-gene operon comprising, in order, the modifying enzyme, the toxin structural gene, and the two components of the secretion system. (asmscience.org)
  • These mechanisms include bacterial secretion systems, pore-forming toxins, and outer membrane vesicles. (frontiersin.org)
  • Injection of lethal toxin also potently inhibited cytokine secretion by stimulated T cells. (asm.org)
  • The effects of edema toxin on cytokine secretion were more complex and were dependent on the length of time between the injection of edema toxin and the isolation of lymphocytes. (asm.org)
  • Upon entry into enterocytes by endocytosis and following reduction and translocation, CT-A1 ADP-ribosylates a regulatory G-protein (Gsα), which leads to constitutive activation of adenylate cyclase, increased intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP, and secretion of fluid and electrolytes into the lumen of the small intestine ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • We compared the genomes with focus on virulence-associated genes and identified multiple clade-specific, species-specific and strain-specific events of gene acquisition and gene loss, including genes encoding O-antigens, protein secretion systems and bacterial toxins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bennett V, Cuatrecasas P. Mechanism of activation of adenylate cyclase by Vibrio cholerae enterotoxin. (springer.com)
  • A large proportion of the toxin remains associated with the bacterium exterior proteins, mainly filamentous haemagglutinin, but these toxin molecules are not active. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides attachment to bacterial proteins, aggregation also inactivates the toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adenylyl cyclases are often activated or inhibited by G proteins, which are coupled to membrane receptors and thus can respond to hormonal or other stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following activation of adenylyl cyclase, the resulting cAMP acts as a second messenger by interacting with and regulating other proteins such as protein kinase A and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • G proteins and dual control of adenylate cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following this seminal discovery by Smith and Keppie, it has been determined that anthrax toxin is composed of three proteins that when combined in pairwise fashion form two binary toxins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF) [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • A major virulence determinant of anthrax is edema toxin (ET), which is formed by the combination of two proteins produced by the organism, edema factor (EF), which is an adenyl cyclase, and protective antigen (PA). (springer.com)
  • Anthrax toxin, produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis , is composed of three proteins: protective antigen (PA), edema factor (EF), and lethal factor (LF) ( 1 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • Non-steady state kinetic analysis of the regulation of adenylate cyclase by GTP-binding proteins. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The time course of cAMP production by S49 cell membranes in the presence of forskolin and a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog can yield information about the regulation of adenylate cyclase by both the inhibitory and stimulatory GTP-binding proteins (Gi and Gs). (aspetjournals.org)
  • In contrast, M 2 and M 4 mAChRs signal through G i/o proteins to inhibit adenylate cyclase activity and modulate a variety of other ion channels, e.g. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Abbreviations: R AC/Gs = Receptors coupled to G-proteins that stimulate adenylate cyclase (AC) activity, leading to cAMP formation and enhanced activity of protein kinase A (PKA). (thermofisher.com)
  • R AC/Gi = Receptors coupled to pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G-proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity. (thermofisher.com)
  • This multifuctional protein binds the α M β 2 integrin (CD11b/CD18, CR3 or Mac-1) of myeloid phagocytic cells and delivers into their cytosol a calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase enzyme that ablates bactericidal capacities of phagocytes by uncontrolled conversion of cytosolic ATP to the key signaling molecule cAMP [1] - [5] . (prolekare.cz)
  • The toxin is a 1706 residues-long protein, in which a calmodulin-activated adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme domain of ∼400 N-terminal residues is fused to a ∼1300 residue-long RTX (Repeats in ToXin) cytolysin moiety [11] . (prolekare.cz)
  • The toxin molecule is a unique hybrid of an adenylate cyclase enzyme and a binding domain homologous to the repeats-in-toxin (RTX) family of pore-forming bacterial protein toxins. (grantome.com)
  • The Comprehensive Sourcebook of Bacterial Protein Toxins, Fourth Edition, contains chapters written by internationally known and well-respected specialists. (elsevier.com)
  • Given the multifaceted aspects of toxin research and the multidisciplinary approaches adopted, toxins are of great interest in many scientific areas from microbiology, virology, cell biology to biochemistry and protein structure. (elsevier.com)
  • Selective blockage by islet-activating protein, pertussis toxin, of negative signal transduction from receptors to adenylate cyclase. (elsevier.com)
  • Clostridium septicum alpha toxin uses glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein receptors. (nih.gov)
  • Pertussis toxin is an AB(5) toxin comprised of protein subunits S1 through S5. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Their pathogenesis involves polymerization of actin jet trails and invasion of M cells, as well as a protein synthesis inhibiting toxin. (studystack.com)
  • The outside signal (in this case, adrenaline) binds to a receptor, which transmits a signal to the G protein, which transmits a signal to adenylyl cyclase, which transmits a signal by converting adenosine triphosphate to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The AB5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic-uremic syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A complete AB5 toxin complex contains six protein units. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pertussis toxin is different where its pentameric ring is made up of four different protein components, where one of the components is repeated to form a heteropentamer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular cloning of complementary DNA for the alpha subunit of the G protein that stimulates adenylate cyclase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Splice variants of the alpha subunit of the G protein Gs activate both adenylyl cyclase and calcium channels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type-specific regulation of adenylyl cyclase by G protein beta gamma subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • In early manifestations result almost entirely from action of cholera placebo-controlled studies, tetracycline reduced duration toxin, a protein enterotoxin excreted by the bacterial cell. (cdc.gov)
  • Lethal toxin is a metalloprotease that cleaves upstream mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases. (asm.org)
  • EF is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase that forms cyclic AMP (cAMP) from ATP ( 23 ), and LF is a zinc metalloprotease with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinases (MKKs) as the only known substrates ( 10 , 11 , 35 , 50 , 51 ). (asm.org)
  • A correction has been made to section Cyclomodulins: Protein Toxins or Peptide Toxins, subsection Cyclomodulins with Enzymatic Activities, sub-subsection Adenylate cyclase toxin, first paragraph. (frontiersin.org)
  • ACT of B. pertussis is a ~200 kDa protein consisting of two functional domains: an N- terminal adenylate cyclase enzyme domain (AC domain) and a pore-forming or hemolysin domain (Hly domain), which belongs to the RTX (Repeats in Toxin) family ( Carbonetti, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The nonvaccine antigens included the catalytic region of adenylate cyclase toxin (CatACT), the C-terminal region of FHA (C-FHA), lipooligosaccharide (LOS), the peptidoglycan-associated lipoprotein (PAL), and the BrkA protein. (asm.org)
  • NPR-A is a 130-kD membrane protein that harbors intrinsic guanylate cyclase activity. (ahajournals.org)
  • Pertussis toxin (Ptx) and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) have been identified so far as major protein toxins of B. pertussis. (genome.jp)
  • What happens next is the subject of this review, with the main, but not the only focus on hemolysin HlyA, an RTX protein toxin secreted by the type I system. (asmscience.org)
  • The best known class of adenylyl cyclases is class III or AC-III (Roman numerals are used for classes). (wikipedia.org)
  • These adenylyl cyclases are the most familiar based on extensive study due to their important roles in human health. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iyenger, R. (1993) Molecular and functional diversity of mammalian Gs-stimulated adenylyl cyclases. (springer.com)
  • Tang, W.-J. and Gilman, A. G. (1992) Adenylyl cyclases. (springer.com)
  • The presence of receptors for the novel neuropeptide pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) has been recently demonstrated in the external granule cell layer of the cerebellum, a germinative matrix that generates the majority of cerebellar interneurons. (nih.gov)
  • After their B subunit binds to receptors on the cell surface, the toxin is enveloped by the cell and transported inside either through clathrin-dependent endocytosis or clathrin-independent endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Limbird, L. (1988) Receptors linked to inhibition of adenylate cyclase: additional signalling mechanisms. (springer.com)
  • Prior to EF or LF translocation to the cytosol, PA must first bind to one of two identified cell surface anthrax toxin receptors, tumor endothelial marker-8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis gene-2 (CMG2)[ 6 , 7 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Leppla, S. H. Anthrax toxin edema factor: a bacterial adenylate cyclase that increases cyclic AMP concentrations of eukaryotic cells. (nature.com)
  • 10. Targeting the immune synapse as a strategy of immune subversion by bacterial adenylate cyclase toxins. (europa.eu)
  • These include filamentous haemaglutinin, pertactin, fimbriae, and pertussis toxin (though expression of pertussis toxin is unique to B. pertussis). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several determinants of virulence expressed by B. pertussis , B. parapertussis , and B. bronchiseptica, such as filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae (Fim2 and Fim3), and toxins such as pertussis toxin (PT) and adenylate cyclise-hemolysin (AC-Hly) were not detected in B. petrii, except for an FHA-related adhesin with low similarity ( 22 ). (cdc.gov)
  • All classes of adenylyl cyclase catalyse the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to 3',5'-cyclic AMP (cAMP) and pyrophosphate. (wikipedia.org)
  • EF is a calmodulin-dependent adenylate cyclase that upon activation increases the conversion of intracellular ATP to cyclic AMP (cAMP). (mdpi.com)
  • One of the first toxins to be expressed is tracheal cytotoxin, which is a disaccharide-tetrapeptide derived from peptidoglycan. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have compared the use of five nonvaccine antigens to the use of conventional vaccine antigens, pertussis toxin (PT), and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) for the serological diagnosis of pertussis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (asm.org)
  • Currently, most of the commercial ELISAs for the diagnosis of pertussis are based on antibody responses to pertussis toxin (PT) or filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA). (asm.org)
  • Hence, by mobilizing calcium ions into phagocytes, the 'translocation intermediate' promotes toxin piggybacking on integrin into lipid rafts and enables AC enzyme delivery into host cytosol. (prolekare.cz)
  • The other conformer conducts extracellular calcium ions across cytoplasmic membrane of cells, relocates into lipid rafts, translocates the adenylate cyclase enzyme (AC) domain into cells and converts cytosolic ATP to cAMP. (pasteur.fr)
  • It penetrates myeloid phagocytes expressing the complement receptor 3 and delivers into their cytosol its N-terminal adenylate cyclase enzyme domain (~400 residues). (nih.gov)
  • Adenylyl cyclase (EC 4.6.1.1, also commonly known as adenyl cyclase and adenylate cyclase, abbreviated AC) is an enzyme with key regulatory roles in essentially all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its effects on neutrophils and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase are inhibited by pertussis toxin. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Inhibition of receptor-mediated release of arachidonic acid by pertussis toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of adenylyl cyclase by Gi alpha. (wikipedia.org)
  • cAMP Signaling of Adenylate Cyclase Toxin Blocks the Oxidative Burst of Neutrophils through Epac-Mediated Inhibition of Phospholipase C Activity. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • This pathogenic bacterium produces a unique adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) which enters human phagocytes and catalyzes the unregulated formation of cAMP, hampering important bactericidal functions of these immune cells that eventually cause cell death by apoptosis and/or necrosis. (ehu.es)
  • Recently discovered activities of adenylate cyclase toxin, including transmembrane pore formation and stimulation of calcium influx, may also contribute to the intoxication of phagocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • One such factor is LukAB, a recently identified pore-forming toxin that targets human phagocytes by binding to the integrin component CD11b. (sciencemag.org)
  • It was written: Adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) binds to an unknown receptor at the cell surface through the pentameric subunit (purple), and the catalytic subunit (brown) is translocated to the cytosol. (frontiersin.org)
  • The time course of appearance of the adenylate cyclase activity and of bafilomycin A1 action suggests that EF enters the cytosol from late endosomes. (embopress.org)
  • The effect of phorbol ester is best accommodated by the model as a change in the distribution of active and inactive adenylate cyclase from 36% initially active to 47% active after phorbol ester treatment, without postulating any effect of phorbol ester on Gi or Gs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Both calcitonin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulate adenylate cyclase activity in the human breast cancer cell line (T 47D). (biochemj.org)
  • Proteolytic activation of bacterial toxins by eukaryotic cells is performed by furin and by additional cellular proteases. (nih.gov)
  • Pertussis toxin and target eukaryotic cells: binding, entry, and activation. (usc.edu)
  • The causative agent of anthrax, Bacillus anthracis , produces two toxins that contribute in part to its virulence. (asm.org)
  • Anthrax lethal toxin, produced by the bacterium Bacillus anthracis, is the major cause of death in animals infected with anthrax. (sciencemag.org)
  • Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent of anthrax, is a spore forming and toxin producing rod-shaped bacterium that is classified as a category A bioterror agent. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The additivity of the response to calcitonin and PGE2 after IAP treatment implies activation of separate pools of adenylate cyclase catalytic subunit by the two hormones. (biochemj.org)
  • AC toxin intoxicates host cells by binding to the cell membrane and translocating its catalytic domain across the lipid-bilayer, resulting in unregulated generation of intracellular cAMP. (grantome.com)
  • Prevention of translocation by an antibody to the catalytic domain or by certain mutations will enhance the other major function of the toxin, formation of oligomeric pores which cause lysis of erythrocytes and contribute to non-apoptotic cell death of macrophages. (grantome.com)
  • Two distinct models are derived based on this hypothesis to accommodate two different proposed mechanisms for the action of Gi to inhibit adenylate cyclase: 1) a direct interaction between Gi and the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase and 2) a direct interaction between Gi and Gs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In human endothelial cells, the two toxins act in a conserved fashion to block formation of Sec15 vesicles, inhibit Notch signalling, and reduce cadherin expression at adherens junctions. (nature.com)
  • Monoclonal antibodies that inhibit ADP-ribosyltransferase but not NAD-glycohydrolase activity of pertussis toxin. (usc.edu)
  • Adenylate cyclese toxin binds to target cells by the complement receptor 3 (CD11b/CD18, or Mac-1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Translocation of the AC domain into the cell starts the main process by which this toxin influences target cells: the AC domain binds calmodulin, and catalyzes unregulated production of cAMP from ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • The magnitude of intoxication correlates with the relative surface expression of the (32 integrin, CD11b/CD18, a receptor expressed most abundantly on neutrophils and macrophages;however, the relationship between AC toxin and CD11b/CD18 is not well defined. (grantome.com)
  • ACT-induced Ca2+ influx and activation of non-receptor Tyr kinases into the target cell appear to be common master denominators in the different endocytic strategies activated by this toxin. (ehu.es)
  • Furin regulates both the activation of Pseudomonas exotoxin A and the Quantity of the toxin receptor expressed on target cells. (nih.gov)
  • Cassel D, Selinger Z. Mechanism of adenylate activation through the 13-adrenergic receptor: catecholamine-induced displacement of bound GDP by GTP. (springer.com)
  • Previous studies from our laboratory have suggested that post-receptor events at the level of beta-adrenergic receptor-adenylate cyclase interaction could be altered in myometrium by steroid hormones or pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Here we showed that injection of sublethal doses of either lethal or edema toxin into mice directly inhibited the subsequent activation of T lymphocytes by T-cell receptor-mediated stimulation. (asm.org)
  • Treatment with lethal toxin blocked multiple kinase signaling pathways important for T-cell receptor-mediated activation of T cells. (asm.org)
  • PA is the receptor-binding component of the anthrax toxins and mediates their entry into host cells. (asm.org)
  • The toxin complex is then taken up via receptor-mediated endocytosis ( 5 ). (asm.org)
  • Kebabian, J W., Petzold, G. L., and Greengard, P. (1972) Dopamine-sensitive adenylate cyclase in caudate nucleus of rat brain and its similarity to the "dopamine receptor. (springer.com)
  • PA is the receptor binding moiety of the toxin complex. (springer.com)
  • IAP) which inactivates the inhibitory regulatory component (Ni) of adenylate cyclase, there was no change in basal or calcitonin-responsive adenylate cyclase in intact cells. (biochemj.org)
  • Most of the toxins and adhesins under BvgAS control are expressed under Bvg+ conditions (high BvgA-Pi concentration). (wikipedia.org)
  • are usually described as extracellular bacteria that secrete adhesins and toxins adapted to their hosts ( 10 ). (cdc.gov)
  • To maintain the synergism between the kind of immunity conferred by the vaccines and the cellular location of the included antigens, new findings are gathered about the virulence factors such as toxins, adhesins, invasins (mostly enzymes), anti-apoptotic factors, anti-phagocytic factors, and many more molecules that aid in pathogenesis and invasiveness. (jyi.org)
  • It produces a complex array of adhesins, aggressins and toxins that are presumed to be important in the colonisation of its human host and in ensuring its survival and propagation. (proteinlounge.com)
  • A role for PACE4 in the proteolytic activation of anthrax toxin protective antigen. (nih.gov)
  • In vitro processing of anthrax toxin protective antigen by recombinant PC1 (SPC3) and bovine intermediate lobe secretory vesicle membranes. (nih.gov)
  • The transiently opened pores do, however, contribute to AC domain function by potassium leakage and calcium influx into the target cell, which slows endocytosis of CR3/adenylate cyclase toxin clusters, also, the CR3/toxin complex is mobilized by detachment from the cytoskeleton. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cell types which are vulnerable to this pore-forming activity varies among the toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Translocation of the AC domain is independent of cytotoxic pore-forming activity, as these two activities require to toxin to adopt different conformations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The adenylate cyclase domain has intrinsic enzymatic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conserved activity of anthrax toxins in mammals. (nature.com)
  • Phospholipase A activity of adenylate cyclase toxin? (pnas.org)
  • Ion channel activity by Pichia membranifaciens killer toxin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The halotolerant yeast P. membranifaciens CYC 1106 produces a unique 18 kDa killer toxin that exerts its killer activity against C. boidinii IGC 3430 only in the presence of NaCl. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the absence of arginine or simple guanidino compounds, the toxin mediated NAD+ nucleosidase (NADase) activity proceeds using water as a nucleophile. (wikipedia.org)
  • These findings provide evidence that changes in myometrial amounts of functional Gs i) are controlled by the hormonal status of pregnancy and progesterone and ii) play an important role in the transduction pattern of adenylate cyclase activity during the course of pregnancy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We humanized two murine monoclonal antibodies that neutralize pertussis toxin and expressed them as human immunoglobulin G1 molecules with no loss of affinity or in vitro neutralization activity. (sciencemag.org)
  • Detection of antibodies inhibiting the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of pertussis toxin in human serum. (usc.edu)
  • The effect of pertussis toxin is quantitatively reconciled by decreases in the guanine nucleotide-independent adenylate cyclase activity and in the apparent rate of activation of Gi from 2.0/min to 0.01/min. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Bafilomycin A1, an inhibitor of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump, completely prevented EF activity, even when added long after the toxin. (embopress.org)
  • One of the most important of the regulated toxins is adenylate cyclase toxin, which aids in the evasion of innate immunity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anthrax toxins are involved in mediating immune evasion of the bacterium by interfering with innate and adaptive immune responses. (asm.org)
  • The pathogen produces toxins which cause local damage to the cilia of epithelial cells, which leads to prolonged illness and pertussis Footnote 2 , Footnote 5 . (canada.ca)
  • Lethal toxin is the dominant virulence factor produced by B. anthracis and is the major cause of death of infected animals ( 4 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • It is a toxin secreted by the bacteria to influence the host immune system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxin is delivered to phagocytic immune cells upon contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Previous studies demonstrated that the anthrax toxins are important immunomodulators that promote immune evasion of the bacterium by suppressing activation of macrophages and dendritic cells. (asm.org)
  • Although the role of the humoral immune response in anthrax is well characterized ( 15 , 36 ), the effect of the bacterial toxins on the adaptive immune response is only partially understood. (asm.org)
  • Clostridium septicum alpha-toxin is proteolytically activated by furin. (nih.gov)
  • Since cAMP, a product of adenyl cyclase, is known to enhance endothelial barrier integrity, we asked whether ET might decrease extravasation of PMNs into tissues through closure of the paracellular pathway through which PMNs traverse. (springer.com)
  • This coordinated disruption of the Rab11/Sec15 exocyst by anthrax toxins may contribute to toxin-dependent barrier disruption and vascular dysfunction during B. anthracis infection. (nature.com)
  • Targeting B. anthracis virulence, more specifically the anthrax toxins, increased the length of which treatment could be administered. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Novel recombinant toxins are already proposed in the treatment of some diseases, as well as new vaccines. (elsevier.com)
  • Mourez, M. Anthrax toxins. (nature.com)
  • Thus, anthrax toxins directly act on T lymphocytes in a mouse model. (asm.org)
  • In addition, antibiotics are ineffective against the harmful anthrax toxins and spores. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In lethal systemic anthrax, proliferating bacilli secrete large quantities of the toxins lethal factor (LF) and oedema factor (EF), leading to widespread vascular leakage and shock. (nature.com)
  • In addition, phosphorylation of the serine/threonine kinase AKT and of glycogen synthase kinase 3 was inhibited in T cells from lethal toxin-injected mice. (asm.org)
  • The pathogenesis of this disease is dependent on the presence of two binary toxins, edema toxin (EdTx) and lethal toxin (LeTx). (mdpi.com)
  • PA plus LF does not induce edema, however is toxic when injected intravenously into animals [ 4 , 5 ], and is therefore referred to as lethal toxin (LeTx) [ 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • One component of this toxin, lethal factor (LF), is suspected to be a metalloprotease, but no physiological substrates have been identified. (sciencemag.org)
  • LF and PA together form a toxin referred to as lethal toxin. (sciencemag.org)
  • Intravenous injection of lethal toxin into rats causes death in as little as 38 min ( 5 ), and addition of the toxin to mouse macrophages in culture causes lysis within 2 hours ( 6 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • A major virulence factor of H. pylori is VacA, a toxin that causes massive vacuolization of epithelial cell lines in vitro and gastric epithelial erosion in vivo. (biomedsearch.com)
  • One of these factors, adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT), has been implicated to penetrate human neutrophils and macrophages and abrogate their function by virtue of unregulated production of intracellular cAMP. (arizona.edu)
  • The adenylate cyclase (AC) domain is then translocated across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Taken together, the present results demonstrate that PACAP stimulates independently the adenylyl cyclase and the phospholipase C transduction pathways in immature cerebellar granule cells. (nih.gov)
  • These studies will shed light upon the mechanism of pore formation by bacterial toxins, and the pathogenesis of disease caused by all Bordetellae. (grantome.com)
  • Our preliminary data show that CD11b/CD18 does not simply increase sensitivity of cells to intoxication, but, when high concentrations of toxin are applied to cells, actually limits intoxication while possibly enhancing oligomer formation. (grantome.com)
  • Cell Physiology and Expression of the CD11b-CD18 Integrin Major Determinants of the Entry Route - Descarga este documento en PDF. (duhnnae.com)
  • Here, phylogenetics and biochemical studies lead to the identification of an 11-residue domain required for the specificity of LukAB toward human CD11b, which is sufficient to render murine CD11b compatible with toxin binding. (sciencemag.org)
  • The part of the toxin from residue 400 to the C-terminus, called hemolysin, is structurally related to a large family of bacterial toxins - RTX toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxins from many known gram-negative pathogenic bacteria are in the RTX family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Considerable progress has been made in understanding the structure, function, interaction and trafficking into cells, as well as mechanism of action of toxins. (elsevier.com)
  • The individual subunits are secreted by a Sec-dependent mechanism into the periplasm, where the toxin is assembled. (biomedsearch.com)
  • All of these toxins share a similar structure and mechanism for entering targeted host cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the mechanism by which anthrax kills its host is still unclear, the lethality of the disease was attributed to the production of anthrax toxin more than 50 years ago [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Taken together, these findings imply that NPR-C may operate in parallel with the guanylate cyclase-linked NPRs to regulate a number of important biological activities relevant to cardiovascular homeostasis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Intoxication with the adenylate cyclase toxin leads to shift in polarization of macrophages from M1 (proinflammatory) phenotype to M2 (immunoregulatory) phenotype and may lead to macrophage apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The toxins can enter most cells but are specifically cytotoxic to macrophages from certain inbred strains of mice ( 48 ). (asm.org)
  • Diverse families of adenylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases stringently regulate the intracellular concentration of cAMP. (biomedsearch.com)